WorldWideScience

Sample records for ca-mrsa strains isolated

  1. COMPARISON OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HEALTHY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL VISITORS[CA-MRSA] AND HOSPITAL STAFF [HA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal A Pathare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] in unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on the isolates. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%, whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%. Nasal colonization prevalence with HA-MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%, whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54.  Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates.  There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5% as compared to 13.8% [HA-MRSA] in the hospital health-care staff. In spite of a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation the universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Healthy Children in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Almeida, Jéssica B.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequences of two community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains, C18 and C80, isolated from healthy children from day care centers. To our knowledge, these are the first draft genome sequences of CA-MRSA ST398/CC398/SccmecV and CA-MRSA ST5/CC5/SccmecIVa isolated from healthy children in Brazil. PMID:28408675

  3. Comparison of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Healthy Community Hospital Visitors [CA-MRSA] and Hospital Staff [HA-MRSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Tejani, Sara; Asogan, Harshini; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for vancomycin and teicoplanin against the resistant isolates of MRSA by the Epsilometer [E] test. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%), whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%). Nasal colonization prevalence with hospital-acquired [HA] MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%), whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54). Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates. Mean MIC for vancomycin amongst CA- and HA-MRSA were 6.3 and 9.3 μg/ml, whereas for teicoplanin they were 13 and 14 μg/ml respectively by the E-test. There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test). The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5%) as compared to 13.8% HA-MRSA in the hospital health-care staff. Despite a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. The universal techniques of hand washing, personal

  4. Genotyping of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Nejma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported to cause skin and soft tissue infections for children. The emergence of highly virulencet CA-MRSA strains in the immunodeficiency of young children seemed to be the basic explanation of the increased incidence of CA-MRSA infections among this population. The subjects of this study were 8 patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Monastir. The patients were young children (aged from 12 days to 18 months who were suffering from MRSA skin infections; two of them had the infections within 72 h of their admission. The isolates were classified as community isolates as they all carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec IV and pvl genes. Epidemiological techniques, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, were applied to investigate CA-MRSA strains. Analysis of molecular data revealed that MRSA strains were related according to PFGE patterns and they belonged to a single clone ST80. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all strains were resistant to kanamycin and 2 strains were resistant to erythromycin.

  5. Clinical outcomes and treatment approach for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla-Kerzhner, E; Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Rahav, G; Regev-Yochay, G; Glikman, D

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are increasingly documented worldwide. We recently identified two major CA-MRSA clones in Israel: USA300 and t991. Here, we assessed clinical outcomes by CA-MRSA clones and the physicians' treatment approach to CA-MRSA infections. All community-onset, clinical MRSA isolates detected during 2011-2013 by Maccabi Healthcare Services were collected and characterized phenotypically and genotypically; data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Of 309 patients with MRSA infections, 64 were identified as CA-MRSA (21 %). Of the CA-MRSA infections, 72 % had skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 38 % were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+, the major clone being USA300 (n = 13, 54 %). Of PVL- isolates (n = 40, 62 %), t991 was the major clone. Age was the only predictor for PVL+ CA-MRSA infection (p MRSA had higher incidence of SSTI recurrences (1.061 vs. 0.647 events per patient/per year, p MRSA. USA300 was more common among adults, while t991 was more common among children (p = 0.002). The physician's referral to culture results and susceptibility were the only predictors of appropriate antibiotic therapy (p MRSA isolates caused significantly more recurrences of SSTIs and increased the need for drainage compared with PVL- isolates. Physicians' awareness of CA-MRSA as a cause of SSTIs in the community was suboptimal. Culturing of pus-producing SSTIs is crucial for providing adequate antimicrobials and elucidating MRSA epidemiology.

  6. CA-MRSA Infection Incidence and Care in High School and Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tim; Kahanov, Leamor; Dannelly, Kathleen; Lauber, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Position papers offer solutions to manage community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), yet few studies establish the infection rate, management protocols, and referral practices among student-athletes. Over the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school years, we assessed the annual CA-MRSA infection incidence, sport risk, referral practices, and management steps among high school and intercollegiate athletics. This study targeted high school and intercollegiate athletic programs in the Northeastern United States. For the 2012-2013 study, 156 athletic trainers completed a one-time questionnaire. In the 2013-2014 study, 87 athletic trainers reported data bimonthly during the academic year. Each questionnaire targeted demographic information, physician-confirmed CA-MRSA infection occurrence, and management of CA-MRSA infections and bacterial skin lesions. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was 15.5 per 10,000 athletes (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-19) in 2012-2013 and 16.3 per 10,000 athletes (95% CI, 13-21) in 2013-2014. The CA-MRSA infection incidence was higher in wrestling and football compared to the general student-athlete population. During the 2012-2013 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 90.2 per 10,000 (95% CI, 62-132); the football incidence rate was 42.3 per 10,000 (95% CI, 31-59). In the 2013-2014 study, the wrestling incidence rate was 89.0 per 10,000 (95% CI, 50-158); the football incidence rate was 61.4 per 10,000 (95% CI, 42-90). In both studies, primary care and general physicians received over 60% (2012-2013: 60.5%, n = 133; 2013-2014: 66.5%, n = 125) of referrals. In the 2012-2013 study, respondents indicated that student-athlete isolation and setting decontamination were common management steps used (58.1%, n = 306). The incidence of CA-MRSA infections among student-athletes remains high. Therefore, it is critical that sports medicine providers continually reassess management protocols and best practices.

  7. Virulence Strategies of the Dominant USA300 Lineage of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Lance R.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to worldwide health. Historically, MRSA clones have strictly been associated with hospital settings and most hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) disease resulted from a limited number of virulent clones. Recently, MRSA has spread into the community causing disease in otherwise healthy people with no discernible contact with healthcare environments. These community-associated (CA-MRSA) are phylogenetically distinct from traditional HA-MRSA clones and CA-MRSA strains seem to exhibit hyper virulence and more efficient host:host transmission. Consequently, CA-MRSA clones belonging to the USA300 lineage have become dominant sources of MRSA infections in North America. The rise of this successful USA300 lineage represents an important step in the evolution of emerging pathogens and a great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how these clones evolved. Here we review much of the recent literature aimed at illuminating the source of USA300 success and broadly categorize these findings into three main categories: newly acquired virulence genes, altered expression of common virulence determinants and alterations in protein sequence that increase fitness. We argue that none of these evolutionary events alone account for the success of USA300, but rather their combination may be responsible for the rise and spread of CA-MRSA. PMID:22309135

  8. Large screening of CA-MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus colonizing healthy young children living in two areas (urban and rural of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miragaia Maria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of pediatric infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA, including children with no identifiable risk factors, has increased worldwide in the last decade. This suggests that healthy children may constitute a reservoir of MRSA in the community. In this study, nested within a larger one on nasopharyngeal ecology, we aimed to: (i evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonizing young children in Portugal; and (ii compare results with those obtained in a study conducted a decade ago, when this prevalence was Methods In the years 2006, 2007, and 2009, nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 2,100 children aged up to 6 years attending day-care centers. S. aureus were isolated by routine procedures and strains were tested for susceptibility against a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents. MRSA isolates were further characterized by SmaI-PFGE profiling, MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and presence of virulence factors. Results Seventeen percent of the children carried S. aureus. Among the 365 isolates, non-susceptibility rates were 88% to penicillin, 14% to erythromycin, 6% to clindamycin, 2% to tetracycline, and spa type t148; the other was ST939-IVa (ST939 is a single locus variant (SLV of ST72, spa type t324. The third strain was related to USA300 (ST8-IV being characterized by ST931 (SLV of ST8-VI, spa type t008. The three MRSA strains were PVL-negative, but all carried LukE-LukD leukocidin, hemolysins gamma, gamma variant and beta, and staphylococcal enterotoxin sel. Conclusions Our results, based on analysis of S. aureus isolated from nasopharyngeal samples, suggest that in Portugal the prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in healthy young children remains extremely low favoring the exclusion of this group as a reservoir of such isolates.

  9. Comparison of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Healthy Community Hospital Visitors [CA-MRSA] and Hospital Staff [HA-MRSA

    OpenAIRE

    Pathare, Nirmal A.; Anil Pathare

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Methods Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer?s disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhib...

  10. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  11. Infectious caused by community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: three-years experience of an universitary hospital in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Altieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections(1. In Europe the proportion of MRSA is increasing sharply and the distribution varies from country to country. In recent years there has, in various parts of the world, the emergence of infection with strains of S. aureus methicillin-resistant community-acquired (CA-MRSA than those circulating in hospitals(2. These strains contain a gene that confers resistance to methicillin (mec A SSC mec IV which is usually associated with the gene for Leukocidin Panton Valentine (PVL toxin responsible for necrosis of skin and soft tissue (3. In 2006-2008, at the Laboratory of Bacteriology PolyclinicTor Vergata,were isolated a total of 738 strains of S. aureus from biological samples of different nature (oral, vaginal secretions, wound swab, secreted headset, etc ... of patients related to our surgeries.The identification and study of drug sensitivity of strains were performed with the automatic VITEK2 (bioMérieux. Of the 738 strains of S. aureus identified 212 (28.7% were resistant to methicillin (MRSA, with an increasing trend over the years: 46 isolates, respectively, in 2006, 76 in 2007 and 90 in 2008. The highest frequency of MRSA (varying between 85% and 95% was detected in wound swabs from the dispensary and diabetes (diabetic foot.

