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Sample records for cabbage leaf curl

  1. Genetic control of leaf curl in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, G C; Guedes, F L; Oliveira, A A; Nascimento, J P; Souza, J C

    2014-03-17

    Among the many implications of climatic change on agriculture, drought is expected to continue to have a major impact on agribusinesses. Leaf curling is an anatomical characteristic that might be potentially used to enhance plant tolerance to water deficit. Hence, we aimed to study the genetic control of leaf curl in maize. From 2 contrasting inbred lines for the trait, generations F1, F2, and the backcrosses were obtained. All of these generations were evaluated in a randomized block design with 2 replicates. Leaf curl samples were collected from 3 leaves above the first ear at the tasseling stage, and quantified by dividing the width of the leaf blade with natural curling against its extended width. The mean and variance components were estimated by the weighted least square method. It was found that the trait studied has predominance of the additive effects, with genetic control being attributed to few genes that favor selection and exhibit minimal influence from the environment.

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence of pelargonium leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, Wendy J; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants.

  3. Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus by Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae), is an important world food crop, and Asia is the focal production region. Because it is vegetatively propagated, sweetpotato is especially prone to accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ss...

  4. Molecular Characterization of Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus and Pepper leaf curl betasatellite Naturally Infecting Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namrata, Jaiswal; Saritha, R K; Datta, D; Singh, M; Dubey, R S; Rai, A B; Rai, M

    2010-10-01

    Pumpkin cultivation in India is affected by severe incidence of a yellow vein mosaic disease. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and Squash leaf curl China virus are known to be associated with this disease in India. We were able to identify a third begomovirus-Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV), from pumpkin showing typical symptoms of the disease at Varanasi based on the sequence of complete DNA-A genome of the virus. The complete DNA-A sequence of the virus shared more than 99% sequence identity with other ToLCPMV isolates available in the GenBank and clustered with them in the phylogenetic analysis. This betasatellite amplified from the same infected sample has been identified as Pepper leaf curl betasatellite (PepLCB) which also infects chilli in India. There was 92% sequence identity between the two isolates. This is the first report of natural infection of ToLCPMV on pumpkin and association of PepLCB with yellow vein mosaic disease of pumpkin in India.

  5. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  6. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl betasatellites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Richa Shukla; Sunita Dalal; V G Malathi

    2013-03-01

    Virus encoded RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs) are the key components evolved by the viruses to counter RNA-silencing defense of plants. Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B and ORF C1 in satellite DNA which are predicted to function as silencing suppressors. In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite CLCuMB–[IN:Sri:02] and Luffa leaf distortion betasatellite LuLDB-[IN:Lu:04] were examined. Agroinfiltration of GFP-silenced Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Xanthi with the cells expressing C1 protein resulted in reversal of silenced GFP expression. GFP-siRNA level was more than 50-fold lower compared to silenced plants in plants infiltrated with C1 gene from ToLCBB. However, in the case of 35S-C1 CLCuMB and 35S-C1 LuLDB construct, although GFP was expressed, siRNA level was not reduced, indicating that the step at which C1 interfere in RNA-silencing pathway is different.

  7. Senna leaf curl virus: a novel begomovirus identified in Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a variety of cultivated (crop) and non-cultivated (weed) plants. The present study identified a novel begomovirus and satellites (alpha- and betasatellite) in Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis) showing leaf curl symptoms. The begomovirus shared a maximum sequence identity of 88.6 % with french bean leaf curl virus (JQ866297), whereas the alphasatellite and the betasatellite shared identities of 98 % and 90 % with ageratum yellow vein India alphasatellite (LK054802) and papaya leaf curl betasatellite (HM143906), respectively. No other begomovirus or satellites were detected in the suspected plants. We propose to name the virus "senna leaf curl virus" (SenLCuV).

  8. Novel Synthetic Promoters from the Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sarkar, Shayan; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive promoters direct gene expression uniformly in most tissues and cells at all stages of plant growth and development; they confer steady levels of transgene expression in plant cells and hence their demand is high in plant biology. The gene silencing due to promoter homology can be avoided by either using diverse promoters isolated from different plant and viral genomes or by designing synthetic promoters. The aim of this chapter was to describe the basic protocols needed to develop and analyze novel, synthetic, nearly constitutive promoters from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) through promoter/leader deletion and activating cis-sequence analysis. We also describe the methods to evaluate the strength of the promoters efficiently in various transient expression systems like agroinfiltration assay, gene-gun method, and assay in tobacco protoplasts. Besides, the detailed methods for developing transgenic plants (tobacco and Arabidopsis) for evaluation of the promoter using the GUS reporter gene are also described. The detailed procedure for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) coupled with super-shift EMSA analysis are also described for showing the binding of tobacco transcription factor, TGA1a to cis-elements in the CmYLCV distal promoter region.

  9. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses.

  12. First Report of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Tomato in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botermans, M.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.; Jansen, C.C.C.; Roenhorst, J.W.; Stijger, C.C.M.M.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2009-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is an economically important virus with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as its main host. The virus is widely distributed in subtropical areas and is transmitted by the tobacco whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in a persistent manner. TYLCV has a quarantine status (IIA

  13. Management of sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotatoes using insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), which is transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), can severely affect yields of commercial sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae). This virus occurs every year at the U.S. Vegetable Laborato...

  14. Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus: Virus Reservoir in Species of Wild Morning Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent increases in populations of the Sweetpotato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) vector, the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), led to a dramatic increase in the disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). Knowledge of crop or weed species that occur in sweetpotato growing areas and can serv...

  15. Whitefly transmission of Sweet potato leaf curl virus in sweetpotato germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is among an extensive number of plant species attacked by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Because this important world food crop is vegetatively propagated, it can conveniently accumulate infections by several viruses. Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) (ssDNA...

  16. Cotton Leaf Curl Virus: lonic Status of Leaves and Symptom Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naeem Iqbal; Muhammad Yasin Ashraf; Farrukh Javed; Muhammad Ashraf; Sohail Hameed

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the nutritional status of leaves and the development of symptoms of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (i.e. CIM-240 and S-12) was investigated. The incidence of disease attack was found to be 100% in the S-12 cultivar and 16% in the CIM-240 cultivar. Geminivirus particles in infected leaves were confirmed by transmission electron microscope examination of highly specific geminivirus coat protein antisera-treated cell sap. The CLCuV impaired the accumulation of different nutrients in both cultivars. A marked decrease in the accumulation of Ca2+ and K+ was observed in infected leaves. However, the disease had no effect on leaf concentrations of Na+, N, and P. It was observed that the curling of leaf margins in CLCuV-infected plants was associated with the leaf Ca2+ content; leaf curling was severe in plants with a significant reduction in Ca2+ content.Moreover, leaf K+ content was found to be associated with resistance/susceptibility to CLCuV infection.

  17. Chinese squash leaf curl virus: a new whitefly-transmitted geminivirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪益国; 王小凤; 田波; 蔡健和

    1995-01-01

    Coat protein (CP) gene of the Chinese squash !eaf curl virus (SqLCV-C) was amplified through PC’R, cloned and completely sequenced. Based on the comparisons at the levels of both CP gene nucleotide and CP -deduced amino acid sequences with other geminiviruses, SqLCV-C is confirmed to be distinct from the American squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV-E). It is a new geminivirus transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which infects dicotyledonous plants and is more closely related to the Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).

  18. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

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    Singh AK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481 while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN (Accession number AJ507777 sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with

  19. There is the second virus that causes tobacco leaf curl disease (not TbLCV-CHI) in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sequence analysis of virus isolation DNA of tobacco leaf curl disease shows that there is the second geminivirus (not Chinese Tobacco Leaf Curl Virus, TbLCV-CHI) that causes tobacco leaf curl disease in the field in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. This virus DNA-A contains 2 734 nt. Large intergenic region (LIR) contains 269 nt, the virus sense strand contains 2 open reading frames (ORFs): AV1 (115 aa) and AV2 (coat protein gene, CP, 256 aa), and the complementary sense strand contains 4 ORFs: AC1 (replicase gene, 361 aa), AC2 (transactivator, 134 aa), AC3 (134 aa) and AC4 (97 aa). The virus belongs to one kind of subgroup Ⅲ gemini- viruses from old world, and could be the Chinese tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-CHI).

  20. Phylogenetic lineage of Tobacco leaf curl virus in Korea and estimation of recombination events implicated in their sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll; Kim, Sunghan; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan

    2011-08-01

    New strains of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TbLCV) were isolated from tomato plants in four different local communities of Korea, and hence were designated TbLCV-Kr. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the whole genome and of individual ORFs of these viruses indicated that they are closely related to the Tobacco leaf curl Japan virus (TbLCJV) cluster, which includes Honeysuckle yellow vein virus (HYVV), Honeysuckle yellow vein mosaic virus (HYVMV), and TbLCJV isolates. Four putative recombination events were recognized within these virus sequences, suggesting that the sequence variations observed in these viruses may be attributable to intraspecific and interspecific recombination events involving some TbLCV-Kr isolates, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), and a local isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).

  1. Discovery and demonstration of small circular DNA molecules derived from Chinese tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses belong to Begomoviruses of geminiviruses.In this work, we first found and demonstrated that the small circular DNA molecules were derived from Chinese tomato yellow leaf curl viruses (TYLCV-CHI).These small circular DNA molecules are about 1.3 kb, which are half the full-length of TYLCV-CHI DNA A.It was shown by sequence determination and analysis that there was unknown-origin sequence insertion in the middle of the small molecules.These sequences of unknown-origin were neither homologous to DNA A nor to DNA B, and were formed by recombination of virus DNA and plant DNA.Although various defective molecules contained different unknown-origin sequence insertion, all the molecules contained the intergenic region and part of the AC1(Rep) gene.But they did not contain full ORF.

  2. Exploitation of Solanum chilense and Solanum peruvianum in tomato breeding for resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Rodríguez, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Among viral diseases affecting cultivated tomato, Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is one of the most devastating. This disease is caused by a complex of viruses of which Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is regarded as the most important species. Current control strategies to fight viral diseases in tomato are mainly based on genetic resistance derived from wild relatives. In the present thesis, resistance derived from S. chilense and S. peruvianum has been exploited in breeding f...

  3. The Effect of Adjuvants on Penetration of beta-cypermethrin Through the Epidermis of Cabbage Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; ZHANG Li-ta; ZHENG Fei-neng; CHEN Fu-liang; LIANG Wen-ping

    2002-01-01

    The effects of three types of adjuvant (mineral oil, higher aliphatic acid and nonionic surfactant) on the penetration of beta-cypermethrin through the cabbage leaf surface were studied. The results showed that the penetration was positively correlated with both the concentration of adjuvant and the time after application, in a given range of treatment. A synergistic effect of two types of adjuvant on the penetration was found. Some physical properties of emulsions were determined. The change of the structures of the cabbage leaf surface by these adjuvants was observed from photomicrographs. The mechanism concerned with the effect of these adjuvants on the penetration of beta-cypermethrin through the cabbage leaf surface was tentatively discussed.

  4. Natural association of two different betasatellites with Sweet potato leaf curl virus in wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna Geetanjali, A; Shilpi, S; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-08-01

    Wild morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) was observed to be affected by leaf curl and yellow vein diseases during summer-rainy season of 2009 in New Delhi, India. The virus was experimentally transmitted through whitefly, Bemisia tabaci to I. purpurea that reproduced the two distinct symptoms. Sequence analysis of multiple full-length clones obtained through rolling circle amplification from the leaf curl and yellow vein samples showed 91.8-95.3% sequence identity with Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from those reported from Brazil, China, Japan and USA. Interestingly, two different betasatellites, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite and papaya leaf curl betasatellite were found with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea, respectively. This study is the first report of occurrence of SPLCV in wild morning glory in India. SPLCV was known to infect other species of morning glory; our study revealed that I. purpurea, a new species of morning glory was a natural host of SPLCV. To date, betasatellite associated with SPLCV in Ipomoea spp. is not known. Our study provides evidence of natural association of two different betasatellites with SPLCV in leaf curl and yellow vein diseases of I. purpurea.

  5. Coat protein promoter from cotton leaf curl virus is not a tissue-specifically expressed promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geminivirus is a kind of single-stranded DNA virus. Experimental results from tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) showed that expression pattern of coat protein gene (cp) promoter was phloem specifically expressed. In this note, the studies on cp promoter of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) which is found and identified recently suggest that the promoter is not phloem specifically expressed. The expressing activity of gus gene driven by the promoter exists not only in phloem but also in mesophyll tissues and root tip meristem. Transient expression suggests that cp promoter transactivated by AC2 shows expressing activity in mesophyll and vascular tissue of leaf vein.

  6. Identification of a bi-directional promoter from Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bi-directional promoter of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) was obtained with the total DNA from TYLCCNV isolate Y10 infected tobacco leaves as a template. Plant expression vectors were constructed by fusing the amplified DNA fragment with the gus gene and nopaline terminator in different orientations. The vectors containing promoter fragments were transferred into leaf cells and plant stems of Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transient expression results showed that both the complementary and virion-sense promoters could drive the gus gene to express, and the GUS activity of the complementary-sense promoter was stronger than that of the virion-sense. Co-expression of the vector containing βC1 gene of TYLCCNV DNAβ with the vector containing a bi-directional promoter revealed that the βC1 protein has no impact on expression of either the virion- or the complementarysense promoter.

  7. Genetic diversity, host range, and distribution of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, M; Mozafari, J; Rakhshandehroo, F; Shams-Bakhsh, M

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is considered one of the most important tomato pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions including Iran. During the years 2007 to 2009, a total number of 510 symptomatic and asymptomatic vegetable, ornamental and weed samples were collected from fields and greenhouses in ten provinces of Iran. Symptoms included stunting, yellowing, leaf curl and flower senescence. PCR with specific primers showed TYLCV infection in 184 samples (36%) such as cucumber, pepper, tomato and several weeds from seven provinces. Based on the geographical origin, host range and symptoms, twenty three representative isolates were selected for phylogenetic analysis. An amplicon with a size about 608 base pair (bp) comprising partial sequence of the coat (CP) and movement protein (MP) coding regions of the viral genome was sequenced and compared with the corresponding selected sequences available in GenBank for Iran and worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of the nucleotide sequences indicated two geographically separated clades. Isolates collected from Hormozgan, Khuzestan and Kerman provinces were grouped together with other Iranian isolates including TYLCV-Ir2, TYLCV-Kahnooj, and an isolate from Oman. It was also revealed that isolates collected from Boushehr, Fars, Tehran, and Isfahan placed close to the Iranian isolate TYLCV-Abadeh and isolates from Israel and Egypt. No correlation was found between the genetic variation and the host species, but selected Iranian isolates were grouped on the basis of the geographical origins. Results of this study indicated a high genetic diversity among Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  8. Natural Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Iranian Cucurbit Crops

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    Sara Yazdani-Khameneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main areas for field-grown vegetable production in Iran were surveyed during the years of 2012–2014 to determine the occurrence of begomoviruses infecting these crops. A total of 787 leaf samples were collected from vegetables and some other host plants showing virus-like symptoms and tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using polyclonal antibodies produced against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. According to the ELISA results, 81 samples (10.3% positively reacted with the virus antibodies. Begomovirus infections were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using previously described TYLCV-specific primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr or universal primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R. The PCR tests using the primer pair TYLCV-Sar/TYLCV-Isr resulted in the amplification of the expected fragments of ca. 0.67-kb in size for ELISA-positive samples tested from alfalfa, pepper, spinach and tomato plants, confirming the presence of TYLCV. For one melon sample, having a week reaction in ELISA and no reaction in PCR using TYLCV-specific primers, the PCR reaction using the primer pair Begomo-F/Begomo-R resulted in the amplification fragments of the expected size of ca. 2.8 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA amplicons derived from the isolate, Kz-Me198, were determined and compared with other sequences available in GenBank. BLASTN analysis confirmed the begomovirus infection of the sample and showed 99% identities with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV; phylogenetic analysis supported the results of the database searches. This study reports the natural occurrence of TYLCV in different hosts in Iran. Our results also reveal the emergence of ToLCNDV in Iranian cucurbit crops.

  9. Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV): a serious disease threatening cucurbits production in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Hussein, E Y; Mallah, O B; Abu-Zeitoun, S Y

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of squash leaf curl disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Squash leaf curl virus [SLCV-(PAL)] are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for SLCV-[PAL] infection by PCR and RCA. SLCV was also found to occur naturally in Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus sp, and Prosporis farcta which showed yellowing. The disease incidence was 85 % in samples collected from Nablus in summer season, while it was 98 % in samples collected from Qalqilia in autumn. On the other hand, SLCV incidence did not exceed 25 % in winter season. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of SLCV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis reveals that SLCV-[PAL] is closely related to other isolates from Lebanon (SLCV-LB2), Jordan (SLCV-JO), Israel (SLCV-IL), and Egypt (SLCV-EG). DNA-A of SLCV-[PAL] showed the highest nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with SLCV-JO, and SLCV-LB2, while DNA-B had the highest nucleotide identity (99.3 %) with SLCV-IL. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered in some SLCV Palestinian isolates. The AC2 ORF was extended by 141 nucleotides, while the AC4 ORF was extended by 36 nucleotides.

  10. A Novel Strain of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus Has Spread to the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Fortes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV is a whitefly-transmitted bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae that causes damage to multiple cultivated plant species mainly belonging to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families. ToLCNDV was limited to Asian countries until 2012, when it was first reported in Spain, causing severe epidemics in cucurbit crops. Here, we show that a genetically-uniform ToLCNDV population is present in Spain, compatible with a recent introduction. Analyses of ToLCNDV isolates reported from other parts of the world indicated that this virus has a highly heterogeneous population genetically with no evident geographical, plant host or year-based phylogenetic groups observed. Isolates emerging in Spain belong to a strain that seems to have evolved by recombination. Isolates of this strain seem adapted to infecting cucurbits, but poorly infect tomatoes.

  11. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 刘玉乐; 朱祯

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5’ end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoterdeletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a c/s-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and

  12. Nucleotide sequence and intergeminiviral homologies of the DNA-A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Hallan, V; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1998-06-01

    Coat protein gene, rep protein gene and intergenic region of the genome of a whitefly transmitted geminivirus (WTG) causing severe leaf curl in papaya plants were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the putative coat protein product of papaya leaf curl virus (PLCV) with some other mono and bipartite WTGs revealed a maximum of 89.8% homology with Indian cassava mosaic virus. The genomic organization of PLCV-India is similar to other WTGs with bipartite genomes. Comparison of the coat protein N-terminal 70 amino acid sequence (and other biological features) of PLCV with other geminiviruses shows that PLCV is a distinct geminivirus from India and is related to WTGs from the old world.

  13. Detection and quantitation of the new world Squash leaf curl virus by TaqMan real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Peter E; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2013-07-01

    Squash leaf curl diseases are caused by distinct virus species that are separated into two major phylogenetic groups, western and eastern hemisphere groups. The western group includes the new world Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) which causes major losses to cucurbit production and induces severe stunting and leaf curl in squash plants. A TaqMan-based real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay has been developed for detection and quantitation of SLCV. Designed primers and probe targeted the AV1 (coat protein) gene and in silico analysis showed that they detect a large number of SLCV isolates. The developed assay could detect the virus in 18fg of total nucleic acid and 30 genomic units. The qPCR assay was about 1000 times more sensitive than PCR and amplified successfully SLCV from a wide range of cucurbit hosts and from viruliferous whiteflies. The developed qPCR assay should be suitable for detection and quantitation purposes for all reported SLCV isolates of the western hemisphere.

  14. The Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins in the Establishment of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovits, Rena; Czosnek, Henryk

    2017-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a begomovirus, induces protein aggregation in infected tomatoes and in its whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. The interactions between TYLCV and HSP70 and HSP90 in plants and vectors are necessity for virus infection to proceed. In infected host cells, HSP70 and HSP90 are redistributed from a soluble to an aggregated state. These aggregates contain, together with viral DNA/proteins and virions, HSPs and components of the protein quality control system such as ubiquitin, 26S proteasome subunits, and the autophagy protein ATG8. TYLCV CP can form complexes with HSPs in tomato and whitefly. Nonetheless, HSP70 and HSP90 play different roles in the viral cell cycle in the plant host. In the infected host cell, HSP70, but not HSP90, participates in the translocation of CP from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Viral amounts decrease when HSP70 is inhibited, but increase when HSP90 is downregulated. In the whitefly vector, HSP70 impairs the circulative transmission of TYLCV; its inhibition increases transmission. Hence, the efficiency of virus acquisition by whiteflies depends on the functionality of both plant chaperones and their cross-talk with other protein mechanisms controlling virus-induced aggregation.

  15. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  16. Characterization of Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus: a new member of the family Caulimoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavolone, Livia; Ragozzino, Antonio; Hohn, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) has been characterized as the aetiological agent of the Cestrum parqui mosaic disease. The virus genome was cloned and the clone was proven to be infectious to C. parqui. The presence of typical viroplasms in virus-infected plant tissue and the information obtained from the complete genomic sequence confirmed CmYLCV as a member of the Caulimoviridae family. All characteristic domains conserved in plant pararetroviruses were found in CmYLCV. Its genome is 8253 bp long and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships with other members of the Caulimoviridae revealed that CmYLCV is closely related to the Soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SbCMV)-like genus and particularly to SbCMV. However, in contrast to the other members of this genus, the primer-binding site is located in the intercistronic region following ORF Ib rather than within this ORF, and an ORF corresponding to ORF VII is missing.

  17. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

  18. Rapid detection of squash leaf curl virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Wu, Min-Tze; Lu, Yi-Lin; Huang, Hung-Chang

    2010-10-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was employed to develop a simple and efficient system for the detection of squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in diseased plants of squash (Cucurbita pepo) and melon (Cucumis melo). Completion of LAMP assay required 30-60 min under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C by employing a set of four primers targeting SLCV. Although the sensitivity of the LAMP assay and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was comparable at high virus concentrations, the LAMP assay was by a 10-fold dilution factor more sensitive than the PCR assay for the detection of SLCV in diseased plants. No reaction was detected in the tissues of healthy plants by either the LAMP or the PCR. The LAMP products can be visualized by staining directly in the tube with SYBR Safe DNA gel stain dye. The sensitivity of the SYBR Safe DNA gel stain is similar to analysis by gel electrophoresis. Although both the LAMP and the PCR methods were capable of detecting SLCV in infected tissues of squash and melon, the LAMP method would be more useful than the PCR method for detection of SLCV infection in cucurbitaceous plants because it is more rapid, simple, accurate and sensitive.

  19. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5' end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoter deletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a cis-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and stems and losing GUS activity in roots. The functional domains of complementary sense gene promoter of CLCuV were firstly analyzed and compared. It was found that the promoter activity with the deletion of negative cis-elements was much stronger than that of full-length promoter and was about twelve times on average that of CaMV 35S promoter, suggesting that the promoter has great application potential. Results also provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms of geminivirus gene regulation and interaction between virus and plant.

  20. Cotton leaf curl disease - an emerging threat to cotton production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, M Naeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Saeed, Muhammad; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-04-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton which has characteristic symptoms, the most unusual of which is the formation of leaf-like enations on the undersides of leaves. The disease is caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus) in association with specific, symptom-modulating satellites (betasatellites) and an evolutionarily distinct group of satellite-like molecules known as alphasatellites. CLCuD occurs across Africa as well as in Pakistan and north-western India. Over the past 25 years, Pakistan and India have experienced two epidemics of the disease, the most recent of which involved a virus and satellite that are resistance breaking. Loss of this conventional host-plant resistance, which saved the cotton growers from ruin in the late 1990s, leaves farmers with only relatively poor host plant tolerance to counter the extensive losses the disease causes. There has always been the fear that CLCuD could spread from the relatively limited geographical range it encompasses at present to other cotton-growing areas of the world where, although the disease is not present, the environmental conditions are suitable for its establishment and the whitefly vector occurs. Unfortunately recent events have shown this fear to be well founded, with CLCuD making its first appearance in China. Here, we outline recent advances made in understanding the molecular biology of the components of the disease complex, their interactions with host plants, as well as efforts being made to control CLCuD.

  1. Advances of research on Cotton leaf curl virus%棉花曲叶病毒研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小兰; 赵竹; 李明福

    2013-01-01

    The Cotton leaf curl virus as a quarantine virus in China is severely harmful to the production of the cotton. It caused destructive damage on cotton production in Pakistan and India. The virus could be transimitted by the whitefly and had a wide host range. In 2006, the Cotton leaf curl virus was found to infect Hibiscus rosa -sinensis in Guangdong. Moreover, in 2010, CLCuV was reported to be associated with cotton leaf curl disease in a experimental field of Nanning, Guangxi province in China. Cotton is an important crop in China, once the virus is spread to the main cotton producing areas, the consequences would be disastrous. In this paper, the variants of the virus, distribution and popular trend, disease epidemiology, the influence of CLCuV on cotton production and quality traits and disease control are analysed. In addition, the interesting issues and effective management measures for CLCuV were discussed also.%棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton leaf curl virus,CLCuV)是我国的进境检疫性有害生物,严重危害棉花生长,在巴基斯坦和印度的棉花产区已造成毁灭性灾害.该病毒主要由烟粉虱传播,寄主范围广泛.2006年在广东首次发现棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)入侵我国危害朱槿,2010年有报道证实CLCuV已侵染广西南宁试验田的棉花.我国是棉花生产大国,该病毒一旦扩散传播到棉花主产区,后果将不堪设想.本文对CLCuV的变异、国内外分布和流行趋势、影响棉花曲叶病流行的因素、病毒对棉花的品质和产量的影响及病害治理等方面进行综述,并探讨了棉花曲叶病毒研究存在的问题及有效防止该病毒传播和扩散的措施.

  2. Genome organization of Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus, a new, distinct monopartite begomovirus associated with subgenomic defective DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paximadis, M; Rey, M E

    2001-12-01

    The complete DNA A of the begomovirus Tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZWV) was sequenced: it comprises 2767 nucleotides with six major open reading frames encoding proteins with molecular masses greater than 9 kDa. Full-length TbLCZWV DNA A tandem dimers, cloned in binary vectors (pBin19 and pBI121) and transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were systemically infectious upon agroinoculation of tobacco and tomato. Efforts to identify a DNA B component were unsuccessful. These findings suggest that TbLCZWV is a new member of the monopartite group of begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis identified TbLCZWV as a distinct begomovirus with its closest relative being Chayote mosaic virus. Abutting primer PCR amplified ca. 1300 bp molecules, and cloning and sequencing of two of these molecules revealed them to be subgenomic defective DNA molecules originating from TbLCZWV DNA A. Variable symptom severity associated with tobacco leaf curl disease and TbLCZWV is discussed.

  3. Screening low fire blight susceptible Crataegus species for host suitability to hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribosia, E; Bylemans, D; Van Impe, G; Migon, M

    2002-01-01

    The group of hawthorn leaf-curling aphids (Dysaphis spp.) hosted by the common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Jacq. may play an important role in the biological control of the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), by increasing reproduction opportunities for the indigenous hymenopteran parasitoid Ephedrus persicae Froggatt. Unfortunately, most fruitgrowers hesitate to introduce the common hawthorn in their orchards because they fear fire blight infections which may be transmitted by this highly susceptible hawthron species. This potential hazard led us to investigate the suitability to leaf-curling aphids of alternative Crataegus species. As representative for these closely-related aphids, the species Dysaphis apiifolia petroselini (Börner) was used in the trials. Ten Crataegus species characterized by their very low susceptibility to fire blight were examined from two angles. Firstly, aphid sexuals were introduced in autumn onto the different species to verify whether egg laying could take place. Secondly, the development of fundatrices and gall formation were followed the next spring. Although eggs and mature fundatrices could be obtained on almost all species, no fundatrice-hosting galls were recorded in spring. The possible causes of these negative results with respect to the geographical origin of the particular Crataegus species involved in this work are discussed.

  4. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Pereira-Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL, a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread.

  5. Transcriptome profiling to discover defense-related genes associated with resistance line ty-5 against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus, has caused serious economic losses to tomato crops in the U.S. and around the world. The most effective management would be the use of a TYLCV-resistant tomato cultivar. Several sources of TYLCV resistance genes have been ide...

  6. Field evaluation of yield effects on the U.S.A. heirloom sweet potato cultivars infected by sweet potato leaf curl virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), a Begomovirus, infection of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae) in South Carolina, USA has increased rapidly in recent years. This is likely due to the use of infected propagating materials and the increasing population of it...

  7. Efficient Regeneration and Selection of Virus-free Sweetpotato Plants from Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus Infected Materials and Their Effects on Yields in Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) is an emerging virus disease in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batata) in the U.S. The incidence of SPLCV infection on sweetpotato increased dramatically in recent years due to the explosion of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations. Among several sweetpotato v...

  8. Amplicon based RNA interference targeting V2 gene of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain can provide resistance in transgenic cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An RNAi based gene construct designated “C2” was used to target the V2 region of the cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) genome which is responsible for virus movement. The construct was transformed into two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289. A shoot apex method of plant transformation using Agr...

  9. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also durin

  10. TaqMan real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of squash leaf curl virus in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Cheng-Ping; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chang, Chia-Che; Lu, Yi-Lin

    2012-02-01

    A real-time PCR assay based on the TaqMan chemistry was developed for reliable detection and quantitation of the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) in melon and squash plants. This method was highly specific to SLCV and it was about one thousand times more sensitive than the conventional PCR method. The protocol of the real-time PCR established in this study enabled detection of as little as 10(2) copies of SLCV DNA with CP gene as the target. This TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection and quantitation of SLCV would be a useful tool for application in quarantine and certification of SLCV in cucurbits as well as in the research of disease resistance and epidemiology.

  11. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21 nt (73%) and 22 nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved.

  12. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  13. Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus: characterization and differential reassortment with closest relatives reveal adaptive virulence in the squash leaf curl virus clade and host shifting by the host-restricted bean calico mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Mills-Lujan, K; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2008-02-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at approximately 90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Biolistic inoculation of cantaloupe seedlings with the MCLCuV DNA-A and -B components resulted in the development of characteristic disease symptoms, providing definitive evidence of causality. MCLCuV experimentally infected species within the Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae. The potential for interspecific reassortment was examined for MCLCuV and its closest relatives, including the bean-restricted Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV), and three other cucurbit-infecting species, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), SLCV, and SMLCV. The cucurbit viruses have distinct but overlapping host ranges. All possible reassortants were established using heterologous combinations of the DNA-A or DNA-B components. Surprisingly, only certain reassortants arising from MCLCuV and BCaMV, or MCLCuV and CuLCrV, were viable in bean, even though it is a host of all of the "wild-type" (parent) viruses. The bean-restricted BCaMV was differentially assisted in systemically infecting the cucurbit test species by the components of the four cucurbit-adapted begomoviruses. In certain heterologous combinations, the BCaMV DNA-A or -B component was able to infect one or more cucurbit species. Generally, the reassortants were less virulent in the test hosts than the respective wild-type (parent) viruses, strongly implicating adaptive modulation of virulence. This is the first illustration of reassortment resulting in the host range expansion of a host-restricted begomovirus.

  14. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of novel amino acid derivatives as potential elicitors against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yufang; He, Shun; Geng, Qianqian; Duan, Yongheng; Guo, Mingcheng; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2015-12-01

    Disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) brings serious production losses of cultivated tomato worldwide. In our previous study, two novel amino acid derivatives exerted satisfactory antiviral activities against TYLCV. In this study, the variation of TYLCV, the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 and the enzyme activities of POD and PPO in tomato were monitored after treatment with two amino acid derivatives to illustrate the antiviral mechanism. The results showed the symptom severity caused by TYLCV was reduced significantly by two compounds and was associated with the inhibition of viral DNA level at the early stage. Among three levels of concentration, the highest inhibition rate of CNBF-His was 40.66% at 1000 mg/L, for CNBF-Asn, the highest inhibition rate was 36.26% at 2000 mg/L 30 days post-inoculation. Two compounds could also enhance the activities of PPO and POD and the transcriptional expression level of Ty-1 which correlates with plant resistance in tomato. In the field test, two compounds increased the yields of tomato and the maximum increase of yield was 37.66%. This is the first report of novel amino acid derivatives inducing resistance in tomato plant against TYLCV. It is suggested that amino acid derivatives have the potential to be an effective approach against TYLCV in tomato plant.

  16. Expressing activity of promoter elements of large intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a type of single-stranded DNAvirus, belonging to geminivirus of subgroup III. In order to determine the function of CLCuV large intergenic region (LIR), total DNA of CLCuV-infected cotton leaves was used as template, and fragment of LIR was obtained by PCR and inserted into clone vector. The fragment of LIR was fused with gus reporter gene and nos terminator in the orientation of transcription of virion sense and complementary sense respectively, and the plant expression vectors were constructed. GUS activity of Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic tobacco was measured. The result indicated that LIR showed strong promoter activity in complementary sense gene orientation. Average GUS activity of the complementary sense promoter was 5-6 times that of CaMV 35S promoter, and the highest GUS activity of individual plant was ten times of that of CaMV 35S promoter. Histochemical localization confirmed its activity in both mesophyll and vascular tissues. Activity of virion sense of LIR was rather low. Thus LIR isolated from CLCuV could be used as a novel strong promoter in plant genetic manipulation.

  17. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Construction of an Infectious Clone of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongjun Bang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a member of the genus Begomovirus, is responsible for one of the most devastating viral diseases in tomato-growing countries and is becoming a serious problem in many subtropical and tropical countries. The climate in Korea is getting warmer and developing subtropical features in response to global warming. These changes are being accompanied by TYLCV, which is now becoming a large problem in the Korean tomato industry. The most effective way to reduce damage caused by TYLCV is to breed resistant varieties of tomatoes. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish a simple inoculation technique for the efficient evaluation of resistance to TYLCV. Here, we present the rolling circle amplification (RCA method, which employs a bacteriophage using phi-29 DNA polymerase for construction of infectious TYLCV clones. The RCA method is simple, does not require sequence information for cloning, and is less expensive and time consuming than conventional PCR based-methods. Furthermore, RCA-based construction of an infectious clone can be very useful to other emerging and unknown geminiviruses in Korea.

  18. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Construction of an Infectious Clone of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Bongjun; Lee, Jongyun; Kim, Sunyoung; Park, Jungwook; Nguyen, Thao Thi; Seo, Young-Su

    2014-09-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, is responsible for one of the most devastating viral diseases in tomato-growing countries and is becoming a serious problem in many subtropical and tropical countries. The climate in Korea is getting warmer and developing subtropical features in response to global warming. These changes are being accompanied by TYLCV, which is now becoming a large problem in the Korean tomato industry. The most effective way to reduce damage caused by TYLCV is to breed resistant varieties of tomatoes. To accomplish this, it is necessary to establish a simple inoculation technique for the efficient evaluation of resistance to TYLCV. Here, we present the rolling circle amplification (RCA) method, which employs a bacteriophage using phi-29 DNA polymerase for construction of infectious TYLCV clones. The RCA method is simple, does not require sequence information for cloning, and is less expensive and time consuming than conventional PCR based-methods. Furthermore, RCA-based construction of an infectious clone can be very useful to other emerging and unknown geminiviruses in Korea.

