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Sample records for cabbage looper trichoplusia

  1. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Heiko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni. We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13 and in recognition and metabolism (16. 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also

  2. EMISSION RATES OF PHEROMONE LURES OF THE CABBAGE LOOPER MOTH, TRICHOPLUSIA NI AND THEIR EFFECTS ON MALE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE%粉纹夜蛾Trichoplusia ni性信息素诱芯的释放速率及其对雄蛾反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊伟

    2001-01-01

    The actual emission rates and their relative ratios of multi-component pheromone blend of the normal and mutant cabbage looper moth from rubber septa were determined by analyzing the extracts of airborne collection in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Dodecyl and dodecenyl acetates emitted significantly faster than tetradecenyl acetates from the septum containing these two groups of acetates at equal amounts. The emission rate increased with the increase of loading dosage, but reach its maximum at 100 μg. Emission rates of all pheromone components decreased dramatically after baits were exposed for one week. Frozen-stored pheromone baits decreased their emission rates of pheromone compounds starting from the second day, conpared to those of fresh ones. There was no increase in male behavioral response of male mutants towards the elevated mutant pheromone bait, which was equivalent to what a mutant female produced. But the normal nale cabbage looper moths do prefer to the pheromone bait emitted less amount of Z9-14:OAc. The influence of release rates on mating disruption was also discussed.%用空气收集法收集样品,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了正常与变异的粉纹夜蛾Trichoplusia ni品系的多元性信息素组份的相对比例及其混合物在硅胶诱芯上的精确释放速率.在剂量相同的情况下,十二烷基醋酸酯(Dodecyl acetate)和十二碳烯基醋酸酯(Dodecenyl acetate)从诱芯中散发的速率要比十四碳烯基醋酸酯(Tetradecenyl acetate)高得多.当诱芯中性信息素的含量低于100μg时,各组份的释放速率与剂量成正比.诱芯置于空气中一星期之后,所有组份的释放速率均剧烈下降.与刚配制的诱芯相比,冷藏诱芯中的性信息素的释放速率从第二天起即开始下降.增加诱芯中雌性信息素(由变异雌蛾所产生)的剂量并不能加强变异雄蛾的行为反应.正常雄蛾对于Z9-十四碳烯基醋酸酯(Z9-14:OAc)释放率较低的诱

  3. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  4. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects. PMID:26868936

  5. Ana insect model for assessing arsenic toxicity: Arsenic elevated glutathione content in the musca domestica and trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, K.; Pardini, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout history, arsenic has acquired an unparalled reputation as a poison. Arsenic was used as a poison as early as 2000 B.C. The toxicity of arsenic (As) extends to mammals, fish, insects, plants and fungi. According to epidemiological evidence, inorganic arsenic compounds have been strongly suggested as human carcinogens. Human exposure to arsenic through various means is correlated with an increased incidence of skin, lung, and possibly liver cancers. Inorganic trivalent arsenic is systematically more poisonous than the pentavalent form and it is possible that pentavalent arsenic is reduced to the trivalent form before exerting any toxic effects. This study focuses on the potential to use two insect species, the housefly, Musca domestica and the cabbage looper moth, Trichoplusia ni, and a model for the study of arsenic toxicity. After 48 hours of exposure to Arsenic, a significant induction of Glutathione level and subsequent decrease in the level of GSSG in both species were observed. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses of Glucosinolates in Two Broccoli Cultivars Following Jasmonate Treatment for the Induction of Glucosinolate Defense to Trichoplusia ni (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Becker, Talon M; Juvik, John A

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae growth is influenced by host plant glucosinolate (GS) concentrations, which are, in turn, influenced by the phytohormone jasmonate (JA). In order to elucidate insect resistance biomarkers to lepidopteran pests, transcriptome and metabolome analyses following JA treatments were conducted with two broccoli cultivars, Green Magic and VI-158, which have differentially induced indole GSs, neoglucobrassicin and glucobrassicin, respectively. To test these two inducible GSs on growth of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), eight neonate cabbage looper larvae were placed onto each of three plants per JA treatments (0, 100, 200, 400 µM) three days after treatment. After five days of feeding, weight of larvae and their survival rate was found to decrease with increasing JA concentrations in both broccoli cultivars. JA-inducible GSs were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Neoglucobrassicin in Green Magic and glucobrassicin in VI-158 leaves were increased in a dose-dependent manner. One or both of these glucosinolates and/or their hydrolysis products showed significant inverse correlations with larval weight and survival (five days after treatment) while being positively correlated with the number of days to pupation. This implies that these two JA-inducible glucosinolates can influence the growth and survival of cabbage looper larvae. Transcriptome profiling supported the observed changes in glucosinolate and their hydrolysis product concentrations following JA treatments. Several genes related to GS metabolism differentiate the two broccoli cultivars in their pattern of transcriptional response to JA treatments. Indicative of the corresponding change in indole GS concentrations, transcripts of the transcription factor MYB122, core structure biosynthesis genes (CYP79B2, UGT74B1, SUR1, SOT16, SOT17, and SOT18), an indole glucosinolate side chain modification gene (IGMT1), and several glucosinolate hydrolysis genes (TGG1, TGG2, and ESM1) were

  7. Sequence variation and differential splicing of the midgut cadherin gene in Trichoplusia ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Kain, Wendy; Wang, Ping

    2013-08-01

    The insect midgut cadherin serves as an important receptor for the Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Variation of the cadherin in insect populations provides a genetic potential for development of cadherin-based Bt resistance in insect populations. Sequence analysis of the cadherin from the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, together with cadherins from 18 other lepidopterans showed a similar phylogenetic relationship of the cadherins to the phylogeny of Lepidoptera. The midgut cadherin in three laboratory populations of T. ni exhibited high variability, although the resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the T. ni strain is not genetically associated with cadherin gene mutations. A total of 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the cadherin cDNAs from the T. ni strains, including 20 missense mutations. In addition, insertion and deletion polymorphisms (indels) were also identified in the cadherin alleles in T. ni. More interestingly, the results from this study reveal that differential splicing of mRNA also occurs in the cadherin gene expression. Therefore, variation of the midgut cadherin in insects may not only be caused by cadherin gene mutations, but could also result from alternative splicing of its mRNA regulated by factors acting in trans. Analysis of cadherin gene alleles in F2, F3 and F4 progenies from the cross between the Cry1Ac resistant and the susceptible strain after consecutive selections with Cry1Ac for three generations showed that selection with Cry1Ac did not result in an increase of frequencies of the cadherin alleles originated from the resistant strain. PMID:23743444

  8. Tabela de Esperança de Vida de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em Ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner em Diferentes Condicionamentos Térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Table of life Expectancy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in Eggs of Trichoplusia ni Hübner Different Thermal Conditioning Abstract. The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared on eggs of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in conditions the laboratory. To this end, we made sky blue cards containing eggs of T. ni that were offered to the parasitism of T. pretiosum for 24 hours at temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C. After this period, the parasitoids were removed and kept the cards in the same thermal constraints to the emergence of offspring. From the emergence of offspring, females of T. pretiosum were individually placed in Eppendorf tubes being fed honey and kept at temperatures of origin. The duration of egg-adult period and female longevity were strongly influenced by thermal regime, being opposite to its increase (16.5 to 4.5 days, for the duration of egg-adult period; and 11.9 to 5.5 days, for and female longevity. The percentage of emergence of offspring, number of offspring per egg and sex ratio were not influenced statistically significant. The survival (Lx of T. pretiosum was more influenced at temperatures 27, 30 and 33 ° C. Life expectancy of adults (ex was higher in lower temperatures (18, 21 and 24 ° C, being verified, on average, life expectancy of 32, 28 and 26 days, respectively. Thus it was found that the temperature can be the limiting factor for the development and survival of T. pretiosum in biological control programs of T. ni.

  9. The effects of ultraviolet light on aspects of DNA metabolism in cell lines derived from plodia interpunctella and Trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styer, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Insect cells are significantly more resistant to the lethal effects of 254 nm ultraviolet light (UV) than mammalian cells. The predominant photoproduct produced by UV is the (5-6) cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. There is controversy whether this lesion, or another, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone, is responsible for the biological effects of UV. Insect cells contain a photolyase which selectively removes the (5-6), but not the (6-4) lesion, so that the relative roles of these lesions can be studied. Insect cell lines derived from the cabbage looper and the Indian meal moth were exposed to UV and analyzed for their ability to incorporate [sup 3]H-thymidine. After exposure, cells from the Indian meal moth exhibited a rapid and prolonged depression in the rate of thymidine incorporation, whereas cells from the cabbage looper showed only a slight drop in incorporation and a rapid recovery. The extent of depression in thymidine incorporation was not correlated to the amount of cell killing by UV in these cell lines. Blockage of fork progression was correlated to the depression in thymidine incorporation. Photoreactivation did not entirely relieve blockage, depression in thymidine incorporation or cell killing, indicating that although the (5-6) dimer appears to be the major lesion responsible for these effects, other lesions, such as the (6-4) photoproduct, may play a role. In addition, activation of alternative sites of replicon initiation appeared to correlate with the depression in thymidine incorporation and the excision capabilities in these cells. The resistance to UV in these insect cells compared to mammalian cells may be due to their ability to rapidly remove the (5-6) lesion, which is the critical lesion in these insect cells.

  10. Efficient, low-cost protein factories: expression of human adenosine deaminase in baculovirus-infected insect larvae.

    OpenAIRE

    Medin, J A; Hunt, L; Gathy, K; Evans, R K; Coleman, M S

    1990-01-01

    Human adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), a key purine salvage enzyme essential for immune competence, has been overproduced in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and in Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) larvae infected with recombinant baculovirus. The coding sequence of human adenosine deaminase was recombined into a baculovirus immediately downstream from the strong polyhedrin gene promoter. Approximately 60 hr after infection of insect cells with the recombinant virus, maximal levels of intracellul...

  11. Parameter Analysis and Design Procedure of Vertical Looper%立式活套的参数分析和设计流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兆营

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the function and structure of vertical looper , clarifies the relationship a-mong various parameters , and provides a theoretical basis for the vertical looper design .In addition, the design flow of the vertical looper is described .%介绍了立式活套的功能和结构,厘清了诸多参数之间的关系,为立式活套的设计提供了理论依据。另外对立式活套设计流程进行了说明。

  12. SuperLooper--a prediction server for the modeling of loops in globular and membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter W; Goede, Andrean; Bauer, Raphael A; Gruening, Bjoern; Ismer, Jochen; Michalsky, Elke; Preissner, Robert

    2009-07-01

    SuperLooper provides the first online interface for the automatic, quick and interactive search and placement of loops in proteins (LIP). A database containing half a billion segments of water-soluble proteins with lengths up to 35 residues can be screened for candidate loops. A specified database containing 180,000 membrane loops in proteins (LIMP) can be searched, alternatively. Loop candidates are scored based on sequence criteria and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the stem atoms. Searching LIP, the average global RMSD of the respective top-ranked loops to the original loops is benchmarked to be <2 A, for loops up to six residues or <3 A for loops shorter than 10 residues. Other suitable conformations may be selected and directly visualized on the web server from a top-50 list. For user guidance, the sequence homology between the template and the original sequence, proline or glycine exchanges or close contacts between a loop candidate and the remainder of the protein are denoted. For membrane proteins, the expansions of the lipid bilayer are automatically modeled using the TMDET algorithm. This allows the user to select the optimal membrane protein loop concerning its relative orientation to the lipid bilayer. The server is online since October 2007 and can be freely accessed at URL: http://bioinformatics.charite.de/superlooper/.

  13. DNA insecticides based on iap3 gene fragments of cabbage looper and gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis viruses show selectivity for non-target insects

    OpenAIRE

    Oberemok Volodymyrovych Volodymyr; Laikova Volodymyrivna Kateryna; Zaitsev Sergeevich Aleksei; Nyadar Mutah Palmah; Shumskykh Nikolaevich Maksym; Gninenko Ivanovich Yuri

    2015-01-01

    DNA insecticides are novel preparations based on short single-stranded fragments of anti-apoptotic (IAP) genes of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. In this article we report about the harmlessness of the DNA insecticides based on single-stranded fragments of the LdMNPV (Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene for tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and present the first evidence of significant insect-specific insecticidal effect of ...

  14. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni;Avaliacao de Trichogramma spp. para o controle de Trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne, E-mail: andremalak@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia e Entomologia; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Tufik, Camila Borges Antonio, E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: ricardo@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: camila_btufik@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Bueno, Adeney de Freitas, E-mail: adeney@pq.cnpq.b [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  15. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  16. Genetic variation and virulence of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus and Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Popham, Holly J R; Breitenbach, Jonathan E; Rowley, Daniel L

    2012-05-01

    To determine the genetic diversity within the baculovirus species Autographa calfornica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV; Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus), a PCR-based method was used to identify and classify baculoviruses found in virus samples from the lepidopteran host species A. californica, Autographa gamma, Trichoplusia ni, Rachiplusia ou, Anagrapha falcifera, Galleria mellonella, and Heliothis virescens. Alignment and phylogenetic inference from partial nucleotide sequences of three highly conserved genes (lef-8, lef-9, and polh) indicated that 45 of 74 samples contained isolates of AcMNPV, while six samples contained isolates of Rachiplusia ou multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus strain R1 (RoMNPV-R1) and 25 samples contained isolates of the species Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV; Alphabaculovirus). One sample from A. californica contained a previously undescribed NPV related to alphabaculoviruses of the armyworm genus Spodoptera. Data from PCR and sequence analysis of the ie-2 gene and a region containing ORF ac86 in samples from the AcMNPV and RoMNPV clades indicated a distinct group of viruses, mostly from G. mellonella, that are characterized by an unusual ie-2 gene previously found in the strain Plutella xylostella multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus CL3 (PlxyMNPV-CL3) and a large deletion within ac86 previously described in the AcMNPV isolate 1.2 and PlxyMNPV-CL3. PCR and sequence analysis of baculovirus repeated ORF (bro) genes revealed that the bro gene ac2 was split into two separate bro genes in some samples from the AcMNPV clade. Comparison of sequences in this region suggests that ac2 was formed by a deletion that fused the two novel bro genes together. In bioassays of a selection of isolates against T. ni, significant differences were observed in the insecticidal properties of individual isolates, but no trends were observed among the AcMNPV, TnSNPV, or RoMNPV groups of isolates. This study expands on what we know about the

  17. Aflatoxin B1: Toxicity, bioactivation and detoxification in the polyphagous caterpillar Trichoplusia ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Sen Zeng; Zhimou Wen; Guodong Niu; May R.Berenbaum

    2013-01-01

    Trichoplusia ni caterpillars are polyphagous foliage-feeders and rarely likely to encounter aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A.parasiticus,in their host plants.To determine how T.ni copes with AFB1,we evaluated the toxicity ofAFB1 to T.ni caterpillars at different developmental stages and found that AFB1 tolerance significantly increases with larval development.Diet incorporation of AFB1 at 1μg/g completely inhibited larval growth and pupation of newly hatched larvae,but 3μg/g AFB1 did not have apparent toxic effects on larval growth and pupation of caterpillars that first consume this compound 10 days after hatching.Piperonyl butoxide,a general inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s),reduced the toxicity of AFB1,suggesting that AFB1 is bioactivated in T.ni and this bioactivation is mediated by P450s.Some plant allelochemicals,including flavonoids such as flavones,furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin and imperatorin,and furanochromones such as visnagin,that induce P450s in other lepidopteran larvae ameliorated AFB1 toxicity,suggesting that P450s are also involved in AFB1 detoxification in T.ni.

  18. A suspended cell line from Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera):Characterization and expression of recombinant proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Juan Meng; Tian-Long Li; Chang-You Li; Guo-Xun Li

    2008-01-01

    A suspended cell line from Trichoplusia ni embryos was established, and its susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV)infection was investigated. This cell line had characteristics distinct from the BTI-Tn5B 14 cell line (Tn5B 1-4) from T. ni in growth, and showed approximately the same responses to AcMNPV infection, production of occlusion bodies, and levels of recombinant protein expression. No clumps were observed at maximum cell density at late-log phase in shakeflask or T-flask cultures, and thus the cells represent a useful new contribution for baculovirus research. The cells consist of two major morphological types: approximately 70% spindle-shaped cells and 30% round cells. The cell line was highly susceptible to virus infection and produced around 107 AcMNPV occlusion bodies per cell, on average.Production of β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase was high with 3.97 + 0.13×104 IU/mL and 3.48±0.40 IU/mL, respectively. This cell line may be applicable for studies of scale-up production of viruses or baculovirus-insect cell expression. We also believe the new line can be a source for cell clones with higher production of virus and recombinant proteins compared to the parent or other existing cell lines such as Tn5B 1-4.

  19. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated,...

  20. Orientation behavior, development and survival of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab and conventional cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Bt cotton (Bollgard II) or a mixture of Bt+non-Bt cotton leaves on larval orientation behavior, survival and development of Trichoplusia ni in the laboratory. Results indicate that in a no-choice test, more first and fifth instars remained on Bt...

  1. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  2. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processor, containing at a minimum: (a) The producer's commitment to plant and grow cabbage, and to sell and deliver the cabbage production to the processor; (b) The processor's commitment to purchase all the... sales closing date, the Board of Directors or officers of the processor must execute and adopt...

  3. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  4. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  5. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  6. Production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of Chinese cabbage and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    In order to broaden Chinese cabbage gene pool, we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, 2n=20, AA) and Cabbage (B. oleracea, 2n=18, CC). Protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings, and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fused cells were cultured in modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators. Fusion products were characterized by their morphological, cytological and molecular biological traits. The results showed that, a total of 35 regenerated green plants were obtained from 320 calli, the plant regeneration frequency was 10.94%, and eleven of which were survived in greenhouse. All regenerants were true hybrids as confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Ploidy levels of hybrid plants were determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometry. The sum of the chromosome number (2n = 38) from the two fusion patents were found in 36.4% of regeneratns; another 36.4% had chromosomes range to 58-60; 27.2% had more chromosomes ranges to 70-76. All regenerated plants produced normal flowers. We investigated the pollen fertility and seed set after self-pollination and backcrossing with the parental species. For hybrids with chromosomes more than 38 it was possible to obtain some seeds when they after self-pollination. Within the group of hybrids with 38 chromosomes, seed set were very variable, only 0.11 seeds per pod by self-pollination, 0.23-0.76 by open-pollination, 0.02-0.04 by backcrossing with Chinese cabbage. Progeny lines obtained by self-pollination had larger leaves and leaf shapes intermediate of the parental species. Pollen fertility was gradually recovered in the first and second progenies. The backcrossing progeny lines, as a whole, exhibited morphologies were similar to Chinese cabbage. Morphological variations were observed among the somatic hybrids and their

  7. Immunity conferred by an experimental vaccine based on the recombinant PCV2 Cap protein expressed in Trichoplusia ni-larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Sibila, Marina; Fort, María; Nofrarías, Miquel; Kurtz, Sherry; Escribano, José M; Segalés, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination has been recently included as a measure to control postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in the field. Aiming to obtain a more affordable vaccine to be extensively implemented in the field, a highly efficient non-fermentative expression platform based on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae was used to produce a baculovirus-derived recombinant PCV2 Cap protein (rCap) for vaccine purposes. Vaccination of pigs with rCap induced solid protection against PCV2 experimental infection, inhibiting both the viremia and the viral shedding very efficiently. The protection afforded by the rCap vaccine strongly correlated with the induction of specific humoral immune responses, even in the presence of PCV2-specific maternal immunity, although cellular responses also seemed to play a partial role. In summary, we have shown that rCap expressed in T. ni larvae could be a cost-effective PCV2 vaccine candidate to be tested under field conditions. PMID:20056179

  8. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ac Is Independent of Alteration of the Cadherin-Like Receptor for Cry Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Zhang; Kasorn Tiewsiri; Wendy Kain; Lihua Huang; Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptida...

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of Autographa gamma (L.) and Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lep., Noctuidae) from São Miguel (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    A dinâmica do estado adulto de Autographa gamma (L.) e Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) foi estudada entre Julho de 1988 e Dezembro de 1989, através de armadilhas luminosas do tipo pensilvânia instaladas em três localidades da ilha de São Miguel (Ribeira Grande, Arribanas e Lagoa do Congro). Para as três localidades, foram evidenciadas flutuações de densidade consideráveis. A. gamma foi observada continuamente nas três localidades, enquanto T. orichalcea foi captur...

  10. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas; Wang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  11. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  12. Determination of Thioglucoside inCabbage by Using the Ultraviolet-visible Light Spectrophotometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer method was adopted to determine thioglucoside in cabbage with the seeds. Individual plant of cabbage was used as test materials,palladium chloride as complexing agent and sodium cellulose glycolate as dispersing agent. The results showed that palladiumd thioglucoside method could be taken as a quick,easy and precise quantitative analysis method to determine thioglucoside in cabbage.

  13. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  14. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.; Navntoft, S.; H. Philipsen; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition b...

  15. Evaluation of red cabbage anthocyanins after partial purification on clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Jefferson Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the red cabbage anthocyanins quality after purification by static adsorption assays on clay (Tonsil Terrana 580FF. Thin-layer chromatography analysis and scan spectrometry on UV-Visible showed a good dye stability of the pigment interacting with the clay. The use of pH 3.0 buffer during the batch assays provided a protective effect on the cabbage anthocyanins, limiting the dye acid hydrolyses. Analyses of the reducing sugars contents of the extract showed that clay retained 20% average of total free sugars under the test conditions.

  16. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The low case fatality rates (1%) from the 1991 cholera epidemic in Peru was more a result of including diarrheas of a less virulent etiology than that of cholera. In fact, a study during the early phases of the cholera epidemic in Trujillo, Peru revealed that only 79% of suspected cholera cases were infected with vibrio cholera 01. Further other people contended that the government of Peru did not chlorinate many water supplies because studies by the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested that chlorine increases the cancer risk. It reacts with organic matter to make trihalomethanes. 1 study noted that this risk may explain as many as 700 cases of cancer/year in the US, yet cholera was responsible for nearly 40009 deaths in Latin America the 1st year. Besides in Trujillo, Peru the reason for not chlorinating the water supply was not due to a conscious decision to not do so on the part of the government, but because no funds had been made available to purchase chlorinators and chlorine. This is typical of many towns in developing countries. Further raw fish also played a role in transmitting cholera in Peru. Moreover the study in Trujillo indicated that water stored in containers in the home, and not the water supply, was the most important vehicle of transmission. Nevertheless chlorination of both the water supply and stored water would have prevented cholera transmission. In addition, cabbage irrigated with raw wastewater contributed to cholera transmission in Trujillo. But a concern arises if developing countries follow the advice of WHO of 1st treating wastewater in stabilization ponds. Aquatic blue green algae, other zooplankton, and phytoplankton from a microhabitat suitable for V. cholera. In fact, a study in Peru identified a seasonal pattern of the cholera epidemic with the seasonality of V. cholera non-01 from sewage lagoons in Lima. PMID:1351603

  17. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  18. Cabbage-head development as affected by nitrogen and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbage plants were grown at graded levels of nitrate nitrogen (20 and 100 ppm N) and temperature (15, 20, and 250C, and the effects of these treatments on cabbage-head development were investigated. The total plant dry weight and the cabbage-head yield were always higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and at each N level the values were in the order of 20>15>250C. The nitrogen content in the outer leaves was higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and increased slightly with increase in temperature. The total sugar content was higher in the inner head leaves than in the outer leaves, and was decreased greatly at 250C in both organs. The 14CO2 assimilation of the outer leaves was larger at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N. After 14CO2 assimilation by the plants, a greater amount of 14C was lost by respiration at 250C than at 15 and 200C, resulting in a low distribution of 14C-sugars in the inner head leaves. The highest yield and a better quality of cabbage-heads were obtained when the plants were grown at 200C with a high N supply and the outer leaves had a carbohydrate/nitrogen content ratio of about 7. (author)

  19. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal seedlings. Loss of

  20. Establishment and characterization of insect cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C L; El Sayed, G N; McIntosh, A H; Grasela, J J; Stiles, B

    2001-06-01

    Cell lines from selected lepidopteran species were established for the overall purpose of use in baculovirus production. A total of 36 new cell lines from 10 lepidopteran species were generated, including cell lines from a pyralid, the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, a plutellid, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, as well as eight noctuids: the black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon, the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera, the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, and the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. Tissues used for cell line establishment included fat bodies, ovaries, testes, or whole embryos/larvae/pupae. All the cell lines were subcultured numerous times, characterized by isoenzyme analysis and/or deoxyribonucleic acid amplification fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Many of the cell lines were adapted to grow in serum-free medium, with cell lines from A. ipsilon and H. virescens being adapted to suspension culture using shaker flasks. The potential use for these cell lines in baculovirus production is discussed. PMID:11515970

  1. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  2. Blanching as a Treatment Process: Effect on Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage is considered an excellent source ofpolyphenolswith substantial antioxidant properties associated with the alleviation of oxidative stress and the prevention of free-radical mediated diseases. Many cabbage varieties are typically blanched prior to consumption mainly to enhance associated sensory attributes. Conventional hot water (80-100°C) or steam blanching are the most industrially applied methods. Blanching causes adverse losses in the antioxidant capacity of cabbage with over 70%...

  3. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher......In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in...... external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...

  4. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  5. Physiology and Proteomics of Cabbage Under Heat and Flooding Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang KY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and excess rain, which can lead to heat and flooding stresses, seriously impact the yield and quality of cabbages. Two cabbage cultivars were examined in this study: heat- and flooding-tolerant ‘Sha-sha-jieu’ and heat-tolerant but flooding-sensitive ‘Mi-ni’. The goals of this study were to investigate leaf proteomic and physiological changes in plants responding to treatments of high temperature, flooding, and both stresses combined. Fortyfive- day-old cabbage plants at temperatures of 22°C or 40°C were treated separately with or without flooding in growth chambers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Treatment at 22°C without flooding was used as the control. Changes in stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence of stressed leaves indicate that ‘Mi-ni’ suffered more severely than ‘Sha-sha-jieu’. Separated by 2-dimensional liquid phase fractionation, 25 and 26 expressed protein spots were extracted from the stressed leaves of ‘Mi-ni’ and ‘Sha-sha-jieu’, respectively. Most of the differentially expressed proteins identified by matrixassisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were involved in photosynthesis and ATP synthesis. The most highly expressed proteins were ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO, oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE, and chloroplastic ATP synthase. However, both serine/threonine protein phosphatase 7 inactive homolog and entatricopeptide repeat-containing protein At1g79540 exhibited relatively lower expression under high temperature and flooding. In response to high temperature and flooding, proteins such as RubisCO, OEE protein 1, and chloroplastic ATP synthase generally increased, indicating that the regulation of energy production is critical for tolerating heat and flood stressing in cabbages.

  6. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  7. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  8. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME STORAGE CONDITIONS UPON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN WHITE AND RED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Avramiuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it has searched the influence of storage conditions upon ascorbic acid content in cabbage. Theascorbic acid content and pH evolution for 16 weeks has been carried out using, as biological material, cabbage samplesfrom two varieties: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. f. alba DC. and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L. f. rubra (L. Thell. The cabbage samples were kept in containers of glass and wood, constituting, for eachsample, variants of experiences, in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, at following thermal thresholds: 4°C, 8°Cand 15°C. The ascorbic acid content of cabbages was determined through a method based on reduction by the ascorbicacid of 2.6-Dichlorphenol-indophenol (2.6-DCFIF to the corresponding leucoderivate. The investigations have beencarried out on freshly harvested material (week 0 and then every two weeks, for a total of 16 weeks. Compared to freshharvested cabbage, at the end of the analysed interval (after 16 weeks of storage, the ascorbic acid content has registereddifferent rates of diminution in the both varieties, depending on storage temperature, on storage length, and on variety.The ascorbic acid in white cabbage has registered losses, compared to red variety, so much the bigger as the temperaturewas higher and the storage duration was longer.

  10. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  11. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  12. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... from hazards associated with the swim event. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel...

  13. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  14. Organic farming systems benefit biodiversity and natural pest regulation in white cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Eilenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural regulation of cabbage root flies works well in experimental organic cropping systems of white cabbage. Low input and complex organic systems benefit functional biodiversity by providing good living conditions to several groups of natural enemies. Intercropped green manure benefits large predators while small predatory beetles favour low input organic systems with bare soil between crop rows.

  15. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  16. Development of two Trichoplusia ni larvae-derived ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against replicase and capsid proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Eva; Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Nofrarías, Miquel; Escribano, José M; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Segalés, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to describe new methods for the identification of antibodies against the PCV2 capsid (Cap) and replicase (Rep) proteins in pig sera. Specifically, two new indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed based on recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) and Rep/Rep' (rRep) proteins expressed in baculovirus and produced in Trichoplusia ni insect larvae. Both assays were validated by testing serum samples in a longitudinal study of 107 animals with different clinico-pathological features of PCV2 infection: pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), wasted pigs without a diagnosis of PMWS and healthy animals. Longitudinal antibody profiles indicated that healthy animals had significantly higher anti-Cap and anti-Rep antibody levels than the rest of the animal groups at 11 weeks of age. Moreover, PMWS affected pigs could be distinguished from the rest of the pig groups by their lower anti-Rep antibody levels at 11 weeks of age and at necropsy. The results demonstrate the potential of these two ELISAs for large-scale serological studies. This study represents the first longitudinal study of the induction of anti-Cap and anti-Rep antibodies in farms affected by PMWS, from 1 week of age until the occurrence of disease. PMID:18773923

  17. Expression of Aminopeptidase N1(APN1),the Main Receptor Protein for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A Toxin from Helicoverpa armigera Larval Midgut in Trichoplusia ni cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong-lei; LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; YU Hong-kun; GUO Yu-yuan; WU Kong-ming

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to successfully express the Bt(Bacillus thuringiensis)toxin receptor protein located on the internal membrane of larval midgut of cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera Hiibner)within eukaryotic expression system,which is one of the key links for clarifying the relationship between receptor and Bt resistance.The fragments of aminopeptidase N1(APN1)gene without signal peptide in the susceptible and the resistant H. armigera were cloned separately using PCR method,and were separately cloned into pUC 19 vector.After sequencing the gene,the fragments encoding for APN1 without signal peptide were cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system with transfer vector pFastBacHTB under the polyhedron gene promoter.The recombinant transposing plasmid pFastBacHTB/APN1 was screened and then transformed into Escherichia coli DH10Bac.It was cultured in LB medium,which contained Te, Kan,Ge,X-gal,and IPTG.The resulting recombinant bacmid was transfected into cells of the insect Trichoplusia ni and recombinant baculoviruse was obtained.The lysate of cells infected with recombinant baculoviruse was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and blot analysis.The results showed that the recombinant baculoviruse was fully capable of expressing APN1.The APN1 gene successfully expressed in T. ni cell established the base for continuing the research on its function and relationship of resistance with Bt.

  18. Impacts of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Endophytic Bacteria in Chinese Cabbage in Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of agricultural irri- gation with reclaimed water in Urumqi City. [Method] Chinese cabbages were used as experimental materials and irrigated with control water, 50% reclaimed water and 100% reclaimed water, and then the number of endophytic bacteria in Chinese cab- bages was measured. [Result] Using 50% reclaimed water, the fresh weight of Chi- nese cabbage was improved by 68.94%; however, with the deepening internalization of exogenous microorganism internalization, the total number of endophytic bacteria and coliform flock in Chinese cabbages treated with 50% reclaimed water was sig- nificantly higher than the other two treatment groups (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Re- claimed water enhances both the weight of Chinese cabbage and the number of endophytic bacteria, which is unsuitable for irrigation of edible crops such as Chi- nese cabbage. Strengthening disinfection during the process of sewerage treatment could solve this problem.

  19. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  20. Quantity of glucosinolates in 10 cabbage genotypes and their impact on the feeding of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, we studied the glucosinolate content in 5 cultivars and 5 cabbage hybrids grown outdoors in order to study their influence on the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars (Mamestra brassicae. The selected genotypes were categorized into three groups, early (the growth period from 55 to 70 days, mid-early (80-90 days and mid-late (110-140 days, while the samples of cabbage for glucosinolate analysis were taken at five intervals, during which we also assessed genotypes for the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. We found that the feeding of caterpillars affected primarily the mid-early and mid-late genotypes of cabbage, and that the glucosinolate content among the different cabbage genotypes varies. The highest content of the analyzed glucosinolates was established in mid-late genotypes. Glucobrassicin was the only glucosinolate found in all cabbage genotypes, yet its antixenotic effect (r=0.20 was very low. We found that sinalbin negatively affects the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars in mid-early cabbage genotypes (r=-0.34, while the same effect of sinigrin on the extent of damage can be observed in mid-late genotypes (r=-0.27. We have established a strong or moderate correlation between the gluconapin (r=0.87 and progoitrin (r=0.66 contents in mid-late genotypes and the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. Our research proves that different cabbage genotypes are responsible for different susceptibilities to damage by the cabbage moth, and that one of the factors of natural resistance of cabbage are also glucosinolates. Despite this, due to their variability in cabbage we cannot precisely determine the set of genotypes that would ensure a higher cabbage yield as a result of less damage caused by the cabbage moth. Thus, we need to identify in more detail the reasons for the time and quantum variability of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae.

  1. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  2. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  3. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni Populations Selected by Bacillus thuringiensis Sprays to Cotton Plants Expressing Pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Wendy; Song, Xiaozhao; Janmaat, Alida F.; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Myers, Judith; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Two populations of Trichoplusia ni that had developed resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis sprays (Bt sprays) in commercial greenhouse vegetable production were tested for resistance to Bt cotton (BollGard II) plants expressing pyramided Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The T. ni colonies resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki formulations were not only resistant to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, as previously reported, but also had a high frequency of Cry2Ab-resistant alleles, exhibiting ca. 20% survival on BollGard II foliage. BollGard II-resistant T. ni strains were established by selection with BollGard II foliage to further remove Cry2Ab-sensitive alleles in the T. ni populations. The BollGard II-resistant strains showed incomplete resistance to BollGard II, with adjusted survival values of 0.50 to 0.78 after 7 days. The resistance to the dual-toxin cotton plants was conferred by two genetically independent resistance mechanisms: one to Cry1Ac and one to Cry2Ab. The 50% lethal concentration of Cry2Ab for the resistant strain was at least 1,467-fold that for the susceptible T. ni strain. The resistance to Cry2Ab in resistant T. ni was an autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive monogenic trait. Results from this study indicate that insect populations under selection by Bt sprays in agriculture can be resistant to multiple Bt toxins and may potentially confer resistance to multitoxin Bt crops. PMID:25480752

  4. Effects of trophic level and metamorphosis on discrimination of hydrogen isotopes in a plant-herbivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacob M.; Wolf, Nathan; Stricker, Craig A.; Collier, Timothy R.; del Rio, Martinez Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in ecological studies requires that we know the magnitude of discrimination factors between consumer and element sources. The causes of variation in discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen have been relatively well studied. In contrast, the discrimination factors for hydrogen have rarely been measured. We grew cabbage looper caterpillars (Trichoplusia ni) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants irrigated with four treatments of deuterium-enriched water (δD = -131, -88, -48, and -2‰, respectively), allowing some of them to reach adulthood as moths. Tissue δD values of plants, caterpillars, and moths were linearly correlated with the isotopic composition of irrigation water. However, the slope of these relationships was less than 1, and hence, discrimination factors depended on the δD value of irrigation water. We hypothesize that this dependence is an artifact of growing plants in an environment with a common atmospheric δD value. Both caterpillars and moths were significantly enriched in deuterium relative to plants by ~45‰ and 23‰ respectively, but the moths had lower tissue to plant discrimination factors than did the caterpillars. If the trophic enrichment documented here is universal, δD values must be accounted for in geographic assignment studies. The isotopic value of carbon was transferred more or less faithfully across trophic levels, but δ15N values increased from plants to insects and we observed significant non-trophic 15N enrichment in the metamorphosis from larvae to adult.

  5. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  6. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  7. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  8. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg;

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  9. Yields, Quality and Metal Accumulation of Chinese Cabbage Irrigated with Diary Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Linxian Liao; Wangwei Cai; Xiaohou Shao; Junyi Tan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the short-term effects of wastewater (dairy effluent) and EM treated wastewater on cabbage quality (vitamin C, nitrate), yield, Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) uptakes and heavy metals (i.e., Hg, Pb and Cd) accumulation in Cabbage, field experiments were conducted with the following irrigation treatments: Clean Water (CW), Waste Water (WW), Reclaimed Water-EM treated wastewater (RW), Clear Water-wastewater rotation (C/W) and clear water-treated wastewater rotation (C/...

  10. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  11. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  12. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac is independent of alteration of the cadherin-like receptor for Cry toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    Full Text Available Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptidase N (APN1 gene by a trans-regulatory mechanism and the resistance gene has been mapped to the locus of an ABC transporter (ABCC2 gene. However, whether cadherin is also involved with Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni requires to be understood. Here we report that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of alteration of the cadherin. The T. ni cadherin cDNA was cloned and the cadherin sequence showed characteristic features known to cadherins from Lepidoptera. Various T. ni cadherin gene alleles were identified and genetic linkage analysis of the cadherin alleles with Cry1Ac-resistance showed no association of the cadherin gene with the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni. Analysis of cadherin transcripts showed no quantitative difference between the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni larvae. Quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut BBMV proteins by iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS determined that there was no quantitative difference in cadherin content between the susceptible and the resistant larvae and the cadherin only accounted for 0.0014% (mol% of the midgut BBMV proteins, which is 1/300 of APN1 in molar ratio. The cadherin from both the susceptible and resistant larvae showed as a 200-kDa Cry1Ac-binding protein by toxin overlay binding analysis, and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis of the 200-kDa cadherin determined that there is no quantitative difference between the susceptible and resistant larvae. Results from this study indicate that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is

  13. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac is independent of alteration of the cadherin-like receptor for Cry toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Kain, Wendy; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in insect midgut is the major mechanism of high-level resistance to Bt toxins in insects. The midgut cadherin is known to be a major binding protein for Bt Cry1A toxins and linkage of Bt-resistance to cadherin gene mutations has been identified in lepidopterans. The resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac evolved in greenhouse populations of Trichoplusia ni has been identified to be associated with the down-regulation of an aminopeptidase N (APN1) gene by a trans-regulatory mechanism and the resistance gene has been mapped to the locus of an ABC transporter (ABCC2) gene. However, whether cadherin is also involved with Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni requires to be understood. Here we report that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of alteration of the cadherin. The T. ni cadherin cDNA was cloned and the cadherin sequence showed characteristic features known to cadherins from Lepidoptera. Various T. ni cadherin gene alleles were identified and genetic linkage analysis of the cadherin alleles with Cry1Ac-resistance showed no association of the cadherin gene with the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni. Analysis of cadherin transcripts showed no quantitative difference between the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni larvae. Quantitative proteomic analysis of midgut BBMV proteins by iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS determined that there was no quantitative difference in cadherin content between the susceptible and the resistant larvae and the cadherin only accounted for 0.0014% (mol%) of the midgut BBMV proteins, which is 1/300 of APN1 in molar ratio. The cadherin from both the susceptible and resistant larvae showed as a 200-kDa Cry1Ac-binding protein by toxin overlay binding analysis, and nano-LC-MS/MS analysis of the 200-kDa cadherin determined that there is no quantitative difference between the susceptible and resistant larvae. Results from this study indicate that the Cry1Ac-resistance in T. ni is independent of cadherin

  14. Practices and constraints to cabbage production in urban and peri-urban Ghana: Focus on Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei M. K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available practices and constraints to production of cabbage. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from cabbage farmers in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions where cabbage is intensively produced. The level of education among the respondents was low as only 10% had tertiary education. Majority of the respondents (68% did not own the lands they cultivated thus resulting in approximately 45% of them cultivating less than one acre of cabbage crop. Majority of cabbage farmers (62% planted cabbage on raised beds. Cabbage production in the study area was characterized by high use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK. Fifty-three percent (53% employed the use of watering cans in cabbage production. Farmers in their quest to mitigate the high Insect pest infestation; Hellula undalis, Plutella xylostella, Brevicoryne brassicae and Zonocerus variegatus, plant parasitic nematodes infection and pathological problems such as wilting of plants, leaf curl and leaf spots resorted to high frequency of pesticides application. It is expected that the information gathered from this baseline study would form the basis for the formulation and implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM strategy to enhance safe and environmentally sustainable production of cabbages. This would reduce environmental degradation and ensure maximum protection for humans, domestic animals and wild life. Keywords: Brassica oleracea, integrated pest management, insect pests, nematodes, synthetic pesticides

  15. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  16. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  17. Control of cabbage diamondback moth by integrating the sterile insect technique and parasitoids in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mass rearing of DBM was carried out on cauliflower, cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on aluminum foil was tested. Storage of pupae and larvae was carried out in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. Different doses of gamma radiation: 10Kr, 15Kr and 20Kr were tested to established the effective gamma radiation dose. Each one hundred cabbage plants were selected and marked for regular observations of DBM populations in control plots to assess the frequency distribution of DBM adult population in cabbage fields. DBM larvae were collected in control plots to assess the rate of DBM larvae with the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae in fields. Mass rearing of DBM on cauliflower was better than rearing on cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on cauliflower was better than those of cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae could be stored successfully for 2 weeks in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. DBM larvae reared on cauliflower could be stored for 7 days at 5-10 deg. c refrigerator. Radiation doses of 10Kr gave better results than 15 Kr and 20 Kr. 1-5 DBM adults were found in most of the plants during the season. Percentage of DBM larvae parasitised by the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae was 30-40% in the field. (author)

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  19. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  1. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  2. Glucosinolates and Myrosinase Activity in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after Various Microwave Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Total and individual levels of glucosinolates (GSs) were measured in red cabbage after various microwave treatments varying in time and intensity of the treatments. Furthermore, the myrosinase enzyme activity of the microwave-heated vegetables was determined. The retention of GSs in the cabbage and

  3. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  4. Glucosinolate content of blanched cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) fermented by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMG-P22043

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.; Valerio, F.; Lonigro, S.L.; Candia, de S.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Lavermicocca, P.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fermentation of cabbage like in sauerkraut production leads to a complete elimination of glucosinolates (GSs). In order to retain GSs in fermented cabbage, the effect of a thermal treatment (blanching) followed by fermentation (4% brine at 25 °C) by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus pa

  5. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  6. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  7. Determining Crop and Pan Coefficients for Cauliflower and Red Cabbage Crops Under Cool Season Semiarid Climatic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ustun Sahin; Yasemin Kuslu; Talip Tunc; Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the evapotranspiration of cauliflower and red cabbage crops grown under cool season semiarid climatic conditions from Class A pan evaporation. Actual evapotranspiration (Etc) of cauliflower and red cabbage crops was calculated according to the water balance approach. Reference evapotranspiration (Etc) was calculated with Fad Penman-Monteith equation. Pan evaporation (Epan) was measured by using Class A pan. Seasonal Etc was determined as 475 mm for cauliflower and 556 mm for red cabbage. Seasonal pan coefficient (kp=Eto/Epan) was determined as 0.82, and the seasonal crop coefficient (kc = Etc/Eto) was determined as 0.84 for cauliflower and 0.83 for red cabbage. So the evapotranspiration of cauliflower and red cabbage crops was estimated as 70% Class A pan evaporation.

  8. Transfer of uranium and radium to Chinese cabbage from soil containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238U and 226Ra to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was investigated from soils contaminated with uranium-mill tailings (UMT) by means of a pot experiment in laboratory-based conditions applying different levels of soil contamination under various growing conditions. Activity concentrations for 226Ra in Chinese cabbage varied from 56-276, 156-502 and 277-877 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 20, 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively, and for 238U from 1.0-2.3 and 2.3-4.7 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively. The results showed increased accumulation of 226Ra and low accumulation of 238U in cabbage leaves in more contaminated soil. (author)

  9. Molecular characters and morphological genetics of CAL gene in Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    BcpCAL, the homologous gene of CAL, was isolated from Chinese cabbage. Unlike BobCAL of cauliflower, BcpCAL did not hold the terminating mutation in the fifth exon. After crosses of cauliflower with Chinese cabbage, the resultant hybrids failed to form curd, which implicates the genetic complement of BcpCAL to the mutated Bob CAL in the function of curd formation. One of CAL gene isolated from the hybrid apparently comes from the female parent (Chinese cabbage) even though there are a few of the bases substituted and deleted. The result offers the molecular and genetic evidences for the study of biological function of CAL in morphological genetics of curd.