  12. Risk factors for mortality of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection: with investigation of the potential role of community-associated MRSA strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Weng, Chia-Min; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2010-12-01

    The difference in the outcomes of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains and healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) strains remains unclear. From January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008, all adult patients hospitalized at National Taiwan University Hospital with nosocomial MRSA BSI were analyzed. Available MRSA isolates were submitted for subsequent microbiologic studies to determine whether they belonged to CA-MRSA strains. In total, 308 patients were enrolled and 253 MRSA isolates were available. Forty-seven isolates belonged to CA-MRSA strains. The all-cause mortality rates on Day 14 and Day 30 were 19.8% and 30.5%, respectively, and were not different between those caused by CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains. The independent risk factors for Day 14 mortality were septic shock, thrombocytopenia, and an inadequate serum trough level of vancomycin (p = nosocomial MRSA BSI were not different between that caused by CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of an ST80 MRSA strain from the USA with European ST80 strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Carpaij, Neeltje; Majoor, Eline A M; Weinstein, Robert A.; Aroutcheva, Alla; Rice, Thomas W.; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A number of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) clonal lineages dominate worldwide. ST80 was dominant in Europe and has increasingly been described from the Middle East. Herewe report the whole genome sequence of the first ST80 CA-MRSA from the USA. Methods: CA-MRSA isolate S0924 was

  14. Differential Role of Rapamycin and Torin/KU63794 in Inflammatory Response of 264.7 RAW Macrophages Stimulated by CA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah K. H. Shappley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rapamycin suppresses the RAW264.7 macrophage mediated inflammatory response but in lower doses induces it. In the present study, we tested the suppression of the inflammatory response in the presence of mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors, Torin and KU63794. Methods. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 106 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of community-acquired- (CA- MRSA isolate, USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of Vancomycin. Then, in sequential experiments, we added Torin, KU63794, and Rapamycin alone and in various combinations. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF, IL-1, IL-6, INF, and NO. Results. Rapamycin induces 10–20% of the inflammatory cascade at dose of 0.1 ng/mL and suppresses it by 60% at dose of 10 ng/mL. The induction is abolished in the presence of Torin KU63794. Torin and KU63794 are consistently suppressing cytokine production 50–60%. Conclusions. There is a differential response between Rapamycin (mTOR-1 inhibitor and Torin KU63794 (mTOR 1 and 2 inhibitors. Torin and KU63794 exhibit a dose related suppression. Rapamycin exhibits a significant induction-suppression biphasic response. Knowledge of such response may allow manipulation of the septic inflammatory cascade for clinical advantages.

  15. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  16. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor secretion by RAW264.7 murine macrophages stimulated with antibiotic-exposed strains of community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA are associated with a marked and prolonged host inflammatory response. In a sepsis simulation model, we tested whether the anesthetic ketamine inhibits the macrophage TNF response to antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA bacteria via its antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated for 18 hrs with 105 to 107 CFU/mL inocula of either of two prototypical CA-MRSA isolates, USA300 strain LAC and USA400 strain MW2, in the presence of either vancomycin or daptomycin. One hour before bacterial stimulation, ketamine was added with or without MK-801 (dizocilpine, a chemically unrelated non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, APV (D-2-amino-5-phosphono-valerate, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, NMDA, or combinations of these agents. Supernatants were collected and assayed for TNF concentration by ELISA. Results RAW264.7 cells exposed to either LAC or MW2 in the presence of daptomycin secreted less TNF than in the presence of vancomycin. The addition of ketamine inhibited macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the CA-MRSA isolates (LAC, MW2 in the presence of either antibiotic. The NMDA inhibitors, MK-801 and APV, also suppressed macrophage TNF secretion after stimulation with either of the antibiotic-exposed CA-MRSA isolates, and the effect was not additive or synergistic with ketamine. The addition of NMDA substrate augmented TNF secretion in response to the CA-MRSA bacteria, and the addition of APV suppressed the effect of NMDA in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusions Ketamine inhibits TNF secretion by MRSA-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the mechanism likely involves NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings may have therapeutic significance in MRSA sepsis.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with impetigo in China from 2003 to 2007 shows community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to be uncommon and heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Kong, F; Zhang, X; Brown, M; Ma, L; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    The number of patients with impetigo caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been increasing. To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus causing impetigo in children in China from 2003 to 2007 and further characterize isolates of CA-MRSA. We examined 984 S. aureus isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials using the agar dilution method. CA-MRSA isolates were analysed for Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was performed. The largest proportion (94.5%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, followed by erythromycin (86.2%) and clindamycin (69.6%). In total 772 of 984 (78.5%) S. aureus strains were multiresistant. The incidence of CA-MRSA was 1.1%, with a high rate of resistance to clindamycin (90.9%) and tetracycline (72.7%), but all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The susceptibility profiles of MRSA to other antimicrobial agents were similar to those of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). None of the S. aureus strains were resistant to vancomycin and fusidic acid; moreover, only one strain was resistant to mupirocin. Typing of the SCCmec showed that 54.5% were type IV, 18.2% were type V and 9.1% were type VI. All the PVL-positive CA-MRSA carried SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA is still relatively uncommon and heterogeneous in children in China. Penicillin and erythromycin are no longer appropriate agents. Effective antibiotic agents for patients with impetigo are mupirocin and fusidic acid.

  18. Genome comparisons of two Taiwanese community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST59 clones support the multi-origin theory of CA-MRSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    Sequence type (ST) 59 is an epidemic lineage of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Asia. Two ST59 clones are prevalent in Taiwan: the Taiwan clone (TW) causes severe infections, whereas the Asian-Pacific clone (AP) is usually commensal. In this study, we sequenced the genome and transcriptome of the representative strains of these two clones and found their differences to focus on three mobile genetic elements: TW carries SCCmec Type V T , Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-encoding prophage ΦSa2, whereas AP carries SCCmec Type IV and staphylokinase (SAK)-encoding prophage ΦSa3. The anti-virulent role of SAK was confirmed using murine skin and bloodstream infection models. ΦSa3 usually integrates into the hlb gene, but in AP was found to be integrated at the genomic island νSaβ. The mutation of the attB site "TGTATCCAAACTGG" to "TGTATCCGAATTGG" led to a failure in the integration of ΦSa3 in hlb, prompting atypical integration at other sites. The sak gene possessed remarkably different patterns of distribution among the different STs of S. aureus. We conclude that the atypical integration of ΦSa3 may help S. aureus adapt to the human host habitat and that the subsequent loss of ΦSa3 contributes toward the development of a virulent CA-MRSA lineage for wider horizontal transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, isolated on three different geography locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Maja; Hukić, Mirsada

    2015-08-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Increased frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitalized patients and possibility of vancomycin resistance requires rapid and reliable characterization of isolates and control of MRSA spread in hospitals. Typing of isolates helps to understand the route of a hospital pathogen spread. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of MRSA samples on three different geography locations. In addition, our aim was to evaluate three different methods of MRSA typing: spa-typing, agr-typing and GenoType MRSA.  We included 104 samples of MRSA, isolated in 3 different geographical locations in clinical hospitals in Zagreb, Mostar, and Heidelberg, during the period of six months. Genotyping and phenotyping were done by spa-typing, agr-typing and dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. We failed to type all our samples by spa-typing.  The most common spa-type in clinical hospital Zagreb was t041, in Mostar t001, and in Heidelberg t003.We analyzed 102/104 of our samples by agr-typing method. We did not find any agr-type IV in our locations. We analyzed all our samples by the dipstick assay GenoType MRSA. All isolates in our study were MRSA strains. In Zagreb there were no positive strains to PVL gene. In Mostar we have found 5/25 positive strains to PVL gene, in Heidelberg there was 1/49. PVL positive isolates were associated with spa-type t008 and agr-type I, thus, genetically, they were community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Dipstick assay GenoType MRSA has demonstrated sufficient specificity, sensibility, simple performance and low cost, so we could introduce it to work in smaller laboratories. Using this method may expedite MRSA screening, thus preventing its spread in hospitals.

  20. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-06

    The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2 months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genotyping methods, were performed. All neonates involved in the outbreak underwent clinical and microbiological investigations to detect the cause of illness. Parents and healthcare workers were screened for Staphylococcus aureus to identify asymptomatic carriers. The SSSS outbreak was due to the cross-transmission of a rare clone of ST5-CA-MRSA-SCCmecV-spa type t311, exfoliative toxin A-producer, isolated from three neonates, one mother (from her nose and from dermatological lesions due to pre-existing hand eczema) and from a nurse (colonized in her nose by this microorganism). The epidemiological and microbiological investigation confirmed these as two potential carriers. A rapid containment of these infections was obtained only after implementation of robust swabbing of mothers and healthcare workers. The use of molecular methodologies for typing was able to identify all carriers and to trace the transmission.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strains of Lactobacillus were isolated from human milk and infant faeces, animal (cow and goat) milks and from plants (Anagalis arvensis and Bromus mango species). The various strains were identified based on phenotypic tests. Amongst them, 12 strains belonged to group 1, which comprised L. acidophilus, ...

  2. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of community and hospital acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains prevailing in Shenyang, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dan Sun

    Full Text Available In order to obtain adequate information for the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections, it is crucial to identify trends in epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance patterns of local S. aureus strains. Community and hospital acquired S. aureus isolates (n = 202 were characterized using staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis, spa typing and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC determination. The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidine (pvl and several antibiotic resistance genes among the isolates were also detected by PCR. All of the S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. Three hospital isolates were resistant to teicoplanin while 14 showed intermediate resistance to teicoplanin. The resistance patterns of community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA isolates to other antimicrobials were similar to those of hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA isolates except for clindamycin and gentamicin. There was excellent correlation between phenotypes and genotypes in the determination of S. aureus resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline. The SCCmec type II and SCCmec type IV were the predominant types detected in hospital and community isolates, respectively. The most frequently encountered spa types were t002 and t030 both in HA-and CA-MRSA isolates. Pulsotype A was the most predominant pulsotype identified among the isolates tested, followed by pulsotype B. Seventy-two hospital isolates (19 HA-MRSA and 53 HA-MSSA and 10 CA-MRSA were positive for the pvl gene. This study shows that the combination of susceptibility testing and various molecular methods has provided useful information on the antibiotic resistance and molecular diversity of S. aureus in a specific region of China. The high proportion of pvl positive MSSA and MRSA isolates observed in this study indicates that adequate measures are needed to

  3. Impact of Colonization Pressure and Strain Type on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Victor O.; Carroll, Karen C.; Ross, Tracy; Reich, Nicholas G.; Perl, Trish M.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the transmissibility of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains and the association of MRSA colonization pressure and MRSA transmission in critically ill children. Importantly, we found that in hospitalized children MRSA colonization pressure above 10% increases the risk of MRSA transmission 3-fold, and CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains have similar transmission dynamics.