  19. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  20. Correlation of meteorological parameters and remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) in Multan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Akhtar, A.; Khalid, B.; Shamim, A.

    2013-06-01

    Climate change and weather has a profound effect on the spread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) which is transmitted by whitefly. Climate change is altering temperature and precipitation patterns, resulting in the shift of some insect/pest from small population to large population thus effecting crops yield. To find out the relationship between the weather conditions, outburst of CLCV and changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values due to the outburst of CLCV, a study was carried out for tehsil Multan. Data was acquired for the months of June, July, August and September for the year 2010. Regression analysis between CLCV and meteorological conditions as well as between CLCV and NDVI was performed. Meteorological parameters included temperature, humidity, precipitation, cloud cover, wind direction, pan evaporation and sunshine hours. NDVI values were calculated from SPOT satellite imagery (1km) using ArcMap10 and WinDisp v5.1. Correlation coefficients obtained in most of the cases were acceptable however the significance F and P-value were higher than their critical value at 95% level of significance. Therefore significant correlation was found only between CLCV and temperature and between CLCV and PAN evaporation during the month of July.

  1. New insecticides for management of tomato yellow leaf curl, a virus vectored by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H A; Giurcanu, M C

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse studies using a randomized complete block design were carried out to evaluate the effect of six insecticides on transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum (Miller) (Solanales: Solanaceae), seedlings that were inoculated with whiteflies from a TYLCV colony in cages 3, 7, or 14 d after treatment with insecticide. The purpose was to reveal differences in residual efficacy of four materials that are nearing registration for use on tomato-cyazypyr, flupyradifurone, pyrafluquinazon, and sulfoxaflor-and to compare them with two established insecticides, pymetrozine and a zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin combination. Differences in efficacy were expected because these six materials represent five distinct modes of action and both contact and systemic materials. Percentage of tomato seedlings expressing virus symptoms tended to be lowest in seedlings treated with flupyradifurone. The zeta-cypermethrin/bifenthrin insecticide demonstrated comparable efficacy to flupyradifurone in some trials at 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations, but not the 14 d after treatment inoculation. Pyrafluquinazon was not statistically different from cyazypyr or sulfoxaflor in percentage of plants with virus symptoms in any trial. Percentage virus in the cyazypyr and sulfoxaflor treatments was not statistically different in the 3 and 7 d after treatment inoculations. Among seedlings treated with insecticide, percentage with virus symptoms tended to be highest in the seedlings treated with pymetrozine.

  2. Characterization of a New World Monopartite Begomovirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Ecuador and Peru Reveals a New Direction in Geminivirus Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo, Tomas A.; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R.; Paz-Carrasco, Lenin; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Gilbertson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related ...

  3. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  4. Identification and application of biocontrol agents against Cotton leaf curl virus disease in Gossypium hirsutum under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memoona Ramzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.

  5. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  6. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  7. Rapid spread of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in China is aided differentially by two invasive whiteflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV was introduced into China in 2006, approximately 10 years after the introduction of an invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. B biotype. Even so the distribution and prevalence of TYLCV remained limited, and the economic damage was minimal. Following the introduction of Q biotype into China in 2003, the prevalence and spread of TYLCV started to accelerate. This has lead to the hypothesis that the two biotypes might not be equally competent vectors of TYLCV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The infection frequency of TYLCV in the field-collected B. tabaci populations was investigated, the acquisition and transmission capability of TYLCV by B and Q biotypes were compared under the laboratory conditions. Analysis of B. tabaci populations from 55 field sites revealed the existence of 12 B and 43 Q biotypes across 18 provinces in China. The acquisition and transmission experiments showed that both B and Q biotypes can acquire and transmit the virus, however, Q biotype demonstrated superior acquisition and transmission capability than its B counterparts. Specifically, Q biotype acquired significantly more viral DNA than the B biotype, and reached the maximum viral load in a substantially shorter period of time. Although TYLCV was shown to be transmitted horizontally by both biotypes, Q biotype exhibited significantly higher viral transmission frequency than B biotype. Vertical transmission result, on the other hand, indicated that TYLCV DNA can be detected in eggs and nymphs, but not in pupae and adults of the first generation progeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These combined results suggested that the epidemiology of TYLCV was aided differentially by the two invasive whiteflies (B and Q biotypes through horizontal but not vertical transmission of the virus. This is consistent with the concomitant eruption of TYLCV in tomato fields following the recent rapid invasion of Q biotype whitefly in China.

  8. Chemical stimulants of leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers: natural products, neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussourd, David E

    2003-09-01

    Larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), often transect leaves with a narrow trench before eating the distal section. The trench reduces larval exposure to exudates, such as latex, during feeding. Plant species that do not emit exudate, such as Plantago lanceolata, are not trenched. However, if exudate is applied to a looper's mouth during feeding on P. lanceolata, the larva will often stop and cut a trench. Dissolved chemicals can be similarly applied and tested for effectiveness at triggering trenching. With this assay, I have documented that lactucin from lettuce latex (Lactuca sativa), myristicin from parsley oil (Petroselinum crispum), and lobeline from cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) elicit trenching. These compounds are the first trenching stimulants reported. Several other constituents of lettuce and parsley, including some phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and furanocoumarins had little or no activity. Cucurbitacin E glycoside found in cucurbits, another plant family trenched by cabbage loopers, also was inactive. Lactucin, myristicin, and lobeline all affect the nervous system of mammals, with lobeline acting specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To determine if cabbage loopers respond selectively to compounds active at acetylcholine synapses, I tested several neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs with known neurological activity, many of which triggered trenching. Active compounds included dopamine, serotonin, the insecticide imidacloprid, and various drugs such as ipratropium, apomorphine, buspirone, and metoclopramide. These results document that noxious plant chemicals trigger trenching, that loopers respond to different trenching stimulants in different plants, that diverse neuroactive chemicals elicit the behavior, and that feeding deterrents are not all trenching stimulants. The trenching assay offers a novel approach for identifying defensive plant compounds with potential uses

  9. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite DNA as a Tool to Deliver and Express the Human B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Gene in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharazmi, Sara; Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-05-01

    The betasatellite DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) contains a single complementary-sense ORF, βC1, which is a pathogenicity determinant. CLCuMB was able to replicate in plants in the presence of diverse helper geminiviruses, including Tomato leaf curl virus-Australia (TLCV-Au), Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]), and Beet curly top virus (BCTV-Svr), and can be used as a plant gene delivery vector. To test the hypothesis that CLCuMB has the potential to act as an animal gene delivery vector, a specific insertion construct was produced by the introduction of a human B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cDNA into a mutant DNA of CLCuMB in which the βC1 was deleted (β∆C1). The recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 construct was successfully replicated in tomato and tobacco plants in the presence of TLCV-Au, BCTV-Svr and TYLCV-[Ab]. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 DNA showed that Bcl-2 gene was expressed in an acceptable level in these plants, indicating that β∆C1 can be used as a tool to deliver and express animal genes in plants. This CLCuMB-based system, having its own promoter activity, offers the possibility of production of animal recombinant proteins in plants.

  10. AC2 and AC4 proteins of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus and Tobacco curly shoot virus mediate suppression of RNA silencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiaofeng; ZHOU Xueping

    2004-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus Y10 isolate (TYLCCNV-Y10) alone could systemically infect host plants such as Nicotiana benthamiana without symptoms. In contrast, Tobacco curly shoot virus Y35 isolate (TbCSV-Y35) alone induces leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana. When inoculated into transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing GFP gene (line 16c), TYLCCNV-Y10 neither reverses the established GFP silencing nor blocks the onset of GFP silencing. In contrast, TbCSV-Y35 can partially reverse the established GFP silencing and block the onset of GFP silencing in new leaves. In the patch co-infiltration assays, the AC2 and AC4 proteins of TYLCCNV-Y10 and TbCSV-Y35 could suppress local GFP silencing and delay systemic GFP silencing, suggesting that they are suppressors of RNA silencing. Comparison of the accumulation levels of GFP mRNA in the co-infiltration patches showed that Y10 AC2 and Y35 AC2 proteins had similar efficiency for suppression of RNA silencing. However, Y35 AC4 protein functioned as a stronger suppressor of RNA silencing than Y10 AC4 protein. Therefore, the pathogenicity difference between TbCSV-Y35 and TYLCCNV-Y10 may be related to the functional difference in their AC4 proteins.

  11. The Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and code for DFDGD-class RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten G Verlaan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease incited by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV causes huge losses in tomato production worldwide and is caused by different related begomovirus species. Breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of multiple resistance genes originating from several wild tomato species. In this study we have fine-mapped the widely used Solanum chilense-derived Ty-1 and Ty-3 genes by screening nearly 12,000 plants for recombination events and generating recombinant inbred lines. Multiple molecular markers were developed and used in combination with disease tests to fine-map the genes to a small genomic region (approximately 70 kb. Using a Tobacco Rattle Virus-Virus Induced Gene Silencing approach, the resistance gene was identified. It is shown that Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and that they code for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR belonging to the RDRγ type, which has an atypical DFDGD motif in the catalytic domain. In contrast to the RDRα type, characterized by a catalytic DLDGD motif, no clear function has yet been described for the RDRγ type, and thus the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene unveils a completely new class of resistance gene. Although speculative, the resistance mechanism of Ty-1/Ty-3 and its specificity towards TYLCV are discussed in light of the function of the related RDRα class in the amplification of the RNAi response in plants and transcriptional silencing of geminiviruses in plants.

  12. Mechanism of regulation of tomato TRN1 gene expression in late infection with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arunava; Sarkar, Deepti; Kundu, Surekha; Kundu, Pallob

    2015-12-01

    Tomato leaf curl disease caused by geminiviruses is manifested by curling and puckering of leaves and thickening of veins, resembling developmental defects. This is probably due to the long-term altered regulation of expression of development related gene(s). Our results show that in the infected leaves the transcript level of TORNADO1 (SlTRN1), a gene important for cell expansion and vein formation, increased significantly. SlTRN1 is transcribed from two start sites. The preferential usage of one start site governs its expression in viral-stressed plants. To investigate the role of specific promoter elements in mediating differential expression of SlTRN1, we performed SlTRN1 promoter analysis. The promoter-regulatory sequences harbor multiple W-boxes. The SlWRKY16 transcription factor actively interacts with one of the W-boxes. WRKY proteins are commonly induced by salicylic acid (SA), and consequently SA treatment increased transcript level of SlWRKY16 and SlTRN1. Further mutational analyses confirmed the role of W-boxes in mediating SlTRN1 induction during ToLCNDV infection or SA treatment. We postulate that the activation of SA pathway during stress-response in tomato induces WRKY16, which in turn modulates transcription of SlTRN1 gene. This study unravels the mechanism of regulation of a developmental gene during stress-response, which may affect the severity of symptoms.

  13. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies.

  14. Comparative Analyses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 Protein-Interacting Host Proteins in Healthy and Infected Tomato Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namgyu; Kim, Jinnyun; Bang, Bongjun; Kim, Inyoung; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Park, Jungwook; Seo, Young-Su

    2016-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response. In this study, through yeast-two hybrid screenings, we identified TYLCV C4-interacting host proteins from both healthy and symptom-exhibiting tomato tissues, to determine the role of TYLCV C4 proteins in the infection processes. Comparative analyses of 28 proteins from healthy tissues and 36 from infected tissues showing interactions with TYLCV C4 indicated that TYLCV C4 mainly interacts with host proteins involved in translation, ubiquitination, and plant defense, and most interacting proteins differed between the two tissues but belong to similar molecular functional categories. Four proteins—two ribosomal proteins, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and 14-3-3 family protein—were detected in both tissues. Furthermore, the identified proteins in symptom-exhibiting tissues showed greater involvement in plant defenses. Some are key regulators, such as receptor-like kinases and pathogenesis-related proteins, of plant defenses. Thus, TYLCV C4 may contribute to the suppression of host defense during TYLCV infection and be involved in ubiquitination for viral infection.

  15. Comparative Analyses of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus C4 Protein-Interacting Host Proteins in Healthy and Infected Tomato Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namgyu Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a member of the genus Begomovirus, is one of the most important viruses of cultivated tomatoes worldwide, mainly causing yellowing and curling of leaves with stunting in plants. TYLCV causes severe problems in sub-tropical and tropical countries, as well as in Korea. However, the mechanism of TYLCV infection remains unclear, although the function of each viral component has been identified. TYLCV C4 codes for a small protein involved in various cellular functions, including symptom determination, gene silencing, viral movement, and induction of the plant defense response. In this study, through yeast-two hybrid screenings, we identified TYLCV C4-interacting host proteins from both healthy and symptom-exhibiting tomato tissues, to determine the role of TYLCV C4 proteins in the infection processes. Comparative analyses of 28 proteins from healthy tissues and 36 from infected tissues showing interactions with TYLCV C4 indicated that TYLCV C4 mainly interacts with host proteins involved in translation, ubiquitination, and plant defense, and most interacting proteins differed between the two tissues but belong to similar molecular functional categories. Four proteins—two ribosomal proteins, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, and 14-3-3 family protein—were detected in both tissues. Furthermore, the identified proteins in symptom-exhibiting tissues showed greater involvement in plant defenses. Some are key regulators, such as receptor-like kinases and pathogenesis-related proteins, of plant defenses. Thus, TYLCV C4 may contribute to the suppression of host defense during TYLCV infection and be involved in ubiquitination for viral infection.

  16. 番茄黄化曲叶病毒病暴发原因分析及防控对策%Analysis on the outbreaks of tomato yellow leaf curl virus and its control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹哲; 杨普云; 刘树生; 赵中华; 单绪南

    2010-01-01

    @@ 番茄黄化曲叶病毒(Tomato yellow leaf curl virus,TYLCV)为双生病毒科(Geminniviridae)菜豆金色花叶病毒属(Begomovirus)成员[1].该类病毒通过B型烟粉虱和Q型烟粉虱进行传播.同时可经嫁接传播,但不能经机械摩擦或种子传播[2].

  17. Leaf curl diseases of two solanaceous species in Southwest Arabia are caused by a monopartite begomovirus evolutionarily most closely related to a species from the Nile Basin and unique suite of betasatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Idris, Ali

    2012-10-01

    The complete genome of 2780 bases was amplified using rolling circle amplification, and cloned, and sequenced for two distinct strains of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV). The two strains shared 86-91% identity with the previously described ToLCSDV from the Nile Basin, and 90-91% identity with one another. One strain was cloned from symptomatic tomato plants from Tihamah (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih:05]) while the other was cloned from symptomatic tobacco plants collected from Wadi Hadramaut (ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Had:89]). A distinct full-length betasatellite molecule (1352 bases) was cloned from the respective field-infected tomato and tobacco plants. Agro-inoculation of tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with cloned partial tandem repeats of ToLCSDV-YE[YE:Tih11:05]) and the associated betasatellite, Tomato leaf curl Yemen betasatellite (ToLCYEB-[Tih:tom:137:05]), resulted in the reproduction of leaf curl disease symptoms in test plants like those observed in the field-infected plants. The betasatellite contributed to symptom severity in N. benthamiana test plants when it was co-inoculated with ToLCSDV-YE, compared to the milder symptoms that were observed in tobacco plants infected with the helper virus alone. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) promoter: a new strong constitutive promoter for heterologous gene expression in a wide variety of crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavolone, Livia; Kononova, Maria; Pauli, Sandra; Ragozzino, Antonio; de Haan, Peter; Milligan, Steve; Lawton, Kay; Hohn, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    Appropriately regulated gene expression requires a suitable promoter. A number of promoters have been isolated and shown to be functional in plants, but only a few of them activate transcription of transgenes at high levels constitutively. We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel, constitutively expressed promoter isolated from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV), a double-stranded DNA plant pararetrovirus belonging to the Caulimoviridae family. The CmYLCV promoter is highly active in callus, meristems and vegetative and reproductive tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Zea mays and Oryza sativa. Furthermore, the level of expression is comparable to, or higher than, that from the CaMV 35S, the 'super-promoter' or the maize ubiquitin 1 promoters, three frequently used promoters in agricultural biotechnology. The heritable, strong and constitutive activity in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, combined with the extremely narrow CmYLCV host range, makes the CmYLCV promoter an attractive tool for regulating transgene expression in a wide variety of plant species.

  19. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection of tomato does not affect the performance of the Q and ZHJ2 biotypes of the viral vector Bemisia tabaci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Li; Jian Liu; Shu-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the etiology of begomovirus epidemics in regions under invasion we need to know how indigenous and invasive whitefly vectors respond to virus infection.We investigated both direct and indirect effects of infection with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV)on the performance of the invasive Q biotype and the indigenous Asian ZHJ2 biotype of whitefly Bemisia tabaci.The Q biotype performed better than the ZHJ2 biotype on either uninfected or virus-infected tomato plants.However,virus-infection of host plants did not,or only marginally affected,the performance of either biotype of whiteflies m terms of fecundity,longevity,survival,development and population increase.Likewise,association of the vectors with TYLCV did not affect fecundity and longevity of the Q or ZHJ2 biotypes on cotton,a non-host of TYLCV.These results indicate that the alien Q biotype whitefly,but not the indigenous ZHJ2 biotype,is likely to become the major vector of TYLCV in the field and facilitate virus epidemics.

  20. The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Knottin-1 Gene Is Implicated in Regulating the Quantity of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Ingested and Transmitted by the Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Hariton Shalev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major pest to agricultural crops. It transmits begomoviruses, such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, in a circular, persistent fashion. Transcriptome analyses revealed that B. tabaci knottin genes were responsive to various stresses. Upon ingestion of tomato begomoviruses, two of the four knottin genes were upregulated, knot-1 (with the highest expression and knot-3. In this study, we examined the involvement of B. tabaci knottin genes in relation to TYLCV circulative transmission. Knottins were silenced by feeding whiteflies with knottin dsRNA via detached tomato leaves. Large amounts of knot-1 transcripts were present in the abdomen of whiteflies, an obligatory transit site of begomoviruses in their circulative transmission pathway; knot-1 silencing significantly depleted the abdomen from knot-1 transcripts. Knot-1 silencing led to an increase in the amounts of TYLCV ingested by the insects and transmitted to tomato test plants by several orders of magnitude. This effect was not observed following knot-3 silencing. Hence, knot-1 plays a role in restricting the quantity of virions an insect may acquire and transmit. We suggest that knot-1 protects B. tabaci against deleterious effects caused by TYLCV by limiting the amount of virus associated with the whitefly vector.

  1. Eugenol confers resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating the expression of SlPer1 in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Jie; Lv, Wen-Jing; Li, Li-Na; Yin, Gan; Hang, Xiaofang; Xue, Yanfeng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-05-25

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the most devastating plant diseases, and poses a significant agricultural concern because of the lack of an efficient control method. Eugenol is a plant-derived natural compound that has been widely used as a food additive and in medicine. In the present study, we demonstrated the potential of eugenol to enhance the resistance of tomato plants to TYLCV. The anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol was significantly higher than that of moroxydine hydrochloride (MH), a widely used commercial antiviral agent. Eugenol application stimulated the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and salicylic acid (SA) in tomato plants. The full-length cDNA of SlPer1, which has been suggested to be a host R gene specific to TYLCV, was isolated from tomato plants. A sequence analysis suggested that SlPer1 might be a nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (NAT) belonging to the permease family. The transcript levels of SlPer1 increased markedly in response to treatment with eugenol or TYLCV inoculation. The results of this study also showed that SlPer1 expression was strongly induced by SA, MeJA (jasmonic acid methyl ester), and NO. Thus, we propose that the increased transcription of SlPer1 contributed to the high anti-TYLCV efficiency of eugenol, which might involve in the generation of endogenous SA and NO. Such findings provide the basis for the development of eugenol as an environmental-friendly agricultural antiviral agent.

  2. A begomovirus associated with Ageratum yellow vein disease in Indonesia: evidence for natural recombination between tomato leaf curl Java virus and Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, T; Kuwabara, K; Hidayat, S H; Ikegami, M

    2007-01-01

    A begomovirus (2747 nucleotides) and a satellite DNA beta component (1360 nucleotides) have been isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. plants with yellow vein symptoms growing in Java, Indonesia. The begomovirus is most closely related to Tomato leaf curl Java virus (ToLCJV) (91 and 98% in the total nucleotide and coat protein amino acid sequences, respectively), although the products of ORFs C1 and C4 are more closely related to those of Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java] (91 and 95% identity, respectively). For this reason, the begomovirus it is considered to be a strain of ToLCJV and is referred to as ToLCJV-Ageratum. The virus probably derives from a recombination event in which nucleotides 2389-2692 of ToLCJV have been replaced with the corresponding region of the AYVV-[Java] genome, which includes the 5' part of the intergenic region and the C1 and C4 ORFs. Infection of A. conyzoides with ToLCJV-Ageratum alone produced no symptoms, but co-infection with DNAbeta induced yellow vein symptoms. Symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by ToLCJV-Ageratum, ToLCJV and AYVV-[Java] are consistent with the exchange of pathogenicity determinant ORF C4 during recombination.

  3. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Rajagopalbabu; Riley, David; Diffie, Stan; Sparks, Alton; Adkins, Scott

    2012-08-01

    Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and whitefly-transmitted tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are major threats to tomato production in the southeastern United States. TYLCV was introduced to Florida from the Caribbean islands and has spread to other southern states of the United States. In Georgia, in recent years, the incidence of TYLCV has been steadily increasing. Studies were conducted to monitor population dynamics of whiteflies in the vegetable production belt of Georgia, to evaluate TYLCV-resistant genotypes against whiteflies and TYLCV, and to assess the potential role of resistant genotypes in TYLCV epidemiology. Monitoring studies indicated that the peak incidence of whiteflies varied seasonally from year to year. In general, whitefly populations were not uniformly distributed. Tomato genotypes exhibited minor differences in their ability to support whitefly populations. TYLCV symptoms were visually undetectable in all but one resistant genotype. The infection rates (visually) in susceptible genotypes ranged from 40 to 87%. Greenhouse inoculations with viruliferous whiteflies followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that up to 100% of plants of resistant genotypes were infected, although predominantly symptomless. TYLCV acquisition by whiteflies from TYLCV-infected genotypes was tested by PCR; TYLCV acquisition rates from resistant genotypes were less than from susceptible genotypes. Nevertheless, this difference did not influence TYLCV transmission rates from resistant to susceptible genotypes. Results emphasize that resistant genotypes can serve as TYLCV and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence TYLCV epidemics.

  4. Effectiveness of Cyantraniliprole for Managing Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Interfering with Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus on Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Rafael; Schuster, David J; Peres, Natalia A; Mangandi, Jozer; Hasing, Tomas; Trexler, Fred; Kalb, Steve; Portillo, Héctor E; Marçon, Paula C; Annan, I B

    2015-06-01

    Cyantraniliprole is the second xylem-systemic active ingredient in the new anthranilic diamide class. Greenhouse (2006), growth chamber (2007), and field studies (2009-2010) were conducted to determine the efficacy of cyantraniliprole for managing Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and in interfering with transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by this whitefly. Cyantraniliprole applied as soil treatments (200 SC) or foliar sprays (100 OD) provided excellent adult whitefly control, TYLCV suppression, and reduced oviposition and nymph survival, comparable to current standards. The positive results observed in these greenhouse experiments with a high level of insect pressure (10× the field threshold of one adult per plant) and disease pressure (five adults per plant, with a high level of confidence that TYLCV virulent adults were used), indicate a great potential for cyantraniliprole to be used in a whitefly management program. Field evaluations of soil drench treatments confirmed the suppression of TYLCV transmission demonstrated in the greenhouse studies. Field studies in 2009 and 2010 showed that cyantraniliprole (200 SC) provided TYLCV suppression for 2 wk after a drench application, when using a susceptible (2009) or imidacloprid-tolerant (2010) whitefly population. Cyantraniliprole was demonstrated to be a promising tool for management of TYLCV in tomato production, which is very difficult and expensive, and which has limited options. The integration of cyantraniliprole into a resistance management program will help to ensure the continued sustainability of this and current insecticides used for the management of insect vectors, including whiteflies and the TYLCV they spreads.

  5. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways. PMID:28222174

  6. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  7. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviv Dombrovsky

    Full Text Available We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV. PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV (both poleroviruses. The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs, which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93% and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%. Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP, may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2 were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5 and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3 with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s, resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  8. Virion stability is important for the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus by Bemisia tabaci, but virion access to salivary glands does not guarantee transmissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

    2009-06-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility.

  9. The sex pheromones of mealy plum (Hyalopterus pruni) and leaf-curl plum (Brachycaudus helichrysi) aphids: identification and field trapping of male and gynoparous aphids in prune orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmes, Emily J; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Campbell, Colin A M; Chamberlain, Keith; Pickett, John A; Zalom, Frank G

    2012-05-01

    Mealy plum, Hyalopterus pruni, and leaf-curl plum, Brachycaudus helichrysi, aphids are the primary arthropod pests in orchards that produce dried plums (i.e., prunes). The sexual stage of their respective lifecycles occurs on prune trees in the fall, during which time males respond to sex pheromones produced by oviparous females. Air-entrainment collections confirmed that oviparous H. pruni and B. helichrysi emitted combinations of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol. The responses of H. pruni and B. helichrysi to these compounds in ratios of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2.6:1, 3.4:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 0:0 (no-pheromone control) using water traps were determined in field experiments conducted in prune orchards during the fall. The greatest number of male H. pruni was caught in traps releasing a 1:1 ratio of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol, while male B. helichrysi were caught in similar numbers in traps releasing any of the two-component ratios tested. There was no evidence that any of the pheromone treatments influenced trap catches of gynoparae of either species. Results suggest that addition of sex pheromone lures increases trap catches of male H. pruni and B. helichrysi, and that this approach may improve monitoring and management of these pests in prune orchards. Knowledge gained from this study contributes to the understanding of the ecology of insect pests in prune orchards.

  10. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach, Patrick; Verlaan, Maarten G; Dullemans, Annette; Lohuis, Dick; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-09-02

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. Recently, the Ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and to be allelic with Ty-3. Here we show that upon TYLCV challenging of resistant lines carrying Ty-1 or Ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production of relatively high levels of siRNAs whereas, in contrast, susceptible tomato Moneymaker (MM) revealed higher virus titers but lower amounts of siRNAs. Comparative analysis of the spatial genomic siRNA distribution showed a consistent and subtle enrichment for siRNAs derived from the V1 and C3 genes in Ty-1 and Ty-3. In plants containing Ty-2 resistance the virus was hardly detectable, but the siRNA profile resembled the one observed in TYLCV-challenged susceptible tomato (MM). Furthermore, a relative hypermethylation of the TYLCV V1 promoter region was observed in genomic DNA collected from Ty-1 compared with that from (MM). The resistance conferred by Ty-1 was also effective against the bipartite tomato severe rugose begomovirus, where a similar genome hypermethylation of the V1 promoter region was discerned. However, a mixed infection of TYLCV with cucumber mosaic virus compromised the resistance. The results indicate that Ty-1 confers resistance to geminiviruses by increasing cytosine methylation of viral genomes, suggestive of enhanced transcriptional gene silencing. The mechanism of resistance and its durability toward geminiviruses under natural field conditions is discussed.

  11. Global analysis of the transcriptional response of whitefly to tomato yellow leaf curl China virus reveals the relationship of coevolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Li, Jun-Min; Varela, Nélia; Wang, Yong-Liang; Li, Fang-Fang; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-04-01

    The begomoviruses are the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative, persistent manner. The circulation of the viruses within the insect vectors involves complex interactions between virus and vector components; however, the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) using Illumina sequencing technology. Results showed that 1,606 genes involved in 157 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in the viruliferous whiteflies. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that TYLCCNV can perturb the cell cycle and primary metabolism in the whitefly, which explains the negative effect of this virus on the longevity and fecundity of B. tabaci. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCCNV can activate whitefly immune responses, such as autophagy and antimicrobial peptide production, which might lead to a gradual decrease of viral particles within the body of the viruliferous whitefly. Furthermore, PCR results showed that TYLCCNV can invade the ovary and fat body tissues of the whitefly, and Lysotracker and Western blot analyses revealed that the invasion of TYLCCNV induced autophagy in both the ovary and fat body tissues. Surprisingly, TYLCCNV also suppressed the whitefly immune responses by downregulating the expression of genes involved in Toll-like signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Taken together, these results reveal the relationship of coevolved adaptations between begomoviruses and whiteflies and will provide a road map for future investigations into the complex interactions between plant viruses and their insect vectors.

  12. 棉花曲叶病毒对棉花造成的经济损失评估%The economic losses of Cottone leaf curl virus invading China on cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶玉燕; 沈玲丽; 朱水芳; 严进; 黄冠胜

    2011-01-01

    棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton leaf curl virus)是我国进境检疫性病毒,严重危害棉花的生长,给棉花生产带来巨大经济损失.文中分析此病毒可能给棉花生产所造成的损失,包括直接经济损失、间接经济损失和防治费用.估算了棉花曲叶病毒对棉花造成的经济损失值为77.27亿元~498.61亿元.%The Cotton leaf curl virus as a quarantine virus in China severly harmed cotton, and leaded to seriously economical losing. In this paper we analyzed all the possible losses including three parts: direct economic losses,indirect economic losses and the cost of its control on this virus, and estimated the losses would be about 7727 million to 49 861 million yuan RMB.

  13. Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus,TYLCTHV-[2] from Solanum habrochaites accession ‘L06112’ in F1 and BC1F1 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julapark Chunwongse4

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV-[2] inwild tomato, Solanum habrochaites ‘L06112’ was investigated. The ‘L06112’ accession expressing the resistant phenotypewas crossed to the TYLCV-susceptible female parent, Seedathip3, to produce F1 hybrids. Parental polymorphism and hybrididentity were tested using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers for each chromosome. All markers were polymorphic betweenthe parents, but only markers SSR46, SSR115, SSR117 and SSR128 gave results suitable to assess hybrid relationships.Polymorphic bands were sharp, concise and distinguishable between hybrids and selfed plants. The stem cuttings of donorand recurrent parents, their F1 and BC1F1 were inoculated with TYLCTHV-[2] using viruliferous whiteflies. Diseaseresponse of the plants was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA at 45 days post inoculation. Thedonor parental line showed complete resistance to TYLCTHV-[2] while the F1 and BC1F1 expressed various ELISA readingsfor TYLCTHV-[2] concentration. BC1F1; 04T105-7, 04T105-1, 04T105-10, 04T109-4 and 04T104-1 developed from thisstudy showed the high level of resistance to TYLCV, Thailand isolate.

  14. Physiological Changes before and after Leaf Color Transition in the Bolting Process of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丹萍; 李春刚; 张耀伟

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ( Lour.) Olsson ] shows leaf color transition during the period from vernalization to bolting. After the change it will bud and then bolting, flowering. This phenomenon is particularly prominent in early-bolting species. In present study, Chinese cabbage cultivars of late-bolting and early-bolting were used to investigate the physiological changes during leaf color transition in the bolting process. The results revealed that there were some correlations between leaf color transition and the hormones, pigment content and protein composition. The content of chlorophyll (a/b), IAA and GA3 reached their peak in bolting process, the stem initiates elongation growth after leaf color is changed. The changes of leaf color are physiological signal in Chinese cabbage bolting.%大白菜通过春化后至抽薹,叶色由绿变灰,这一叶色转变过程在弱冬性品系上的表现尤为突出.本试验以不同冬性的大白菜品系为材料,从激素、色素含量变化和蛋白质组分变化等方面研究大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化.结果表明:激素、色素含量和蛋白质的变化均与叶色转变有一定关系,叶绿素a/b、IAA和GA3含量均在叶色转变期出现峰值.

  15. Cabbage Dish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams of cabbage, 40 grams of winter bamboo shoots, 40 grams of rehydrated winter mushrooms, 20 grams of green pepper, 20 grams of red pepper, 30 grams of scallions, 10 grams of ginger, 20-40 grams of chili pepper, 50 grams of salt, 50

  16. Development of Gene Expression and Gene Silencing Vectors Based onCotton Leaf Curl Virus for Functional Genomics in Cotton `%基于抗卷叶病毒棉花基因组研究的基因表达和基因沉默载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid MANSOOR; Muhammad SAQIB; Mazhar HUSSAIN; Rob BRIDDON; Kauser A. MALIK; Yusuf ZAFAR

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cotton leaf curl virus is the first example of a cotton-infecting virus where infectious clones are available. Plant viruses are valuable tools in understanding plant biology as they can be engineered for expression of foreign genes or silencing of genes homologous to cloned genes.

  17. Harm mechanism and method of prevention and cure of yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV) in tomato%番茄黄化曲叶病毒的危害机理及防治方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马妙芳

    2015-01-01

    通过对野生番茄的对比研究,发现并找到了番茄抗黄化曲叶病毒6个抗TYLCV的基因。分别是TY-1、TY-2、TY-3,TY-3a、TY-4、TY-5,这些抗TY病毒的基因都是从国外的材料中发现的。目前我国已经育成的抗TY病毒的番茄品种有1000多个。防治番茄黄化曲叶病毒主要措施;一是严把抗性鉴定关,主推抗性强的优良品种;二是加强田间管理,控制病毒传播;三是加强对中心病株的防治。%Through comparative study of wild tom ato, the six resistance gene of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)were found and they were TY-1、TY-2、TY-3,TY-3a、TY-4 and TY-5. These resistant genes were found in the material from abroad. At present our country had bred more than 1 000 tomato varieties with TY virus resistance.The main measures of prevention of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were strengthening resistance identification, popularizing varieties of strong resistance, strengthening field management, controling the spread of the virus and strengthening the treatment of center infected plant.

  18. Study on the Color Analysis of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease Based on Digital Images%基于数字图像的番茄黄化曲叶病毒病色彩分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 陈振德

    2013-01-01

    为实现番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的快速无损监测,利用计算机图像处理技术对番茄叶片图像进行研究。在3种颜色系统中比较9种颜色参数,发现其中5种色彩参数存在显著差异,通过进一步的分布统计研究,发现了各参数的最优区分区间。其中G、Y、Cb3个值对感病叶片的区分率均达到70%以上,最优区分点分别在135、121和110,可以作为TYLCVD的特征参数应用于识别模型为后续研究识别模型提供重要的参数依据。试验结果表明,基于色彩分析法对番茄黄化曲叶病毒病进行识别是可行的。%In order to achieve rapid non-destructive monitoring of tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease, the author analyzed the images of tomato leaves using computer image processing technology. The author compared 9 color parameters in 3 color systems. The study showed that there were significant differences in 5 color parameters. In a further study on distribution statistics, it was found the optimal distinguish interval of each parameter. Each distinguish rate of G, Yand Cbwas more than 70%. The optimal distinguish interval of each 3 value was 135, 121 and 110. This provided important parameter basis for the follow-up study on identify model. The result showed that it’s feasible to identify tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease based on color analysis.