  10. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Pang

    Full Text Available Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

  11. Quality of Cabbage Cultivars Intended for Fermentation in the Ogulin Region

    OpenAIRE

    Nadica Dobričević; Stjepan Pliestić

    2004-01-01

    Fresh cabbage intended for fermentation should have solid and robust heads with the soluble dry matter content above 3% and light coloured external leaves. Heads are prepared in a 5.5% sodium chloride concentration brine. Biological fermentation proceeds at a temperature of 18-22 °C, in the dark and under anaerobic conditions. The research objective is to find out whether the quality of fresh and fermented cabbage of hybrid cultivars can compete with and replace the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ in ...

  12. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  13. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  15. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  16. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in cabbage aphid(Brevicoryne brassicae)host plants and developmental instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gazi G(o)rür

    2009-01-01

    Developmental instability in morphological characters can occur during individual development due to various environmental stresses.Fluctuating asymmetry (FA)is often used as a measurement of developmental instability.but within-environment variation(cve)is also considered an indicator of developmental instability.Cabbage aphid nated cabbage and radish plants.Developmental instability indicators were measured and their relations with fitness were explored.Results revealed that cabbage aphids exposed to Cd and Zn displayed considerable developmental instability,particularly fluctuating asymmetry.Differences in developmental instability between the two metals were also detected,as well as differences between the two developmental instability measurements.For almost all measured traits.FA was greater on Cd-and Zn-contaminated compared to non-contaminated host plants.In contrast.CV of some traits was greater on non-contami-nated host plants,yet for Otller traits CV Was greater on contaminated host plants.There were also non-significant inverse relationships between FA and fitness of cabbage aphid populations.Due to weak correlations between FA and different patterns of two developmental instability measurements,this study does not support the hypothesis that developmental instability is a useful bioindicator of environmental quality.

  17. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  18. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI). PMID:27550439

  19. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  20. Rapid enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated cabbage using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Angela J; Harbison, Sally-Ann; Savill, Marion G; Melton, Laurence D; Fletcher, Graham

    2002-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method specific for Listeria monocytogenes was developed, and studies involving pure culture showed that the response of the assay was linear over 7 log10 (log) cycles. The method was then applied to the detection of L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated onto cabbage, a vegetable chosen because it is a major component of coleslaw, which has been associated with an outbreak of listeriosis. After being allowed to attach to the food, cells were washed from the cabbage leaf surface and recovered by centrifugation. The DNA was purified by an organic solvent extraction technique and analyzed by real-time PCR. In this matrix, the method again produced a linear response over 7 log cycles from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(9) CFU of L. monocytogenes in 25 g of cabbage, and analysis of the reproducibility of the system showed that log differences in L. monocytogenes numbers added to cabbage could be reliably distinguished. The system allowed quantitative results to be obtained within 8 h and was relatively inexpensive, showing good potential for routine analytical use. PMID:12182489

  1. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Myszka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs. This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS production by AHLs that are associated with microbial spoilage of cabbage was also examined. Among 100 strains isolated from storage cabbage, 47 isolates produced AHLs. The results of the 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that selected microflora was highly closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas cedrina (approximately 98%-99% confidence. The chemical nature of AHLs produced by selected microflora differ from species to species. The pattern of AHLs of Ps. cedrina consisting of C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL, and 3-hydroxy-C14-HSL, has not been previously reported. The present study demonstrates that bacterial spoilage of storage cabbage is influenced by quorum sensing. Application of furanone C-30 that acts as quorum sensing inhibitor, caused the significant reduction in the production of EPS and pectinolytic enzymes by examined bacteria.

  2. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  3. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  4. Obtaining and Cytological Identification of a Set of Primary Trisomics in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; ZHU Hai-yan; LI Xiao-feng; SHEN Shu-xing; CHEN Xue-ping; MAN Hong; XUAN Shu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Selection of primary trisomics of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L) forms an important basis for gene chromosome mapping and for other genetic studies. The cabbage self-fertilization line - 9601 was used as material, using the root-tip cell chromosome number and pollen mother cell chromosome number identification and karyotype analysis to select the primary trisomics from the progenies of 3x × 2x in the cabbage. Many aneuploid plants with one or two extra chromosomes were obtained and a set of primary trisomics (Tri-1, Tri-2, Tri-3, Tri-4, Tri-5, Tri-6, Tri-7, Tri-8, and Tri-9, in which the Tri- 1 and Tri-4 were from 2n + 2 plants and others from 2n + 1 plants) was acquired from these plants. Each trisomic exhibited some unique features, such as plant height, plant type, leaf type, size of flower bud, and inflorescence.The triploid crossing by the diploid is a convenient and effective way to select trisomics in the cabbage.

  5. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  6. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  7. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  8. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Edward KUNICKI; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased conte...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  10. Molecular identification and population dynamics of two species of Pemphigus (Homoptera: Pemphidae) on cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiqi Chen; Tong-Xian Liu; Mamoudou Sétamou; J. Victor French; Eliezer S. Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphiguspopulitransversus Riley, has been one of the major pests on cruciferous vegetable in the Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas since the late 1940s. It normally migrates from poplar trees to cruciferous vegetables in the fall, and migrates back to the trees in early spring of the coming year. Some root-feeding aphids were found on cruciferous vegetables in late spring and early summer in 1998 and the following years. Those aphids have been identified as Pemphigus obesinymphae Moran. This discovery completely changed the current knowledge about the root-feeding aphids on cruciferous vegetables in the LRGV. Due to their small size, morphological and feeding similarities between P. populitransversus and P. obesinymphae, their identification and distinction are difficult. In this study, random amplification ofpolymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to distinguish these two species over a period of time when the two species occurred together, or separately, in cabbage fields. The two species occurred on cabbage at different times of the year, and overlapped from October to June. From May to October, both species migrated to their primary hosts. The apterous aphids found on cabbage in winter contained mainly P. obesinymphae, whereas in early spring more apterous P. populitransversus were recovered. The root-feeding aphids would feed on cabbage plants as long as this host was available even during the hot, dry summer in the LRGV, although their populations were generally low. Both RAPD and AFLP techniques were efficient in discriminating the two species that showed obviously genetic variability. These molecular techniques confirmed the existence of the two aphid species in apterous samples collected from the soil in cabbage fields in the LRGV, and the results performed by RAPD were confirmed by AFLP. Furthermore, the results suggest that RAPD technique was a better choice despite its

  11. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed. PMID:25195421

  12. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Oumar; Lemoyne, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops. PMID:27761325

  13. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  14. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a....... rapae as a biocontrol agent of Brevicoryne brassicae at different temperatures.......Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  15. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly

  16. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P < 0.05), and was concurrently extremely positively correlated with Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P < 0.01). Soil pH increased by 1.8%-45.5% and 6.1%-54.3% in the presence of zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and

  17. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  18. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  19. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  20. Susceptibility to AcMNPV and Expression of Recombinant Proteins by a Novel Cell Clone Derived from a Trichoplusia ni QAU-BTI-Tn9-4s Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Shan; Shi-ying Zhang; Lei Jiang; Ming Ma; Guo-xun Li

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that Tn5B1-4(commercially known as the High Five)cell line is highly susceptible to baculovirus and provides superior production of recombinant proteins when compared to other insect cell lines.But the characteristics of the cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage.Recently an alphanodavirus,named Tn5 Cell Line Virus(or TNCL Virus),was identified in High Five cells in particular. Therefore,we established a new cell line,QB-Tn9-4s,from Trichoplusia ni,which was determined to be free of TNCL virus by RT-PCR analysis. In this paper,we describe the development of a novel cell clone,QB-CL-B,from a low passage QB-Tn9-4s cell line and report its susceptibility to ACMNPV,and the level of recombinant protein production. This cell clone was similar to its parental cells QB-Tn9-4s and Tn5B 1-4 cells in morphology and growth rate;although it also showed approximately the same responses to AcMNPV infection and production of occlusion bodies,there were higher levels of recombinant protein production in comparison to QB-Tn9-4s(parental cells)and High5 cells.

  1. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  2. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  3. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  4. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  5. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  6. Robustness of the Bacterial Community in the Cabbage White Butterfly Larval Midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of commun...

  7. Optimisation of irrigation regime for early potatoes, late cauliflower, early cabbage and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with optimisation of threshold suction pressure of soil water on light soils for early potatoes, early cabbage, late cauliflower and celery on the basis of results from small-plot field experiments with differentiated irrigation regimes. Threshold suction pressures of soil water were identical for all crops: 15 kPa in treatment I, 30 kPa in treatment II, 60 kPa in treatment III, and 120 kPa in treatment IV. Precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity, global solar radiation, wind speed and direction were measured by an automated meteorological station. Reference and actual evapotranspirations were determined for the experimental crops according to FAO Paper No. 56 and by means of a biological curve (BC) in 2003-2005. To compare these two methods of calculation of actual evapotranspiration the soil moisture balance was found out. The optimum threshold suction pressure was 30 kPa for early potatoes, late cauliflower and cabbage and 15 kPa for celery. The seasonal irrigation depths determined on the basis of soil moisture balance, in which the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated either according to FAO 56 or by the BC, were substantially different from the really achieved irrigation depths with optimal suction pressure. The really achieved values were near to the depths calculated by the BC for potatoes, while for cauliflower, cabbage and celery they were similar to the depths calculated by the FAO 56 methodology. The theoretical irrigation depths calculated by the BC method sometimes differed substantially from those based on FAO 56. These differences were maximal for cauliflower and celery and minimal for cabbage. They decreased with decreasing irrigation depths. (author)

  8. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Myszka; Mariola Olkowicz; Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K.; Katarzyna Czaczyk

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by AHLs that are associated w...

  9. Kinetic Studies for the Preparation of Probiotic Cabbage Juice: Impact on Phytochemicals and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic study for the production of probiotic cabbage juice was carried out under controlled pH and dissolved oxygen using several strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Furthermore, effect of probiotic fermentation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity was investigated. Results showed significant growth in Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus corresponding to 9.19, 9.47 and 10.6 log CFU/ml after 24 h of fermentation, which is satisfying crite...

  10. Root growth and soil nitrogen depletion by onion, lettuce, early cabbage and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2001-01-01

    Experiments examining root growth, the utilization of N and the effect of green manures were carried out on four vegetable crops. Large differences were observed both in rooting depth penetration rates, and in final rooting depth and distribution. Onion had a very low depth penetration rate, carrot an intermediate rate, and lettuce and cabbage showed high rates. A combination of depth penetration rates and duration of growth determined rooting depth at harvest. Therefore, lettuce, which had a...

  11. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultiva...

  12. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  14. Osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses: Mass transfer kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčev Bojana V.; Lević Ljubinko B.; Koprivica Gordana B.; Mišljenović Nevena M.; Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40, 60 and 80%) at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss, solid uptake, weight reduction, normalized solid content and normalized moisture content. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1, 3 and 5 hours. M...

  15. Advantages of sous-vide cooked red cabbage: structural, nutritional and sensory aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; García Segovia, Purificación; Martínez Monzó, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The comparison between equivalent cooking treatments should be applied in a systematic way. This study proposes a methodical way to provide cooked samples with similar firmness using two cooking treatments. In addition, the structural, nutritional and sensory properties of red cabbage cooked with sous-vide treatment in comparison with traditional cooking (boiling water) was evaluated. Changes in texture, color and anthocyanin content were measured in samples cooked with traditional cooking...

  16. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  18. Effects of an environmental friendly slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer on cabbage production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Ali Ahmed; Su Kyoung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Wood from three tree species was used for making slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer. Fertilizer made from Populus tomentiglandulosa retained the highest amounts of N(29. 04%),P2O5(26. 03%)and K2O(16. 93%). On the other hand, woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis retained the lowest amounts of N(26. 22%),P2O5(21. 80%)and K2O(14. 49%). Afield experiment Was performed in a 50 m2 experimental plot at Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services,Chuncheon, Korea from August to November 1999. The effects of a general fertilizer along with compost and slow releasing woodchip fertilizer without compost on the cabbage production were observed. Cabbage production parameters,such as top height, head weight,head height,head width,number of outer and inner leaves,leaf width and head length,increased in the field where Larix kaempferi woodchip fertilizer was added as a basal dose. The result showed that the woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis had faster releasing properties compared to other woodchip fertilizers. Without adding any compost in the woodchip fertilized field, woodchip fertilizer showed a superior outcome over a general chemical fertilizer. Although the amount of woodchip fertilizer Was larger compared to that of a chemical fertilizer, it increased cabbage production.

  19. Aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis and gene expression changes in gamma-irradiated cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Rai, Archana N; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2016-10-15

    Glucosinolates, found principally in the plant order Brassicales, are modulated by different post-harvest processing operations. Among these, ionizing radiation, a non-thermal process, has gained considerable interest for ensuring food security and safety. In gamma-irradiated cabbage, enhanced sinigrin, a major glucosinolate, has been reported. However, the molecular basis of such a radiation induced effect is not known. Herein, the effect of radiation processing on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was investigated. RT-PCR based expression analysis of seven glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway genes (MYB28, CYP79F1, CYP83A1, SUR1, UGT74B1, SOT18 and TGG1) showed that CYP83A1, MYB28, UGT74B1, CYP79F1 and SUR1 were up-regulated in irradiated cabbage. The content of jasmonates, signalling molecules involved in glucosinolate induction was, however, unaffected in irradiated cabbage suggesting their non-involvement in glucosinolate induction during radiation processing. This is the first report on the effect of gamma irradiation on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes in vegetables. PMID:27173540

  20. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  1. Toxic Metals up taken by Cabbage Grown in Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L.O. Jimoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, iron and zinc were investigated in soil and lettuce obtained from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were compared with limit recommended by FAO/WHO standard (2007 so as to ascertain the extent of their pollution. The level of cadmium in cabbage ranged from 0.04-1.20μg/g. The concentrations of lead was found to be in range of 0.61-3.87 μg/g ,these were above the limit stipulated by WHO while iron concentration ranged from 0.50-12.40μg/g and zinc 2.72:g/g-18.53μg/g were within the recommended limit given by the FAO/WHO standard. This suggests that consumers of cabbage grown in the studied areas might be liable to lead and cadmium toxicity as at the time of this research work. Pearson correlation shows positive correlation between soil and cabbage in these irrigation sites.

  2. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3k

  3. Analysis of efficiency and factors affecting the production of cabbage farming (Brassica oleracea L. in Belung village, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficiency and the factors that affect the production of cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Samples taken by census the number of respondents 36 farmers. The analysis used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis include analysis of costs, revenues, income, efficiency and Cobb-Douglas. Based on the analysis, known that farmer acceptance is Rp. 43,767,361 and generated revenues of Rp. 30,124,372/ ha. Result relevaled that the Cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang was highly efficient and profitable with an efficiency of 3.2. Factors that effect significantly on cabbage farming production are labors, lands, pesticides and seeds. Input combinations are already efficient and optimal pesticides and seeds.

  4. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  5. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  6. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062)...

  7. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (pfuture.

  8. Quality of Cabbage Cultivars Intended for Fermentation in the Ogulin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Dobričević

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cabbage intended for fermentation should have solid and robust heads with the soluble dry matter content above 3% and light coloured external leaves. Heads are prepared in a 5.5% sodium chloride concentration brine. Biological fermentation proceeds at a temperature of 18-22 °C, in the dark and under anaerobic conditions. The research objective is to find out whether the quality of fresh and fermented cabbage of hybrid cultivars can compete with and replace the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ in the production area of Ogulin. Cabbage ´Varaždinski´ was the predominant and also the referent cultivar, while the other studied cultivars were ´Junior´, ´Kilor´, ´Krautman´ and ´Satellite´ from the Ogulin production area. The quality of fresh raw material during the two trial years was defined by the content of dry matter of 6,63- 8,74%, soluble dry matter of 4,0-6,0%, lactic acid of 0,1-0,4%, pH-value of 5,65-6,40, L-ascorbic acid of 151,83-359,11 mg/100 g dry matter and NaCl of 0,09-0,18%. The quality of fermented products during the two trial years was defined by the content of dry matter of 6,00-6,98%, soluble dry matter of 4,97-5,70%, lactic acid of 0,88-1,26%, pH-value of 3,62-4,18, L-ascorbic acid of 63,81-213,23 mg/100 g dry matter and NaCl of 1,53-2,56%. No significant differences between fresh cabbage cultivars were determined by the analysis of variance in the contents of dry matter, soluble dry matter, % of lactic acid, pH value, % of NaCl and L-ascorbic acid. In the first research year, significant differences between cultivars were determined in the content of L- ascorbic acid and the pH value. In the second research year, significant differences were determined in the content of L- ascorbic acid between 60 and 90 days of fermentation.The results indicate that the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ can be replaced in the Ogulin region by the studied hybrid cultivars.

  9. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J

    1997-01-01

    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The

  10. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  11. Influence of Alternative Organic Fertilizers on the Antioxidant Capacity in Head Cabbage and Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimova PAVLA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mineral fertilizer was compared with alternative organic fertilizers for the crop of head cabbage and cucumber. There were seven different treatments: Agormin (an organo-mineral fertilizer, Agro (made from poultry bedding and molasses, conventional farmyard manure, compost, Dvorecky agroferm (dried, aerobically-fermented farmyard manure, mineral fertilizer, and an unfertilized control. All treatments were applied at rates providing approximately the same level of nutrients. The level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by FRAP assay immediately after harvest. Average value of TAC in fresh cabbage was 23660 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2005 and 29527 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2006. Average value of TAC in field cucumber was 12532 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2005 and 10460 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2006. This study shows that alternative, organic fertilizers have similar or even better positive effects than farmyard manure and that they can contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of vegetable production.

  12. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-02-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness. PMID:19924467

  13. Chinese Cabbage-pak-choi Transcriptome Map Construction with cDNA-AFLP Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shu-ying; LE Jian-gang; CHENG Guang-jie; WU Cai-jun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) transcriptome map with cDNA-APLP techniques was constructed. The inbred line Aijiaohuang 97-3-2, the inbred line Baimanjing 001-24 of turnip [B. campestris ssp. rapifera (Matzg.) Sinsk] and 183 F6 (recombinant inbred population) plants were used as experimental materials. cDNAs were synthesized from total RNA extracted from young leaves at rosette stage. 256 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers were used to detect the polymorphisms between parents Aijiaohuang 97-3-2 and Baimanjing 001-24. 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers with high polymorphisms were screened from 256 pairs of primer by DNA-AFLP techniques. The genetic diversity of parents and 183 F6 progenies was detected by 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers. The segregation and distribution of cDNA-AFLPs molecular marker were analyzed to construct transcriptome map amongst parents and F6 plants. A total of 164 cDNA-AFLPs marker loci were mapped into 13 linkage groups which covered 1 401.2 cM with an average distance of 9.7 cM. It was the first transcriptome map of Chinese cabbage using cDNA-AFLP technique.

  14. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  15. Joint effects of cadmium and lead on seedlings of four Chinese cabbage cultivars in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiqiang; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao

    2009-01-01

    In northeastern China,large area of vegetable land has been simultaneously polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).Joint effects of Cd and Pb on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) were investigated using the seed germination and sand culture method.Four Chinese cabbage cultivars including Kangbingjinchun (KB),Dongyangchunxia (DY),Qinglvwang (QL) and Qiangshi (QS) from Shenyang in northeastern China were adopted in this study.The results showed that there were positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rate of biomass,root and shoot elongation and the concentrations of Cd and Pb.In particular,root elongation was more sensitive to joint stress of Cd and Pb.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein (SP) and proline (PRO) changed significantly with increasing exposure concentration of Cd and Pb.The decrement in the activity of antioxidative enzymes,the content of SP and accumulation of MDA were relatively low in KB and QS.PRO played an important role in resisting Cd and Pb stress.

  16. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  17. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  18. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  19. The Assessment of the Use of Eco-Friendly Nets to Ensure Sustainable Cabbage Seedling Production in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ngouajio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High seed cost accompanied by poor germination and seedling performance renders cabbage nursery and field production enterprises unsustainable to many small-scale growers in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In most nurseries, adverse ecological conditions and pest damage are among the major factors responsible for poor seedling performance. The objective of this study was to test the potential use of eco-friendly net (EFN covers as a low cost technology for sustainable cabbage seedling production. The study was a two-season experiment conducted using a randomized complete block design with five replications and two treatments. Treatments were: the standard open field transplant production (control and transplant production under 0.4 mm mesh polyethylene net covering. EFN covering increased both temperature and relative humidity, enhanced seedling growth and reduced insect pest damage. Seed germination and seedling emergence were under the net covering earlier. Higher seed germination and seedling survival were recorded under the EFN treatment, indicating a potential for reducing the seed requirement per unit area of cabbage production. Seedlings grown under the nets had higher stomatal conductance and leaf chlorophyll content; furthermore, they grew taller, with more leaves within a shorter period of time compared to the control seedlings. The use of EFN in cabbage nurseries offers a sustainable technology for enhancing seedling performance by reducing pest infestation, thereby lowering production cost and improving the grower’s income.

  20. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference gen

  1. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). PMID:27450258

  2. Release and characterization of single side chains of white cabbage pectin and their complement-fixing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westereng, B.; Coenen, G.J.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Samuelsen, A.B.; Schols, H.A.; Knutsen, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    A mixture of single side chains from white cabbage pectin were obtained by anion exchange chromatography after applying mild chemical conditions promoting -elimination. These pectin fragments were characterized by their molecular weight distribution, sugar composition, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF-MS anal

  3. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S.; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 mu M) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at >= 5 mu M. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered

  4. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics, ...

  5. Mechanism of cell toxicity of azadirachtin A to Trichoplusia ni Hübner Hi-5 cells%印楝素A对粉纹夜蛾Hi-5细胞的毒性机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文欧; 徐汉虹; 张志祥; 廖绍裕

    2008-01-01

    利用粉纹夜蛾 Trichoplusia ni Hübner卵细胞系(Hi-5细胞系)在细胞水平研究了印楝素(azadirachtin) A杀卵活性的毒性机理.以MTT法研究了印楝素A对粉纹夜蛾Hi-5细胞的生长抑制率,结果表明最初两天印楝素 A对Hi-5细胞无较明显活性,但随后几天抑制率显著增加.用Giemsa染色法对细胞进行染色,观察细胞形态发生的变化,发现: 1.25 μg/mL印楝素 A处理Hi-5细胞1 d后,细胞已无法贴壁,形状变圆,接着细胞形态变得极不规则,有凋亡小体出现.用Ho33342染料对Hi-5细胞核DNA染色,通过荧光显微镜观察发现: 经印楝素A处理后第1天,部分细胞核染色体发生异常凝聚,此后异常细胞核比例增多,核膜严重破损.以异硫氰酸荧光素(FITC)荧光染料研究了Hi-5细胞的蛋白质含量变化,发现1.25 μg/mL印楝素A 处理Hi-5细胞1 d后,细胞蛋白质指数(DI)为1.070±0.018,至第3 d DI值上升到1.912±0.019.分析了印楝素A处理后Hi-5的还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)的相对含量变化,发现1.25 μg/mL处理浓度下,各天处理组GSH抑制率有显著差异.结果显示印楝素A能够抑制Hi-5细胞增殖,影响细胞骨架正常功能,降低细胞活力.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  7. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  8. Spatially-Optimized Sequential Sampling Plan for Cabbage Aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Canola Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The cabbage aphid is a significant pest worldwide in brassica crops, including canola. This pest has shown considerable ability to develop resistance to insecticides, so these should only be applied on a "when and where needed" basis. Thus, optimized sampling plans to accurately assess cabbage aphid densities are critically important to determine the potential need for pesticide applications. In this study, we developed a spatially optimized binomial sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields. Based on five sampled canola fields, sampling plans were developed using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 proportions of plants infested as action thresholds. Average sample numbers required to make a decision ranged from 10 to 25 plants. Decreasing acceptable error from 10 to 5% was not considered practically feasible, as it substantially increased the number of samples required to reach a decision. We determined the relationship between the proportions of canola plants infested and cabbage aphid densities per plant, and proposed a spatially optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields, in which spatial features (i.e., edge effects) and optimization of sampling effort (i.e., sequential sampling) are combined. Two forms of stratification were performed to reduce spatial variability caused by edge effects and large field sizes. Spatially optimized sampling, starting at the edge of fields, reduced spatial variability and therefore increased the accuracy of infested plant density estimates. The proposed spatially optimized sampling plan may be used to spatially target insecticide applications, resulting in cost savings, insecticide resistance mitigation, conservation of natural enemies, and reduced environmental impact. PMID:27371709

  9. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  10. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  11. Production of a primary trisomic from progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage%结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与结球甘蓝回交获得初级三体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 管志坤; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an aneuploid plant with 2n + l chromosome was obtained from the progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage. Cytological and SSR analysis showed that the aneuploid plant was a primary trisomic - 8 of cabbage. Furthermore, the chromosome number of the self ing and backcrossing progenies of the primary triso-mic-8 plant was identified, and the transfer rate of female and male gametes of extra-chromosome was clarified as 34. 74% and 6. 17%, respectively.%采用结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与二倍体结球甘蓝回交的方式,从回交后代BC2中获得了1株2n+1非整倍体植株.经细胞学和SSR鉴定分析,确认该2n+1植株为结球甘蓝8号初级三体.通过对8号初级三体植株自交和回交后代染色体数目的测定,明确了其额外染色体雌、雄配子的传递率分别为34.74%和6.17%.

  12. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  13. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  14. Osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses: Mass transfer kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipčev Bojana V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40, 60 and 80% at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss, solid uptake, weight reduction, normalized solid content and normalized moisture content. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1, 3 and 5 hours. Mass transfer coefficients were calculated using Hawkes and Flink's model and the results indicate that the diffusion of water and solids was the most intensive during the first three hours of dehydration.

  15. Factors affecting uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg-1 dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg-1 dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10-2 to 1.1x10-2 when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of 131I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3±4.4)x10-2

  16. Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream. Metamorphoses of ATU 1579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Voolaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the functioning of the plot of a fixed tale typeATU 1579 (Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream as a riddle and a narrative and its forms which have surrounded the plot and originate in traditional folklore genres. Folklore, reconstructed and placed in new contexts, emerges in new genres. In the present computer era, the plot has not only emerged in narrative and riddle genre, but has emerged in an entirely new context – it has been widely applied in the form of an interactive computer game. The different forms, contexts, functions and goals of the type plot may be regarded as aspects of the dynamic folklore process.

  17. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  18. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  19. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  20. Application of Baranyi function to model the antibacterial properties of solvent extract from Irish York cabbage against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amit; Gupta, Shilpi; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Cox, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    Cabbage is a rich source of a number of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, glucosinolates and their breakdown products which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Outer green leaves of York cabbage were extracted with 60% methanol, ethanol or acetone. Antibacterial activities of vacuum dried crude extracts were estimated against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food spoilage and food pathogenic bacteria. The crude extracts showed a broad spectrum of an...

  1. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  2. Compared Analysis of CBL1 Genes from Chinese Cabbage, Cabbage and Brassica nigra%大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥 CBL1基因的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化银; 姜常松; 张一卉; 高建伟; 李利斌; 曹齐卫

    2014-01-01

    CBL1基因在植物非生物逆境应答及发育过程中具有重要功能。本试验在解析大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥CBL1的基础上,对它们进行了系统地比较分析,为进一步研究CBL1基因在芸薹属植物中的分子进化和功能奠定基础。%CBL1 gene plays pivotal roles in abiotic stress response, growth and development of plant.In this study, systematic comparison was conducted based on the analysis of CBL1 genes from Chinse cabbage, cabbage and Brassica nigra.It would establish foundations for further research on molecular evolution and function of Brassica CBL1 genes.

  3. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future. PMID:25976879

  4. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  5. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  6. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  7. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  8. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  9. Studies on Genomic DNA Extraction and Establishment of AFLP Reaction System in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜基因组DNA的提取及AFLP反应体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟淑春; 张海英; 郑晓鹰; 刘玉梅; 王永健

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The obtained clear AFLP fingerprint of Chinese cabbage provided basis for studies on the molecular markers of Chinese cabbage cultivars and the phylogenetic relationship among Chinese cabbage cultivars. [Method] With the test materials of leaves of Chinese cabbages, the high-quality total DNA from leaves of Chinese cabbages was extracted by the modified CTAB method. DNA restriction-ligase reaction, pre-amplification and selective amplification were optimized, and the AFLP silver-staining reaction system for Chinese cabbage was established. [Result] The quality of DNA template influenced restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent ligase amplification reaction, while the modified CTAB extraction method could be used in AFLP analysis of Chinese cabbage to obtain a clear AFLP fingerprint. The optimum conditions for restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA from Chinese cabbage were as follows: 150 g DNA template, 12.5 μl reaction volume, 1.25 U Eco R Ⅰ, 1.25 U Mse Ⅰ and 5×Reaction Buffer with 4 h at 37 ℃. The ligation reaction with 2.5 h at 20 ℃ was the optimum condition. Six pairs of primers including E-AAC/M-CAG, E-AAG/M-CAC, E-ACA/M-CTG, E-ACT/M-CAC, E-ACT/M-CTT and E-ACT/M-CTC all had its own stable and clear patterns. [Conclusion] With abundant bands and high polymorphism, AFLP selective amplification is an efficient molecular marker for genomic polymorphism of Chinese cabbage.

  10. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  11. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  12. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatoni...

  13. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Kos; Maja Čačija; Darija Lemić; Jasminka Igrc Barčić; Josip Borošić; Antonela Kozina; Mirna Ceranić-Sertić; Renata Bažok

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was ...

  14. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    J. Robak; A. Dobrzański

    2015-01-01

    The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin) and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid) applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim) the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbic...

  15. Field Test Of Capability To Prevent Cabbage Clubroot Disease Caused By Plasmodiophora brassicae Of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of four dose rates 0.27; 0.90; 1.80 and 3.60 kGy/h on the solution of silver (Ag+ 10-2 M, PVP 2%, ethylenglycol 6%) irradiated at 25 kGy were investigated. The results showed that as the dose rates increased, the absorption peak shifted to blue wavelengths and also the particles decreased in size. For field test, nano particles were prepared by irradiation of silver solution at 25 kGy with the dose rate of 3.60 kGy/h. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained at wavelengths of 412 nm and the average diameter of particles were 14 nm. Using two concentrations of 15 and 20 ppm, silver nanoparticles had not affected the growth and development of cabbage but showed antifungal activity against Plasmodiophora brassicae cause club root in cabbage. Using nano particles, the clubroot disease index were 9-10% compared to 5% of nebijin (fungicide), and 12% of control. The yield of cabbage were 55 tons/ha, 63 tons/ha and 70 tons/ha for the control, nanosilver group, and nebijin group, respectively. (author)

  16. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  17. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  18. Odor uniformity among tomato individuals in response to herbivore depends on insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Bautista-Lozada

    Full Text Available Plants produce specific volatile organic compound (VOC blends in response to herbivory. Herbivore-induced blends may prime the plant for future attack or attract carnivorous insects; these responses have been considered adaptive for plants. If herbivores differentially modify the VOC emission among individuals within a group of plants they feed upon, then plant responses to herbivores will not only produce specific blends but also variation in odor among individuals, i.e. individuals smell the same, then having a uniform odor. We investigated the VOC emission variation or uniformity among tomato individuals (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Castlemart in response to moderate wounding by (1 nymphs of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc. (TP; (2 Lepidoptera chewing-feeding larvae of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (FAW and (3 of Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner (CL, and (4 mechanical damage (MD. We used a ratio-based analysis to compare the fold-change in concentration from constitutive to induced VOC emission. We also used size and shape analysis to compare the emission of damaged and non-damaged individuals. Aside of finding herbivore-specific blends in line with other studies, we found patterns not described previously. We detected constitutive and induced odor variation among individuals attacked by the same herbivore, with the induced odor uniformity depending on the herbivore identity. We also showed that the fold-change of VOCs from constitutive to induced state differed among individuals independently of the uniformity of the blends before herbivore attack. We discuss our findings in the context of the ecological roles of VOCs in plant-plant and plant-carnivore insects' interactions.

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    .), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial......, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  20. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  1. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  2. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  3. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  4. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics.

  5. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  6. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  7. Studies on the Formation and Transmission of n+1 Gametes of Cabbage Primary Trisomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; ZHU Hai-yan; SHEN Shu-xing; MAN Hong

    2007-01-01

    The transmission rate of n + 1 gamete is an important parameter for the genetic analysis of trisomics. To correctly use the trisomics of the cabbage to carry out gene orientation and other genetic studies, the n + 1 gamete transmission rates by female parent and by male parent were determined. The results showed that the n + 1 gamete transmission rates were 15.28% for tri-1, 12.68% for tri-2, 12.31% for tri-3, 30.51% for tri-4, 22.81% for tri-5, 7.46% for tri-6, 5.36% for tri-7, 42.37% for tri-8, and 9.23% for tri-9 by female parent, and were 12.12% for tri-1, 12.33% for tri-2, 7.81% for tri-3, 4.76% for tri-4, 8.93% for tri-5, 10.94% for tri-6, 1.54% for tri-7, 2.94% for tri-8, and 13.04% for tri-9 by male parent. The main factors affecting the male n + 1 gamete formation and transmission were the rate of trivalent formation at prophase Ⅰ, the rate of 9-9-10-10 division at anaphase Ⅱ, and the pollen viability.

  8. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  9. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  10. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  11. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  12. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  14. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  15. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.

  16. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  17. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-09-19

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production.

  18. Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of ZF-HD transcription factors under different developmental tissues and abiotic stresses in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenli; Wu, Peng; Li, Ying; Hou, XiLin

    2016-06-01

    The ZF-HD gene family plays an important role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the function of the ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage remains largely unknown. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence has been determined, and more than forty thousand proteins have been identified to date. In this study, 31 ZF-HD genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. We show here that the BraZF-HD genes could be categorized into ZHD and MIF subfamilies. Among them, ZHD genes are plant-specific, nearly all intronless, and related to MINI ZINC FINGER genes that possess only the zinc finger. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZHDs have expanded considerably during angiosperm evolution. In addition, the ZHD group has 24 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis ZHD group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage ZHD genes have been retained more frequently than other group genes. Real-time PCR analysis showed that most of BraZF-HD genes are preferentially expressed in flower. Furthermore, most of these genes are significantly induced under photoperiod or vernalization conditions, as well as abiotic stresses. Thereby implying that they may play important roles in these processes. This study provides insight into the evolution of ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage genome and may aid efforts to further characterize the function of these predicted ZF-HD genes in flowering and resistance. PMID:26546019

  19. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  20. Electrophysiology and behavior feedback of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to volatile secondary metabolites emitted by Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The volatiles, absorbed by Porapak Q and eluted by hexane, from Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris chinesis (L.) Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee, have been identified as allyl isothiocyanate, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, 2,5-hexanediol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, nonanol, (-myrcene, (-pinene, E-2-hexen-1-ol, D-limonene, Z-3-hexenyl propanoate, linalool, geraniol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate, (-terpinene, (-caryophyllene, 3-carene and (-caryophyllene, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. The first five chemicals are the main components. All components can elicite electroantennogram (EAG) responses of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, in which allyl isothiocyanate and C6 alcohols and esters, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate and 2,5-hexanediol elicite stronger EAG responses than other components, and EAG responses of female moths to them are slightly larger than those of male moths. However, EAG responses elicited by terpenes are smaller, and EAG responses from females to terpenes are smaller than those from males, but ((myrcene can evoke stronger EAG responses from both females and males. Volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage, allyl isothiocyanate, 2,5-hexanediol and Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate intensely cause DBM directional flying and landing in wind tunnel, in which volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage have the strongest activity, and the next is allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is more attractive to females than to males a bit. As for (-terpinene and other subordinate components, EAG and wind tunnel test make sure they have weak activity.

  1. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  2. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  3. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.;

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...... on parameters of reproduction, egg development and viability at five constant temperatures. Significant temperature effects were found on the pre-oviposition period, total number of eggs laid, daily oviposition rate, female longevity, egg-development rate and viability. The mean length of the pre...

  4. Estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado sob diferentes sistemas de embalagem Storage of minimally processed cabbage in differents packaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado acondicionado em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade com atmosfera modificada ativa e passiva, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas com filme de policloreto de vinila. O produto foi armazenado por 16 dias em câmara frigorífica na temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, e em um balcão refrigerado similar aos utilizados em lojas de conveniência, com o intuito de representar os locais de comercialização no varejo, com temperatura média de 2,7 ± 3,3 °C. Analisou-se a concentração de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono no interior das embalagens, e no repolho minimamente processado o incremento no escurecimento, luminosidade, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa fresca e teor de ácido ascórbico. A estabilidade do repolho minimamente processado mostrou-se superior na temperatura de 5 °C quando comparada ao armazenamento no balcão refrigerado. A atmosfera modificada ativa não foi efetiva no aumento da vida útil do repolho minimamente processado quando comparada aos outros tratamentos. A embalagem de PEBD foi a mais adequada ao acondicionamento do repolho minimamente processado. No entanto, a embalagem de PVC também apresentou resultados satisfatórios.Stability of fresh-cut cabbage packed in low density polyethylene under active modified atmosphere and in expanded polyestyrene trays wrapped with PVC was evaluated. The fresh-cut product was stored for 16 days in a cold room at 5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 5% RH and in a refrigerated display case similar to those found in grocery stores. The following variables were analyzed: content of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the package headspace; browning, luminosity, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, pH, titratable acidity; soluble solids, fresh mass loss, and ascorbic acid content. The stability of fresh-cut cabbage was higher

  5. Microbial Community Structure of Korean Cabbage Kimchi and Ingredients with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Hae-Won; Yang, Ji-Hee; Lee, Mi-Ai

    2016-06-28

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, the production of which involves brining of Korean cabbage, blending with various other ingredients (red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, salt-pickled seafood, etc.), and fermentation. Recently, kimchi has also become popular in the Western world because of its unique taste and beneficial properties such as antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, which are derived from the various raw materials and secondary metabolites of the fermentative microorganisms used during production. Despite these useful activities, analysis of the microbial community present in kimchi has received relatively little attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial community structure from the raw materials, additives, and final kimchi product using the culture-independent method. Specifically, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the 16S rRNA partial sequences of the microflora. One primer set for bacteria, 341F(GC)-518R, reliably produced amplicons from kimchi and its raw materials, and these bands were clearly separated on a 35-65% denaturing gradient gel. Overall, 117 16S rRNA fragments were identified by PCR-DGGE analysis. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc gelidum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant bacteria in kimchi. The other strains identified were Tetragenococcus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, and uncultured bacterium. Comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms could provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of kimchi and help improve its quality. PCR-DGGE analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or other species. PMID:26907755

  6. Development and experiment of self-propelled cabbage harvester%自走式甘蓝收获机的设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冬冬; 费国强; 王俊; 黄江军; 游鑫荣

    2015-01-01

    Development of a cabbage harvester is an efficient approach to change the traditional way of harvesting cabbage in China. In order to satisfy the ascending demand for agricultural machinery, a self-propelled cabbage harvester was developed and its field working performance was tested. To achieve this project, the investigation of the physical properties of cabbage in Zhejiang and Jiangsu Province became the primary task providing the reference for the design. Then the once-over harvester attached to a self-propelled crawler tractor was designed and manufactured, which included the picking and lifting mechanism, dual-disc cutter, leaf separator and collection device. All parts of the harvesting system were powered hydraulically. The picking device consists of a couple of picking shovels and a reel, and the picking shovels pull the cabbage out of the soil using the forward speed of the harvester while the reel pushes the cabbage at the entrance of lifting mechanism. The lifting mechanism takes a kind of transverse-belt clamping way, which means 2 belts are used to clamp and convey the cabbage to the cutting device. The dual-disc cutter, with 2 contra rotating cutting discs, cuts off the root at the connection area between the corm and the root as well as avoids the unbalance of cutting force. Then, the corm and loose leaves remain up to the leaf separator and the root is discarded after the cutting process. The leaf separator is composed of a leaf-separating belt and a leaf-separating roller. The loose leaves are separated from the corm through the rubbing action and inter-collision between the cabbage and leaf-separating roller. Finally, the cabbage corm is conveyed into the box and the whole harvesting process is finished. The harvesting field tests were conducted in 3 regions including the greenhouse in February, 2015 and the outdoors in April and May, 2015, a total of 5 times. Because of the non-standard planting, 60 cabbages were mainly harvested individually or

  7. Transcriptional reprogramming and phenotypical changes associated with growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cabbage xylem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Noël, Laurent D; SanCristobal, Magali; Danoun, Saida; Becker, Anke; Soreau, Paul; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Xylem sap (XS) is the first environment that xylem phytopathogens meet in planta during the early infection steps. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causative agent of Brassicaceae black rot, colonizes the plant xylem vessels to ensure its multiplication and dissemination. Besides suppression of plant immunity, Xcc has to adapt its metabolism to exploit plant-derived nutrients present in XS. To study Xcc behaviour in the early infection steps, we used cabbage XS to analyse bacterial growth. Mineral and organic composition of XS were determined. Significant growth of Xcc in XS was allowed by the rapid catabolism of amino acids, sugars and organic acids, and it was accompanied by the formation of biofilm-like structures. Transcriptome analysis of Xcc cultivated in XS using cDNA microarrays revealed a XS-specific transcriptional reprogramming compared to minimal or rich media. More specifically, up-regulation of genes encoding transporters such as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), that could be associated with nutrient acquisition and detoxification, was observed. In agreement with the aggregation phenotype, expression of genes important for twitching motility and adhesion was up-regulated in XS. Taken together, our data show specific responses of Xcc to colonization of cabbage XS that could be important for the pathogenesis process and establish XS as a model medium to study mechanisms important for the early infection events. PMID:24784488

  8. Characterization of two PEBP genes, SrFT and SrMFT, in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko-Suzuki, Hiromi; Maekawa, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis has been found in dozens of primitive seed plants and the reproductive organs in these plants produce heat during anthesis. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying flowering is required to fully understand the role of thermogenesis, but this aspect of thermogenic plant development is largely unknown. In this study, extensive database searches and cloning experiments suggest that thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius), which is a member of the family Araceae, possesses two genes encoding phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBP), FLOWERING LOCUS T (SrFT) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (SrMFT). Functional analyses of SrFT and SrMFT in Arabidopsis indicate that SrFT promotes flowering, whereas SrMFT does not. In S. renifolius, the stage- and tissue-specific expression of SrFT was more evident than that of SrMFT. SrFT was highly expressed in flowers and leaves and was mainly localized in fibrovascular tissues. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that, within floral tissues, SrFT was co-regulated with the genes associated with cellular respiration and mitochondrial function, including ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE gene proposed to play a major role in floral thermogenesis. Taken together, these data suggest that, among the PEBP genes, SrFT plays a role in flowering and floral development in the thermogenic skunk cabbage. PMID:27389636

  9. Geographic expansion of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae)and the evolution of highly UV-reflecting females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuya Fukano; Toshiyuki Satoh; Tadao Hirota; Yudai Nishide; Yoshiaki Obara

    2012-01-01

    Reflection ofultraviolet (UV) light by the wings of the female Eurasian cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae,shows a large geographic variation.The wings of the female of the European subspecies,P rapae rapae,reflect little UV light,while butterflies of the Asian subspecies,P.rapae crucivora,may reflect it strongly or at only intermediate levels.The geographic region where P.rapae originated remains to be determined.Moreover,it is not clear if females with wings that reflect little UV light are ancestral to females with wings that reflect UV strongly or vice versa.In the present study,we aimed to determine the geographic origin and ancestral UV pattern of cabbage butterflies through mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.The results of these investigations suggest that P rapae is of European origin and that it has expanded its distribution eastward to Asia.It follows that the ancestral subspecies is the type with UV-absorbing wings.Lower nucleotide diversities and haplotype network patterns ofmtDNA derived from East Asian populations suggest that population expansion from Europe to East Asia probably occurred fairly recently and at a rapid rate.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  11. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭红; 彭洁松; 冯献忠; 杨素欣; 郑志仁; 唐向荣; 沈瑞娟; 刘平林; 何玉科

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile, rosette, folding and head leaves. From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage, we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes. One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH. Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP. PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage. Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA. It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional ex

  12. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  13. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  14. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages-prior to and after meiosis-but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  15. Potato-Cabbage Double Cropping Effect on Nitrate Leaching and Resource-Use Efficiencies in an Irrigated Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bo; FAN Ming-Shou; HAO Yun-Feng; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the nitrate leaching risk after potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) harvest and improve nitrogen fertilizer-use efficiency,a potato-cabbage double cropping system (DCS) was established at Hetao,North China,an arid area with irrigated land.A two-year field experiment demonstrated that planting early-maturing potato cultivar under plastic mulch shortened its growth period by 14 d and allowed a second crop of cabbage to scavenge the soil residual NO3--N to a depth of 160 cm,substantially reducing the risk of nitrate leaching into groundwater. The yearly total N uptake in DCS was about 110 kg ha-1 more than that in the conventional cropping system (CCS),i.e.,mono potato planting.This accounted for apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) improvement of 16.90%-26.57% in the DCS as compared to that in the CCS for both years.As a result,the soil residual NO3--N in the 0-160 cm soil profile in the DCS was lower than that in the CCS.The solar energy-use efficiency and soil-use efficiency were also substantially increased with DCS.