  4. Rapid Emergence of Co-colonization with Community-acquired and Hospital-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, E M C; Webb, G F; Pressley, J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA), a novel strain of MRSA, has recently emerged and rapidly spread in the community. Invasion into the hospital setting with replacement of the hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) has also been documented. Co-colonization with both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA would have important clinical implications given differences in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and the potential for exchange of genetic information. METHODS: A deterministic mathematical model was developed to characterize the transmission dynamics of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA in the hospital setting and to quantify the emergence of co-colonization with both strains RESULTS: The model analysis shows that the state of co-colonization becomes endemic over time and that typically there is no competitive exclusion of either strain. Increasing the length of stay or rate of hospital entry among patients colonized with CA-MRSA leads to a rapid increase in the co-colonized state. Compared to MRSA decolonization strategy, improving hand hygiene compliance has the greatest impact on decreasing the prevalence of HA-MRSA, CA-MRSA and the co-colonized state. CONCLUSIONS: The model predicts that with the expanding community reservoir of CA-MRSA, the majority of hospitalized patients will become colonized with both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA.

  5. Shewanella strain isolated from black powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia T.S.; Contador, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C.; Galvao, Mariana M. [National Institute of Technology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, Gutemberg S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Black powder is a term frequently used to refer to residues formed by various types of iron sulfides mixed with contaminants eventually present in the natural gas flow. According to some researchers, the occurrence of black powder in gas pipelines, besides its chemical corrosion origin, can be directly related to the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) metabolism in this environment. A black powder sample was inoculated in a Post gate E medium modified with the addition of thioglycolate. The resulting positive culture was kept in the laboratory for four years until its use. A dilution technique was then performed aiming to isolate an SRB strain. The bacterial strain isolated and identified through DNA sequencing was not an SRB but rather a Shewanella sp. Compared to the sulfate-reducing bacteria group-traditionally considered the foremost responsible for microbially-influenced corrosion (MIC) - Shewanella is a facultative anaerobe and has a versatile metabolism. Shewanella is able to reduce ferric iron and sulfite, oxidize hydrogen gas, and produce hydrogen sulfide; therefore, these bacteria can be responsible for MIC and pit formation. The isolated Shewanella was used in a corrosion experiment, and the corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, identifying iron sulfides, iron oxides, and sulfur. Our results indicate that the strain isolated, S. putrefaciens, plays a key role in corrosion problems in gas pipelines. (author)

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  8. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosas Auguet, Olga; Betley, Jason R; Stabler, Richard A; Patel, Amita; Ioannou, Avgousta; Marbach, Helene; Hearn, Pasco; Aryee, Anna; Goldenberg, Simon D; Otter, Jonathan A; Desai, Nergish; Karadag, Tacim; Grundy, Chris; Gaunt, Michael W; Cooper, Ben S; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA)-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation. This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS) microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK). Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471) were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices of

  9. Evidence for Community Transmission of Community-Associated but Not Health-Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Linked to Social and Material Deprivation: Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tosas Auguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains have emerged to become frequent causes of hospital infection. The aim of this study was to use spatial models with adjustment for area-level hospital attendance to determine the transmission niche of genotypically defined CA- and health-care-associated (HA-MRSA strains across a diverse region of South East London and to explore a potential link between MRSA carriage and markers of social and material deprivation.This study involved spatial analysis of cross-sectional data linked with all MRSA isolates identified by three National Health Service (NHS microbiology laboratories between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. The cohort of hospital-based NHS microbiology diagnostic services serves 867,254 usual residents in the Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham boroughs in South East London, United Kingdom (UK. Isolates were classified as HA- or CA-MRSA based on whole genome sequencing. All MRSA cases identified over 4 mo within the three-borough catchment area (n = 471 were mapped to small geographies and linked to area-level aggregated socioeconomic and demographic data. Disease mapping and ecological regression models were used to infer the most likely transmission niches for each MRSA genetic classification and to describe the spatial epidemiology of MRSA in relation to social determinants. Specifically, we aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic population traits that explain cross-area extra variation in HA- and CA-MRSA relative risks following adjustment for hospital attendance data. We explored the potential for associations with the English Indices

  10. Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8% in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41% in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2% was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%. Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4% and organic chicken samples (41%. Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8% were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken and USA 500 (from organic chicken which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S

  11. Enrichment and isolation of microbial strains degrading bioplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) degrading bacterial strains were isolated from various environmental sites rich in plastic wastes by using the enrichment culture technique. Among the various isolated strains, the selected potent PVA degrading bacterial strains were tentatively characterized as Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp.

  12. Enrichment and isolation of microbial strains degrading bioplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) degrading bacterial strains were isolated from various environmental sites rich in plastic wastes by using the enrichment culture technique. Among the various isolated strains, the selected potent PVA degrading bacterial strains were tentatively characterized as Bacillus and.

  13. Molecular Characteristic and Virulence Gene Profiles of Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of eighty CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec(SCCmec typing, and spa typing. The detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin(pvl, superantigenic and exfoliative toxins, and adhesin genes was also performed. Overall, 16 distinct sequence types (STs were identified among the 80 isolates. Among them, ST59 was found to be the most prevalent, followed by ST398 (11.3%, 9/80 and ST88 (8.8%,7/80. SCCmec types IV and V were observed, at 60% and 40% respectively. Thirty spa types were identified, spa t437 (23.8% was the most predominant type. All 80 isolates exhibited carriage of at least 4 virulence genes. Thirty-four (42.5%, 34/80 isolates harbored ≥10 tested virulence genes. Adhesion genes were present in most of the MRSA isolates, including the following: icaA (100%, clfA (100%, sdrC (95%, and sdrE (63.8%. The prevalence of pvl gene was 20%, and multidrug resistance was observed in 36% of all strains. In addition, ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 accounted for 21.3% of occurrences, making it the most prevalent clone. Isolates that were carriers of toxin genes, and hla(100% and hlg(87.5% were the most frequent. In conclusion, simultaneous carriage of multiple virulence genes and genetically considerable diversity were very common among CA-MRSA from pediatric patients in Shanghai. ST59-MRSA-IV with t437 was still the most predominant type. The combination

  14. Genetic variations among Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated from Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Kokotovic, Branko; Ojeniyi, B.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of Mycoplasma bovis strains isolated in Denmark over a 17-year period was investigated. Forty-two field strains isolated from different geographic locations and specimens, including strains from 21 herds involved in two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis, and the type....... Among the analyzed strains, 18 different AFLP profiles were detected. The similarity between individual fingerprints, calculated by Dice similarity coefficient, ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Twenty-five strains, including 23 which were isolated during two outbreaks of M. bovis-induced mastitis which occurred...... 2 years apart; showed indistinguishable AFLP patterns. More genetic diversify was observed among the recent strains. The similarity of the genotypes of the field strains to that of the M. bovis type strain (PG45(T)) was 97.7%. The results of this study have demonstrated a remarkable genomic...

  15. Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. ... The rate of degradation of fluorene (50 mg/L) by the two isolates, after 30 days of incubation were 0.09 and 0.08 mg/L/h for strains BM1 and BR1, respectively. Gas chromatographic analyses of residual fluorene, ...

  16. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, potent microbial strains degrading plastic constituting polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were isolated using enrichment culture technique. To increase the chances of isolating such strain which could have adapted to metabolize plastic constituting polymers, samples were collected from different ...

  17. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Extraction of AFB1 from A. flavus strains grown on agar media. Eighty five strains of A. flavus isolated from rice grain samples were grown on sterilized different agar media (AFPA, Czapeks agar, PDA and YES agar) for 5 days at 25 ± 2°C. Three replications were maintained for each isolate for each media.

  18. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of E coli strains isolated from broiler and layer chicken with colisepticemia to antibiotics used in poultry industry in the country. A total of fifty seven E. coli strains isolated from 43 broiler and14 layer farms with colisepticemia in Khartoum and Gezera state were ...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... obtained for the strains of S. aureus. The MIC for cloxacillin was 0.1-1.0mg/ml for E. coli strains, and 0.01-1.0mg/ml for S. aureus strains. In all, ten strains of the bacterial isolates had evidence for the production of β-lactamases. Key words: Orange juice, antibiotics, resistance pattern, β-lactamase, microbiological standard.

  20. [Isolation and identification of Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii) strains from food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaohui; Li, Chengsi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Mo, Shuping; Guo, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xiaoke

    2013-05-04

    This study aimed to detect and quantify Cronobacter in 300 powdered milk samples and 50 non-powdered milk samples. Totally, 24 Cronobacter (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) strains isolated from powdered milk and other foods were identified and confirmed. Cronobacter strains were detected quantitatively using most probable number (MPN) method and molecular detection method. We identified 24 Cronobacter strains using biochemical patterns, including indole production and dulcitol, malonate, melezitose, turanose, and myo-Inositol utilization. Of the 24 strains, their 16S rRNA genes were sequenced, and constructed phylogenetic tree by N-J (Neighbour-Joining) with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 17 identified Cronobacter strains and 10 non-Cronobacter strains. Quantitative detection showed that Cronobacter strains were detected in 23 out of 350 samples yielding 6.6% detection rate. Twenty-four Cronobacter strains were isolated from 23 samples and the Cronobacter was more than 100 MPN/100g in 4 samples out of 23 samples. The 24 Cronobacter spp. isolates strains were identified and confirmed, including 19 Cronobacter sakazakii strains, 2 C. malonaticus strains, 2 C. dubliensis subsp. lactaridi strains, and 1 C. muytjensii strain. The combination of molecular detection method and most probable number (MPN) method could be suitable for the detection of Cronobacter in powdered milk, with low rate of contamination and high demand of quantitative detection. 24 isolated strains were confirmed and identified by biochemical patterns and molecular technology, and C. sakazakii could be the dominant species. The problem of Cronobacter in powdered milk should be a hidden danger to nurseling, and should catch the government and consumer's attention.