  19. 抗番茄黄化卷叶病毒番茄新品种'科大204'%A New Tomato Hybrid'Keda 204'with Resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建军; 艾鹏飞; 李振侠; 仇燕; 李敏

    2011-01-01

    '科大204' 番茄是以优良自交系'TP025-2'为母本,'869-1'为父本杂交育成的抗番茄黄化卷叶病毒的新品种.生长势强,无限生长类型,7~8片真叶着生第一花序.果实扁圆形,单果质量200~250g,成熟果粉红色,中等硬度,口感好,品质优良.抗番茄黄化卷叶病毒,兼抗枯萎病、叶霉病和TMV.中早熟,平均产量121.8 t·hm-2,适宜北方保护地早春和秋延后栽培.%‘Keds 204’ is a new pink tomato hybrid resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which is developed by crossing ‘TP025-2’ × ‘869-1’ . The hybrid grows strongly with indeterminate plant type and mid-early maturity. The matured fruits are oblate in shape, pink in color with moderate firmness and good quality. The single fruit weight ranges from 200 g to 250 g. Especially, it is resistance to TYLCV, as well as fusarium wilt, leaf mould and TMV. The average yield of ‘Keda 204’was 121.8 t. hm-2 as a result of multiple experiments. The hybrid is suitable for cultivation in early spring and late autumn under greenhouse conditions in northern China.

  20. Discovering Host Genes Involved in the Infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Complex and in the Establishment of Resistance to the Virus Using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lozano-Durán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV complex are among the most important pathogens impairing production of agricultural crops worldwide. To understand how these geminiviruses subjugate plant defenses, and to devise counter-measures, it is essential to identify the host genes affected by infection and to determine their role in susceptible and resistant plants. We have used a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS to uncover genes involved in viral infection of susceptible plants, and to identify genes underlying virus resistance. To identify host genes with a role in geminivirus infection, we have engineered a Nicotiana benthamiana line, coined 2IRGFP, which over-expresses GFP upon virus infection. With this system, we have achieved an accurate description of the dynamics of virus replication in space and time. Upon silencing selected N. benthamiana genes previously shown to be related to host response to geminivirus infection, we have identified eighteen genes involved in a wide array of cellular processes. Plant genes involved in geminivirus resistance were studied by comparing two tomato lines: one resistant (R, the other susceptible (S to the virus. Sixty-nine genes preferentially expressed in R tomatoes were identified by screening cDNA libraries from infected and uninfected R and S genotypes. Out of the 25 genes studied so far, the silencing of five led to the total collapse of resistance, suggesting their involvement in the resistance gene network. This review of our results indicates that TRV-VIGS is an exquisite reverse genetics tool that may provide new insights into the

  1. Gene expression profiling of the whitefly(Bemisia tabaci)Middle East-Asia Minor 1 feeding on healthy and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus-infected tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Min Li; Yong-Ming Ruan; Fang-Fang Li; Shu-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Begomoviruses are exclusively transmitted by whitefly(Bemisia tabaci)in a circulative,non-propagative manner.The influences of begomoviruses on whitefly vector are complex with both direct and indirect effects.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood and the transcriptional profiles of whitefly on healthy and virus-infected plants have not yet been studied.Using suppression subtractive hybridization,we investigated the differentially expressed genes in whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 feeding on healthy and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus(TYLCCNV)infected tobacco.From the forward cDNA library,124 differentially expressed expression sequence tags(ESTs)were obtained which represent up-regulated genes in the whiteflies feeding on the infected tobacco.From the reverse library,112 ESTs were isolated which represent down-regulated genes.Among the up-regulated genes,we identified several genes that are probably involved in direct interaction between whitefly and TYLCCNV,including a 26/29-kDa proteinase that appears to participate in the elimination of foreign proteins,heparan sulfate proteoglycan which mediates the entry of several viruses into host cells and two genes of Rickettsia-a secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of whitefly.In addition,we identified a number of genes involved in metabolism,transcription and translation which might be the result of indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the whitefly via host plants.Collectively,our results suggest that TYLCCNV-infected tobacco changes the gene expression profiles of whitefly via both direct and indirect interactions.This study revealed a number of genes involved in whitefly-TYLCCNV-tobacco interactions and provided useful information for future study on this complex system.

  2. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-resistant tomato plants expressing the multifunctional N-terminal domain of the replication-associated protein show transcriptional changes resembling stress-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioli, Alessandra; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Tavazza, Raffaela; Pizzichini, Daniele; Tavazza, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130) of the replication-associated protein (Rep130 ) of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) retains the ability of full-length Rep to localize to the nucleus and to down-regulate C1 transcription when ectopically expressed in plants, both functions being required to inhibit homologous viral replication. In this study, we analysed the effect of Rep130 expression on virus resistance and the plant transcriptome in the natural and agronomically important host species of TYLCSV, Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants accumulating high levels of Rep130 were generated and proved to be resistant to TYLCSV. Using an in vitro assay, we showed that plant-expressed Rep130 also retains the catalytic activity of Rep, thus supporting the notion that this protein domain is fully functional. Interestingly, Rep130 -expressing tomatoes were characterized by an altered transcriptional profile resembling stress-related responses. Notably, the serine-type protease inhibitor (Ser-PI) category was over-represented among the 20 up-regulated genes. The involvement of Rep130 in the alteration of host mRNA steady-state levels was confirmed using a distinct set of virus-resistant transgenic tomato plants expressing the same TYLCSV Rep130 , but from a different, synthetic, gene. Eight genes were found to be up-regulated in both types of transgenic tomato and two encoded Ser-PIs. Four of these eight genes were also up-regulated in TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants. Implications with regard to the ability of this Rep domain to interfere with viral infections and to alter the host transcriptome are discussed.

  3. A New Tomato Hybrid‘Hangza 3’Resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus%抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒番茄新品种‘航杂3号’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑积荣; 王慧俐; 王世恒

    2012-01-01

    ‘Hangza 3’is a new red tomato hybrid resistant to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV) and root knot nematode,which is developed by crossing‘HT1-1-3-2-5-3’ב00-03-19’.The hybrid grows strongly with indeterminate plant type and mid-early maturity. Its first inflorescence is 7–8 leaf,Its average single fruit weight is 136 g. The matured fruits are round in shape,red in color with good quality. Especially,it is resistant to TYLCV and root knot nematode and transportation,The average yield of ‘Hangza 3’was 81.0 t · hm-2 as a result of multiple experiments. The hybrid is suitable for cultivation in early spring and late autumn under greenhouse conditions.%‘航杂3号’番茄是以引自荷兰品种‘9956’分离后代的高代自交系‘9956-3-2-1-1-1’经航天搭载诱变后选出的优良自交系‘HT1-1-3-2-5-3’为母本,以引自西班牙品种‘T00’高代自交系‘00-03-19’为父本,杂交育成的新品种。生长势强,无限生长类型,7~8片真叶着生第一花序。果实圆形,单果质量136g,成熟果大红色,耐贮运,商品性好。抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒,兼抗根结线虫病。中早熟,平均产量81.0t·hm-2,适宜保护地早春和秋延后栽培。

  4. Preliminary Functional Studies on AC2, a Novel Trans-acting Factor from Cotton Leaf Curl Virus%棉花曲叶病毒反式作用因子AC2的功能初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 孟蒙; 朱祯; 吴茜; 徐鸿林; 刘玉乐

    2001-01-01

    Studies on tomato golden mosaic virus and African cassava mosaicvirus suggested that virion sense promoter was trans-activated in transient expression by AC2 encoded by geminivirus. The AC2 gene fragment of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was obtained from total DNA of CLCuV infected tobacco leaves by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplified DNA fragment was cloned into vector. Transient expression vectors were constructed by fusing the AC2 gene fragment with CaMV 35S promoter and nopaline terminator. These constructs were delivered into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaf cells for transient expression by particle bombardment. Results indicated that activity of virion sense promoter was activated by AC2 and increased remarkably. However, the activity of trans-activated virion sense promoter was still lower than that of complementary sense promoter. Expression pattern of trans-activated virion sense promoter was similar to that of complementary sense promoter with the high activity in both mesophyll and vascular of leaf vein. In this paper, the expression behavior of AC2 in Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic plants was also discussed.%有关非洲木薯花叶病毒(ACMV)、番茄金色花叶病毒(TGMV)的研究表明,双生病毒编码的反式作用因子AC2反式激活病毒链基因启动子的瞬时表达。以棉花曲叶病毒(CLCuV)侵染的烟草叶片组织总DNA为模板,通过聚合酶链反应扩增CLCuV的AC2基因片段并插入克隆载体。将AC2置于CaMV35S启动子下构建了瞬时表达载体。通过基因枪法将质粒载体导入烟草(Nicotianatabacum L.)和棉花(Gossypium hirsutum L.)叶片细胞中进行瞬时表达,结果表明,在反式作用因子AC2的激活下,病毒链基因启动子驱动的GUS活性明显增强,然而激活后的病毒链基因启动子的活性仍低于互补链基因方向启动子;其表达方式与互补链基因启动子相似,即在叶肉及叶脉

  5. 植物源抗病毒剂丁香酚防治番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的效果分析%Control Effect of Botanical Virucide Eugenol against Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓艳; 陈浩; 张晓阳; 石志琦

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the field plot experiment was carried out to investigate the control effect of eugenol against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease.The results showed that the control effect of using 20%eugenol EW for 4 times from tomato seedling stage was the highest (70.96%); the control effect of applying 20% eugenol EW for 3 times from tomato flowering stage was 65.07%;the control effect of first applying 20%guanidine・ copper wettable powder (WP) for 2 times and then using 20%euge-nol EW for 2 times was 60.31%, which was not significantly different from that of applying 20%eugenol EW;the continuous appli-cation of 20%guanidine・ copper WP for 4 times showed the lowest control effect (53.57%), which was significantly lower than that of all the above treatments.%采用田间小区试验的方法,研究丁香酚防治番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的效果,结果表明:从番茄苗期开始,施用4次20%丁香酚水乳剂的防效最高,为70.96%;从花期开始施用3次20%丁香酚水乳剂的防效为65.07%;先施用2次20%吗胍・铜可湿性粉剂,再施用2次20%丁香酚水乳剂的防效为60.31%,与20%丁香酚水乳剂处理没有显著差异;连续施用4次20%吗胍・铜可湿性粉剂的防效最低,为53.57%,显著低于其他处理。

  6. 番茄黄化曲叶病毒对温室白粉虱适合度的影响%Effects of tomato yellow leaf curl virus on the fitness of greenhouse whitefly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付雪; 赵奎军; 赵娜; 谭巍; 裴海英; 闫春秀; 叶乐夫

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] The greenhouse whitefly is a major insect pest of multiple horticultural and vegetable crops in Northern China. The sweet potato whitefly species complex is another pest species that has recently spread into parts of Heilongjiang Province as a result of the flower trade and is rapidly replacing native species to become the new dominant species. The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a begomovirus transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly that can cause serious damage to plant crops. There has been little recent research on the effect of this virus on the greenhouse whitefly, or on competition between these two whitefly species. [Methods] We observed the population dynamics of both whitefly species on infected and un-infected tomato plants and related these to host plant’s morphological and physical indices. [Results] 1) Tomato plants infested by the sweet potato whitefly became short and thin with more root biomass; 2) Plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly became a little shorter but thicker; 3) Infected plants became shorter and thicker (or thinner), without significant root variance; 4) Compared with infested plants, plants that were both infected with the virus and infested with the greenhouse whitefly became shorter and thinner with a sharp decrease in root biomass, whereas those infested with the sweet potato whitefly showed much reduced symptoms; 5) Different enzymes responded differently to plant infection; higher AchE activity injured plants but higher GST was beneficial. [Conclusion] Infestation by the sweet potato whitefly injured tomato seedlings, but the greenhouse whitefly didn’t directly affect tomato plants; virus infection reduces the plant response to sweet potato whitefly infestation, but enhances the response to infestation by the greenhouse whitefly, that is to say, the growth and development of infected plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly was significantly suppressed. The sweet potato whitefly laid less eggs

  7. 基于微流控芯片电泳的番茄黄化曲叶病毒快速检测%Microfluidic Electrophoresis Detection of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus(TYLCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明芬; 曾洪梅; 钟润涛; 赵小明; 邱德文

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探索微流控芯片电泳方法在PCR产物检测方面的效果,并建立针对番茄黄化曲叶病毒(Tomato yellow leaf curl virus,TYLCV)的微流控芯片电泳检测方法,弥补琼脂糖凝胶电泳方法在试剂消耗、所用时间、安全性方面的缺陷。【方法】通过对TYLCV的基因组进行分析后,在该基因组中相对稳定的位置设计引物,同时兼顾引用已被研究者研究过的引物,对这些选择的引物进行特异性、稳定性、灵敏度等方面的验证,筛选出用于后续试验的引物。选择DNA标准物φX174/BsuR I(Hae Ⅲ) marker,分别进行琼脂糖凝胶电泳和微流控芯片电泳,对二者在耗材、耗时和灵敏度方面进行比较,确定微流控芯片电泳在核酸检测方面的应用价值。利用筛选出的其中1对引物对番茄叶片的实际样品进行PCR扩增,随后通过微流控芯片电泳对其进行检测,以此探讨微流控芯片电泳在病毒检测方面的检测效果。【结果】共筛选出14对TYLCV备用引物,其中2对引自文献,12对为本文设计,每对引物均可满足微流控芯片检测要求。选择其中1对引物TYLCV-T作为随后的研究对象。利用琼脂糖凝胶电泳和微流控芯片电泳对DNA标准物检测,结果表明微流控芯片电泳在耗时方面不足琼脂糖凝胶电泳的1/10,约为13 min,试剂消耗为琼脂糖凝胶电泳的1/8,检测灵敏度方面至少比琼脂糖凝胶电泳高103倍,根据DNA标准物原液浓度计算可知,微流控芯片电泳至少可准确检测到浓度为5×10-6μg∙μL-1的核酸样品。利用微流控芯片电泳对TYLCV-T扩增的TYLCV PCR产物进行检测,将检测峰值图与DNA标准物的峰值图时间比较,就可判断出产物峰的大小范围。【结论】筛选出的关于TYLCV的备用引物可作为进一步研究微流控芯片技术在该病毒检测方面的基础;通过将琼脂糖凝胶电泳和微

  8. Experimental Study on Screening of Anti Yel ow Leaf Curl Disease Varieties of Early Spring Tomato in Green-house%日光温室早春茬番茄抗黄化曲叶病毒病品种筛选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 温学萍; 王继涛; 汪金山

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was made on the screening of varieties with 16 selected anti yellow leaf curl disease vari-eties of tomato and a comprehensive evaluation was made in aspects of the growth process, field growth, fruit characters, yield and disease and insect resistance of various varieties. The results showed that no yellow leaf curl disease was found on 8 red-fruit varieties and 8 pink-fruit varieties of the experimented tomato during the whole growth period. Among the 8 red-fruit varieties, severe blossom-end rot was found on "Weihong No.7" and its yield was low and the other 7 varieties were all suitable for growing in early spring, especially "Maiqili" and "Deaote 7728" performed better. Among the 8 pink-fruit varieties, the yield of "Aiji 112" was relatively low and the other 7 varieties had their own advantages respectively and their yields were high and they were all suitable for growing in early spring. Especially the "Weifen No. 8" performed better.%选择了16个抗黄化曲叶病毒病番茄品种开展品种筛选试验,从各品种的生育进程、田间长势、果实性状、产量、抗病虫性等方面进行了综合评价。结果表明:供试的8个红果品种和8个粉果品种在整个生育期均未发生番茄黄化曲叶病毒病;8个红果番茄中,卫红7号脐腐病发生较严重、产量低,其他7个品种均适合在早春茬生产栽培,尤其以麦奇丽、德奥特7728表现较好;8个粉果品种,爱吉112产量相对较低,其他7个品种各有优势,丰产性好,均适合在早春茬生产栽培,尤其以卫粉8号表现较好。

  9. Prevention and Control of Field Planting with Ditch,Cooling and Moisture Retention on Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease%“沟栽降温保湿法”定植防控番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建武; 姜冬仓; 薛爱利

    2011-01-01

    近几年,我国夏季番茄生产中黄化曲叶病毒病为害日趋严重,北方地区由于夏季极端高温天数不断增多,导致夏秋番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的发病规模迅速扩大,严重为害夏秋淡季番茄的生产。目前该病害尚无有效的根治措施,只能是预防为主。以夏秋茬大棚番茄为试材,采用对比设计,设沟栽降温保湿法(简称为"沟栽法")定植和平畦定植(CK)2种处理方式,研究了沟栽法定植对番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的防控效果。结果表明:当温室大棚内平均最高温度为33~36℃时,利用"沟栽法"定植可使沟内番茄根际5~25 cm地温稳定在28℃以下,较平畦栽植平均降低3.1℃;沟内土壤相对湿度60%~80%时,5 cm地温均可降至28℃以下,降温效果明显。同时,随着根际土壤温度的降低,番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的发生率极显著降低(仅为8.2%),较平畦栽植降幅达89.62%,差异达极显著水平;病情指数降低了27.36%,差异达显著水平。"沟栽降温保湿法"定植能够有效防控番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的发生。在番茄生产上,采取"沟栽降温保湿法"定植可以作为防控番茄黄化曲叶病毒病的关键技术。%In recent years,the tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in summer was increasingly severe in China.The days of extreme high temperature in summer in northern regions increased,which caused the tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease expanding rapidly and severely damaged the slack season tomato production in summer and autumn.Currently the disease could not effectively controlled,which only be prevented.Using greenhouse tomato in summer and autumn as material,the control effect of field planting with ditch,cooling and moisture retention on tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease was studied.The results showed that when the average maximum temperature in greenhouse was 33-36 ℃,the ground temperature around 5-25 cm of rhizosphere was below 28

  10. Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Thailand isolate (TYLCTHV-[2] and markers loci association in BC2F1 population from a cross between Seedathip 3 and a wild tomato, Solanum habrochaites ‘L06112’ clone no.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraiwan Pongpayaklers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The BC2F1 population from a cross between wild tomato, Solanum habrochaites ‘L06112’ and recurrent susceptiblevariety, Seedathip 3 was investigated for a resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV-[2]. Five stemcuttings from each of the 196 lines were inoculated with TYLCTHV-[2] using viruliferous whiteflies as the inoculation vector.Disease response was recorded weekly intervals and scored for three weeks according to the severity of the symptoms. Thepresence of TYLCTHV-[2] was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at three weeks after inoculation.ELISA readings showed a normal distribution for the BC2F1 population ranging from 0.055 (resistant to 0.930 (susceptible.DNA samples from BC2F1 population were analyzed for genes and markers association; Ty-2 on chromosome 11 using AVRDCprimer number 11-090.0 (TG105A, and Ty-3 on chromosome 6 using marker C2_At3g11210. Results showed that Ty-2 waslost during stepwise selection at BC1F1 generation, while Ty-3 showed no relationship to marker C2_At3g11210 and theamount of virus detected from ELISA reading. This indicated that the TYLCTHV-[2] resistant phenotype response in theBC2F1 population neither came from Ty-2 nor linked to the Ty-3 gene.

  11. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  12. Chinese tomato yelIow Ieaf curl virus- a new species of geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Cai, J; Li, D; Qin, B; Tian, B

    1998-08-01

    Chine tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-CHI) and other geminiviruses were analysed with 20 monoclonaI antibodies. It was shown that TYLCV-CHI is serclogicaIly close to Chinese tabacco Ieaf curl virus (TbLCV-CHI). The fragment of TYLCV-CHI DNA including the common region (CR), N-terminal of coat protein gene and AV1 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned, and its DNA sequence was determined. These raults showed that TYLCV-CHI is different from other known geminiviruses in the world, and is a new whitefly-transmitted gerninivirus.

  13. A New Cherry Tomato'Jinling Tianyu'with Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus%抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒病樱桃番茄新品种‘金陵甜玉’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵统敏; 余文贵; 杨玛丽; 赵丽萍

    2011-01-01

    ‘金陵甜玉’樱桃番茄是以TY-07-5为母本,TY-07-4为父本育成的无限生长类型一代杂种,生长势较强,叶色深绿,果实短椭圆形,成熟果红色,果皮厚,耐贮运,单果质量22g左右,抗番茄黄化曲叶病毒病,抗ToMV和枯萎病。%'Jinling Tianyu'is a new cherry tomato hybrid which developed by crossing TY-07-5 as a female parent with TY-07-4 as a male parent.It is indeterminate growth type,which grows vigorously.The leaf is dark green.The fruit is red,and it has oval-round shape.The average weight of single fruit is 22 g.It is resistant to TYLCV,ToMV and wilt.

  14. 侵染云南白肋烟的中国番茄黄化曲叶病毒及伴随卫星DNA分子的基因组特征%Genomic Characterization of DNA-A and Associated Satellite DNA Molecule of an Isolate of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Infecting Nicotiana tabacum White Burley in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂新; 范三微; 李正和; 谢艳; 周雪平

    2003-01-01

    从中国云南省大理地区表现曲叶症状的白肋烟(Nicotina tabacum White Burley)上分离到病毒分离物Y43,该病毒可经烟粉虱(Bemisia tabaci)及嫁接传播.用15种粉虱传双生病毒的单抗对病样进行TAS-ELISA检测,结果表明,该病毒属菜豆金色花叶病毒属(Begomovirus)病毒.对DNA-A1.7kb基因组序列测定和分析表明,Y43与中国广西报道的中国番茄黄化曲叶病毒(Tomata yellow leaf curl China virus,TYLCCNV)同源性达89%,其中外壳蛋白(CP)氨基酸同源性达96%,因此Y43应为TYLCCNV的一个新分离物.进一步研究发现,Y43还伴随着一个长1 349 nt的卫星DNA分子(DNAβ).Y43DNAβ与AYVVDNAβ、BYVMVDNAβ和CLCuVDNAβ的同源性较低,而与中国分离的烟草曲叶病毒Y5 DNAβ和Y8 DNA β的亲缘关系较近.DNAβ可能编码7个分子量超过3.5kD的ORF,其中C1推测为有功能的ORF.

  15. 寿光地区感病辣椒TYLCV的分子鉴定和病毒DNA-A序列分析%Molecular Identification and DNA-A Gene Sequence Analysis of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus on Pepper( Capsicum annuum )in Shouguang Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春香; 刘彩云; 李会平; 曹京

    2012-01-01

    由于TYLCV的宿主广泛,本试验对山东寿光地区的感病毒病辣椒进行了TYLCV感染的分子鉴定,发现寿光地区的辣椒感染了TYLCV病毒,且感染率较高.通过对病毒基因组DNA-A序列的克隆和序列分析发现,寿光感病辣椒的TYLCV序列与临沂和德州的TYLCV亲缘关系最近,并对具体突变点进行了分析.进化树分析显示,克隆得到的辣椒病毒与墨西哥的TYLCV病毒同源性较高,而与危害辣椒较严重的TYLCSV的遗传距离较远.%Molecular identification were done on tomato yellow leaf curl virus ( TYLCV) isolated from pepper plants showing TYLCV symptoms in Shouguang region because TYLCV have more hosts. The result showed peppers in Shouguang infected TYLCV with high efficiency among detected plants. The isolate was the most close to the TYLCV Linyi isolate and Dezhou isolate, and the detail point mutation of Shouguang TYLCV genome compared with Linyi were analyzed. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that TYLCV of mexico were found to show high sequence i-dentity with that we cloned, and with relatively low similarity to TYLCSV strains which damaged pepper seriously.

  16. 木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒基因重组和缺失产生DNAβ相关的新型小分子%Novel DNA-β associated molecules produced by sequence recombination and deletion of cotton leaf curl Multan virus complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖艺祯; 谢科; 蔡健和; 秦碧霞; 李战彪; 刘玉乐

    2012-01-01

    [目的]棉花曲叶病是棉花生产上的一种重要的病毒病害,在巴基斯坦和印度等国家地区大面积流行,造成严重的经济损失.近年在中国广西南宁的棉花田间发现了棉花曲叶病害,在广西的黄秋葵中也发生了曲叶病,二者的病原均为木尔坦棉花曲叶病毒(Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus,CLCuMV),为了对这2个病害有更深的了解,本文对该双生病毒伴随的DNA小分子进行测序分析.[方法]分别从广西南宁地区感染CLCuMV的3棵棉花和3棵黄秋葵中提取总DNA,用CLCuMV DNAβ的特异引物进行PCR扩增,将产物分离纯化并克隆测序,进行序列比对分析.[结果]从棉花曲叶病害中分离得到了1384 nt的新型重组DNA分子,以及从黄秋葵曲叶病害中分离得到了754 nt的新型缺失型DNA分子.研究结果表明1384 nt重组分子是由CLCuMV GX1的DNA-A和DNAβ重组而成.重组分子大部分来源于CLCuMV的DNA-A,包含基因间隔区,附近的部分AV2和AC1基因,以及反向互补的部分AC3基因.其余部分来源于伴随的DNAβ,包含A-rich区域.分析拼接片段的附近序列,发现接头部分含有2-3个共同碱基,推测为重组作用发生的位点.与以前报道的在实验室中产生的CLCuMV重组分子进行比较显示,DNA-A的基因间隔区和DNAβ的A-rich 区在重组过程中非常保守.另外,754 nt的重组小分子是由CLCuMV Okra1 DNAβ缺失突变产生,缺失了大部分的编码C1蛋白开放阅读框(Open Reading Frame,ORF)以及小部分的A-rich区.[结论]本研究在自然条件下分离到了来源于CLCuMV和卫星DNAβ的重组分子,以及DNAβ缺陷型分子.这2种重组小分子以前未见报道,这也是在中国发现的棉花曲叶病毒中首次发现重组分子.这种基因组变异现象在棉花曲叶病毒的进化和寄主适应过程中可能有重要的意义.%[Objective] Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a major constraint to cotton production, causing great economic losses

  17. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics...

  18. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of cadmium-treated white cabbage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique is a valuable tool to study the impact of heavy metal stress in plants. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata f. alba plants. Two cabbage cultivars ‘Ditmarska Najwcześniejsza’ (‘DN’; early and ‘Amager Polana’ (‘AP’; late were used. Cd was applied before planting seedlings (10 mg Cd kg−1 DM of soil.. Measurements were performed at the 3rd leaf after 2 weeks of planting. The level of Cd-induced stress to plants was estimated by chlorophyll (Chl content (photometrically and analyses of images and numeric values of the major fluorescence parameters of Chl (Chl fluorescence imaging system FluorCam. Cd negatively affected the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm, Fv’/Fm’, Φ PSII and qP in leaves of early cultivar of white cabbage. However, in the case of late cv. we did not observe such distinct changes. It suggests that late cultivars. are more resistant to Cd than the early ones. Considering methodological aspect of the study, Chl fluorescence imaging can better reveal some alterations within the leaf, because numeric values of specific parameters, which are the averaged data collected from the whole leaf, cannot reflect the tissue specificity. Abbreviations: HM – heavy metal, Cd – cadmium, Chl – chlorophyll, Fv/Fm – photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark-adapted state, F‘v’/F‘m’ – PSII maximum efficiency, Φ PSII – quantum efficiency of PSII electron transport, NPQ – nonphotochemical quenching of maximal Chl fluorescence, qP – photochemical quenching coefficient.

  19. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  20. 耐番茄黄化曲叶病毒病新品种‘申粉V-1’的选育%Breeding of a new tomato variety ‘Shenfen V-1' tolerant to tomato yellow leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱龙英; 朱为民; 万延慧; 张辉; 于力; 刘娜

    2012-01-01

    'Shenfen V-1',a new medium-early tomato variety,was bred by crossing between two inbred lines 06-2-4-8-11 (female parent)and Z09A39-3 (male parent). It is of indeterminate growth type,and its first inflorescence occurs at the 7th or 8th node.The mature fruit is pink in color without shoulder,averagely weighs 166.6 g,and is 0.75 kg/cm2 in hardness and tolerant to storage and transportation. The fruit is also good in quality,containing 168.0 mg/kg vitamin C,5.07% soluble solids, and 53.4 mg/kg lycopene.Its yield is 87.00 t/hm2 in spring greenhouse culture and 65.25 t/hm2 in autumn greenhouse culture.It has good tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)and can be cultivated in areas where TYLCV occurs heavily.%‘申粉V-1’是以自交系06-2-4-8-11为母本、自交系Z09A39-3为父本配制而成的中早熟番茄一代杂种.该品种为无限生长类型,第1花序着生于第7~8节,成熟果粉红色,无绿果肩,单果质量166.6 g,果实硬度0.75 kg/cm2,耐贮运,品质优良,Vc含量168.0 mg/kg,可溶性固形物5.07%,番茄红素53.4mg/kg;春大棚栽培产量87.00 t/hm2,秋大棚栽培产量65.25 t/hm2,耐番茄黄化曲叶病毒病,适于该病发生严重的地区栽培.

  1. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  2. Flange Curling in Cold Formed Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Ramonas, Gediminas

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear flange curling phenomenon in cold formed profiles is the tendency of slender flanges to deform towards the neutral axis for increasing flexural curvature. Based on Braziers work, Winter proposed a simple engineering formula for determination of the local flange deformation towards...

  3. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  4. Deformation behavior of curling strips on tearing tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Kwon, Tae Soo; Jung, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jin Sung [Dept. of Robotics and Virtual Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper discusses the analysis of the curl deformation behavior when a dynamic force is applied to a tearing tube installed on a flat die to predict the energy absorption capacity and deformation behavior. The deformation of the tips of the curling strips was obtained when the curl tips and tube body are in contact with each other, and a formula describing the energy dissipation rate caused by the deformation of the curl tips is proposed. To improve this formula, we focused on the variation of the curl radius and the reduced thickness of the tube. A formula describing the mean curl radius is proposed and verified using the curl radius measurement data of collision test specimens. These improved formulas are added to the theoretical model previously proposed by Huang et al. and verified from the collision test results of a tearing tube.

  5. Preparation of Curled Micro bers by Electrospinning with Tip Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Cheng-Chun; CHEN Jun-Chi; LONG Yun-Ze; YIN Hong-Xing; SUN Bin; ZHANG Hong-Di

    2011-01-01

    We report on curled polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) microfibers fabricated by a modified electrospinning with a small nail as the tip collector. PVP (45 wt%) ethanol solution is electrospun under different working voltages ranging from 10 to 15, 20, 30 and 40kV. It is found that with the increase of working voltage, the proportion of the curled fibers increases and the uniformity of the curled fibers improves, as well as the repeat distance of the curled structures reducing. Particularly, some curled fibers develop into helical structures under relatively high voltages. Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism for the curled polymer fibers can be ascribed to electrical driven bending instability and/or mechanical jet buckling when hitting the collector surface. This modified electrospinning technique may be a cost-effective approach for the mass production of curled microfibers.%@@ We report on curled polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) microfibers fabricated by a modified electrospinning with a small nail as the tip collector.PVP(45 wt%) ethanol solution is electrospun under different working voltages ranging from 10 to 15,20,30 and 40kV.It is found that with the increase of working voltage,the proportion of the curled fibers increases and the uniformity of the curled fibers improves,as well as the repeat distance of the curled structures reducing.Particularly,some curled fibers develop into helical structures under relatively high voltages.Further analyses indicate that the formation mechanism for the curled polymer fibers can be ascribed to electrical driven bending instability and/or mechanical jet buckling when hitting the collector surface.This modified electrospinning technique may be a cost-effective approach for the mass production of curled microfibers.

  6. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S.; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 mu M) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at >= 5 mu M. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered

  7. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  8. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  9. Obtaining and Cytological Identification of a Set of Primary Trisomics in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; ZHU Hai-yan; LI Xiao-feng; SHEN Shu-xing; CHEN Xue-ping; MAN Hong; XUAN Shu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Selection of primary trisomics of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L) forms an important basis for gene chromosome mapping and for other genetic studies. The cabbage self-fertilization line - 9601 was used as material, using the root-tip cell chromosome number and pollen mother cell chromosome number identification and karyotype analysis to select the primary trisomics from the progenies of 3x × 2x in the cabbage. Many aneuploid plants with one or two extra chromosomes were obtained and a set of primary trisomics (Tri-1, Tri-2, Tri-3, Tri-4, Tri-5, Tri-6, Tri-7, Tri-8, and Tri-9, in which the Tri- 1 and Tri-4 were from 2n + 2 plants and others from 2n + 1 plants) was acquired from these plants. Each trisomic exhibited some unique features, such as plant height, plant type, leaf type, size of flower bud, and inflorescence.The triploid crossing by the diploid is a convenient and effective way to select trisomics in the cabbage.

  10. H(curl) Auxiliary Mesh Preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-08-31

    This paper analyzes a two-level preconditioning scheme for H(curl) bilinear forms. The scheme utilizes an auxiliary problem on a related mesh that is more amenable for constructing optimal order multigrid methods. More specifically, we analyze the case when the auxiliary mesh only approximately covers the original domain. The latter assumption is important since it allows for easy construction of nested multilevel spaces on regular auxiliary meshes. Numerical experiments in both two and three space dimensions illustrate the optimal performance of the method.

  11. Computed tomography of ball pythons (Python regius) in curled recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Joanna; Eatwell, Kevin; Schwarz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia and tube restraint methods are often required for computed tomography (CT) of snakes due to their natural tendency to curl up. However, these restraint methods may cause animal stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CT appearance of the lungs differs for ball pythons in a curled position vs. tube restraint. Whole body CT was performed on ten clinically healthy ball pythons, first in curled and then in straight positions restrained in a tube. Curved multiplanar reformatted (MPR) lung images from curled position scans were compared with standard MPR lung images from straight position scans. Lung attenuation and thickness were measured at three locations for each scan. Time for positioning and scanning was 12 ± 5 min shorter for curled snakes compared to tube restraint. Lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation declined from cranial to caudal on both straight and curled position images. Mean lung parenchyma thickness was greater in curled images at locations 1 (P = 0.048) and 3 (P = 0.044). Mean lung parenchyma thickness decreased between location 1 and 2 by 86-87% (straight: curled) and between location 1 and 3 by 51-50% (straight: curled). Mean lung attenuation at location 1 was significantly greater on curled position images than tube restraint images (P = 0.043). Findings indicated that CT evaluation of the lungs is feasible for ball pythons positioned in curled recumbency if curved MPR is available. However, lung parenchyma thickness and attenuation in some locations may vary from those acquired using tube restraint.