  16. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly. PMID:25893791

  17. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  18. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zheng-miao; WANG Bi-ling; SUN Ye-fang; LI Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment.

  19. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  20. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K Magnus; Forshed, Jenny; Lindahl, Anna; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Olsson, Marie; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Husted, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83 % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products. PMID:24618989

  1. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly.

  2. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  3. Influence of cornicle droplet secretions of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, on parasitism behavior of naïve and experienced Diaeretiella rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Rasekh, Arash; Enkegaard, Annie

    2014-01-01

    volatiles of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), on the host-searching behavior of naïve and experienced female Diaeretiella rapae (M' Intosh) parasitoids in olfactometer studies. In addition, we evaluated the role of B. brassicae cornicle droplets on the oviposition preference of the parasitoid...

  4. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  5. Obtaining and Genetic Stability of Chinese Cabbage-Cabbage Translocation Lines with Fragment of Cabbage Chromosome 8%添加甘蓝8号染色体片段的大白菜易位系的获得及其遗传稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫珍臣; 王彦华; 轩淑欣; 赵建军; 申书兴

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Cabbage-Cabbage alien addition line AC8 was radiated to obtain M1 plants.Doubled haploid lines were further obtained by microcspores culture for backcross descendants of M1.Two hundred and eighty-six specific InDel molecular markers linked to cabbage linkage group were used for detecting the DH lines.Combining with cytology observation,the translocation line AT8-1 of Chinese cabbage was identified.AT8-1 was selfed,backcrossed and hydridized,then their offsprings were identified by the specific makers.Results showed that the translocation fragment form cabbage was instability,the ratio of keeping entire exogenous fragment in selfing progenies,one backcross progeny and two hybridization progenies were 61.1%,26.3%,24.2% and 30.0%,respectively.In all progeny individuals,none translocation plant was found with smaller fragments than in AT8-1.%为创建大白菜—结球甘蓝易位系,以大白菜—结球甘蓝8号单体异附加系(ACs)为材料,对其摘去已开放花朵的花枝进行60Co-γ辐射,然后取新开放花朵花粉授与AC8,获得M1植株,再将M1与AC8亲本大白菜‘85-1’进行回交,对其回交后代进行小孢子离体培养获得DH系.利用286个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜特异的InDel分子标记对DH系植株进行鉴定,结合细胞学观察获得添加甘蓝8号染色体片段的大白菜易位系‘AT8-1’.对易位系‘AT8-1’进行自交,与‘85-1’回交,与大白菜高代自交系‘14-28’和‘14-36’杂交,对其后代进行InDel分子标记鉴定,结果表明该易位系中甘蓝染色体片段不稳定,该片段完整保留率在自交后代群体为61.1%,回交后代群体为26.3%,两个杂交后代群体分别为24.2%与30.0%.后代群体中均未见易位片段变小的植株.

  6. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  7. 结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究和应用进展%Progress in Studying and Applying Cabbage Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季家磊; 杨丽梅; 方智远; 庄木; 张扬勇; 吕红豪; 刘玉梅; 李占省

    2016-01-01

    Strong heterosis on yield,quality,disease resistance and stress tolerance is displayed in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L.).It is an important approach for heterosis utilization to use male sterile line to produce hybrid seed.In recent years,great progress has been made in studying cabbage male sterility. This paper reviews the types of cabbage male sterility line,its genetic characteristics,and achievements gained in studying its cytology,physiology,biochemistry and molecular biology.The paper also introduces the selective breeding of cabbage male sterile line,and its application.At the same time,the paper analyzes the existing problems and prospects the future for cabbage male sterility line application.%结球甘蓝在产量、品质、抗病性、抗逆性等性状上具有明显的杂种优势。利用雄性不育系配制杂交种是杂种优势利用的重要途径。近年来,结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究取得了很大进展。本文综述了结球甘蓝雄性不育的类型、遗传特性及其在细胞学、生理生化和分子生物学等方面取得的研究成果,介绍了结球甘蓝雄性不育系的选育和应用,同时分析了目前存在的问题,并对结球甘蓝雄性不育的应用前景做了展望。

  8. Impact of Melia azedarach Linn. (Meliaceae Dry Fruit Extract, Farmyard Manure and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicornye brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae in Home Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Nagappan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to check the impact of Melia azedarach dry fruit extract, farmyard manure and nitrogenous fertilizer application against cabbage aphid Brevicornye brassicae. B. brassicae is one of the key pests affect the quality and market value of cabbage. The home garden experiment was conducted in two season (September to December 2009 and February to May 2010. For this experiment totally five plots were prepared with 4 m length and 0.6 m width. Among the five plots one was used as control and another four was experimental plot for the application of nutrient and botanical spraying. M. azedarach dry fruit extract (5% was mixed with 0.2% local soap solution and sprayed in experimental plot. Purposive sampling method was adopted for data collection for which the number of aphids was recorded from three leaves of each plant. The experimental results indicates that except farmyard manure and combination of farmyard manure+urea treated plot remaining all showed significant difference (p0.025 in control and farmyard manure treated plot but the remaining showed statistically significant difference. The experimental results for both cropping seasons were consistent. Nitrogenous fertilizer applications influence the growth of the plants but did not show any remarkable changes in cabbage head weight except plant growth. The study concludes that foliar and basal application of M. azedarach dry fruit powder had significant impact on cabbage aphid, B. brassicae. It can be a suitable alternative method to protect cabbage crop against aphid infestation particularly small farming community those who are unable to afford cost of chemical pesticides.

  9. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向卵圆型大白菜'60'的转育%Introgression of genic male sterile gene of Chinese cabbage into ovate ecotype Chinese cabbage variety '60'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪松; 许明

    2009-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,运用合成转育模式将大白菜'189'细胞核雄性不育基因转入基因型为msms的卵圆型白菜'160'中,获得了卵圆型白菜'160'的新甲型'两用系'及相应的不育系和保持系.%Based on the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genie male sterility, the synthesis transferring method was used to transfer the gene of male sterility into the orbicular-ovate type Chinese cabbage variety '160', whose genotypes were msms by crossing, inbreeding, sibling and test crossing. New AB lines type I,new male sterile lines and their corresponding temporary maintainer lines of Chinese cabbage variety '160' were obtained from the transferred progenies of the Chinese cabbage variety '189'.

  10. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  11. Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saetbyeol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique.

  12. Efeito da embalagem e temperatura de armazenamento em repolho minimamente processado Minimally processed cabbage: effects of packaging and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no repolho minimamente processado quando armazenado em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas. O processamento mínimo consistiu em seleção, classificação e resfriamento da matéria-prima, seguido do processo de corte em tiras, enxágüe em água tratada para a remoção dos exudados celulares, sanitização em solução com 150mgL-1 de cloro ativo, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem, acondicionamento em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas com filme flexível de policloreto de vinila (PVC, 12µm, e embalagens de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, e armazenamento por 15 dias em temperaturas de 0, 5 e 10ºC. A cada três dias avaliou-se a concentração de O2 e CO2 na atmosfera interna das embal agens, bem como o pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C no repolho minimamente processado. Concluiu-se que o repolho acondicionado na embalagem PVC apresentou menor perda de vitamina C durante os 15 dias de armazenamento nas três temperaturas. Esta embalagem também apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e menor de O2 , porém dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, garantindo assim maior vida útil ao repolho minimamente processado. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na vida útil do produto armazenado em temperaturas de 0 e 5ºC, nas duas embalagens avaliadas, porém a 10ºC a mesma reduziu-se significativamente, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the minimally processed cabbage when stored in different packages and temperatures. The minimum process consisted of selection, classification and refrigeration of the raw material, followed by cutting in slices, rinsed with treated tap water for the elimination of cellular exudates, sanitization in solutions with 150mgL-1 of active chlorine, rinsing, centrifugation, weighing, conditioning in polystyrene expanded trays covered with polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 12µm

  13. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  14. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s. PMID:27433731

  15. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  16. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  17. Transcriptome de novo assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jiao-Jiao; Jia, Xue-Fang; Jia, Si-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait producing abnormal pollen during anther development. To identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying mechanisms, cabbage anthers at different developmental stages were cytologically examined and the transcriptomes were analyzed in CMS line and its maintainer line using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Microscopy showed that anther development in the CMS line was abnormal in the tetrad stage and failed to produce fertile pollen. We obtained 55,663,594 and 54,801,384 raw transcriptome reads from the sterile and maintainer lines, respectively, and assembled these reads into 68,851 unigenes with an average size of 1028 bp. By using the fragments assigned per kilobase of target per million mapped reads (FPKM) method, 5592 differentially expressed genes were identified, consisting of 3403 up- and 2089 down-regulated genes. Furthermore, there were 1011 and 45 genes specifically expressed in the maintainer or sterile line, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways were performed to map and analyze the candidate genes that may be involved in male sterility. Expression of eighteen genes was examined using qRT-PCR and their expression patterns were found to be same as the sequencing data. A clear cytological difference exists between the sterile and maintainer lines. The differentially expressed genes are associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, or encode transcription factors, heat shock proteins and other stress proteins. Identification of these candidate genes provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying CMS in cabbage. PMID:27116370

  18. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  19. Chemoprevention of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced carcinogen-DNA adducts by Chinese cabbage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM The food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces colon and mammary gland tumors in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of human colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine the potentially preventive effect of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), a brassica vegetable most commonly consumed in China, against this carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in rats and its possible mechanisms.METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 10 days on basal diet or diet containing 20% (w/ w) freeze-dried cabbage powder prior to administration of a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/ kg) by oral gavage. Rats were sacrificed at 20 h after PhIP treatment and PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver were analyzed using 32P-postlabeling technique. Levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2, as indicated by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and 7-methlxyresorufin O-demethylase activity, and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) towards 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in the liver, lung and colon were measured.RESULTS Rats pre-treated with Chinese cabbage and given a single dose of PhIP had reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver, with inhibition rates of 82.3%, 60.6%, 48.4% and 48.9%, respectively (P<0.01). The enzyme assays revealed that Chinese cabbage induced both CYP1A1 and 1A2 activity, but the induction was preferential for CYP1A1 over 1A2 (81% vs 51%). GST activity towards CDNB in the liver and lung, but not colon, was also significantly increased by cabbage treatment.CONCLUSION The results indicate that Chinese cabbage has a preventive effect on PhIP-initiated carcinogenesis in rats and the mechanism is likely to involve the induction of detoxification enzymes.

  20. Production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of Chinese cabbage and cabbage%白菜与甘蓝之间体细胞杂交种获得与遗传特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉玉姬

    2012-01-01

    In order to broaden Chinese cabbage gene pool,we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris,2n=20,AA) and Cabbage (B.oleracea,2n=18,CC).Protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings,and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG).Fused cells were cultured in modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators.Fusion products were characterized by their morphological,cytological and molecular biological traits.The results showed that,a total of 35 regenerated green plants were obtained from 320 calli,the plant regeneration frequency was 10.94%,and eleven of which were survived in greenhouse.All regenerants were true hybrids as confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH) analysis.Ploidy levels of hybrid plants were determined by chromosome counting and flow eytometry.The sum of the chromosome number (2n =38) from the two fusion patents were found in 36.4% of regeneratns; another 36.4% had chromosomes range to 58-60; 27.2% had more chromosomes ranges to 70-76.All regenerated plants produced normal flowers.We investigated the pollen fertility and seed set after self-pollination and backcrossing with the parental species.For hybrids with chromosomes more than 38 it was possible to obtain some seeds when they after self-pollination.Within the group of hybrids with 38 chromosomes,seed set were very variable,only 0.11 seeds per pod by self-pollination,0.23-0.76 by open-pollination,0.02-0.04 by backcrossing with Chinese cabbage.Progeny lines obtained by self-pollination had larger leaves and leaf shapes intermediate of the parental species.Pollen fertility was gradually recovered in the first and second progenies.The backcrossing progeny lines,as a whole,exhibited morphologies were similar to Chinese cabbage.Morphological variations were observed among the somatic hybrids and their progenies.%为拓宽白菜

  1. Rape Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and Cabbage Stem Weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae – Important Oilseed Rape Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem mining weevils, rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. 1837 and cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh. 1802 have become more important oliseed rape pests. Rape stem weevil is present in middle and west European countries and cabbage stem weevil is present in almost all European countries. The most important morphological difference between adults is colour of their legs. Biological and ecological characteristics of these two pests are similar, stem mining weevils are observed as pest complex. Differences in biology cause different approach in pest control. Both species have single generation annually. Larvae feed inside the petioles and stems of oilseed rape. Phyrethroids are used for adult control of stem mining weevils.

  2. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  3. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I.; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard GF; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting ge...

  4. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation in three Brassica rapa genotypes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K.; Zhang, N.; Severing, E.I.; Nijveen, H.; Cheng, F; Visser, R.G.F.; Wang, X.; De, Ridder, G.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results - To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resultin...

  5. Preparation and Detection of Extended DNA Fibers of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜延伸DNA纤维的制备和检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九欢; 王彦华; 李晓峰; 申书兴; 轩淑欣

    2012-01-01

    [目的]制备和检测大白菜延伸DNA纤维。[方法]以大白菜幼叶为材料,采用刀切分离细胞核、SDS释放DNA、盖玻片滑动牵拉DNA的方法,首次获得大白菜DNA延伸纤维。[结果]以基因组DNA和25SrDNA为探针进行原位杂交检测,该DNA纤维长度大约为1.93Mb,25SrDNA在大白菜基因组中的拷贝数在258—687之间。该方法获得的DNA延伸纤维平行、清晰、适合FISH分析。[结论]该研究将会促进大白菜基因图谱的构建和组织分析。%Abstract [Objective] The paper was to prepare and detect the extended DNA fibers of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Chinese cabbage nuclei was first successfully isolated by chopping young leaves with a blade, then nuclei were lysed by SDS to release DNA, and DNA fibers were dragged and extended with a coverslip. [Result] The results of Fiber-FISH with genomic DNA and 25S rDNA as probes showed that DNA fiber size as long as about 1.93 Mb could be measured and the number of 25S rDNA copies region were estimated to be 258 and 687 in Chinese cabbage genome. DNA fibers prepared by this method showed equally spread parallel thread with clear background, and were suitable for FISH analysis. [Conclusion] The study would accelerate Chinese cabbage genome mapping and organization analysis.

  6. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control wi...

  7. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  9. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  10. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production. PMID:27641709

  12. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  13. Effect of Partial Replacement of Nitrate by Amino Acid and Urea on Nitrate Content of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce in Hydroponic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-lin; GAO Xiu-rui; ZHANG Xian-bin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors studied the effect of different mixtures of glyeine (Gly), isoleucine (Iso), proline (Pro), and urea solutions used as a partial (20%) replacment of nitrate in the nitrate content and quality of non-heading Chinese cabbage and lettuce in hydroponice. Five treatments were done 12 d before harvest. Compared to the control group, Gly had the best effect in reducing the nitrate content of both vegetable leaves and petioles; the mixture of Giy, Iso and Pro ranked second and urea the least. Treatments with amino acid could also increase soluble sugar and protein contents and enhance total-N in leaves significantly.In contrast, amino acid enhanced NRA in non-heading Chinese cabbage, while they decreased it slightly in lettuce. The results showed that amino acids and urea could reduce the nitrate content of both vegetables, but they had almost the same effect on non-heading Chinese cabbage. Moreover, amino acids were more effective than urea in lettuce. As a result, it was concluded that partial replacement of nitrate with amino acids not only reduced the nitrate content but also improved the quality of vegetables.

  14. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene cDNA from non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Feifei; HOU Xilin; LI Ying; CUI Xiumin

    2007-01-01

    Four non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino) cultivars,Suzhouqing,Xuekeqing,Huangxinwu,Aijiaohuang,were planted to investigate the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) in leaves.After being induced by KNO3 at 50 mmol/L for different hours,the NRAs of the four cultivars were determined in vivo.The results showed that the NRAs changing trends of these four cultivars were similar.The highest NRAs in leaves reached their maximum at the 4th,4th,6th,and the 6th hour of induction,respectively.According to these results,the level of NR mRNA in plants could be enhanced by nitrate inducement.Then,the total RNA was isolated from the leaves of Suzhouqing that was induced by KNO3 at 50 mmol/L for four hours,and two fragments ofNR cDNA were obtained through RT-PCR using specific primers.The products of PCR were cloned and sequenced.They are 1125 and 438 base pairs,which were named nr1125 and nr438,encoding 374 and 135 amino acids,respectively.Finally,nr1125 was accepted and released by GenBank (accession number DQ001901).

  16. Improving dyeability of modified cotton fabrics by the natural aqueous extract from red cabbage using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ticha, Manel; Haddar, Wafa; Meksi, Nizar; Guesmi, Ahlem; Mhenni, M Farouk

    2016-12-10

    The concern regarding sustainable utilization of available resources is growing due to its global importance. In this paper, the dyeability of cotton fabrics with natural colorant extracted from red cabbage was improved by applying cationic groups on cotton fibers. Modification of cotton was carried using acid tannic, Rewin Os, Denitex BC and Sera Fast as cationic agents. The dyeing process was done by ultrasonic energy. The effects of the cationising agent amount, the dye bath pH, the dyeing temperature and duration, on the sonicator dyeing quality were studied. The performances of this process were evaluated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the dyeing fastness of the coloured cotton. Besides, modified cotton fibers were characterized by morphology analysis (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and compared to untreated cotton. Moreover, a two-level full factorial design was employed to optimize the sonicator dyeing process. Mathematical model equation and statistical analysis were derived by computer simulation programming applying the least squares method using Minitab 15. Best dyeing conditions were found to be: 10%, pH 11, 60min and 100°C respectively for the Sera Fast amount, dye bath pH, dyeing duration and temperature. PMID:27577920

  17. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  18. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  19. Construction of random sheared fosmid library from Chinese cabbage and its use for Brassica rapa genome sequencing project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Ho Park; Beom-Seok Park; Jin-A Kim; Joon Ki Hong; Mina Jin; Young-Joo Seol; Jeong-Hwan Mun

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the Multinational Genome Sequencing Project of Brassica rapa, linkage group R9 and R3 were sequenced using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by BAC strategy. The current physical contigs are expected to cover approximately 90% euchromatins of both chromosomes. As the project progresses, BAC selection for sequence extension becomes more limited because BAC libraries are restriction enzyme-specific. To support the project, a random sheared fosmid library was constructed. The library consists of 97536 clones with average insert size of approximately 40 kb corresponding to seven genome equivalents, assuming a Chinese cabbage genome size of 550 Mb. The library was screened with primers designed at the end of sequences of nine points of scaffold gaps where BAC clones cannot be selected to extend the physical contigs. The selected positive clones were end-sequenced to check the overlap between the fosmid clones and the adjacent BAC clones.Nine fosmid clones were selected and fully sequenced. The sequences revealed two completed gap filling and seven sequence extensions, which can be used for further selection of BAC clones confirming that the fosmid library will facilitate the sequence completion of B. rapa.

  20. Influence of postharvest UV-B treatment and fermentation on secondary plant compounds in white cabbage leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The influence of postharvest UV-B on its own and in combination with fermentation (e.g. sauerkraut production) on formation and degradation of bioactive compounds was investigated in white cabbage, processed according to traditional Chinese fermentation methods. The pattern of polyphenols was affected by postharvest UV-B: Newly formed coumaroylglycoside, feruloylglycoside, caffeoylglycoside (up to 1 mg/g dry matter; 4 days) and quercetintriglycoside (0.4-0.5 mg/gdm; 4 days) might be related to postharvest increase in enzyme activity in the biosynthesis. Decreasing contents were observed for the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, but the formation of the degradation products dihydroascorbigen and dihydro-4-methoxyascorbigen, which might be related to cell shrinking as mechanical damage. Fermentation resulted in deglycosidation of hydroxycinnamic acids. Newly generated cinnamic acid from coumaric acid aglycone was detected in fermented plant material combined with UV-B (50 μg/g). Glucosinolates and dihydroascorbigens were completely degraded. This study shows exemplary UV-B as a supplemental step to improve the nutritional quality of processed plants.

  1. “小狮头”大白菜细胞核不育系转育初探%Transferring Breeding of Cell Nucleic Sterile Line in "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建锋; 秦进华; 孙玉东; 罗德旭; 张朝阳

    2011-01-01

    Genetic male sterile gene is transferred from French 45 hot-resistance(a source of male sterility) Chinese cabbage to "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage through conventional hybrid.At the same time,new AB lines Type I,temporary maintainers and male sterile lines are obtained on the transferred progenies derived from "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage.%以法45抗热大白菜核不育系为不育源,通过常规杂交的方法,向"小狮头"大白菜转育核不育基因,初步转育成"小狮头"大白菜细胞核不育系、甲型两用系和临时保持系。

  2. Discovery and Study on Mutation Owned Orange Petal of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%橘红色花菜薹突变体的发现和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 徐家炳; 卢桂香

    2013-01-01

    以橘红色花菜薹突变体11 A-47与黄色花菜薹联记特选34号甜菜心杂交获得的F1,F2及BC1、BC1’群体为试材.将6个世代的种子经4℃低温春化处理15d后调查子叶颜色,研究菜薹橘红色花的遗传规律;同时,采用与大白菜橘红心球色基因紧密连锁的分子标记对控制菜薹橘红色花的基因进行分析,鉴定菜薹橘红色花与大白菜橘红心球色基因or之间的关系.结果表明,橘红色花菜薹11 A-47与黄色花菜薹杂交F2群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶3,x2=1.938 9<x20.05=3.841;BC1’群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶1,x2=1.369 7<x20.05=3.841.说明菜薹的橘红色花为质量性状,由1对隐性等位基因控制.分子标记结果表明,控制菜薹橘红色花的基因与控制大白菜橘红心球色的基因可能不同.%A F1 hybrid was obtained by crossing mutant 11A-47 with orange petal and a wild type of flowering Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. utilis Tsen et Lee ] with yellow petal. After the population of F1, F2, BC1, BC1'were taken as experiment materials. Seeds of 6 generations were vernalized at 4 ℃ for 15 days, and cotyledon colors were investigated to study the hereditary law of orange petal. Meanwhile, molecular markers linked to or gene in Chinese cabbage were applied to determine the characteristics of orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage. Results showed that the ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 3 in F2 progeny, x2= 1.938 9 < x2 0.05=3.841. The ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 1 in BC1' progeny, x2= 1.369 1 < x2 0.05=3.841. Therefore, orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage is qualitative trait, and is controlled by a pair of recessive gene. Orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage was probably different from gene in Chinese cabbage by molecular markers.

  3. 分蘖洋葱复种大白菜栽培模式初探%Preliminary Research on Cultivation Pattern of Potato Onion Multi-Cropping with Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宗仁; 张清友; 蒋欣梅; 于锡宏; 齐月; 陈典

    2013-01-01

    以分蘖洋葱(Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey)‘海伦兔耳红’和大白菜(Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)‘金福’为试材,以常规模式(分蘖洋葱复种大白菜直播栽培模式)为对照,研究分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式的生产效果.结果表明,采用分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式可以使大白菜播种期、出苗期、莲座期、结球期分别提前20、20、6、9d,延长了大白菜的生育期;大白菜的株高、球高和球直径显著提高,根肿病发病率显著降低.%To research the productive effects on seedling cultivation pattern of potato onion (Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey) multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis),this study used potato onion ‘Hai lun tu er hong’ and Chinese cabbage ‘Jin fu’ as the materials and traditional pattern as the control.The results showed sowing stage,seedling stage,rosette stage and heading stage of Chinese cabbage were advanced correspondingly for 20、20、6 and 9 d respectively,and growing period of Chinese cabbage was extended under potato onion multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage.In addition,plant height,heading height and heading diameter of Chinese cabbage were increased significantly,and the incidence of clubroot disease had fallen greatly.

  4. Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biling; Xie, Zhengmiao; Chen, Jianjun; Jiang, Juntao; Su, Qiufeng

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates, 50, 300, and 500 g/m2 with 9 treatments and control (CK). Plants, water soluble and exchangeable (WE) extraction procedure and modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were employed. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers significantly decreased WE Pb (22.0%-81.4%), Cd (1.5%-30.7%) and Zn (11.7%-75.3%, exception of SSP treatments with no significant difference) and TCLP Pb concentration (27.1%-71.2%), compared with the control, leading to reduced uptake of Pb (16.0%-58.0%), Cd (16.5%-66.9%) and Zn (1.2%-73.2%) by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). It was suggested that P fertilizers induced immobilization of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, and Zn. CMP provided the most effective method of reducing metal toxicity, mobility, and phytoavailability. At the P application rate of 300 g/m2, CMP would be cost-effective to decrease WE Pb, Zn, and Cd concentration from 666 to 137 mg/kg, from 31.2 to 8.71 mg/kg, and from 1.69 to 1.36 mg/kg, respectively. SSP was more effective in reducing Pb bioavailability than PR but had variable effects on Zn bioavailability. Cd uptake by cabbage was negatively correlated with soil pH rather than with WE or TCLP, indicating that Cd uptake by cabbage was a complex process. It should be careful to evaluate the impact of phosphate application on Cd availability in soil. PMID:19143319

  5. 大白菜雄性不育系MS200712的研究简报%Brief Report on Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Line MS200712

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 苏同兵; 卢桂香

    2014-01-01

    Creation and abortive mechanism of new male sterile lines are hot-topics on Chinese cabbage breeding.F1 hybrid crossing Brassica allohexaploid(AABBCC,n=27),which owns A,B and C chromosomes simultaneously,with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Jinchun’was obtained.Then the F1 as a male parent was crossed with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Yihe No. 5’.Thus male sterile MS200712 was founded due to multi-parents crossing.MS200712 owned yellow petal and light-yellow anther.The anthers were regressive,which were 100% male sterility.Stigma of MS200712 was normal and nectaries were vigor. Meanwhile 832172,male parent of‘Beijingnew No. 3’was crossed with MS200712,and male sterile MS20071208-916 was obtained.%以芸薹属异源六倍体AABBCC为母本,以大白菜品种金春为父本进行杂交,获得F1(AABBCC×AA);再以大白菜品种义和5号为母本,与F1进行杂交,在多亲本杂交后代中获得大白菜雄性不育系MS200712。该不育系花瓣为黄色,花药浅黄色、退化、败育彻底,柱头正常,蜜腺发达。同时,利用北京新3号的父本832172与雄性不育系MS200712进行回交,获得了转育的MS20071208-916不育系。

  6. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between infected non-heading Chinese cabbage and Hyaloperonospora parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Liu, Shi-Tuo; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Dao-Yun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying; Hu, Chun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP). We obtained 129 reliable differential transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in a resistant line 'Suzhou Qing'. Among them, 121 upregulated TDFs displayed an expression peak at 24-48 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fifteen genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 13 genes (86.7%) revealed by the cDNA-AFLP. We identified four TDFs related to fungal resistance among the 15 TDFs. Furthermore, comparative analysis of four TDFs between resistant line 'Suzhou Qing' and susceptible line 'Aijiao Huang' showed that transcript levels of TDF14 (BcLIK1_A01) peaked at 48 h.p.i. and 25.1-fold increased in the resistant line compared with the susceptible line. Similarly, transcript levels of the other three genes, TDF42 (BcCAT3_A07), TDF75 (BcAAE3_A06) and TDF88 (BcAMT2_A05) peaked at 24, 48 and 24 h.p.i. with 25.1-, 100- and 15.8-fold increases, respectively. The results suggested that the resistance genes tended to transcribe at higher levels in the resistance line than in the susceptible line, which may provide resistance against pathogen infections. The present study might facilitate elucidating the molecular basis of the infection process and identifying candidate genes for resistance improvement of susceptible cultivars. PMID:27602230

  7. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  8. Preparation and Properties of Vegetable-Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Complex FilmsЦ Water Bamboo-CMC,Chinese Cabbage-CMC etc.Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymers have been researched[1].In our previous papers,cellulose-alginic acid[2],cellulose-agar[3],vegetable-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) etc.complex films have been researched.Recently,some other kinds of vegetable such as water bamboo,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,spinach,naked oats,and basella,asparagus and pumpkin were used to perpare vegetable-CMC complex films.Every kind of vegetable has different content of water,cellulose,protein,carbohydrate and a small amou...

  9. Study on thermodynamics and adsorption kinetics of purified endoglucanase (CMCase) from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Arpan; Ghosh, Uma; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea) of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1 K−1 respect...

  10. Study on Thermodynamics and Adsorption kinetics of Purified endoglucanase (CMCase) from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Arpan Das; Uma Ghosh; Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra; Bikas Ranjan Pati; Keshab Chandra Mondal

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea) of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1...

  11. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting

  12. Effects of Pickled Cabbage Water on Production Performance of Laying Hens%酸菜水对蛋鸡生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺; 秦玉侠

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究酸菜水对蛋鸡产蛋性能的影响.[方法]将2 520只同日龄、同品种、同饲养条件的蛋鸡随机分成4组,分别饲喂酸菜水、恩诺沙星、蜡样芽孢杆菌和正常水4种不同的饮水剂.试验期为8周,记录各组蛋鸡的死亡情况、产蛋数及淘汰只数.[结果]通过4种不同饮水剂的对比研究发现,饲喂酸菜水组蛋鸡的死亡率和淘汰率均降低,且产蛋率得到显著提高,与饲喂常水组存在显著差异(P<0.05).而饲喂恩诺沙星和蜡样芽孢杆菌饮水剂对蛋鸡的生产性能有一定影响,但与饲喂常水差异不显著.[结论]酸菜水能较好的调节蛋鸡的肠道微生态环境,对蛋鸡的成活率、产蛋率和抗病能力都有显著的促进作用.%[ Objective ] To study the effects of pickled cabbage water on production performance of laying hens. [ Method ] A total of 2 520 laying hens at the age of 35 weeks and with the same feeding conditions were randomly divided into four groups. They were respectively fed four kinds of drinking water preparations including pickled cabbage water, enrofloxacin, Bacillus cereus and normal water. The mortality, egg laying rate and elimination rate were recorded. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. [ Result] In the pickled cabbage water group, the mortality and elimination rate of laying hens were decreased, and the egg laying rate was increased significantly ( P < 0.05 ). The enrofloxacin and Bacillus cereus water preparations had effects on the production performance of laying hens, and the effects were not significant. [ Conclusion ] The pickled cabbage water can regulate the intestine microenvironment of laying hens. It also promotes the survival rate, egg production and enhances the disease resistance of laying hens.

  13. 橙色大白菜遗传转化体系的初步建立%Establishment of Genetic Transformation System for Orange Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范爱丽; 张鲁刚

    2012-01-01

      In this study, several factors affecting the transformation rate were studied by Agrobacterium-mediated CMS7311-orf224 gene in 06J28 Chinese cabbage, and these factors included sensitivity of cotyledon segments to hygromycin (Hyg) and Cefotaxime (Cef), pre-culture days, concentrations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, co-culture days and times of being infected on the optimum culture medium. The results showed that, resistant plants could be obtained with the conditions as follows:the cotyledon segments of 06J28 Chinese cabbage were pre-cultured for 2-3 days, and then infected with EHA-105 (the OD600 value ranged from 0.3 to 0.5) for 5 minutes and were co-cultured for 2-3 days, lastly were transformed to screening-culture medium (adding 5 mg/L Hyg and 500 mg/L Cef). A higher efficient genetic transformation system was established for orange Chinese cabbage, which set up a basis for germplasm resources innovation of Chinese cabbage.%  以06J28橙色大白菜子叶段为外植体,通过根癌农杆菌介导CMS7311-orf224基因,探讨了潮霉素、头孢霉素、预培养时间、农杆菌浓度、感菌时间和共培养时间等因素对橙色大白菜遗传转化的影响.试验结果表明,子叶段预培养2~3 d后,在OD600值为0.3~0.5的农杆菌EHA-105菌液中侵染5 min,再共培养2~3 d,在培养基中加入5 mg/L Hyg (抗性筛选)和500 mg/L Cef(脱菌)可得到转化植株.试验初步建立了橙色大白菜遗传转化体系,为大白菜种质资源创新奠定了基础.

  14. 橘红心大白菜遗传育种研究进展%Research Progress of Genetics and Breeding of Orange-Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁谦; 杜立忠; 陈士亮; 李景娟; 张一卉; 王凤德; 李化银; 高建伟

    2014-01-01

    综述了橘红心大白菜育种及种质资源、营养品质、橘红心性状的遗传规律研究现状及进展,并对未来研究的方向和面临的问题进行了阐述。%The research situation and progress of breeding, germplasm resources, nutritional quality and genetic laws of orange-head property of orange-heading Chinese cabbage were summarized in this paper.Its further research direction and facing problems were also expounded.

  15. Ammonia volatilization from a Chinese cabbage field under different nitrogen treatments in the Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Linan; He, Yunfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems. As vegetable cultivation is one of the most important agricultural land uses worldwide, a deeper understanding of NH3 volatilization is necessary in vegetable production systems. We therefore conducted a 3-year (2010-2012) field experiment to characterize NH3 volatilization and evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on this process during the growth period of Chinese cabbage. Ammonia volatilization rate, rainfall, soil water content, pH, and soil NH4(+) were measured during the growth period. The results showed that NH3 volatilization was significantly and positively correlated to topsoil pH and NH4(+) concentration. Climate factors and fertilization method also significantly affected NH3 volatilization. Specifically, organic fertilizer (OF) increased NH3 volatilization by 11.77%-18.46%, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF, urea), while organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (OIF) reduced NH3 volatilization by 8.82%-12.67% compared to CF. Furthermore, slow-release fertilizers had significantly positive effects on controlling NH3 volatilization, with a 60.73%-68.80% reduction for sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a 71.85%-78.97% reduction for biological Carbon Power® urea (BCU), and a 77.66%-83.12% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer (BBCRF) relative to CF. This study provides much needed baseline information, which will help in fertilizer choice and management practices to reduce NH3 volatilization and encourage the development of new strategies for vegetable planting. PMID:26702964

  16. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingPing Liu

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  17. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  18. Orthogonal design for optimal ISSR-PCR system in flowering Chinese cabbage%利用正交设计优选菜心ISSR-PCR反应体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪梅; 乔爱民; 孙敏; 桂腾琴

    2008-01-01

    利用正交设计L16(44)探讨引物、Taq聚合酶、dNTPs、Mg2+对菜心ISSR-PCR反应的影响.得到适合菜心IS-SR-PCR反应的最佳体系:在25μL反应体系中含2.5μL10×buffer,2.0 mmol/L M2+,0.5U Taq DNA聚合酶,0.24 mmol/L dNTPs,0.5 μmol/L引物,60 ng DNA模板.%Factors which affected the ISSR-PCR reaction of flowering Chinese cabbage(Brassica campestris L.ssp.Chinensis Vat.utilis Tssen.et Lee.),such as concentrations of primer,Taq DNA polymerase.dNTPs and Mg2+,was studied by L16(44)orthogonal test.The optimal ISSR-PCR system for flowering Chinese cabbage was determined.In a total volume of 25 μl,containing 2.5μL 10×buffer,2.0 mmol/L Mg2+,0.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase,0.24 mmoL/L dNTPs,0.50 μmol/L primer and 60 ng of template DNA,clear and reproducibe DNA fragments can be obtained.

  19. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  20. Determination of n+1 Gamete Transmission Rate of Trisomics and Location of Gene Controlling 2n Gamete Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-He Zhang; Xiao-Feng Li; Shu-Xing Shen; He Yuan; Shu-Xin Xuan

    2009-01-01

    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on the corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosomes in different trisomica varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the nine F2 populations derived from the hybridizations between each triaomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4×Bp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38:1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. In other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3:1 segregation ratio of the bisomice (Aa). These results suggested that the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.

  1. 苗用型大白菜新品种'双耐'%A New Seedling-edible Chinese Cabbage Hybrid'Shuangnai'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    ‘Shuangnai’ is a seedling-edible Chinese cabbage hybrid with excellent quality, which developed by crossing S99-534 with S02-PB658. It has bright and pale green leaves without fuzz, white petiole, and good quality. It has strong resistance to hot and moist environment and also a high general disease resistance. It is suitable for planting as seedling-edible Chinese cabbage in the summer in Yangtze River Valley and South China.%'双耐'是以S99-534为母本,S02-PB658为父本配制而成的优质苗用型大白菜一代杂种.叶色浅绿,叶柄色白,叶面光滑无茸毛,叶质柔嫩,品质优良,商品性状好;耐热,耐湿,综合抗病性强,适于中国长江流域及华南地区夏季作苗用型大白菜栽培.

  2. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  3. Determination of streptomycin residue in cucumber and Chinese cabbage by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benjing; Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Baoxiang; Ge, Jing; Qiu, Lihong

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of streptomycin using HPLC followed by postcolumn derivatization and fluorometric detection. The analyte was extracted, using aqueous solution from cucumber and Chinese cabbage, by a two-step SPE procedure. The extraction, cleanup, and chromatography conditions were optimized, and the performance of the analysis method was evaluated. The conditions of chromatography were as follows: the separation was performed on a C18 column; the isocratic mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and a mixed solution containing 10 mM sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and 0.4 mM sodium 1-heptanesulfonate (25+75, v/v); and the flow rate was 1 mL/min. The fluorescence detector was set at an excitation wavelength of 263 nm and an emission wavelength of 435 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 50-2000 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The LOD and LOQ were 10 and 30 ng/g, respectively, in both cucumber and Chinese cabbage. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The intraday and interday precision and accuracy were within 10%. The mean recoveries from spiked samples were more than 75%, with RSD lower than 10%. PMID:22649941

  4. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  5. Research Progress on Flowering Chinese Cabbage Breeding in Guangdong Province%广东省菜薹(菜心)育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光光; 张华; 黄红弟; 乔燕春; 郑岩松

    2011-01-01

    广东省菜薹(菜心)育种主要采用系统选育法、诱变育种、杂种优势利用、组织培养、分子标记辅助选择育种以及抗性及品质育种,各种育种方法均得到了一些目标性状的品种,但运用远缘杂交、单倍体培养、基因工程创新菜薹资源还有待深入研究.%The flowering Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L.) Makino var. Utilis Tsen et Lee ] breeding in Guangdong Province adopted the following breeding methods: systematic breeding, mutation breeding, heterosis utilization, tissue culture, molecular marker-assisted selective breeding, and resistance and quality breeding. Each method has got some varieties with target traits. But the application of distant hybridization, haploid culture and genetic engineering to create new flowering Chinese cabbage resources still need further study.

  6. Mechanisms for regulating oxygen toxicity in phytophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    The antioxidant enzymatic defense of insects for the regulation of oxygen toxicity was investigated. Insect species examined were lepidopterous larvae of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni), southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania), and black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes). These phytophagous species are subject to both endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress from toxic oxygen radicals, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). In general, the constitutive levels of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GT), and its peroxidase activity (GTpx), and glutathione reductase (GR), correlate well with natural feeding habits of these insects and their relative susceptibility to prooxidant plant allelochemicals, quercetin (a flavonoid), and xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin). Induction of SOD activity which rapidly destroys superoxide radicals, appears to be the main response to dietary prooxidant exposure. A unique observation includes high constitutive activity of CAT and a broader subcellular distribution in all three insects than observed in most mammalian species. These attributes of CAT appear to be important in the prevention of excessive accumulation of cytotoxic H2O2. Unlike mammalian species, insects possess very low levels of a GPOX-like activity toward H2O2. Irrefutable proof that this activity is due to a selenium-dependent GPOX found in mammals, is lacking at this time. However, the activity of selenium-independent GTpx is unusually high in insects, suggesting that GTpx and not GPOX plays a prominent role in scavenging deleterious LOOHs. The GSSG generated from the GPOX and GTpx reactions may be reduced to GSH by GR activity. A key role of SOD in protecting insects from prooxidant toxicity was evident when its inhibition resulted in enhanced toxicity towards prooxidants. The role of antioxidant compounds in protecting these insects from toxic forms of oxygen has not been explored in

  7. 转座子PiggyBac在哺乳动物中的应用%PiggyBac Transposon for Mammalian Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马元武; 张连峰

    2012-01-01

    As a tool of genetic engineering, DNA transposons have been widely used for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in various organisms. Till now, transposons active in mammalian include; 1) hAT-like Tol2; 2) , two Te1-like transposons, Sleeping Beauty (SB) and Frog Prince ( FP) ; 3) PiggyBac family. Among those transposons, the moth-derived transposon piggybac appears to be the most promising genetic tool due to its higher efficient transposition and higher cargo capacity. Therefore, it can be used for transgenesis, discovery of cancer gene and tumor suppressor gene, and gene therapy. The traceless excision transposition property of the PB transposon can be used to generate transgene-free iPS cells while maintaining an unaltered genome. In this review we will discuss the application and the future of PB transposon in mammalian.%DNA转座子作为一种遗传工程工具已广泛应用于多物种的转基因及产生插入突变等研究.目前,在哺乳动物中有转座活性的转座子可分为三类:1)hAT样转座子;2)Tcl样转座子包括Sleeping Beauty和Frog Prince;3) PiggyBac转座子家族.其中甘蓝蠖度尺蛾(Cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni)来源的PiggyBac转座子是目前在哺乳动物中活性最高的转座子,并且可以携带十几kb的外源基因转座而不影响其效率,使其在哺乳动物的转基因、癌基因的发现、基因治疗研究方面具有巨大的应用潜力.此外,PB的无痕迹转座对于无转基因、无遗传物质改变的诱导多潜能干细胞(iPS)研究也具有非常重要的意义.本文主要对针对PB在哺乳动物中的应用现状及前景作一介绍.

  8. Bioinformatic Analysis of GIF Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜GIF蛋白家族的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 李利斌; 李化银; 刘立峰; 高建伟

    2012-01-01

    GIF( GRF - interacting factor)家族是一类含有SNH和QG结构域的蛋白质,可与GRF( Growth regulating factor)转录因子蛋白相结合形成功能复合体,通过促进和维持细胞的分裂能力参与调控植物叶器官的发育.本研究系统鉴定了5个大白菜的GIF基因,并对这些基因编码的蛋白质序列进行了保守性和系统进化分析,最后对BrGIF1基因的表达进行了分析.结果表明,所有的大白菜和拟南芥GIF蛋白家族成员都具有高度保守的SNH和QG结构域.在进化上,GIF蛋白家族可分为两个不同的亚家族,并且这种特征在大白菜和拟南芥分离之前就已经形成.在表达模式上,BrGIF1基因在具有较大叶球的白菜自交系以及具有较强细胞分裂能力的组织中的转录表达水平较高.另外,BrGIF1基因的表达受到NAA的诱导和ABA的抑制.这些结果表明大白菜GIF蛋白可能具有和拟南芥GIF蛋白相似的生物学功能,在调控植物器官发育中具有重要作用.%GIF ( GRF - interacting factor) protein family is one kind of transcription coactivator which features the existence of SNH and QG domains. The members of this family could form a functional complex with GRF and act synergistically in regulating the development of leaves through the promotion and/or maintenance of cell proliferation activity in leaf primordia. In this study, five GIF genes were identified from Chinese cabbage by bioinformatics analysis. The conserved sequences of these proteins were analyzed and a polygenetic tree was constructed based on the corresponding GIF proteins from Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of these genes was analyzed, too. The results showed that all GIF proteins had the highly conservative SNH and QG domains and could be divided into two sub - family groups, which might have existed before the split of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thalina. The expression level of BrGIF1 was higher not only in the inbred lines

  9. Association between glucosinolate concentration and injuries caused by cabbage stink bugs Eurydema spp. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae on different Brassicas - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, we were determining the contents of glucosinolates in different Brassicas in order to study their influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs (Eurydema spp. and the consequent extent of damage. We confirmed that glucosinolates content depends on plant species, plant organs and the time of sampling. In the samples aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoiberin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, epiprogoitrin, sinigrin, gluconapin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin prevailed. Glucobrassicin, an important indolic glucosinolate compound, was detected in all tested Brassicas. Its concentration in the oil radish samples was highest during the first assessment (30 DAS, 8.84 ± 0.65 µmol g-1 ds, while the oilseed rape samples displayed lowest concentration during the last assessment (134 DAS, 4.30 ± 0.80 µmol g-1 ds. The stimulative activity of individual glucosinolates or their negative influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs in the Brassicas used in our experiment was not uniformly manifested. Based on a two-year field experiment we concluded that oil rape was the most adequate trap crop used to allure cabbage stink bugs. In future, glucosinolates should be employed to a greater extent in environmentally acceptable ways of food production, one of which is also the use of trap crops in order to reduce harmful effects of cabbage stink bugs.