  1. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuranská, Hana; Vránová, Dana; Omelková, Jiřina

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir) were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic) wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation, identification and characterization of regional indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Šuranská

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work we isolated and identified various indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and screened them for the selected oenological properties. These S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from berries and spontaneously fermented musts. The grape berries (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir were grown under the integrated and organic mode of farming in the South Moravia (Czech Republic wine region. Modern genotyping techniques such as PCR-fingerprinting and interdelta PCR typing were employed to differentiate among indigenous S. cerevisiae strains. This combination of the methods provides a rapid and relatively simple approach for identification of yeast of S. cerevisiae at strain level. In total, 120 isolates were identified and grouped by molecular approaches and 45 of the representative strains were tested for selected important oenological properties including ethanol, sulfur dioxide and osmotic stress tolerance, intensity of flocculation and desirable enzymatic activities. Their ability to produce and utilize acetic/malic acid was examined as well; in addition, H2S production as an undesirable property was screened. The oenological characteristics of indigenous isolates were compared to a commercially available S. cerevisiae BS6 strain, which is commonly used as the starter culture. Finally, some indigenous strains coming from organically treated grape berries were chosen for their promising oenological properties and these strains will be used as the starter culture, because application of a selected indigenous S. cerevisiae strain can enhance the regional character of the wines.

  3. Method for bacteriophage isolation against target Campylobacter strains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvalho, C; Susano, M; Fernandes, E; Santos, S; Gannon, B; Nicolau, A; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Azeredo, J

    2010-01-01

    .... This work focuses on the isolation of Campylobacter coli lytic bacteriophages (phages) against target C. coli strains. A method involving the enrichment of free-range chicken samples in a broth containing the target C...

  4. Identification of a new strain of Actinomadura isolated from Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of a new strain of Actinomadura isolated from Saharan soil and ... soil, with strong antifungal activity against pathogenic and toxinogenic fungi, was ... The butanolic extract contained four bioactive spots detected on thin layer ...

  5. Reclassification of 30 Pasteurellaceae strains isolated from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, R; Bisgaard, M

    1995-07-01

    Thirty Pasteurellaceae strains isolated from gerbil, guineapig, hamster, mouse, muskrat and rat were reinvestigated and reclassified after comparison with reference strains. Strains originally described as Pasteurella pneumotropica were reclassified as [Pasteurella] pneumotropica Heyl biotype (7), [P.] pneumotropica Jawetz biotype (1), Pasteurella dagmatis (1) or Taxon 22 (2). Strains previously reported as Actinobacillus sp. were reclassified as [P.] pneumotropica biotype Jawetz (3), P. dagmatis (3) or Taxon 6 (7). Strains earlier described as Pasteurella gallinarum were renamed as SP group pasteurella (4) or Taxon 25 (2). Some of these reclassified Pasteurellaceae have not been reported previously in rodents. The present findings underline the importance of extended characterization of isolates and comparison with references strains to avoid misclassification within the family Pasteurellaceae Pohl 1981.

  6. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was designed to identify and taxonomically classify Streptomyces strains isolated from the rhizospheres of various plant species; banana, rose, pomegranate and grape plants, having antagonistic activity against some microbial (bacteria and fungi) tissue culture contaminants. Streptomyces strains with the most ...

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  8. Rat islet isolation yield and function are donor strain dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M; de Haan, BJ; Schuurs, TA; van Schilfgaarde, R; Leuvenink, HGD; KEIZER, J

    Effective rat islet isolation is pertinent for successful islet transplantation and islet studies in vitro. To determine which rat strain yields the highest number of pure and functional islets, four commonly used rat strains were compared with regard to islet yield, islet purity and islet function.

  9. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  10. Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... range of carbohydrates and salts of organic acids as carbon sources which are also diagnostic for root nodule bacteria (Sa et al., 1993; Rodriguez-Navarro et al., 2000;. Zerhari et al., 2000). Utilizasation of different compounds by strains, as sole carbon and nitrogen sources is one of the most useful traits for ...

  11. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of different yeast strains isolated from ripe banana peels to produce ethanol was investigated. Of the 8 isolates screened for their fermentation ability, 5 showed enhanced performance and were subsequently identified and assessed for important ethanol fermentation attributes such as ethanol producing ability, ...

  12. Identification of Candida strains isolated from Tanzanian pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify Candida strains isolated from Tanzanian women (13 to 45 years) with vaginal candidiasis. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Antenatal clinic in llala district hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from March 1998 to December 2000. Results: The identities of the 272 isolates tested with API Candida ...

  13. Characterization of Rhizobium strain isolated from the roots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenumgraecum (fenugreek) is known for its dietary protein source, medicinal properties and symbiotic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium present in its root nodules. The present study describes the characterization of a Rhizobium strain isolated from root nodules of fenugreek. The Rhizobium isolates were rod ...

  14. Heavy metal resistance by two bacteria strains isolated from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... essential but poisonous for plants, animals and humans. It has high toxicity ... were used to isolate cadmium and zinc tolerant bacteria strains, respectively. 0.1 ml of the liquid soil bacterial supernatant was plated on each disk. ..... isolated from root nodule of Lespedeza cuneata in gold mine tailings in China ...

  15. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  16. Biofilm production among Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus epidermidis is well documented as a nosocomial pathogen causing biofilm in patients and healthy people. The aim of this study was to analyze the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis strains isolated from healthy people during 2013-2014. Materials and methods: Totally 200 healthy people were selected and the sampling was carried out from arm, armpit and axillary area using sterile swaps. Swaps were transferred to thiogylcollate broth and then cultured on mannitol salt agar plates. Isolates were identified at the species level using biochemical tests. Potential of biofilm formation of strains was measured using congo red agar plate and microtiter plate tests. Genes involved in biofilm formation, icaA and icaD, were detected using PCR. Results: Totally 104 S. epidermidis strains were isolated from healthy people. Amongst these, 66 (63% and 38 (37% strains were positive and negative for biofilm formation, respectively. icaA and icaD genes were detected in 100% of strains. Discussion and conclusion: Prevalence of biofilm producing S. epidermidis isolates among healthy people indicating their colonization with hospital strains. Prevalence of such strains is  urgent for public health.

  17. Hexadecane degradation by bacterial strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to detect and monitor the degradation of hexadecane by three potential degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus erythroplolis and Bacillus thermoleovorans) isolated from contaminated soils in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The extraction of the bacterial populations from these polluted soils ...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of. Salmonella enterica isolated from raw beef, mutton and intestines sold in Ouagadougou; Burkina Faso. Methodology and Results: A total of 450 samples from raw meat of beef (n=175), mutton ...

  19. A study of V. cholerae strains isolated in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathi K

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Of 935 faecal samples studied over a period of one year, V. cholerae 01 was isolated from 102 samples (10.9%. All the strains were found to be E1 Tor Ogawa. The strains belonging to the phage types 2 and 4 were encountered in our study, type 2 being the highest (76.5%. The sensitivity pattern of all strains to the commonly used antibiotics was determined. Strains sensitive to gentamicin (92.2%, nalidixic acid (85.3%, kanamycin (83.3%, cotrimoxazole (80.4% and chloramphenicol (75.5% were observed. Out of the total, 36.3%, 29.4% and 28.4% of V. cholerae strains were found to be resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline respectively. V. cholerae was isolated throughout the year indicating the endemicity of cholera in Bombay.

  20. Neutralization epitope patterns of poliovirus strains isolated from paralytic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainic, R; Blondel, B; Aubert-Combiescu, A; Beytout, D; Couillin, P; Candrea, A; Boué, A; Horaud, F

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used in previous work to define neutralization epitopes (NE) of poliovirus during its natural variation upon interhuman passages. Two kind of NE were found: constant (K) epitopes, present on practically all poliovirus strains of the same serotype, and variable (V) epitopes, which were strain-specific either for wild-laboratory strains (Mahoney, MEF1, and Saukett) (VW epitopes), or for attenuated Sabin strains (VS epitopes), or for attenuated Sabin strains (VS epitopes). In the present paper we analyzed the NE formulae of poliovirus strains of each of the three serotypes isolated from paralytic cases that have occurred after mass vaccination with oral poliovaccine (Sabin). Type 1 isolates from both the central nervous system and stools showed the existence of the four VW epitopes characteristic for Mahoney virus. However, in some cases, variation of the K epitope formula was noticed. As concerns the paralytic cases where type 2 poliovirus was isolated, the situation was more complex due to the existence of three different VS epitopes. Various patterns of VS epitopes were encountered, making difficult the definition of the strains origin. Most of the type 3 strains isolated from paralytic cases contained one or both VS epitopes, some of them having an identical NE formula to the Sabin type 3 vaccine virus. These data showed that the use of strain-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for the characterization of strain origin is more complex than generally agreed. The multitude of NE coexisting on the same virus particle and their variation during viral replication in the human intestine call for cautious interpretation of the results obtained in poliovirus intratypic differentiation by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

  1. Isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum-like strains from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencina, Dusan; Bradbury, Janet M; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Varga, Zsuzsana; Razpet, Andrej; Bidovec, Andrej; Dovc, Peter

    2006-01-10

    Members of the genus Mycoplasma infect a wide range of hosts, but individual Mycoplasma species tend to exhibit a considerable degree of host specificity. We characterized Mycoplasma strain 700, isolated from a kidney of a layer hen in Spain and Mycoplasma strains ULB-A and ULB-B, isolated from the air sac and from the bile of stunted broiler chickens in Slovenia. The serologic examination showed that these three strains are antigenically unrelated to all of the recognized Mycoplasma species of avian origin, but closely related to the ruminant mycoplasma Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capricolum (M. capricolum). The comparison of their 16S rRNA gene sequences with the sequence of M. capricolum (California kid) revealed 99.66% sequence identity for the strain 700 and 99.59% identity for strains ULB-A and ULB-B. Moreover, the predicted DnaK sequences of the M. capricolum-like strains, isolated from chickens, were identical to DnaK sequences of M. capricolum. Comparison of their dnaK gene sequences with M. capricolum showed 99.64% sequence identity for strain 700 and 99.27% identity for strains ULB-A and ULB-B. In the flock from which M. capricolum-like strains ULB-A and ULB-B were isolated, the majority of chickens (83% of the chickens examined) raised antibodies reacting with M. capricolum antigens. Notably, the infection of chickens with M. capricolum-like strains represents an unusual exception to the range of Mycoplasma species host specificity.