  12. Insect-resistant transgenic cabbage plants and their progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧珠; 唐惕; 曹湘玲; 白永延; 郭培福; 符文俊

    1996-01-01

    An insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis was transferred into cabbage genome with the method of Agrobacterium infection. Cotyledons with petioles as explants were cocultivated with Agrobacterial suspension. Calli generated at the basis of petiole were subjected to selection on the MS medium containing 15-30 mg/L kanamycin (Km). About 5% explants produced calli growing continuously on the selective medium. Green shoots appeared on these calli when they were transplanted onto medium with Km and 6-BA for plant differentiation. The shoots were separated and cultivated on medium with kanamycin. About 80% shoots were rooted. Non-transformed control calli could not give normal shoots and roots and brownized and died gradually. Larvae of Pieris rapae showed poisonous symptoms: growth inhibition and mortality when fed with the leaf of the transgenic plants. About 80% of regenerated plants showed positive hybridization bands when their DNA were probed with crystal protein sequence of Bacillu

  13. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  14. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  15. Integrative Research and Development Utilization of Flowering Cabbage%菜心的综合开发利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿安静; 于秀荣; 王富华

    2012-01-01

    Flowering cabbage is one main kind of vegetable cultivated in southern region in China, which is most cultivated, produced and supplied all over the year in Guangdong province. Its leaf is eaten most, but its stem leaf and root which are taken up 30%-50% of the total flowering cabbage plant are rotten in vegetable field as waste. It pollutes the environment and wastes resource. Flowering cabbage can be used as raw material of pectin, dietary fiber and pigment. By use of biological fermentation technology, it could be deep precessed into many products such as alcohol, lactate and its derivatives, sewage gas and so on. Integrative research and development of flowering cabbage is the tendency of production development of flowering cabbage for enhancing economic returns.%菜心是我国华南地区栽培的主要蔬菜,是广东省栽培面积大、周年生产供应的重要蔬菜之一。菜心以食菜薹为主,占植株30%-50%的茎叶、根被当作废弃物腐烂于菜地里,既污染环境又浪费资源。菜心是提取果胶、膳食纤维、色素的原料,采用生物发酵技术又可生产乙醇、乳酸及衍生物、沼气等。对菜心进行综合开发利用提高经济效益是菜心生产发展的趋势。

  16. Effects of an environmental friendly slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer on cabbage production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Ali Ahmed; Su Kyoung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Wood from three tree species was used for making slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer. Fertilizer made from Populus tomentiglandulosa retained the highest amounts of N(29. 04%),P2O5(26. 03%)and K2O(16. 93%). On the other hand, woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis retained the lowest amounts of N(26. 22%),P2O5(21. 80%)and K2O(14. 49%). Afield experiment Was performed in a 50 m2 experimental plot at Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services,Chuncheon, Korea from August to November 1999. The effects of a general fertilizer along with compost and slow releasing woodchip fertilizer without compost on the cabbage production were observed. Cabbage production parameters,such as top height, head weight,head height,head width,number of outer and inner leaves,leaf width and head length,increased in the field where Larix kaempferi woodchip fertilizer was added as a basal dose. The result showed that the woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis had faster releasing properties compared to other woodchip fertilizers. Without adding any compost in the woodchip fertilized field, woodchip fertilizer showed a superior outcome over a general chemical fertilizer. Although the amount of woodchip fertilizer Was larger compared to that of a chemical fertilizer, it increased cabbage production.

  17. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  18. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  19. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  20. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  1. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...

  2. One pot biosynthesis of gold NPs using red cabbage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeufack, Diane D; Brioude, Arnaud

    2012-02-07

    Red cabbage extract was used as reducing agent and capping agent for the synthesis of gold NPs. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the control of NPs shape and size by changing the pH value and the concentration of aqueous red cabbage extract solution.

  3. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  4. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  5. Computation of Surface Integrals of Curl Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenglie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a way of computing a surface integral when the vector field of the integrand is a curl field. Presented in some advanced calculus textbooks such as [1], the technique, as the author experienced, is simple and applicable. The computation is based on Stokes' theorem in 3-space calculus, and thus provides not only a means to…

  6. Influence of cutting conditions on chip side curl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the influence of local variations of contact length, cutting speed and material constraint, showing the effect of lubrication, on the side curl of the chip. The following examples are illustrated by experiments: cutting of a tube vs. cutting of a bar; cutting using a tool with...

  7. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species.

  8. Curling Liquid Crystal Microswimmers: A Cascade of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Carsten; Klös, Gunnar; Bahr, Christian; Maass, Corinna C.

    2016-07-01

    We report curling self-propulsion in aqueous emulsions of common mesogenic compounds. Nematic liquid crystal droplets self-propel in a surfactant solution with concentrations above the critical micelle concentration while undergoing micellar solubilization [Herminghaus et al., Soft Matter 10, 7008 (2014)]. We analyzed trajectories both in a Hele-Shaw geometry and in a 3D setup at variable buoyancy. The coupling between the nematic director field and the convective flow inside the droplet leads to a second symmetry breaking which gives rise to curling motion in 2D. This is demonstrated through a reversible transition to nonhelical persistent swimming by heating to the isotropic phase. Furthermore, autochemotaxis can spontaneously break the inversion symmetry, leading to helical trajectories in 3D.

  9. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying, E-mail: ying.wu@kaust.edu.sa

    2014-10-03

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating.

  10. Cosmic Shear of the Microwave Background: The Curl Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Caldwell, R R; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc; Caldwell, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Weak-lensing distortions of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) temperature and polarization patterns can reveal important clues to the intervening large-scale structure. The effect of lensing is to deflect the primary temperature and polarization signal to slightly different locations on the sky. Deflections due to density fluctuations, gradient-type for the gradient of the projected gravitational potential, give a direct measure of the mass distribution. Curl-type deflections can be induced by, for example, a primordial background of gravitational waves from inflation or by second-order effects related to lensing by density perturbations. Whereas gradient-type deflections are expected to dominate, we show that curl-type deflections can provide a useful test of systematics and serve to indicate the presence of confusing secondary and foreground non-Gaussian signals.

  11. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject's hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise.

  12. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  13. The CURL-CoFoR Collaborative Collection Management Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Walker

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available CoFoR originated from an initiative by CURL, the Consortium of Research Libraries in the British Isles. CURL’s Task Force on Resource Management proposed a project, which would develop and test several interrelated aspects of collaborative collection management (CCM, to help in determining the most effective kinds of collaboration between major research collections. The Task Force was concerned that local pressures on libraries were tending to make them take collection management decisions in isolation, and they were looking for a framework within which better informed decisions on libraries’ collections could be taken with greater confidence and a clearer awareness of national provision. CURL was seeking to establish which CCM approaches could be expected to: · offer the most attractive benefits for costs incurred; · be applicable to a wide range of subjects / areas; · and be viable in the longer term. In lat 2002 CURL accepted a proposal from an existing project team to undertake this work.

  14. Curl-meter of Electrical Fields In The Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, S. M.; Maibuk, Z.-Ju. Ja.; Nikiforova, N. N.

    A special instrument U curl-meter was designed and manufactured in the Institute of Physics of the Earth of RAS for measuring of variable electric fields during alternation of stressedly-deformed state in rock mass. The instrument consist the four-electrode unit and a circuit of analogue signal processing for separation of E U circulations or according to the StokesSs theorem, Curl E in absence of indirect sources. Four electrodes are laied out in rocks on angles of square and they are affixed by ring-type circuit to uninverting inputs of precision operational amplifiers. First input is connected to electrode N1, the second one is connected to N2 and so on. The independent inputs are grounded to a arbitrary point (the fifth electrode is SzeroT). The transmission factors of the circuit are set by resistors accurate to within 0.25 %. First and third, and also second and fourth outputs of the amplifiers are connected to the grad EX and grad EY calculation circuit (deduction circuits). So, if the vector components have different signs of both two EX values and two values EY, the gradient calculation circuit generates signal extremums. If in this case the signs inside pairs are identical , that means that the signal not- ring-type and it is absent on output (difference of the equal values with equal signs). The signals from outputs of the gradient calculations act into adding device for calculation of Curl E (circulation). Curl-meter differs by high security from clutters and from cues on any of inputs rather of "zero point" (ground) reacting only on a ring-type current, thus it is essential (on the order) the noise level and drift of operational amplifiers is moderated. Curl-meter works in a complex of measuring devices on Obninsk seismological polygon for study of behavior of superlow frequency of tectonic genesis electromagnetic emission. Through four inputs (electrode spacing 7x7 2, resistance between welding rods 0.8 - 1.1 kOm), manufactured from fine- dyspersated

  15. Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, D; Vasquez, G A; Muyanja, C; Ryckeboer, J; Geeraerd, A H; Springael, D

    2011-01-31

    Surface contamination and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest (120 days post-transplantation) following amendment of contaminated bovine manure to soil at different times during crop cultivation were investigated under tropical field conditions in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Fresh bovine manure inoculated with rifampicin-resistant derivatives of non-virulent strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was incorporated into the soil to achieve inoculum concentrations of 4 and 7 log CFU/g at the point of transplantation, 56 or 105 days post-transplantation of cabbage seedlings. Frequent sampling of the soil enabled the accurate identification of the survival kinetics in soil, which could be described by the Double Weibull model in all but one of the cases. The persistence of 4 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the soil was limited, i.e. only inocula applied 105 days post-transplantation were still present at harvest. Moreover, no internalisation in cabbage leaf tissues was observed. In contrast, at the 7 log CFU/g inoculum level, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in the soil throughout the cultivation period. All plants (18/18) examined for leaf contamination were positive for E. coli O157:H7 at harvest irrespective of the time of manure application. A similar incidence of leaf contamination was found for S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, only plants (18/18) cultivated on soil amended with contaminated manure at the point of transplantation showed internalised E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at harvest. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, the risk of surface contamination and internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest depend on the inoculum concentration and the time of manure application. Moreover, the internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues

  16. PARALLEL AUXILIARY SPACE AMG FOR H(curl) PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzanio V. Kolev; Panayot S. Vassilevski

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review a number of auxiliary space based preconditioners for the second order definite and semi-definite Maxwell problems discretized with the lowest order Nedelec finite elements. We discuss the parallel implementation of the most promising of these methods, the ones derived from the recent Hiptmair-Xu (HX) auxiliary space decomposition [Hiptmair and Xu, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 45 (2007), pp. 2483-2509]. An extensive set of numerical experiments demonstrate the scalability of our implementation on large-scale H(curl) problems.

  17. Determination of Thioglucoside inCabbage by Using the Ultraviolet-visible Light Spectrophotometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer method was adopted to determine thioglucoside in cabbage with the seeds. Individual plant of cabbage was used as test materials,palladium chloride as complexing agent and sodium cellulose glycolate as dispersing agent. The results showed that palladiumd thioglucoside method could be taken as a quick,easy and precise quantitative analysis method to determine thioglucoside in cabbage.

  18. Short communication. Deterioration of cotton fibre characteristics caused by cotton leaf curl disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Prieto, V. M.; Rascon-Chu, A.; Romo-Chacon, A.; Berlanga-Reyes, D. I.; Orozco-Avitia, J. A.; Gardea-Bejar, A. A.; Parra-Quezada, R.; Sanchez-Chavez, E.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the significant variation in the initial fruit set of apples among seasons and producing regions of Chihuahua, Mexico, it is important to determine the cause(s). Apple fruit yield is strongly determined by the initial fruit set, which is the result of a series of physiological events, such as pollination, pollen tube growth, ovule longevity and fertilisation. During one or two seasons, in the two main apple-producing regions in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, the effective pollination period (EPP) was evaluated in Golden Delicious, Red Chief Delicious and Golden Delicious Tardio, a regional mutant of Golden Delicious. Daily manual pollinations after the full pink stage were made with Snow Drift pollen to determine the EPP. The initial fruit set at 30 days after the last day of hand pollination was evaluated. A daily sampling of flowers was used to measure the pollen tube growth (average growth of 11.70 mm at 96 h) in the pistil and ovule viability in the ovary. The EPP lasted 6 days for RedChief Delicious, 4 days for Golden Delicious, and 10 days for Golden Delicious Tardo. The average ovule longevity of 63% seemed to be a limiting factor for Golden Delicious, leading to a reduced initial fruit set. Additional key words: fruit set, ovule longevity, pollen tube growth. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  20. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  1. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  2. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  3. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  4. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANE MIE KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  5. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  6. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. Scales of North Atlantic wind stress curl determined from the comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.

  8. Curling dynamics of naturally curved ribbons from high to low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran Arriagada, Octavio; Massiera, Gladys; Abkarian, Manouk

    2012-11-01

    Curling deformation of thin elastic sheets appears in numerous structures in nature, such as membranes of red blood cells, epithelial tissues or green algae colonies to cite just a few examples. However, despite its ubiquity, the dynamics of curling propagation in a naturally curved material remains still poorly investigated. Here, we present a coupled experimental and theoretical study of the dynamical curling deformation of naturally curved ribbons. Using thermoplastic and metallic ribbons molded on cylinders of different radii, we tune separately the natural curvature and the geometry to study curling dynamics in air, water and in viscous oils, thus spanning a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Our theoretical and experimental approaches separate the role of elasticity, gravity and hydrodynamic dissipation from inertia and emphasize the fundamental differences between the curling of a naturally curved ribbon and a rod described by the classical Elastica. Our work shows evidence for the propagation of a single instability front, selected by a local buckling condition. We show that depending on gravity, and both the Reynolds and the Cauchy numbers, the curling speed and shape are modified by the large scale drag and the local lubrication forces. This work was supported by the French Ministry of Research, the CNRS Physics-Chemistry-Biology Interdisciplinary Pro- gram, the University Montpellier 2 Interdisciplinary Program and the Region Languedoc-Roussillon.

  9. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-07-24

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximation. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models are shown to yield accurate results. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  11. EFFECT OF THE SHOULDER POSITION ON THE BICEPS BRACHII EMG IN DIFFERENT DUMBBELL CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M.M. Vieira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Incline Dumbbell Curl (IDC and Dumbbell Preacher Curl (DPC are two variations of the standard Dumbbell Biceps Curl (DBC, generally applied to optimize biceps brachii contribution for elbow flexion by fixing shoulder at a specific angle. The aim of this study is to identify changes in the neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head for IDC, DPC and DBC exercises, by taking into account the changes in load moment arm and muscle length elicited by each dumbbell curl protocol. A single cycle (concentric-eccentric of DBC, IDC and DPC, was applied to 22 subjects using a submaximal load of 40% estimated from an isometric MVC test. The neuromuscular activity of biceps brachii long head was compared by further partitioning each contraction into three phases, according to individual elbow joint range of motion. Although all protocols elicited a considerable level of activation of the biceps brachii muscle (at least 50% of maximum RMS, the contribution of this muscle for elbow flexion/extension varied among exercises. The submaximal elbow flexion (concentric elicited neuro muscular activity up to 95% of the maximum RMS value during the final phase of IDC and DBC and 80% for DPC at the beginning of the movement. All exercises showed significant less muscle activity for the elbow extension (eccentric. The Incline Dumbbell Curl and the classical Dumbbell Biceps Curl resulted in similar patterns of biceps brachii activation for the whole range of motion, whereas Dumbbell Preacher Curl elicited high muscle activation only for a short range of elbow joint angle

  12. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  13. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  14. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  15. Developmental and Genotypic Variation in Leaf Wax Content and Composition, and in Expression of Wax Biosynthetic Genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Rawnak; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Juyoung; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes act as a protective barrier against environmental stresses. In the present study, we investigated developmental and genotypic variation in wax formation of cabbage lines, with a view to understand the related morphology, genetics and biochemistry. Our studies revealed that the relative expression levels of wax biosynthetic genes in the first-formed leaf of the highest-wax line remained constantly higher but were decreased in other genotypes with leaf aging. Similarly, the expression of most of the tested genes exhibited decrease from the inner leaves to the outer leaves of 5-month-old cabbage heads in the low-wax lines in contrast to the highest-wax line. In 10-week-old plants, expression of wax biosynthetic genes followed a quadratic function and was generally increased in the early developing leaves but substantially decreased at the older leaves. The waxy compounds in all cabbage lines were predominately C29-alkane, -secondary alcohol, and -ketone. Its deposition was increased with leaf age in 5-month-old plants. The high-wax lines had dense, prominent and larger crystals on the leaf surface compared to low-wax lines under scanning electron microscopy. Principal component analysis revealed that the higher expression of LTP2 genes in the lowest-wax line and the higher expression of CER3 gene in the highest-wax line were probably associated with the comparatively lower and higher wax content in those two lines, respectively. This study furthers our understanding of the relationships between the expression of wax biosynthetic genes and the wax deposition in cabbage lines. Highlight: In cabbage, expression of wax-biosynthetic genes was generally decreased in older and senescing leaves, while wax deposition was increased with leaf aging, and C29-hydrocarbon was predominant in the wax crystals. PMID:28119701

  16. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  17. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  18. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... from hazards associated with the swim event. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel...

  19. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  20. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  1. Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, K. T B; Broekgaarden, C.; Voorrips, R. E.; Bas, N.; Visser, R. G F; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we s

  2. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  3. Impacts of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Endophytic Bacteria in Chinese Cabbage in Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of agricultural irri- gation with reclaimed water in Urumqi City. [Method] Chinese cabbages were used as experimental materials and irrigated with control water, 50% reclaimed water and 100% reclaimed water, and then the number of endophytic bacteria in Chinese cab- bages was measured. [Result] Using 50% reclaimed water, the fresh weight of Chi- nese cabbage was improved by 68.94%; however, with the deepening internalization of exogenous microorganism internalization, the total number of endophytic bacteria and coliform flock in Chinese cabbages treated with 50% reclaimed water was sig- nificantly higher than the other two treatment groups (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Re- claimed water enhances both the weight of Chinese cabbage and the number of endophytic bacteria, which is unsuitable for irrigation of edible crops such as Chi- nese cabbage. Strengthening disinfection during the process of sewerage treatment could solve this problem.

  4. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  5. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  6. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  7. Effects of Different Covering Pattern s on Growth and Yield of Early Spring Chinese Cabbage in Faciliyt%不同覆盖模式对早春设施栽培大白菜生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德翠; 高文瑞; 徐刚; 孙艳军; 史珑燕; 韩冰

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the insulation characteristics of different specifications of non-woven fabric and their effects on the growth and yield of early spring Chinese cabbage in facility, taking the ordinary film covering as the check, we carried out the contrast test for non-woven fabric covering of Chinese cabbage in the greenhouse .The results showed that the non-woven fab-ric had a better insulation effect than the ordinary film, and covering with non-woven fabric could promote the leaf emergence rate of Chinese cabbage, increase the plant height, leaf number and leaf area, and speed up the rate of forming leaf-ball.Comprehen-sively considering the insulation effect and economic benefits , the author concluded that the 300 g/m2 non-woven fabric could be used as the covering material for early spring Chinese cabbage cultivation .%为了明确不同规格无纺布的保温特性及对大白菜生长和产量的影响,以普通薄膜覆盖为对照,在大棚内进行了无纺布覆盖大白菜的对比试验。结果表明:无纺布的保温效果优于普通薄膜的,能够提高大白菜的出叶速率,增加株高和叶片数,增大叶面积,加快结球速度。综合考虑保温效果和经济效益,可以选择300 g/m2无纺布作为早春大白菜栽培的覆盖材料。

  8. Effects of thermal treatments with a curling iron on hair fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K

    2004-01-01

    The effect of curling hair with a curling iron has been investigated. Possibilities of thermal damage with repeated curling according to, and in violation of, the manufacturer's specifications have been studied. The propensity of hair surface to damage depends on the moisture content of the hair, and these experiments have been conducted in both wet and dry conditions, with and without application of tension, and with short or prolonged times. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination revealed that fibers treated under the dry condition (50% RH) show radial and axial cracking along with scale edge fusion. Similar thermal treatment on wet hair resulted in severe damage of the type described above, as well as bubbling and buckling of the cuticle due to the formation and escaping of steam from the fiber. Fibers subjected to repeated curling in the dry condition show slight increases in tensile mechanical properties, characteristic of a crosslinked fiber. Fibers treated with conditioners show an improvement in characteristic life, especially in the case of low-molecular-weight conditioners, such as CETAB, which can penetrate into the hair fiber (shown by TOF-SIMS analysis).

  9. Analysis of resonance frequency and pull-in voltages of curled micro-bimorph cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulla, S.M.C.; Yagubizade, H.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study is presented on the modelling, fabrication and measurements of curled micro-bimorph cantilevers, which are composed of a dielectric beam with a metal electrode layer coated on top. The device, having stress-induced upward curvature in the electrical off-state, functions as a verti

  10. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.

  11. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  12. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  13. Analyzing the influence of curl speed in fatiguing biceps brachii muscles using sEMG signals and multifractal detrended moving average algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of fatiguing biceps brachii muscles at different curl speeds using multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm. For this purpose, signals are recorded from fifty eight healthy subjects while performing curl exercise at their comfortable speed until fatigue. The signals of first and last curls are considered as nonfatigue and fatigue conditions, respectively. Further, the number of curls performed by each subject and the endurance time is used for computing the normalized curl speed. The signals are grouped into fast, medium and slow using curl speeds. The curl segments are subjected to MFDMA to derive degree of multifractality (DOM), maximum singularity exponent (MXE) and exponent length multifractality index (EMX). The results show that multifractal features are able to differentiate sEMG signals in fatiguing conditions. The multifractality increased with faster curls as compared with slower curl speed by 12%. High statistical significance is observed using EMX and DOM values between curl speed and fatigue conditions. It appears that this method of analyzing sEMG signals with curl speed can be useful in understanding muscle dynamics in varied neuromuscular conditions and sports medicine.

  14. Leaf Collection Posting Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  15. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  16. Determination and dynamics of difenoconazole residues in Chinese cabbage and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Hua Wang; Tong Yang; Dong Mei Qin; Yong Gong; Ying Ji

    2008-01-01

    An analytical method was developed using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography for detecting the residues of difenoconazole in Chinese cabbage and soil. The recovery and the relative standard deviation of this method in Chinese cabbage was 87.6-99.0%, 1.71-10.50%, respectively; in soil was 92.4-95.5%, 4.93-10.70%, respectively. Further degradation of difenoconazole residue in Chinese cabbage and soil was studied to evaluate residue behavior and environmental safety of difenoconazole. Degradation rate of difenoconazole in both Chinese cabbage and soil followed the first order kinetics with the half-lives of 6.6-7.8 and 54.2-55.0 days, respectively.

  17. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Cabbage' s Quality in CadmiumPolluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explain how potassium affect the quality of cabbage growing in cadmium contaminated soils, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of potash fertilizer on the cabbage yield, physiological characteristics(the concentration of chlorophyll and the activity of antioxidative enzymeand heavy metal concentration in two cadmium contaminated soils. The result showed that cabbage' s fresh weight above ground and underground decreased 2.6% and 19.8% respectively in low cadmium stress, while decreased 7.1%and 45.5%in high cadmiumstress. After increasing the dosage of potash fertilizer in low concentration cadmium polluted soil, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground increased by 0.3%~34.0%and the underground part decreased by 1.2%~7.4%. At the same time, after application of potash fertilizer in high concentration stress, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground had no significant change while the underground part significantly increased by 41.8%~87.3%. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves increased slightly in low cadmium stress, after application of potash fertilizer, the concentration of chlorophyll a increased greatly but chlorophyll b had no obvious change. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves decreased greatly in high cadmiumstress and it had no tremen-dous change after application of potash fertilizer. The activity of antioxidative enzymes(CAT, SOD and PODin cabbage leaves were strength-ened in low cadmium stress while the activity of kinds of antioxidative enzymes in cabbage leaves were weakened in high cadmium stress. Af-ter application of potash fertilizer in two cadmium polluted soils, all kinds of enzyme activity had a trend to increase. Applying potash fertiliz-er into the cadmium contaminated soils could effectively increase the concentration of vitamin C, reducing sugar and promote the free amino acids transforming into crude

  18. Effect of Leaf Litters and Soils on Viability of Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISDAR IDWAN SUDIRMAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Beauveria bassiana is extremely low due to toxic compounds in soils. This research was aimed to study the effect of four groups of media on viability of B. bassiana Bb-Pb2. The first group was leaf litters of onion, flowering white cabbage, cabbage, and chinese mustard, respectively; the second group was the soils containing decomposed residues of each plant of the first group; the third group was the mixtures of each media of both groups above (1:1, and the fourth group was natural top soil as a control. Each plastic bag filled with one kg of each medium was inoculated with ten ml of B. bassiana conidia (106/ml of concentration and incubated in open area for 8 weeks. The results showed that all leaf litters of those plants and their compost soils affected the fungal viability. The highest decreasing number of colony was found on onion’s leaf litters, soil containing of decomposed onion, and the mixtures of both media. The treated B. bassiana showed significant reducing abilities of growth, conidia production and conidia germination on PDA media, except the one of control. It is suggested that the Bb-Pb2 isolate might not be effective as bioinsecticide in the soils containing either those leaf litters or composts.

  19. Weed Management of The Abundance of Insect natural Enemies in a Cabbage Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Syatrawati; Widarawati, Rosi

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine of effect of weed management level on the abundance of insect natural enemies in cabbage fields. Two levels of weed management were applied in the field, namely with and without herbicide application in two growers cabbage fields in Malino, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results demonstrated that insect natural enemies were more abundant in the field without herbicide application than those in the field with herbicide application. Five species of predatory ins...

  20. 小白菜潮汐式栽培专用基质的筛选%Screening of Special Cultivation Substrate for Chinese Cabbage with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓平; 刘静波; 刘庆叶; 杨巍; 徐明喜; 王蓓; 甘小虎; 章鸥; 王东升

    2015-01-01

    对3种不同栽培基质和常规栽培基质(市场销售)在潮汐式灌溉模式下进行小白菜栽培试验,比较小白菜的植物学性状,筛选出适用于潮汐式灌溉的小白菜专用型栽培基质。研究结果表明,处理2(40%茶渣蚓粪、20%泥炭、20%蛭石、20%珍珠岩)培育的小白菜株高、生物量、株幅、SPAD 值均显著优于其他处理,栽培效果显著提高,可推荐作为潮汐式灌溉小白菜栽培的专用型基质。%In this paper,we used 3 different special cultivation substrates and 1 common cultivation substrate (for market sale)to take the experiment of Chinese cabbage planting with ebb-and-flow irrigation, and the botany characters of Chi-nese cabbage were observed to screening special Chinese cabbage cultivation substrates with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation. The result showed that the cultivation results of treatment 2 (40% tea leaf and vermicompost, 20% peat, 20% vermiculite, 20%perlite ) were significantly better than others in plant height, biomass, SPAD value, leaves spreading, it could be recom-mended as special cultivation substrates for Chinese cabbage with ebb-and-flow irrigation.

  1. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Lee, A-Reum; Jang, Chang-Soon; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Gong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-12-15

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage.

  2. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  3. Efficient Assembly of H(div) and H(curl) Conforming Finite Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Rognes, Marie; Logg, Anders; 10.1137/08073901X

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how to efficiently evaluate and assemble general finite element variational forms on H(div) and H(curl). The proposed strategy relies on a decomposition of the element tensor into a precomputable reference tensor and a mesh-dependent geometry tensor. Two key points must then be considered: the appropriate mapping of basis functions from a reference element, and the orientation of geometrical entities. To address these issues, we extend here a previously presented representation theorem for affinely mapped elements to Piola-mapped elements. We also discuss a simple numbering strategy that removes the need to contend with directions of facet normals and tangents. The result is an automated, efficient, and easy-to-use implementation that allows a user to specify finite element variational forms on H(div) and H(curl) in close to mathematical notation.

  4. Student thinking about the divergence and curl in mathematics and physics contexts

    CERN Document Server

    Baily, Charles; Pattie, Andrew; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate physics students are known to have difficulties with understanding mathematical tools, and with applying their knowledge of mathematics to physical contexts. Using survey statements based on student interviews and written responses to open-ended questions, we investigated the prevalence of correct and incorrect conceptions regarding the divergence and curl of vector fields, among both mathematics and physics students. We compare and contrast pre-instruction responses from intermediate-level E&M students at KU Leuven and the University of St Andrews with post-instruction responses from St Andrews students enrolled in a vector calculus course. In comparing pre- and post-instruction responses from E&M students we see that, although their understanding of the divergence and curl improved, relatively few of them were able to provide completely correct survey responses at mid-semester.

  5. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  6. Expressing activity of promoter elements of large intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Yingqiu; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Jiao Jiujiu, Grey hydrogeologic system analysis and time series model, Survey Science and Technology (in Chinese), 1987,(10): 39-43.[2]Li Shuwen, Wang Baolai, Xiao Guoqiang, A compound model of grey and periodic scrape and its application in groundwater prediction, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 246-251.[3]Wang Qingyin, Li Shuwen, Grey distributed parameter model and groundwater analog, Journal of Hebei Institute of Architectural Science & Technology (in Chinese), 1992, (3): 66-70.[4]Guo Chunqing, Xia Riyuan, Liu Zhenglin, Gray Systematic Theory and Methodological Study of Krast Groundwater Resources Evaluation (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 3-60.[5]Wang Qingyin, Liu Kaidi, The Mathematical Method of Grey Systematic Theory and Its Application (in Chinese), Chengdu: Publishing House of Southwestern China University of Communication, 1990, 23-27.[6]Wang Qingyin, Wu Heqing, The concept of grey number and its property, in Proceedings of NAFIPS98, USA, 1998,45-49.[7]Givoli, D., Doukhovni, I., Finite element programming approach for contact problems with geometrical nonlinearity, Computers and Structures, 1996, (8): 31-41.[8]Li Shuwen, Wang Zhiqiang, Wu Qiang, The superiority of storage-centered finite element method in solving seepage problem, Coal Geology and Exploration (in Chinese), 1999, (5): 46-49.

  7. Chopping of near- and mid-infrared radiation using a curled electrostatic MEMS actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausch, David E.; Goodwin, Scott H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2003-09-01

    An electrostatic MEMS actuator known as the "Artificial Eyelid" can be used as a micromechanical chopper for IR detectors. The actuator structure consists of a curled polymer/metal film stack which is microfabricated and released from an IR transparent substrate. The film stack is uncurled by applying an electric field between the curled film and the transparent fixed electrode on the substrate. These flexible film actuators can act as IR choppers, providing transmission of radiation to the sensor elements when open (curled) and reflection when closed (uncurled). Arrays of actuators were fabricated on ITO-coated glass substrates and ranged in size from 4 x 4 mm to 7.5 x 15 mm with individual elements ranging from 250 to 500 μm on a side. Actuation for devices with average radius of curvature of 120 μ was consistently achieved at 150-170 V operation with 98-100% of the elements functioning and long lifetimes. IR chopper characteristics were measured using a blackbody source and pyroelectric detector by applying sine and square wave voltage to the actuators at a frequency of 30 Hz. The capability of the artificial eyelid for chopping near- and mid-IR radiation, including future fabrication of devices using NiCo2O4 or NiRh2O4 films for IR transparent electrodes, will be discussed.

  8. Qualitative investigation into students' use of divergence and curl in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; De Cock, Mieke

    2016-12-01

    Many students struggle with the use of mathematics in physics courses. Although typically well trained in rote mathematical calculation, they often lack the ability to apply their acquired skills to physical contexts. Such student difficulties are particularly apparent in undergraduate electrodynamics, which relies heavily on the use of vector calculus. To gain insight into student reasoning when solving problems involving divergence and curl, we conducted eight semistructured individual student interviews. During these interviews, students discussed the divergence and curl of electromagnetic fields using graphical representations, mathematical calculations, and the differential form of Maxwell's equations. We observed that while many students attempt to clarify the problem by making a sketch of the electromagnetic field, they struggle to interpret graphical representations of vector fields in terms of divergence and curl. In addition, some students confuse the characteristics of field line diagrams and field vector plots. By interpreting our results within the conceptual blending framework, we show how a lack of conceptual understanding of the vector operators and difficulties with graphical representations can account for an improper understanding of Maxwell's equations in differential form. Consequently, specific learning materials based on a multiple representation approach are required to clarify Maxwell's equations.

  9. Effects of Bast Fiber Mulching Film on Heat Preservation and Growth and Yield of Chinese Cabbage%麻地膜覆盖保温特性及对白菜生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚瑞广; 王朝云; 易永健; 谭石林; 汪洪鹰; 李懋; 周晚来

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the heat preservation of bast fiber mulching film and its effects on growth and yield of crops in different seasons, the comparison tests of Chinese cabbage covered by different films had been conducted in winter, spring and summer respectively. The results showed that bast fiber mulching film could increase the soil temperature in different seasons and the effects were stable. In summer, the temperature under the bast fiber mulching film would not reach too high. With the covering of bast fiber mulching film, it could increase the rate of leaf emergence, the plant height, leaf number and leaf area. The interaction between different seasons and different covering was significant (P<0.0l). And the yield-increasing effects in spring and summer were more remarkable than winter. The yield of Chinese cabbage covered with bast fiber mulching film in spring and summer were 45.97% (P<0.05) and 48.89% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage without film; which were also 6.66% (P<0.05) and 51.05% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage covered with plastic film.%为了明确不同季节麻地膜覆盖栽培保温特性及对作物生长和产量的影响,分别在冬季、春季和夏季进行不同地膜覆盖白菜对比试验.结果表明:不同季节麻地膜覆盖均能提高土壤温度,增温效果平缓,夏季不会出现膜下高温情况.麻地膜覆盖能够促进白菜出叶速率、增加株高和叶片数、增大叶面积.不同季节和不同覆盖处理间互作效应极显著(p<0.01),春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖的增产效果比冬季明显.春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖下白菜产量分别比无覆盖高45.97%和48.89%,均呈显著差异(P<0.05);分别比塑料地膜覆盖的高6.66%和51.05%,也均达显著差异(P<0.05).

  10. Leaf Positioning of Arabidopsis in Response to Blue Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-ichiro Inoue; Toshinori Kinoshita; Atsushi Takemiya; Michio Doi; Ken-ichiro Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Appropriate leaf positioning is essential for optimizing photosynthesis and plant growth. However, it has not been elucidated how green leaves reach and maintain their position for capturing light. We show here the regulation of leaf positioning under blue light stimuli. When 1-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings grown under white light were transferred to red light (25 μmol m-2s-t) for 5 d, new petioles that appeared were almost horizontal and their leaves were curled and slanted downward. However, when a weak blue light from above (0.1 μmol m-2s-1) was superimposed on red light, the new petioles grew obliquely upward and the leaves were flat and horizontal. The leaf positioning required both phototropin1 (phot1) and nonphototropic hypocotyl 3 (NPH3), and resulted in enhanced plant growth. In an nph3 mutant, neither optimal leaf positioning nor leaf flattening by blue light was found, and blue light-induced growth enhancement was drastically reduced. When blue light was increased from 0.1 to 5 μmol m-2s-1, normal leaf positioning and leaf flattening were induced in both phot1 and nph3 mutants, suggesting that phot2 signaling became functional and that the signaling was independent of phot1 and NPH3 in these responses. When plants were irradiated with blue light (0.1 μmol m-2s-1) from the side and red light from above, the new leaves became oriented toward the source of blue light. When we transferred these plants to both blue light and red light from above, the leaf surface changed its orientation to the new blue light source within a few hours, whereas the petioles initially were unchanged but then gradually rotated, suggesting the plasticity of leaf positioning in response to blue light. We showed the tissue expression of NPH3 and its plasma membrane localization via the coiled-coil domain and the C-terminal region. We conclude that NPH3-mediated phototropin signaling optimizes the efficiency of light perception by inducing both optimal leaf positioning and leaf

  11. The utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluxtipun, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage. The experimental design used in the study was Randomized Block Design (RCB. 35% w/v EC of Endosulfanorganoclorine pesticide was used, with the recommended dose, to spray on Chinese cabbage every 7th day for three weeks. Five days after the last spay, the Chinese cabbage was harvested and ozone-dissolved water was used to reduce endosulfan residues in the cabbage at 5ºC at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes, respectively. The result showed that ozone-dissolved water at 25 minutes could effectively reduce 71.93% of endosulfan residues. This percentage was lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL of 2.0 mg/kg of vegetables proscribed by CODEX. Furthermore, the study found that the more time used, the less the purity of ozone-dissolved water. This resulted in the decrease of ozone efficiency to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage.