  10. Breeding Report of Purple Flowering Stalk, Flowering Chinese Cabbage and White Flowering Stalk from 1985 to 2014%“三薹”育种研究报告(1985-2014)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏儒来; 王先琳; 杨静; 陈利丹; 周妍萍

    2014-01-01

    自1985-2014年育成一批红菜薹、菜心雄性不育系及其保持系,并用不育系配成一批红菜薹、白菜薹及菜心等杂交种,育成菜心、白菜薹、红菜薹新品种共9个,极大丰富了这3种薹用不结球白菜的品种,现将其育种研究过程总结发表,希望对育种工作者有参考价值。%We have bred some male sterile lines and maintainer lines of purple flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage from 1985 to 2014, and obtained some hybrids of purple flowering stalk, white flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage by mating with the sterile lines, meanwhile, we bred nine new cultivars of flowering Chinese cabbage, white flowering stalk and purple flowering stalk, which has greatly enriched cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage for stalk. Here, we summarize research process of their breeding, in order to provide reference value for breeders.

  11. The Effects of Different Seedling Densities on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage Seedlings%不同育苗密度对娃娃菜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海亭

    2013-01-01

    For selection of best seedling density ,taking Chinese cabbage Guizuhuanghuo as test material ,the effects of different densities on grow th of Chinese cabbage seedlings were studied by traies of different sizes . The results showed that main agrynomic traits of Chinese cabbage seedlings were no significant difference by traies with 98 and 128 apertures ,such as seedlings height ,leaf number ,root-top ratio and rate of strong seed-ling .Tray with 128 apertures was recommended for seedling of Chinese cabbage to reduce cost .%为了筛选娃娃菜最佳育苗密度,以娃娃菜贵族皇后为试验材料,利用不同规格穴盘研究不同密度对娃娃菜幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:采用98穴与128穴穴盘的娃娃菜幼苗在苗高、叶片数、根冠比和壮苗率等主要性状之间无显著差异,可推荐128穴穴盘作为娃娃菜育苗密度来降低育苗成本。

  12. Different influences of cadmium on soil microbial activity and structure with Chinese cabbage cultivated and non-cultivated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Min; Ma Aili; Peng Ying [Dept. of Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hangzhou (China); Xie Xiaomei [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, accumulated in soil by anthropogenic activities and has serious effects on soil microbial activities in contaminated soils. Moreover, there is a lack of reliable data on the effects of Cd in the soil-plant system, since most of the information on Cd-microorganism interactions in soils are based on sewage sludge without plants. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of Cd on soil microbial activities and community structure during growth of plant. Materials and methods: A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of Cd on soil microbial activities during the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) in two different soils. The field soils were used in this short-term (60 days) greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with different Cd concentrations, namely, 0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1} oven dry soil, respectively. The experimental design was a 2 (soil) x 2 (vegetation/non-vegetation) x 5 (treatments (Cd)) x 3 (replicate factorial experiment). After 60 days, the study was terminated and soils were analyzed for selected microbial parameters, such as, microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}), basal respiration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Results and discussion: Application of Cd at lower concentrations (1 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a slight increase in C{sub mic}, whereas Cd concentrations >8 mg kg{sup -1} caused an immediate significant decline in C{sub mic}, the ratio of C{sub mic} to total organic C (C{sub mic}/C{sub org}) decreased and the metabolic quotient (qCO{sub 2}, namely, the basal respiration CO{sub 2}/C{sub mic}) increased with elevated Cd concentration. However, the impact on soil C{sub mic} and basal respiration caused by Cd was dependent from plant cover or soil properties. The results of PLFAs showed relative increase in fatty acid indicators for fungi and actinomycetes and gradual increase in the ratio of

  13. The Effect of PickIed Chinese Cabbage on Lipid Oxidation and QuaIity of Sausage%酸菜对风干香肠中脂类氧化及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宇博; 张峰; 马利华; 宋慧; 陈学红; 陈丹; 李继昊

    2016-01-01

    Take pickled Chinese cabbage and pork as the main materials to make air-dried sausage. Take non-added pickled Chinese cabbage powder as the control,the effect of different additive amount of pickled Chinese cabbage powder on the color,texture,POV,AV,inhibition ratio of LPO of sausage is studied.The results show that adding pickled Chinese cabbage powder has a certain effect on the lipid oxidation and quality of air-dried sausage,adding 12% pickled Chinese cabbage powder, the color,texture,POV,AV of sausage are all decreased,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased compared with the control.After 100 days,the POV and AV of sausage added with pickled Chinese cabbage powder are decreased by 31.6%,21.14% compared with the control,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased by 47.24%.The lipid oxidation can be inhibited to some extent with the addition of pickled Chinese cabbage,the quality of sausage can be improved and the product has unique flavor and good taste.%实验以酸菜、猪肉为主要原料,制成风干香肠。以不加酸菜粉为对照,研究了酸菜粉不同添加量对香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价、脂质过氧化物抑制率的影响。结果表明:添加酸菜粉对风干香肠的脂类氧化及品质均有一定程度的影响,香肠添加酸菜粉12%,香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价比对照均有下降,脂质过氧化物抑制率比对照有所升高。储藏100天后,添加酸菜粉香肠的过氧化值、酸价比对照分别大幅降低了31.6%,21.14%,脂质过氧化物抑制率则显著提高了47.24%。酸菜的添加可以一定程度抑制香肠的脂类氧化,提高香肠的品质,口味独特而鲜美。

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  15. 小白菜与苋菜营养生长期的吸水量研究%Water Absorption of Chinese Cabbage and Amaranth in Vegetative Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏告; 彭选明; 张乐平; 吴同斌; 李青峰; 张跃龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide more accurate reference data to irrigate crops, by using plant water absorption simple measuring instrument developed specially, the biggest water absorption of Chinese cabbage and amaranth in the vegetative growth stage was surveyed in every day and different periods in a day. The results showed that the water absorption of above mentioned plant increased in plant growth, and the water absorption of china cabbage and amaranth in the second half stage of growth were 5.93 and 2.74 times of that in the first half stage, respectively. In one day, the main time for water absorbing plants was at 7:00-19:00, and peak period was at 12:00-16:00. In addition, crop water quantity and temperature in 0.01 level has significant correlation level (bilateral). Cultivating cabbage and amaranth under the test conditions, the water consumption quantity per 1 g of grass yield were 19.7 and 17.7 g, respectively.%为了给作物浇灌提供更精准的参考数据,利用专门研制的植物吸水数量简易测量仪,测量小白菜和苋菜营养生长期每天最大吸水量,以及全天不同时段的最大吸水量.结果表明:小白菜和苋菜的吸水量随着植株的生长而增大;小白菜和苋菜营养生长期的后半段的吸水量分别为前半段的5.93倍和2.74倍,在一天中,植物的吸水时间主要是7:00~19:00,高峰时间段为12:00~16:00.植物吸水量与气温在0.01水平(双侧)上显著相关.栽培小白菜和苋菜,每lg鲜草产量消耗的水量分别为19.7 g和17.7 g.

  16. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at <1-log CFU/g; however, the APC recovered somewhat. The pH and salinity of the treated salted napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time. PMID:26210534

  17. 大白菜褐腐病(茎基腐病)的病原菌鉴定%Pathogen Identification of Chinese Cabbage Brown Rot (Base Stem Rot)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧敏; 谢学文; 石延霞; 郭英兰; 李宝聚

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the disease known as ' base stem rot' of Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson ] was prevalent in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces. 12 fungi isolates were collected from rotten stem of Chinese cabbage. The morphological identification show the isolated bacteria strain is Rhizoctonia solani. PCR of rDNA-ITS was propagated by general primer ITS1/ITS4 and the sequencing result was compared and analyzed in GenBank. The results of molecular identification and morphological identification were the same. Then the isolated bacteria strains were inoculated to the healthy Chinese cabbage stems. The symptoms resembled the ones originally observed in the fields. Finally, the pathogen's identity was confirmed by re-isolation from lesions of infected plants. Based on the tests of morphological characteristics, pathogenicity and molecular biology, the pathogens of Chinese cabbage' base stem rot' found in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces were the same as brown rot, Rhizoctonia solani. etc.%2011年在北京、河北、江苏等地的部分大白菜种植区,当地俗称的大白菜“茎基腐病”普遍严重发生,实际调查后共采集到大白菜“茎基腐病”病样12份,分离获得12个真菌分离物,经形态学鉴定,分离到的菌株均为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani;采用真菌通用引物ITS1/ITS4对病原菌rDNA-ITS进行PCR扩增,并将测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性比对分析,分子生物学鉴定结果与形态学鉴定结果一致.将分离到的菌株分别回接健康的大白菜植株,植株表现出与田间相似的发病症状,重新进行病原菌的分离,得到相同的病原物.基于形态学、分子生物学鉴定和致病性试验最终确定北京、河北、江苏等地大白菜“茎基腐病”病原菌为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani,大白菜“茎基腐病”与大白菜褐腐病、大白菜立枯病属同病异名.

  18. 人工接种发酵甘蓝工艺条件的优化%Optimization of Cabbage Fermentation Using Starter Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕平梅; 赵文婧; 宋敏丽; 吴丽花; 陈燕飞; 张腾

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a fermentation strater culture and to optimize the fermentation conditions for fermented cabbage production.In this study,16 strains including single strains of Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides isolated from Sichuan pickles and their combinations were first tested.Two different strain combinations were then selected out of them based on fermentation speed,nitrite content and fermented cabbage flavor for the optimization of fermentation by response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimal condition for cabbage fermentation by a mixture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus pentosus(1:2) or Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lactobacillus pentosus,and Lactobacillus plantarum(1:1:1) were 4 g/100 mL salt,0.2% of inoculum size and 25 ℃ of fermentation temperature.Main effect analysis showed that salt concentration had the greatest effect on total acidity of fermented cabbage,followed by fermentation temperature and then inoculums size.%为了探究甘蓝人工接种发酵适宜的发酵剂及发酵条件,采用从四川泡菜老汤中分离的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)、戊糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus pentosus)、肠膜明串珠菌(Leuconostoc mesenteroides)3种菌以单一和不同配比混合组合成16组组合发酵剂中选出发酵甘蓝时亚硝酸盐含量低、发酵速度快、风味好的发酵剂。结果表明:肠膜明串珠菌、戊糖乳杆菌,其质量比为1:2(nPb:SPc组合),肠膜明串珠菌、戊糖乳杆菌、植物乳杆菌,其质量比为1:1:1(nPb:bC1:SPc组合),此两种组合为较优化发酵剂。应用响应面分析法优化此两种组合发酵剂接种发酵甘蓝的工艺条件。人工接种发酵甘蓝的条件为食盐质量浓度4g/100mL、接种量0.2%、发酵温度25℃。通过主效应分析说明食盐质量浓度对总酸度影响最大,发酵温度次之,接种量对其影响较小。

  19. Avaliação da intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada Consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. S. Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores influenciam a percepção do produto pelo consumidor e, conseqüentemente, sua intenção de compra. Dentre tais fatores pode estar a expectativa criada pelas características da embalagem e do rótulo, pois representam o primeiro contato entre o indivíduo e o produto. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das características da embalagem na intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada, considerando as diferenças individuais dos consumidores para processar as informações. Cinco características da embalagem de couve minimamente processada (informação, tipo de produção, cor, preço e visibilidade do produto foram manipuladas e 12 embalagens criadas seguindo delineamento fatorial incompleto. A intenção de compra para o produto foi avaliada por 144 consumidores baseada apenas na observação das referidas embalagens. Os dados foram analisados utilizando Conjoint e Cluster Analyses. Os resultados apontaram para um segmento único de consumidores, composto por indivíduos com percepção do produto bastante similar quanto à intenção de compra. Dentre as características da embalagem, a informação foi a que obteve maior importância relativa (77%, enfatizando seu papel na intenção de compra para esse grupo de consumidores. Em seguida, o tipo de produção, cor e preço também contribuíram significativamente (pSeveral factors affect the consumer product perception and, consequently, his/her intention to purchase. Among such factors is the expectation which can be created by the food label/packaging, which represents the first contact between the person and the product. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the manipulated package characteristics on the consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage, taking into account the consumer individual differences. Five minimally processed cabbage package characteristics (information, production type, colour, price and product

  20. Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium Fertilization Index for Kale Cabbage in Fujian%福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明清; 李娟; 孔庆波; 姚宝全; 沈金泉

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of 59 field experiments of kale cabbage response to N, P and K fertilization in recent years, NPK fertilization indices for head cabbage in Fujian Province were developed. The results showed that there were linear positive correlation between the yield applying balanced fertilization and the yield in blank. The average contribution rate of soil nutrients to yield of head cabbage was 51.0%, the average increased yield of N, P and K applications was 40.4%, 11.6% and 15.0% respectively. The critical indices of alkali -hydrolyzable nitrogen, Olsen-P and available K for high yield of head cabbage was 207 mg/kg, 71 mg/kg and 157 mg/kg respectively. In general, the economic application rates was N 238 kg/hm2, P2O5 70kg/hm2 and K2O 192kg/hm2, and their proportion was 1':0.29: 0.81. Relationship between soil testing value and their fertilization recommendation met with exponent regression equation. The model may be used for fertilization recommendation according to soil testing value and played the role of different application rate in different soil fertility levels.%根据59个氮磷钾肥效试验结果,研究了福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标.结果表明,平衡施肥产量与空白区产量呈现线性正相关关系,土壤养分对结球甘蓝产量的平均贡献率为51.0%,施用氮磷钾平均增产40.4%、11.6%和15.0%;土壤速效氮磷钾高产临界指标分别为碱解氮207 mg/kg、Olsen-P 71 mg/kg和速效钾157 mg/kg;平均经济施肥量为N 238 kg/hm2、P2O5 70 kg/hm2和K2O 192 kg/hm2,三要素比例为1∶0.29∶0.81;土壤有效氮磷钾测定值与推荐施肥量之间满足指数回归方程,根据土壤养分测定值可推算结球甘蓝推荐施肥量,起到因土施肥的作用.

  1. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality of Cabbage (Brassica campastris L.ssp.pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [(NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)(ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastrisL. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  3. The Effect of Clove on the Storage Property of Pickled Cabbage%丁香对泡菜贮藏性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 丁冰; 俞兴伟; 杨玲

    2015-01-01

    丁香是一味重要的调味香料,且具有抑菌、抗氧化作用。试验以其作保鲜剂对泡菜进行防腐处理,研究其对泡菜pH 值、可滴定酸、菌落总数、乳酸菌数的影响,同时选取效果较好的丁香浓度,研究其对泡菜硬度、可溶性固形物含量及多聚半乳糖醛酸酶(PG)活性的影响。结果表明:0.05 g/kg的丁香可以显著延缓泡菜贮藏中p H 值与可滴定酸下降,有效抑制菌种繁殖,降低PG 活性,防止泡菜硬度下降;1.11 g/kg的丁香可以维持泡菜原初品质;0.02 g/kg的低浓度丁香也能显著抑制菌种繁殖,但对pH 值和可滴定酸影响不明显,可见微生物生长对丁香更敏感,而乳酸菌产酸对丁香相对不敏感。%Clove is a kind of important antibacterial and antioxygenic spice,study the effect of clove on the storage property of pickled cabbage,and determine the pH value,titratable acid,aerobic bacterial count,lactic acid bacteria count of pickled cabbage.Then choose the concentration of clove with better effect to study its effects on the hardness,content of soluble solid and PG activity of pickled cabbage.The results show that:0.05 g/kg of clove can significantly prevent the decrease of pH and titratable acid and the increase of aerobic bacterial count and lactic acid bacteria count,reduce the activity of PG and inhibit the decrease of hardness.1.11 g/kg of clove can maintain the original quality of pickled cabbage.0 .02 g/kg of clove can significantly inhibit the total number of lactic acid bacteria and bacterial colonies;while the pH and titratable acid has not been inhibited,that is to say microorganism is more sensitive than Lactobacillus producing acid to clove.

  4. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  5. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  6. Use of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in the stabilization of bone mass after menopause Uso do suco das folhas da couve (Brassica oleracea var acephala), na estabilização da massa óssea pós-menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    João V. Pereira; Hosana B. Santos; Maria F. Agra; Diego N. Guedes; João Modesto-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of cabbage leaves, Brassica oleracea var acephala (Cruciferae family) to stabilize bone mass in 13 menopausal women. The mature leaves were used after removal of the midrib and petiole and taken as a juice and given to the patient once a day for 24 months. Densitometric exams were performed every six months. The measurement points were the Trocanter and Ward's triangle. According to the results found, the use of cabbage leaf juice results in bone mass stabilization...

  7. 白菜根肿病菌致病性因素研究%Study on Pathogenic Factors of Cabbage Root Swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明英; 李向东; 孙道旺; 曹继芬; 彭荣珍; 杨佩文; 代玉华; 杨家鸾; 严位中

    2011-01-01

    BaSed on Study of the main factoRS of Plasmodiophora brassicae in 2002 -2004 , the reSults ahowed : ( i ) When the soil moiature were 20 % , 30 % , 40 % , 50 % , 60 % , 70 % and 80 % , the cabbage disease indax were 0,1. 5 ,10. 5 ,28. 6,26. 9,19. 8 and 2.9, respectively. ( ii ) Tte vertical distribution of dormant sprores in the field were measured, the results showed that the numbers of dormant sporea were 0. 49 × 106 -208. 27 × 106 , 83. 85 × 106 - 1400. 15 × 106 , 5. 1 × 102 - 28.7 × 102 in the soil layer of 0, 10 and 20 cm, respectively. And the numbers of dormant spores were 10 cm > 0 cm > 20 cm. ( iii) With 0, 10 and 20 cm contaminated soil to inoculated Chinese cabbage, the disase index of clubroot disease were 30. 7 , 25. 8 and 20. 0 ,respectively. But with the dried contaminated soil to inoculated the Chinese cabbage, there were no disease appearance. Soil pH was cloaely related to the occurrence of clubroot diaease in the fields. When the pH was between 5. 6 -5. 97 , the frequency of infected plants were 100 % ; the pH was between 6. 9 - 7. 59 , the frequency of infected plants were 45. 68 % - 62. 96 % . When the diseased soil uptumed under sun in 60, 40 , 20 d inoculated cabbage and kale ,the disease indcxes were 0. 47 , 4. 4 . 38. 2 and 0. 2 , 1. 2 . 24. 8 . respectively. The diseased root treated by flood damage and aun for 5 , 10 , 15 d inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate were 55. 2 % , 79. 2 % , 89. 6 % and 85. 7 % . 100 % , 100 % , respectively. The fresh root inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate was 84. 9 % , and the disease-free soil did not cause the incidence.%通过对2002年至2004年白菜根肿病主要影响因素研究,结果表明,土壤含水量为20%、30%、40%、50%、60%、70%、80%时,白菜根肿病病情指数分别为0,1.5,10.5,28.6,26.9,19.8,2.9.对病田土壤中根肿病菌休眠孢子囊垂直分布测定,结果为0 cm土层平均含菌量为0.49×106~208.27×106

  8. Effect of Dimethyl Dicarbonate(DMDC) as disinfectant on the quality of Fresh-cut flowering cabbages%DMDC杀菌对鲜切菜心品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠惠; 王维民; 陈于陇; 徐玉娟; 范梅红

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,the effect of total aerobic plate count and count of total yeasts and molds in the fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC was investigated.And the sensory,nutritional quality and browning-related enzymes in fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC were also determined at storage.This study aims to evaluate the effect of DMDC on fresh-cut flowering cabbage.It turned out that the total aerobic plate count and count of total yeasts and molds in the fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC were significantly reduced (p <0.05).DMDC treatment made negative impact on firmness,color and chlorophyll at early storage of 8d,and had no significant influence on Vc and soluble sugar.However the treatment could reduce the loss of soluble protein and inhibit PPO and POD activities.As shown above,DMDC treatment can effectively reduce the occurrence of microorganisms on the surface of flowering cabbage,delay the browning-related enzymes'activity,and slow down the senescence and maintain the quality of flowering cabbage.%本文以鲜切菜心为原料,研究了二甲基二碳酸盐(DMDC)作为杀菌剂对其细菌、霉菌和酵母菌总数的影响,并通过测定鲜切菜心在贮藏期间外观品质、营养成分及其褐变相关主要酶的变化,对DMDC用于鲜切菜心的杀菌效果进行评价.结果表明:DMDC可以有效减少鲜切菜心中细菌(革兰氏阳性菌)、霉菌和酵母菌总数,对其贮藏前期的硬度、色泽、叶绿素含量的变化有一定影响,但是对Vc和可溶性糖无明显影响;并且可有效减少可溶性蛋白的损失,抑制多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)的活性.说明DMDC杀菌可以有效杀灭菜心表面微生物,延缓菜心贮藏期褐变相关酶活性的增加和衰老,有利于维持菜心的营养品质.

  9. Studies on the Breeding of the Genetic Male Sterility Lines of‘Heiye’Chinese Cabbage with Anti-Clubroot%‘黑叶’大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 沈向群; 郭艳锋; 王菲菲; 洪雅婷; 陈永浩

    2013-01-01

    In order to breed new Chinese cabbage variety with anti-clubroot, according to the genetic hypothesis of multi-allele and the conclusion that the anti-clubroot is controlled by a dominant nuclear gene in Chinese cabbage, the resistant gene against clubroot disease and the sterile genes were transferred to‘Heiye’ Chinese cabbage with cycle male parents using anti-clubroot sterile plants of AB lines (type Ⅰ) of Chinese cabbage as resistance resources and infertility resources. By means of crossing, consecutive backcrossing, self-crossing, test cross, sib-mating and resistance inoculation screening, etc., anti-clubroot new AB lines (type Ⅰ) and temporary maintainer lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage were achieved. Breeding the male sterility lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot can lay the foundation for selection of new varieties in anti-clubroot.%为选育抗根肿病大白菜新品种,根据“复等位基因”遗传假说及大白菜对根肿病的抗性由1对显性核基因控制的结论,以抗根肿病大白菜甲型雄性不育“两用系”的不育株为抗源和不育源,以‘黑叶’大白菜为轮回父本,经过杂交、连续回交、自交、测交、兄妹交和抗病接种筛选鉴定等方法,将抗根肿病基因和核不育基因导入‘黑叶’大白菜中,获得抗根肿病‘黑叶’大白菜新甲型雄性不育“两用系”和“临时保持系”。抗根肿病的大白菜雄性不育系的育成,为抗根肿病新品种选育提供参考。

  10. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  11. Study on water loss of green cabbage under different relative humidity%小青菜在不同相对湿度条件下的失水性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭万利; 陶乐仁; 李娟; 董小亮; 王永红

    2012-01-01

    Constant temperature and relative humidity equipment were used in order to explore the influence of relative humidity on water loss of green cabbage during storage.The specific surface area of green cabbage weight between 18g and 28g could be seen as a fixed value,about 2.07m2/kg.Meanwhile,compared water loss rate and relative rate of water loss of green cabbage under 40%,80% and 99.9% relative humidity,results showed that water loss rate of green cabbage had an accretion process during storage,which present at different time.And that differences of between relative rate of water loss under 40% and 80% were not obvious than differences between 80% and 99.9%,which indicated that higher relative humidity could obviously increase the storage period of green cabbage.In addition,the outer leaf of green cabbage water loss was studied,and the result showed that greater exposure rate enhance its moisture loss in the beginning of storage.%为探讨相对湿度对果蔬失水的影响,利用恒温恒湿箱,在不同相对湿度下对小青菜进行了定量的失水性实验研究。通过对小青菜比表面积的测量,表明质量在18~28g之间的小青菜的比表面积可以看作一个定值,约为2.07m2/kg。同时,在40%、80%与99.9%相对湿度下比较了小青菜的相对失水率、失水率,结果表明:小青菜的失水率在某一时段内均有一个增大的过程,但出现时间有所差异;40%与80%之间的相对失水率差异不如80%与99.9%之间的差异明显,表明提高相对湿度能明显改善小青菜的耐藏性。此外,还对小青菜外层叶片的失水性进行了研究,结果表明:在贮藏前期,增大小青菜暴露率会加剧其水分损失。

  12. Analysis on Slow Sales of Cabbage in Qinshan Town of Haiyan County%海盐县秦山街道结球甘蓝滞销情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹

    2012-01-01

    2011年海盐县秦山街道结球甘蓝出现罕见的滞销现象,菜贱伤农,引起社会的广泛关注。借助实地调研资料,透彻剖析滞销的深层原因,并提出相应的对策和建议。%In 2011, vegetable farmers of Qinshan street in Haivan county suffered great loss of uusalable cabbage which aroused great concerns. According to field investigation data, the underlying reasons leading to the slow sales of cabbage were exposed. Some advices and measures were put forward in this paper.

  13. 小白菜潮汐式栽培专用基质的筛选%Screening of Special Cultivation Substrate for Chinese Cabbage with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓平; 刘静波; 刘庆叶; 杨巍; 徐明喜; 王蓓; 甘小虎; 章鸥; 王东升

    2015-01-01

    对3种不同栽培基质和常规栽培基质(市场销售)在潮汐式灌溉模式下进行小白菜栽培试验,比较小白菜的植物学性状,筛选出适用于潮汐式灌溉的小白菜专用型栽培基质。研究结果表明,处理2(40%茶渣蚓粪、20%泥炭、20%蛭石、20%珍珠岩)培育的小白菜株高、生物量、株幅、SPAD 值均显著优于其他处理,栽培效果显著提高,可推荐作为潮汐式灌溉小白菜栽培的专用型基质。%In this paper,we used 3 different special cultivation substrates and 1 common cultivation substrate (for market sale)to take the experiment of Chinese cabbage planting with ebb-and-flow irrigation, and the botany characters of Chi-nese cabbage were observed to screening special Chinese cabbage cultivation substrates with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation. The result showed that the cultivation results of treatment 2 (40% tea leaf and vermicompost, 20% peat, 20% vermiculite, 20%perlite ) were significantly better than others in plant height, biomass, SPAD value, leaves spreading, it could be recom-mended as special cultivation substrates for Chinese cabbage with ebb-and-flow irrigation.

  14. 抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育研究%Breeding of Anti-clubroot AB Lines Type I of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 郭艳峰; 马士芳; 洪雅婷

    2012-01-01

    Orange head Chinese cabbage is becoming an important development direction of Chinese cabbage quality breeding for its fresh and lovely color, nutritional value and health value. Its production will be affected seversly by the rapid spreading of clubroot disease. In accordance with the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genetic male sterility, genetic rules of anti-clubroot genes and head color, the transfer model of anti-clubroot AB lines type I of orange head Chinese cabbage were put forward. On the basis of the model, orange head genes were transferred to AB line type I of anti-clubroot Chinese cabbage by crossing, backcross, self ing, sibling and test-crossing. During the course of breeding, head color screening, resistance identification, economic characters sifting and fertility identification were carried out for the plants from each generation. AB lines type I of orange head plants with ho-mozygosis resistant genes were generated after 4 generations.%根据大白菜“核不育复等位基因遗传假说”、抗根肿病基因和球心色的遗传规律,提出抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育模式.依照转育模式采用杂交、回交、自交、系内交和测交等方法,对不同转育世代依次进行球心色筛选、抗性鉴定、经济性状筛选和育性调查,经过4代转育得到抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”.

  15. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop; Recuperacao no sistema solo-planta de nitrogenio derivado da adubacao verde aplicada a cultura do repolho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bob@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Estacao Experimental de Seropedica

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with {sup 15}N. The second stage consisted of the application of {sup 15}N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  16. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  17. The Result of 8% Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate Agent Sprayed in the Cabbage%8%胺鲜酯水剂在白菜上应用药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柏莲

    2012-01-01

    用8%胺鲜酯水剂在大白菜上进行田间药效试验,试验表明,在大白菜的大田返青期、生长期喷施,能有效地促进大白菜的生长,提高大白菜的产量。对大白菜中的维生素C和可溶性固形物含量等品质指标未发现有不良影响,且对品质有所提升。%The trial of 8% diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate agent sprayed in the cabbage was carried out at Peifeng town.The results showed that spraying this agent in the turning green and growth stages can effectively accelerate growth and increase yield of cabbage,but not influence quality indices such as vitamin C and soluble solid contents.On the contrary,this agent helps to improve quality of cabbage.

  18. Produtividade e desenvolvimento de cultivares de repolho em função de doses de boro Yield of cabbage cultivars depending on levels of boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiane S Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do repolho é cultivada em áreas pequenas e necessita de muita mão de obra, sendo na maior parte conduzida pela agricultura familiar. Avaliou-se o efeito de doses de boro em diferentes cultivares de repolho na região oeste de Mato Grosso do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo duas cultivares e cinco doses de boro, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as características: teores de boro foliar, área da planta, altura de planta, número de folhas externas, massa fresca de folhas externas, massa seca de folhas externas, altura da cabeça, diâmetro da cabeça, número de folhas internas, massa fresca de folhas internas, massa seca de folhas externas, classificação do peso da cabeça, compacidade e produção por hectare. A cultivar 60 Dias apresentou maiores valores nos componentes de produção e conseqüentemente maior produtividade. A aplicação de boro influencia linearmente nos teor de boro foliar, diâmetro de cabeça e número de folha interna. As doses de boro interferem na produtividade de repolho, sendo que na cultivar 60 Dias a dose máxima é de 7,2 kg ha-1 e para cultivar Chato de Quintal a dose mínima deve ser de 1,06 kg ha-1.The cabbage crop is cultivated in small areas and requires much labor, this crop being mostly driven by family farmers. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron levels in different cultivars of cabbage in western Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 5, two cultivars and five doses of boron, with four replications. We evaluated the following features: boron foliar plant area, plant height, number of outer leaves, fresh

  19. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  20. The sterile insect technique and transmission of inherited sterility to control the diamondback moth, plutella xylostella (L.), and the cabbage webworm, Crocidolomia binotalis Zell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major cabbage insect pests, the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), and the cabbage webworm (CWW), Crocidolomia binotalis Zell., have been studied intensively in relation to the possibility of insect control, either by using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or by transmission of inherited sterility. Four hundred and fifty moths each of P. xylostella and C. binotalis were sterilized with 0.30 and 0.40 kGy of gamma radiation, respectively. The irradiated insects, released into two laboratory cages (90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm) containing 50 unirradiated moths, reduced the F1 population of P. xylostella and C. binotalis by 61.1 and 65.3%, respectively. In the field cage (2 m x 2 m x 2 m), the F1 population reductions in the respective insect species were 55.6 and 50.5%. Release of about 4500 irradiated C. binotalis into an experimental plot (15 m x 10 m) containing 500 normal moths reduced the F1 population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. Release of about 5000 irradiated P. xylostella into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of a natural population resulted in a reduction in egg hatch of 85.9% in the unreleased plot and 17.0% in the released plot. Experiments on the F1 sterility of P. xylostella and C. binotalis were also conducted to explore the possibility of controlling these pests by using inherited sterility. In DBM, a substerilizing dose of 200 Gy resulted in considerable F1 sterility. Release of F1 inherited sterile DBM moths into population laboratory cages caused different levels of population suppression, depending on the irradiation dose. A substerilizing dose of 200 Gy induced inherited F1 sterility, which reduced the population by 22% in DBM. In C. binotalis, a substerilizing dose of 0.275 kGy was sufficient to induce inherited sterility, because the levels of sterility in the parent and in the F1 generation were 65.82 and 84.64%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs

  1. 大白菜育性相关蛋白差异表达%Differencial Expression of Fertility-related Proteins in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕青; 周雪; 冀瑞琴; 冯辉

    2015-01-01

    为揭示复等位基因遗传的大白菜雄性不育分子机制,通过基于质谱的蛋白质组学同位素相对标记与绝对定量技术技术( iTRAQ),开展了大白菜核基因雄性不育蛋白质组学研究,以找到不育与可育材料中差异表达蛋白,从蛋白水平来进一步揭示大白菜雄性不育的分子遗传机制。通过研究,共发现了358个差异蛋白,其中可育中上调表达的蛋白有226个,下调表达的蛋白有132个,GO 分析结果表明,鉴定的蛋白质组数据具有较好的生物学功能覆盖范围。通过双向电泳验证,差异蛋白点差异特性与 iTRAQ结果类似,表明 iTRAQ用于差异蛋白分析结果可靠。%To better understand the molecular mechanisms of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage( Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis),the iTRAQ quantitation technique based on mass spectrometry were used to study the differencial expression between proteins fertile- and sterile-buds. This research would provide the basis for analyzing the molecular mechanism of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage. In this re-search,a total of 358 differencial expressed proteins(226 up-expressed and 132 down-expressed proteins in fertile buds)were found and Gene Ontology( GO)analysis showed that the proteins identified data has better coverage of biological functions. It is verified by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE). This results is consistent with iTRAQ technique,which indicated that using iTRAQ to analyze protein profile is reliable.

  2. Breeding and Utilization of Cabbage Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines%甘蓝胞质雄性不育系的选育及其利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵荣; 陈文辉; 方淑桂; 郑学立; 林翮飞

    2012-01-01

    Through field investigation, seven broccoli cytoplasmic male sterile materials were selected out of 19 crossbreed materials of Japanese broccoli. Six cabbage cytoplasmic male sterile lines were obtained by crossing the male sterile materials with cabbage inbred lines as recurrent parents) the sterile lines showed excellent general characteristics with high combining ability, both of sterile plant rates and sterility reached 100%. Five excellent hybridized combinations were obtained by crossing with the male sterile lines. Xiahua No. 2 is a variety that developed through the field screening.%从日本引进青花菜杂种19份,通过秋季田间经济性状和翌年春季开花习性鉴定,筛选出7份青花菜不育材料.用甘蓝类蔬菜自交系分别与其杂交,后代鉴定结果表明该7份青花菜不育材料为优良的胞质雄性不育材料.2000年以青花菜胞质不育材料为不育源,用甘蓝高代自交系为轮回亲本进行转育,连续回交5代,育成6个综合性状优良、配合力强、雄性不育株率和不育度均达100%的甘蓝胞质雄性不育系及相应的保持系.不育系植株生长健壮,苗期低温无叶片黄化现象,花瓣完全开放,雌蕊发育较正常,蜜腺较发达,雄蕊完全退化,杂交结实正常.利用该不育系配制一代杂种,经田间试验鉴定,筛选出5个优良杂交组合,通过进一步试验、示范,育成甘蓝新品种夏华2号在生产上推广应用.

  3. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid-'Jinbaicai No.8'%大白菜新品种晋白菜8号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱谦; 程升; 张翠香; 刘国庆

    2013-01-01

    'Jinbaicai No.8' is a mid-late maturing Chinese cabbage variety. Its growing period is about 88 days. One of its parents HY219 comes from a variety of farmhouse Tangshan, Hebei Province. It developed by crossing through many generations and is an inbred self-incompatible line. The other parent is H226 a self-cross progeny from 'Tianjinhetaowen' ( another farmhouse variety in Tianjin ). This hybrid has vigorous growth. The outside leaves and the petiole are light green. The head is a cylinder with compact twisted central part. The 'Jinbaicai No.8' is 65 cm in height and 64 cm in stretch. The single plant weight is about 5 kg. The net vegetable rate is over 80%. Its resistance to downy mildew and soft rot is higher than the 'Taiyuanerqing'. It is tolerant to storage and has good commercial quality. It has less vein on its leaf blade, and less crude fiber content. Its net vegetable yield is about 127.5 t ·hm-2. It can be cultivated in the regions where a cylinder-like Chinese cabbage can fit.%晋白菜8号为中晚熟大白菜品种,生育期88 d(天)左右.亲本之一HY219是来源于河北唐山地区的农家品种,经多代自交选育而成的自交不亲和系;另一亲本H226是来源于天津农家品种天津核桃纹的自交后代.该品种生长势强,外叶及叶柄浅绿色,叶球为直筒拧心型.株高65 cm,开展度64cm,单株质量5 kg左右.外叶少,净菜率高达80%以上.田间调查表明对霜霉病和软腐病的抗性高于对照太原二青.耐贮性强,商品品质好,叶片叶脉少,粗纤维含量少.每667m2净菜产量8 500 kg左右,可在全国适合直筒型大白菜种植区域栽培.

  4. Validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of residuals pesticides in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. Capitata) for gases chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of most used organo chlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticides in cabbage in the Cundinamarca Department (Colombia). The extraction process includes blending of small sample quantity with ethyl acetate in presence of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3, filtration and concentration. The clean up steps include GPC and mini-column chromatography using silica gel. Final determination was carried out by gas chromatography with: pulsed splitless injection, HP-5 capillary column, and a parallel detection system with micro electron capture detection (μ - ECD) and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NPD). The methodology is specific, selective, accurate and robust. Recovery values of majority of pesticides were in the range 70-120% at spiking levels ranging 0.05-10.73 mg/kg. Limits of detection were less than 0.10 mg/kg for most of the studied compounds. The distribution of the analyses in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The evaluation of pesticide residues was made in a specific area of municipality of Madrid-Cundinamarca, (Colombia). No residues of the studied analyses were founded

  5. Active oxygen metabolism in the floral buds and leaves of the new cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jianyu; HOU Xilin; ZHANG Changwei; YE Fan

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of the newly-bred non-heading Chinese cabbage were taken as experimental materials.The production rate of superoxide anion radical(O2-),contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT)as well as ascorbate peroxidase(APX)were determined in buds of different developmental stages and leaves during vegetative and florescence stages.As showed by the results,there were higher levels of MDA and H2O2 contents,higher 02- production rate and higher activities of SOD,POD,and CAT in the buds of the CMS lines than that in the buds of the fertile lines,while the APX activity was different from the other three enzymes above.There were differences in activities of protective enzymes in leaves but no significant differences in MDA contents and O2- production rate,which showed that the differences in metabolism of active oxygen between CMS and its maintainer were mainly apparent in reproductive organs.

  6. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  7. 甘蓝新品种夏华2号的选育%A New Cabbage F1 Hybrid — ‘Xiahua No.2'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文辉; 方淑桂; 邵贵荣

    2011-01-01

    夏华2号是由细胞质雄性不育系NBB10-87和优良自交系107-1配制而成的甘蓝一代杂种.中熟,较耐热,从定植到采收70 d(天).株高32 cm,开展度60 cm,叶色灰绿,蜡粉中等,叶球扁圆,球高13.5 cm、球宽17 cm,中心柱长6 cm,单球质量1.1 kg,净菜率75%,每667 m2产量2 500~3 000 kg.适合福建省夏、秋季栽培.%'Xiahua No.2' is a new cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing cytoplasmic male sterile line NBB10-87 and inbred line 107-1. It is a mid-maturing and heat-resisting cultivar. It takes about 70 days from transplanting to harvest. The plant is about 32 cm in height, 60 cm in expansion diameter. It is green in color with medium wax powder. The head is flat and 13.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter. The average head weight is 1.1 kg and mean yield is 37.5-45.01 · hm-2. It is suitable for cultivation in summer and autumn in Fujian Province.

  8. 观赏甘蓝新品种‘京莲红2号’%A New Ornamental Cabbage Hybrid 'Beijing Peony Red 2'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡; 韩硕; 张月云; 王桂香; 陆坤; 宗梅; 司亚平

    2012-01-01

    The new ornamental cabbage cultiva'rBeijing Peony Red 2'was the male sterile F1 hybrid which was developed combining the double haploid technique with the transferring of cytoplasmic male sterile trait.The hybrid is about 25 cm in height,with strong growth vigor.Numerous round leaves overlapped resemble a rose with magenta center and grey-green outer foliage.The color of the leaves developed early and fade late.Ornamental characters keep well even in-5℃condition.%‘京莲红2号’是结合双单倍体技术与胞质雄性不育转育培育而成的观赏甘蓝圆叶红色系一代杂种。其株高约25cm,生长势强,株形饱满,叶数多。内叶挺立,互叠排列,形似玫瑰,紫红色,颜色鲜艳,着色早,均匀,褪色晚,整齐度高,耐-5℃低温。

  9. Using a Suppression Subtractive Library-Based Approach to Identify Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Genes Up-Regulated in Early Response to Elicitor PB90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Yun-zhe; ZHANG Zheng-guang; WANG Yuan-chao; ZHENG Xiao-bo

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring expression at the transcriptional level is the first essential step for the functional analysis of plant genes.Genes-encoding proteins directly involved in early response to elicitor constitute only a small fraction of all the genes affected by elicitor. TranscriptiOnal responses to various elicitors have been extensively studied in different plants including Nicotiana and Arabidopsis thaliana;however,corresponding data aren't available for non-heading Chinese cabbage.To address this problem,we describe a suppression subtractive library-based approach to isolate the plant's ESTs up-regulated in the early induction/execution of the HR induced by elicitor PB90 from Phytophthora boehmeriae. According to their putative identification in BLAST searches against the three genome databases,70 up-regulated genes were classified into 9 parts:some aspect of primary'metabolism'or'energy'production;'protein synthesis'or'protein fate';cellular communication/signal transduction mechanism;cell fates including Beclin,SPT1,and SPT2;HLA-B and AGO1 which participate in transcription;cellular transport and hypothetical proteins or proteins for which a function has yet to be determined.Seven selected genes such as Beclin,thioredoxin,HLA-B,MAP3K,SPT1,SPT2,and AGO1 were up-regulated induced by PB90,suggesting that the genes may play an important role in PB90-triggered HR.

  10. 津秀2号大白菜种植密度比较试验%Comparison of Planting Densities for Chinese Cabbage Cultivar Jinxiu No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗智敏; 张斌; 闻凤英; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 王超楠; 黄志银; 李梅

    2013-01-01

      The planting density comparative test of Jinxiu No.2 Chinese cabbage was carried out in the greenhouses at Tianjin Baodi Experimental Farm during February to May in 2011, to provide technical support for the production of Jinxiu No.2 with different market demands. The results showed that, the suitable planting density was 6 500-8 500 plants per 667 m2 to obtain the leafy head with weight about 0.7 kg, while the best planting density was 4 500-5 000 plants per 667 m2 for obtaining the leafy head with weight about 1 kg.%  2011年2~5月在天津宝坻试验农场大棚中进行了津秀2号大白菜种植密度比较试验,拟为不同市场需求的津秀2号大白菜产品种植提供技术支持。试验结果表明,要获得0.7 kg左右叶球,采用6500~8500株/667 m2的种植密度为宜;要获得1 kg左右叶球,采用4500~5000株/667 m2的种植密度最佳。

  11. 南通地区不结球白菜新品种比较试验%Comparison of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Cultivars in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海涛; 周晶晶; 侯喜林

    2014-01-01

    将11个不结球白菜新品种与南通地区主栽品种味美2号进行了比较试验,测定了蔬菜的单株质量、表型指标以及硝态氮、可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、VC、可溶性糖、有机酸含量等品质指标。试验结果表明,品种NAU6和NAU7的产量高、品质优良,适合在南通地区推广生产。%We carried out the comparative test of eleven new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and the main cultivar Weimei No.2 in Nantong, and determined the single plant weight, phenotypic indexes and quality indexes, such as nitrate nitrogen content, soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, vitamin C content, soluble sugar content and organic acid content. The results showed that, the two cultivars NAU6 and NAU7 had higher yield and better quality, so they were suitable to be promoted in Nantong area.