  2. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sirin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities of S.aureus strains isolated from various clinical specimens between the years 2011-2014 and to investigate the changes of these susceptibilities over the years. Material and Method: Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of the strains were performed by Vitek 2 compact automated system (bioMérieux, France. The strains found to be intermediate susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin were also tested by E-test method. Results: S.aureus strains (n=1442 were most commonly isolated from wound, urine and blood samples. The isolation rates of methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA in hospitalized patients were significantly higher than the isolation rates of MRSA in outpatients. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and tigecycline. The total of four years resistance rates of MRSA strains to erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, fusidic acid were significantly higher than the resistance rates of methicillin-sensitive S.aureus (MSSA. The changes in the rates of antibiotic resistance were not statistically significant in MSSA strains over the years, and statistically significant decrease was found in erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gentamicin resistance in MRSA strains. Discussion: Glycopeptides, linezolid and tigecycline were the most effective antibiotics against S.aureus strains. It was considered as necessary to detect antimicrobial resistance profiles by effective surveillance studies and monitor the changes occurred over the years in order to prevent the development of resistance and control of infections.

  3. [Isolation, identification and genetic analysis of a murine norovirus strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Mei; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Huang, Ren

    2014-07-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) was first discovered in mice in 2003. MNV is a member of the genus Norovirus in the family Caliciviridae. It is one of the most important and prevalent pathogens of laboratory mice, and almost all mouse strains are susceptible to MNV infection. In this study, a MNV strain was isolated from the cecal contents of infected mice and identified by the cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, virus plaque assay, 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay, electron microscopy, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and nucleotide sequencing. On infection, the RAW264.7 cell line showed obvious cytopathic effects within 24 to 48 hours post-inoculation, as infected cells became rounded, bright and shrunken, with ultimate disintegration of the cell sheet. After the isolation of the MNV virus, the virus was plaque-purified in RAW264.7 cells. The TCID50 of the virus was 10(5.25/0.1 mL. Electron microscopic observations of the purified virus showed the presence of spherical and non-enveloped viral particles that were 30 to 35 nm in diameter. According to the identification results, the isolate was named as MNV Guangzhou/K162/09/CHN. Thereafter, five overlapping gene fragments that covered the entire open reading frame (ORF) were amplified by RT-PCR, and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and 5'-UTR were amplified using the 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and the 5'-RACE method, respectively. Each of the gene fragments were cloned and sequenced, and whole genome sequences of the strain were obtained by assembling the cDNA fragment sequences. The results showed that the length of the complete genome was 7 380 nucleotides (GenBank accession number: HQ317203). The comparison of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the isolate was performed against other MNV strains in the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on VP1 nucleotide sequences was constructed using MEGA5.0 software. The homology of nucleotides between the MNV Guangzhou/K162

  4. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan

    2017-08-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  5. NEW PRODUCER STRAINS OF BIOBUTANOL. І. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tigunova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Getting new, more productive strains of microorganisms that produce butanol is a topical problem. Studing of morphological and physiological characteristics of the isolated strains, improvement of their cultivation conditions, optimization of biobutanol synthesis gives the possibility to organize a cost-effective butanol production technology. The aim of this work was searching new butanol and butyric acid producer strains, their identification and studying the main steps of the selective strains biosynthesis. The objects of this study were microorganisms that had allocated from soils and sludges samples of Kiev’s lakes. Obtained cultures have been screened. Three strains were obtained as promising and identified as C. acetobutylicum, C. tyrobutylicum, C. butylicum. Selective medium have been developed and modified for the microorganisms. Producer’s features were investigated in order to maximize the accumulation of target metabolites.

  6. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Stipkovits, László; Thuma, Akos; Sellyei, Boglárka; Magyar, Tibor

    2013-04-12

    Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of forty-two Pasteurella multocida isolates from geese were characterized by analysis of their capsular type, Heddleston serotype, biotype, fimbrial gene allele type, comparative outer membrane protein (OMP) electrophoresis patterns, and were analyzed using PCR for the presence of virulence-associated genes (toxA, tbpA, pfhA, hgbA, hgbB, nanH, nanB, fimA, hsf-1, and pmHAS). A sequence comparison of the thdF and rpoB housekeeping genes of twenty representative P. multocida strains from three different OMP groups demonstrated that seventeen strains were closely related phylogenetically to previously published strains of P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. gallicida, and only three strains from geese were grouped with previously published strains of P. multocida subsp. septica. This study is the first report regarding the characterization of phenotypic and genotypic features of different P. multocida field strains isolated from geese with the different clinical representation of pasteurellosis and provide our overview on the usefulness of these in vitro tests for primary characterization of P. multocida strains for the epidemiological studies of fowl cholera. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterisation of Xanthomonas strains isolated from aroids in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoodoo, M H R; Sahin, F; Donmez, M F; Fakim, Y Jaufeerally

    2005-06-01

    Mauritius is one of the largest world producers of Anthurium cut flowers but outbreaks of bacterial blight have never been reported on the island. This work was about the characterisation and identification of bacterial strains isolated from Anthurium andreanum, Dieffenbachia maculata and Aglaonema simplex in Mauritius. Fifteen strains, that showed the morphological properties of Xanthomonas on conventional media, were tested on two semi-selective media (Esculin-trehalose and cellobiose-starch). ELISA tests using a panel of monoclonal antibodies were carried out and three out of 15 strains reacted with a Xanthomonas-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb XII). Analysis using four sets of ribosomal primers revealed that the same three Mauritius strains shared conserved PCR products with reference xanthomonads including virulent strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (Xad). BIOLOG tests and the Sherlock Microbial Identification system (MIDI) identified these three new strains at the species level as X. axonopodis. The complementary tests that were carried out clearly confirmed that the three strains are xanthomonads and, moreover, a DNA probe which showed specificity to Xad strains suggested that the three Mauritius strains are non-virulent forms of the pathogen causing Anthurium blight.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  9. Characteristics of an Aeromonas trota strain isolated from cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagassa, Cibelle B; Surek, Monica; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Prediger, Karoline C; Moriel, Bárbara; Wolf, Suélen; Weiss, Vinícius; Cruz, Leonardo M; Assis, Flávia E A; Paludo, Katia S; Rego, Fabiane G M; Farah, Sônia M S S; Picheth, Geraldo; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S; Fadel-Picheth, Cyntia M T

    2018-01-16

    Aeromonas are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. However some species can cause infections in humans, but rarely meningitis. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of an Aeromonas strain from cerebrospinal fluid of a meningitis patient. The isolate, identified as A. trota by biochemical and molecular methods, was susceptible to ampicillin but resistant to cephalothin and cefazolin. Genome sequencing revealed virulence factor genes such as type VI secretion system, aerolysin and lateral flagella. The isolate exhibited swarming motility, hemolytic activity and adhesion and cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. This is the first report of A. trota associated with meningitis and its virulence characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bioactivity characterization of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Babak; Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Minoo; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Rosli, Rozita; Radiah, Dayang; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to find candidate strains of Lactobacillus isolated from sheep dairy products (yogurt and ewe colostrum) with probiotic and anticancer activity. A total of 100 samples were randomly collected from yogurt and colostrum and 125 lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Of these, 17 Lactobacillus strains belonging to five species (L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, and L. casei) were identified. L. plantarum 17C and 13C, which isolated from colostrums, demonstrated remarkable results such as resistant to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts, susceptible to some antibiotics and good antimicrobial activity that candidate them as potential probiotics. Seven strains (1C, 5C, 12C, 13C, 17C, 7M, and 40M), the most resistant to simulated digestion, were further investigated to evaluate their capability to adhere to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum 17C was the most adherent strain. The bioactivity assessment of L. plantarum 17C showed anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis on HT-29 human cancer cells and negligible side effects on one human epithelial normal cell line (FHs 74). The metabolites produced by this strain can be used as alternative pharmaceutical compounds with promising therapeutic indices because they are not cytotoxic to normal mammalian cells. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cephalosporin resistant bacterial strains isolated from respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botnarciuc Mihaela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study is the evaluation of the actual resistance to second, third, and fourth generation cephalosporins over bacterial strains isolated from respiratory infections. The main causes for cephalosporin resistance of pathogenic and conditioned pathogen bacteria are: widespread usage, and impair immune response.

  12. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys conducted in Senegal have shown a strong association of staphylococci with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. This study aimed to characterise Staphylococcus aureus strains identified in the dairy farms in Dakar. Of a total of 244 Staphylococcus spp isolates col ected from 135 lactating cows with subclinical ...

  13. Characterization and Strains of Mycobacteria Isolated from Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a pilot study looking kind conducted from March to October 2011 and to determine the frequency of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle carcasses in ... The study also helped to establish the 16 samples positive culture of Mycobacterium bovis distribution of M. bovis based on race, sex, age of cattle and make ...

  14. Investigation of possible virulence factors in Candida strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Candida species, which are one of the most common causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections, present with high mortality and morbidity rates. This study aims to investigate the production of esterase, phospholipase, proteinase, and biofilm formation ability of the Candida strains isolated from the ...