  12. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  13. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  14. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  15. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  16. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  17. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  18. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  19. The DOF transcription factor Dof5.1 influences leaf axial patterning by promoting Revoluta transcription in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyungsae

    2010-10-05

    Dof proteins are transcription factors that have a conserved single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. In this study, we isolated an activation tagging mutant Dof5.1-D exhibiting an upward-curling leaf phenotype due to enhanced expression of the REV gene that is required for establishing adaxialabaxial polarity. Dof5.1-D plants also had reduced transcript levels for IAA6 and IAA19 genes, indicating an altered auxin biosynthesis in Dof5.1-D. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif and the REV promoter region indicated that the DNA-binding domain of Dof5.1 binds to a TAAAGT motif located in the 5′-distal promoter region of the REV promoter. Further, transient and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified binding activity of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif with the REV promoter. Consistent with binding assays, constitutive over-expression of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding domain in wild-type plants caused a downward-curling phenotype, whereas crossing Dof5.1-D to a rev mutant reverted the upward-curling phenotype of the Dof5.1-D mutant leaf to the wild-type. These results suggest that the Dof5.1 protein directly binds to the REV promoter and thereby regulates adaxialabaxial polarity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Radionuclide concentration in cabbage samples due to gamma radiation in Samsun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıkulaç, Aydan; Gümüş, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    Establishing of radioactivity planes in foodstuff has emphasis because it allows the evaluation of population exposure to radiation by take nourishment. In this paper, the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined in cabbage samples collected from Samsun city of Turkey using a gamma ray spectrometry method with a HPGe detector. The mean concentration value of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in cabbage samples were 1.11±0.03 Bqkg-1, 1.44±0.04 Bqkg-1, 743.75±21.21 Bqkg-1 and 0.18±0.003 Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated total annual effective dose received from 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs due to cabbage samples by population of Samsun province was quite lower than the World average value as suggested by UNSCEAR.

  1. A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Palix, R; Kamal, A; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2013-08-01

    Floating row covers or insect-proof nets with fine mesh are effective at protecting vegetable crops against aphids but negatively impact plant health, especially under warm conditions. Furthermore, in control of cabbage insect pests, aphid parasitoids cannot enter the fine-mesh nets, leading to frequent aphid outbreaks. To surmount these difficulties, a 40-mesh-size repellent net treated with alphacypermethrin was studied in laboratory and field tests. Results showed both irritant and repellent effects of the alphacypermethrin-treated net on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Under field conditions, there were no pests on cabbage protected with the repellent net. The repellent net allowed combining a visual and repellent barrier against aphids. Because of this additive effect, repellent nets allowed covering cabbage permanently with adequate protection against all pests.

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis of GIF Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜GIF蛋白家族的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 李利斌; 李化银; 刘立峰; 高建伟

    2012-01-01

    GIF( GRF - interacting factor)家族是一类含有SNH和QG结构域的蛋白质,可与GRF( Growth regulating factor)转录因子蛋白相结合形成功能复合体,通过促进和维持细胞的分裂能力参与调控植物叶器官的发育.本研究系统鉴定了5个大白菜的GIF基因,并对这些基因编码的蛋白质序列进行了保守性和系统进化分析,最后对BrGIF1基因的表达进行了分析.结果表明,所有的大白菜和拟南芥GIF蛋白家族成员都具有高度保守的SNH和QG结构域.在进化上,GIF蛋白家族可分为两个不同的亚家族,并且这种特征在大白菜和拟南芥分离之前就已经形成.在表达模式上,BrGIF1基因在具有较大叶球的白菜自交系以及具有较强细胞分裂能力的组织中的转录表达水平较高.另外,BrGIF1基因的表达受到NAA的诱导和ABA的抑制.这些结果表明大白菜GIF蛋白可能具有和拟南芥GIF蛋白相似的生物学功能,在调控植物器官发育中具有重要作用.%GIF ( GRF - interacting factor) protein family is one kind of transcription coactivator which features the existence of SNH and QG domains. The members of this family could form a functional complex with GRF and act synergistically in regulating the development of leaves through the promotion and/or maintenance of cell proliferation activity in leaf primordia. In this study, five GIF genes were identified from Chinese cabbage by bioinformatics analysis. The conserved sequences of these proteins were analyzed and a polygenetic tree was constructed based on the corresponding GIF proteins from Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of these genes was analyzed, too. The results showed that all GIF proteins had the highly conservative SNH and QG domains and could be divided into two sub - family groups, which might have existed before the split of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thalina. The expression level of BrGIF1 was higher not only in the inbred lines

  3. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  4. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  5. Curling up two spatial dimensions with SU(1,1)/U(1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell-Mann, M.; Zwiebach, B.

    1984-11-01

    It is seen that a nonlinear sigma model based on the noncompact coset space SU(1,1)/U(1) can curl up two spatial dimensions into a topologically noncompact surface of finite area with a compact U(1) isometry group. This mechanism can be used for several higher-dimensional supergravity theories. In particular, chiral N = 2, D = 10 supergravity would reduce to an N = 1, D = 8 theory in which the masslessness of fermions does not depend only on supersymmetry. Further reduction to four dimensions is possible.

  6. Attentional Demands in the Execution Phase of Curling in Novices and Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Shank

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the attentional demands of a curling delivery using a dual-task procedure. Skilled and novice curlers were asked to perform take outs and draws while attentional demands were measured using reaction time (RT in the different phases of the throw. Results showed attentional demands for the draw and take out were highest at the beginning of the delivery. Compared to the draw, a significant rise of RT was shown at the end of the take out shot. Shot success was significantly higher for the take out condition in expert compared to novice curlers.

  7. 中国男子冰壶队与欧美强队扫冰技术能力对比--以2014男子冰壶世界锦标赛为例%Technical Ability Comparative of Sweeping of Chinese Curling Male Team and Euro-American Curling Strong Teams--An Example of 2014 World Curling Male Championship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永俊; 牛晓暹; 臧荣海; 许水生

    2014-01-01

    冰壶运动中扫冰技术是对比赛过程产生影响的重要因素。利用文献资料、现场观察等研究方法,对2014男子冰壶世界锦标赛中国队与欧美强队扫冰技术能力进行对比分析,从中找出中国男子冰壶队与欧美强队在扫冰技术能力上的差别,提高中国男子冰壶队竞赛成绩。结果表明:扫冰技术在冰壶比赛中极为重要,对比赛的过程产生重要的影响;中国队与欧美强队相比扫冰技术能力相对较弱;在队投壶技术的稳定性方面中国队比欧美强要好。建议中国队在扫冰技术方面进行针对性训练,加强对冰壶运动轨迹产生影响因素的综合理解认识;增强扫冰技术团队配合能力;提高扫冰技术专项力量训练。%Sweeping is an important factor to influence a process of a game in curling,with the use the methods of literature,field observation and so on. By comparing analyzing on the sweeping technical ability of Chinese curling male team and Euro-American Curling strong teams,find out the difference of technical ability of Chinese curling male team and Euro-American Curling strong teams,to improve the performance of Chinese curling male team. The results show:sweeping technology is very important in curling competition,and have an important impact on the process of games;The sweeping technical ability of Chinese Team is relatively weak to Europe-American strong teams;The stability of throwing curling technology of Chinese Team is better than Europe-American strong teams. Suggest Chinese to have targeted training in sweeping technology, strengthen the comprehensive understanding of curling motion track;Enhance the cooperated ability of sweeping technology;Improve the special strength training of sweeping technology.

  8. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  9. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0.005; P = .01). Inter-rectus distance and the distortion index did not change from rest or differ between tasks for controls (P≥.55). Conclusion Narrowing of the IRD

  10. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhedong

    2015-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in th...

  11. Wave control through soft microstructural curling: bandgap shifting, reconfigurable anisotropy and switchable chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Paolo; Gonella, Stefano; Tajeddini, Vahid; Muliana, Anastasia; Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we discuss and numerically validate a strategy to attain reversible macroscopic changes in the wave propagation characteristics of cellular metamaterials with soft microstructures. The proposed cellular architecture is characterized by unit cells featuring auxiliary populations of symmetrically-distributed smart cantilevers stemming from the nodal locations. Through an external stimulus (the application of an electric field), we induce extreme, localized, reversible curling deformation of the cantilevers—a shape modification which does not affect the overall shape, stiffness and load bearing capability of the structure. By carefully engineering the spatial pattern of straight (non activated) and curled (activated) cantilevers, we can induce several profound modifications of the phononic characteristics of the structure: generation and/or shifting of total and partial bandgaps, cell symmetry relaxation (which implies reconfigurable wave beaming), and chirality switching. While in this work we discuss the specific case of composite cantilevers with a PDMS core and active layers of electrostrictive terpolymer P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE), the strategy can be extended to other smart materials (such as dielectric elastomers or shape-memory polymers).

  12. Radiographic inguinal curl may indicate paraspinal misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters: report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chedid, Faris [Al Tawam Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abbas, Adil [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Clinical Haematology/Oncology, Brisbane (Australia); Morris, Lloyd [Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Adelaide (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    Misplacement of percutaneously inserted central venous catheters (PCVCs) into the paraspinal venous plexus can result in devastating outcomes. Several cases have been reported in the literature together with an explanation of the mechanism. To describe three premature babies with their PCVCs inserted through the left saphenous vein that ended up in the lumbar spinal dural venous plexus. Plain radiographs obtained to check positions showed an unusual 360 curl of the PCVC in the left inguinal area. We believe that misplacement of the catheter into the paraspinal venous plexus could be diagnosed with great accuracy if such a curl is seen. (orig.)

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  14. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-03-27

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research.

  15. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Myszka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs. This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS production by AHLs that are associated with microbial spoilage of cabbage was also examined. Among 100 strains isolated from storage cabbage, 47 isolates produced AHLs. The results of the 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that selected microflora was highly closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas cedrina (approximately 98%-99% confidence. The chemical nature of AHLs produced by selected microflora differ from species to species. The pattern of AHLs of Ps. cedrina consisting of C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL, and 3-hydroxy-C14-HSL, has not been previously reported. The present study demonstrates that bacterial spoilage of storage cabbage is influenced by quorum sensing. Application of furanone C-30 that acts as quorum sensing inhibitor, caused the significant reduction in the production of EPS and pectinolytic enzymes by examined bacteria.

  16. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  17. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS, 2 (DJ and KS, 3 (HN1, PC, and YC, and 4 (HN2 and SS. In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage.

  18. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  19. Host plant mediation of diapause induction in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-PING WANG; FENG GE; FANG-SEN XUE

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of crucifers in China, undergoing an imaginal summer and winter diapause in the soil. The effects of host plants on diapause incidence were tested in the beetle. The ratio of adults entering diapause was significantly low when they fed on the mature leaves of Chinese cabbage Shanghaiqin (Brassica chinesis var communis) than those feeding on Chinese cabbage Suzhouqin (Brassica chinesis var communis), radish (Raphanus sativus var longipinnatus) and stem mustard (Brassicajuncea var tumida) at 25℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. Fewer adults entered diapause on young leaves compared to physiologically aged and mature radish leaves at 25 ℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. The effect of host plant species on diapause induction was also evident under continuously dark rearing conditions or at different photoperiods. These experimental results demonstrate that host plant mediation of diapause induction exists in the cabbage beetle. However, at temperatures ≤ 20℃ or photoperiods of 16:8 (L: D) h combined with 25 ℃, all individuals entered diapause regardless of the host plants, indicating that the effects of host plants on diapause induction could be expressed only within a limited range of temperatures and photoperiods.

  20. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...

  1. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  2. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  3. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  4. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in cabbage aphid(Brevicoryne brassicae)host plants and developmental instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gazi G(o)rür

    2009-01-01

    Developmental instability in morphological characters can occur during individual development due to various environmental stresses.Fluctuating asymmetry (FA)is often used as a measurement of developmental instability.but within-environment variation(cve)is also considered an indicator of developmental instability.Cabbage aphid nated cabbage and radish plants.Developmental instability indicators were measured and their relations with fitness were explored.Results revealed that cabbage aphids exposed to Cd and Zn displayed considerable developmental instability,particularly fluctuating asymmetry.Differences in developmental instability between the two metals were also detected,as well as differences between the two developmental instability measurements.For almost all measured traits.FA was greater on Cd-and Zn-contaminated compared to non-contaminated host plants.In contrast.CV of some traits was greater on non-contami-nated host plants,yet for Otller traits CV Was greater on contaminated host plants.There were also non-significant inverse relationships between FA and fitness of cabbage aphid populations.Due to weak correlations between FA and different patterns of two developmental instability measurements,this study does not support the hypothesis that developmental instability is a useful bioindicator of environmental quality.

  5. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  6. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fa LIU; Ting-qiang LI; Xiao-e YANG; Cheng-xian WU; Muhammad T. RAFIQ; Rukhsanda AZIZ; Dan-di HOU; Zhe-li DING; Zi-wen LIN; Lin-jun LOU; Yuan-yuan FENG

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mol isol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physico-chemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mol isol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  7. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  8. Molecular identification and population dynamics of two species of Pemphigus (Homoptera: Pemphidae) on cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiqi Chen; Tong-Xian Liu; Mamoudou Sétamou; J. Victor French; Eliezer S. Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphiguspopulitransversus Riley, has been one of the major pests on cruciferous vegetable in the Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas since the late 1940s. It normally migrates from poplar trees to cruciferous vegetables in the fall, and migrates back to the trees in early spring of the coming year. Some root-feeding aphids were found on cruciferous vegetables in late spring and early summer in 1998 and the following years. Those aphids have been identified as Pemphigus obesinymphae Moran. This discovery completely changed the current knowledge about the root-feeding aphids on cruciferous vegetables in the LRGV. Due to their small size, morphological and feeding similarities between P. populitransversus and P. obesinymphae, their identification and distinction are difficult. In this study, random amplification ofpolymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to distinguish these two species over a period of time when the two species occurred together, or separately, in cabbage fields. The two species occurred on cabbage at different times of the year, and overlapped from October to June. From May to October, both species migrated to their primary hosts. The apterous aphids found on cabbage in winter contained mainly P. obesinymphae, whereas in early spring more apterous P. populitransversus were recovered. The root-feeding aphids would feed on cabbage plants as long as this host was available even during the hot, dry summer in the LRGV, although their populations were generally low. Both RAPD and AFLP techniques were efficient in discriminating the two species that showed obviously genetic variability. These molecular techniques confirmed the existence of the two aphid species in apterous samples collected from the soil in cabbage fields in the LRGV, and the results performed by RAPD were confirmed by AFLP. Furthermore, the results suggest that RAPD technique was a better choice despite its

  9. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5% NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance.

  10. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  12. Modeling leaf venation morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Laguna, M F; Jagla, E A

    2007-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the formation of leaf venation patterns is driven by mechanical instabilities in the growing leaf. In contrast to the prevalent canalization hypothesis based on polar auxin transport, mechanical instabilities lead very naturally to hierarchical patterns with an abundant number of closed loops as they exists in almost every leaf venation. We propose a continuum model where the vein formation is driven by a mechanical collapse of the mesophyll layer in the growing leaf, and present a numerical study of this model using a phase field approach. The results show the same qualitative features as real venation patterns and, furthermore, have the same statistical properties.

  13. Core Muscle Activation During Unstable Bicep Curl Using a Water-Filled Instability Training Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen C; Blanchette, Taylor W; Karwan, Lauren A; Pearson, Spencer S; OʼNeil, Allison P; Karlik, Dustin A

    2016-11-01

    Glass, SC, Blanchette, TW, Karwan, LA, Pearson, SS, O'Neil, AP, and Karlik, DA. Core muscle activation during unstable bicep curl using a water-filled instability training tube. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3212-3219, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess compensatory muscle activation created during a bicep curl using a water-filled, unstable lifting tube. Ten men (age = 21 ± 1.6 years, height = 180.0 ± 3.3 cm, mass = 87.4 ± 15.0 kg) and 10 women (age = 19.6 ± 1.3 years, height = 161.4 ± 12.0 cm, mass = 61.2 ± 7.4 kg) completed bicep curls using an 11.4-kg tube partially filled with water during a 50% open-valve, 100% open, and control setting. Subjects completed 8 repetitions within each condition with integrated electromyographic signal (converted to percent maximal voluntary contraction) of the bicep, deltoid, rectus abdominus, and paraspinal muscles measured. Compensatory activation was determined using the natural log of coefficient of variation across concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions. There were no differences between gender for any condition. Significant variability was seen across treatments for paraspinal muscles for CON and ECC at 50% (CON LnCV = 3.13 ± 0.56%, ECC LnCV = 3.34 ± 0.58%) and 100% (CON = 3.24 ± 0.34%, ECC = 3.46 ± 0.35%) compared with control (CON = 2.59 ± 0.47%, ECC = 2.80 ± 0.61%). Deltoid variability was greater at the 100% open setting (CON = 3.51 ± 0.53%, ECC = 3.56 ± 0.36%) compared with control (CON = 2.98 ± 0.35%, ECC = 2.97 ± 0.45%). The abdominal CON 100% showed variability (3.02 ± 0.47%) compared with control (2.65 ± 0.43%). Bicep activation remained unvaried. Compensatory activation of postural muscles contribute to postural stability. This device may be a useful tool for neuromuscular training leading to improved stability and control.

  14. Nod factor-induced root hair curling: continuous polar growth towards the point of nod factor application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esseling, J.J.; Lhuissier, F.G.P.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    A critical step in establishing a successful nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between rhizobia and legume plants is the entrapment of the bacteria between root hair cell walls, usually in characteristic 180degrees to 360degrees curls, shepherd's crooks, which are formed by the host's root hairs. Purified b

  15. 秋季专用平头甘蓝新品种锦秋60的选育%Breeding of Jinqiu 60, a New Cabbage F1 Hybrid with Flattened-shaped Head in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾爱松; 宋立晓; 高兵; 严继勇

    2015-01-01

    Jinqiu 60 is a middle-maturing autumn cabbage F1 hybrid with flattened-shaped head, which was developed by Vegetable Crops Institute of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It takes 70 days from transplanting to harvest, and Jinqiu 60 is suitable to be planted in South China in autumn. It has good adaptability and strong resistance to black rot, turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and cabbage Fusarium wilt (CFW). Its leaf head is green and compact and has good quality. Its average head weight is about 1.5 kg and its yield is about 3 650 kg/667 m2.%锦秋60是江苏省农业科学院蔬菜研究所结合小孢子培养技术与常规育种技术选育的秋季专用平头中熟甘蓝新品种。该品种适宜我国南方地区秋季栽培,中熟,定植后70 d左右收获,适应性好,抗黑腐病、病毒病、枯萎病等病害;球形美观,颜色绿,品质佳;单球质量1.5 kg左右,每667 m2产量3650 kg左右。

  16. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  17. Effect of Deformation Condition on Axial CompressivePrecision Forming Process of Tube with Curling Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the deformation condition on the axial compressive precision forming process of tube with curling die was investigated by using a rigid-plastic FEM. The results show that the forming accuracy depends mainly on geometric condition rρ/d0, little on tube material properties and friction condition; the relative gap Δ/2rρ of double-walled tubes obtained decreases with increasing rρ/d0, and there is a parameter k for a given t0/d0 or rρ/t0, when rρ,/d0>k, Δ/2rρ<1,otherwise Δ/2rρ>1.

  18. Parallel eigensolver for H(curl) problems using H1-auxiliary space AMG preconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, T V; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-11-15

    This report describes an application of the recently developed H{sup 1}-auxiliary space preconditioner for H(curl) problems to the Maxwell eigenvalue problem. The auxiliary space method based on the new (HX) finite element space decomposition introduced in [7], was implemented in the hypre library, [10, 11] under the name AMS. The eigensolver considered in the present paper, referred to as the AME, is an extension of the AMS. It is based on the locally optimal block eigensolver LOBPCG [9] and the parallel AMG (algebraic multigrid) solver BoomerAMG [2] from the hypre library. AME is designed to compute a block of few minimal nonzero eigenvalues and eigenvectors, for general unstructured finite element discretizations utilizing the lowest order Nedelec elements. The main goal of the current report is to document the usage of AME and to illustrate its parallel scalability.

  19. 聚-γ-谷氨酸对小白菜生长和光合作用的影响%Growth and photosynthesis characteristics of Chinese cabbage under poly-γ-glutamic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚忠; 谭启玲; 胡承孝; 陈守文; 郑苍松; 孙学成

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was used to study the effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid addition on the growth of Chinese cabbage and its photosynthesis characteristics,such as net photosynthesis rate (Pn) ,stomatic conductance(Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) ,and transpiration rate(Tr). The results shows that the level of Pn,Gs,Tr and Ci in Chinese cabbage leaf treated with poly-γ-glutamate acid increases compared with control when the concentration of nutrient decreases. The application of poly-γ-glutamate acid with 90% nutrient concentration significantly increased chlorophyll a in Chinese cabbage leaves. When the nutrient concentration was 70%-100%, the above ground yield of cabbage improved compared with control,meaning that poly-γ-glutamate acid can promote transformation of light,energy capture,increase the energy efficiency through reducing the stomatal limitation, increasing the chlorophyll content and the capacity of absorption of light intensity.%采用水培方法研究了聚-γ-谷氨酸对小白菜地上部生长、叶片叶绿素含量、光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(G(n))、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和蒸腾速率(Tr)的影响.结果表明,随着养分含量的降低,聚-γ-谷氨酸处理小白菜较对照叶片Pn、Gs、Tr和Ci均有提高;在90%养分含量下施加聚-γ-谷氨酸显著提高了叶片中叶绿素a的含量;在70%~100%养分含量范围内,小白菜地上部产量较对照均有所提高,说明聚-γ-谷氨酸可通过降低气孔限制值、增加叶绿素含量和提高吸收光强的能力,从而促进小白菜对光能的捕获及其转化,提高其光能利用效率.

  20. Influences of Combined Application of Water-soluble Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield, Nutrient Absorption and Economic Benefit of Cabbage%有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏全杰; 蔡建华; 刘启华; 熊汉锋; 刘新伟; 李鸣凤; 张炜; 赵竹青

    2014-01-01

    研究了有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响。结果表明:与单施无机肥相比,有机水溶性肥以灌根的方式与无机肥配施能显著提高包菜的包心率、包心重、产量、经济效益以及叶片中叶绿素、磷、钾的含量,并在一定程度上提高包菜氮、磷、钾的累积量和各养分利用效率;有机水溶性肥与无机肥灌根的综合效果优于叶面喷施的综合效果。%The influences of combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the yield , nu-trient absorption and economic benefit of cabbage were studied .The results revealed that:as compared with the single application of inorganic fertilizer , the application of water -soluble organic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation combined with inorganic fer-tilizer could significantly enhance the package rate , package weight , yield and economic benefit of cabbage , as well as the contents of chlorophyll , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage leaf , and could increase the accumulation and utilization efficiency of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage to a certain degree .The combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation obtained better comprehensive effect than that in the manner of foliage spray .

  1. Extraction of red cabbage anthocyanins: optimization of the operation conditions of the column process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fonseca Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to extract anthocyanins from the red cabbage. Batch studies under several extraction conditions indicated that acetic acid in aqueous solution (10% V/V was the best solvent, used in the proportion of 0.25 g of red cabbage mL-1. At this condition, column assays were carried out to evaluate the influence of the ionic force, pH, solvent flow rate, recirculated volume of red cabbage juice and the mass of red cabbage. Results showed that the pH, recirculation and mass of red cabbage had statistically significant effects, where the optimum operation conditions found for the process were pH 2.3, recirculation volume of the solvent 0.83 L and mass of red cabbage 50 g.Desde os primórdios dos tempos as antocianinas são extraídas de vegetais, mas avanços que garantam um processo viável e rentável exigem conhecimento, quantificação e controle das condições de operação. Estudos em batelada sob várias condições de extração indicaram que ácido acético em solução aquosa (10% V/V foi o melhor solvente, quando usado na proporção de 0,25 g de repolho roxo mL-1. Nesta condição de operação foram feitos ensaios em coluna para avaliar a influência da força iônica, pH, taxa de escoamento do solvente, volume recirculado da solução de extração e massa de repolho roxo. Os resultados mostraram que o pH, recirculação e massa de repolho foram estatisticamente significativos, e as condições ótimas de operação encontradas para o processo foram pH 2,3, volume de solvente recirculado de 0,83 L e massa de repolho roxo igual a 50g.

  2. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  3. Leaf anatomy and morphometry in three eucalypt clones treated with glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD. Tuffi Santos

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of simulated drift of glyphosate on the morphoanatomy of three eucalypt clones and to correlate the intoxication symptoms on a microscopic scale with those observed in this visual analysis. The effects of glyphosate drift were proportional to the five doses tested, with Eucalyptus urophylla being more tolerant to the herbicide than E. grandis and urograndis hybrid. The symptoms of intoxication which were similar for the different clones at 7 and 15 days after application were characterized by leaf wilting, chlorosis and curling and, at the highest rates, by necrosis, leaf senescence and death. Anatomically glyphosate doses higher than 86.4 g.ha-1 caused cellular plasmolysis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia, formation of the cicatrization tissue and dead cells on the adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma had a decrease, and the palisade parenchyma and leaf blade thickness had an increase. The increased thickness in leaf blade and palisade parenchyma may be related to the plant response to glyphosate action, as a form of recovering the photosynthetically active area reduced by necroses and leaf senescence caused by the herbicide.

  4. Identification of Heat Tolerance Linked Molecular Markers of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-ying; WANG Yong-jian; SONG Shun-hua; LI Li; YU Shuan-cang

    2002-01-01

    Genetically stable population of recombination inbred line (RIL) was derived from a cross between a heat tolerant line 177 and a heat sensitive line 276 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.pekinensis ) by single seed descent. The RILs were analyzed using isozyme, RAPD and AFLP techniques in order to find molecular markers that are linked to heat tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL). The results of variance analysis of single factor indicated that there were 9 molecular markers closely linked with heat tolerance QTL, including 5 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers and 1 PGM isozyme marker. Total genetic contribution of these makers to heat tolerance was 46.7%. Five of the nine markers distributed in one linkage group,the remaining 4 markers were located in separate groups. Thus the 9 heat tolerance linked markers distributed in 5 independent locations in the genome of Chinese cabbage.

  5. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  6. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  7. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  8. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  9. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  10. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. The use of legume cover crops in no-tillage broccoli and cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Seward, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 to compare conventional tillage (CT) versus no-tillage (NT) production of broccoli and cabbage. The tillage treatments were applied in combination with four rates of applied nitrogen fertilizer and three cover crops: hairy vetch (Vigia villosa Roth), Austrian winter pea (Fisum arvenu L.), and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.). Transplants of 'Premium Crop' broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) and 'Market Prize'...

  12. Leaf growth is conformal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  13. Leaf growth is conformal

    CERN Document Server

    Alim, Karen; Shraiman, Boris I; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  14. Toxic Metals up taken by Cabbage Grown in Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L.O. Jimoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, iron and zinc were investigated in soil and lettuce obtained from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were compared with limit recommended by FAO/WHO standard (2007 so as to ascertain the extent of their pollution. The level of cadmium in cabbage ranged from 0.04-1.20μg/g. The concentrations of lead was found to be in range of 0.61-3.87 μg/g ,these were above the limit stipulated by WHO while iron concentration ranged from 0.50-12.40μg/g and zinc 2.72:g/g-18.53μg/g were within the recommended limit given by the FAO/WHO standard. This suggests that consumers of cabbage grown in the studied areas might be liable to lead and cadmium toxicity as at the time of this research work. Pearson correlation shows positive correlation between soil and cabbage in these irrigation sites.

  15. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  17. Parasitoid Quality of Gronotoma micromorpha Parasitizing Liriomyza huidobrensis on Chinese Cabbage and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA DAHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with the aim to investigate the quality of Gronotoma micromorpha which attack the immature developmental stages of Liriomyza huidobrensis has been carried out. Such variables as body length measured from caput to the tip of abdomen, wing span and the length of tibia of hind leg were measured to represent parasitoid quality. The immature developmental stage period of the parasitoid was also recorded. The result indicated that a better quality Gronotoma was obtained when it was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on chinese cabbage with the average of 123.85 m for body length, 253.45 m for wing span, and 42.85 m for the length of hind tibia, respectively. When Gronotoma was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on soy bean, its size became smaller with the average of 97.7 um for body length, 214.3 um for wing span, and 37.2 um for the hind tibia. When it is developed in the Liriomyza on chinese cabbage host plant the immature developmental period of Gronotoma is sligthly shorter with the average of 18.4 and 17.3 days for which developed in the larvae and pupa respectively and on soy bean it become longer with the average of 19.2 days for in eggs, 19.9 days for that in the larvae. On chinese cabbage, Liriomyza tend to have bigger size for both flies and pupae.

  18. Effects of mutations in the Arabidopsis Cold Shock Domain Protein 3 (AtCSP3) gene on leaf cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongil; Karlson, Dale

    2012-08-01

    The cold shock domain is among the most evolutionarily conserved nucleic acid binding domains from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes, including plants. Although eukaryotic cold shock domain proteins have been extensively studied as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators during various developmental processes, their functional roles in plants remains poorly understood. In this study, AtCSP3 (At2g17870), which is one of four Arabidopsis thaliana c old s hock domain proteins (AtCSPs), was functionally characterized. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed high expression of AtCSP3 in reproductive and meristematic tissues. A homozygous atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant exhibits an overall reduced seedling size, stunted and orbicular rosette leaves, reduced petiole length, and curled leaf blades. Palisade mesophyll cells are smaller and more circular in atcsp3 leaves. Cell size analysis indicated that the reduced size of the circular mesophyll cells appears to be generated by a reduction of cell length along the leaf-length axis, resulting in an orbicular leaf shape. It was also determined that leaf cell expansion is impaired for lateral leaf development in the atcsp3 loss-of-function mutant, but leaf cell proliferation is not affected. AtCSP3 loss-of-function resulted in a dramatic reduction of LNG1 transcript, a gene that is involved in two-dimensional leaf polarity regulation. Transient subcellular localization of AtCSP3 in onion epidermal cells confirmed a nucleocytoplasmic localization pattern. Collectively, these data suggest that AtCSP3 is functionally linked to the regulation of leaf length by affecting LNG1 transcript accumulation during leaf development. A putative function of AtCSP3 as an RNA binding protein is also discussed in relation to leaf development.

  19. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  20. High order gradient, curl and divergence conforming spaces, with an application to NURBS-based IsoGeometric Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hiemstra, R R; Gerritsma, M I

    2012-01-01

    Conservation laws, in for example, electromagnetism, solid and fluid mechanics, allow an exact discrete representation in terms of line, surface and volume integrals. We develop high order interpolants, from any basis that is a partition of unity, that satisfy these integral relations exactly, at cell level. The resulting gradient, curl and divergence conforming spaces have the property that the conservation laws become completely independent of the basis functions. This means that the conservation laws are exactly satisfied even on curved meshes. As an example, we develop high order gradient, curl and divergence conforming spaces from NURBS - non uniform rational B-splines - and thereby generalize the compatible spaces of B-splines developed by Buffa et al.[1]. We give several examples of 2D Stokes flow calculations which result, amongst others, in a point wise divergence free velocity field.

  1. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased

  2. Exogenous methyl jasmonate treatment increases glucosinolate biosynthesis and quinone reductase activity in kale leaf tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties 'Dwarf Blue Curled Vates' and 'Red Winter' in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar 'Red Winter' in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone.

  3. Leaf structural traits of tropical woody species resistant to cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Modolo, Luzia Valentina; Paiva, Elder Antonio Sousa

    2016-08-01

    Cement industries located nearby limestone outcrops in Brazil have contributed to the coating of cement dust over native plant species. However, little is known about the extent of the response of tropical woody plants to such environmental pollutant particularly during the first stages of plant development and establishment. This work focused on the investigation of possible alterations in leaf structural and ultrastructural traits of 5-month-old Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae), 6-month-old Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Anacardiaceae), and 9-month-old Trichilia hirta L. (Meliaceae) challenged superficially with cement dust during new leaf development. Leaf surface of plants, the soil or both (leaf plus soil), were treated (or not) for 60 days, under controlled conditions, with cement dust at 2.5 or 5.0 mg cm(-2). After exposure, no significant structural changes were observed in plant leaves. Also, no plant death was recorded by the end of the experiment. There was also some evidence of localized leaf necrosis in G. ulmifolia and T. hirta, leaf curling in M. urundeuva and T. hirta, and bulges formation on epidermal surface of T. hirta, after cement dust contact with plant shoots. All species studied exhibited stomata obliteration while T. hirta, in particular, presented early leaf abscission, changes in cellular relief, and organization and content of midrib cells. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected under the experimental conditions studied. Indeed, mesophyll cells presented plastids with intact membrane systems. The high plant survival rates, together with mild morphoanatomic traits alterations in leaves, indicate that G. ulmifolia is more resistant to cement dust pollutant, followed by M. urundeuva and T. hirta. Thus, the three plant species are promising for being used to revegetate areas impacted by cement industries activities.

  4. Large-Deformation Curling Actuators Based on Carbon Nanotube Composite: Advanced-Structure Design and Biomimetic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhuo; Weng, Mingcen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Zhigao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2015-12-22

    In recent years, electroactive polymers have been developed as actuator materials. As an important branch of electroactive polymers, electrothermal actuators (ETAs) demonstrate potential applications in the fields of artificial muscles, biomimetic devices, robotics, and so on. Large-shape deformation, low-voltage-driven actuation, and ultrafast fabrication are critical to the development of ETA. However, a simultaneous optimization of all of these advantages has not been realized yet. Practical biomimetic applications are also rare. In this work, we introduce an ultrafast approach to fabricate a curling actuator based on a newly designed carbon nanotube and polymer composite, which completely realizes all of the above required advantages. The actuator shows an ultralarge curling actuation with a curvature greater than 1.0 cm(-1) and bending angle larger than 360°, even curling into a tubular structure. The driving voltage is down to a low voltage of 5 V. The remarkable actuation is attributed not only to the mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion but also to the mechanical property changes of materials during temperature change. We also construct an S-shape actuator to show the possibility of building advanced-structure actuators. A weightlifting walking robot is further designed that exhibits a fast-moving motion while lifting a sample heavier than itself, demonstrating promising biomimetic applications.

  5. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  6. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  7. Curl flux induced drift in stochastic differential equations in the zero-mass limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Yuan, Bo

    2016-11-01

    We consider the nonlinear stochastic dynamics of dissipative Hamiltonian systems with state-dependent friction and diffusion connected by the fluctuation-dissipation relation in high dimensions. The system under study has a close connection to Ao's framework in constructing a dynamical potential for non-equilibrium processes without detailed balance. We study the limiting case where the mass approaches zero and give a new and complete derivation of effective stochastic differential equations. Using the Ito stochastic integral convention, we show that the limiting effective Langevin equations have a new drift term. This extra term happens to be identical to the corresponding anti-Ito (or isothermal) integral (requiring constant temperature) in one dimension. We, however, cannot obtain this additional drift term using conventional stochastic integrals in high dimension. It is interesting to note that in a high-dimensional system, a curl flux induced drift may appear even if the diffusion matrix is constant. Our findings are supported by numerical simulations. We further analyze and discuss the role of this new drift term in calculating the classic escape time. For the first time, to our knowledge, the relation between the escape rate and the anti-Ito integral is presented. We also demonstrate that the derived diffusion equations give a new sampling algorithm which can increase convergence speed in a simple two-dimensional example.