  12. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution. PMID:26709726

  13. Decontamination of tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion inoculated with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri by some Essential oils (in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Aliakbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils and their major constituents are useful sources of antimicrobial compounds. There are a few reports on the decontamination and antimicrobial activity of essential oils towards Shigella spp.Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial and decontamination potentials of essential oils at different concentrations, belonging to plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Saturiea hortensis, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint, towards Shigella sonnei and Shigella  flexneri were investigated. The disk diffusion method demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oils.Results: The ability of essential oils to decontaminate vegetables such as, tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion that were previously inoculated with Shigella spp. was determined. Inhibitory effects of essential oils towards Shigella spp. were noted in the disk diffusion method. There was a reduction in Shigella population following inoculation of cultures with 0.5% and 0.1% (v/v essential oils.Conclusion: This study confirmed that essential oils have the potential to be used for decontamination of vegetables.

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of maximum residue levels (MRLs for fipronil following the withdrawal of the authorised uses on kale and head cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request of the European Commission for a scientific opinion on the modification of MRLs for the active substance fipronil. The European Commission requested EFSA to recalculate the MRLs for fipronil in animal commodities which were recommended by EFSA in its previous reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for fipronil according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, and to update EFSA’s conclusion on the safety of all proposed MRLs. For this assessment EFSA was also requested to take into account the existing emergency authorisation of fipronil on potatoes as granted in Germany and the recent withdrawal of fipronil authorisations in Europe on head cabbage and kale. MRL proposals were derived by EFSA according to different scenarios, as requested by the European Commission, and a consumer risk assessment was carried out for each scenario. Regardless of the scenario presented, no information required by the regulatory framework was found to be missing and no risk to consumers was identified.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of a tea pest looper, Buzura suppressaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Hu, Xiang; Peng, Ping

    2016-09-01

    We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of Buzura suppressaria. The mt genome of B. suppressaria is 15,628 bp in length with a 79.43% A + T content (GenBank accession No. KP278206). It encodes 37 mt genes that are typically found in metazoan mt genomes, consisting of protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. The gene order of the mt genome of B. suppressaria is consistent with other insects in Geometridae. The mt genome of B. suppressaria has a shortest A + T-rich region in Geometridae, that is 348 bp long with an A + T content of 92.82%. PMID:25670030

  16. Effects of Different Fertilizations on Substance Accumulation and Nutrient Uptakes of Chinese Cabbage under Field Conditions%不同施肥处理对白菜的物质积累与养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯金权; 张杨珠; 龙怀玉; 周卫军; 廖超林; 曾艳; 汤宏; 黄运湘

    2009-01-01

    研究了在洞庭湖平原的冲积性菜园土条件下,不同施肥结构对白菜生育期间的物质积累与白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收规律以及土壤有效N,P,K养分的动态变化.结果表明,不同处理白菜的产量相差较大,各施肥处理比不施肥对照平均增产达33.1%,但各施肥处理之间产量差异不显著.白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收都是在移栽30 d以后的生长中、后期,与其地上部生物产量的积累规律一致.专用肥处理和有机无机肥配施处理明显促进白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收.从而提高白菜对肥料养分的利用率.当地习惯施肥处理的N,P施用量明显过大,浪费肥料,也对当地水体及环境造成污染.其施K量明显低于白菜一季的总吸钾量,既影响白菜产量和品质,也造成土壤K素的耗竭.根据不施肥对照和4个平衡施肥处理白菜地上部分的养分吸收总量结果,以白菜对肥料N,P,K的当季利用率分别为40%,25%和60%计算,供试土壤条件下白菜一季所需N,P_2O_3,K_2O的施用量分别为195.25 kg/hm~2,145.60 kg/hm~2,228.53 kg/hm~2.其N:P_2O_5: K_2O值为1:0.75-1.17.%A fieid plot experiment was carried out to study dynamic change of biomass accumulation and N, P and K nutrient uptake of Chinese cabbage, and soil nutrient content at different growth stages as affected by various fertilizations under the alluvial vegetable soil in Dongting lake plain. The results showed that both combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer and pure inorganic chemical fertilizer application increased the aboveground biological output of the vegetable crop, but the growth rate of Chinese cabbage under the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers was higher than that under pure inorganic chemical fertilizer application. About 1/2 biomass accumulation of Chinese cabbage mainly appears in the middle vigorous growth period from the 30th to 50th days after transplanting. The laws of N, P and K absorption of

  17. Effect of atrazine on growth and physio-biochemical characteristics of cabbage seedling%莠去津对白菜幼苗生长量及生理效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉敏; 黄其椿; 陈正麟; 黄莹磐; 娄国强; 陆温

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同浓度莠去津对白菜幼苗生长量及其生理效应的影响.[方法]采用室内播种后苗前土壤处理法,用5种不同浓度莠去津(6.0391、12.0781、24.1563、48.3125、96.6250μg/mL)处理白菜幼苗,并对白菜幼苗叶片的叶绿素、丙二醛、可溶性糖含量及生长量进行测定.[结果]莠去津对白菜芽长的影响比对根长敏感,其对白菜幼苗芽长和根长的LC10分别为4.2077和16.9191μg/mL;经莠去津处理后,白菜叶片中叶绿素的生成受到抑制,丙二醛、可溶性糖含量增加,不同处理浓度之间存在差异.[结论]莠去津对白菜幼苗的生长发育及生理指标均有影响,当莠去津的处理浓度超过其安全极限时,将会抑制白菜幼苗生长,且抑制程度随处理浓度的增大而加重.因此,生产上要注意控制莠去津使用浓度,不能随意加大用药量,以免造成药害.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of different atrazine concentrations on growth and some physio-biochemical characteristics of cabbage seedling. [Method]The chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in the leaves and some growth parameters were determined in cabbage seedling treated with different concentrations of atrazine (6.0391, 12.0781, 24.1563, 48.3125 and 96.6250 μg/mL). The treatments were applied in the soil after seed sowing and before emergence stage. [Result]The impact of atrazine on cabbage bud growth was more pronounced compared to effect on root growth, the LC10 values of bud and root length were 4.2077 and 16.9191 μg/mL, respectively. The chlorophyll content of cabbage leaves was inhibited after treatment, while MDA contents and soluble sugars were increased, and the effect of different atrazine concentrations on cabbage plant differed significantly. [Conclusion] Treatments of soils with different concentrations of atrazine affected the growth and physio-biochemical processes of cabbage. A

  18. Allelopathy of Aqueous Extract From Tomato Plants on Lettuce and Celegy Cabbage%番茄植株水浸提液对生菜和大白菜化感作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫云容; 赵凯; 邓明华

    2015-01-01

    The study of allelopathy on tomato plants was made through measuring seedling growth of lettuce and celegy cabbage which were watered with the aqueous extract of tomato plants. The results lead to the following conclusions:① Tomato plants aqueous extract with lower concentration(0. 02 g/ml) re-strained length of seedling root and weight of celegy cabbage,while it prompted those of lettuce.②Toma-to plants aqueous extract with higher concentration ( 0 . 08 g/ml ) inhibited significantly both lettuce's length of seedling root as well as the weight of root and those of celegy cabbage;and the effects could be enhanced with the increase of the concentration.③Tomato plants aqueous extract in this concentration of 0. 04 g/ml,on one hand,which advanced seedling length of lettuces and root weight,root length and seed-ling length of celegy cabbages;on the other hand,which inhibited seedling length and root length of cele-gy cabbage.Tomato plant aqueous extract inhibited the ratio of seedling( root length)/( shoot length) of lettuce,while this turned to be helpful for Chinese cabbage. 5figs. ,1tab. ,11refs.%以生菜和大白菜两种蔬菜作物为受体,通过测定番茄植株水浸提液对两种蔬菜作物幼苗生长的影响,对番茄化感物质的作用进行了研究.结果表明:①低浓度(0.02 g/ml)的番茄水浸提液抑制大白菜幼苗的根长和根重;而促进生菜的根长和根重②高浓度(0.08 g/ml)的番茄水浸提液对生菜和大白菜幼苗根长、根重和苗长均表现为抑制作用.随着浓度的加大,抑制作用增强;③0.04 g/ml的番茄水浸提液对生菜幼苗苗长和大白菜的根重、根长/苗长有明显的促进作用,而对大白菜幼苗苗长、根长有抑制作用;榆番茄水浸提液对生菜幼苗根长/苗长比均表现为抑制作用、而对白菜的却表现为促进作用.图5,表1,参11.

  19. Viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete Feasibility of intercropping pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano A Rezende

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro/2003 a janeiro/2004, com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com as culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete. O experimento constou de 15 tratamentos, correspondentes a 10 cultivos consorciados (combinações das cinco hortaliças e cinco monocultivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foram utilizados os híbridos Magali R e Kenzan, respectivamente, para pimentão e repolho; e as cultivares Vera, Cultivada e Crimson Gigante, respectivamente, para alface, rúcula e rabanete. As produtividades de pimentão e repolho em cultivo consorciado não diferiram significativamente das obtidas em monocultivo. Maior massa fresca de parte aérea de plantas de alface (438,86 g/planta foi observada quando a alface foi consorciada com pimentão, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais cultivos que obtiveram em média 323,05 g/planta de alface. Aumento na produtividade de raízes comerciais de rabanete foi observado quando consorciado com pimentão, porém, foi significativamente superior apenas ao cultivo consorciado de pimentão+repolho+rabanete. A massa fresca da parte aérea da rúcula mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre os consórcios de pimentão+rúcula+alface e pimentão+repolho+rúcula. Exceto o consórcio pimentão+repolho que obteve índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET de 1,92; todos os outros consórcios apresentaram UET superior a 2,0, com maior UET (2,64 obtido no consórcio pimentão+alface. A superioridade de 92 a 164% na produção de alimento por área dos consórcios sobre os monocultivos, demonstra a viabilidade dos policultivos e maior eficiência do uso da terra.This work was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September 2003 to January 2004, to evaluate the feasibility of an intercropping system of pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish, in relation

  20. 甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系发生同源异型转化的分子机制研究%Study on Molecular Mechanism of Homeosis in Cabbage Ogura CMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张晓伟; 原玉香; 姚秋菊; 赵艳艳; 蒋武生; 魏小春; 王志勇

    2015-01-01

    RT-PCR and transgenic method were used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mitochondria homeosis in cabbage Ogura CMS. The RT-PCR research indicated that the high ectopic expression of homeobox gene B(AP3) was discovered in green pistil(carpel),and which of C gene(AG3) was discovered in carpelloid stamen, which probably caused mitochondria homeosis in cabbage Ogura CMS. In addition,the test with transgenic Arabidopsis with mitochondria-directed expression vector p3301-ATP-ORF138 indicated that ORF138 could cause male sterile of Arabidopsis,which revealed that orf138 was a determinant factor of male sterility in cabbage Ogura CMS with mitochondria homeosis.%为了揭示甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系发生线粒体同源异型转化的分子机制,利用RT-PCR和转基因的方法分别进行了研究。 RT-PCR试验结果表明,甘蓝B基因AP3在雌蕊(心皮)发育初期异位高表达,C基因AG3在发生心皮化的雄蕊部位异位高表达,这可能导致了甘蓝Ogura胞质不育系线粒体同源转化的发生。而拟南芥转基因试验表明,线粒体定位表达载体p3301-ATP-ORF138能导致拟南芥雄性不育的发生,这说明orf138基因是发生线粒体同源异型转化的甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系不育的决定因素。

  1. Change of Nitrite Content in the Process of Making Five Flavor Pickled Cabbage%五香味泡菜制作过程中亚硝酸盐含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蕾; 尤嘉; 顾文炎; 陈凌

    2016-01-01

    Taking the cabbage and cylinder beans as the main raw material, the dynamic change of nitrite content in pickled cabbage natural fermentation production process at 30℃ was studied. The result showed that the content of nitrite in the fermentation process first increased and then decreased with fermentation time. Nitrite content in fourth day reached 68. 37 mg·kg-1 , and then began to decline. The content of nitrite in seventh day was 6. 96 mg/kg. Nitrite content in eighth day was only 2. 87 mg/kg. After 7 days fermentation, nitrite content was far below the standards prescribed by the state. As the result, pickled cabbage produced in this way 7 days will be safe to eat after 7 days.%本文以包心菜和缸豆为主要原料,研究了在30℃条件下自然发酵制作泡菜的过程中亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化。试验结果显示:发酵过程中亚硝酸盐的含量,随发酵时间呈“先增后降”的趋势,第4天亚硝酸盐含量最高达到68.37 mg · kg-1,随后开始下降,第七天为6.96 mg·kg-1,第8天亚硝酸盐含量仅为2.87 mg·kg-1。发酵7天后亚硝酸盐的含量远远低于国家规定的标准,因此用这种方法制作的泡菜7天后食用是安全的。

  2. 甘蓝的新型组合干燥工艺%The Novel Combination Drying Process Research for Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华丽; 钱平; 陈潇; 张晓娟; 刘凤娜; 卢蓉蓉

    2011-01-01

    为了克服单一干燥造成的品质缺陷,提出了一种新型的组合干燥方式,以改善产品的外观品质和复水特性。以甘蓝为研究对象,主要探讨了组合干燥过程中热风温度、干燥转换点的物料含水率、微波强度、渗透处理对干燥特性的影响;并以成品色泽、复水比、Vc保留率为指标,对不同干燥方式获得的产品性能进行了比较。研究获得的组合干燥工艺参数为:70℃热风干燥至物料含水率60%,2.5 W/g微波强度下干燥至40%含水率,25℃下以2.8 g/mL料液比向半干产品中加入28%葡萄糖和15%NaCl混合渗透液处理15 min,最后70℃二次热风干燥至成品。产品的水分活度为0.466,含水量为16.34%,复水比为8.71,Vc保留率为31.05%。结果显示,组合干燥方式干燥速率快,能耗低,产品含有高水分含量、低水分活度,产品品质与真空冷冻干燥的产品相近,是一种工业化生产果蔬干制品的新方法。%In order to overcome the quality defects created in a single drying process,a novel combination drying process was introduced to improve the appearance and rehydration characteristics of the products.Taking the cabbage as the object,the effects of air temperature,the moisture content of materials conversion point,the microwave intensity,the osmotic treatment on the properties of products during the combination drying process were studied.The products obtained by different drying methods were compared in color,rehydration ratio and Vc retention rate.The optimized combination drying process was drying the cabbages with 70℃ hot air till their moisture content reached 60%,then dehydrating them with microwave intensity of 2.5 W/g till the moisture content reached 40%,followed by adding 28% glucose and 15% NaCl mixture penetration of liquid by 2.8 g/mL solid-liquid ratio and keeping for 15 min in 25℃,finally drying with 70℃ hot-air secondly to get the final products.The water activity of the end

  3. Effects of Bast Fiber Mulching Film on Heat Preservation and Growth and Yield of Chinese Cabbage%麻地膜覆盖保温特性及对白菜生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚瑞广; 王朝云; 易永健; 谭石林; 汪洪鹰; 李懋; 周晚来

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the heat preservation of bast fiber mulching film and its effects on growth and yield of crops in different seasons, the comparison tests of Chinese cabbage covered by different films had been conducted in winter, spring and summer respectively. The results showed that bast fiber mulching film could increase the soil temperature in different seasons and the effects were stable. In summer, the temperature under the bast fiber mulching film would not reach too high. With the covering of bast fiber mulching film, it could increase the rate of leaf emergence, the plant height, leaf number and leaf area. The interaction between different seasons and different covering was significant (P<0.0l). And the yield-increasing effects in spring and summer were more remarkable than winter. The yield of Chinese cabbage covered with bast fiber mulching film in spring and summer were 45.97% (P<0.05) and 48.89% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage without film; which were also 6.66% (P<0.05) and 51.05% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage covered with plastic film.%为了明确不同季节麻地膜覆盖栽培保温特性及对作物生长和产量的影响,分别在冬季、春季和夏季进行不同地膜覆盖白菜对比试验.结果表明:不同季节麻地膜覆盖均能提高土壤温度,增温效果平缓,夏季不会出现膜下高温情况.麻地膜覆盖能够促进白菜出叶速率、增加株高和叶片数、增大叶面积.不同季节和不同覆盖处理间互作效应极显著(p<0.01),春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖的增产效果比冬季明显.春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖下白菜产量分别比无覆盖高45.97%和48.89%,均呈显著差异(P<0.05);分别比塑料地膜覆盖的高6.66%和51.05%,也均达显著差异(P<0.05).

  4. Directional Transfer of a Genetic Male Sterile Line Derived from Flowering Chinese Cabbage ' Ever-Green'%‘四季油青’菜心核基因雄性不育系定向转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 周鹏; 王玉刚; 冯辉

    2012-01-01

    为选育菜心雄性不育系解决其杂种优势利用中的制种手段问题,以复等位基因遗传的小白菜核基因雄性不育系‘00S107’为不育源,采用连续回交转育园艺学性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向‘四季油青’菜心中转育核不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%的菜心核基因雄性不育系‘GMS203’.用菜心不育系试配的杂交组合,经品种比较试验筛选出2个综合性状优良的强优势组合.利用本项研究设计的核不育系定向转育方案,实现了不育性和园艺学性状的同时转育.%In order to create a procedure for utilization of heterosis in flowering Chinese cabbage, a breeding method for genetic male sterile line was carried out in the experiment. A multiple allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage '00S107' was used as a source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing method was employed to transfer horticultural characters while the genotype was identified through test cross to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line ' Ever-Green' of flowering Chinese cabbage. A new genetic male sterile line of flowering Chinese cabbage with 100% of male sterile plants and 100% of male sterility ' GMS203' was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations. Two excellent combinations were selected through variety compare test. Based on the directional transfer program designed by the research according to the genetic characteristics of the male sterility, the male sterility and horticultural characters could be transferred simultaneously.

  5. Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Milk Chinese Cabbage%奶白菜核基因雄性不育系的选育与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐巍; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem that cross breeding and production of hybrid in milk Chinese cabbage. According to the hypothesis of multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile, A genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with green stipe 00S107 was used as a source of male sterility,and methods of continuous backcross-ing and identifying of the genotypes were applied to transfer the male sterile line of milk Chinese cabbage. Hybridized combinations were obtained by the male sterile line as female parent cross with excellent self-line and we analysed the hybrid vigor. A new genetic male sterile line GMS3 with 100% male sterile plants and 100% male sterility was obtained. Two excellent hybridized combinations GMS3 × B1 ,GMS3×B2 were selected, whieh is uniform and superior to CK in yield. Directional transfer model which transfer sterile gene and horticultural characters at the same time resolved the puzzle that breeding and utilization of the genetic male sterile line in milk Chinese cabbage.%为解决奶白菜杂交种生产中的杂交制种手段问题,配制优良杂交种.以核不育“复等位基因遗传”假说为指导,以青梗白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107作不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交鉴定基因型的方法,定向转育奶白菜核基因雄性不育系.并利用转育成的不育系与奶白菜优良自交系配制杂交组合,进行了杂种优势分析.选育出园艺学性状与目标品系相似,具有100%不育株率和不育度的奶白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS3,筛选出2个产量高、整齐度高的优异杂交组合GMS3×B1、GMS3×B2.定向转育模式兼顾了不育基因和园艺学性状的转育,解决了奶白菜核不育系转育和利用的难题.

  6. Study on resistance of Chinese cabbage to Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora by exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide treatment%表油菜素内酯诱导大白菜抗软腐病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈淑平; 张灵宇; 崔崇士

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain the induced resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by 24-Epibra-ssinolide and its physiological mechanism, Chinese cabbage was used to study the effects of 24-Epibra-ssinolide on its physiological and biochemical characteristics with foliar spray. The results showed that 24-Epibrassinolide decreased disease indexes of Chinese cabbage seedlings by 25.8%, increased H_2O_2 accumulation, decreased MDA contents, increased catalase (CAT) activities, peroxidase (POD) activities trend, increased slowly in early phase, and decreased in later stage. Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora infection resulted in increased levels of H_2O_2 and MDA when plants were sprayed with EBR, but the MDA content was lower than the control treatment. Foliar spraying with EBR increased CAT activities, and POD activities reduced than the control treatment. EBR promoted the growth of Chinese cabbage seedling, this increasing appeared even after Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora infection. EBR kept the metabolism of active oxygen species at a balance state and increased the resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Chinese cabbage.%试验采用叶面喷施的方法,研究了24-表油菜素内酯(24-Epibrassinolide,EBR)对大白菜软腐病的诱抗作用及其生理机制.结果表明,外源EBR处理大白菜幼苗病情指教明显比对照降低,下降了25.8%;喷施EBR提高了大白菜叶片中H_2O_2含量,使丙二醛(Malondialdehyde,MDA)含量下降,提高了过氧化氢酶(Catalase,CAT)活性,过氧化物酶(Peroxidase,POD)活性先缓慢升高然后下降;接种软腐病菌后,EBR使H_2O_2和MDA含量缓慢增加,但EBR处理MDA含量低于对照处理,显著提高了CAT活性,POD活性与对照相比下降,呈现缓慢升高趋势;EBR处理明显促进幼苗的生长,即使在接种软腐病菌期间,植株的长势也比对照强.说明EBR通过调节植物体内氧的代谢平衡,增强对软腐病的抗性.

  7. Incidence, Spread and Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in European Populations of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højland, Dorte H.; Nauen, Ralf; Foster, Stephen P.; Williamson, Martin S.; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr). The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes. Results Although kdr (L1014F) genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples. Conclusion Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes

  8. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry. PMID:26985692

  9. Proximate, Mineral and Biochemical Evaluation of the Haemolymph of Growing Snails Fed Fresh Lettuce Waste, Whole Lettuce, Pawpaw Leaves and Cabbage Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Babalola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease states in experimental animals are usually accompanied by biochemical alterations. Thus a good working knowledge of reference values of some biochemical constituent of the haemolymph of snails (Archachatina marginata is needed as reference point for future researchers on snail. It is also necessary to determine whether these values could be influenced by diets. Thirty six experimental snails of mean weight of 125.64±2.35g were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments of Pawpaw Leaves (PL, Whole Lettuce (WL, Lettuce Wastes (LW and Cabbage Wastes (CW. Nine snails were used as control animals to determine the reference values. They were fed ad libitum for 60 days. Parameters determined were, proximate composition, mineral profile, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin, alanine amino transferase (ALT and aspartate amino transferase. There was significant (p<0.05 reduction in crude protein of haemolymph from 24.14 to 21.20% for snails fed LW. The increase in ash from 0.79 to 0.84 in snails fed LW was significant. There were significant increases in all the minerals analyzed in all the treatment groups with Calcium recording the highest concentration of 170 mg/mL. There was also significant (p<0.05 decrease in albumin and albumin:globulin when snails were fed the experimental diets. Values obtained for the enzymes, ALT and AST between treatments were similar. The study established that the feedstuffs were safe for their consumption and could not lead to any tissue damage. Values of 165 unit/l for AST, 11 units/l for ALT, total protein, 7.1 g/dl, globulin, 3.9 g/dl, albumin, 3.2 g/dl, and albumin:globulin, 0.82 could serve as reference values.

  10. Incidence, Spread and Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in European Populations of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte H Højland

    Full Text Available Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes.Although kdr (L1014F genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples.Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes.

  11. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  12. 小白菜新品种寒香青菜的选育%Development of New Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Cultivar Hanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 韩建军; 张胜; 陈虎根

    2012-01-01

    Hanxi is a new Non-heading Chinese F1 hybrid cabbage cultivar developed by crossing Ogu-CMSOOlwxq female parent with 002dxq male parent. The plants are half-erected and loose, 33 cm in height,48 cm in width. The leaves are ellipse,dark green,glossy and full fringe,surface wrinkling and uneven, veins obvious, petiole green white and flat, with average plant weight of about 450 g and average yield of 35 811. 75 kg/ha. It shows 17. 07% higher than CK in yield. The plants have fragrance after cooking. It has stronger resistance to virus, downy mildew than Heiyexi. It is a winter variety,being tolerant to cold.%寒香青菜是以Ogu-CMS001wxq胞质雄性不育系为母本、香青菜株系002dxq为父本配制而成的一个黑叶香青菜杂交新品种.寒香青菜植株半直立,株形松散,成株平均株高33 cm,开展度48 cm,叶片椭圆形、深绿色、有光泽、全缘,叶面起皱不平,叶脉明显,叶柄绿白色、扁平,单株质量450 g,平均产量35 811.75 kg/hm2,较对照黑叶香青菜增产17.07%;炒食香味浓郁;对病毒病、霜霉病的抗性强于黑叶香青菜;冬性强,适合冷凉的气候条件栽培.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  14. Breeding of a New Cabbage Cultivar “Sugan 20”%结球甘蓝新品种苏甘20的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王神云; 王红; 万雁玲; 丁万霞; 李建斌

    2012-01-01

    越冬春甘蓝新品种苏甘20是以自交不亲和系Y9805和99132杂交育成的一代杂种,越冬栽培成熟期145d左右,冬性强,早熟,耐寒性好,植株开展度约49.9cmx50.3cm,生长势较强,整齐度好,叶色浅绿,蜡粉中等,叶球牛心形,叶球肉质脆嫩,单球质量1.0kg左右,667m2产量约3000kg,适合我国南方地区,特别是长江流域作越冬春栽培.%"Sugan 20" is an overwintering early cabbage hybrid developed by crossing self-incompatible lines Y9805 and 99132. The growth period is about 145 days for overwintering production. The plant is tolerant to cold and premature bolting, and the size is about 49.9 cm × 50.3 cm. The growth is strong and uniform; the leaves are pale green with average amount of wax powder. The head is bovine heart-shaped with average weight 1.0 kg. The head has tender leaves with good quality. This variety is suitable for production in South of China, especially the Yangtze River region, and 667 m2 yield is about 3 000 kg.

  15. Breeding of Nuclear Male Sterile Line in Qingmaye Type of Chinese cabbage%青麻叶结球白菜雄性不育系的转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻凤英; 宋连玖; 王玉龙; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 丘玉秀

    2001-01-01

    The male sterile line 3A was being used as a source o f male sterility,the fertile line Qingmaye Hei227 as goal parent,the gene of m ale sterility was transferred to the Qingmaye type of Chinese cabbage by crossi ng,self,sibling and test crossing.The male sterile line of Qingmaye type S10 w as obtained,its sterility percent and degree were all 100%,its nectary and see d were all normal.Its horticultural characters were same as Qingmaye type.The co mbining ability of S10 and its combinations was tested.The transferring me thod of genetic male sterile line was discussed.%利用核型雄性不育系3A作为不育源,以青麻叶材料黑227为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、兄妹交、测交等转育手段,将雄性不育基因转育到青麻叶结球白菜上,获得了青麻叶类型雄性不育系S10,其不育株率和不育度均为100%,蜜腺正常,结籽正常,农艺性状与青麻叶类型结球白菜基本相同。对育成的雄性不育系S10进行了配合力测定,并对所配组合做了品比试验。

  16. 露地越冬春甘蓝新品种‘苏甘20’%An Overwintering Spring Cabbage Cultivar‘Sugan 20’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王神云; 王红; 李建斌; 于利; 丁万霞

    2012-01-01

    ‘Sugan 20’is an overwintering spring early-maturing cabbage hybrid which developed by crossing self-incompatible line‘sY9805’and‘99132’. The overwintering growth period is about 145 days. It is tolerant to cold,and premature bolting. The expansion is about 49.9 cm × 50.3 cm. The growth is strong,the leaves are pale green,wax powder is secondary,the head is bovine heart-shaped,average head weight is about 1.0 kg,with tender leaves and good quality. The yield is about 45 000 kg · hm-2. It is suitable to be cultivated in the south of China,especially the Yangtze River.%‘苏甘20’是以自交不亲和系‘Y9805’和‘99132’杂交育成的甘蓝一代杂种,越冬栽培成熟期145d左右,冬性强,早熟,耐寒性好,植株开展度约49.9cm×50.3cm,生长势较强,整齐度好,叶色浅绿,蜡粉中等,叶球牛心形,肉质脆嫩,单球质量1.0kg左右,产量约45000kg·hm-2,适合中国南方地区,特别是长江流域作越冬春栽培。

  17. 甘蓝细胞质雄性不育材料的分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇娇; 王超; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    We used the two male sterile lines PM and QM of cabbage as materials, and designed specific primers according to the conserved regions of orf224 and orf138 gene sequence in Genebank, then amplified their mtDNA by PCR. The results showed that, the specific primers of orf138 had amplified a distinct band with the size about 350 bp on both two materials, and the homologous degree was 92.55% between the two specific fragments and the Ogu orf138 gene of radish Ogu CMS, and the size of homologous fragments were both 297 bp. Therefore, we concluded that these two sterile materials were Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility type.%根据Genebank中orf224和orf138基因序列的保守区设计特异引物,对2个甘蓝不育材料PM、QM的mtDNA进行PCR扩增。试验结果表明,orf138特异引物对2个不育材料的mtDNA扩增出350 bp大小的清晰条带;不育材料的特异片段与萝卜Ogu CMS所具有的Ogu orf138基因同源度达92.55%,长度均为297 bp,因此,初步推断2个不育材料是Ogura胞质雄性不育类型。

  18. 结球甘蓝新品种浙甘85的选育%A New Cabbage F1 Hybrid-'Zhegan 85'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    浙甘85是以S04-C01为母本,以S05-SXGL为父本配制而成的甘蓝一代杂种.中晚熟,从定植到始收85 d(天)左右;叶球紧实,圆球形,不易裂球,耐贮运,球高20 cm左右,横径20~22 cm,中心柱长6~8 cm,单球质量2.4 kg左右;抗TuMV和黑腐病,一般每667 m产量5 000 kg左右,适宜长江流域及华南、华北、西南地区秋季种植.%‘Zhegan 85’ is a new cabbage F1 hybrid bred by crossing S04-G01 as female parent and S05-SXGL as male parent. It is a mid-late maturing variety, taking about 85 days from transplanting to harvest. The round head is compact and tough in structure which makes it a long shelf life. Its leaf head is 20 cm in height, 20-22 cm in diameter, with a short core of 6-8 cm in length. The head weight is about 2.4 kg. It has resistance to TuMV and black rot. Its yield is about 75 t · hm-2. Consequently, it is suitable to be cultivated in the Yangtze River valley, north China, south China, and southwest China.

  19. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid -'Liaobai No.19'%大白菜新品种辽白19号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 王鑫; 吕艳玲; 王丽丽

    2011-01-01

    ‘Liaobai No.19’ is a new Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing genetic male sterility line Jiaobai No.1 A with selfing line Xinxiang 903-S10-1.Its growing period is about 82 days.The plant is 46.2 cm in height, 64.3 cm in width.Its leaf head is 37.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter.The average plant weight is 4.5 kg and the net product ratio is 87.78 %.It is resistant to TMV and downy mildew and soft rot.Its output is about 139.5 t · hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in Jilin, Liaoning,Heilongjiang Provinces and Inner Mogolian Autonomous Region, etc.%辽白19号是由细胞核基因雄性不育系胶白1号A和自交系新乡903-S10-1配制而成的筒形大白菜一代杂种.生育期82 d(天)左右,株高46.2 cm,开展度643 cm,球高37.5 cm,横径17.0 cm.单株叶球质量4.5 kg左右,净菜率87.78%,商品性好.生长势强,抗软腐病、霜霉病和病毒病,每667 m2产量9300kg左右.适宜吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、黑龙江等地栽培.

  20. Temperature determines size and direction of effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen form on yield quantity and quality of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; van den Meerakker, A N; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) are presumed to have a significant impact on plant growth and yield and also on mineral nutrient composition, and therefore, on nutritional quality of crops and vegetables. To assess the relevance of these effects in future agroecosystems it is important to understand how e[CO2 ] interacts with other environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the interactive effects of e[CO2 ] with temperature and the form in which nitrogen is supplied (nitrate or ammonium nitrate) on growth, amino acid content and mineral nutrient composition of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.), a crop characterised by its high nutritional value and increasing relevance for human nutrition in many developing countries. Higher temperature, ammonium nitrate and e[CO2 ] had a positive impact on net photosynthesis and growth. A stimulating effect of e[CO2 ] on growth was only observed if the temperature was high (21/18 °C, day/night), and an interaction of e[CO2 ] with N form was only observed if the temperature was ambient (15/12 °C, day/night). Mineral nutrient composition was affected in a complex manner by all three factors and their interaction. These results demonstrate how much the effect of e[CO2 ] on mineral quality of crops depends on other environmental factors. Changes in temperature, adapting N fertilisation and the oxidation state of N have the potential to counteract the mineral depletion caused by e[CO2 ].

  1. Genetic Analysis of Leaf Color Characteristics with Purple Genes on Chinese Cabbage(Chinese Cabbage×Purple Pakchoi)%大白菜(大白菜×紫色小白菜)叶片紫色性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 赵岫云; 余阳俊; 徐家炳; 于拴仓; 汪维红

    2011-01-01

    F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations were obtained through crossing, self-crossing and back-crossing by Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] of green leaves with purple pakchoi [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee ] of purple leaves in order to study the genetic characteristics of leaf color. The results showed that leaf colors of F1 hybrid were purple, but its leaf colors were lighter than those of purple pakchoi. The ratios were close to 3 purple: 1 green for F2 progenies, 1 purple: 1 green for BC1 progenies. For BC2 progenies, all plants owned purple colors. The results of x2 test further proved that heredity of leaf color with purple genes on Chinese cabbage was controlled by one pair of gene. Purple genes were dominant genes compared with green genes and they showed addition effect.%以大白菜(叶片绿色)和紫色小白菜(叶片紫色)为亲本进行杂交、回交和自交,研究大白菜叶片紫色的遗传规律.结果表明,大白菜和紫色小白菜杂交F1的叶片均为紫色,但其叶片色泽较亲本紫色小白菜浅.在F2群体中,叶片颜色分离比例接近3紫色:1绿色,BC1群体为1紫色:1绿色,而BC2群体叶片全部为紫色.x2检测结果进一步证明:大白菜和紫色小白菜杂交后代叶片紫色对绿色受1对遗传基因控制,紫色对绿色为显性,决定叶片紫色的基因具有累加效应.

  2. 甘蓝无蜡粉突变体叶表皮蜡质超微结构观察%Observation of Ultra Microstructure of Wax-less Mutant Epicuticular Wax on Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟香丽; 王超; 王帅

    2013-01-01

    Different growth periods of epicuticular wax development on cabbage (Brassica olera-cea L. var. capitata L. ) leaves were observed by scanning electron microscope, and types of wax mutant and wild-type cabbage leaves were selected as materials. Results showed that some waxes crystals were found in the wax mutant, the waxes crystals were immature and granular in the entire growth period. Different structure of waxes crystals were found in the wild-type, granular and flaky were major crystals structure at seedling stage, while cylindrical and flaky at head-forming stage, flaky and linear at mature stage.%运用扫描电子显微镜对结球甘蓝无蜡粉突变体及野生型材料不同生长时期的叶表皮蜡质发育状况进行比较观察.结果表明:甘蓝无蜡粉突变体也有蜡质晶体存在,但蜡质发育不完全,整个生长期以颗粒状晶体结构为主;野生型不同生长时期表现出不同的蜡质晶体结构,苗期以颗粒状和片状为主,结球期以圆柱状和片状为主,成熟期以片状和线状为主.

  3. Brassica chinensis (L.) transformation of male steriliry from non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS%以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系向乌塌菜作物转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南海龙

    2014-01-01

    试验根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系为不育源,向乌塌菜作物中转育,并对细胞核雄性不育基因转育机制进行系统研究。获得如下结果:设计遗传转育模式,完成乌塌菜4个世代雄性不育的转育工作,获得含有乌塌菜基因型的甲型“两用系”、临时保持系和雄性不育系。%In this experiment, based on the multiple allele inheritance hypothesis of Chinese cabbage, male steriliry of non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS was transferred to Brassica chinensis (L.). The experiment has been systematically investigated the transformation mechanism of genetic male sterility. Results showed that four male sterile generations of Brassica chinensis (L.) could be achieved according to the inheritance transformation mode.

  4. 蜜腺发达Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜雄性不育系的鉴定%Evaluation of Late - bolting Ogura Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Lines with Developed Nectar Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    By comparing of bumble bee visiting and staying time on flowers of Ogura non - heading Chinese cabbage male sterile lines, two plants were identified and selected as they attracted more bumble bee visiting. Nectar gland size, flowering, and pod set of these two plants were further determined. The results showed that the two selected plants all had developed nectar glands, flowered and set pod normally. This finding set a well foundation for breeding out elite late -bolting Ogura male sterile lines in non -heading Chinese cabbage.%本试验以Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜薹ms等为材料,通过观察和比较熊蜂对不同白菜品种访花次数和访花滞留时间的差异,选择出能吸引熊蜂访花且访花滞留时间长的Ogura薹ms植株.对选择出植株的蜜腺大小和开花结实特性进行了进一步鉴定,结果表明选出的薹ms株蜜腺发达,开花结实正常,为选育优良晚抽薹胞质不结球白菜雄性不育系奠定了基础.

  5. 大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现与利用%Discovery and Utilization of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 刘志勇; 李承彧; 王玉刚; 冀瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    The discovery and its verification of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage were reviewed. The utilization models for the multiple allele male sterile line was put forward. Progresses in the developments of the male sterile lines in the varieties and sub-varieties of Chinese cabbage, and mapping of the male sterile gene were presented.%介绍了大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现过程,以及"大白菜核基因雄性不育复等位基因遗传假说"的验证试验结果.提出了不育系的应用模式,介绍了品种、变种和亚种间复等位基因型雄性不育系转育研究结果,以及不育基因分子标记、定位及表达的研究进展.

  6. 三唑酮在设施栽培土壤及大白菜中的消解动态及残留%Degradation Dynamics and Residues of Triadimefon in Protected Cultivation Soil and Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金良; 佴注; 刘宏程; 杨东顺; 邹艳虹; 杜丽娟; 王志飞; 樊建麟

    2012-01-01

    为评价三唑酮在大白菜施用后的环境安全性,建立了GC测定蔬菜及土壤中三唑酮残留的方法,进行露地与设施栽培条件三唑酮在大白莱和土壤中的消解动态和最终残留研究.在大白菜和土壤中的最低检测质量分数均为0.001 mg/kg,三唑酮的平均加标回收率为81.5%~110.6%,变异系数为1.32%~6.04%.消解动态试验为2倍推荐使用剂量施药1次,三唑酮在设施栽培大白菜的半衰期分别为2.72~3.30 d和3.21~3.35 d;露地栽培为2.35~2.87 d和2.30~3.12 d.设施栽培大白菜中三唑酮残留量与用药量正相关,随着施药量的增加,消解速度减慢,残留量相应增大.研究可为制定三唑酮设施栽培大白菜上最大残留限量和合理使用准则以及风险评估提供科学依据.%In order to definitude environmental safety and establish safe application standard, residue dynamics and final residue of Iriadimefon were comparatively studied by the method of GC in soil and Chinese cabbage in open field and greenhouse. The results showed that the limit of quantification in Chinese cabbage and soil were 0.001 mg/kg for Iriadimefon. Average fortified recovery of the method varied from 81.5% to 110.6% with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.32% to 6.04%. The half-lives of triadimefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage were 2.72 to 3.30 and 3.21 to 3.35 d, respectively, and those in open field were 2.35 to 2.87 d and 2.30 to 3.12 d. A positive correlation was found between pesticide residue in Chinese cabbage and pesticide dose. With the pesticide dose increased, the digestion rale of pesticide residue lowed down and the residual quantity increased. The scientific basis could be provided in the study for the establishment on the maximum residue limit of triadiraefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage, setting up reasonable application rule, and risk assessment.

  7. The trapping effect of piemarker in cabbage fields for Bemisia tabaci and the evaluation of chemical control%苘麻对甘蓝田烟粉虱诱集效果及药剂防治评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永安; 柏立新; 肖留斌; 魏书艳; 赵洪霞

    2011-01-01

    本文针对烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci在不同寄主苘麻Abutilon theophrasti Medic和甘蓝Brassinca oleracea上的嗜好性、趋性、田间种群动态进行了研究,并设计苘麻不同种植方式和配套施药评价苘麻对烟粉虱的诱集防治效果.室内趋性试验结果表明,接虫60h后苘麻上的成虫数是甘蓝上的5.5倍,若虫数为4.7倍.在大田甘蓝生育期内,苘麻对烟粉虱成、若虫的诱集效果分别可达76.8%和60.1%,说明苘麻对烟粉虱具极显著的诱集作用.苘麻不同种植方式诱集烟粉虱的效果结果表明,点状分布种植格局上的烟粉虱成、若虫数量与条状和片状分布种植上烟粉虱数量相比差异显著.配套施药试验结果表明,苘麻喷施10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂,10%高渗四氟乳油,1.8%阿维菌素乳油,0.3%印楝素乳油,25%阿克泰水分散粒剂5种药剂7d后对烟粉虱成、若虫的防治效果分别为74.38%~94.86%和68.91%~93.29%,以阿克泰和阿维菌素防治效果最好.%In this paper, the preference, tropism and field population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci in different host piemarker and cabbage were studied, and we designed different planting types and insecticide application on the piemarker plant for the effect of trap control. The result indicated that the piemarker plants showed strong attraction to B. tabaci adults and nymphs, when insects observed after 60 h among the indoor trend test, the number of adults on the piemarker was cabbage 5. 5 times and 4. 7 times of nymphs. Through the entire cabbage growth period in field, the effects of trapping to B. tabaci adults and nymphs were 76. 8% and 60. 1% , respectively. There was significant difference between different planting types for trapping B. tabaci adults and nymphs, the attractive efficiency from single -planting piemarker was much more as compared to the planting types of the strip - planting and plot -planting. The insecticide application of 10

  8. Resposta de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho à adubação com boro em solo arenoso Response of boron fertilization on broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage planted in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pizetta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em condições de campo, em solo arenoso, com baixo teor de boro, os efeitos da adubação com cinco doses de boro (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 kg ha-1 de B na forma de bórax na produção de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho. O experimento obedeceu a um esquema fatorial com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. As adubações orgânica e química, inclusive o bórax, foram feitas no sulco antes do transplantio das mudas e a colheita foi feita entre 63 e 93 dias após o transplantio. A produtividade de brócolis variou de 16,9 a 20,5 t ha-1; a de couve-flor de 21,6 a 29,6 t ha-1 e a de repolho de 40,5 a 46,4 t ha-1. O aumento observado na produtividade de brócolis e de repolho foi linear e o efeito das doses de boro na produtividade de couve-flor foi quadrático, sendo necessários 5,1 kg ha-1 de B para atingir a produtividade máxima de 30 t ha-1. Brócolis e repolho mostraram-se menos sensíveis do que a couve-flor tanto à deficiência quanto ao excesso de boro. No caso da couve-flor, com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 ou de 6 kg ha-1 de B houve significativa perda de qualidade do produto.The effects of boron fertilization on yield of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage were evaluated through a field experiment carried out on a sandy soil low in available boron. Five boron levels (0; 2; 4; 6; and 8 kg ha-1 B as borax were applied in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage using a factorial scheme and a randomized block design with three replicates. Organic manure and chemical fertilizers, including borax, were applied in the planting furrow before seedlings transplant and plants were harvested 63 to 93 days after planting date. The yield intervals obtained with broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage varied according to the following intervals: 16.9 to 20.5 t ha-1, 21.6 to 29.6 t ha-1 and 40.5 to 46.3 t ha-1, respectively. The increase in production observed in broccoli and cabbage yield was linear with boron levels and the

  9. Desempenho do consórcio entre repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico Performance of cabbage and radish intercropping under organic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica, em Seropédica, (RJ, durante dois anos consecutivos. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do consórcio entre as culturas de repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, representando um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator o pré-cultivo, com Crotalaria juncea e pousio (vegetação espontânea; e o segundo fator o sistema de cultivo (consórcio entre repolho e rabanete e os respectivos monocultivos. Não houve diferença significativa no tocante à produtividade do repolho ou rabanete, entre C. juncea e pousio, independentemente do tipo de manejo (monocultivos ou consórcio. O desenvolvimento do repolho não foi influenciado pela presença do rabanete, no consórcio entre essas espécies sob cultivo orgânico. O rabanete sob consórcio apresentou redução no diâmetro médio, massa média e produtividade de raízes, sem, contudo, desqualificar o padrão comercial das raízes colhidas. Considerando a média dos dois anos experimentais, o IEA atingiu 1,59, o que indicou a viabilidade do consórcio, otimizando práticas culturais, incluindo adubação, capina e irrigação.Field experiments were carried out during two consecutive years in the Integrated Agroecological Production System, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of cabbageradish intercropping under organic management on the basis of agronomic traits and Area Equivalency Index (AEI. The contribution of green manure pre-planting to the system also was evaluated. A randomized complete blocks design with seven replicates in a 2x3 split-plot factorial scheme was used. Treatments in the main plots consisted of Crotalaria juncea pre-planting or fallow. Cabbage or radish single crops and the respective intercropping were distributed in the subplots. No

  10. Identification and Main Biological Characteristics of Sclerotinia Rot Pathogen in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜菌核病病原菌鉴定及其主要生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬贤; 张鲁刚

    2015-01-01

    为明确大白菜菌核病病原菌的种类及其主要生物学特性,以大白菜菌核病病株上分离获得的菌株 XN001为试验材料,对菌株进行致病性检测和形态学观察,并结合病原菌 ITS 区序列分析鉴定病原菌的种类,此外,通过改变病原菌菌丝和菌核的培养条件,研究病原菌的主要生物学特性。结果表明:大白菜菌核病病原菌与油菜菌核病相同都是核盘菌;菌株 XN001在 pH 值4~11菌丝均可生长,pH 值4时生长最快;菌丝生长最适温度为20~25℃;诱导菌核萌发的最适温度为4~10℃,菌核在4℃下处理3~5周,萌发效果最好;菌核经低温诱导后,培养温度在15~25℃,最适宜菌核萌发。可见,大白菜菌核病病原菌为核盘菌,适宜在酸性常温条件下生长,菌核的萌发需要低温诱导。%In order to clarify the pathogen type of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot and further study its main bi-ological characteristics,A strain XN001 of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot was isolated from Chinese cabbage plant infected by pathogen and identified its type through pathogenicity test,morphology observation and analysis of nucle-otide sequence of internal transcribed spacer (ITS).In addition,the main biological characteristics of pathogen were also studied by changing culturing conditions of mycelial and sclerotia.The results showed that:The pathogen of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot was as same as Sclerotinia rot of colza and both of them were Sclerotinia sclerotio-rum.It was suitable for strain XN001 growing when the pH value was between 4 to 11,the favourable pH value for mycelium growth was 4;The optimal temperature for its mycelium growth was between 20 ℃ and 25 ℃;The optimal temperature for inducing sclerotia germination was between 4 ℃ and 10 ℃,and the sclerotia germination was best when treated for between 3 and 5 weeks under 4 ℃;It was suitable for sclerotia germination when the

  11. Residue analysis and dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) in Chinese cabbage and soil%胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的残留分析及消解动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁林; 薄瑞; 蒋家珍; 王素利; 马立利; 刘丰茂

    2011-01-01

    The analytical method of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) residue and its dissipation in chinese cabbage and soil were investigated. Samples were extracted with ethyl-acetate, then cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA (primary secondary amine) and GCB (graphitized carbon black),followed by determination with GC-MS. The recoveries at the levels of 0.005 - 0.05 mg/kg were from 83.2% to 103.2% for Chinese cabbage and 83.0% to 98.5% for soil with coefficients of variation of 3.0% to 4.8% and 3.8% to 11.3% ,respectively. The limit of detection was 0.001 mg/kg. The limit of quantification was 0.005 mg/kg for both Chinese cabbage and soil. Results of field trial showed that the half-life of DA-6 was 0.3 to 1.1 days in Chinese cabbage and 1.5 to 1.6 days in soil. The terminal residues of DA-6 in cabbage were lower than 0.06 mg/kg.%建立了胺鲜酯在大白菜及土壤中的残留分析方法.样品经乙酸乙酯提取、N-丙基乙二胺(primary secondary amine,PSA)和石墨化碳黑(graphitized carbon black,GCB)分散固相萃取净化后,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)检测,外标法定量.结果表明:当胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的添加水平在0.005~0.05 mg/kg时,其回收率分别为83.2%~103.2%和83.0%~98.5%,相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为3.0%~4.8%和3.8%~11.3%.在土壤和大白菜中胺鲜酣的检出限为0.001 mg/kg,定量限为0.005 mg/kg.田间试验结果表明,胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的半衰期分别为0.3~1.1d和1.5~1.6 d,在大白菜中的最终残留小于0.06 mg/kg.