  15. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from tulum cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulumoğlu, Şener; Kaya, Halil İbrahim; Şimşek, Ömer

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from Tulum cheese. Seven L. fermentum strains were selected among the isolated and identified lactobacillus strains due to their abundance. When the gastric condition was considered, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 were able to tolerate pH 2.5 and 1% bile salt. All L. fermentum strains had similar enzymatic activity and antibiotic resistance pattern but the highest antagonistic effect was detected within LP3, LP4 and LP6. Cholesterol assimilation amount of L. fermentum strains ranged between 12.1 and 45.3% in MRS and 20.7-71.1% in MRS with bile. The highest cholesterol assimilation in MRS and MRS with bile was occurred by LP3 and LP4, respectively. L. fermentum LP2 adhered to caco-2 cells more than Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG where LP3, LP4 and LP5 adhered at similar level. In conclusion, L. fermentum LP3 and LP4 fulfilled sufficient criteria to be probiotics for use as a starter culture in the production of tulum cheese or other dairy products. Also this study indicated that some food-associated Lactobacillus strains non-predominant for gut biota have significant probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathogenic Potential of Saccharomyces Strains Isolated from Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteoliva, Lucía; Querol, Amparo; Molina, María; Fernández-Espinar, María T.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a beneficial role in health because of its intrinsic nutritional value and bio-functional properties, which is why it is also used as a dietary supplement. However, the perception that S. cerevisiae is harmless has changed due to an increasing number of infections caused by this yeast. Given this scenario, we have tested whether viable strains contained in dietary supplements displayed virulence-associated phenotypic traits that could contribute to virulence in humans. We have also performed an in vivo study of the pathogenic potential of these strains using a murine model of systemic infection by intravenous inoculation. A total of 5 strains were isolated from 22 commercial products and tested. Results highlight one strain (D14) in terms of burden levels in brains and kidneys and ability to cause death, whereas the other two strains (D2 and D4) were considered of low virulence. Our results suggest a strong relationship between some of the virulence-associated phenotypic traits (ability to grow at 39°C and pseudohyphal growth) and the in vivo virulence in a mouse model of intravenous inoculation for isolates under study. The isolate displaying greatest virulence (D14) was evaluated in an experimental murine model of gastrointestinal infection with immunosuppression and disruption of mucosal integrity, which are common risk factors for developing infection in humans, and results were compared with an avirulent strain (D23). We showed that D14 was able to spread to mesenteric nodes and distant organs under these conditions. Given the widespread consumption of dietary supplements, we recommend only safe strains be used. PMID:24879417

  17. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    , catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates. Strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally sensitive to food processing (cold, heat, drying) and storage conditions. The 327 whole genome...... shotgun sequence of 1,618,613 bp long consists of 1,740 protein-coding genes, 46 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA operons. A protein based BLAST analysis places the turkey isolate 327 close to the human clinical strain 81116 (NCTC 11828)....

  18. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

  19. An analytical model of strain isolation for stretchable and flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Wu, J.; Li, M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, Y.-S.; Huang, Y.; Kang, Z.; Hwang, K. C.; Rogers, J. A.

    2011-02-01

    One important aspect of stretchable electronics design is to shield the active devices from strains through insertion of a soft layer between devices and substrate. An analytical model is established, which gives linear dependence of strain isolation on the reciprocal of strain-isolation layer thickness, and the reciprocal of device and substrate stiffness. Strain isolation is also linearly proportional to the shear modulus of strain-isolation layer and square of device length.

  20. Pathogenicity of rabies viruses isolated in China: two fixed strains and a street strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Gong, Kai; Song, Bo; Liang, Guo Dong

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the virulence characteristics of two fixed strains (CTN and aG) and a street strain (HN10) of rabies viruses isolated in China. ICR mice of different age groups were inoculated with CTN, aG and HN10 rabies virus strains via the intracracerebral (i.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) routes, and observed for 20 days. The CTN strain was pathogenic to 7-day-old suckling mice that received i.c. inoculations and 3-day-old suckling mice that received i.m. inoculations. The aG strain was pathogenic to 4-week-old mice that received i.c. inoculations and 7-day-old suckling mice that received i.m. inoculations. The HN10 strain was pathogenic to mice of all age groups via both inoculation routes. In moribund mice, the viruses had spread to most regions of the brain. The CTN and HN10 strains had similar dissemination patterns in the brain; both viral antigens could be found in the dentate gyrus (DG), whereas few viral antigens were present in the DG from specimens that had been infected with the aG strain. A comprehensive sequence analysis of the G protein suggested that differences in gene sequences may be responsible for producing strain-specific differences in pathogenicity and distribution in the brain. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification of Helicobacter suis Strains From Biphasic Cultures by Single Colony Isolation: Influence on Strain Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jungang; De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastritis and decreased weight gain in pigs. It is also the most prevalent non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in humans with gastric disease. H. suis is extremely fastidious, and so far, biphasic culture conditions were essential for isolation and culture, making it impossible to obtain single colonies. Hence, cultures obtained from an individual animal may contain multiple H. suis strains, which is undesirable for experiments aiming for instance at investigating H. suis strain differences. Pure cultures of H. suis were established by growing bacteria as colonies on 1% brucella agar plates, followed by purification and enrichment by biphasic subculture. Characteristics of these single colony-derived strains were compared with those of their parent strains using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and by studying bacterium-host interactions using a gastric epithelial cell line and Mongolian gerbil model. The purification/enrichment procedure required a nonstop culture of several weeks. For 4 of 17 H. suis strains, MLST revealed differences between parental and single colony-derived strains. For three of four single colony-derived strains tested, the cell death-inducing capacity was higher than for the parental strain. One single colony-derived strain lost its capacity to colonize Mongolian gerbils. For the four other strains tested, colonization capacity and histopathologic changes were similar to what has been described when using strains with only a history of limited biphasic culture. A method was developed to obtain single colony-derived H. suis strains, but this procedure may affect the bacterial genotype and phenotype. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Laura Del V; Gorordo Ipiña, Rosa C; Berruezo, Fabiana A; Amieva, Cristian A; García, Maria E; Bottiglieri, Marina T

    Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by two diffusion methods: E-test strips to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in 30 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies. No strains were resistant to amoxicillin, 17% (5/30) were resistant to clarithromycin, 20% (6/30) ciprofloxacin by both methods, and 37% (11/30) to metronidazole by the E-test. Although the number of strains studied was reduced, there was a single mismatch in interpreting susceptibility when both methods were compared; the same mismatch was observed for metronidazole, being categorized as sensitive by the E-test and as intermediate by disk diffusion. No association between the histological type of lesion and the resistance pattern found could be determined. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Frequency of isolation and susceptibility to antibiotics of Escherichia coli strains isolated from blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białucha, Agata; Budzyńska, Anna; Kozuszko, Sylwia; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was the analysis of Escherichia coli strains obtained from patients of University Hospital No 1 of dr A. Jurasz Collegium Medicum of L. Rydygier in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń and State Infectious Diseases Observatory Hospital of T. Browicz in Bydgoszcz, between 2007 and 2010. Among all microorganisms isolated from blood was 8.7% E. coli strains and 45.1% of all rods from Enterobacteriaceae family. Number of E. coli isolations from positive blood samples was: 64 in 2007, 69 in 2008, 77 in 2009 and 26 in the first half of 2010 year. The highest percentage of E. coli strains were obtained from patients of the Transplantology and Surgery Clinic (16.1%), the Nephrology and Internal Diseases Clinic with the Dialysis Centre (14.0%), the Pediatric, Hematology and Oncology Clinic (13.6%) and the Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic (13.6%). All analysed strains were susceptible to carbapenems, amikacin and tygecycline. The highest percentage of resistant strains were observed to ampicillin (70.7%), piperacillin (43.9%), tetracycline (42.8%) and doxycycline (38.8%). During four years of study 4 (6.3%), one, three and two E. coli strains with ESBL were isolated, respectively.

  4. Probiotic potential of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from meconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eKhassaf Al Atyaa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 107 bacterial isolates with Gram positive staining and negative catalase activity, presumably assumed as LAB, were isolated from samples of meconium of six donors at Roubaix hospital, in the north of France. All these bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Enterococcus faecalis. However, only six isolates among which E. faecalis 14, E. faecalis 28, E. faecalis 90, E. faecalis 97 and E. faecalis 101 (obtained from donor 3 and E. faecalis 93 (obtained from donor 5 were active against some Gram negative bacteria (GNB and Gram positive bacteria (GPB, through production of lactic acid and bacteriocin like inhibitory substances (BLIS. The identification of these isolates was confirmed by 16rDNA sequencing and their genetic relatedness was established by REP-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE methods. Importantly, the aforementioned antagonistic isolates were sensitive to various classes of antibiotics tested, exhibited high scores of coaggregation and hydrophobicity, and were not hemolytic. Taken together, these properties render these strains as potential candidates for probiotic applications.

  5. Biodegradation of acetochlor by a newly isolated Pseudomonas strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiuya; Chen, Wenting; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Duan, Zhibing; Yu, Xiaobin

    2015-05-01

    A novel microbial strain JD115 capable of degrading acetochlor was isolated from the sludge of acetochlor manufacture and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa species. This strain was able to grow on acetochlor as the sole source of both carbon and nitrogen. The biodegradation of acetochlor by strain JD115 could be described either by the pseudo-first-order or by the second-order kinetics models, while the latter gave a better performance. The strain optimally degraded acetochlor at a pH value of 7.0 and a temperature of 37 °C. Additional nutriments could greatly enhance the degradation rate of acetochlor up to 95.4% in the presence of 50 mg acetochlor l(-1). The metabolite analyses by GC-MS presumed that catechol was an intermediate product of acetochlor, which was finally degraded for 5 days of incubation. This study highlights the potential use of this strain for the bioremediation of an acetochlor-polluted environment.

  6. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing

  7. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics.

  8. [Strains of Klebsiella isolated from patients Łódź hospitals in 2006 year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Izabela; Gortat, Katarzyna; Majewski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a susceptibility of 223 clinical strains Klebsiella to 11 antimicrobial agents and occurrence ESBL-positive strains. These strains were isolated from clinical specimens during 2006 year. Susceptibility of these strains against antimicrobial agents was determined with disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendation. None of the analysed strains was resistant to imipenem. The Klebsiella pneumonie strains were most frequently isolated from respiratory tract.