  8. FUNCTIONAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR CHANGES IN THE HAMSTRINGS AFTER DROP JUMPS AND LEG CURLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production, kinaesthesia (active torque tracking and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles

  9. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas.

  10. Genistein: A Novel Anthocyanin Synthesis Promoter that Directly Regulates Biosynthetic Genes in Red Cabbage in a Light-Dependent Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Yantong; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Genistein (GNT), an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage. PMID:27990149

  11. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  12. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  13. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  14. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  15. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  16. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  17. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F; Valentão, P; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  18. Microbiota contaminante em repolho minimamente processado Microbial population in minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fantuzzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota contaminante de repolho minimamente processado foi avaliada durante as etapas de sanitização e estocagem sob atmosfera modificada passiva em embalagens com diferentes taxas de permeabilidade a O2 e CO2 e a 1ºC, 5ºC e 12ºC. A sanitização do repolho por 10min., à temperatura ambiente, em soluções sanitizantes de hipoclorito de sódio a 200mgL-1, de composto orgânico clorado a 200mgL-1 ou ácido acético a 1% reduziu em, no máximo, 1,8log10 UFCg-1 a população de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos. A concentração de CO2 no interior das embalagens variou significativamente (PThe microbial populations associated with minimally processed cabbage after sanitation and storage at 1ºC, 5ºC and 12ºC under modified atmosphere was analyzed. Sanitation of cabbage for ten minutes at room temperature in 200mgL-1 sodium hypochlorite and chlorinated organic compound or 1% acetic acid resulted in the reduction of up to 1.8log10CFUg-1 in the aerobic mesophilic bacteria population (P0.05 differences in concentrations of CO2 were found in the interior of the packages during fifteen days of storage. No variation was found in the mesophilic aerobic or anaerobic counts, and psycrotrophic microorganisms during storage at 1ºC and 5ºC for the three packaging materials used. The minimally processed cabbage was in good sensorial conditions for up to 20 days of storage at 1ºC and 5ºC in the packaging materials of high O2 permeability. The samples packed in transparent plastic trays sealed with thermal-shrinking PVC presented undesirable sensorial characteristics on the twentieth day of storage at 5ºC. After five days of storage at 12ºC the fresh-cut cabbage presented evident signs of deterioration, as dark spots, slime and off odor. There was a 3log10 CFUg-1 increase in the aerobic and anaerobic mesophiles and psycrotrophic populations in these samples.

  19. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (pfuture.

  20. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J

    1997-01-01

    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The

  1. Extinction of Vibrio choleare in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo; Vargas, Cecilia; Saborío-Argüello, Daniel; Vives-Blanco, Marcela

    1994-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1994 Lime juice killed Malian of Vibrio cholerae 01, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9 % of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The nu...

  2. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  3. Improved uptake of boron and growth in Chinese cabbage leaves by surfactin%表面活性素对不结球白菜叶片生长和硼吸收的促进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 邓杰勇; 王青青; 吴俊贤; 丁仕奇; 孙文

    2016-01-01

    以不结球白菜为试验材料,对其叶面喷施不同浓度表面活性素和硼溶液,研究表面活性素对其叶片通透性、气孔开度、蜡质层厚度及生长和硼吸收的影响。叶片的通透性随着表面活性素浓度的增加而提高,当表面活性素浓度≥0�400 g/L时,膜透性增加显著;表面活性素浓度为0�400 g/L时,不结球白菜叶片气孔开度达到最大;蜡质层的溶解程度随表面活性素浓度的增加而逐渐增加。喷施表面活性素的不结球白菜根长、株高和叶绿素含量都明显增加,在喷施浓度为0�040 g/L和0�400 g/L的表面活性素不同次数后,不结球白菜根长、株高和总叶绿素最高增长率分别达到62�38%、22�63%、42�94%和48�95%、15�89%、24�07%;表面活性素促进了植株对硼的吸收率,且浓度越高,对硼的吸收越多。可见,表面活性素叶面喷施有利于不结球白菜的生长和光合作用的增强,并能提高植株对微量元素的吸收,不仅可作为作物的叶面有机营养剂直接施用,而且可作为水溶性肥料的增效剂。%Different concentrations of surfactin and boron solutions were foliarly applied to Chinese cabbage leaves to study the leaf membrane permeability, stomatal aperture and waxy layer thickness, the absorption of boron, and the plant growth. The leaf permeability and waxy layer dissolvability were raised by increased concentrations of surfactin. The leaf stomatal aperture went to the highest level when treated with 0�400 g/L surfactin. The root length, plant height and chloro⁃phyll contents of cabbage foliarly⁃applied with surfactin for four times were boosted each time of application, and the highest increased rates were 62�38%, 22�63%, and 42�94% at surfactin concentration of 0�040 g/L, and 48�95%,15�89% and 24�07 at surfactin concentration of 0�400 g/L. The absorption of boron was improved by

  4. Effects of Nano-preparation on Growth and Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency of Cabbage%纳米制剂对小白菜生长及氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王署娟; 刘强; 宋海星; 荣湘民; 彭建伟; 王小娟; 张振华; 陈利军

    2011-01-01

    为提高肥料利用率,研发环境友好型肥料,从源头上控制农业面源污染,采用土培试验,研究了纳米制剂对小白菜产量、养分吸收量、氮肥利用率、叶片叶绿素含量及部分品质指标的影响.结果表明,氮肥中添加纳米氢醌和纳米茶多酚均可提高小白菜产量和叶片叶绿素含量、增加氮磷钾养分吸收量、提高氮肥利用率,以上效果在纳米制剂添加量增加时更加明显.在本试验所设的4种添加纳米制剂处理中,以4%茶多酚处理的效果最好,与未添加纳米制剂处理相比,小白菜产量增加44.6%,氮肥利用率增加134.1%.添加纳米制剂对小白菜品质的影响却不同,可溶性糖含量变化不大,硝酸盐含量有所提高,维生素C含量也有提高趋势,但干重增加最多的(4%茶多酚)处理维生素C含量并没有提高.总之添加纳米制剂可以提高作物产量并能提高肥料利用率.%In order to improve the fertilizer use efficiency, research and develop environment-friendly fertilizers, which can control the agricultural nonpoint source pollution from the source, a soil pot experiment was taken to study the effects of nano-preparation on the production, nutrient absorption, nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and some quality indexes of cabbage.The results showed that, the production, leaf chlorophyll content, the amount of nutrients (N, P, K) absorption and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cabbage were increased by adding nano-hydroquinone and nano-tea-polyphenols in nitrogen fertilizer, and the higher adding amount of nano-preparation had a more obvious effect.The best effective treatment among the four nano-preparation treatments was the one with 4% tea-polyphenols.The production and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cabbage were increased by 44.5% and 134.1%, respectively.However,the effect of adding nano-preparation on the quality of cabbage was different, the changes of

  5. Crop leaf deformation driven by skeleton%骨架驱动的作物叶片变形模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳莲; 汤亮; 曹卫星; 朱艳

    2011-01-01

    针对作物器官的变形问题,将骨架驱动物体变形的方法应用于作物器官的局部变形,提出了一种骨架驱动的叶片变形方法:生成叶片骨架模型,驱动骨架模型发生变形,并根据变形后的叶片骨架将变形操作应用到叶片曲面上,进而实现叶片曲面变形,应用该方法,分别对小麦叶片曲面进行弯曲和扭曲变形模拟.实验结果表明,基于骨架驱动的作物叶片形变方法能灵活控制叶片弯曲和扭曲程度,从而获得自然的叶片曲面变形效果.%To deform crop organs,the method of object deforming driven by skeleton is applied to crop organ, and then a skeleton driven method for deforming leaf is proposed. Firstly, the leaf skeleton is generated. Secondly,the leaf skeleton is deformed,and the leaf mesh is mapped to the deformed leaf skeleton. Thus the deformation of the leaf mesh follows the deformarion of the leaf skeleton. Finally, the proposed techniques are applied to simulate wheat leaf deformation including curling and twisting.The results on leaves deformation demonstrate that the proposed approach is applicable for simulating deformation of cereal leaves with realistic effects.

  6. Ultrasonic Acoustic Emissions from Leaf Xylem of Potted Wheat Subject to a Soil Drought and Rewatering Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiu-ling; ZHANG Li-hua; MA Rui-kun; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Quan-guo; YAO Yan-rong

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic emissions (AEs) from leaf xylem of both water stressed and well watered potted winter wheat (Triticum Acoustics Corp. New Jersey, USA) for estimation of leaf xylem cavitation and embolism. Very few AEs occurred in xylem of wheat leaves in well-watered plant, and also in plant subject to mild and moderate soil water stress conditions over the first 4 d of the drought cycle. Great amounts of AEs have occurred since d 5 of the drought cycle as plant showed obvious leaf curling, indicating significant cavitation in leaf xylem on plant exposed to severe soil water deficit. At this point,relative soil water content (RSWC) and leaf xylem pressure (ψ1) dropped to 24.0-26.5% and -1.92 MPa, respectively, with reductions in leaf stomatal conductance (gs), leaf transpiration (Tr) and leaf CO2 assimilation rate (A) of as much as 69.8,60.7 and 46.5%, respectively. The effect of soil water deficit was in the order gs > Tr> A > AE. Waveform physical property parameters such as amplitude, counts, rise time, duration, absolute energy and signal strength were analyzed. These parameters varied within very broad ranges, with frequency distribution of most parameters being well fitted by the exponential function y = Yo- A exp (-x/t). The proportion of stronger AE signals rose as soil dehydrated. While AEs occurrence in water stressed plant remained higher than in well-watered control at the following day after rewatering,waveform signal strength and related physical property parameters dropped immediately to that of control. Difference in AEs occurrence characterization between field-grown and potted wheat leaves was discussed.

  7. 冰壶运动员致胜心理因素探析%Analysis on Winning Psychological Factors of Curling Athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史孟玉; 姜淼淼

    2014-01-01

    针对我国冰壶运动发展的优势和存在的问题,抓住冰壶运动独具的项目特征,分析冰壶运动员致胜心理因素,加快提升我国冰壶运动整体竞技能力,力争在索契冬奥会上取得佳绩,是我国冰壶运动教练员、运动员亟待解决的重要课题。良好的心理状态是冰壶运动员最佳竞技状态形成的重要因素。从团队精神、动机、心理准备、自信心、注意力和焦虑控制等方面探究冰壶运动员致胜心理因素,旨在寻求提高冰壶运动训练水平、提升冰壶运动员整体竞技能力和冰壶运动员在比赛中取得优异成绩的突破口。%Aiming at the advantages and problems of Chinese curling development,stressing the unique characteristics of curling,analyzing the winning psychological factors of curling athletes, improving the overall competitive ability of Chinese curling and striving for good performance in Olympics in Sochi is the important task which should be solved quickly by Chinese curling coaches and athletes. A good mental state is the important factor of curling athletes being at their best competitive form. Analyze the winning psychological factors of curling athletes from team spirit, motivation,psychological preparation, self-confidence,attention and anxious control,in order to seek a breach which improves training level of curling,improve the overall competitive ability of curling athletes and get good performance in competitions.

  8. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbages in Anti-clubroot with Orange Head Traits%大白菜根肿病抗性与橘红心性状的遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯华; 沈向群; 耿新翠; 徐硕

    2011-01-01

    以育成的黄心抗根肿病直筒叠抱型大白菜CR9112A和CR9112B为母本,直筒舒心橘红心大白菜龙园红1号JH-1自交系为父本,分别完成F1、F2及BC1F1各世代.验证龙园红1号橘红心性状的遗传规律,探究根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间的遗传关系.抗性和花色鉴定结果表明:根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间无连锁关系,二者表现为独立遗传.龙园红1号JH-1的基因型为msmsrrhh.提出了转育抗根肿病橘红心大白菜的遗传模式,以期获得经济性状优良的抗根肿病橘红心材料.%Taking the existing anti-clubroot CR9112A and CR9112B lines of straight canister folded common Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] as female parent and stably inherited ‘Longyuanhong No.l’ JH-1 inbred lines of Chinese cabbage with orange head as male parent, we prepared every generations of F1, F2 and BC1F1. The inheritance rule of ‘ Longyuanhong No.1’inbred lines was verified, and the relationship between clubroot resistance gene with orange head leaf gene was explored. The identification results showed that there was no linkage relationship between clubroot resistance and orange head characteristics, and these 2 were independently inherited. The gene type of ‘Longyuanhong No.1’ JH-1 was msmsrrhh. On this basis, the paper put forward a genetic model for transferring clubroot resistance to orange head traits, so as to obtain an excellent orange head Chinese cabbage resistant to clubroot.

  9. 四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育系的选育%Breeding of 4x CMS Line of the Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁

    2014-01-01

    To provide excellent parent resource for breeding new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars,a test cross was made by the male parent 09P70Rexiao(2n=4x)and female parent of the sterile materials(09PY)of non-heading Chinese cabbage which was obtain by the sexual polyploidization.Then the Shu No.1,of which the sterile rate reached 100%,and their degree was over 95% and their character was stable,was selected by continues back-cross.The plant height was 30.0 cm,the level of unfold was 29.8 cm,the leaf was brilliant green,the petiole was white.It had some properties such as grow faster, high yield,disease-resistant,heat resistant,and so on.%为给不结球白菜新品种的选育提供优良亲本,以秋水仙素诱导2n 配子再与四倍体雄性不育系08P76杂交创制的四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育材料09PY(14株)为母本,四倍体09P70热小材料为父本进行成对测交,后进行连续回交选育出不育株率为100%、不育度大于95%、性状稳定一致的不育系暑1。该雄性不育系株高30.0 cm,开展度29.8 cm,叶片亮绿,叶柄白色,具有生长速度快,丰产、抗病、抗热等特性。

  10. Vector wind, horizontal divergence, wind stress and wind stress curl from SEASAT-SASS at one degree resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, W. J., Jr.; Sylvester, W. B.; Salfi, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.

  11. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  12. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  13. [Research on discrimination of cabbage and weeds based on visible and near-infrared spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu

    2013-05-01

    The automatic identification of weeds forms the basis for precision spraying of crops infest. The canopy spectral reflectance within the 350-2 500 nm band of two strains of cabbages and five kinds of weeds such as barnyard grass, setaria, crabgrass, goosegrass and pigweed was acquired by ASD spectrometer. According to the spectral curve characteristics, the data in different bands were compressed with different levels to improve the operation efficiency. Firstly, the spectrum was denoised in accordance with the different order of multiple scattering correction (MSC) method and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing method set by different parameters, then the model was built by combining the principal component analysis (PCA) method to extract principal components, finally all kinds of plants were classified by using the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) taxonomy and the classification results were compared. The tests results indicate that after the pretreatment of the spectral data with the method of the combination of MSC and SG set with 3rd order, 5th degree polynomial, 21 smoothing points, and the top 10 principal components extraction using PCA as a classification model input variable, 100% correct classification rate was achieved, and it is able to identify cabbage and several kinds of common weeds quickly and nondestructively.

  14. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  15. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  16. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference gen

  17. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de E.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Tric

  18. Redesigning biotechnology: experiences of a public-private partnership in the development of pro-poor transgenic cabbages in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the attempts of a public-private consortium in developing transgenic cabbages for resource-poor farmers in India, and its attempts to address several controversial issues related to the use of transgenic technology in plant breeding. A conceptual introduction suggests that the

  19. Melatonin improved anthocyanin accumulation by regulating gene expressions and resulted in high reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we found that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase, was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth.

  20. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  1. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  2. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  3. Optimization of fermentation technology of the cabbage wine%甘蓝酿酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 华承伟; 武庆东; 呼慧丽

    2011-01-01

    The fermentation technology of the cabbage wine was studied using cabbage as raw material. The single factor experiments were used to evaluate the influence of different factors. Four factors including cabbage juice content, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast inoculum were screened out. The orthogonal experiment was used to optimize fermentation technology, in which, sensory evaluation and alcohol content were indicators. The optimal fermentation technology was obtained as follows: cabbage juice content 60%, yeast inoculum 6%, fermentation time 6d and fermentation temperature 28tC. Under above conditions, alcohol content of the cabbage wine was 13%vol; the appearance was clear and brilliant with outstanding light green characteristic color, and it was full-bodied and rich in vegetable flavors.%以甘蓝为原料研究甘蓝酒的发酵工艺.分别对酿造工艺中的酵母接种量、发酵时间、发酵温度、甘蓝汁含量等因素进行了单因素试验,选取4个因素的合适水平进行4因素3水平的正交试验,以感官评分为指标对正交试验结果进行极差、方差分析,得出甘蓝滔的最佳发酵工艺条件是甘蓝汁含量60%,酵母的接种量6%,发酵时间6d,发酵温度32℃.经过发酵可得到酒精度13%vol,颜色漩绿、鲜亮,清澈、酒体透明,富含蔬菜清香、醇厚、口味纯正的优质甘蓝酒.

  4. Spatially-Optimized Sequential Sampling Plan for Cabbage Aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Canola Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The cabbage aphid is a significant pest worldwide in brassica crops, including canola. This pest has shown considerable ability to develop resistance to insecticides, so these should only be applied on a "when and where needed" basis. Thus, optimized sampling plans to accurately assess cabbage aphid densities are critically important to determine the potential need for pesticide applications. In this study, we developed a spatially optimized binomial sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields. Based on five sampled canola fields, sampling plans were developed using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 proportions of plants infested as action thresholds. Average sample numbers required to make a decision ranged from 10 to 25 plants. Decreasing acceptable error from 10 to 5% was not considered practically feasible, as it substantially increased the number of samples required to reach a decision. We determined the relationship between the proportions of canola plants infested and cabbage aphid densities per plant, and proposed a spatially optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields, in which spatial features (i.e., edge effects) and optimization of sampling effort (i.e., sequential sampling) are combined. Two forms of stratification were performed to reduce spatial variability caused by edge effects and large field sizes. Spatially optimized sampling, starting at the edge of fields, reduced spatial variability and therefore increased the accuracy of infested plant density estimates. The proposed spatially optimized sampling plan may be used to spatially target insecticide applications, resulting in cost savings, insecticide resistance mitigation, conservation of natural enemies, and reduced environmental impact.

  5. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  7. Production of a primary trisomic from progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage%结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与结球甘蓝回交获得初级三体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 管志坤; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an aneuploid plant with 2n + l chromosome was obtained from the progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage. Cytological and SSR analysis showed that the aneuploid plant was a primary trisomic - 8 of cabbage. Furthermore, the chromosome number of the self ing and backcrossing progenies of the primary triso-mic-8 plant was identified, and the transfer rate of female and male gametes of extra-chromosome was clarified as 34. 74% and 6. 17%, respectively.%采用结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与二倍体结球甘蓝回交的方式,从回交后代BC2中获得了1株2n+1非整倍体植株.经细胞学和SSR鉴定分析,确认该2n+1植株为结球甘蓝8号初级三体.通过对8号初级三体植株自交和回交后代染色体数目的测定,明确了其额外染色体雌、雄配子的传递率分别为34.74%和6.17%.

  8. ENSO-correlated fluctuations in ocean bottom pressure and wind-stress curl in the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chambers

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the magnitude of ENSO-correlated variations in wind-stress curl and ocean bottom pressure in the North Pacific between 1992 until 2010, using satellite observations and model output. Our analysis indicates that while there are significant fluctuations correlated with some El Niño and La Niña events, the correlation is still relatively low. Moreover, the ENSO-correlated variability explains only 50 % of the non-seasonal, low-frequency variance. There are significant residual fluctuations in both wind-stress curl and ocean bottom pressure in the region with periods of 4-years and longer. One such fluctuation began in late 2002 and has been observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE. Even after accounting for ENSO variations, there is a significant trend in ocean bottom pressure in the region, equivalent to 0.7 ± 0.3 cm yr−1 of sea level from January 2003 until December 2008, which is confirmed with steric-corrected altimetry. Although this low-frequency fluctuation does not appear in an ocean model, we show that the winds used to force the model have a significantly reduced trend that is inconsistent with satellite observations over the same time period.

  9. 结球甘蓝新品种浙甘85的选育%A New Cabbage F1 Hybrid-'Zhegan 85'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    浙甘85是以S04-C01为母本,以S05-SXGL为父本配制而成的甘蓝一代杂种.中晚熟,从定植到始收85 d(天)左右;叶球紧实,圆球形,不易裂球,耐贮运,球高20 cm左右,横径20~22 cm,中心柱长6~8 cm,单球质量2.4 kg左右;抗TuMV和黑腐病,一般每667 m产量5 000 kg左右,适宜长江流域及华南、华北、西南地区秋季种植.%‘Zhegan 85’ is a new cabbage F1 hybrid bred by crossing S04-G01 as female parent and S05-SXGL as male parent. It is a mid-late maturing variety, taking about 85 days from transplanting to harvest. The round head is compact and tough in structure which makes it a long shelf life. Its leaf head is 20 cm in height, 20-22 cm in diameter, with a short core of 6-8 cm in length. The head weight is about 2.4 kg. It has resistance to TuMV and black rot. Its yield is about 75 t · hm-2. Consequently, it is suitable to be cultivated in the Yangtze River valley, north China, south China, and southwest China.

  10. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid -'Liaobai No.19'%大白菜新品种辽白19号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 王鑫; 吕艳玲; 王丽丽

    2011-01-01

    ‘Liaobai No.19’ is a new Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing genetic male sterility line Jiaobai No.1 A with selfing line Xinxiang 903-S10-1.Its growing period is about 82 days.The plant is 46.2 cm in height, 64.3 cm in width.Its leaf head is 37.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter.The average plant weight is 4.5 kg and the net product ratio is 87.78 %.It is resistant to TMV and downy mildew and soft rot.Its output is about 139.5 t · hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in Jilin, Liaoning,Heilongjiang Provinces and Inner Mogolian Autonomous Region, etc.%辽白19号是由细胞核基因雄性不育系胶白1号A和自交系新乡903-S10-1配制而成的筒形大白菜一代杂种.生育期82 d(天)左右,株高46.2 cm,开展度643 cm,球高37.5 cm,横径17.0 cm.单株叶球质量4.5 kg左右,净菜率87.78%,商品性好.生长势强,抗软腐病、霜霉病和病毒病,每667 m2产量9300kg左右.适宜吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、黑龙江等地栽培.

  11. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábata Rosas-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels.

  12. A review of the mechanisms and components that determine the transmission efficiency of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (Geminiviridae; Begomovirus) by its whitefly vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Murad

    2014-06-24

    Begomoviruses are a group of icosahedral single stranded DNA viruses exclusively transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a persistent, circulative manner. In this mode of transmission, begomoviruses are acquired by their insect vector as intact virions from the plant phloem, move along the food canal, foregut and esophagus and reach the midgut where they are absorbed into the hemolymph via the filter chamber. The filter chamber is the site where most of the ingested food is filtered, and the first site where the majority of begomoviruses appear to be translocated into the hemolymph via unknown proteins or receptors. Transport from the filter chamber to the hemolymph is aided by a Heat Shock Protein 70. Virus particles not translocated across the filter chamber circulate in the midgut loop but it is not known whether absorption into the hemolymph occurs along this loop. Localization studies have confirmed that begomoviruses are not associated with the hindgut and absorption of virions in this organ is unlikely. In the hemolymph, virions have been shown to interact with a GroEL chaperone produced by the whitefly's endosymbiontic bacteria for ensuring their safe journey to the salivary glands. Virions penetrate the primary salivary glands via unknown proteins or receptors and are transported and secreted outside the whitefly to the plant with salivary secretions. Several recent studies have demonstrated the implications of insect and endosymbiont proteins such as the heat shock protein 70 and the bacterial GroEL protein, in the transmission of begomoviruses by B. tabaci. Additional studies attempting to identify other proteins that aid or interact with begomoviruses along their circulation pathway in the whitefly are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis in Bemisia tabaci in response to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and development of ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci transmits over 300 plant viruses, with the majority of them belonging to the Begomovirus genus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in the loss of billions of dollars annually, while jeopardizing food security worldwid...

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Bemisia tabaci during tomato yellow leaf curl virus acquisition and ribonucleic acid interference to manage whitefly-transmitted viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 300 viruses are transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, with 90% of them belonging to the genus, Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are obligately transmitted by whiteflies to a wide range of agriculture crops, resulting in billions of dollars lost annually, while jeopardizing food security worldw...

  15. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  16. Comparing Leaf and Root Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Geldenhuys

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider two ways of inserting a key into a binary search tree: leaf insertion which is the standard method, and root insertion which involves additional rotations. Although the respective cost of constructing leaf and root insertion binary search trees trees, in terms of comparisons, are the same in the average case, we show that in the worst case the construction of a root insertion binary search tree needs approximately 50% of the number of comparisons required by leaf insertion.

  17. Myosuppressin is involved in the regulation of pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. Here we show that a neuropeptide myosuppressin also contributes to the inactivation of PGs at the initiation of diapause. Myosuppressin suppresses PTTH-stimulated activation of the PGs in vitro. Concentrations of myosuppressin in the hemolymph after pupal ecdysis are higher in diapause pupae than in nondiapause pupae. PMID:28139750

  18. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4).

  19. Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream. Metamorphoses of ATU 1579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Voolaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the functioning of the plot of a fixed tale typeATU 1579 (Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream as a riddle and a narrative and its forms which have surrounded the plot and originate in traditional folklore genres. Folklore, reconstructed and placed in new contexts, emerges in new genres. In the present computer era, the plot has not only emerged in narrative and riddle genre, but has emerged in an entirely new context – it has been widely applied in the form of an interactive computer game. The different forms, contexts, functions and goals of the type plot may be regarded as aspects of the dynamic folklore process.

  20. 早熟秋甘蓝新品种达光的选育%A New Autumn Cabbage F1 Hybrid-‘DaGuang’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保才; 化娟莉; 张延安

    2014-01-01

    ‘Daguang’ is a new autumn cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing self-incompatible line 98-19 as female parent and self-compatible line 99-36 as male parent.It is an early-maturing variety.It takes about 72 days from field planting to harvest.The plant grows vigorously.Its expansion degree is 49-52 cm. It has 12-14 outer leave blades,and the leaf is greyish green in color.There is a lot of wax powder on the leaf surface.The leafy head is oblate,green and compact.The compactness degree is 0.62.The leafy head is 19.8 cm in transverse diameter,11.3 cm in height.The central core is 5.9 cm in length.The single leafy head weights 1.5 kg.It has crisp texture and slightly sweet taste.It is tolerant to head splitting,and resistant to TuMV(Turnip mosaic virus)and black rot.Its average yield is about 67.5 t·hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in autumn open fields at north,central,and southwest part of China.%达光是以自交不亲和系98-19为母本,以自交系99-36为父本配制而成的早熟秋甘蓝一代杂种。早熟,定植至收获72d(天)左右;植株生长势强,株型平铺,开展度49~52cm,外叶12~14片,叶色灰绿,叶面蜡粉多;叶球扁圆形、色绿,紧实度0.62,球高11.3cm,横径19.8cm,中心柱长5.9cm,单球质量1.5kg,质地脆嫩,味微甜,耐裂球;抗芜菁花叶病毒病(TuMV)和黑腐病;一般每667m2产量4500kg左右,适宜华北、华中及西南地区秋季露地种植。

  1. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  3. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  4. Leaf growth of contrasting Poa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorani, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    In the grass genus Poa a wide variation in final leaf size and leaf growth rate exists. In this thesis leaf growth was analyzed at different levels. At the cellular level, inherent variation in leaf elongation rate and final leaf size was correlated to the length of the elongation zone and to merist

  5. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf....

  6. Essential plant oils in reducing the intensity of soft rot in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrzânia de Lira Guerra

    Full Text Available The action of essential oils in reducing soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and their influence on the colorimetry and physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable were evaluated. In the greenhouse, plants of the cultivar Natsume were sprayed with 11 oils selected in preliminary tests for phytotoxicity: bergamot, lemongrass, copaiba, Eucalyptus citriodora, blue gum, fennel, ginger, spearmint, sweet orange, lemon and clary sage (0.5% and also the antibiotic Mycoshield® (3 g L-1. After 72 hours the plants were inoculated with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc-c. The oils and the Mycoshield® significantly reduced (P<0.05 the severity (SEV and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange were then tested for the stability of their effectiveness in the control of three isolates of P. carotovora subsp. carotovorum. These oils reduced the SEV (30.5 to 38.6% and the AUDPC (23.1 to 26.6% with no differences between them or the Mycoshield® (SEV 45.2 and AUDPC 32.8%, except for the copaiba (20.3% which was less effective than the antibiotic in the reduction of the AUDPC. In vitro, only Mycoshield® inhibited the pathogen. None of the treatments altered the colorimetry, levels of ascorbic acid or pH of the leaves of the Chinese cabbage. The spearmint oil increased the total titratable acidity in the same way as the oils of sweet orange, E. citriodora and bergamot increased the total soluble solids. Therefore, spraying with the oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange has potential in the control of this disease.

  7. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  8. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  9. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  10. Giardia cyst wall protein 1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR. Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm, easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm, resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR. In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.

  11. Giardia cyst wall protein 1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Carpentieri, Andrea; Ratner, Daniel M; Bullitt, Esther; Costello, Catherine E; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2010-08-19

    The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis) is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs) composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR)) and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR)). Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm), easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm), resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR). In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR) bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.

  12. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  13. Spatial and host-associated variation in prevalence and population density of wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) cryptic genotypes in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host preference and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant sp...

  14. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  15. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae) by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França; Vívian da Silva Braz

    2009-01-01

    Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  16. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species.

  17. (TECTONA GRANDIS LEAF POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the adsorption potential of Teak (Tectona grandis leaf powder (TLP toremove Methylene blue (MB and Malachite Green (MG dye molecules from aqueoussolution was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the influenceof operational parameters such as, pH (2−9, adsorbent dosage (1−7 g/L, contact time(15−150 minutes and initial dye concentration (20−120 mg/L at stirring speed of 150rpm for the adsorption of MB and MG on TLP. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.4%and 95.1% was achieved for MB and MG dye, respectively. The experimentalequilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isothermmodels and it was found that, it fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Thesurface structure and morphology of the adsorbent was characterized using scanningelectron microscopy (SEM and the presence of functional groups and its interactionwith the dye molecules were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR. Based on the investigation, it has been demonstrated that the teak leaf powderhas good potential for effective adsorption of methylene blue and malachite green dye.

  18. The artificial leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2012-05-15

    To convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy, the leaf splits water via the photosynthetic process to produce molecular oxygen and hydrogen, which is in a form of separated protons and electrons. The primary steps of natural photosynthesis involve the absorption of sunlight and its conversion into spatially separated electron-hole pairs. The holes of this wireless current are captured by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) to oxidize water to oxygen. The electrons and protons produced as a byproduct of the OEC reaction are captured by ferrodoxin of photosystem I. With the aid of ferrodoxin-NADP(+) reductase, they are used to produce hydrogen in the form of NADPH. For a synthetic material to realize the solar energy conversion function of the leaf, the light-absorbing material must capture a solar photon to generate a wireless current that is harnessed by catalysts, which drive the four electron/hole fuel-forming water-splitting reaction under benign conditions and under 1 sun (100 mW/cm(2)) illumination. This Account describes the construction of an artificial leaf comprising earth-abundant elements by interfacing a triple junction, amorphous silicon photovoltaic with hydrogen- and oxygen-evolving catalysts made from a ternary alloy (NiMoZn) and a cobalt-phosphate cluster (Co-OEC), respectively. The latter captures the structural and functional attributes of the PSII-OEC. Similar to the PSII-OEC, the Co-OEC self-assembles upon oxidation of an earth-abundant metal ion from 2+ to 3+, may operate in natural water at room temperature, and is self-healing. The Co-OEC also activates H(2)O by a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in which the Co-OEC is increased by four hole equivalents akin to the S-state pumping of the Kok cycle of PSII. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies have established that the Co-OEC is a structural relative of Mn(3)CaO(4)-Mn cubane of the PSII-OEC, where Co replaces Mn and the cubane is extended in a

  19. Dual-Band Operation of a Circularly Polarized Four-Arm Curl Antenna with Asymmetric Arm Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Xuat Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents dual-band operation of a single-feed composite cavity-backed four-arm curl antenna. Dual-band operation is achieved with the presence of the asymmetrical arm structure. A pair of vacant-quarter printed rings is used in the feed structure to produce a good circular polarization (CP at both bands. The cavity-backed reflector is employed to improve the CP radiation characteristics in terms of the 3-dB axial ratio beamwidth and broadside gain. The proposed antenna is widely applicable in dual-band communication systems that have a small frequency ratio. Examples of such a system are global positioning systems.

  20. Effect of TYLCV Infection on Leaf Anatomical Structure and Protective Enzyme System of Tomato%TYLCV侵染对番茄叶片解剖结构和保护酶系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永平; 张辉; 朱龙英; 朱为民

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effect of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection on leaf anatomical structure and protective enzyme system of tomato. [Method] The anatomical structure of infected and healthy leaves of tomato were observed and compared by using paraffin section method. The activity changes of SOD, POD and CAT in the infected leaves of tomato were determined. [Result] The results revealed that there were some differences in anatomical structure between healthy and infected leaves. Some cells of infected leaves were damaged so that the leaves curled and became yellow, which affected the normal function of organs. Compared with control, enzyme activities in the tomato plants infected by TYLCV were enhanced at the early periods and higher than that in control, then started to decline at the middle and late periods but lower than that in control. [Conclusion] After infection by TYLCV, the leaf anatomical structure of tomato was changed greatly and the protective enzyme system was damaged severely, and affected the normal physiological metabolic functions of tissues and organs in tomato in further.

  1. Studies on Genomic DNA Extraction and Establishment of AFLP Reaction System in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜基因组DNA的提取及AFLP反应体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟淑春; 张海英; 郑晓鹰; 刘玉梅; 王永健

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The obtained clear AFLP fingerprint of Chinese cabbage provided basis for studies on the molecular markers of Chinese cabbage cultivars and the phylogenetic relationship among Chinese cabbage cultivars. [Method] With the test materials of leaves of Chinese cabbages, the high-quality total DNA from leaves of Chinese cabbages was extracted by the modified CTAB method. DNA restriction-ligase reaction, pre-amplification and selective amplification were optimized, and the AFLP silver-staining reaction system for Chinese cabbage was established. [Result] The quality of DNA template influenced restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent ligase amplification reaction, while the modified CTAB extraction method could be used in AFLP analysis of Chinese cabbage to obtain a clear AFLP fingerprint. The optimum conditions for restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA from Chinese cabbage were as follows: 150 g DNA template, 12.5 μl reaction volume, 1.25 U Eco R Ⅰ, 1.25 U Mse Ⅰ and 5×Reaction Buffer with 4 h at 37 ℃. The ligation reaction with 2.5 h at 20 ℃ was the optimum condition. Six pairs of primers including E-AAC/M-CAG, E-AAG/M-CAC, E-ACA/M-CTG, E-ACT/M-CAC, E-ACT/M-CTT and E-ACT/M-CTC all had its own stable and clear patterns. [Conclusion] With abundant bands and high polymorphism, AFLP selective amplification is an efficient molecular marker for genomic polymorphism of Chinese cabbage.