  12. Study on the Method of Creation of Cabbage Breeding New Materials Using Biological Technology%利用生物技术创造甘蓝育种新材料的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文涛; 苏浴源; 栗淑芳; 申领艳; 康少辉

    2012-01-01

    以5个甘蓝品种为试材,从基因型以及培养基中的有机成分、蔗糖浓度和激素浓度4个方面,对利用生物技术创造甘蓝育种新材料的方法进行了研究。结果表明:不同品种之间的遗传差异影响了参试甘蓝花药胚状体的诱导频率;培养基中的有机成分、蔗糖浓度和激素浓度均对胚状体诱导频率有较大影响。并建立了1套通过甘蓝花粉培养诱导产生单倍体植株的技术:取未授粉甘蓝花药和花粉,接种在蔗糖浓度为10%、附加NAA0.2mg/L+6-BA2mg/L的MS培养基中,诱导胚状体产生及萌发;将胚状体接种在附加NAA0.2mg/L的MS培养基中进行生根诱导,30d后生根率达89%,且根数较多,平均根长1.0~2.0cm,芽苗生长健壮。利用该技术获得单倍体再生植株所需要的时间一般为80d左右。%Using 5 cabbage varieties as materials, the method of creation of cabbage breeding new materials by biological technology was studied from four aspects of genotype and organic component, sucrose concentration and hormone concentration in the culture medium. The results showed that induction frequency of anther embryoids of tested cabbage was affected by genetic differences of different varieties. Organic component, sucrose concentration and hormone concentration in the culture medium had great influences on embryoid induction frequency. A set of technology of induced haploid plants by cabbage pollen culture was established, the unpollinated anthers and pollen of cabbage were nurtured in MS medium with 10% of sucrose concentration and adding NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 2 mg/L to induce embryoids generation and germination, then the embryoids were inoculated on the MS medium with NAA 0. 2 mg/L for 30 days to root induction, and the rate of rooting reached to 89% , the number of roots was large, the average root length was 1.0 - 2.0 cm, bud seedling growed healthy. The time required to obtain haploid

  13. 早熟秋甘蓝新品种达光的选育%A New Autumn Cabbage F1 Hybrid-‘DaGuang’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保才; 化娟莉; 张延安

    2014-01-01

    ‘Daguang’ is a new autumn cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing self-incompatible line 98-19 as female parent and self-compatible line 99-36 as male parent.It is an early-maturing variety.It takes about 72 days from field planting to harvest.The plant grows vigorously.Its expansion degree is 49-52 cm. It has 12-14 outer leave blades,and the leaf is greyish green in color.There is a lot of wax powder on the leaf surface.The leafy head is oblate,green and compact.The compactness degree is 0.62.The leafy head is 19.8 cm in transverse diameter,11.3 cm in height.The central core is 5.9 cm in length.The single leafy head weights 1.5 kg.It has crisp texture and slightly sweet taste.It is tolerant to head splitting,and resistant to TuMV(Turnip mosaic virus)and black rot.Its average yield is about 67.5 t·hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in autumn open fields at north,central,and southwest part of China.%达光是以自交不亲和系98-19为母本,以自交系99-36为父本配制而成的早熟秋甘蓝一代杂种。早熟,定植至收获72d(天)左右;植株生长势强,株型平铺,开展度49~52cm,外叶12~14片,叶色灰绿,叶面蜡粉多;叶球扁圆形、色绿,紧实度0.62,球高11.3cm,横径19.8cm,中心柱长5.9cm,单球质量1.5kg,质地脆嫩,味微甜,耐裂球;抗芜菁花叶病毒病(TuMV)和黑腐病;一般每667m2产量4500kg左右,适宜华北、华中及西南地区秋季露地种植。

  14. Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, Neel; Collins, Damian; Holford, Paul; Milham, Paul J; Conroy, Jann P

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative, chronic toxicant in humans for which the main exposure pathway is via plant foods. Cadmium-tolerant plants may be used to create healthier food products, provided that the tolerance is associated with the exclusion of Cd from the edible portion of the plant. An earlier study identified the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) variety, Pluto, as relatively Cd tolerant. We exposed the roots of intact, 4-week-old seedlings of Pluto to Cd (control ∼1 mg L(-1) treatment 500 μg L(-1)) for 4 weeks in flowing nutrient solutions and observed plant responses. Exposure began when leaf 3 started to emerge, plants were harvested after 4 weeks of Cd exposure and the high Cd treatment affected all measured parameters. The elongation rate of leaves 4-8, but not the duration of elongation was reduced; consequently, individual leaf area was also reduced (P  0.1). Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) were present in the roots even at the lowest Cd concentration in the nutrient medium, i.e. ∼1 μg Cd L(-1), which would not be considered contaminated if it were a soil solution. The Cd concentration in these roots was unexpectedly high (5 mg kg(-1) DW) and the molar ratio of -SH (in PCs plus GSH) to Cd was large (>100:1). In these control plants, the Cd concentration in the leaves was 1.1 mg kg(-1) DW, and PCs were undetectable. For the high Cd treatment, the concentration of Cd in roots exceeded 680 mg kg(-1) DW and the molar -SH to Cd ratio fell to ∼1.5:1. For these plants, Cd flooded into the leaves (107 mg kg(-1) DW) where it probably induced synthesis of PCs, and the molar -SH to Cd ratio was ∼3:1. Nonetheless, this was insufficient to sequester all the Cd, as evidenced by the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth noted above. Lastly, Cd accumulation in the leaves was associated with lowered concentrations of some trace elements, such as Zn, a combination of traits that is highly undesirable in food plants. PMID:26564184

  15. Extraction and Stability of Purple Cabbage Pigment%紫甘蓝色素的提取及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东霞; 冷春玲

    2012-01-01

    Purple cabbage under natural, cold and freezing preservation was pretreated, respectively. Then, pigment was extracted from it with ultrasonic method under acidic conditions. The influence of pH value, tempera- ture, preservative concentration and sucrose concentration show that the color of the pigment changes remarkably cidic and neutral conditions. Temperature has um benzoate increases, the pigment changes on the stability of the pigment were studied. The results as the pH value increases, while is steady under weakly a- no obvious effect on the color of the pigment. As the content of sodi- gradually from pink color to lilac. The pigment is relatively stable when sodium benzoate content ranges from 0.05% to 0.2%. Sucrose has no remarkable effect on the color of the pigment. The stability of pigment extracted from samples under different preservation conditions is similar.%以紫甘蓝为研究对象,进行自然保藏、冷藏保藏和冷冻保藏的前处理并在酸性条件下结合超声波的方法提取紫甘蓝色素。对不同前处理的色素进行针对不同pH值、不同温度、不同防腐剂浓度、不同蔗糖浓度的稳定性研究。结果表明,三种样品随pH的升高颜色变化较为明显,在弱酸性至中性的范围内较稳定;随温度升高三种样品颜色无明显变化,热稳定性较好;随苯甲酸钠含量的增加,三种样品颜色由粉色逐渐变为淡紫色,在苯甲酸钠含量从0.05%~0.2%范围色素较稳定;蔗糖对三种色素样品的颜色无明显影响,稳定性也无明显变化。三种前处理的色素样品稳定性变化趋势大致相似,说明针对提取紫甘蓝色素而言,不同贮藏条件对色素稳定性影响不大。

  16. UMEDECIMENTO E SUBSTRATOS PARA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE REPOLHO SUBSTRATES AND MOISTURE LEVELS IN THE GERMINATION OF CABBAGE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaneide Alves de Azeredo

    2009-12-01

    ="JUSTIFY">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata; quantidade de água; análise de sementes, teste de germinação.

    The availability of water for seeds is closely related to their germination, since hydration is a limiting factor for their metabolic processes. Therefore, in tests carried out in laboratory, substrate must be sufficiently moistened, in order to assure both the embryo growth and seedling formation. This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of different quantities of water, in different substrates, for cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seeds germination. The seeds, processed with Thiran 0.1%, were obtained in shops located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Germination tests were made in germitest rolled paper towel substrates, between and on draft paper, moistened with quantities of water equivalent to 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; and 4.0 times the dry substrate weight. For each treatment, four repetitions of 50 seeds were used. The seeds were kept in a germinator, at an alternate temperature of 20-30ºC, without further addition of water to the substrate. The evaluations were made on the fifth and tenth days after the experiment preparation. The results obtained revealed that the quantities of water ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 times the paper weight were favorable for seeds germination, mainly in the substrate on and between the paper, while water levels above 3.0 times the substrate weight were

  17. 不同氮源与镁配施对甘蓝产量、品质和养分吸收的影响%Effects of combined application of different nitrogen sources and magnesium fertilizers on cabbage yield, quality and nutrient uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉川; 焦晓燕; 聂督; 李丽君; 黄明镜

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable crops have preferences for nitrate-nitrogen (N). Nitrate accumulation in vegetable crops is closely related with the form of N and application rate of N fertilizer, especially under over fertilization of N. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of combined application of different N sources and magnesium (Mg) fertilizers on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates of each treatment. Four N sources (no N, sole nitrate-N, sole ammonium-N, and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N) and four rates of magnesium sulfate fertilizer (0, 75 kg·hm2, 150 kg·hm2 and 300 kg·hm2) were used in the study. Results showed that under the same N conditions, combined application of different N sources and Mg fertilizers had significant effects on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cabbage. The highest cabbage yield was obtained under combined application of sole nitrate-N and medium rate (150 kg·hm-2) of Mg fertilizer. Cabbage yield under treatment of sole nitrate-N and medium rate Mg fertilizer increased by 56.9%, 14.7% and 5.2%, respectively, compared with those under no fertilizer, sole ammonium-N, and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N applications with medium rate of Mg fertilizer. N resources had significant influence on cabbage yield. Sole nitrate-N treatment increased cabbage yield by 13.0% over sole ammonium-N treatment. No significant yield difference was noted between sole nitrate-N and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N treatments. Compared with treatments without Mg fertilizer, 75 kg·hm-2 Mg fertilizer increased cabbage yield by 9.3%. Nevertheless, no significant increase was noted with further increase in Mg fertilizer rate. The highest cabbage nitrate content was about 2 759.0 mg·kg-1, obtained under combined application of sole nitrate-N with high rate (300 kg·hm-2) of Mg fertilizer. Compared with no fertilizer

  18. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambuco. Considerando os resultados obtidos e um erro aceitável de 20%, em futuros levantamentos da incidência da podridão-mole em alface recomenda-se a amostragem de 32 parcelas de 4,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela, enquanto em couve-chinesa a amostragem de 22 parcelas de 10,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela. Para ambas as culturas não houve correlação significativa (P=0,05 entre os níveis de incidência da doença e os tamanhos das amostras.Lettuce and Chinese cabbage may present yield reduction due to the occurrence of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This study aimed to determine the ideal sample size for assessing disease incidence in field surveys. Samples of soft rot incidence were conducted in eight lettuce growing areas and five Chinese cabbage growing areas, located in the main production cities around Pernambuco State. Considering 20% of acceptable error, the results pointed out that future surveys of the soft rot incidence on lettuce should analyze 32 plots with 4.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot, while for Chinese cabbage the sample should include 32 plots with 10.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot. No significant correlation (P=0.05 was found between disease incidence levels and sample sizes for both crops.

  19. Variation of moisture content in cabbage seeds with heat pump intermittent drying%热泵间歇干燥白菜种子内部含水率变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 杨昭

    2012-01-01

    为了研究热泵干燥条件下种子内部传质机理,以热泵干燥的白菜种子为研究对象,建立了其非均质动态传质模型,并利用该模型分析热泵恒温连续干燥与间歇干燥条件下种子内部含水率变化规律.研究表明,所建模型能较好的模拟种子含水率的动态变化,模拟值与试验值相关系数为0.9974,相对偏差在士10%以内,模拟精度满足要求:间歇干燥时种子内部含水率更均匀,更有利于种子品质的保证;间歇干燥过程比例系数取1/3、间歇运行周期中运行时间取400 s时热泵机组节能近50%.该研究可为热泵干燥技术的应用推广提供参考.%Aimed at studying the moisture diffusion mechanism inside the seeds during heat pump drying, a nonhomogeneous dynamic mass transfer model was set up for cabbage seeds analyze the moisture diffusion in the cabbage seed under conditions of continuous drying with constant temperature and intermittent drying with on/off pulsating of air velocity. Results showed that the simulation results coincided well with experimental data with correlation coefficient of 0.9974 and relative deviation being less than ±10%. With the heat pump intermittent drying, the moisture distribution inside the cabbage seed was more uniform. With intermittency ratio of 1/3 and on-time in the intermittent drying cycle of 400 s, nearly 50% energy conservation for the heat pump equipment could be achieved during the drying process. This research can provide a reference for application of heat pump drying technique.

  20. Comparison of Methods for Transferring Genetic Male Sterile Lines of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage with Anti-clubroot%桔红心大白菜抗根肿病不育系转育方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 李林; 李茜; 陈永浩

    2012-01-01

    以普通心抗根肿病甲型“两用系”和桔红心自交系LH为试材,通过杂交、回交和系内交等方法研究了桔红心与普通心的遗传关系、桔红心自交系抗性和育性的基因型.试验结果表明:桔红心对普通心表现为一对隐性基因控制的简单遗传,桔红心自交系的抗性和育性基因型分别为rr和msms;提出了桔红心大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系的两种转育模式,其中系内交模式比回交模式提前一代得到新的不育系;在第二代筛选桔红心性状时,对子叶法、球心色法和花色法三种方法进行了比较,子叶法不但在幼苗期就可以筛选到桔红心性状,而且抗性调查和育性鉴定的群体最小,是三种方法中最理想的.%Taking the genetic male sterile AB lines (type 1) of yellow head Chinese cabbage with anti -clubroot and orange head Chinese cabbage lines (LH) as the test materials, the genetic relations between the head colors of orange and yellow and the genotypes of clubroot - resistance and fertility of orange head lines were studied through cross, backcross and sibling mate. The experimental results indecated clearly that orange to yellow was controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and rr and msms were the anti-cluhroot genotype and fertile genotype of LH. In the light of these, this study proposed two models of transferring genetic male sterile lines of orange head Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot, among which model ( 2) could get genetic male sterile lines in the fourth generation, but model ( 1) in the fifth generation. Although orange plants will be sifled out in the second generation using cotyledon method, head color method or flower color method, cotyledon method will be the best one, for in this way orange plants can be screened in the seedling stage, and survey groups of resistance and fertility will be smaller than other methods.

  1. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  2. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”细胞学观察%Cytology Observation of Anther for Genic Male Sterility of AB Line Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 郑鹏婧; 张欣; 毕高熵

    2012-01-01

    以大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”为材料,对其可育与不育株的花器结构进行比较,并进行细胞学观察来明确该雄性不育类型的败育时期及败育原因.结果表明,大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”可育株的萼片长、花瓣长、花瓣宽、雄蕊长和雌蕊长都极显著高于不育株对应部位;不育植株和可育植株花蕾大小与花发育时期相对应;不育花蕾在2.5 mm后就已经败育,败育时期可能发生在减数分裂后期到四分体时期,该时期绒毡层细胞液膨大、呈现液泡化,将四分体挤压到药室的中间,致使四分体大量发育异常,小孢子得不到营养,不能形成正常的小孢子,导致小孢子完全解体,在开花前败育.%In this experiment, the materials are genic male sterility of AB Line Chinese cabbage. Comparisons between sterile flower and fertile flower on flower organic structure in Chinese cabbage, and cytology observation of anther, to find out the stage and reason of abortion. The results showed that: the sepal length, petal length, petal width, the stamens length of fertile plants and sterile plants in Chinese cabbage are very obviously different; development of anther was observed by using acid carmine staining and paraffin section method, stertility has been aborted after 2. 5 mm, abortion may occur during after meiosis stage to tetrad stage, tapetal cells showed vacuolation and crushed tetrad into central parts during this period. A large number of tetrads become abnormal, microspore development can not enough space and nutrition. Finally, microspores completely resolved and cause abortion before flowering.

  3. Male Sterile Transgenic Cabbage Plants with TA29-barnase Gene%TA29-barnase基因转化甘蓝产生雄性不育植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈革志; 王新其; 朱玉英; 杨红娟; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新衫; 张景六

    2001-01-01

    RNase gene (barnase) was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciensgenomic DNA,and the upstream regulatory region (-1300~+51) of a tapetum-specific gene TA29 was cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)total DNA by PCR and sequenced. Then a chimeric gene containing the regulatory region of TA29 gene and coding region of barnase gene was constructed (Fig. 1 ) and introduced into cabbage with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Plate Ⅰ-1). Completely sterile, and half-sterile were observed among some transformed cabbages carring TA29-barnase chimeric gene (Plate -2~5 ), and other traits were basically identical to untransformed control plants, but filaments of stamens of transformed plant were shorter than normal ones, anthers were shriveled and without pollen. Self pollination of transformed plants failed to produce fruit capsules and seeds, but hybrid seeds were obtained when these plants were cross-pollinated artificially with normal pollen from untransformed cabbage plants. The results showed that these transformed plants were male sterile ( Plate Ⅰ-6 ).%用PCR技术从烟草革新1号品种的总DNA中扩增了TA29基因的启动子和从解淀粉芽孢杆菌的总DNA中扩增了核糖核酸水解酶基因(barnse),将其构建成融合基因,并克隆于pCAMBIA2301载体上。通过根癌农杆茵介导转化甘蓝下胚轴,经Km选择压下连续选择、扩繁和进行生根培养,获得了甘蓝转基因植株。经GUS、PCR和Southernblot检测,证明TA29-bar-nase融合基因已经整合至转基因植株的染色体中。经花器官观察,转基因植株中有雄蕊退化的雄性不育和半不育植株出现。用正常花粉对不育株进行人工授粉,不育株能正常结实,这表明转基因不育植株的雌性器官发育正常,其不育性与TA29-barnse融合基因在转基因植株中的表达有关。

  4. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbages in Anti-clubroot with Orange Head Traits%大白菜根肿病抗性与橘红心性状的遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯华; 沈向群; 耿新翠; 徐硕

    2011-01-01

    以育成的黄心抗根肿病直筒叠抱型大白菜CR9112A和CR9112B为母本,直筒舒心橘红心大白菜龙园红1号JH-1自交系为父本,分别完成F1、F2及BC1F1各世代.验证龙园红1号橘红心性状的遗传规律,探究根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间的遗传关系.抗性和花色鉴定结果表明:根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间无连锁关系,二者表现为独立遗传.龙园红1号JH-1的基因型为msmsrrhh.提出了转育抗根肿病橘红心大白菜的遗传模式,以期获得经济性状优良的抗根肿病橘红心材料.%Taking the existing anti-clubroot CR9112A and CR9112B lines of straight canister folded common Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] as female parent and stably inherited ‘Longyuanhong No.l’ JH-1 inbred lines of Chinese cabbage with orange head as male parent, we prepared every generations of F1, F2 and BC1F1. The inheritance rule of ‘ Longyuanhong No.1’inbred lines was verified, and the relationship between clubroot resistance gene with orange head leaf gene was explored. The identification results showed that there was no linkage relationship between clubroot resistance and orange head characteristics, and these 2 were independently inherited. The gene type of ‘Longyuanhong No.1’ JH-1 was msmsrrhh. On this basis, the paper put forward a genetic model for transferring clubroot resistance to orange head traits, so as to obtain an excellent orange head Chinese cabbage resistant to clubroot.

  5. 甘蓝种传镰刀菌的鉴定及其致病性研究%Study on Identification of Cabbage Seedborne Fusarium Species and Their Pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅; 王丽君; 曹莎; 吴学宏; 黄俊生

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium-CG and Fusarium-HM, were isolated from cabbage seeds ( cvs. Chungan No. 45 and Hongmuziganlan). The two isolates were identified using morphological methods and rDNA ITS sequencing analysis. Effects on seed germination and pathogenicity of them were also determined. The results showed that the two Fusarium strains were Fusarium oxysporum. They had significant effect on seed germination, compared to control, which causing reduction of germination energy, percentage germination, germination index and vigor index,and vigor index decreased significantly when treated by 106spores/mL spore suspension; they were pathogenic to seedlings and caused typical wilt symptom on seedlings,fulfilling Koch' s postulates. It' s the first report of cabbage seedborne F. oxysporum can be pathogenic to cabbage seedlings in China.%针对春甘45和红亩紫甘蓝种子上分离得到的两株镰刀菌(Fusarium-CG和Fusarium- HM),结合形态学特征及rDNA ITS序列分析进行了鉴定,并研究了其对甘蓝种子发芽的影响和幼苗的致病性.结果表明:2株镰刀菌均为尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum);对甘蓝种子发芽有一定的影响,发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数等指标均降低,其中106个/mL孢子悬浮液处理后,活力指数显著降低;能导致甘蓝幼苗出现典型的枯萎症状,柯赫氏法则检验证明其具有致病性.甘蓝种子传带尖孢镰刀菌并具有致病性为国内首次报道.

  6. Effects of Nutrient Solution Renewal Frequency and Ventilation on Yield and Quality of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%营养液更换频率和通气对菜心生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 吴育智; 陈玮锋; 何燕文; 宋世威; 陈日远

    2013-01-01

    In the hydroponic condition, taking the treatment regular renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation as the control (CK), we studied the effects of T1 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution but ventilating regularly) and T2 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation) on plant growth and quality of flowering Chinese cabbage. The results showed that, compared with CK, T1 treatment didn't affect the biomass of flowering Chinese cabbage, while T2 treatment significantly reduced the biomass. In addition, T1 and T2 treatments significantly improved the vitamin C and soluble sugar content, while reduced the nitrate content significantly. T1 treatment could obtain quite the same yield of CK treatment, and improve the nutritional quality in product organs and reduced the nitrate content, thus it could be taken as a simplified management method for flowering Chinese cabbage under hydroponic condition.%在水培条件下,以定期更换营养液和通气为对照(CK),研究了不更换营养液、定期通气(T1)和不更换营养液、不通气(T2)处理对菜心生长和品质的影响。研究结果表明,与对照相比,T1处理不影响菜心的生物量,而 T2处理显著降低了菜心的生物量;T1、T2处理显著提高了 VC 和可溶性糖含量,同时显著降低了硝酸盐含量。 T1处理可获得与对照相当的产量,并且可提高产品器官的营养品质、降低了硝酸盐含量,可作为菜心的简化水培管理模式。

  7. 小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交减数分裂染色体行为观察%Chromosome Behaviors in Meiotic of Pollen Mother Cells in Inter-subspecific Hybridization between Chinese Cabbage and Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙正; 徐海; 宋波; 樊小雪

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic behaviors of pollen mother cells ( PMCs) in inter-subspecific hybrid F1 and BC1-3 be⁃tween Chinese cabbage and non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied. It was observed that 90.7%of F1 pollen were stainable, indicating good fertility. The fertility of BC1-3 was gradually increased. 89.1%chro⁃mosome behavior in F1 meiotic PMCs was regular which could explain the good fertility. Abnormal chro⁃mosome behaviors such as double nucleoli, disordered paring in Prophase I, chromosome bridge in meta⁃phase I, segments loss in anaphase I were discovered which could explain the lower fertility of F1 hybrid than normal diploid. 14.3% abnormal chromosome behaviors were found in BC1 generation however very limited in BC2-3 which indicated that it was a repaid process for chromosome behavior of backcross genera⁃tion becoming normal;this result was consistent to phenotype and fertility investigation.%研究了小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交及回交世代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为,发现杂种F1花粉可染率90.7%,表现出较好的育性;回交BC1-3花粉可染率升高,表明育性逐步提高.F1花粉母细胞减数分裂正常染色体行为细胞数占总观察数的89.1%,这解释了F1具有较好育性的原因.杂种F1减数分裂各个时期会出现不正常现象,如双核仁、配对紊乱、染色体桥、染色体片段丢失等,这在一定程度上可以说明杂种F1育性低于正常二倍体的原因.14.3%的BC1花粉母细胞会出现不正常现象,而BC2-3已经相对正常,极少观察到减数分裂不正常现象,表明在回交过程中染色体稳定是一个快速的过程,这与表型及育性调查结果相吻合.

  8. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a b

  9. 玉米‖甘蓝间作对土壤水分时空分布及水分利用效率的影响%Effect of Intercropped Models of Maize and Cabbage on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture and Water Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪娇; 孙东宝; 王庆锁

    2012-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of high WUE in intercropping system, the experiment of intercropped and monocropped models of maize and cabbage was conducted in dryland agriculture areas in Shouyang of Shanxi province. The results indicated that (1 ) water use by maize and cabbage intercrops in the growing season was lower than monocropped maize and was higher than monocropped cabbage, which resulted in higher soil moisture in intercropped models than maize monoculture and lower than cabbage monoculture during the middle and later growing stage. For the intercropped models, as the rows of maize were decreased ( or the rows of cabbage were increased) , its soil moisture was increased gradually. ( 2 ) The soil water contours were the deppest in maize monoculture, and the shallowest in cabbage mowoculture during the middle and later growing stage. Water use intensity of the monocropped maize was higher than the monocropped cabbage before mid-August and was lower afterwards. Intercropped models of maize and cabbage formed temporal and spatial complementary on using water,so it improved water use efficiency. (3) Yield of maize was increased in intercropping. The growing of cabbage in intercropped models was shaded by maize to different degrees, but the effect was weaker as the rows of cabbage was increased, even was disappeared. When the cabbage rows in intercropped models were more than four ( one time than maize height) , yield, output value and water use efficiency of the intercropped maize and cabbage was higher than the monocropped maize and cabbage respectively. The conclusion was that when the cabbage rows in intercropped models were more one time than maize height,the intercropped models were reasonable and better.%为探讨作物间作的高效用水机制,在寿阳旱地农业试验站,开展了不同行比的玉米与甘蓝间作试验.结果表明,(1)玉米‖甘蓝间作生长季节的耗水量均低于玉米单作而高于甘蓝单作,从而使作物生长中后

  10. 结球甘蓝下胚轴原生质体培养再生植株体系的优化研究%Plant Regeneration from Hypocotyl Protoplast Culture of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.var capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 钟新民; 侯喜林

    2012-01-01

    The main factors affect cabbage hypocotyl protoplast isolation, purification and cultivation were studied,in order to establish a practical technology system of isolation, purification, collection,culture and eventually a complete plant regeneration for cabbage protoplast. Then establish a basis for latter research such as asymmetric cell fusion and finally provide the conditions for cabbage variety improvement and innovation. The results are as follows: Protoplasts were isolated by enzyme digestion from hypocotyl of 4 day-old seedling of head cabbage. The optimum enzyme combination was attained with 2. 5% cellulase R-10 + 0. 05% pectolase Y-23 + 9CPW+5 mmol/L MES. In the basic medium of improved B5 supplemented with 0. 5 mg/L2,4-D,0. 2 mg/L 6-BA,0. 2 mg/L NAA, the cells divided luxuriantly. Regenerated plants were formed from callus after bud induction and root initiation. In 24 regenerated plants, 19 were normal diploid, 4 were diploid/tetraploid chimera and 1 was tetraploid.%以结球甘蓝‘新夏50’的无菌苗下胚轴为材料,对影响原生质体分离、纯化与培养的主要因素进行研究,建立适合结球甘蓝原生质体游离、纯化、收集、培养以至再生出完整植株的实用技术体系,为其非对称细胞融合及品种改良与创新等研究奠定基础.结果表明:2.5%纤维素酶R-10+0.05%果胶酶Y-23+ 9CPW+5 mmol/L MES的混合酶液,从4d苗龄的下胚轴上分离出高产率的原生质体.在改良B5+0.5 mg/L2,4-D+0.2 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA的液体培养基上,原生质体分裂旺盛.形成愈伤组织后经芽诱导和生根培养,获得了再生植株.倍性检测结果表明,不同原生质体所获得的24株再生植株中,19株为正常二倍体,4株为嵌合体,1株为四倍体.

  11. Cytology Studies on Anther Development of Male Sterile Materials 'Ms2008076' in Cabbage%甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076花药发育的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆林; 任雪松; 李成琼

    2011-01-01

    对甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076的花药发育过程进行了石蜡切片和显微观察.结果表明:Ms2008076花药败育主要发生在花粉母细胞时期,表现为绒毡层细胞发育异常,花粉母细胞迅速退化以至解体,花药败育.%Microscopic observations on anther development process of male sterile materials ‘Ms2008076' in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. ) showed that ‘Ms2008076' anther development was hindered at the stage of pollen mother cell differentiation. The main characteristic is that the tapetal cells developed abnormally and pollen mother cell de-gradated rapidly to disintegrate with the ultimate result that the anthers were abortive absolutely.

  12. Cloning and Characterization of a Pectin Methylesterase Gene BrPME1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因BrPME1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 李承彧; 叶雪凌; 王晓霞; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aims at cloning a pectin methylesterase gene in order to provide assistance to study the roles of the pectin metabolism in the fertility regulation of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Analysis of gene differential expression was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line 'AB02'of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment,TDF-24, was found only in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of the gene related to TDF-24 was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR,and the characteristics of the deduced protein were analyzed using bioinformatics softwares. Gene expression characteristics were proved by Real-time PCR [Result] The novel pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) cDNA(BrPME1, GenBank accession number HM 185497), was isolated from Chinese cabbage. The cDNA was 1 290 bp long, encoding a putative preprotein of 363 amino acids with a signal peptide of 23 amino acids, which contains ten phosphorylation sites, six N-myristoylation site, one amidation site and one conserved PME domain, but no PMEI (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) site. BrPME1 was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with an extremely low expression level in sterile buds. [ Conclusion ] The results indicated that BrPME1 is a member of the PME gene family inhibited by genic male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage.%[目的]克隆大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因,为进一步探讨果胶代谢在大白菜育性调控中的分子机制提供帮助.[方法]利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-24,通过RACE技术扩增该基因的cDNA全长序列,采用生物信息学软件分析所克隆基因的编码蛋白特性,利用荧光定量PCR技术分析基因时空表达模式.[结果]该基因编码大白菜果胶甲酯酶(EC 3.1.1.11),被命名为BrPME1(GenBank登录号:HM185497).BrPME1

  13. 大白菜花青素含量及色差指标相关性研究%A Study on Correlation and Regression Analysis of Anthocyanin Contents and Color Indices in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文超; 王德森; 王海龙; 纪纲尚; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    为了探寻大白菜花青素含量快速测定的方法,本文利用pH差计法和色差仪分别测定了‘城阳青’(普通大白菜)、‘秋宝黄’(黄心白菜)和‘彩凤’3个不同叶色大白菜品种花青素含量以及色差指标,并对6个色泽参数与花青素含量进行了相关和回归分析.结果表明:6个色泽参数均能反映白菜叶片间叶色的细微变化,‘城阳青’和‘秋宝黄’不含花青素,紫色白菜‘彩凤’的花青素主要分布于由外向内的第1~4层叶片.色泽参数L,b,h和C分别与花青素含量呈极显著或显著负相关关系(相关系数分别为-0.85**,-0.58*,-0.49*,-0.58**).以色泽参数值L、a、h与花青素含量建立了多元回归方程:y =90.24- 1.07x1 +5.65x2 -142.71x3(x1为L值,x2为a值,x3为h值,y为花青素含量),该回归方程相关系数为0.9629.通过色差计依据建立的回归方程可快速测定紫色大白菜花青素的含量.%To find a fast method for determining anthocyanin content in Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson] , anthocyanin contents and color indices of 3 different colored Chinese cabbage cul-tivars were measured by the pH method and a colorimeter, respectively. Correlation and regression analysis between the color parameters and contents of anthocyanin was conducted. The results showed that the 6 color indices including L, a, b, C, h, and H could effectively reflect minor changes of leaf color; no anthocyanin was detected in cvs. ' Cheng yang qing' and ' Qiu bao huang'. High contents of anthocyanin were detected in the 1 -4th leaf layer from outside to inside of the purple Chinese cabbage cv. ' Cai feng'. Significant correlations were found between the color indices (L, b, h, C) and contents of anthocyanin with correlation coefficients of -0. 85 * * , -0. 58 * * , -0.49 * , and -0. 58 * * , respectively. Correlation coefficient of the regression equations was 0. 9629. The regression equation obtained

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality ofCabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChao; WULiang-huan; JUXiao-tang; ZHANGFu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [ (NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) (ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  15. Influência da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura na conservação do repolho minimamente processado Effects of low density polyethylene packaging and temperature in the conservation of fresh-cut cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura de armazenagem na conservação de repolho minimamente processado. Os repolhos, previamente resfriados à temperatura de 10 ºC, foram submetidos à seleção, lavagem, corte em quatro partes com a retirada do talo central, sanitização, corte em tiras, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem e acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas de polietileno de baixa densidade (70 µm e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 1 e 10 ºC por 20 dias. Avaliaram-se dióxido de carbono, oxigênio e etileno na atmosfera interna da embalagem, bem como pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez no repolho minimamente processado. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros de análise, com exceção da vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e etileno, apresentaram variação significativa entre as temperaturas e dias de armazenamento. O repolho armazenado na temperatura de 1 ºC apresentou vida de prateleira ao redor de 15 dias, significativamente maior que a 10 ºC. Nesta última, no 8º dia de armazenamento, o produto encontrava-se totalmente deteriorado, sem condições de comercialização e consumo.This research studied the effect of low density polyethylene packaging and storage temperature on the preservation of fresh-cut (minimally processed cabbage. The cabbages, previously cooled to a temperature of 10 ºC, were selected, washed, cut in four parts (with the central stalk removed, sanitized, cut in strips, rinsed, put in the centrifuge, weighed and stored in plastic packaging of low density polyethylene (70 µm, and then stored in cold chambers at temperatures of 1 and 10 ºC for 20 days. The following aspects were evaluated: carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal atmosphere of the package

  16. 甘蓝主要农艺性状的遗传相关及因子分析%Genetic Analysis of Main Agronomic Traits in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方荣; 陈学军; 周坤华

    2011-01-01

    To realize the variations of the main agronomic characters of cabbage and their relationship, genetic analysis and correlation analysis of angular divergence, number of outer leaves, head height , head diameter, index of head shape, length of central column, length of central column/head height, density of head, growth period and head mean weight were conducted in 14 varieties of different types in Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The results showed the 10 traits had high genetic diversity, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the 10 traits ranged from 6.97% (head height) to 25.44% (head diameter), and heritability ranged from 22.52% ( head height) to 97.79% ( growth period). Except head height, the other 9 traits had close correlation. Factor analysis indicated that the 10 traits of the varieties might be simplified to 3 independent traits groups controlled by 3 main factors. Factor 1 was a high - yield factor; Factor 2 was considered to control the length of central column; Factor 3 was a head height factor. The accumulative contribution rate of the 3 major factors to total variation accounted for 96.38%, maintaining most information of the 10 traits.%为掌握甘蓝主要农艺性状的变化特点及其相瓦关系,以14个不同类型品种为试材,对甘蓝开展度、外叶数、球高、球径、球形指数、中心柱长、中心柱长/球高、紧实度、生育期和叶球质量等10个性状进行遗传相关分析,结果表明:甘蓝主要农艺性状具有较高的遗传多态性,其变异系数(CV)范围为6.97%(球高)~25.44%(球径);遗传力为22.52%(球高)~97.79%(生育期);除球高外,其他9个性状之间存在较为紧密的相关关系.因子分析表明:10个农艺性状集约于3个丰因子上,F1为丰产因子,F2为中心柱长因子,F3为球高因子,这3个主因子对变异的累汁贞献率达96.38%,保持了10个性状的绝大部分信息.

  17. 萝卜、白菜、甜菜气吸式精量播种机的研究%Design of Air-suction Radish,Cabbage and Beet Precise Laying Seeder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学良; 张晋国; 侯玲玲; 马文奇; 赵小顺

    2014-01-01

    As the primary cash crop in Zhangjiakou area , radish,cabbage and beet are seeded by men yet .In order to achieve a large area precision sowing crops and planting of large areas of lower labor input , reducing the amount of labor of farming , improve labor efficiency , this article provide a precise laying seeder for radish ,cabbage and beet .The device can ridge , surpress , plant and cover soil , so it is suitable for planting in field .The field trials:the structure of device is reasonable and the rate of single grain precise seeding is high .%张家口坝上地区主要经济作物为萝卜、白菜和甜菜,3种作物的播种作业仍是人工点播,生产成本高且效率较低。为实现作物的大面积精量播种,减少耕作劳动量,提高播种效率,设计了一种适用于该地区3种主要经济作物大面积种植的精量播种机,集起垄、整形、镇压、播种、覆土功能于一体,适用于大面积播种作业。田间试验证明,整机结构设计合理,单粒精播率高。

  18. 四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育系的选育%Breeding of 4x CMS Line of the Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁

    2014-01-01

    To provide excellent parent resource for breeding new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars,a test cross was made by the male parent 09P70Rexiao(2n=4x)and female parent of the sterile materials(09PY)of non-heading Chinese cabbage which was obtain by the sexual polyploidization.Then the Shu No.1,of which the sterile rate reached 100%,and their degree was over 95% and their character was stable,was selected by continues back-cross.The plant height was 30.0 cm,the level of unfold was 29.8 cm,the leaf was brilliant green,the petiole was white.It had some properties such as grow faster, high yield,disease-resistant,heat resistant,and so on.%为给不结球白菜新品种的选育提供优良亲本,以秋水仙素诱导2n 配子再与四倍体雄性不育系08P76杂交创制的四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育材料09PY(14株)为母本,四倍体09P70热小材料为父本进行成对测交,后进行连续回交选育出不育株率为100%、不育度大于95%、性状稳定一致的不育系暑1。该雄性不育系株高30.0 cm,开展度29.8 cm,叶片亮绿,叶柄白色,具有生长速度快,丰产、抗病、抗热等特性。

  19. 外源物质对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生和缓解的影响%Effects of Exogenous Substances on Occurrence and Alleviation of Black Sesame Spot on Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 杨晓云; 张清霞; 王媛; 张淑霞; 司朝光; 郭瑞玲

    2014-01-01

    以感芝麻状斑点病大白菜品系03 B9为试材,通过钵栽及外源浇灌等方式,研究硝酸钾、硫酸钾、尿素等不同形态氮肥对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生的影响,以及铵态氮代谢、酚类物质代谢有关物质对芝麻状斑点病发生或缓解的影响。结果表明:铵态氮肥能加重芝麻状斑点病发生;EDTA-Fe和苯丙烯酸等能增加硝酸还原酶活性或酚类物质含量,也会加重芝麻状斑点病发生;能抑制酶促褐变的抗坏血酸和对细胞膜具有保护作用的硅酸钾对缓解芝麻状斑点病作用最大。%The Chinese cabbage line 03 B9 with high sensitivity to black sesame spot was used as material to investigate the influences of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate,potassium sulfate,urea) and exogenous substances related to ammonium nitrogen or phenol substance metabolism on occurrence and al -leviation of black sesame spot on Chinese cabbage through pot culture and exogenous watering .The results showed that the ammonium nitrogen fertilizer could aggravate the occurrence of black sesame spot .EDTA-Fe and cinnamic acid could increase the activity of nitrate reductase or synthesis of phenolics , and also aggravated the occurrence of black sesame spot .Whereas the ascorbic acid inhibiting enzymatic browning and potassium silicate possessing protective action on cell membrane could alleviate the black sesame spot .

  20. The selectivity of DNA insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Oberemok V.; Nyadar P.

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded LdMNPV iap3 gene fragments on tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and a significant effect of single-stranded TnSNPV iap3 gene fragments on the viability of cabbage looper and their harmlessness on black cutworm was found. DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV iap3 and TnSNPV iap3 gene fragments are selective in action. Our findings emphasize the importance of appropriate concentrations of DNA insecticides used to control phyllophagous insects. This article has b...