  9. Isolation and Identification of L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains which isolated from Potato Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: L-Asparaginase can be effectively used for the treatment of lymphoblastic leukemia. The rapid growth of cancer cells are needed for L-asparagine abundant storage. L-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the L-asparaginase producing Erwinia strains from the potato farms of Jiroft. Materials and methods: Pectolytic Erwinia species isolated from crumbling potato in M9 medium. The desired L-asparaginase producing bacteria were isolated based on the color changes. Biochemical-microbial and the plant pathogenicity tests of these strains were also investigated with potato and geranium. The L-asparaginase production and molecular detection of these Erwinia strains were also investigated. Results: In this study, L-asparaginase producing Erwinia was isolated on the CVP and M9 mediums. The inoculation of Erwinia strains on the potato and geranium plants showed that Er8 and Er11 species have the ability to cause plant pathogenicity. Results showed that the maximum pathogenicity of Er8 and Er11 was observed after 48 and 15 h of inoculation in potato and geranium plants, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that Er8 and Er11 strains were similar to Erwinia chrysanthemi with 98% homology. Discussion and conclusion: Because of several applications of the Erwinia L-asparaginase in various fields, isolated Erwinia and their L-asparaginase can be suitable for applied utilization.

  10. Entamoeba dispar strains: analysis of polymorphism in Tunisian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Soumaya Ben; Bouratbine, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect intra-species polymorphism in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is an important tool for studying geographic distribution and transmission mechanisms. E. dispar and E. histolytica share the same mechanism for transmission among human hosts, and so after differentiation between these species. We studied the intra-species variation and distribution of E. dispar strains obtained from cyst passers, specifically from African students and Tunisian food handlers. We analyzed the polymorphic region of the chitinase protein gene in 13 individuals infected with E. dispar, of which 9 were from Tunisia and 4 from other African countries. We identified 7 different chitinase patterns in Tunisians while the 4 isolates from other countries each had a distinct pattern. Two of the patterns we found have been reported in studies from Mexico and India, possibly indicating worldwide spread of certain strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of an osmotolerant ale strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironcheva, G

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ale strain) grown in batch culture to stationary phase was tested for its tolerance to heat (50 degrees C for 5 min), hydrogen peroxide (0.3 M) and salt (growth in 1.5 M sodium chloride/YPD medium). Yeast cells which have been exposed previously to heat shock are more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide and high salt concentrations (1.5 M NaCl) than the controls. Their fermentative activity as judged by glucose consumption and their viability, as judged by cell number and density have higher levels when compared with cells not previously exposed to heat shock. Experimental conditions facilitated the isolation of S. cerevisiae ale strain, which was tolerant to heat, and other agents such as hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride.

  12. Use of lactic strains isolated from Algerian ewe's milk in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe's milk. Identification reveals the presence of nineteen strains (36%) of Lactobacillus sp., seventeen strains (32%) of Lactococcus sp., nine strains (17%) of Streptococcus thermophilus and eight strains (15%) of Leuconostoc sp.

  13. Arsenite oxidizing Thiomonas strains isolated from different mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia-Brunet, F.; Duquesne, K.; Dictor, M. C.; Garrido, F.; Bonnefoy, V.; Baranger, P.; Morin, D.

    2003-04-01

    Arsenic is commonly found in sulfide rocks and ores. This toxic metalloid is transferred to the water phase through acidophilic bio-oxidation of sulfides in mining galleries and waste dumps. Inorganic arsenic As(III) and As(V) are both soluble anions, however As(III) is more mobile and toxic than As(V). Bacteria can participate to the biogeochemical arsenic cycling through As(III) oxidation or As(V) reduction. Mineral selective media, containing As(III) as sole energy source, were used to isolate As(III)-oxidizing bacteria from two disused mining sites. Cheni site (Haute Vienne) was a gold mine, and Carnoules (Gard) was lead-zinc mine. Both sites are highly contaminated with arsenic. Samples of sediments and water from Cheni (pH 6) and Carnoules (pH 3) were used to inoculate mineral selective media whose pH were adjusted to those of the sampling environments. In both cases, organisms belonging to the genus Thiomonas were selected, then isolated. These bacteria oxidize arsenite during their exponential growth phase. The Both bacteria are able to grow, as a pure strains, in autotrophic conditions. The As(III)-oxidase activity of the Carnoules strain was exclusively found in cells cultivated with arsenite, and was associated to the membrane. If they can use As(III) as energetic substrate, Thiomonas-related organisms may play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic within mining ecosystems.

  14. Gentamicin resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasvold, J; Bradford, L; Nelson, C; Harrison, C; Attar, M; Stillwell, T

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among term and preterm infants. Ampicillin and gentamicin are standard empiric therapy for early onset sepsis. Four cases of neonatal sepsis secondary to Escherichia coli (E. coli) found to be gentamicin resistant occurred within a five week period in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To determine whether these cases could be tied to a single vector of transmission, and to more broadly evaluate the incidence of gentamicin resistant strains of E. coli in the neonatal population at our institution compared to other centers, we reviewed the charts of the four neonates (Infants A through D) and their mothers. The E. coli isolates were sent for Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate for genetic similarity between strains. We also reviewed all positive E. coli cultures from one NICU over a two year period. Infants A and B had genetically indistinguishable strains which matched that of urine and placental cultures of Infant B's mother. Infant C had a genetically distinct organism. Infant D, the identical twin of Infant C, did not have typing performed. Review of all cultures positive for E. coli at our institution showed a 12.9 percent incidence of gentamicin-resistance. A review of other studies showed that rates of resistance vary considerably by institution. We conclude that gentamicin-resistant E. coli is a relatively uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis, but should remain a consideration in patients who deteriorate despite initiation of empiric antibiotics.

  15. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen Zheng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for

  16. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  17. Comparison of Mycoplasma pneumoniae genome sequences from strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel B.M. Spuesens

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTI in children. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium can be carried asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of children. To identify potential genetic differences between M. pneumoniae strains that are carried asymptomatically and those that cause symptomatic infections, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis of 20 M. pneumoniae strains. The analyzed strains included 3 reference strains, 3 strains isolated from asymptomatic children, 13 strains isolated from clinically well-defined patients suffering from an upper (n=4 or lower (n=9 RTI, and one strain isolated from a follow-up patient who recently recovered from an RTI. The obtained sequences were each compared to the sequences of the reference strains. To find differences between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, a variant comparison was performed between the different groups of strains. Irrespective of the group (asymptomatic versus symptomatic from which the strains originated, subtype 1 and subtype 2 strains formed separate clusters. We could not identify a specific genotype associated with M. pneumoniae virulence. However, we found marked genetic differences between clinical isolates and the reference strains, which indicated that the latter strains may not be regarded as appropriate representatives of circulating M. pneumoniae strains.

  18. Comparison of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Genome Sequences from Strains Isolated from Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuesens, Emiel B. M.; Brouwer, Rutger W. W.; Mol, Kristin H. J. M.; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Kockx, Christel E. M.; Jansen, Ruud; Van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.; Vink, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. We recently demonstrated that this bacterium can be carried asymptomatically in the respiratory tract of children. To identify potential genetic differences between M. pneumoniae strains that are carried asymptomatically and those that cause symptomatic infections, we performed whole-genome sequence analysis of 20 M. pneumoniae strains. The analyzed strains included 3 reference strains, 3 strains isolated from asymptomatic children, 13 strains isolated from clinically well-defined patients suffering from an upper (n = 4) or lower (n = 9) RTI, and one strain isolated from a follow-up patient who recently recovered from an RTI. The obtained sequences were each compared to the sequences of the reference strains. To find differences between strains isolated from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, a variant comparison was performed between the different groups of strains. Irrespective of the group (asymptomatic vs. symptomatic) from which the strains originated, subtype 1 and subtype 2 strains formed separate clusters. We could not identify a specific genotype associated with M. pneumoniae virulence. However, we found marked genetic differences between clinical isolates and the reference strains, which indicated that the latter strains may not be regarded as appropriate representatives of circulating M. pneumoniae strains. PMID:27833597

  19. Characterization of Methylobacterium strains isolated from the phyllosphere and description of Methylobacterium longum sp nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knief, C.; Dengler, V.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Vorholt, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium strains are abundantly found in the phyllosphere of plants. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties of 12 previously isolated strains were analyzed in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the characteristics of phyllosphere colonizing Methylobacterium

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Starch-Degrading Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Boza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrova, Penka M; Petrov, Kaloyan K

    2011-01-01

    .... In the present study, three strains-Lactobacillus paracasei B41, Lactobacillus plantarum Bom 816, and Lactobacillus pentosus N3, isolated from boza and possessing significant amylolytic activity...

  1. Closely related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail meat, cows with mastitis, and humans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Konishi, Noriko; Kai, Akemi; Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pervasive healthcare-acquired (HA) pathogen with recent emergence as a community-acquired (CA) pathogen. To elucidate whether meat mediates MRSA transmission between animals and humans in Japan, this study examined MRSA isolates from retail meat (n = 8), cows with mastitis (n = 7), and humans (HA-MRSA = 46 and CA-MRSA = 54) by molecular typing, virulence gene analyses, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates from retail meat were classified into sequence type (ST) 8/spa type t1767 (n = 4), ST8/t4133 (n = 1), ST59/t3385 (n = 1), ST88/t375 (n = 1), and ST509/t375 (n = 1). All seven MRSA isolates from cows with mastitis were ST8/t1767. 46 HA-MRSA were clonal complex (CC) 5, divided into t002 (n = 30), t045 (n = 12), and t7455 (n = 4). 54 CA-MRSA were classified into 6 different CCs: CC1 (n = 14), CC5 (n = 7), CC8 (n = 29), CC45 (n = 1), CC89 (n = 1), CC509 (n = 1), and into 16 different spa types including newly identified t17177, t17193, and t17194. The majority were CC8/t1767 (n = 16). CC of one CA-MRSA isolate (spa type t1767) was not classified. Among 41 CC8 MRSA (five from meat, seven from cows with mastitis, and 29 CA-MRSA), 14 ST8/SCCmec IVl isolates (three from meat, one from a cow with mastitis, and 10 CA-MRSA) had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and similar spa type (t1767, t4133, and t17177), and were typed as CA-MRSA/J (ST8/SCCmec IVl, positive for sec + sel + tst but negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the arginine catabolic mobile element). These results suggest that there is a transmission cycle of CA-MRSA/J among meat, cows, and humans in Japan, although it is unclear whether the origin is cow.

  2. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouzrout Rachid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89% showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis.