  2. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  3. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  4. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  5. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  6. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  7. Control of Verticillium Yellows in Chinese Cabbage by the Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus LtVB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narisawa, K; Usuki, F; Hashiba, T

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of Verticillium longisporum. Two isolates effective against the pathogen were Phialocephala fortinii, which had been obtained from the roots of eggplant and Chinese cabbage. The third isolate was a dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus obtained from barley roots. Hyphae of P. fortinii grew along the surface of the root and formed microsclerotia on or in the epidermal layer. Hyphae of the DSE fungus heavily colonized root cells of the cortex. Seedlings grown for 1 week in the presence of the endophytes were then challenged with the Verticillium pathogen. In DSE-treated roots, some of cell walls in the epidermal and cortical layers showed cell wall appositions and thickenings, which appeared to limit the ingress of the pathogen into adjacent cells. Such marked host reactions were not observed in the root cells colonized by P. fortinii. Chinese cabbage preinoculated with the above endophytes and, for comparison, a previously reported disease-suppressive fungal endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira, were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. The DSE could most effectively inhibit the development of Verticillium yellows, with reductions in the percentages of external and internal disease symptoms of 84 and 88%, respectively. The protective values against the disease are extremely high compared with those of other isolates. Most of the DSE-treated plants in the plots achieved marketable quality.

  8. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    .) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) andWestern flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (model species for cabbage thrips (Thrips angusticeps Uzel) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)). When offered individually, A. nemorum readily accepted all three species with no significant differences...... in consumption. When aphids and moth larvae were offered simultaneously, A. nemorum showed preference for the latter (numbers eaten and biomass consumed). When aphids and thrips were offered together, A. nemorum preferred thrips in terms of numbers eaten but preferred aphids in terms of biomass consumed...

  9. Mercury Content and Pollution Assessment of Soil and Cabbage Surrounding Yangshuo Pb-Zn Mining District in Guangxi%广西阳朔铅锌矿周边土壤和白菜汞含量及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫福金; 钱建平; 王远炜; 张藜

    2016-01-01

    Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine is a relatively large mine in Guangxi. The article tries to understand the mercury pollution in soil and cabbage, as well as the transition and transform rule of mercury in soil-vegetables system. Investigation and research about the mercury content distribution and mercury pollution of soil and cabbage in the sourrouding farming area and residential area of Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine was done, in order to provide a scientific basis for mercury pollution prevention and remediation. In the research, 66 soil samples and 35 cabbage samples were collected in farming area of the downstream of Pb-Zn mine, 38 soil samples and 20 cabbage samples were collected in control farming area; 17 soil samples were collected in residential area. All soil and plant samples were digested by MDS-2003F-type pressure-controlled microwave digestion system and were analyzed with atomic fluorescence mercury analyzer. The result showed that the mercury concentration in the downstream arming area of Pb-Zn mine was (0.5674±0.2683) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in control farming area was (0.1471±0.0395) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in residential area was (0.1880±0.0972) mg·kg-1, which is 7.99, 2.07, 2.65 times higher compared with the natural content (0.071 mg·kg-1) of soil Mercury in some areas. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the soil mercury levels is decreasing when the distance from the mine is increasing. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 27600 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 7100 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 19300 ng·kg-1; in the control farming area, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 12500 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 4800 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 10000 ng·kg-1. Cabbage mercury distribution characteristics is

  10. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  11. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  12. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  13. Leaf Downward Curvature and Delayed Flowering Caused by AtLH Overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUHao; YULin; TANGXiang-Rong; SHENRui-Juan; HEYu-Ke

    2004-01-01

    AtLHgene of Arabidopsis is a BcpLH(leafy head) homolog of Chinese cabbage, which encodes a double-stranded RNA-binding protein related to the curvature of folding leaf leading to the formation of leafy head. In order to elucidate the regulatory function of AtLH in the development of leaf curvature, we made a construct of 35S::AtLHand transformed it to Arabidopsis. In transgenic plants for sense-AtLH, transcripts of AtLH gene were increased significantly in leaves and flowers, giving rise to the AtLH-overexpressed plants in which the rosette leaves curved downward or outward in a manner of enhanced epinastic growth. Compared with normal plants, bolting and flowering time of the transgenic plants was significantly delayed. Moreover, the apical dominance of transgenic plants was weaker in vegetative shoots since more axillary shoots emerged from axil of rosette leaves, while stronger in flowering shoots because fewer cauline inflorescences were observed on the main inflorescence. In other aspects, these transgenic plants exhibited an increase in root-stimulating response to IAA and decrease in root-inhibitory reaction on ABA. It indicates that overexpression of AtLH causes downward curvature of transgenic plants.

  14. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  16. Chemical Control of Curled Dock (Rumex crispus L. and Other Weeds in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex crispus L. is an invasive species widespread in our country and in particular in the region of North Bulgaria. It is characterized by high biological and ecological plasticity. Owing to its great reproductive potential, the weed has been assigned to the list of economically most important weeds in the country. With the purpose of studying the possibility of chemical weed control in noncropped areas with heavy natural background infestation with R. crispus L. and other dicotyledonous weeds, two field trials were carried out. A ready-to-use herbicide mixture 2,4-D 140.2 g/l-1 + Triclopyr 144 g/l-1, trade product Genoxon 3X (X0050, was tested at two doses of active ingredient, 3552 and 2842 ml/ha-1. It was found that: (1 population density of Rumex crispus L. can be successfully reduced by treatment at the stage of early stem formation; herbicideefficacy with 3552 and 2882 ml/ha-1 doses on the 21st day after treatment was 100% and 90.5%, respectively, at the end of vegetation 94.4 and 85.7%, respectively; (2 herbicidal efficacy was lower when R. crispus L. was treated at the 5 - 6 leaf stage, being 100 – 94.1%and 80 – 76.5% respectively for the indicated doses and time of recording; (3 at the studied doses the herbicide controlled both annual dicotyledonous weeds (Amaranthus spp., Chenopodium album L., Portulaca oleracea L. and perennial dicotyledonous ones (Cirsiumarvense L., Sonchus arvensis L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Carduus acanthoides L., but it was not toxic to monocotyledonous weeds.

  17. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  19. 7 CFR 29.3528 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3528 Section 29.3528 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3528 Leaf surface. The roughness or smoothness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface is affected to some extent by the size and shrinkage of the veins or fibers (See...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3036 - Leaf surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf surface. 29.3036 Section 29.3036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf surface. The smoothness or roughness of the web or lamina of a tobacco leaf. Leaf surface...

  1. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  2. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  3. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  4. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  5. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.

  6. Decarboxylation and transport of auxin in segments of sunflower and cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, T H; Aasheim, T

    1970-12-01

    The movement of (14)C from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (14)C has been examined in 5 mm root segments of dark-grown seedlings of Helianthus annuus and Brassica oleracea. Contaminants from distilled water, phosphate buffer and the razor-blade cutter increase the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C, and cutting of root segments results in an activation of IAA-destroying enzymes at the cut surfaces. When these sources of errors were eliminated the following was shown: a) Both in sunflower and cabbage there is a slight acropetal flux of (14)C through the root segments into the agar receiver blocks. The amount of (14)C found in the receiver blocks increases with the lenght of the transport period. b) When the root segments, after the transport period, are cut in two equal parts and these assayed separately, the amounts of (14)C in the two parts indicate a greater acropetal than basipetal transport. c) The total radioactivity of the receiver blocks is in part due to IAA-(14)C and in part to (14)CO2, the latter being a result of enzymatic destruction of auxin. d) Addition of ferulic acid, an inhibitor of IAA oxidases, to the receiver blocks markedly inhibits the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C and thus increases the amount transported. This effect is more pronounced after a 20 hr than after a 6 hr transport period.

  7. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  8. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  9. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  10. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH. Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  11. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  12. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  13. Genetic resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis alters feeding behaviour in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikkei Shikano

    Full Text Available Evolved resistance to xenobiotics and parasites is often associated with fitness costs when the selection pressure is absent. Resistance to the widely used microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has evolved in several insect species through the modification of insect midgut binding sites for Bt toxins, and reports of costs associated with Bt resistance are common. Studies on the costs of Bt-resistance restrict the insect to a single artificial diet or host-plant. However, it is well documented that insects can self-select appropriate proportions of multiple nutritionally unbalanced foods to optimize life-history traits. Therefore, we examined whether Bt-resistant and susceptible cabbage loopers Trichoplusia ni differed in their nutrient intake and fitness costs when they were allowed to compose their own protein:carbohydrate diet. We found that Bt-resistant T. ni composed a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate than susceptible T. ni. Bt-resistant males exhibited no fitness cost, while the fitness cost (reduced pupal weight was present in resistant females. The absence of the fitness cost in resistant males was associated with increased carbohydrate consumption compared to females. We demonstrate a sex difference in a fitness cost and a new behavioural outcome associated with Bt resistance.

  14. Roseomonas soli sp. nov., isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 5N26(T), was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26(T) were C16 : 0 (7.5 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (13.4 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c; 63.2%). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26(T) was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26(T) was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (97.0 % and 96.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26(T) could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26(T) = KACC 16376(T) = NBRC 109097(T)) is proposed.

  15. Studies on the Formation and Transmission of n+1 Gametes of Cabbage Primary Trisomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; ZHU Hai-yan; SHEN Shu-xing; MAN Hong

    2007-01-01

    The transmission rate of n + 1 gamete is an important parameter for the genetic analysis of trisomics. To correctly use the trisomics of the cabbage to carry out gene orientation and other genetic studies, the n + 1 gamete transmission rates by female parent and by male parent were determined. The results showed that the n + 1 gamete transmission rates were 15.28% for tri-1, 12.68% for tri-2, 12.31% for tri-3, 30.51% for tri-4, 22.81% for tri-5, 7.46% for tri-6, 5.36% for tri-7, 42.37% for tri-8, and 9.23% for tri-9 by female parent, and were 12.12% for tri-1, 12.33% for tri-2, 7.81% for tri-3, 4.76% for tri-4, 8.93% for tri-5, 10.94% for tri-6, 1.54% for tri-7, 2.94% for tri-8, and 13.04% for tri-9 by male parent. The main factors affecting the male n + 1 gamete formation and transmission were the rate of trivalent formation at prophase Ⅰ, the rate of 9-9-10-10 division at anaphase Ⅱ, and the pollen viability.

  16. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  17. [Research on spectra recognition method for cabbages and weeds based on PCA and SIMCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of weed identification, the difference of spectral reflectance was employed to distinguish between crops and weeds. Firstly, the different combinations of Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolutional derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) method were applied to preprocess the raw spectral data. Then the clustering analysis of various types of plants was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the feature wavelengths which were sensitive for classifying various types of plants were extracted according to the corresponding loading plots of the optimal principal components in PCA results. Finally, setting the feature wavelengths as the input variables, the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification method was used to identify the various types of plants. The experimental results of classifying cabbages and weeds showed that on the basis of the optimal pretreatment by a synthetic application of MSC and SG convolutional derivation with SG's parameters set as 1rd order derivation, 3th degree polynomial and 51 smoothing points, 23 feature wavelengths were extracted in accordance with the top three principal components in PCA results. When SIMCA method was used for classification while the previously selected 23 feature wavelengths were set as the input variables, the classification rates of the modeling set and the prediction set were respectively up to 98.6% and 100%.

  18. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  19. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics.

  20. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  1. Temporal and spatial patterns in wind stress and wind stress curl over the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Rosenfeld, Leslie K.; Robertson, George L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, together with several other federal and municipal agencies, began a series of field programs to determine along and cross-shelf transport patterns over the continental shelves in the central Southern California Bight. As a part of these programs, moorings that monitor winds were deployed off the Palos Verdes peninsula and within San Pedro Bay for six 3–4 month summer and winter periods between 2001 and 2008. In addition, nearly continuous records of winds for this 7-year period were obtained from a terrestrial site at the coast and from a basin site offshore of the long-term coastal site. The mean annual winds are downcoast at all sites. The alongshelf components of wind stress, which are the largest part of the low-frequency wind stress fields, are well correlated between basin, shelf and coastal sites. On average, the amplitude of alongshelf fluctuations in wind stress are 3–4 times larger over the offshore basin, compared to the coastal site, irrespective of whether the fluctuations represent the total, or just the correlated portion of the wind stress field. The curl in the large-scale wind stress tends to be positive, especially in the winter season when the mean wind stress is downcoast and larger at the offshore basin site than at the beach. However, since the fluctuation in wind stress amplitudes are usually larger than the mean, periods of weak negative curl do occur, especially in the summer season when the largest normalized differences in the amplitude of wind stress fluctuations are found in the nearshore region of the coastal ocean. Even though the low-frequency wind stress field is well-correlated over the continental shelf and offshore basins, out to distances of 35 km or more from the coast, winds even 10 km inshore of the beach do not represent the coastal wind field, at least in the summer months. The seasonal changes in the spatial structures in wind stress amplitudes suggest that an assessment of the

  2. Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis, and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a corn curl manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2007-01-01

    The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of corn curl manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in an effort to exclude the presence of GMOs in the final product. This is of crucial importance both from the ethics and the legislation (Regulations EC 1829/2003; EC 1830/2003; Directive EC 18/2001) point of view. The Preliminary Hazard Analysis and the Fault Tree Analysis were used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (corn curls processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram, and the fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimization of GMOs detection potential of FMEA.

  3. Shape, orientation and magnitude of the curl quantum flux, the coherence and the statistical correlations in energy transport at nonequilibrium steady state

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhedong

    2015-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the nonequilibriumness based on the model of coupled oscillators interacting with multiple energy sources. This can be applied to the study of vibrational energy transport in molecules. The curl quantum flux quantifying the nonequilibriumness and time-irreversibility is quantified in the coherent representation and we find the geometric description of the shape and polarization of the flux which provides the connection between the microscopic description of quantum nonequilibriumness and the macroscopic observables, i.e., correlation function. We use the Wilson loop integral to quantify the magnitude of curl flux, which is shown to be correlated to the correlation function as well. Coherence contribution is explicitly demonstrated to be non-trivial and to considerably promote the heat transport quantified by heat current and efficiency. This comes from the fact that coherence effect is microscopically reflected by the geometric description of the flux. To uncover the e...

  4. Research on the Orientation Perception of Wrist Movements of Harbin Curling Team%哈尔滨市冰壶队手腕动作知觉的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许水生; 刘庆闯; 蒋立; 赵霖

    2015-01-01

    The development of Curling in Harbin has entered a new stage,as well as the understanding and application of curling technique,but the current research on the physiological indexes of curling players belongs to the weak link.With the orientation perception of wrist movements of Harbin Curling Team,analyzing the testing data of orientation perception of wrist movements of Curling players is generally high,surplus and deficit and other prolblems.Suggest to increasethe training of wristorientation perception of curling athletes,improve the sensitivity of wrist movements,strengthen the specialized physical training,perfect training equipment of curling team,ensure the normal training effect and efficiency,in order to improve the curling performance.%哈尔滨冰壶运动的发展进入了一个新的阶段,对于冰壶技战术的理解和应用也上了新的台阶,但是当前对于冰壶运动员的生理指标探究相对属于薄弱环节。通过对哈尔滨市冰壶队运动员的手腕动作方位知觉的测试,分析冰壶运动员手腕动作方位知觉存在运动员的测试值普遍偏高,顺逆差值等问题。建议冰壶运动员增加手腕方位知觉的训练,提高手腕动作的敏感程度;加强专项体能训练;完善冰壶队的训练设备,保证正常的训练效果与训练效率,以提高冰壶运动成绩。

  5. DISPOSICIÓN SAGITAL DEL RAQUIS LUMBAR Y TORÁCICO EN EL EJERCICIO DE CURL DE BÍCEPS CON BARRA DE BIPEDESTACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel López Miñarro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La disposición sagital del raquis torácico y lumbar fue valorada mediante un inclinómetro Unilevel (ISOMED en 40 usuarios de salas de musculación privadas (media de edad: 24,6 ± 5,6 años en bipedestación habitual y al realizar el ejercicio del curl de bíceps con barra. En este ejercicio, la lordosis lumbar fue valorada al final de la fase concéntrica de la 6ª repetición, mientras que la cifosis torácica fue valorada al final de la fase excéntrica de la 8ª repetición, en la primera y segunda series. Los valores medios de cifosis dorsal en bipedestación y en el curl de bíceps con barra fueron de 46,00º ± 9,50º y 48,25º ± 9,80º, respectivamente (p>0,05. Respecto a la lordosis lumbar, los valores medios fueron de 30,52º ± 7,93º y 37,52º ± 9,32º, respectivamente (p<0,001. Al clasificar los valores angulares en base a las referencias de normalidad, se observa un mayor porcentaje de posturas hiperlordóticas al realizar el curl de bíceps (45% respecto a la bipedestación habitual (10%. En conclusión, al realizar el ejercicio del curl de bíceps con barra se observa un mayor ángulo de lordosis lumbar, que aumenta la frecuencia de posturas hiperlordóticas al final de la fase concéntrica del ejercicio. Es preciso enseñar a los usuarios a mantener una disposición alineada del raquis lumbar y torácico cuando realicen el ejercicio.

  6. Breeding of a new combination of savoy cabbage ‘Paopaolü'%优质皱叶甘蓝新组合‘泡泡绿’的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦秀; 薄天岳; 缪体云; 任云英

    2012-01-01

    ‘泡泡绿’是由自交不亲和纯系197-121-75-143-3和146-3-1611杂交选育而成的皱叶甘蓝新组合.该组合半平铺型,开展度58.2 cm,叶色浅绿,外叶大,近圆形,叶面皱褶有叶泡,叶球圆形顶稍带尖,球面皱褶隆缩,单球重约780 g,产量约44 t/hm2,秋季栽培从定植到采收65~70 d.‘泡泡绿’品质优,帮叶比仅21.22%,Vc含量43.12 mg/100 g,粗蛋白含量2.94%,明显优于普通甘蓝品种‘争春’和国外皱叶甘蓝品种‘法美莎’.%'Paopaolii',a new combination of savoy cabbage,was bred by hybridizing two self-incompatible lines 197-121-75-143-3 and 146-3-1611. The plant of 'Paopaolü' is semi-procumbent and 58.2 cm in expansion degree;The plant's outer leaves are pale green,large and approximately round, and have wrinkles and phyllocysts;The head is round,slightly pointed at the top,and about 780 g in weight;The yield is 44 t/hm2 or so;The period from field planting to harvest is 65 - 70 d in fall cropping. 'Paopaolü' is good in quality,only 21.22% in petiole-leaf ratio,43.12 mg/100 g in vitamin C, and 2.94% in crude protein,and obviously superior to the control cultivars 'Zhengchun' (a common cabbage cultivar)and 'Fameisha' (a foreign savoy cultivar).

  7. Observability of the effects of curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale and the nature of the ‘transition amplitude wave’

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram K Varma

    2010-04-01

    We discuss here the prediction, based on a formalism by the author, on the observable effects of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale as against the microscale of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. A new quantum concept – the ‘transition amplitude wave’ – postulated in the formalism has already been shown to exhibit matter wave manifestations in the form of one-dimensional interference effects on the macroscale. It was predicted by the formalism that the same entity would lead to the detection of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale. We describe here the manner of generation of this quantum entity in an inelastic scattering episode and work out an algorithm to observe this radically new phenomenon, the detection of a curl-free magnetic vector potential on the macroscale. We determine the various characteristic features of such an observation which can then be looked for experimentally so as to verify the predicted effect, establishing thereby the physical reality of the new quantum entity, and to fully validate the formalism predicting it. It is also shown that this ‘transition amplitude wave’ can be regarded as a novel kind of ‘quasiparticle’ excited in the charged particle trajectory as a consequence of the scattering episode.

  8. Investigation of seasonal variability of the wind stress curl over the North Atlantic Ocean by means of empirical orthogonal function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, B.

    1986-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the wind stress curl over the North Atlantic is investigated by means of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The curl field is calculated from 1 year of First Global GARP Experiment wind data. It was found that 44 percent of the variability is contained in four significant eigenvectors. Their spatial patterns are characterized by basin-sized oscillations with larger amplitude to the north of 40 deg N. Their associated time series coefficients have the highest amplitude during the winter and show a tendency toward a white frequency spectrum which nevertheless exhibits noticeable peaks or gaps at certain frequencies. Physically, the first EOF is seen as the seasonal fluctuations of the mean wind stress curl pattern. Five other eigenvectors are also found to be above the noise level, but they account for only a smaller percentage of variability (19 percent). They are characterized by smaller spatial scales than the basin size. Their time series coefficients show a whiter frequency spectrum.

  9. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  10. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture......, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  11. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-09-19

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production.

  12. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  13. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  14. ENSO-correlated fluctuations in ocean bottom pressure and wind-stress curl in the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chambers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine the output of an ocean model forced by ECMWF winds to study the theoretical relationship between wind-induced changes in ocean bottom pressure in the North Pacific between 1992 until 2010 and ENSO. Our analysis indicates that while there are significant fluctuations correlated with some El Niño and La Niña events, the correlation is still relatively low. Moreover, the ENSO-correlated variability explains only 50 % of the non-seasonal, low-frequency variance. There are significant residual fluctuations in both wind-stress curl and ocean bottom pressure in the region with periods of 4-years and longer. One such fluctuation began in late 2002 and has been observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE. Even after accounting for possible ENSO-correlated variations, there is a significant trend in ocean bottom pressure in the region, equivalent to 0.7 ± 0.3 cm yr−1 of sea level from January 2003 until December 2008, which is confirmed with steric-corrected altimetry. Although this low-frequency fluctuation does not appear in the ocean model, we show that ECMWF winds have a significantly reduced trend that is inconsistent with satellite observations over the same time period, and so it appears that the difference is due to a forcing error in the model and not an intrinsic error.

  15. Thermal Niches of Two Invasive Genotypes of the Wheat Curl Mite Aceria tosichella: Congruence between Physiological and Geographical Distribution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide. It is also a complex of well-defined genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, which has not been accounted for in applied contexts. The aims of the study were to model the thermal niches of the two most pestiferous WCM lineages, designated MT-1 and MT-8, and to assess the extent to which temperature determines the distribution of these lineages. WCM population dynamics were modeled based on thermal niche data from March to November on the area of Poland (>311,000 km2). The most suitable regions for population development were predicted and compared to empirical field abundance data. Congruence between modeled parameters and field data for mite presence were observed for both WCM lineages although congruence between modeled thermal suitability and mite field abundance was observed only for MT-8. Thermal niche data for MT-1 and MT-8 provide biological insights and aid monitoring and management of WCM and the plant viruses it vectors. The presented models accurately estimate distributions of WCM and can be incorporated into management strategies for both current and predicted climate scenarios. PMID:27123590

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial...... physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of Tuscan black cabbage...

  17. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  18. Electrophysiology and behavior feedback of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to volatile secondary metabolites emitted by Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The volatiles, absorbed by Porapak Q and eluted by hexane, from Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris chinesis (L.) Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee, have been identified as allyl isothiocyanate, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, 2,5-hexanediol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, nonanol, (-myrcene, (-pinene, E-2-hexen-1-ol, D-limonene, Z-3-hexenyl propanoate, linalool, geraniol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate, (-terpinene, (-caryophyllene, 3-carene and (-caryophyllene, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. The first five chemicals are the main components. All components can elicite electroantennogram (EAG) responses of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, in which allyl isothiocyanate and C6 alcohols and esters, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate and 2,5-hexanediol elicite stronger EAG responses than other components, and EAG responses of female moths to them are slightly larger than those of male moths. However, EAG responses elicited by terpenes are smaller, and EAG responses from females to terpenes are smaller than those from males, but ((myrcene can evoke stronger EAG responses from both females and males. Volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage, allyl isothiocyanate, 2,5-hexanediol and Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate intensely cause DBM directional flying and landing in wind tunnel, in which volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage have the strongest activity, and the next is allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is more attractive to females than to males a bit. As for (-terpinene and other subordinate components, EAG and wind tunnel test make sure they have weak activity.

  19. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  20. The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Vermeulen, An; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-11-01

    The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of incubation temperature was investigated. A cocktail mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea agglomerans and Lactobacillus plantarum was constituted to a population density of approximately 5 log CFU/ml in order to pseudo-simulate background bacterial flora of fresh-cut cabbage. This mixture was co-inoculated with L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/ml) on fresh-cut cabbage or in autoclaved cabbage juice followed by incubation at different temperatures (4-30 degrees C). Data on growth of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the primary growth model of Baranyi in order to generate the growth kinetic parameters of the pathogen. During storage, microbial ecology was dominated by P. fluorescens and L. plantarum at refrigeration and abuse temperature, respectively. At all temperatures investigated, lag duration (lambda, h), maximum specific growth rate (micro(max), h(-1)) and maximum population density (MPD, log CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes were only affected by medium micro-architectural structure, except at 4 degrees C where it had no effect on the micro(max) of the pathogen. Comparison of observed values of micro(max) with those obtained from the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP), showed that PMP overestimated the growth rate of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cabbage and in cabbage juice, respectively. Temperature dependency of micro(max) of L. monocytogenes, according to the models of Ratkowsky and Arrhenius, showed linearity for temperature range of 4-15 degrees C, discontinuities and linearity again for temperature range of 20-30 degrees C. The results of this experiment have shown that the constituted background bacterial flora had no effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes and that micro-architectural structure of the vegetable was the primary factor that limited the

  1. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  2. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de, Jacques; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the larg...

  3. Estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado sob diferentes sistemas de embalagem Storage of minimally processed cabbage in differents packaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado acondicionado em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade com atmosfera modificada ativa e passiva, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas com filme de policloreto de vinila. O produto foi armazenado por 16 dias em câmara frigorífica na temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, e em um balcão refrigerado similar aos utilizados em lojas de conveniência, com o intuito de representar os locais de comercialização no varejo, com temperatura média de 2,7 ± 3,3 °C. Analisou-se a concentração de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono no interior das embalagens, e no repolho minimamente processado o incremento no escurecimento, luminosidade, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa fresca e teor de ácido ascórbico. A estabilidade do repolho minimamente processado mostrou-se superior na temperatura de 5 °C quando comparada ao armazenamento no balcão refrigerado. A atmosfera modificada ativa não foi efetiva no aumento da vida útil do repolho minimamente processado quando comparada aos outros tratamentos. A embalagem de PEBD foi a mais adequada ao acondicionamento do repolho minimamente processado. No entanto, a embalagem de PVC também apresentou resultados satisfatórios.Stability of fresh-cut cabbage packed in low density polyethylene under active modified atmosphere and in expanded polyestyrene trays wrapped with PVC was evaluated. The fresh-cut product was stored for 16 days in a cold room at 5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 5% RH and in a refrigerated display case similar to those found in grocery stores. The following variables were analyzed: content of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the package headspace; browning, luminosity, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, pH, titratable acidity; soluble solids, fresh mass loss, and ascorbic acid content. The stability of fresh-cut cabbage was higher

  4. Vapor-phase toxicity of butylbenzyl phthalate to three plant species: white mustard, chinese cabbage, and white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, J W; Staples, C A; Brown, D; Enste-Diefenbach, R

    2008-08-01

    During the manufacture of products containing butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), low emissions to the air may occur. Due to potential exposure of terrestrial communities to BBP vapors, phytotoxicity tests were conducted using Chinese cabbage, white mustard, and white clover. No significant effects on shoot growth were observed at the higher BBP vapor-phase concentration tested, which measured 5.7 microg/m(3). The overall practicality of vapor-phase testing of chemicals with very low vapor pressures is reviewed. These study results suggest that environmental risk from exposure to BBP vapor is negligible for plants.

  5. WEED INTERFERENCE IN TRANSPLANTED CABBAGE INTERFERÊNCIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DE REPOLHO TRANSPLANTADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In tropical regions, irrigated vegetable crops are subject to strong weed interference. In Brazil there are few herbicides registered for use in brassica crops. Weed control is usually done by hoeing or mechanical cultivation. Cabbage and other brassicas are planted by transplanting to shorten the weed interference period. The effect of weed control on the productive performance of Fuyotoyo hybrid cabbage crop, was investigated in Goiânia from May 17th through August 22th, 2002. The experimental design was randomized blocks in four replications of the following treatments: no weeding after transplanting, weeding once, one month or two months after transplanting, and weeding twice, one and two months after transplanting. Regarding yield (kg.ha-1 and number of marketable heads as well as average head weight, the weeding treatments were similar to each other but significantly better than the control. The plants of plots weeded once, one month after transplanting, and twice (one and two months after transplanting were significantly earlier than those weeded only once, two month after transplanting, or not weeded. The ratio between head width and height and the harvesting concentration rate were not influenced by treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Brassica oleracea; yield; earliness; harvest concentration; weed control.

    Nas regiões tropicais, culturas irrigadas de hortaliças estão sujeitas a forte interferência de plantas daninhas. No Brasil há poucos herbicidas registrados para uso em culturas de brássicas. O controle das plantas daninhas geralmente é feito com a enxada ou por cultivos mecânicos. As mudas de repolho e de outras brássicas são transplantadas para encurtar o período de interferência das plantas daninhas. O efeito do controle de plantas daninhas, no

  6. Molecular and functional properties of three different peroxiredoxin isotypes in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Jung, Young Jun; Shin, Mi Rim; Park, Jung Hoon; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Lee, Eun Seon; Kim, Kang-San; Paeng, Seol Ki; Kim, Woe Yeon; Lee, Kyun Oh; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which are classified into three isotypes in plants, play important roles in protection systems as peroxidases or molecular chaperones. The three Prx isotypes of Chinese cabbage, namely C1C-Prx, C2C-Prx, and C-PrxII, have recently been identified and characterized. The present study compares their molecular properties and biochemical functions to gain insights into their concerted roles in plants. The three Prx isotype genes were differentially expressed in tissue- and developmental stage-specific manners. The transcript level of the C1C-Prx gene was abundant at the seed stage, but rapidly decreased after imbibitions. In contrast, the C2C-Prx transcript was not detected in the seeds, but its expression level increased at germination and was maintained thereafter. The C-PrxII transcript level was mild at the seed stage, rapidly increased for 10 days after imbibitions, and gradually disappeared thereafter. In the localization analysis using GFP-fusion proteins, the three isotypes showed different cellular distributions. C1C-Prx was localized in the cytosol and nucleus, whereas C2C-Prx and C-Prx were found mainly in the chloroplast and cytosol, respectively. In vitro thiol-dependent antioxidant assays revealed that the relative peroxidase activities of the isotypes were CPrxII > C2C-Prx > C1C-Prx. C1C-Prx and C2C-Prx, but not C-PrxII, prevented aggregation of malate dehydrogenase as a molecular chaperone. Taken together, these results suggest that the three isotypes of Prx play specific roles in the cells in timely and spatially different manners, but they also cooperate with each other to protect the plant.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANGOSTEEN LEAF NITROGEN CONTENTS AND LEAF SPAD VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Setiawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated nitrogen contents on mangosteen leaf and related on leaf SPAD value. The experiment was conducted using mangosteen trees grown in commercial orchard in Bogor, Indonesia during May to October 2010. Mangosteen trees of 3 different ages, young (20-year-old, middle-aged (35-year-old, and old (50-year-old trees, each of five trees, were selected for study, and the canopy of each tree was divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top and width (inner, center, outer. SPAD values had a negative correlation with leaf N content in all ages and could be explained by regressionl equations N level (% DW = -0.0099 × SPAD + 2.2366; R² = 0.91; N level (% DW = -0.0177 × SPAD + 2.8001; R² = 0.67; and N level (% DW = -0.0187 × SPAD + 2.7785; R² = 0.45 in young, middle-aged and old trees, respectively. It is suggested that the SPAD value determined by a portable chlorophyll meter can be used to obtain a quick estimation of mangosteen leaf N status. Keywords: age, fruiting position, Garcinia mangostana L., nitrogen, SPAD

  8. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  9. A numerical simulation of the hole-tone feedback cycle based on an axisymmetric discrete vortex method and Curle's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthjem, M. A.; Nakano, M.

    2005-11-01

    An axisymmetric numerical simulation approach to the hole-tone self-sustained oscillation problem is developed, based on the discrete vortex method for the incompressible flow field, and a representation of flow noise sources on an acoustically compact impingement plate by Curle's equation. The shear layer of the jet is represented by 'free' discrete vortex rings, and the jet nozzle and the end plate by bound vortex rings. A vortex ring is released from the nozzle at each time step in the simulation. The newly released vortex rings are disturbed by acoustic feedback. It is found that the basic feedback cycle works hydrodynamically. The effect of the acoustic feedback is to suppress the broadband noise and reinforce the characteristic frequency and its higher harmonics. An experimental investigation is also described. A hot wire probe was used to measure velocity fluctuations in the shear layer, and a microphone to measure acoustic pressure fluctuations. Comparisons between simulated and experimental results show quantitative agreement with respect to both frequency and amplitude of the shear layer velocity fluctuations. As to acoustic pressure fluctuations, there is quantitative agreement w.r.t. frequencies, and reasonable qualitative agreement w.r.t. peaks of the characteristic frequency and its higher harmonics. Both simulated and measured frequencies f follow the criterion L/uc+L/c0=n/f where L is the gap length between nozzle exit and end plate, uc is the shear layer convection velocity, c0 is the speed of sound, and n is a mode number (n={1}/{2},1,{3}/{2},…). The experimental results however display a complicated pattern of mode jumps, which the numerical method cannot capture.

  10. Analytical investigation of microwave resonances of a curling probe for low and high-pressure plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) has attracted greater interest in recent years as an established plasma diagnostic technique. The APRS describes a class of related methods utilizing the intrinsic ability of plasma to resonate at or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} . The Curling probe (CP) as a novel realization of the APRS idea, is a miniaturized spiral slot embedded flatly in the chamber wall. Consequently, a plasma diagnostic technique with minimum disturbance and without metal contamination can be developed. To measure the plasma parameters the CP is fed with a weak frequency-swept signal from the exterior of the plasma chamber by a network analyzer which also records the response of the plasma versus the frequency. The resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the electron density and the gas pressure. The CP has also the advantage of resonating at a frequency greater than {ω\\text{pe}} which is dependent on the spiral’s length. The double resonance characteristic gives the CP the ability to be applied in varying plasma regimes. Assuming that the spiralization does not have a considerable effect on the resonances, a ‘straightened’ infinite length CP has recently been investigated (Arshadi and Brinkmann 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 045014) to obtain the surface wave resonances. This work generalizes the approach and models the CP by a rectangular slot-type resonator located between plasma and quartz. Cold plasma theory and Maxwell’s equations are utilized to compute the electromagnetic fields propagating into the plasma by the diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot. A mathematical model is employed and both kinds of resonances are derived. The analytical study of this paper shows good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  11. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woo-Jong; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Palaniappan, Pitchai; Siddikee, M A; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-04-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were found to be the members of the genera Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium belonging to alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria groups. These strains were also efficient in producing IAA and ACC deaminase though they produced low levels of ethylene and no phosphate solubilization. In addition, inoculation of selected diazotrophic bacterial strains significantly increased seedling length, dry weight, and total nitrogen when compared to uninoculated control. The colonization of crop plants by diazotrophic bacteria can be affected by many biotic and abiotic factors, and further studies are oriented towards investigating the factors that could influence the establishment of a selected bacterial community.