  1. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  2. 中国50个甘蓝代表品种EST-SSR指纹图谱的构建%EST-SSR Fingerprinting of Fifty Cabbage Representative Varieties from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 张扬勇; 庄木; 杨丽梅; 刘玉梅; 吕红豪; 方智远

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]In this study, the method of cabbage DNA fingerprint was drawn, and fifty cabbage representative varieties from China were fingerprinted with EST-SSR primers to provide reference for variety distinctness, authenticity, and purity identification. [Method]First, EST-SSR primers were screened by using the technologies of 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and six cabbage varieties that come from different ecogeography. The length of amplified fragments was detected on DNA Analyzer platform using four fluorescent-labels (TAMRA, HEX, ROX and 6-FAM) in 5′end of forward primer, and then defined the reference variety for every alleles. Total twenty core primers were used to establish fifty cabbage varieties SSR fingerprinting, and for ‘Zhonggan 21’ variety identification. [Result] Six cabbage varieties of different resources were used to screen 978 EST-SSR primers, out of 128 polymorphic primers were obtained according to the PCR bands stability, high polymorphism information content (PIC), easy discrimination of different alleles and even distribution of molecular markers on each chromosome, and 20 pairs of primers were selected to detect a total of 58 alleles at 20 loci, with 2.22 loci per chromosome and 2.9 alleles per locus on average. The PIC values varied among the primers ranging from 0.34 to 0.76. The length of amplified fragment varied in the range of 143-296 bp. The maximum number of alleles for each primer pairs of BoE607 and BoE723 was five. Fingerprinting database of 50 cabbage representative varieties from China was established with 20 pairs of core primers. The authenticity of‘Zhonggan 21’ was identified by artificial simulated population and these results were identical with that made from field investigation.[Conclusion]Twenty pairs of core primers were selected and used to establish DNA fingerprint database of 50 cabbage representative varieties from China, and the authenticity of‘Zhonggan 21’ was identified by

  3. Novas linhagens de repôlho e couve-flor para o Estado de São Paulo Improved cabbage and cauliflower types for São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1956-01-01

    ça, e a colheita dura cêrca de 60 dias. Iniciou-se o melhoramento da couve-flor "Campinas" em 1944, de material adquirido em casa comercial de São Paulo, com o nome "Quatro Estações". Após alguns anos de trabalho, criaram-se na E. E. Central em Campinas e na E. E. de Monte Alegre do Sul, linhagens muito boas. A variedade "Campinas" (I.A.C. n.° 1587 é de média precocidade, tendo produzido em 1950 e 1951, em campo de cooperação, respectivamente 398 e 1244 kg de sementes, ou uma média de 30 g por planta, ou sejam, 60 g por m², Para produção de sementes a melhor época de semeadura é fevereiro. As cabeças formam-se em junho e desde 120 dias após, as sementes são colhidas, durando a colheita 16 dias em média.Investigations on the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. cauliflora, Gars, D.C. plants at the Instituto Agronômico and its various experiment stations were intensified since 1941. From 1944 on, a great deal of attention has been given to the variety problem, to improvement of local and imported types, and to their seed production. Seventy four varieties of cabbage and 59 varieties of cauliflower have been tested. The majority of these grew well in the cool season, when the average monthly temperature was around 22.5°C during the vegetative period and about 16.6°C at the time when heads were formed. In order to supply the local markets with cabbage and cauliflower during the warmer months, attention was turned to types that were capable of making satisfactory growth and forming heads during those months of the year when temperature was high. The local variety of cabbage named "Louco" (I.A.C. N.° 758, as well as the cauliflower Early Benares from India, could be cultivated in summer and fall in most mparts of São Paulo. Satisfactory growth of these types was obtained at average monthly temperatures from 20.4 to 22.6°C, and good heading when the average monthly was from 18 to 22.2°C. Improvement of the

  4. 茉莉酸甲酯处理对鲜切莴苣和甘蓝苯丙烷代谢的影响%Effect of MeJA treatments on benzene propane metabolism in tissues of fresh-cut lettuce and cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰; 胡文忠; 毕阳; 姜爱丽; 萨仁高娃

    2013-01-01

    Fresh - cut lettuce and cabbage were taken as experimental materials which treated with methyl 1jasmonate( MeJA) at 10μmol/L( 10% methanol as solvent), and the effect of the chemical on benzenebpropane metabolic in tissues of fresh - cut lettuce and cabbage were studied. The results showed that MeJA treatment increased PAL( phenylalanin ammonia - lyase) activity of fresh-cut lettuce and cabbage effectively, and also enhanced the content of total phenol,flavonoids and lignin.lt was considered that MeJA could be used as signal molecule to induce the synthesis of polyphenol of benzene propane metabolic pathway to enhance the repair ability by itself and the resistance of fresh-cut lettuce and cabbage.%本文以鲜切莴苣和鲜切甘蓝为实验材料,采用10μmol/L茉莉酸甲酯(以10%甲醇为溶剂)浸泡处理,研究了处理后鲜切莴苣和鲜切甘蓝苯丙烷代谢的变化.结果表明,MeJA处理可有效提高鲜切莴苣和鲜切甘蓝苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性,同时,次生代谢产物如总酚、类黄酮以及木质素的含量也有所增加 由此可见,茉莉酸甲酯作为外界信号分子可诱导并激活苯丙烷代谢途径运行,合成多酚类化合物用以修复伤口,提高鲜切莴苣和甘蓝的自身修复能力与抗性.

  5. 包膜控释尿素及硝化抑制剂结合尿素对大白菜产量和品质的影响%Effect of Coated Control-Release-Urea and Nitrification Inhibitor On Yield and Quality of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文静; 林海涛; 刘兆辉; 江丽华; 张玉凤; 沈玉文

    2015-01-01

    以“北京新3号”大白菜为试材,在露地生产条件下,研究了两种聚合物包膜尿素( CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ)及硝化抑制剂结合尿素( DCD)对大白菜产量及品质的影响。结果表明,与习惯施肥( FP)相比, CRF-Ⅰ处理下大白菜产量提高了6.40%,CRF-Ⅱ、DCD处理下大白菜产量分别降低了1.48%、2.09%;CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ及DCD处理均能显著降低大白菜叶片中硝酸盐含量并提高 VC、还原糖、粗纤维含量。%Taking Chinese cabbage variety “Beijing New No.3” as material, the effects of coated control -release-urea and nitrification inhibitor on its yield and quality were studied under open -field condition.The results showed that, compared with conventional fertilization (FP), the self -made control -release-urea ( CRF-Ⅰ) could significantly increase the yield of Chinese cabbage by 6 .4%.The sold control-release-urea (CRF-Ⅱ) and nitrification inhibitor (DCD) decreased the yield of Chinese cabbage slightly by 1.48%and 2.09%respectively, and there was no significant difference .Compared with FP, CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱand DCD could improve nutritional quality , such as the contents of vitamin C , amino acid , reductive sugar and crude protein , and decrease the nitrate content in Chinese cabbage leaves .

  6. Effect of Contents of Heavy Metals by Application of Biogas Residue in Chinses Cabbage and Soil%施用沼渣对白菜及土壤重金属含量状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军芳; 贾良良; 冯伟; 韩宝文; 刘孟朝; 邢素丽

    2014-01-01

    The main content of this article was to study the effects of heavy metals contents by application of biogas residue in Chinese cabbage and soil .It used Large-scale pig farm manure as raw materials and fermentation biogas residue as tested material .The results showed that:the biomass yield of the Chinese cabbage in condition of the traditional use level of biogas residue ,which was on the basis of the application of chemical fertilizer ,was signif-icantly higher than non-fertilizer and only chemical fertilizer treatment ,but it was lower than traditional the pig ma-nure treatment .Comparing with non-fertilizer and only chemical fertilizer treatments ,the application of biogas resi-due on the basis of chemical fertilizer could significantly increase the contents of Cd ,Cu,Zn in chinese cabbage ,re-duce the contents of Cr ,As in it;also,the contents of heavy metals ( Cd,Cu,Zn) increased with the increasing use level of biogas residue , their relationship was rising straight-linearly, the application of biogas residue in season would′t cause the risk of heavy metal pollution in Chinese cabbage , but we couldn′t rulr out the potential risk of heavy metals pollution in Chinese cabbage with long-term application of accumulation of heavy metals in the soil;From the accumulation of heavy metals in soil ,comparing with non-fertilizer and only chemical fertilizer treatments , application of biogas residue on the basis of chemical fertilizer could increase the content of total Cr ,total Cu ,total Zn in soil,the relationship with the increasing use of biogas residue was also straight -linearly,a large number of long-term use of biogas residue could lead to soil heavy metal pollution risk .Under the same dosage conditions ,bio-gas residue as organic fertilizer security risk was greater than the pig manure .%以规模化养猪场猪粪为原料发酵的沼渣作为供试材料,研究施用沼渣对白菜及土壤重金属含量状况影响。结果表明:在施用化

  7. 茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响%The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol.The proportion of aldehydes and esters is increased significantly during pickles late shelf life.The benzene derivatives,alkene,alkyl,naphthalene are also increased considerably.The significant increasing of nonanal,decanal,allyl isothiocyanate,3-methyl-butyl butyrate might be the main reason for the late peculiar odors of pickled cabbage.Benzene derivatives,alkenes,naphthalene increasing might be the secondary reason for late odors.Acids and ketones in pickles are significantly reduced by tea polyphenol treatment and its ester and aldehydes reduce,but alcohols and alkenes increase at late shelf life ,and cause carbazole to disappear ,anthraquinone to increase,hydrazine to disappear,phenols to appear.Tea polyphenol treatment significantly reduces the 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acid,isothiocyanates,nonanal,and significantly increases D-limo-nene at late shelf life.The main odor substances of tea polyphenol treatment pickle cabbage at late shelf life are D-limonene,3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,1-octene-3-alcohol ketone.%茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜

  8. 小白菜不育系应用防虫网熊蜂制种效果初探%Use of Bumblebee for Hybrid Seed Production of Chinese Cabbage Based on Male Sterile Lines in Insect-proof Net Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦武青; 马志; 宋春; 叶小松; 沈新华; 王浩挻; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    2009-2010年采用熊蜂在镇江市蔬菜研究所防虫网内进行小白菜雄性不育系制种.结果表明,利用熊蜂授粉能显著提高制种产量,熊蜂授粉种子产量较本地蜜蜂授粉种子产量提高146.7%,较人工辅助授粉种子产量提高15.9%;熊蜂制种较人工辅助授粉种子纯度提高3.5%;利用熊蜂在防虫网内进行小白菜不育系制种是可行的.%The use of bumblebee in seed production of Chinese cabbage male-sterile line in insect-proof net cage has been tested at Zhenjiang Vegetable Institute during 2009-2010. The results showed that bumblebee can significantly improve bybrid seed production based on Chinese cabbage male-sterile line. The hybrid seed yield was 246.7% of local honey bees and 115.9% of hand pollination. The hybrid seed purity also increased 3.5% compared with hand pollination. It is practical to use bumblebee for hybrid seed production base on male sterile lines of Chinese cabbage in insect-proof net cages.

  9. Effect of Sludge on the Seed Germination Rate of Chinese Lettuce( Lactuca sativa var.ramose), Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis ) and Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum )%污泥对白菜·生菜和番茄种子发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开强

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the effect of urban sewage sludge on the germination rate of Lactuca sativa var. ramose, Brassica pekinensis and Lycopersicon esculenium. [ Method] A pot experiment is conducted to measure the effect of sludge application quantity on germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato. [ Result] With the increase of sludge application quantity, the seed germination rate of Chinese lettuce , cabbage and tomato decreased. [ Conclusion] Germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato is obviously inhibited by sludge.%[目的]研究城市生活污水厂污泥对生菜(Lactuca satuva car.ramose)、白菜(Brassica pekinensis)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)种子发芽率的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,测量污泥施用量对生菜、白菜和番茄的种子发芽率的影响.[结果]随着污泥施用量的增加,生菜、白菜和番茄种子发芽率降低.[结论]污泥对生菜、白菜和番茄的发芽率有明显的抑制作用.

  10. 基于复合EST-SSR标记的大白菜种子纯度鉴定及SNP位点获取%Purity Identification and SNP Site Obtain of Chinese Cabbage Hybrids Using Multiplex EST-SSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 王永; 兰青阔; 贺长征; 陈锐; 李欧静; 刘娜; 朱珠; 郭永泽

    2013-01-01

      In this research,10 Chinese cabbage〔Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis(Lour) Olsson〕hybrids and their parents were taken as study objects.Based on the EST sequences from NCBI genome data base,a SNP site and multiplex EST-SSR sites,which could be used to identify the purity of Chinese cabbage hybrids,were screened by SSR marker and high resolution melting(HRM) technology.According to the requirement of seed purity identification by high throughput molecular technology,the key techniques such as seedling culture condition of single seed,extraction status of single grain plant, rapid DNA extraction method and establishment of multiplex PCR system were groped and optimized.Results showed that the single germinating seed after 48 h could gain DNA with higher quality by the improved CTAB method in 3 h. Meanwhile,plant leaves reached seeding stage after 7 d,could complete DNA extraction by chexe-100 method within 40 min.The SNP site obtained by screening could be used to indentify the purity of 6 Chinese cabbage hybrids,and the multiplex EST-SSR locus could be used to indentify the purity of 10 Chinese cabbage hybrids.%  以10份大白菜杂交种及其亲本为研究对象,基于NCBI基因组数据库中EST序列信息,应用SSR标记及高分辨率溶解曲线技术筛选出用于大白菜杂交种纯度鉴定的SNP位点及复合SSR位点,并根据高通量分子检测技术种子纯度鉴定的需要,对单粒种子育苗条件、单株植株提取状态、快速DNA提取方法、复合PCR体系的建立等关键技术进行了摸索及优化。结果显示:经过48 h破壳状态的单粒种子,采用改良CTAB法可于3 h内得到较高质量的DNA;同时经7 d达到苗期状态的单株叶片,采用chexe-100法亦可于40 min内完成DNA提取;筛选得到的SNP位点可对6份大白菜杂交种进行纯度鉴定,复合SSR位点可对10份大白菜杂交种进行纯度鉴定。

  11. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  12. One-field Comparative Study on Soil Testing and Fertilizer of Cabbage%结球甘蓝测土配方施肥同田对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽; 胡庆文; 余世洪; 彭朝良

    2012-01-01

    [目的]验证不同肥力水平下蔬菜结球甘蓝的最佳施肥量在实际应用中的效果,指导大面积生产。[方法]选取高肥力与中肥力地块2组,各设置无肥区、习惯施肥和配方施肥区3个处理,研究测土配方施肥对蔬菜结球甘蓝产量及经济效益的影响。[结果]高肥力地块配方施肥区与习惯施肥区相比,增产率达到了4.8%,与无肥区相比,增产率达到了22.4%;中肥力地块配方施肥区与习惯施肥区相比,增产率达到了4.3%,与无肥区相比,增产率达到了26.8%,增产效果显著,经济效益明显。[结论]在今后结球甘蓝生产中,应大量推广使用配方施肥技术,既提高产量又增加效益,同时提高肥料利用率,减少环境污染和肥料副成分的残留,对可持续农业发展意义深远。%[Object] The aim of this research was to test the effect of the best fertilizer rales of cabbage in different soil tertility levels in practical application and Io guide the production in large tracts of land. [Method] Non-fertilizing,conventinnal fertilization and formula fertilization treatments were taken on the high fertility and medium fertility soil, the soil testing and formulated fertilization on vegetable cabbage yield and economic effect were studied. [Result] The results showd that in the high fertility test formula fertilization plot, comparing with the eonventional fertilization plot, the yield rate was increased and reached 4.8%, anti comparing with the non-fertilizing plot, the yield rate reached 22.4%. in the medium fertility test formula plot. comparing with the conventional fertilization plot, the yield rate reached 4.3%, and comparing with the non-fertilizing plot, the yield rate reached 26.8%. The production was increased greatly, and the economic benefit is obvious. [Conclusion] In the future,the fertilizer technology should be popularized in cabbage production, since it not only increase the production and the benefits but also improve

  13. 定向转育卵圆生态型大白菜雄性不育系的研究%Directional Breeding of An Oval-ecotype Male Sterile Line of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭翀; 郭瑛琪; 岳艳玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究大白菜定向转育卵圆生态型雄性不育系的方法。[方法]以大白菜核不育"复等位基因遗传假说"为理论依据,以甲型两用系‘AB12’为不育供体品系,以卵圆生态型可育品系‘06048’为待转育品系,采用杂交、回交、兄妹交和测交的方法,按照定向转育方案将核不育基因定向转育。[结果]各世代育性分离比率与理论相一致,成功育成了一种不育株率100%的具有‘06048’园艺性状的新核不育系,实现了核不育基因和园艺特性的同时转育。[结论]该研究成果验证此定向转育方案是可行的,进一步为基因型为 msms的其他园艺性状的大白菜定向转育提供理论基础,也可以推广应用到整个芸薹属其它经济作物中,极大的拓宽了优良核不育基因的实际应用范围。%Objective] The study aimed to explore the method for directional breeding of a male-sterile line in oval-ecotype Chinese cabbage. [Method] Based on "Multiple Al ele Hypothesis of Genic Male Sterile Chinese Cabbage", an inbred line ‘06048’ of oval ecotype was used as the receptor, and male fertile plant of ‘AB12’ was used as the donor line. Crossing, backcross, selfing, testcross and sibling were ap-plied to transfer the multiple al eles under the directional genetic model. [Result] Segregation ratio of every generation was consistent with theoretical value. A new male sterile line with 100% male sterility and ‘06048’ horticultural traits was ob-tained successful y, which accomplished the transfer of male sterile multiple al ele and horticultural characters of receptor line at the same time. [Conclusion] The re-search verifies that the model of directional transfer is feasible, provides a theoreti-cal basis for the directional transfer of Chinese cabbage with other horticultural traits whose genotype is msms. The model can also be applied to other Brassica crops, to generate genetic male sterile lines

  14. 几种类型甘蓝雄性不育的研究 与显性不育系的利用%Investigation of Different Types of Male Sterility and Application of Dominant Male Sterility in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方智远; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 王晓武; 庄木

    2001-01-01

    Several types of male sterility (MS) in cabbage were investigated. The results indicated that using male sterility in 81132 controlled by a recessive gene only 50% male sterile plants can be achieved. Nigra cytoplasmic male sterility in CMSn78091 is associated with small nectar glands and un-fully opened flowers. Radish cytoplasmic male sterility in R1cc409 has problems of poor seed setting and chlorosis at low temperature. It is difficult to apply these three materials in cabbage breeding. Male sterile material CMSR29551 with improved radish male sterile cytoplasm has very stable male sterility and no problem of chlorosis at low temperatures. Several MS lines were developed after backcrossing it with different inbred lines. However,it was found that after several generations of backcrossing,hybrid vigor of the male sterile lines decreased,which limited its application in practical breeding. Male sterile line CMSR3625 with another improved radish cytoplasm has not only promising plant growth,flowering and seed setting characteristics,but also high combining ability. It showed good prospect in cabbage breeding. Male sterility controlled by dominant male sterile gene has perfect economic characteristics and male sterility. Two hybrids,which have passed the test of Committee of National Agricultural Variety Examination and Approving, were developed.%隐性不育材料83121ms,不育株率仅50%。黑芥胞质不育材料CMSN78091不育花不能完全开放,蜜腺小。萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR1409等及其转育后代开花结实性状不良,且低温下叶色黄化,以上3类不育材料在甘蓝实际育种中应用困难。改良的萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR29551等及其转育后代低温下叶色不黄化,在其转育后代中筛选出几份开花结实性状较好的不育系,但多代回交后不育系配制的F1杂种优势弱,应用有局限性。改良的萝卜胞质不育系CMSR3625等,植株性状、开花结实特性

  15. Crescimento e produção de repolho em função de doses de nitrogênio Growth and yield of cabbage depending on nitrogen rates

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    MA Moreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo adequado do programa da adubação na cultura do repolho pode ser conseguido pela sincronização da demanda da planta com o suprimento de N durante o ciclo da cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência de doses de nitrogênio no acúmulo de massa da matéria seca e na produção, em diferentes fases do desenvolvimento da planta de repolho, híbrido Shutoku. O experimento foi conduzido na EPAMIG, Oratórios-MG, de 02/07 a 13/10/08. Os tratamentos, cinco doses de N (0; 75; 150; 300 e 450 kg ha-1, foram arranjados no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Aos 50, 64 e 78 dias após a semeadura foram avaliadas as características de crescimento das plantas: comprimento do caule, número de folhas, massa da matéria fresca e seca de folhas, caules e raízes e N na massa seca. A colheita final das cabeças de repolho ocorreu aos 103 dias após a semeadura. A maior produção de massa da matéria fresca da cabeça de repolho foi de 1,13 kg obtido com a dose de 277,8 kg N ha-1. Com a dose ótima de N para a produção, os valores ótimos estimados para os teores foliares de N-NO3 e de nitrogênio total variaram com a época de amostragem. O período inicial de maior acúmulo de massa da matéria seca variou com as doses de nitrogênio.The appropriate program of fertilization for the cabbage crop can be obtained through the synchronization of the plant demand of the plant with the supply of N during the cycle. We determined the influence of rates of nitrogen in the accumulation of dry weight and in the yield, in different phases of the development of cabbage hybrid Shutoku. The experiment was carried out in EPAMIG, Oratorios, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from July 2th to October 10th, 2008. Five rates of N were evaluated (0, 75, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha-1. Each treatment was set in randomized block design with four replications. At 50, 64 and 78 days after seeding, the characteristics of growth

  16. Breeding of a new combination of savoy cabbage ‘Paopaolü'%优质皱叶甘蓝新组合‘泡泡绿’的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦秀; 薄天岳; 缪体云; 任云英

    2012-01-01

    ‘泡泡绿’是由自交不亲和纯系197-121-75-143-3和146-3-1611杂交选育而成的皱叶甘蓝新组合.该组合半平铺型,开展度58.2 cm,叶色浅绿,外叶大,近圆形,叶面皱褶有叶泡,叶球圆形顶稍带尖,球面皱褶隆缩,单球重约780 g,产量约44 t/hm2,秋季栽培从定植到采收65~70 d.‘泡泡绿’品质优,帮叶比仅21.22%,Vc含量43.12 mg/100 g,粗蛋白含量2.94%,明显优于普通甘蓝品种‘争春’和国外皱叶甘蓝品种‘法美莎’.%'Paopaolii',a new combination of savoy cabbage,was bred by hybridizing two self-incompatible lines 197-121-75-143-3 and 146-3-1611. The plant of 'Paopaolü' is semi-procumbent and 58.2 cm in expansion degree;The plant's outer leaves are pale green,large and approximately round, and have wrinkles and phyllocysts;The head is round,slightly pointed at the top,and about 780 g in weight;The yield is 44 t/hm2 or so;The period from field planting to harvest is 65 - 70 d in fall cropping. 'Paopaolü' is good in quality,only 21.22% in petiole-leaf ratio,43.12 mg/100 g in vitamin C, and 2.94% in crude protein,and obviously superior to the control cultivars 'Zhengchun' (a common cabbage cultivar)and 'Fameisha' (a foreign savoy cultivar).

  17. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  18. 甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4的分子标记%The Effects of 5-azacytidine on DNA Methylation and Heat Tolerance of Seedlings of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红英; 钱春桃; 娄丽娜; 娄群峰; 张永兵; 伊鸿平; 吴明珠; 陈劲枫

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 5-azacytidine(5-azaC)on DNA methylation levels and heat tolerance of two commercial cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Makino],e.i‘.Xiadi’and‘Dongshangwei’,were studied. The results showed that DNA methylation levels of seedlings of the two cultivars were significantly decreased,no abnormal growth or development was observed. Pre-treatment of seeds of non-heading Chinese cabbage with 0.1–0.2 mol · L-1 of 5-azaC would slow down the decreasing of growth,POD activity,and soluble protein content of seedlings under heat stress,and decrease MDA content and cell membrane permeability as well.%以甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)抗蔓枯病自交系PI482398(含抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4)和感病自交系‘白皮脆’以及它们的F1、BC1P1、BC1P2、F2群体为材料,苗期进行蔓枯病菌(Didymella bryoniae)接种鉴定,结果表明甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4为单显性遗传。利用集团分离分析法(bulked segregant analysis,BSA)对89对SSR引物进行筛选,引物CMTA170a在抗性材料中可扩增出约为120bp的条带,并与抗性基因Gsb-4表现出连锁关系。统计了CMTA170a在118个F2单株上的多态性,并利用MAPMAKER/Exp version3.0b软件进行了计算,其与Gsb-4的遗传连锁距离为5.14cM。

  19. Study on the Effect of Allylisothiocyanate Formulations on Three Lepidopterous Insect Larvae, the Diamond Back Moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the Small Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and Tobacco Cut Worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eltayeb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The toxicity of seven of Allylisothiocyanate (AITC formulations, AITC pure and in mixture with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, was evaluated using spray application and fumigation method against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and the tobacco cut worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr. Approach: Response varied according to insect species, specific formulation and AITC application rates. Results: Fumigant toxicity of the oil based on 9 h exposure was evaluated against the three insect larvae, the diamond back moth, P. xylostella larvae were more susceptible followed by tobacco cut worm, S. litura and cabbage white, P. rapae larvae. To P. xylostella larvae, LC50 value was 1.5 µL L-1 air, S. litura larvae (LC50, 1.8 µL L-1 air and P. rapae larvae (LC50, 2.0 µL L-1 air. These three insect larvae were killed after 9 h exposure to a dose of 4.3 µL L-1 air of the oil, showed no significance difference with that of phosphine (40 µg L-1 air a recommended dose. On the other hand, on the spray application bioassays, mortality data counted 72h after treatment, the P. rapae larvae were most susceptible to AITC formulations followed by S. litura larvae and P. xylostella larvae. LC50 values, to P. xylostella larvae, HJ(A and HJ(B were the most potent toxicant (33 mg L -1 and (46 mg L-1 respectively, while the least toxic was HJ(C (556 mg L-1. To S. litura larvae, HJ(B and HJ(A were the most efficient (10 mg L-1 and (22 mg L-1 respectively, while HJ(D (LC50, 385 mg L-1 was found to be the least toxic. The both of HJ (B and HJ (C had similar insecticidal activity (LC50, 8 mg L-1 to Pieris rapae larvae followed by HD (B (LC50, 22 mg L-1 and HD (A (LC50, 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that the AITC oil showed promise findings and may be a good alternative to old fumigant “phosphine”. The others were found efficient on the spray application bioassays but the

  20. 大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建及鉴定%Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library from Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大领; 石学萍; 杨煜; 王彦华; 轩淑欣; 赵建军; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    以我国优良的大白菜自交系'85-1'为材料,利用 pIndigoBAC-5 为载体,通过对高分子量DNA 的制备、大片段 DNA 的选择、连接转化条件等几个方面的优化,构建了大白菜细菌人工染色体文库.该文库由 57 600个克隆组成,平均大小为98.4 kb,空载率为1.5%;覆盖大白菜基因组 10.3 倍;挑取 6 个克隆培养5 d 后,经HindⅢ完全酶切检测,其指纹图谱稳定一致.大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建为重要功能基因的克隆和定位及比较基因组研究奠定了基础.%A bacterial artificial chromosome library of Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour.)Olsson (Chinese cabbage) was constructed from inbred line‘ 85-1’ with the vector pIndigoBAC-5. The key processes of the construction, such as preparation of high molecular weight DNA, selection of digested fragments, condition of ligation and transformation, were studied. The library consists of 57 600 clones in which the average insert size is about 98.4 kb and the empty clones are about 1.5%. The library represents an equivalent of 10.3 fold size of Chinese cabbage genome. Six clones randomly picked from this library show no HindⅢ fingerprint changes after 5 days' successive culture, which indicates that the clones in the library are stable. The library will lay the foundation for gene clone, location and comparative genomics research of Brassica.

  1. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  2. 花心大白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding of Genetic Male Sterile Line in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.Pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 王昊; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    以白菜核基因雄性不育系(Msms)为不育源,以花心大白菜宫古花蕊Y02(MsfMsf)为轮回亲本,采用连续回交,杂交和自交的转育方法,成功地将不育基因转入到可育品系YO2中,育成了不育度和不育株率均为100%,植物学性状与Y02相近的新核不育系GMS4.%A multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage was used as the source of male sterility, backcrossing, crossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line Y02. The new male sterile line GMS4, which contained similar botanical characters with Y02 and the sterility frequency and sterility degree were all 100%, was obtained successfully.

  3. Breeding of Chinese Cabbage Gaokang 78 with Disease-resistance and High Quality and High Yield%抗病优质高产大白菜新品种高抗78的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞生; 刘海英; 韩靖玲; 侯奎华; 张艳欣

    2013-01-01

    The new Chinese cabbage variety Gaokang 78 was bred from the maternal parent 06C12-25 with high quality and strong combining ability and the male parent 05-10 with low affinity index and high disease resistance through incomplete diallel crossing.The variety is characterized by disease resistance, high quality and high yield which is suitable to be planted in the areas of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, north-east of China and so on.%以优质、配合力强的大白菜品种06 C12-25为母本,以亲和指数低、抗病性强的品种05-10为父本,经过不完全轮配法进行组配,选育出大白菜新品种高抗78。该品种具有抗病、优质、高产等特点,适宜在京津、河北、东北等地区播种。

  4. 大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育恢复基因BrMsf3的标记%SRAP Marker Analysis of Recessive Genic Male Sterile Restoring Gene in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张淑江; 李菲; 章时蕃; 孙日飞

    2011-01-01

    对一大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育系454AB的恢复基因BrMsf3进行了SRAP标记,构建包含320个单株的分离群体,筛选SRAP标记1 128个,筛选出与恢复基因BrMsf3连锁的2个标记BMe10SA4和M52K2,与恢复基因BrMsf3的遗传距离为4.35 cM和7.74 cM.%Genic male sterility lines were widely used in F1 seed production in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis ) . A recessive genic male sterile line 454AB which contained 320 individuals was constructed for this study. SRAP techniques and bulked segregant analysis ( BSA ) were used to screen markers linked to the RGMS restoring gene. Among the 1 128 primer combinations, only BMel0SA4 and M52K2 showed polymorphism between bulks of male sterile and fertile. The genic distances between restoring gene with BMe10SA4 and M52K2 were 4.35 cM and 7.74 cM, respectively.

  5. Selection and Identification of the SAT-chromosome Primary Trisomic of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%菜薹随体—染色体初级三体的筛选与遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申二巧; 张成合; 李晓锋; 轩淑欣; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    The flowering Chinese cabbage cultiva'rQinglu Caixin'was used for the satellite-chromosome trisomic(SAT-trisomic)selection by karyotype analysis and morphological identification from the backcross progeny of triploid(2n = 3x = 30)× diploid parent(2n = 2x = 20).The results showed that one SAT-trisomic was obtained from the 374 progeny identified by chromosome examination and karyotype analysis.Development of the SAT-trisomic was almost normal,but its stigma was above the stamen.Transmission rate of the extra SAT-chromosome was 6.04% by female gametes and 3.20% by male gametes.%以菜薹品种‘青露菜心’为材料,采用核型分析和形态学鉴定的方法,从三倍体与二倍体的回交子代中筛选SAT-染色体初级三体。共鉴定了374个回交子代,获得了1株SAT-染色体初级三体。SAT-染色体初级三体生长发育基本正常,但柱头高出雄蕊,(n+1)雌、雄配子的传递率分别为6.04%和3.20%。

  6. Preliminary research on model for determining crop water stress index of flowering Chinese cabbage based on canopy temperature%基于冠层温度的菜心缺水指数模型初步试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫星; 罗锡文; 区颖刚; 洪添胜; 胡红斌

    2003-01-01

    In this paper canopy temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer, air temperature, dry and wet-bulb temperature, and soil water content were measured as well to establish the model for determining the CWSI(crop water stress index) of flowering Chinese cabbage. The relationship between canopy-air temperature difference and vapor pressure deficit was determined. The preliminary model was established with regard to the influence of radiation intensity. A microcomputerized real-time data acquisition system was developed to monitor water-stress status for scheduling irrigation of vegetables.%以柳叶菜心为研究对象,测试了不同干旱条件下的土壤含水量、空气温湿度和冠层温度等参数,确定了作物缺水指数经验模型的参数,并针对太阳辐射强度对模型做了改进.研制了蔬菜旱情检测系统,利用红外测温仪、土壤含水量传感器等,可以实时测得田间作物的水分亏缺状态,为同类研究提供了测试手段和数据分析方法.

  7. 大白菜BrTCP24基因的克隆与功能分析%Cloning and Functional Analysis of BrTCP24 Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 谭婷婷; 张一卉; 李景娟; 李化银; 李利斌; 刘立锋; 高建伟

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for negative control of the leaf heading growth of Chinese cabbage,which can be help to speed up breeding progress of the small heading Chinese cabbage varieties that meet the current market demands.Here,a full-length TCP cDNA named BrTCP24,which belongs to the second subgroups of TCP domain family,was isolated from leaves of Chinese cabbage inbred line Fushanbaotou (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis).The full-length cDNA of BrTCP24 consisted of 1 221 nucleotides,and was predicted to code a 406-amino acid polypeptide.In addition,there were no introns in BrTCP24 gene.The phylogenetic analysis about BrTCP24 and TCP families in Arabidopsis was carried out using the software of MEGA4.0.The result indicated that BrTCP24 gene and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 gene would belong to the same branch,which suggested they had closely genetic relationship.The alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 indicated that there was 55.15% identity between them.Additionally,these two proteins contained conserved TCP domain and had 91.53% identity in this domain.These results suggested that BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 would have similar biological functions.The semiquantitive RT-PCR indicated that BrTCP24 gene was expressed in roots,dwarf stems,rosette leaves,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers examined in Chinese cabbage.Among them,rosette leaves had the highest mRNA level,followed by roots,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers,while dwarf stems had the lowest mRNA level.Interestingly,the expression level of BrTCP24 didn't effect by 5 μmol NAA treatment in 12 h period.To test the function of BrTCP24,we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would over-express BrTCP24 ectopically,driven by CaMV 35S promoter,and obtained 17 transgenic lines by Kanamycin and PCR screening.Using RT-PCR method,we randomly detected 5 transgenic lines and found all of them could express

  8. Cloning and characterization of the G protein betagamma subunits from Trichoplusia ni (High Five cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkadathmeethal, Kannan; Felczak, Aimee; Davignon, Isabelle; Collins, Julie; Sunahara, Roger K

    2005-04-01

    Baculoviral-mediated expression in insect cells has become a method of choice where high-level protein expression is desired and where expression in Escherichia coliform (E. coli.) is unsuitable. Genes of interest are inserted into the baculoviral genome of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) under the extremely strong, but very late polyhedron gene (PolH). The preferred host lines are derived from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 or Sf21) or Tricoplusia ni (High Five, Invitrogen). Viral expression in insect cells is commonly used in the signal transduction field, due to the more than satisfactory capacity to express membrane proteins. However, co-association and/or co-purification of contaminating endogenous host G protein subunits, for example, may potentially threaten the functional and structural homogeneity of membrane preparations. The undefined G protein composition is complicated by the limited sequence data of either the S. frugiperda or Tricoplusia ni genomes. Here we report the isolation of cDNAs encoding two members of the heterotrimeric G protein family, Gbeta (Tn-Gbeta) and Ggamma (Tn-Ggamma), from Tricoplusia ni. Tn-Gbeta shares approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity with Gbeta from Drosophila melanogaster and 84% identity with mammalian Gbeta (human Gbeta1). Tn-Ggamma shares approximately 71% amino acid identity with D. melanogaster Ggamma1 and 42% identity with mammalian Ggamma (human Ggamma2). Tn-Gbetagamma is also functionally similar to mammalian Gbeta1gamma2 by virtue of their capacity to form a complex with mammalian Galpha subunits, support G-protein-dependent agonist binding to a mammalian G protein-coupled receptor (beta2-adrenergic receptor) and directly regulate effectors such as adenylyl cyclase. PMID:15763469

  9. A NEW CELL CLONE DERIVED FROM TRICHOPLUSIA NI TN5B1-4 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xiaoTian; Chang-youLi; Gui-lingZheng; Guo-xunLi; PingWang; Granados

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of a cultured cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage. Most continuous cell lines, even after cloning, possess several genotypes that are constantly changing. There are numerous selective and adaptive culture processes, in addition to genetic instability, that may improve phenotypic change in cell growth, virus susceptibility, gene expression, and production of virus. Similar detrimental effects of long term passaging of insect cells have also been reported for continuous cell lines, for example, Tn5B 1-4 cells, which are the most widely used for the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), provide superior production of recombinant proteins,however, this high productivity may be more evident in low passage cells. In this paper, we describe the isolation of a cell clone, Tn5B-40, from low passage Tn5B 1-4 cells. The growth characteristics,productions of virus, and high level of recombinant protein productions were determined. The results showed the susceptibility of both clone and Tn5B 1-4 cells to wild-type AcNPV was approximately the same rate with over 95% of infection; when the cloned cells were infected with recombinant baculoviruses expressing β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), expression of the recombinant proteins from the cloned cells exceeded that from the parental Tn5B 1-4 cells.

  10. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  11. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Yields,Contents of Heavy Metal and Nitrate in Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce%钾肥对大白菜和莴苣产量、重金属和硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小晶; 王正银; 赵欢; 刘芳; 陈燕霞; 向华辉; 李戎

    2011-01-01

    采用田间小区试验研究了酸性土壤上两种钾肥不同用量对大白菜和莴苣产量、重金属和硝酸盐含量的影响.结果表明:施用两种钾肥均明显提高了大白菜和莴苣的产量,分别增产9.0%~20.0%和8.7%~52.0%,增产作用最大的处理均为高钾处理[30 kg·(667 m2)-1].中量硫酸钾配施泥炭(K2S+M)处理较单施硫酸钾处理使大白菜和莴苣显著增产,分别增产14.6%和12.1%.施用钾肥明显降低了大白菜硝酸盐含量,但对莴苣硝酸盐含量以提高作用为主,且随着钾肥施用量的增加呈递减趋势.施用钾肥显著降低了大白菜砷和铅含量,明显降低了莴苣铬含量,对其余重金属的作用不一致.中量硫酸钾配施泥炭处理明显降低了大白菜和莴苣的重金属含量(大白菜汞和莴苣镉除外),提高了蔬菜的食用安全性.%Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of two kinds potash fertilizer with different dosages on yield, contents of heavy metal and nitrate in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. spp. pekinensis ) and lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ) under acidic soil cultivation. Results indicated that two kinds potash fertilizers could significantly increase the yields of Chinese cabbage and lettuce, which reach 9.0 %-20.0 % and 8.7 %-52.0 %. And the maximum yield was at the high potassium level ( 450 kg · hm-2 )for Chinese cabbage and lettuce. Combination of medium potassium sulfate and peat (K2S+M) could markedly increase yields of two vegetables as compared with potassium sulfate which reach 14.6 % and 12.1%. Potash fertilizers could significantly decrease nitrate content of Chinese cabbage as well improve the content of lettuce. Potash fertilizers could greatly decrease arsenic and lead content of Chinese cabbage as well chromium and lead of lettuce. The effects of potash fertilizers on other heavy metals in two vegetables were discrepancy. Combination of potassium sulfate and peat could

  12. Influência da biomassa de leguminosas sobre a produção de repolho em dois cultivos consecutivos Influence of the biomass of legumes on cabbage yield held in two consecutive crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de O Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos de avaliação do desempenho de culturas em sequência à adubação verde, geralmente não se considera o efeito das raízes dos adubos verdes. Entretanto, tais efeitos podem contribuir para maior entendimento científico da adubação verde. Foram avaliados o efeito da raiz e da parte aérea das leguminosas Crotalaria juncea e Canavalia ensiformis sobre a produção do repolho em dois cultivos. O experimento foi instalado em esquema fatorial (2 x 3 + 2, sendo 2 espécies de leguminosas e 3 partes das plantas (raiz, parte aérea ou planta inteira e 2 tratamentos adicionais (adubação mineral com 100% ou 50% da dose recomendada de N, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições. A parte aérea do adubo verde foi aplicada em superfície. O cultivo sobre a massa da parte aérea ou da planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco reduziu a necessidade de adubação com N-mineral em 50%, mas a produção de repolho foi reduzida com o cultivo sobre o sistema radicular de feijão de porco. Áreas em que foram deixadas a parte aérea ou a planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco resultaram em maiores efeitos residuais sobre o segundo cultivo que a adubação com N-mineral. O cultivo sobre as raízes destas leguminosas não resultou em efeito residual diferente da adubação mineral com 50 ou 100% da recomendação da adubação N.In studies assessing the performance of crops in response to green manure generally are not considered the effect of roots. However, such effects may contribute to increase the scientific understanding towards this technique. The effect of the root and of the aboveground part of two legume species, Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis, were evaluated on cabbage yield in two crops. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with 4 replications in a factorial design (2 x 3 + 2 (2 legumes species - Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans, 3 plant parts (root, aboveground

  13. Produtividade do repolho utilizando cobertura morta e diferentes intervalos de irrigação com água moderadamente salina Cabbage yield using mulching and different irrigation intervals with moderately saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação em áreas sob escassez hídrica é imperativo para o incremento da eficiência do uso da água, particularmente em áreas susceptíveis a salinização e a elevadas demandas atmosféricas. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito da cobertura morta e de intervalos de irrigação utilizando-se água moderadamente salina sobre a produtividade do repolho e sobre suas variáveis relacionadas, em vale aluvial no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições, mediante a aplicação de intervalos de irrigação de 12, 24 e 48 h, com utilização de uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, e presença ou ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Verificou-se que as produtividades foram afetadas pelos intervalos de irrigação e pela presença da cobertura morta. A máxima eficiência uso da água foi obtida aplicando-se o intervalo de irrigação de 12 h com cobertura morta, correspondendo a 110,49 Mg ha-1 mm-1, em consequência da menor variação da umidade ao longo do experimento. A relevância da cobertura morta ficou evidenciada para o tratamento com intervalo de irrigação de 48 h, tendendo a controlar as perdas de umidade e manter a produtividade do repolho.The irrigation management in areas under water scarcity is imperative to increase the water use efficiency particularly in areas with salinization risk and high atmospheric demands. In this study, effect of mulching and irrigation intervals was evaluated using moderately saline water on cabbage yield and on its related variables in an alluvial valley in the semiarid. The experimental design was in random blocks using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 4 replications, adopting irrigation application intervals of 12, 24 and 48 h, and a leaching fraction of 20%, and considering mulching presence or absence on the soil. It was verified that productivities have been affected by the irrigation interval and by mulching. The

  14. Electron Microscopic Study on Male Sterile CMS96 and Maintainer Line in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 徐家炳; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 王永健; 方智远

    2012-01-01

    为了研究大白菜CMS96不育系花药败育机理,采用透射和扫描电镜,观察大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系的花药发育过程、花药和花粉表面结构.透射电镜结果表明,与保持系相比,在减数分裂期,大白菜CMS96不育系绒毡层与花药壁中层分开,不育系花粉母细胞皱缩,形状不规则,空隙较大,严重影响减数分裂正常进行;在单核小孢子时期,小孢子开始液泡化,直至成熟花粉期完全液泡化为空细胞,细胞壁严重萎缩,堆积在一起,最终花粉失去功能,导致败育.扫描电镜结果表明,大白菜CMS96不育系药室内的花粉畸形,花粉粒空瘪,表现为凹陷、扁平等形状,表面纹饰也呈多种不规则形状.花粉囊不开裂,没有花粉散出.初步认为,大白菜CMS96不育系花粉的败育从减数分裂开始到成熟花粉,伴随花粉发育整个过程.大白菜CMS96不育系药室内花粉粒虽具有花粉壁的结构,但扁平、空瘪,重叠堆积在药室壁上,失去了活力,无法散开.%Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques, anther and pollen development, surface of anther and pollen grains were studied in order to obtain differences between CMS96 and maintainer line in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis). Results of transmission electron microscopy showed middle layer and tapetum of CMS96 were separated during meiosis. And early pollen mother cells (PMC) of CMS96 were with irregular shape and many larger gaps. Thus meiosis of PMC was influenced seriously. During mononuclear stage, microspore began to be vacuolated and mature pollens were empty to be seriously in cell wall and piled together leading to pollen grain abortion. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed pollen grains of CMS96 in the anther were abnormal and empty with hollow and flat shape. Pollen veins were irregular. No grains were released because pollen sac closed. Preliminary results showed pollen grains abortion

  15. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbage with Orange Color in Inner Head and Purple Color in Leaf%大白菜橘红色和紫色遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 汪维红; 张凤兰; 赵岫云; 余阳俊; 于拴仓; 徐家炳; 卢桂香

    2011-01-01

    F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations were obtained through crossing, self-crossing and backcrossing by Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ) of orange color in inner head with pakchoi ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. Communis Tsen et Lee ) of purple color in leaf, in order to study the genetic relationship between inner head color and leaf color. Results showed that colors of Fi hybrids were non orange-purple colors. The ratios of 4 genotypes were close to 9 non orange-purple : 3 non orange-non purple : 3 orange-purple : 1 orange-non purple for F2 progenies. The ratio of orange-purple genotype ororPr- was close to 18.75%, of which was close to 6.25% for pure orange-purple genotype ororPrPr. For BC1 progenies, the ratios of 4 genotypes were close to 1 non orange-purple : 1 non orange-non purple : 1 orange-purple : 1 orange-non purple. For BC2 progenies, all plants owned non orange-purple colors. Results of X test deeply showed that the genetic relationship between inner head color and leaf color on Chinese cabbage and pakchoi was not linked, which controlled by 2 independent genes. Orange gene or was located on the end of chromosome 1 in Agenome. Purple gene was located on some chromosomes except chromosome 1, which or gene was located.%以球内叶橘红色的大白菜和外叶紫色的普通白菜(小白菜)为亲本进行杂交、自交和回交,研究大白菜橘红色、紫色2对基因的遗传规律.结果表明:球内叶橘红色的大白菜和外叶紫色的普通白菜杂交,F1植株颜色为非橘红心-紫色;在F2群体中出现4种基因型,非橘红心-紫色、非橘红心-非紫色、橘红心-紫色、橘红心-非紫色,比例接近9∶3∶3∶1,其中获得橘红心-紫色基因型ororPr-的概率为18.75%,获得纯合橘红心-紫色基因型ororPrPr的概率为6.25%;在BC1群体中,4种基因型之比接近1∶1∶1∶1;BC2群体中,全部植株颜色为非橘红心-紫色.x2检测结果进

  16. Mercury Content and Pollution Assessment of Soil and Cabbage Surrounding Yangshuo Pb-Zn Mining District in Guangxi%广西阳朔铅锌矿周边土壤和白菜汞含量及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫福金; 钱建平; 王远炜; 张藜

    2016-01-01

    Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine is a relatively large mine in Guangxi. The article tries to understand the mercury pollution in soil and cabbage, as well as the transition and transform rule of mercury in soil-vegetables system. Investigation and research about the mercury content distribution and mercury pollution of soil and cabbage in the sourrouding farming area and residential area of Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine was done, in order to provide a scientific basis for mercury pollution prevention and remediation. In the research, 66 soil samples and 35 cabbage samples were collected in farming area of the downstream of Pb-Zn mine, 38 soil samples and 20 cabbage samples were collected in control farming area; 17 soil samples were collected in residential area. All soil and plant samples were digested by MDS-2003F-type pressure-controlled microwave digestion system and were analyzed with atomic fluorescence mercury analyzer. The result showed that the mercury concentration in the downstream arming area of Pb-Zn mine was (0.5674±0.2683) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in control farming area was (0.1471±0.0395) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in residential area was (0.1880±0.0972) mg·kg-1, which is 7.99, 2.07, 2.65 times higher compared with the natural content (0.071 mg·kg-1) of soil Mercury in some areas. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the soil mercury levels is decreasing when the distance from the mine is increasing. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 27600 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 7100 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 19300 ng·kg-1; in the control farming area, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 12500 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 4800 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 10000 ng·kg-1. Cabbage mercury distribution characteristics is

  17. 不同钝化材料对土壤镉活性和大白菜镉吸收影响的比较%A Comparative Study on the Effects of Different Passivators on Soil Cadmium Availability and Cadmium Uptake of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富林; 夏贤格; 刘婷婷; 杨利; 熊桂云; 范先鹏; 刘冬碧; 余延丰; 张继铭

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lime, sodium metasilicate, biochar and their mixtures on soil cadmium availability and cadmium uptake of Chinese cabbage were studied comparatively using pot experiment method in this paper. The results showed that biochar, sodium metasilicate and their mixtures with lime all could inhibit the availability of soil cadmium and the uptake of Chinese cabbage on cadmium evidently, and their inhibiting capacities were almost equivalent. The inhibiting capacities of these passivators on soil cadmium availability were weaker than that of lime, but their capacities of inhibiting the cadmium uptake of Chinese cabbage were almost equivalent to that of lime. The inhibiting mechanisms of sodium silicate and lime to soil cadmium activity were decreasing the soil pH value, and the inhibition of biochar was not only related to the decrease of soil pH value, but also to the adsorption to cadmium. These passivators and their mixtures had no significant effect on the yield of Chinese cabbage.%采用盆栽试验的方法对比研究了石灰、偏硅酸钠、生物炭及其混合材料对土壤镉活性和大白菜(Brassica rapa pekinensis)镉吸收的影响。结果表明,施用生物炭、偏硅酸钠以及二者与石灰组成的混合材料都对土壤镉活性和大白菜镉吸收有抑制作用,而且抑制效果基本相当;这些材料对土壤镉活性的抑制效果都低于石灰,但对大白菜镉吸收的抑制效果与石灰基本相当;偏硅酸钠和石灰抑制土壤镉活性的机制主要是降低了土壤pH,而生物炭对土壤镉活性的降低不仅与其降低土壤pH有关,也与其对镉的吸附有关;施用3种钝化材料及其混合材料都对大白菜产量没有明显影响。

  18. Comportamento agronômico de cultivares e híbridos de repolho na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul Agronomic behavior of cabbage cultivars and hybrids in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fracaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata é uma das plantas hortícolas mais importantes na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Assim sendo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os melhores cultivares e híbridos de repolho para esta região. Quinze materiais comerciais de repolho, de distintos distribuidores e origens, foram avaliados quanto ao seu comportamento agronômico em Veranópolis, RS, de julho a novembro de 1997, adotando a tecnologia usualmente recomendada para esta região. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas com os híbridos Shinsei (54,8t/ha, Japonês (53,6t/ha, Astrus (48,6t/ha e Kenzan (44,8t/ha, e o cultivar Brunswick (43,5t/ha. Entretanto, considerando a preferência do mercado por repolhos de 1 a 1,5kg, os melhores materiais foram Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, com produtividades da ordem de 32 a 40t/ha.Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata is one of the most important horticultural plants in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The objective of the present study was to identify the best cultivar and hybrid of cabbage for this region. Fifteen commercial materials of cabbage, from different distributors and origins, were evaluated for their agronomic behavior in Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, from July to November, 1997, adopting the technology usually recommended for this region. The best productivities were obtained with the hybrids Shinsei (54.8t/ha, Japonês (53.6t/ha, Astrus (48.6t/ha and Kenzan (44.8t/ha, and the cultivar Brunswick (43.5t/ha. However, considering the preference of the market for cabbages of 1 to 1.5kg, the best materials were Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, with productivities of the order of 32 to 40t/ha.