  12. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  13. Geographic expansion of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae)and the evolution of highly UV-reflecting females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuya Fukano; Toshiyuki Satoh; Tadao Hirota; Yudai Nishide; Yoshiaki Obara

    2012-01-01

    Reflection ofultraviolet (UV) light by the wings of the female Eurasian cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae,shows a large geographic variation.The wings of the female of the European subspecies,P rapae rapae,reflect little UV light,while butterflies of the Asian subspecies,P.rapae crucivora,may reflect it strongly or at only intermediate levels.The geographic region where P.rapae originated remains to be determined.Moreover,it is not clear if females with wings that reflect little UV light are ancestral to females with wings that reflect UV strongly or vice versa.In the present study,we aimed to determine the geographic origin and ancestral UV pattern of cabbage butterflies through mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.The results of these investigations suggest that P rapae is of European origin and that it has expanded its distribution eastward to Asia.It follows that the ancestral subspecies is the type with UV-absorbing wings.Lower nucleotide diversities and haplotype network patterns ofmtDNA derived from East Asian populations suggest that population expansion from Europe to East Asia probably occurred fairly recently and at a rapid rate.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  15. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

  16. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M A; Ong, T P; Jordão, A A; Vannucchi, H; Moreno, F S; Lajolo, F M

    2010-03-01

    The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito's hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group). Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats). Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05) placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL). The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P kale- (110.8 +/- 10.0 microm) treated animals compared with control (120.9 +/- 12.7 microm), as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 +/- 0.3 microg/g) or kale (4 +/- 0.2 microg/g) resulted in increased (P kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  17. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  18. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  19. LEAF: A Microcomputer Program for Constructing the Tukey Stem and Leaf Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Pietro J.; Smith, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a BASIC microcomputer program that constructs the Tukey (1977) stem and leaf graph. Options within the LEAF program include a modified stem and leaf where the stem is split and a parallel stem and leaf graph where two separate sets of data are displayed from a common stem. (Author)

  20. 7 CFR 29.3035 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3035 Section 29.3035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity or solidity. (See...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3527 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.3527 Section 29.3527 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3527 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity....

  2. 7 CFR 29.6023 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.6023 Section 29.6023 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6023 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1030 - Leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf structure. 29.1030 Section 29.1030 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1030 Leaf structure. The cell development of a leaf as indicated by its porosity....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco...

  8. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants.

  9. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly.

  10. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  11. Comparison of half and full-leaf shape feature extraction for leaf classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainin, Mohd Shamrie; Ahmad, Faudziah; Alfred, Rayner

    2016-08-01

    Shape is the main information for leaf feature that most of the current literatures in leaf identification utilize the whole leaf for feature extraction and to be used in the leaf identification process. In this paper, study of half-leaf features extraction for leaf identification is carried out and the results are compared with the results obtained from the leaf identification based on a full-leaf features extraction. Identification and classification is based on shape features that are represented as cosines and sinus angles. Six single classifiers obtained from WEKA and seven ensemble methods are used to compare their performance accuracies over this data. The classifiers were trained using 65 leaves in order to classify 5 different species of preliminary collection of Malaysian medicinal plants. The result shows that half-leaf features extraction can be used for leaf identification without decreasing the predictive accuracy.

  12. Leafing patterns and leaf traits of four evergreen shrubs in the Patagonian Monte, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, María Victoria; Bertiller, Mónica B.

    2009-11-01

    We assessed leafing patterns (rate, timing, and duration of leafing) and leaf traits (leaf longevity, leaf mass per area and leaf-chemistry) in four co-occurring evergreen shrubs of the genus Larrea and Chuquiraga (each having two species) in the arid Patagonian Monte of Argentina. We asked whether species with leaves well-defended against water shortage (high LMA, leaf longevity, and lignin concentration, and low N concentration) have lower leaf production, duration of the leafing period, and inter-annual variation of leafing than species with the opposite traits. We observed two distinctive leafing patterns each related to one genus. Chuquiraga species produced new leaves concentrated in a massive short leafing event (5-48 days) while new leaves of Larrea species emerged gradually (128-258 days). Observed leafing patterns were consistent with simultaneous and successive leafing types previously described for woody plants. The peak of leaf production occurred earlier in Chuquiraga species (mid September) than in Larrea species (mid October-late November). Moreover, Chuquiraga species displayed leaves with the longest leaf lifespan, while leaves of Larrea species had the lowest LMA and the highest N and soluble phenolics concentrations. We also observed that only the leaf production of Larrea species increased in humid years. We concluded that co-occurring evergreen species in the Patagonian Monte displayed different leafing patterns, which were associated with some relevant leaf traits acting as plant defenses against water stress and herbivores. Differences in leafing patterns could provide evidence of ecological differentiation among coexisting species of the same life form.

  13. Modification of a viral satellite DNA-based gene silencing vector and its application to leaf or flower color change in Petunia hybrida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaorong; QIAN Yajuan; ZHOU Xueping

    2006-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing offers a powerful reverse-genetic tool for the study of gene function in plants. We have previously reported effective gene silencing of plant genes using a viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV). In this study, we further modified the viral satellite DNA-based vector. The modified vector can induce sulfu (Su) gene silencing as effective as the original vector in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but the new system simplifies procedures for construction of vector derivative. Furthermore, a fragment of petunia Su or chalcone synthase (CHS) endogenous gene was inserted into the modified vector. When petunia plants were agro- inoculated with the modified vector carrying a Su or CHS gene, the Su silenced plants started to appear yellowing in veins of systemically infected upper leaves two weeks after agroinoculation, while the CHS silenced plants started to show flower color change one month after agroinoculation and later single-color flowers became mosaic.

  14. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  15. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Diene

    Full Text Available Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm. On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  16. 结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究和应用进展%Progress in Studying and Applying Cabbage Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季家磊; 杨丽梅; 方智远; 庄木; 张扬勇; 吕红豪; 刘玉梅; 李占省

    2016-01-01

    Strong heterosis on yield,quality,disease resistance and stress tolerance is displayed in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L.).It is an important approach for heterosis utilization to use male sterile line to produce hybrid seed.In recent years,great progress has been made in studying cabbage male sterility. This paper reviews the types of cabbage male sterility line,its genetic characteristics,and achievements gained in studying its cytology,physiology,biochemistry and molecular biology.The paper also introduces the selective breeding of cabbage male sterile line,and its application.At the same time,the paper analyzes the existing problems and prospects the future for cabbage male sterility line application.%结球甘蓝在产量、品质、抗病性、抗逆性等性状上具有明显的杂种优势。利用雄性不育系配制杂交种是杂种优势利用的重要途径。近年来,结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究取得了很大进展。本文综述了结球甘蓝雄性不育的类型、遗传特性及其在细胞学、生理生化和分子生物学等方面取得的研究成果,介绍了结球甘蓝雄性不育系的选育和应用,同时分析了目前存在的问题,并对结球甘蓝雄性不育的应用前景做了展望。

  17. High-order Div- and Quasi Curl-Conforming Basis Functions for Calderón Multiplicative Preconditioning of the EFIE

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe

    2011-04-01

    A new high-order Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (HO-CMP) for the electric field integral equation (EFIE) is presented. In contrast to previous CMPs, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of high-order quasi curl-conforming basis functions. Like its predecessors, the HO-CMP can be seamlessly integrated into existing EFIE codes. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed HO-CMP converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 2006 IEEE.

  18. Predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris (Squamata, Polychrotidae) by the curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus (Aves, Corvidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    França, Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues; Braz, Vívian da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation on the lizard Polychrus acutirostris by the Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus in a Cerrado area of the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, central Brazil, thus increasing knowledge of the diet of this bird species. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p243Predation on lizards is difficult to observe in nature. Here, we report for the first time an act of predation ...

  19. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向卵圆型大白菜'60'的转育%Introgression of genic male sterile gene of Chinese cabbage into ovate ecotype Chinese cabbage variety '60'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪松; 许明

    2009-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,运用合成转育模式将大白菜'189'细胞核雄性不育基因转入基因型为msms的卵圆型白菜'160'中,获得了卵圆型白菜'160'的新甲型'两用系'及相应的不育系和保持系.%Based on the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genie male sterility, the synthesis transferring method was used to transfer the gene of male sterility into the orbicular-ovate type Chinese cabbage variety '160', whose genotypes were msms by crossing, inbreeding, sibling and test crossing. New AB lines type I,new male sterile lines and their corresponding temporary maintainer lines of Chinese cabbage variety '160' were obtained from the transferred progenies of the Chinese cabbage variety '189'.

  20. Signum, a new fungicide for control of leaf diseases in outdoor vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, D; Sarrazyn, R; Evens, W

    2005-01-01

    During three years, the new fungicide Signum, containing 6.7% pyraclostrobine + 26.7 % boscalid and developed by BASF. has been evaluated in leek, carrots and cabbages in several outdoor field experiments under practical conditions and during one year in outdoor lettuce. In leek, Phytophthora porri is one of the major leaf diseases causing lesions on differ ent places on the leaves, resulting in at least extra labour costs for trimming or even worse sometimes resulting in complete crop loss. So far, crop protection consists of repeated applications of fungicides especially during autumn and winter. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid has been evaluated in comparison with the fungicides mancozeb, mancozeb + metalaxyl-M and azoxystrobin. The progress of the disease during the growth season is discussed. For all parameters evaluated, pyraclostrobin + boscalid gave comparable or even better results than reference products. Especially during 2003, a small drop of the activity of benalaxyl against P. porri has been observed after repeated applications. In carrots, Erisiphe heraclei and Alternaria dauci are both the most common leaf diseases causing yield and quality loss. During periods of very high pressure of A. dauci, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, applied in a three weeks interval, revealed a superior activity compared with triazole references or compared with azoxystrobin. Against E. heraclei, a good control but also a clear dose response activity have been observed with pyraclostrobin + boscalid. Yield gain was approximately 30 ton /ha compared wih untreated. In Brussels sprouts, good efficacy was obtained against Mycosphaerella spp., Albugo candida and Alternaria spp. In outdoor lettuce Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are the most important diseases causing crop damage and reducing the quality of the heads. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid was evaluated in comparison with the standard fungicide iprodione. The plant protection was better with the new fungicide

  1. Leaf-produced floral signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2008-10-01

    Florigen is the hypothetical leaf-produced signal that induces floral initiation at the shoot apex. The nature of florigen has remained elusive for more than 70 years. But recent progress toward understanding the regulatory network for flowering in Arabidopsis has led to the suggestion that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or its product is the mobile flower-inducing signal that moves from an induced leaf through the phloem to the shoot apex. In the past year, physical and chemical evidence has shown that it is FT protein, and not FT mRNA, that moves from induced leaves to the apical meristem. These results have established that FT is the main, if not the only, component of the universal florigen.

  2. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  3. Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-06-10

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) have a short shelf-life. Neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEW) is a novel decontamination method. The objective of this study was to test the potential of NEW to extend the shelf-life of a MPV, namely shredded cabbage. Samples of shredded cabbage were immersed in NEW containing 40 mg/L of free chlorine or tap water (control) up to 5 min, and then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Proliferation of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were studied during the shelf-life. Also pH and sensorial quality of the samples as well as O(2) and CO(2) composition of the headspace of the bags was evaluated. From the microbial groups, only psychrotrophic counts decreased significantly (P<0.05) due to the effect of NEW, but the counts in treated samples and controls were similar after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Packaging configurations kept O(2) concentration around 5% and prevented CO(2) accumulation. pH increased from 6.1-6.2 to 6.4 during the shelf-life. No microbial parameter reached unacceptable counts after 14 days at 4 degrees C and 8 days of storage at 7 degrees C. The shelf-life of controls stored at 4 degrees C was limited to 9 days by overall visual quality (OVQ), while samples treated with NEW remained acceptable during the 14 days of the experiment. The shelf-life of controls stored at 7 degrees C was limited to 6 days by OVQ and browning, while that of samples treated with NEW were limited to 9 days by OVQ, browning and dryness. According to these results, a shelf-life extension of at least 5 days and 3 days in samples stored respectively at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C can be achieved by treating shredded cabbage with NEW. NEW seems to be a promising method to prolong the shelf-life of MPV.

  4. Phytotherapy of experimental depression: Kalanchoe integra Var. Crenata (Andr.) Cuf Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuia, Kennedy K. E.; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac J.; Woode, Eric; Biney, Robert P.; Addae, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Kalanchoe sp. have been used since 1921 for central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as psychosis and depression. It is known to possess CNS depressant effects. Aims: To investigate the antidepressant properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe integra. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology between 6 a.m. and 3 p.m. Materials and Methods: ICR mice were subjected to the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) after they had received extract (30-300 mg/kg), fluoxetine (3-30 mg/kg), desipramine (3-30 mg/kg) orally, or water (as vehicle). In a separate experiment, mice were pre-treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg), α-methyl paratyrosine (AMPT; 400 mg/kg), both reserpine (1 mg/kg) and AMPT (200 mg/kg) concomitantly, or p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA; 200 mg/kg) to ascertain the role of the noradrenergic and serotoninergic systems in the mode of action of the extract. Statistical analysis used: Means were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Newman-Keuls’ post hoc test. P immobility, indicative of antidepressant-like effect. This diminution in immobility was reversed by pCPA, but not by reserpine and/or AMPT. The extract increased the swimming and climbing scores in the FST, suggestive of possible interaction with serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. In the TST, the extract produced increases in both curling and swinging scores, suggestive of opioidergic monoaminergic activity, respectively. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the antidepressant potential of the aqueous leaf extract of K. integra is mediated possibly by a complex interplay between serotoninergic, opioidergic, and noradrenergic systems. PMID:25709333

  5. LeafJ: an ImageJ plugin for semi-automated leaf shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloof, Julin N; Nozue, Kazunari; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Palmer, Christine M

    2013-01-21

    High throughput phenotyping (phenomics) is a powerful tool for linking genes to their functions (see review and recent examples). Leaves are the primary photosynthetic organ, and their size and shape vary developmentally and environmentally within a plant. For these reasons studies on leaf morphology require measurement of multiple parameters from numerous leaves, which is best done by semi-automated phenomics tools. Canopy shade is an important environmental cue that affects plant architecture and life history; the suite of responses is collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Among SAS responses, shade induced leaf petiole elongation and changes in blade area are particularly useful as indices. To date, leaf shape programs (e.g. SHAPE, LAMINA, LeafAnalyzer, LEAFPROCESSOR) can measure leaf outlines and categorize leaf shapes, but can not output petiole length. Lack of large-scale measurement systems of leaf petioles has inhibited phenomics approaches to SAS research. In this paper, we describe a newly developed ImageJ plugin, called LeafJ, which can rapidly measure petiole length and leaf blade parameters of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. For the occasional leaf that required manual correction of the petiole/leaf blade boundary we used a touch-screen tablet. Further, leaf cell shape and leaf cell numbers are important determinants of leaf size. Separate from LeafJ we also present a protocol for using a touch-screen tablet for measuring cell shape, area, and size. Our leaf trait measurement system is not limited to shade-avoidance research and will accelerate leaf phenotyping of many mutants and screening plants by leaf phenotyping.

  6. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  7. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA. Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization. Two lines, D1232 and D1653, showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head. Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage, and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage. It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin. These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant organs and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  8. Leafy head formation of the progenies of transgenic plants of Chinese cabbage with exogenous auxin genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEYUKE; WANXINXUE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was performed to evaluate the progenies of plant lines transgenic for auxin synthesis genes derived from Ri T-DNA.Four lines of the transgenic plants were self-crossed and the foreign auxin genes in plants of T5 generation were confirmed by Southern hybridization.Two lines,D1232 and D1653,showed earlier folding of expanding leaves than untransformed line and therefore had early initiation of leafy head.Leaf cuttings derived from plant of transgenic line D1653 produced more adventitious roots than the control whereas the cuttings from folding leaves had much more roots than rosette leaves at folding stage,and the cuttings from head leaves had more roots than rosette leaves at heading stage.It is demonstrated that early folding of transgenic leaf may be caused by the relatively higher concentration of auxin.These plant lines with auxin transgenes can be used for the study of hormonal regulation in differentiation and development of plant orgens and for the breeding of new variety with rapid growth trait.

  9. Curled Microelectromechanical Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    structure prevents elastic defor- mation, plastic deformation, fracture , and fatigue, all of which are common difficul- ties with traditional MEMS...post Lined and filled tungsten vias Bump bonds Backside gold Patterned gold The trilayer membrane has an internal strain that makes its natural state a

  10. Response of the cold water mass in the western South China Sea to the wind stress curl associated with the summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Wei; WANG Dongxiao; HU Jianyu; NI Wensheng

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of climatological observation temperature data reveals that during the southwesterly monsoon, there exists a low temperature zone east of Vietnam. It cools down from June to August and warms up in September. Meanwhile, during this period, the cold water mass spreads eastward to the deep basin. Numerical experiments validate the results of data analysis and further verify that there are two basic factors that induce the Vietnam cold water. The major one is the strong local positive wind stress curl, which leads to the divergence of sea surface water and the upward supplement of lower layer water in the deep basin. Another minor one is the alongshore component of southwesterly monsoon, which drives the offshore Ekman transport and coastal upwelling in the shallow region along the Vietnam coast. In addition, the negative wind stress curl in the southern South China Sea inputs negative vorticity to the ocean and drives a strong anticyclonic gyre, which affects the spatial distribution of the cold water evidently.

  11. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  12. Efeito da embalagem e temperatura de armazenamento em repolho minimamente processado Minimally processed cabbage: effects of packaging and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no repolho minimamente processado quando armazenado em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas. O processamento mínimo consistiu em seleção, classificação e resfriamento da matéria-prima, seguido do processo de corte em tiras, enxágüe em água tratada para a remoção dos exudados celulares, sanitização em solução com 150mgL-1 de cloro ativo, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem, acondicionamento em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas com filme flexível de policloreto de vinila (PVC, 12µm, e embalagens de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, e armazenamento por 15 dias em temperaturas de 0, 5 e 10ºC. A cada três dias avaliou-se a concentração de O2 e CO2 na atmosfera interna das embal agens, bem como o pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C no repolho minimamente processado. Concluiu-se que o repolho acondicionado na embalagem PVC apresentou menor perda de vitamina C durante os 15 dias de armazenamento nas três temperaturas. Esta embalagem também apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e menor de O2 , porém dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, garantindo assim maior vida útil ao repolho minimamente processado. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na vida útil do produto armazenado em temperaturas de 0 e 5ºC, nas duas embalagens avaliadas, porém a 10ºC a mesma reduziu-se significativamente, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the minimally processed cabbage when stored in different packages and temperatures. The minimum process consisted of selection, classification and refrigeration of the raw material, followed by cutting in slices, rinsed with treated tap water for the elimination of cellular exudates, sanitization in solutions with 150mgL-1 of active chlorine, rinsing, centrifugation, weighing, conditioning in polystyrene expanded trays covered with polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 12µm

  13. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  14. Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saetbyeol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique.

  15. Identification of non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and lines resistant to disease caused by Colletotrichum sp.%不结球白菜品种(株系)对炭疽病抗性的鉴定与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建营; 侯喜林; 张玉明; 张正光; 郑小波

    2001-01-01

    The method for identif ying resistance of non-heading Chinese cabbage to Colletotrichum higginsianum by artificial inoculation of the plant seedlings and screening of the resistant plant varieties and lines by the fast and reliable method were reported.The critical technique of the method included inoculation of seedlings at two-leaf stage with a spore suspension of 1×106 spores*mL-1,and incubation of the inoculated plants in the controlled condition(25 ℃,100% relative humidity)for 24 h and in the green house(25 ℃)for 7 days,respectively,followed by examination of resistance levels . This method allowed for aquick identification of resistance levels of different varieties and lines.Resistance identified by the method was consistent with tha t identified by the traditional method that uses bigger seedlings(at five-leaf stage)and mature plants in the fields.Using this fast and reliable method,four varieties of 26 varieties and lines tested were scored as high resistance.It is suggested that these resistant varieties be used in the agricultural production and breeding.%报道不结球白菜对炭疽病(Colletotrichum higginsianum) 抗性的苗期鉴定方法和抗病品种(株系)的筛选结果。在2片真叶期,以1×106个·mL -1孢子浓度喷雾接种,25 ℃、RH>100%保湿24 h,25 ℃光照培育7 d,可快速地将不同抗性的品种(株系)鉴别出来。用该方法所获得的品种(株系)抗性鉴定结果与田间苗期(5 片真叶期)和成株期抗性鉴定结果基本一致。将该方法与田间抗性鉴定相结合,从26个品种(株系) 中筛选出4个高抗材料,可供生产上使用或作为抗病育种的抗源材料。

  16. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L. adults in relation to Julian days (JD, degree-day accumulations (DDA and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST. Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia.

  17. A common set of developmental miRNAs are upregulated in Nicotiana benthamiana by diverse begomoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Begomoviruses are single-stranded DNA viruses that cause economically important diseases of many crops throughout the world and induce symptoms in plants, including enations, leaf curling and stunting, that resemble developmental abnormalities. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous RNAs that are involved in a variety of activities, including plant development, signal transduction and protein degradation, as well as response to environmental stress, and pathogen invasion. Results The present study was aimed at understanding the deregulation of miRNAs upon begomovirus infection. Four distinct begomoviruses African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV, Cabbage leaf curl virus (CbLCuV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Cotton leaf curl Multan virus/Cotton leaf curl betasatellite (CLCuV/CLCuMB, were used in this study. Ten developmental miRNA were studied. N. benthamiana plants were inoculated with begomoviruses and their miRNA profiles were analysed by northern blotting using specific miRNA probes. The levels of most developmental miRNA were increased in N. benthamiana by TYLCV, CLCuMV/CLCuMB and CbLCuV infection with a common pattern despite their diverse genomic components. However, the increased levels of individual miRNAs differed for distinct begomoviruses, reflecting differences in severity of symptom phenotypes. Some of these miRNA were also common to ACMV infection. Conclusions Our results have shown a common pattern of miRNAs accumulation upon begomovirus infection. It was found that begomoviruses generally increase the accumulation of miRNA and thus result in the decreased translation of genes involved in the development of plants. Identification of common miRNAs that are deregulated upon begomovirus infection may provide novel targets for control strategies aimed at developing broad-spectrum resistance.

  18. Effects of Water-fertilizer Coupling on Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Baby Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis) in Hexi Oasis%水肥耦合对河西绿洲娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子孝; 陈修斌; 许耀照; 李翊华

    2016-01-01

    Using split plot design, a field experiment was conducted in an irrigated desert soil in Hexi oasis to investigate the effect of water and fertilizer coupling on yield and physiological characteristics such as net photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) , photochemical quantum yield (Fv′/Fm′), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) and photo inhibitionin by using Baby Cabbage variety‘Chunyuehuang’ . The results showed that Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs values of baby Cabbage un-der the condition of 75% ~90% field water capacity plus soil fertilizer combination of N 350 kg·hm-2 +P2 O5 400 kg·hm-2 +K 300 kg·hm-2 were significantly higher than any other treatment at the early, middle and late stage of leaf lotus throne. This indicates that Baby Cabbage plants maintain higher physiological activities under this condition. The dynamics of Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs of Baby Cabbage was in the order of middle lotus throne > late lotus throne > early lotus throne.%为探明河西绿洲灌漠土高原夏菜娃娃菜生产中,不同水肥耦合模式对娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响,以品种“春月黄”为材料,采用裂区试验设计,研究了实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学量子产量( Fv′/Fm′)、光化学猝灭系数( qP)、非光化学猝灭系数( qN)、光抑制程度和产量对不同水肥耦合的响应。结果表明:在中等的土壤水分和理论施肥水平条件下,即土壤田间持水量达75%~90%及肥料组合为N 350 kg·hm-2+ P2 O5400 kg·hm-2+K 300 kg·hm-2的W2F1处理,娃娃菜在莲座初期、中期、末期,其叶片的净光合速率( Pn )、胞间 CO2浓度( Ci )、蒸腾速率( Tr )和气孔导度( Gs)的变化值明显高于其他处理,植株保持较高的生理代谢活动;叶片的ΦPSⅡ、 Fv′/Fm′、 qP值最大,光抑制程度最低,其生物学产量和经济产量也最高。不同时期的Pn、 Ci、 Tr和Gs的数值变化规律为:莲座中期>

  19. Chemoprevention of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced carcinogen-DNA adducts by Chinese cabbage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM The food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces colon and mammary gland tumors in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of human colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine the potentially preventive effect of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), a brassica vegetable most commonly consumed in China, against this carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in rats and its possible mechanisms.METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 10 days on basal diet or diet containing 20% (w/ w) freeze-dried cabbage powder prior to administration of a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/ kg) by oral gavage. Rats were sacrificed at 20 h after PhIP treatment and PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver were analyzed using 32P-postlabeling technique. Levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2, as indicated by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and 7-methlxyresorufin O-demethylase activity, and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) towards 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in the liver, lung and colon were measured.RESULTS Rats pre-treated with Chinese cabbage and given a single dose of PhIP had reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver, with inhibition rates of 82.3%, 60.6%, 48.4% and 48.9%, respectively (P<0.01). The enzyme assays revealed that Chinese cabbage induced both CYP1A1 and 1A2 activity, but the induction was preferential for CYP1A1 over 1A2 (81% vs 51%). GST activity towards CDNB in the liver and lung, but not colon, was also significantly increased by cabbage treatment.CONCLUSION The results indicate that Chinese cabbage has a preventive effect on PhIP-initiated carcinogenesis in rats and the mechanism is likely to involve the induction of detoxification enzymes.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  1. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Morphogenesis in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Chuan Li; Ding-Ming Kang; Zhang-Liang Chen; Li-Jia Qu

    2007-01-01

    Leaf morphogenesis is strictly controlled not only by intrinsic genetic factors, such as transcriptional factors, but also by environmental cues, such as light, water and pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of how leaf rnorphogenesis is regulated by genetic programs and environmental cues is far from clear. Numerous series of events demonstrate that plant hormones, mostly small and simple molecules,play crucial roles in plant growth and development, and in responses of plants to environmental cues such as light. With more and more genetics and molecular evidence obtained from the model plant Arabidopsis,several fundamental aspects of leaf rnorphogenesis including the initiation of leaf primordia, the determination of leaf axes, the regulation of cell division and expansion in leaves have been gradually unveiled.Among these phytohormones, auxin is found to be essential in the regulation of leaf morphogenesis.

  2. A geminivirus-based guide RNA delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas has emerged as potent genome editing technology and has successfully been applied in many organisms, including several plant species. However, delivery of genome editing reagents remains a challenge in plants. Here, we report a virus-based guide RNA (gRNA) delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated plant genome editing (VIGE) that can be used to precisely target genome locations and cause mutations. VIGE is performed by using a modified Cabbage Leaf Curl virus (CaLCuV) vector to expr...

  3. Compound leaf development in model plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Maya; Ori, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).

  4. Leaf Length Variation in Perennial Forage Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Barre

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf length is a key factor in the economic value of different grass species and cultivars in forage production. It is also important for the survival of individual plants within a sward. The objective of this paper is to discuss the basis of within-species variation in leaf length. Selection for leaf length has been highly efficient, with moderate to high narrow sense heritability. Nevertheless, the genetic regulation of leaf length is complex because it involves many genes with small individual effects. This could explain the low stability of QTL found in different studies. Leaf length has a strong response to environmental conditions. However, when significant genotype × environment interactions have been identified, their effects have been smaller than the main effects. Recent modelling-based research suggests that many of the reported environmental effects on leaf length and genotype × environment interactions could be biased. Indeed, it has been shown that leaf length is an emergent property strongly affected by the architectural state of the plant during significant periods prior to leaf emergence. This approach could lead to improved understanding of the factors affecting leaf length, as well as better estimates of the main genetic effects.

  5. Transcriptional networks in leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-10-01

    Plant senescence is a natural phenomenon known for the appearance of beautiful autumn colors and the ripening of cereals in the field. Senescence is a controlled process that plants utilize to remobilize nutrients from source leaves to developing tissues. While during the past decades, molecular components underlying the onset of senescence have been intensively studied, knowledge remains scarce on the age-dependent mechanisms that control the onset of senescence. Recent advances have uncovered transcriptional networks regulating the competence to senesce. Here, gene regulatory networks acting as internal timing mechanisms for the onset of senescence are highlighted, illustrating that early and late leaf developmental phases are highly connected.

  6. 7 CFR 28.467 - Leaf Grade 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 7. 28.467 Section 28.467 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.467 Leaf Grade 7. Leaf Grade 7 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  7. 7 CFR 28.465 - Leaf Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 5. 28.465 Section 28.465 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.465 Leaf Grade 5. Leaf Grade 5 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  8. 7 CFR 28.462 - Leaf Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 2. 28.462 Section 28.462 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.462 Leaf Grade 2. Leaf Grade 2 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  9. 7 CFR 28.463 - Leaf Grade 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 3. 28.463 Section 28.463 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.463 Leaf Grade 3. Leaf Grade 3 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  10. 7 CFR 28.461 - Leaf Grade 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 1. 28.461 Section 28.461 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.461 Leaf Grade 1. Leaf Grade 1 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  11. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  12. 7 CFR 28.466 - Leaf Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 6. 28.466 Section 28.466 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.466 Leaf Grade 6. Leaf Grade 6 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  13. 7 CFR 28.464 - Leaf Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf Grade 4. 28.464 Section 28.464 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Leaf Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.464 Leaf Grade 4. Leaf Grade 4 is leaf which is within the range represented...

  14. Quantitative profiling of glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis reveals several cultivars of cabbage and kale as promising sources of sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsunori; Neyazaki, Makiko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Toshiya; Momose, Masaki

    2012-08-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate well known for its potential health benefits. With the aim of finding sulforaphane supply sources, its precursor, glucoraphanin, was widely searched for among Brassica oleracea varieties. Quantitative profiling of seven glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis was performed on 6 cultivars of broccoli, 32 of cabbage and 24 cultivars of kale. The glucoraphanin levels found in three cultivars of cabbage and six cultivars of kale were comparable with, or even higher than, the highest of broccoli (119.4 mg/100g FW). The most promising group belonged to the black kale, Cavolo nero. Use of a C30 column and an ammonium formate buffer in LC-MS and a micro plate solid phase extraction technique was highly effective.

  15. Curvature tensors, gauge field are actually curl field of gradient%曲率张量,规范场的实质:梯度的旋度场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳长茂

    2004-01-01

    在黎曼空间、纤维丛空间(规范场)中,坚持使用遂点标架的基础上,普遍地引入绝对积分的概念(绝对微分逆运算),并对通常外微分d(dxi)≠0的意义和条件加以讨论,改写微分形为对称形式,使外微分和绝对微分联系起来.在此基础上,改进Stokes'公式,引入环量、旋度、散度(通常借助或类比欧氏空间的概念来,不精确,不能很好应用).证实:曲率它正是非欧氏空间不为零的梯度的旋度.并发现:Bianchi等式实质是div(rot(grad))=0,曲率形成管形场,沿管不变.附带,得到挠率也是旋度.%It is introduced the concept of absolute integral in Riemannian spaces and in fibre bundle space (Gauge field), with respect to frames at every point. This is just the inverse of the absolute differential. After discussing the exterior differential d(dxi≠0, rewrote the exterior differential form into symmetric form and established the relation between the exterior differential form and the absolute differential. By the aid of the absolute integral, it is improved Stokes' formula:The strict definitions of the circulation, the curl and the divergence were obtained (usually, they were obtained only by analogy in Euclid-space, unable to apply here). It had been proved that the curvature tensor is a curl (grad), not zero except in Eucldean space, and so discovered the essence of Bianchi identity: div(rot(grad) ) = 0, the curvature, forming tube field, is invariant along the tube, i. e. pointed out that Gauge fields are curl fields of gradients and so on. By the way, it is obtained the torsion tensor is rot of base of frame also.

  16. Wind-induced leaf transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Chu, Chia-Ren; Hsieh, Cheng-I.; Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-12-01

    While the significance of leaf transpiration (fe) on carbon and water cycling is rarely disputed, conflicting evidence has been reported on how increasing mean wind speed (U) impacts fe from leaves. Here, conditions promoting enhancement or suppression of fe with increasing U for a wide range of environmental conditions are explored numerically using leaf-level gas exchange theories that combine a stomatal conductance model based on optimal water use strategies (maximizing the 'net' carbon gain at a given fe), energy balance considerations, and biochemical demand for CO2. The analysis showed monotonic increases in fe with increasing U at low light levels. However, a decline in modeled fe with increasing U were predicted at high light levels but only in certain instances. The dominant mechanism explaining this decline in modeled fe with increasing U is a shift from evaporative cooling to surface heating at high light levels. New and published sap flow measurements for potted Pachira macrocarpa and Messerschmidia argentea plants conducted in a wind tunnel across a wide range of U (2 - 8 m s-1) and two different soil moisture conditions were also employed to assess how fe varies with increasing U. The radiative forcing imposed in the wind tunnel was only restricted to the lower end of expected field conditions. At this low light regime, the findings from the wind tunnel experiments were consistent with the predicted trends.

  17. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  18. Technical Performance and Enlightenment of Chinese Curling Male Team in 2014 World Championship%中国男子冰壶队在2014年世锦赛技术表现与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪臣; 许水生; 刘庆闯; 蒋立; 郭慧秋

    2014-01-01

    According to the tactical degree Chinese Curling Male Team in 2014 World Championships, analyzing the problems with the methods of literature,video observation,mathematical statistics. The results showed:In the world championships,the developing of Chinese team on the whole team and personal technology tends to be normal,performance is also relatively ideal,but immature competition psychology,unstable technology,Chinese male team ,many faults technology are found in Chinese male team. In order to get better performance of Chinese curling team,suggest Chinese curling male team to have an actively technical and tactical training;Strengthen the psychological training of competition,to create conditions for the realization of "translate practice to games". In addition, Reserved talents gaps of Chinese curling sports,the government should provide good conditions to help improve the level of professional curling talents,strengthen the construction of reserved talents for curling, supply new talents for Chinese curling team.%针对中国冰壶男队在2014年世锦赛中的技战术水平的发挥程度,采用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法对比赛中出现的问题进行剖析。结果显示:本次世锦赛中,中国队在全队和个人技术上的发挥趋于正常,成绩也相对理想,但是中国男队存在竞赛心理不成熟、技术发挥不稳定、关键球失误频繁等问题。为了中国冰壶男队能够取得更好的成绩,建议中国冰壶男队积极进行技战术训练;加强竞赛心理训练,创造条件实现“以赛代练”。另外,我国的冰壶运动后备人才匮乏,政府应该提供良好条件帮助提高专业冰壶运动人才水平,加强冰壶运动后备人才建设,为冰壶国家队供给全新人才。

  19. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  20. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)