  19. Effects of Controlled-release N Fertilizers on Maize and Cabbage Growth%控释氮肥对玉米和大白菜生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安勋; 廖宗文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the controlled-release character of controlled-release N fertilizer. [ Method] Effects of con-trolled-release N fertilizers on the growth of maize and Chinese' cabbage and soil N content were studied through a field experiment. [Result] All controlled-release N fertilizers were basal applied,which were better than conventional fertilizer used,and the same as more 10% N used. And corn biological yield were 8.8% and 5.2% higher respectively. Controlled-release effect of PK were better than that of MFSU-Xin. PK and MFSU-Xin could significantly increase relative fertilizer efficiency by 89.2% and 53. 2% respectively. [Conclusion] Controlled-release N fertilizer increased soil N and it could provide more N to future crop.%[目的]为了研究控释氮肥的控释性能.[方法]通过田间试验,研究2种控释氮肥在玉米和大白菜上的施用效果和对土壤氮素养分的影响.[结果]控释肥一次施入肥效明显地优于常规施肥,与多追施10%氯效果相近,玉米生物产量分别比常规施氮增加8.8%和5.2%,PK包膜尿素的控释效果比MFSU-Xin包膜尿素好.控释肥可明显提高氮肥的利用率,PK和MFSU-Xin控释肥利用率分别比常施肥提高89.2%和53.2%.[结论]控释肥可以增加土壤后效,为下季作物提供较多氮素.

  20. 大白菜黑斑病室内苗期抗性鉴定方法的研究%Study on Resistance Identification Method for Black Spot of Chinese Cabbage at Seedling Stage in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘彩霞; 祝花; 崔磊; 袁伟玲; 高翔; 符义彬; 梅时勇

    2012-01-01

    为了选育大白菜(Brassica campestris L.ssp pekinensis (Lour.) Olsson)抗黑斑病(A lternaria brassicae)新品种和种质创新,在室内利用6个品种的大白菜研究了接种物浓度、苗龄和温度对大白菜黑斑病发病的影响,结果表明,在(25±1)℃光照培养室内,选择浓度为1.0×104个孢子/mL或1.0×105个孢子/mL的黑斑病病菌孢子悬浮液喷雾接种于苗龄为3~4片真叶的大白菜幼苗,保湿24~48 h,10d后进行病情调查,可对大白菜种质资源抗黑斑病的抗性进行正确评价.%In order to provide technical support for breeding new varieties and germplasm innovation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp pekinensis(Lour.) Olsson) with resistance to black spot(Alternaria brassicae), the influence of inoculation spore concentration, seedling stage and temperature on black spot occurrence was studied with six varieties. It was showed that by spraying 1.0×104pfu/mL or 1.0×105pfu/mL spore suspension on seedling at 3~4 leaf stage and then moisturizing for 24~48 h at (25±1)℃ in door, the resistance of radish varieties on the black spot could be accurately evaluated 10 d after inoculation.

  1. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  2. 紫菜薹核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用%Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Purple Stalk Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 娄广学

    2011-01-01

    以复等位基因遗传的白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107为不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交筛选基因型的方法,向紫菜薹自交系XA500中转育核不育基因,育成了园艺学性状与XA500相近,不育株率和不育度均达到100%的紫菜薹雄性不育系GMS500.用该不育系配成的杂交组合整齐一致,园艺学性状优异,单位面积产量显著高于对照品种'紫婷11号'.%In order to solve the problems in the transfer and utilization of genie male sterile line in purple stalk Chinese cabbage, '00S107' which is a multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line was used as a source of male sterility in Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis var. Purpurca Hort. Methods of crossing and backcrossing were applied to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line' XA500' - A new genetic male sterile line 'GMS500' with 100% of male sterile plants was obtained, which was similar to 'XA500' in horticultural characteristics. An excellent hybridized combination was developed, which is uniform and superior to 'Ziting 11' in yield.

  3. Research Antifungal Activity on Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria from Traditional Sour Cabbage%传统酸菜中具有抗真菌特性乳酸菌素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传娟; 双全; 栗永乐; 萨如拉; 桑木信辅; 琢田爱

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which isolated from the sour cabbage juice prepared by herdsman in the east Inner Mogolia Region, were determined by Plate punch diffusion method, and the extracellulary bacteriocins of one screening strain was partial purified by gel filtration Sephadex G-15, and its biochemical characteristics were assessed in vitro. The results showed that strain S1-4 of LAB, which was screened out from 84 tested strains, had a broad spectrum antibacterial fungi property. Purified extracellulary bacteriocins from strain S1-4 was characterised as a proteinaceous substance. This bacteriocins compound, molecular mass ranged from 6.5 kDa to 8 kDa, has thermal stability and acid tolerance with an optimum antibacterial ability at pH 4.0.%通过平板打孔扩散法测定从内蒙古东部地区传统酸菜汁中分离的乳酸菌(LAB)的抑菌能力,再用葡聚糖凝胶G-15对筛选乳酸菌的胞外细菌素进行分离及特性研究。结果显示,84株供试乳酸菌中筛选出1株具有广谱抗真菌能力的乳酸菌S1-4。该乳酸菌所产生的胞外抑菌素属蛋白类物质,具有热稳定和耐酸特性,在pH4.0时抑菌效果最佳,其分子量约为6.5KDa~8kDa。

  4. 结合光谱图像技术和SAM分类法的甘蓝中杂草识别研究%Research on Identification of Cabbages and Weeds Combining Spectral Imaging Technology and SAM Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖琴; 张水发; 曹阳; 赵会义; 党长青

    2015-01-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide.Therefore,accurate,rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture.Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cab-bage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed,barnyard grass,goosegrass,crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1 000 to 2 500 nm.In ENVI,by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11,and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra,finally,using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds,the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0.1 radians.In HSI Analyzer,after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum,the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages.Furthermore,in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally,the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classi-fication image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image.The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing,0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle,the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds,non-weeds and overall samples was 80%,97. 3% and 96. 8% respectively.The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image.By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level,integrating the advantages of spectra and images

  5. Research on Identification of Cabbages and Weeds Combining Spectral Imaging Technology and SAM Taxonomy%结合光谱图像技术和SAM分类法的甘蓝中杂草识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖琴; 张水发; 曹阳; 赵会义; 党长青

    2015-01-01

    杂草自动识别技术是实现变量喷洒、精准施药的关键,更是制约其实现的瓶颈,因此,准确、快速、无损地实现杂草自动识别已成为精准农业的一个重要研究方向。利用高光谱成像系统采集甘蓝幼苗及小藜、稗草、牛筋草、马唐和狗尾草等五种杂草在1000~2500 nm波长区间的高光谱图像数据,在ENVI中经过MNF变换对数据降噪、去相关,并将波段维数从256维降到11维,通过提取感兴趣区域获得标准光谱,最后利用SAM分类法识别甘蓝与杂草,光谱角弧度阈值为0.1弧度时,分类效果良好。在 HSI Analyzer中选择训练像元获得标准光谱后,利用SAM分类法识别甘蓝与杂草,并利用人工分类图与SAM分类图比较定量度量杂草的识别正确率,结果表明,当参数设置为5点平滑、0阶导数和7度光谱角度时,分类效果最佳,杂草识别率为80.0%,非杂草类识别率为97.3%,总体识别率为96.8%。应用光谱图像技术与SAM分类法相结合的方法进行杂草检测,充分利用了光谱和图像的融合信息,该方法应用空间的分类算法来建立光谱判别方法的训练集,在像素级别上考察光谱矢量之间的相似性,融合了光谱和图像两者的优势,同时兼顾了准确性和快速性,并且在整场范围内(行间和行内)改善杂草检测范围,为农业精确管理中需要植物精准信息的应用领域提供了相关的分析手段和方法。%Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide.Therefore,accurate,rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture.Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cab-bage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed,barnyard grass

  6. Effect of Se,Zn and Mo on Yield and Contents of Nutrient Elements and Selenium and Cadmium of Potato and Cabbage on the Loess Plateau%硒锌钼对黄土高原马铃薯和小白菜产量及营养元素与硒镉含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 王朝辉; 毛晖; 赵护兵; 昝亚玲; 李孟华

    2012-01-01

    黄土高原旱地土壤微量元素硒锌钼潜在缺乏,不仅影响农作物产量,还降低农产品的矿物营养品质,研究施用硒锌钼肥料对该地区作物生长及可食部分营养元素含量的影响具有重要意义.通过田间试验,研究了硒锌钼肥单独土施、硒锌肥配施、硒锌钼肥配施对马铃薯和小白菜产量及营养元素和硒镉含量的影响.结果表明:硒肥提高了马铃薯块茎和小白菜叶片硒含量,分别由对照的0.02 mg· kg-1和0.09 mg· kg-1提高到1.51~2.15 mg·kg-1和13.03~19.44 mg·kg-1,钼肥提高了马铃薯块茎和小白菜叶片钼含量,分别由对照的0.43 mg· kg-1和2.3 mg· kg-1提高到1.03~1.16 mg·kg-1和17.7~19.9 mg·kg-1,单施与配施处理间无显著差异.锌肥土施或锌与硒、钼肥配合土施不但使小白菜叶片中的锌含量由对照的21.0 mg·kg-1显著提高到48.1~68.4 mg· kg-1,还使镉含量显著降低50%以上;施锌对马铃薯块茎的锌含量无显著影响.硒锌钼肥单施或配施均对马铃薯和小白菜产量及氮、磷、钾、硫、钙、镁、铁、锰、铜、硼含量无显著影响.因此,在黄土高原旱地,硒钼配合土施可同时提高马铃薯块茎的硒钼含量,硒锌钼配合土施可同时提高小白菜叶片的硒锌钼含量.%On the dryland of the Loess Plateau in China, deficiency of Se, Zn and Mo not only impacts crop yields, but also reduces the essential nutrient concentrations in agricultural products. Therefore, in order to improve the crop yield and its nutritional quality, field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of separately soil-applied selenium(Se), zinc(Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) fertilizer or their combination on the yield and concentrations of mineral nutrient, Se and cadmium (Cd) of potato and cabbage. Obtained results showed that soil Se application significantly increased Se concentrations in potato tubers and cabbage leaves from 0.02 mg·kg-1 and 0.09 mg·kg-1

  7. 菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的作用%Effects of Stenotrophomonas sp.Strain ZS-S-01 on the Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate Residue on Flowering Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少华; 耿鹏; 胡美英; 肖盈; 刘明智

    2011-01-01

    通过室内盆栽和田间小区试验,评价降解菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的效果.室内盆栽试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为71.1%和65.9%,残留量分别为0.28和0.35 mg/kg,降解半衰期(T1/2)分别为26.3和29.2 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了57.2和34.1 h.田间小区试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为63.2%和54.0%,残留量分别为0.35和0.46 mg/kg,T1/2分别为27.7和32.1 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了34.2和15.4 h.可见,降解菌株ZS-S-01可有效去除菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药残留.处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯残留量均低于国家叶菜类蔬菜中最大残留限量(MRLs),显示该菌具有进一步开发的潜力.%The effects of Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain ZS-S-01on the degradation of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate residue on flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ) were investigated by pot and field plot experiments, respectively. The results from the pot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 71. 1% and 65. 9% after 72 h, leaving 0. 28 and 0. 35 mg/kg. Furthermore, the half lives ( Tl/2) of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate treated with strain ZS-S-01 were 26. 3 and 29. 2 h, reduced by 57. 2 and 34. 1 h compared with the control. The results from the field plot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 63. 2% and 54. 0% after 72 h, leaving 0. 35 and 0. 46 mg/kg. The Tl/2 of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate were 27. 7 and 32. 1 h, reduced by 34. 2 and 15. 4 h compared with the control. The 72-hour residual values of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese

  8. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  9. Efeito de métodos de irrigação e do uso de cobertura vegetal sobre o cultivo de repolho em São Luís-MA Effect of irrigation methods and mulching on the cabbage in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoel G de Moura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver mecanismos que minimizem o estresse da cultura de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. provocado pela alta temperatura do ar em São Luís, MA, instalou-se um experimento em um Argissolo Arênico, no qual foram testados irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos de irrigação diários (às 12 e 18 horas, com e sem cobertura vegetal sobre o solo, e irrigação por sulco com e sem cobertura vegetal sobre o solo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Na irrigação por aspersão, o horário de irrigação e o uso de cobertura vegetal no solo não afetaram o desenvolvimento das cabeças de repolho (compacidade, comprimento do coração e a massa fresca. Na irrigação por sulco, a compacidade e a massa das cabeças de repolho foram significativamente afetados pelo uso de cobertura no solo, sendo que, nesse sistema a ausência de cobertura no solo resultou em repolhos com cabeça pouco firme e baixa produção de massa fresca (300.9 g, o que originou uma baixa produtividade (7.5 Mg.ha-1. Nas condições do experimento, a irrigação por sulco em solo coberto e a irrigação por aspersão, em solo coberto ou não, possibilitaram melhor desenvolvimento das plantas de repolho.In order to develop techniques that minimize heat stress of cabbage crop (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. provoked by high air temperatures in São Luís (MA, Brazil, an experiment was carried out in a sandy Alfisol. We compared irrigation by sprinkler in two daily periods of irrigation (12:00 and 18:00 hours and with and without mulching with furrow irrigation with and without mulching in a completely randomized design with six replications. The schedule of irrigation and the use of mulch didn't affect the development of the cabbage heads in the irrigation by sprinkler treatments, as these factors didn't significantly affect the compactness, the length of the heart or the mass of the cabbage heads

  10. Mixed ensiling quality of maize straw with waste cabbage and biogas production potential analysis%玉米秸秆与废弃白菜的混合青贮品质及产沼气能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海伟; 王聪; 窦俊伟; 李志忠; 李金平; 孙永明

    2016-01-01

    Growing energy consumption and diminishing fossil fuel supplies have encouraged increased research on renewable energy sources and development of new energy production processes. Biogas production from agricultural biomass is of growing importance as it offers considerable environmental benefits and alleviates the environmental pollution. Maize straw (MS), a substantial source of lignocellulosic biomass is the prevailing material producing biogas for large and medium sized biogas plants because of abundant cellulose and hemicellulose. In the majority of cases, the MS collected after grain harvest are available once per year in China, a strongly collection seasonal character entails preservation and storage to be fed for biogas plant continuously. Hence low-loss preservation of MS is essential for economical and sustainable use of biogas crops for anaerobic digestion throughout the year. Generally, the MS were wilted and dried to yellow stalks and collected after corn ears harvested in autumn. As a result, the free sugars are consumed, the water evaporates during wilting and field drying, giving rise to fail to achieve the demand of silage. On the other hand, a large sum of vegetable wastes, which contain a mass of water and sugars, often give rise to environment pollution, such as leaf vegetable. This study put forth assume of trans-seasonal mixed storage of MS and cabbage waste (CW) by silage theory on the basis of strong complementary in terms of physical structure, nutrient content and moisture content. The objective of the current work was to explore its feasibility for mixed silage of dried MS and CW and evaluate the effects of different mixed ratio (29:19, 27:21, 25:23, 23:25, 21:27 and 19:29) of MS and CW on silage quality, including four aspects of sensory quality, chemical composition, fermentation quality and microbial numbers. Moreover, the appropriate storage condition was selected by the dynamic analysis of mixed silage quality. The results indicate

  11. Produção agroecológica de mudas e desenvolvimento a campo de couve-chinesa Agroecological production of seedlings and field development of Chinese cabbage

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    Dinéia Tessaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas etapas: a produção de mudas de couve-chinesa em bandejas e posterior transplante para o campo, objetivando avaliar o desempenho de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura. Para isso determinou-se, tanto na fase de formação das mudas, quanto nas plantas adultas, o comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas, comprimento da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e diâmetro do coleto. A etapa de produção de mudas foi conduzida em ambiente protegido, com os seguintes tratamentos: T0 substrato comercial Plantmax® (HA; T1: 100% composto; T2: 95% composto + 2,5% areia + 2,5% pó de rocha; T3: 90% composto + 3% areia + 7% de pó de rocha e T4: 85% composto + 6% areia + 9% pó de rocha. Na produção de mudas, os substratos orgânicos, formulados com 100% e 85% composto, apresentaram melhores resultados, aos 15 e 28 DAS, respectivamente. Os resultados de campo demonstraram que adição de pó de rocha é um fator determinante no desempenho das mudas, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos nas parcelas cultivadas com mudas obtidas nos substratos formulados com 7 e 9% de pó de basalto.The research was carried out in two stages: the production of seedlings of chinese cabbage in trays with subsequent transplantation for the field, aiming to evaluate the performance of different substrates on the culture development. For this reason it was determined, both at the stage of formation of the seedlings, as in adult plants the length of the aerial part, number of leaves, root length, dry mass of the aerial part, root dry mass and diameter of the root collar. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment with the following treatments: T0 Plantmax substrate® (HA; T1: 100% compound; T2: 95% compost + 2.5% sand + 2.5% rock powder; T3: 90% compost + 3% sand + 7% powdered rock and T4: 85% compost + 6% sand + 9% rock powder. In the production of seedlings, the organic substrates

  12. 15N Isotope Techniques for Estimating Effects of Urea-N Fertilizer Application Rate on Yieids and Nutrient Contents of Pakchoi Cabbage and Asparagus Lettuce and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-Iin; ZHENG Sheng-xian; RONG Xiang-min; LIU Qiang; FAN Mei-rong

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment combined with15 N isotope techniques was conducted to evaluate effects of the varying rates of urea.N fertilizer application on yields,quailty,and nitrogen use efficiency(NUE)of pakchoi cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)and asparagus lettuce(Lactuca saiva L.).15 N-labbled urea(5.35 15 N atom%)was added to pots with 6.5kg soil of 0.14,0.18,0.21,0.25,and 0.29 g N/kg soil.and applied in two splits:60 percenl as basel dressing in the mixture and 40 percent as toodressing.The fresh yields of two vegetable species increased with the increasing input of urea-N,but there was a significant quadratic relationship between the dose of urea-N fertilizer application and the fresh yields.Whan the dosage of urea-N fertilizer reached a certain value,nitrate readily accumulated in the two kinds of plants due to the decrease in NR activity;furthermore,there was a linear nagative correlation between nitrate content and NR activity.With the increasing input of urea-N.ascorbic acid and soluble sugar initially increased,declined after a while,and crude fiber rapidly decreased too.Total absorbed N(TAN).N derived from fertilizer(Ndff),and N derived from soil(Ndfs)increased,and the ratio of Ndff and TAN also increased.but the ratio of Ndfs and TAN as well as NUE of urea-N fertilizer decreased with the increasing input of urea-N.These results suggested that the increasing application of labeled N fertilizer led lo the increase in unlabeled N(namely,Ndfs)presumably due to"added nitrogen interaction"(ANI),the decease in NUE of urea-N fertilizer may be due to excess fertilization beyond the levels of plant requirements and the ANI.and the decrease jn the two vege table yields with the increasing addition of urea-N possibly because the excess accumulation of nitrate reached a toxic level.

  13. Study on breeding and utilization of genetic male sterile line in dwarf Chinese cabbage%矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 杨宁; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    A directional transfer program was designed by using multiple allele inherited genetic male-sterile line AB01 and its temporary maintainer line B01 as source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer botanical traits, while the genotype was identified through test cross. Following the procedure, the male sterile gene was successfully transferred to the target parent "Y", the inbred line of Jinguan in dwarf Chinese cabbage. A new male sterile line GMS401, which is similar to Y on botanical traits with 100% male sterility and 100% male sterile plants, was bred. The results showed that GMS401 as the female parent, the hybridized combinations GMS401×D1 and GMS401× D2 were finally obtained and they were excellent in horticultural characters and uniformity. In addition, the yield of the combinations was apparently higher than that of CK.%以复等位基因遗传的早熟大白菜雄性不育“两用系”AB01和“临时保持系”B01为试材,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交转育性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向源自金冠的矮脚黄白菜自交系Y中转育雄性不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%、园艺学性状与自交系Y相近的矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS401.结果表明,用GMS401试配的杂交组合(GMS401×D1)和(GMS401×D2)整齐度高,园艺学性状优异,产量显著高于对照品种南京矮脚黄和抗病矮脚黄.

  14. 不结球白菜花芽分化分级及叶绿体色素含量的变化%Flower Bud Differentiation Classification and Changes of Chloroplast Pigment Contents in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真真; 侯瑞贤; 李晓峰; 朱红芳; 朱玉英

    2013-01-01

    以不结球白菜为试验材料,通过制作石蜡切片和显微镜观察,将花芽分化过程划分为6级:生长锥伸展期、花原基分化初期、花原基伸长期、花萼原基分化期、雄蕊原基分化期、雌蕊和花瓣原基分化期.早抽薹材料09-1-328c叶片中叶绿素和类胡萝卜变化趋势一致,呈现缓慢升高,抽薹期降低的趋势;晚抽薹材料08-1 P-89和中等耐抽薹材料08-1 P-76色素变化趋势一致,在花芽分化时降低,完成分化后升高,抽薹期又下降.叶绿素a/b在早抽薹材料中呈现降低趋势,在晚抽薹材料中保持较稳定水平,叶绿素(a+b)/类胡萝卜素在花芽分化时比值降低,现蕾期又升高.%Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino) was used as the test material.By means of paraffin seations and optical microscope,the flower bud differentiation process was divided into six classes:growth cone extension stage,the early stage of floral primordia differentiation,floral primordia elongation stage,sepal primordium differentiation stage,stamen primordium differentiation stage,pistil and petal primordium differentiation stage.The contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in early bolting material 09-1-328c leaves showed the same trend,increased slowly,fell at bolting stage.As for late bolting material 08-1P-89 and secondary resistance to bolting marterial 08-1 P-76,the trends were similar,chlorophyll and carotenoid contents fell at flower bud differentiation,increased when the differentiation completed,but fell at bolting stage.Chlorophyll a/b ratio presented a decreased tendency in early bolting material,and a maintained stable level in late bolting materials.Chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoid ratio fell in the process of flower bud differentiation,increased at flower bud emergence stage.

  15. Identification of non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and lines resistant to disease caused by Colletotrichum sp.%不结球白菜品种(株系)对炭疽病抗性的鉴定与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建营; 侯喜林; 张玉明; 张正光; 郑小波

    2001-01-01

    The method for identif ying resistance of non-heading Chinese cabbage to Colletotrichum higginsianum by artificial inoculation of the plant seedlings and screening of the resistant plant varieties and lines by the fast and reliable method were reported.The critical technique of the method included inoculation of seedlings at two-leaf stage with a spore suspension of 1×106 spores*mL-1,and incubation of the inoculated plants in the controlled condition(25 ℃,100% relative humidity)for 24 h and in the green house(25 ℃)for 7 days,respectively,followed by examination of resistance levels . This method allowed for aquick identification of resistance levels of different varieties and lines.Resistance identified by the method was consistent with tha t identified by the traditional method that uses bigger seedlings(at five-leaf stage)and mature plants in the fields.Using this fast and reliable method,four varieties of 26 varieties and lines tested were scored as high resistance.It is suggested that these resistant varieties be used in the agricultural production and breeding.%报道不结球白菜对炭疽病(Colletotrichum higginsianum) 抗性的苗期鉴定方法和抗病品种(株系)的筛选结果。在2片真叶期,以1×106个·mL -1孢子浓度喷雾接种,25 ℃、RH>100%保湿24 h,25 ℃光照培育7 d,可快速地将不同抗性的品种(株系)鉴别出来。用该方法所获得的品种(株系)抗性鉴定结果与田间苗期(5 片真叶期)和成株期抗性鉴定结果基本一致。将该方法与田间抗性鉴定相结合,从26个品种(株系) 中筛选出4个高抗材料,可供生产上使用或作为抗病育种的抗源材料。

  16. Effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield, quality and economic benefit of flowering chinese cabbage%不同肥料处理对菜心产量、品质及经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 杜建军; 龙增群; 叶冰; 卢智敏

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out on flowering chinese cabbage with different fertilizer treatments,and the related indexes such as yield and quality were investigated,and then the economic benefit was analyzed.The results showed that the highest yield and the lowest economic benefit occurred in the regular fertilizing,due to its highest amount of fertilizer application,with the highest content of nitrates and the lowest content of vitamin C.The highest income and input-output ratio were obtained in the special formulated fertilizer treatment.The former was 16.4% higher than the regular fertilizing treatment,while the latter was 4.05 times higher than that.The best quality was got in the treatment,which combined application of chemical fertilizer,organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.The nitrates content was reduced by 31.4%,while vitamin C content was increased by 22.1% compared with the regular fertilizing treatment.%采用不同的肥料处理对菜心进行田间试验,测定其产量和品质,并进行经济效益分析,结果表明:常规施肥处理肥料用量最大,虽然菜心产量最高,但经济效益较低,而其硝酸盐含量最高,维生素C含量最低;配方肥处理收入和产投比最高,收入比常规施肥处理增加16.4%,产投比是常规施肥处理的4.05倍;化肥配施有机肥加土壤调理剂菜心品质最好,硝酸盐含量比常规施肥处理降低了31.4%,维生素C含量比常规施肥处理提高了22.1%.

  17. Uso de antibióticos e leveduras para controle da podridão-mole em couve-chinesa Use of antibiotics and yeasts for controlling Chinese cabbage soft rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRF Mello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc pode ocorrer em plantios de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis com até 67% de incidência. O trabalho visou avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Pcc a bactericidas, o efeito de Mycoshield® nas dosagens de 3,0 e 1,5 g L-1, e de leveduras a 10(8 cel/mL no controle da doença em casa de vegetação e em campo. As plantas foram pulverizadas com Mycoshield® (oxitetraciclina 20% e leveduras (Rh1 e Rh2 (Rhodotorula spp. e Sc1 (Saccharomyces cerevisae sete dias após o transplante, e inoculadas por picada com o isolado Pcc120, sete dias e 12 h após o tratamento, respectivamente. Em todos os experimentos foram avaliados os componentes epidemiológicos da doença. In vitro, 40 isolados de Pcc testados apresentaram resistência ao sulfato de cobre e sensibilidade a oxitetraciclina, estreptomicina, oxitetraciclina+estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre, todos na concentração de 0,2 g L-1. Seis isolados de Pcc foram mais inibidos por Mycoshield® do que por Agri-Micina® (oxitetraciclina 1,5% + estreptomicina 15% ambos a 3,0 g L-1, não sendo inibidos por Kasumin® (casugamicina 2% (2,0 mL L-1. Em casa de vegetação, Mycoshield® (3,0 g L-1 reduziu a severidade e o índice de doença em até 47,4 e 19%; já a levedura Sc1 reduziu a severidade da doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD em até 27,6 e 39,3%, respectivamente, enquanto Rh1 reduziu a AACPD em até 33,5%. Em campo, Mycoshield® reduziu o índice de doença (14,4% a severidade (15,5% e a AACPD (28,9%; enquanto que Rh1 reduziu o índice de doença (8,8% e Sc1 reduziu a AACPD (15,7%. Conclui-se que o Mycoshield® e as leveduras apresentaram baixa eficiência para controle da podridão-mole da couve-chinesa em campo.The soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc may occur in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis plantations presenting till 67% of incidence

  18. Primary Study on LBD Genes Involving in Callus Formation and Plant Regeneration of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜 LBD 基因参与愈伤组织发生及植株再生初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 朱月林; 苏同兵; 于拴仓; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 张德双; 赵岫云; 汪维红; 卢桂香

    2015-01-01

    植物离体再生主要经历愈伤组织形成、胚状体或器官发生和不定芽产生等过程,其中愈伤组织形成是在外源生长素和相关蛋白因子的共同作用下完成的,是植物离体再生的关键环节。拟南芥 LBD16、LBD17、LBD18和LBD29是促进胚性愈伤组织发生的关键转录因子。通过对37种白菜高代自交系外植体芽再生频率的统计分析,选出具有显著差异的材料,研究了大白菜愈伤组织发生过程中上述同源LBD基因的表达变化模式,初步分析了LBD基因表达对大白菜愈伤组织产生和再生频率的影响。结果显示:白菜LBD基因与拟南芥LBD基因有很高的序列同源性,共有8个上述基因的同源基因;离体培养的白菜外植体在诱导7 d时产生愈伤组织,而LBD基因在此时表达量达到最高,然后开始降低,在整个愈伤诱导过程中呈现先上升后下降的趋势;在愈伤诱导各时期中,LBD基因在高再生频率材料中的表达一般都要高于低再生材料。这些结果表明,LBD基因参与大白菜愈伤组织产生并促进离体组织植株再生的关键基因,这为从分子水平上筛选高效再生材料,建立高效遗传转化体系奠定了基础。%Callus formation ,embryogenesis and adventitious bud development are major steps of plant regenera-tion,in which callus formation is a key step .Previous reports demonstrated that exogenous auxin and LBD ( Lateral organ boundaries domain ) genes,LBD16,LBD17,LBD18 and LBD29,were involved in callus formation in Arabi-dopsis.Shoot regeneration frequency of 37 high inbred line of Chinese cabbage were analyzed and 2 of them,with significant different regeneration frequency ,were selected for further study .Here ,we focused on the function of Bras-sica LBD genes in callus formation and plant regeneration by analyzing LBD expression level during callus induction of Chinese cabbage with different regeneration capacity .The main

  19. Uso de esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho híbrido Utilization of cattle manure and earthworm compost on hybrid cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a eficácia do esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho, híbrido Matsukaze, em experimento realizado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB, Areia, de 10/12/97 a 05/03/98. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 t/ha de esterco bovino e 10; 15; 20; 25 e 30 t/ha de húmus de minhoca e tratamento testemunha (sem matéria orgânica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com onze tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 + 1, em quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o diâmetro longitudinal, transversal, índice de formato e compacidade da cabeça, peso médio e produção total de cabeças. A dose de 46,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 29,0 t/ha de húmus de minhoca resultaram em maiores diâmetros longitudinais na cabeça de repolho (13 e 12 cm, respectivamente. A dose de 47,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 20,0 t/ha de humus de minhoca proporcionaram a formação de cabeças com maiores diâmetros transversais (13 e 11 cm, respectivamente. Todas as doses de esterco bovino induziram a formação de cabeças mais uniformes e compactas, enquanto a dose de 20 t/ha de húmus de minhoca propiciou a formação de cabeças desuniformes de baixa aceitação comercial. A dose de 41,0 t/ha de esterco bovino promoveu máximo peso médio (900 g e máxima produtividade (47,0 t/ha de cabeças, enquanto as doses de 27,0 e 29,0 t/ha de húmus foram responsáveis pelo peso médio máximo (700 g e máxima produtividade (38,0 t/ha, respectivamente.The use of bovine manure and earthworm compost were compared in cabbage production, hybrid Matsukaze, at the Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil, from December 1997 to March, 1998. The treatments consisted of 20; 30; 40; 50 and 60 t/ha of bovine manure and 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 t/ha of earthworm compost and a treatment without organic matter (control. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with eleven treatments arranged in a factorial

  20. Studies on Anther Development of 4x Sexual Polyploidization Male Sterile Lines in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage%有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育花药发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁; 张文华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对有性多倍化雄性不育系花药的败育时期和方式进行研究,为雄性不育基础研究提供理论依据.[方法]以同源四倍体白菜为母本,以秋水仙素诱导筛选出含2n配子较高的二倍体为父本杂交获得四倍体不育系及其保持系为材料,采用常规石蜡切片法对其花药进行解剖学研究,观察其花药的败育时期.[结果]退化的雄蕊可分为4种类型,均败育于孢原细胞分化期,始终处在孢原细胞期,无绒毡层与花粉母细胞的分化,不形成药室,属孢子体败育型.[结论]有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育的4种类型都是孢子体败育型.%[Objective]Cytological investigation on microsporogenesis of male sterility of sexual polyploidizationmale sterile lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied to provide theoretical basis for the male sterility. [Method]Anther anatomical structure and development were observed using a light microscope through paraffin slices on the production of Ax CMS by sexual polyploidization and its maintainer line in Chinese cabbage. Abortion stage of 4x CMS was observed. [Jiesult] There were four types in the degraded stamens. The abortion of stamen occurred at the stage of archesporial cell differentiation,at which there was no differentiation of fibrous layer,tapetum and microspore mother cell. It belonged to non-sporange cytoplasmic male sterility. [Conclusion]Four types of the 4x sexual polyploidization CMS lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were sporophyte abortion.

  1. 竹炭有机肥对有机卷心菜叶绿素荧光特性和相对叶绿素含量的影响%Effect of bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer on chlorophyll fluores-cence characteristics and relative chlorophyll content of organic cab-bage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马锦丽; 黄鹤凤; 江洪; 舒海燕; 张金梦; 吴丹娜; 孙文文; 吴孟霖; 方成圆; 陈晓峰

    2015-01-01

    Selecting organic cabbage in Chongming of Shanghai dol y farm as the research object, and set up three bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer processing:BC180 (180 kg/20 m × 20 m), BC60 (60 kg/20 m × 20 m), CK (control), During July(Rosette period) and August(Fruit period) in 2014, its chlorophyl fluorescence kinetics parameter and relative chlorophyl content is determined by a random and relative method, in order to analyze the influence of bamboo charcoal organic fertilizer on the organic cabbage.The results showed that different growth period under the same processing, organic cabbage leaf blade light systemⅡ(PSⅡ), initial fluorescence (F0), the largest fluorescence (Fm), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), potential photosynthetic activity (Fv/F0), the actual photochemical efficiency (Yield) were rosette period > fruit period; Apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) and relative chlorophyl content (SPAD) was fruit period>rosette period. The same growth period under different processing, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Yield, ETR, qP were increasing as fertilizer rate increasing, NPQ increases during rosette period, and became lower during knot bal period. Different growth period and fertilizer's interaction on Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, NPQ were very significant (P结球期;表观光合电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)、相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)为结球期>莲座期。同一生长期不同处理下,Fv/Fm、Fv/F0、Yield、ETR、qP均是随着施肥量增加而增加,NPQ则为莲座期增加,结球期又降低。不同生长期不同施肥量交互作用对Fm、Fv/Fm、Fv/F0、NPQ影响极显著(P<0.01),对qP影响显著(P<0.05)。这说明增施竹炭有机肥对有机卷心菜叶绿素荧光指标和相对叶绿素含量有显著影响,且BC60处理下更有助于其光合固碳,增加产量,符合低碳有机农业宗旨。

  2. Effects of Water-fertilizer Coupling on Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Baby Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis) in Hexi Oasis%水肥耦合对河西绿洲娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子孝; 陈修斌; 许耀照; 李翊华

    2016-01-01

    Using split plot design, a field experiment was conducted in an irrigated desert soil in Hexi oasis to investigate the effect of water and fertilizer coupling on yield and physiological characteristics such as net photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) , photochemical quantum yield (Fv′/Fm′), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) and photo inhibitionin by using Baby Cabbage variety‘Chunyuehuang’ . The results showed that Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs values of baby Cabbage un-der the condition of 75% ~90% field water capacity plus soil fertilizer combination of N 350 kg·hm-2 +P2 O5 400 kg·hm-2 +K 300 kg·hm-2 were significantly higher than any other treatment at the early, middle and late stage of leaf lotus throne. This indicates that Baby Cabbage plants maintain higher physiological activities under this condition. The dynamics of Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs of Baby Cabbage was in the order of middle lotus throne > late lotus throne > early lotus throne.%为探明河西绿洲灌漠土高原夏菜娃娃菜生产中,不同水肥耦合模式对娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响,以品种“春月黄”为材料,采用裂区试验设计,研究了实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学量子产量( Fv′/Fm′)、光化学猝灭系数( qP)、非光化学猝灭系数( qN)、光抑制程度和产量对不同水肥耦合的响应。结果表明:在中等的土壤水分和理论施肥水平条件下,即土壤田间持水量达75%~90%及肥料组合为N 350 kg·hm-2+ P2 O5400 kg·hm-2+K 300 kg·hm-2的W2F1处理,娃娃菜在莲座初期、中期、末期,其叶片的净光合速率( Pn )、胞间 CO2浓度( Ci )、蒸腾速率( Tr )和气孔导度( Gs)的变化值明显高于其他处理,植株保持较高的生理代谢活动;叶片的ΦPSⅡ、 Fv′/Fm′、 qP值最大,光抑制程度最低,其生物学产量和经济产量也最高。不同时期的Pn、 Ci、 Tr和Gs的数值变化规律为:莲座中期>

  3. Maturação e qualidade de sementes de repolho de verão sob condições tropicais Maturation and seed quality of summer cabbage seeds under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alves de Freitas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do estádio de maturação dos frutos (síliquas e da época de trilhagem sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de repolho, cultivar União. Em setembro de 2005 (200 dias após o transplantio, foi efetuada uma única colheita dos rácemos com síliquas em diferentes estádios de maturação, identificadas pelas colorações verde-escuro, verde-claro, arroxeada e bege. Estes estádios de maturação originaram sementes com coloração predominantemente verdes, castanho-claras, castanho-escuras e negras, respectivamente. Parte dos rácemos colhidos foi trilhada logo após a colheita e parte foi deixada em condições de laboratório, por uma semana, antes da trilhagem. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (estádio de maturação das síliquas e época de trilhagem. As sementes foram submetidas a testes de grau de umidade, massa de 100 sementes, germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação, emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação e envelhecimento acelerado. O potencial fisiológico das sementes variou entre os diferentes estádios de maturação das síliquas. Os resultados indicaram que os rácemos com síliquas de coloração verde-clara podem ser colhidos, desde que as sementes permaneçam no interior das síliquas por uma semana antes da trilhagem.The effect of maturation stages under tropical conditions, of summer cabbage cv. União fruits (seedpods, was studied on the seed physiological quality. On September, 2005 (200 days after transplanting, seedpods were harvested from racemes in the maturation (color stages of intensive green, green, purple and beige, resulting in seeds with the predominant colors of green, brown, intensive brown and black, respectively. Part of