  3. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726

  4. Decolorization of Methyl Red by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 Isolated from Textile Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Azizul Hakim; Sirajul Hoque; Shah Mohammad Ullah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to isolate methyl red, an azo dye, decolorizing bacteria from textile effluent. Among three isolates with methyl red decolorizing ability, the potential bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 was selected for identification and characterization. The organism was found to belong to the genus Staphylococcus and species saprophyticus. The isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 could decolorize 600, 700, 800, and 1000 mg/L...

  5. Characteristics of Bacterial Strains from Pseudomonas Genera Isolated from Diseased Plum Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from diseased plum trees are presented is this paper. Based on pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics, isolated starins were divided into two groups: First group of strains, isolated from diseased plum branches with symptoms of suden decay, was simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae; second group of strains, isolated from necrotic flower buds on plum trees, exhibited characteristics simillar to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum. In addition, phytopathogenic fungi belonging to genera Phomopsis, Botryosphaeria and Leucostoma, were also isolated from diseased plum trees. Further study of these pathogens and their role in the epidemiology of suden plum trees decay is in progress.

  6. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  7. Oxidative metabolic profiles of Brucella strains isolated from marine mammals: contribution to their species classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Isabelle; Grayon, Maggy; Verger, Jean-Michel

    2007-05-01

    Since the 1990s, Brucella strains not matching the characteristics of any of the six conventional species have been isolated worldwide from marine mammals. In this study, 31 Brucella strains isolated from various marine mammals were examined for their oxidative metabolic pattern on 12 amino-acid and carbohydrate substrates. Three main oxidative profiles different from those of the Brucella terrestrial mammal strains were identified for the marine mammal strains: one gathering strains isolated from pinnipeds and two gathering strains from cetaceans. Thus, both oxidative metabolism results and previous molecular studies are in agreement with the proposal of two new Brucella species, Brucella pinnipediae and Brucella cetaceae, to classify the Brucella strains isolated from marine mammals, and are also in accordance with a classification of species of the Brucella genus based on host preference.

  8. Heavy metal resistance by two bacteria strains isolated from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strain DX-T3-03 had a larger range of antibiotic resistance than DX-T3-01. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing, the two strains were identified as Ralstonia pickettii strain DX-T3-01 and Sphingomonas sp. strain DX-T3-03, respectively. This study supplied potential bacterial materials for tailing bioremediation in the ...

  9. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance and identification of strains in Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from milk, milk products and rectal swabs of chicken was examined in this experiment. After samples collection cultivation and identification of bacterial strain was done. MALDI TOF MS Biotyper for identification of Enterobacteriaceae strains was used. For susceptibility testing disc diffusion methodology was used according by EUCAST. Results showed high level of ampicillin resistance in isolates from milk and milk samples. The highest streptomycin resistance was detected in isolates from rectal swabs of chicken. After identification, we determined that S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, which was isolated from rectal swabs of chicken showed the most multi-resistance from all identificated strains of Enterobacteriaceae. The most isolates bacterial strain was E. coli, which showed resistance against four antibiotics from rectal swabs of chicken. Also our results showed that the higher resistance level is in rectal swabs of chicken like in milk samples.

  10. Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Brazilian biomes: new insights into biodiversity and industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beato, Felipe B.; Bergdahl, Basti; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from the barks of three tree species located in the Atlantic Rain Forest and Cerrado biomes in Brazil were genetically and physiologically compared to laboratory strains and to strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry. Although...

  11. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenshun; Dai, Shikun; Xie, Yunchang; Tian, Xinpeng; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Two Pseudoalteromonas strains, SCSIO 04301 and SCSIO 11900, were isolated from the South China Sea, and both strains form biofilms. Here we present the draft genome sequences of these two strains, which will aid the study of marine microbes that are adapted to marine sediments or are associated with eukaryotic hosts. PMID:24744335

  12. Coagulase-negative staphylococci strains resistant to oxacillin isolated from neonatal blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cataneli Pereira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from clinical samples and are commonly found in neonatal blood cultures. Oxacillin is an alternative treatment of choice for CoNS infections; however, resistance to oxacillin can have a substantial impact on healthcare by adversely affecting morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to detect and characterise oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains in blood cultures of newborns hospitalised at the neonatal ward of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu. One hundred CoNS strains were isolated and the mecA gene was detected in 69 of the CoNS strains, including 73.2% of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, 85.7% of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 28.6% of Staphylococcus hominis strains and 50% of Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains. Among these oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type I was identified in 24.6%, type II in 4.3%, type III in 56.5% and type IV in 14.5% of the strains. The data revealed an increase in the percentage of CoNS strains isolated from blood cultures from 1991-2009. Furthermore, a predominant SCCmec profile of the oxacillin-resistant CoNS strains isolated from neonatal intensive care units was identified with a prevalence of SCCmec types found in hospital-acquired strains.

  13. Genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from palm wine in eastern Nigeria. Comparison with other African strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Legras, J-L

    2009-05-01

    To study the yeast diversity of Nigerian palm wines by comparison with other African strains. Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were obtained from palm wine samples collected at four locations in eastern Nigeria, and characterized using different molecular techniques: internal transcribed spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, inter delta typing and microsatellite multilocus analysis. These techniques revealed that palm wine yeasts represent a group of closely related strains that includes other West African isolates (CBS400, NCYC110, DVPG6044). Population analysis revealed an excess of homozygote strains and an allelic richness similar to wine suggestive of local domestication. Several other African yeast strains were not connected to this group. Ghana sorghum beer strains and other African strains (DBVPG1853 and MUCL28071) displayed strikingly high relatedness with European bread, beer or wine strains, and the genome of strain MUCL30909 contained African and wine-type alleles, indicating its hybrid origin. Nigerian palm wine yeast represents a local specific yeast flora, whereas a European origin or hybrid was suspected for several other Africa isolates. This study presents the first genetic characterization of an autochthonous African palm wine yeast population and confirms the idea that human intervention has favoured yeast migration.

  14. Genomic DNA restriction endonuclease from Pasteurella multocida isolated from Indonesia, katha strain and reference strains and analysed by PFGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida strains are the causative disease agents of wide range of domestic and wild animals in Indonesia. The most important serotypes are associated with Hemorrhagic septicaemic (HS diseases in cattle and buffaloes, cholera in ducks and chickens. The HS disease associated with P. multocia in large ruminants in Indonesia is controled by killed whole cell vaccines produced by the use of P. multocida Katha strains. There is no discriminatory data of the molecular biology technique has been applied to investigate P. multocida isolates from different geographic locations in Indonesia. The purpose of this studies were to observe the genetic diversity among P. multocida isolated from various geograpic locations and compared with Katha vaccine strain and other reference strains. A total samples of 38 isolates and strains of P. multocida were analysed by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Each sample was grown in nutrient broth, cells were separeted by centrifugation. Whole cell pellet was mixed with agarose and then prepared agarose plugs. The genomic DNA of each sample was digested in situ (plug with either restriction endonuclease of ApaI and/or BamHI. The digested genomic DNA of each sample was analysed by PFGE, the genomic DNA restricted profile of each sample was compared with others. The use of ApaI restriction endonuclease digestion and analysed by PFGE, demonstrated that 34 out of 38 P. multocia samples could be differentiated into 16 ApaI types, whereas based on the BamHI digestion of these samples were differentiated into 20 BamHI types. Genomic DNA restriction pattern of Indonesian P. multocida isolates originated from cattle and buffaloes associated with haemorrhagic septicaemic diseases demonstrated different pattern to those of vaccine Katha strain, poultry strains as well as the reference strains currenly kept at Balitvet Culture Collection (BCC unit. Two P. multocida isolates derived from ducks with cholera

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii strain 119 identify recently isolated Danish strains as one group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Petersen, E.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Four mAb raised against the Danish Toxoplasma gondii strain 119, were selected by screening hybridoma supernatants by indirect immunofluorescence against tachyzoites of the RH strain in order to obtain strain restricted markers. Strain restriction extended beyond discrimination of the 119 and RH...

  16. Diversity of Vibrio navarrensis Revealed by Genomic Comparison: Veterinary Isolates Are Related to Strains Associated with Human Illness and Sewage Isolates While Seawater Strains Are More Distant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Keike; Kukuc, Cindy; Bier, Nadja; Taureck, Karin; Hammerl, Jens A; Strauch, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Vibrio navarrensis are present in aquatic environments like seawater, rivers, and sewage. Recently, strains of this species were identified in human clinical specimens. In this study, V. navarrensis strains isolated from livestock in Germany were characterized that were found in aborted fetuses and/or placentas after miscarriages. The veterinary strains were analyzed using phenotypical and genotypical methods and compared to isolates from marine environments of the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The investigated phenotypical traits were similar in all German strains. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to evaluate a phylogenetic relationship by performing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. For the SNP analysis, WGS data of two American human pathogenic strains and two Spanish environmental isolates from sewage were included. A phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of five protein-coding housekeeping genes (gyrB, pyrH, recA, atpA, and rpoB), was additionally performed. Both phylogenetic analyses reveal a greater distance of the environmental seawater strains to the other strains. The phylogenetic tree constructed from concatenated sequences of housekeeping genes places veterinary, human pathogenic and Spanish sewage strains into one cluster. Presence and absence of virulence-associated genes were investigated based on WGS data and confirmed by PCR. However, this analysis showed no clear pattern for the potentially pathogenic strains. The detection of V. navarrensis in human clinical specimens strongly suggests that this species should be regarded as a potential human pathogen. The identification of V. navarrensis strains in domestic animals implicates a zoonotic potential of this species. This could indicate a potential threat for humans, as according to the "One Health" concept, human, animal, and environmental health are linked. Future studies are necessary to search for reservoirs of these bacteria in the environment and/or in

  17. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    ...) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were obtained from soil samples collected from farmers' fields in Kakamega and Machakos districts. Soil samples from Machakos yielded more B. thuringiensis isolates t han those from Kakamega. Three isolates K13-1, 12F-K and K10-2 were obtained from Kakamega soil samples.

  19. Full genome sequence of a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Mamuna; Abidi, Soad; Mikkelsen, Heidi

    We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown on Löwen......We have sequenced a Danish isolate of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, strain Ejlskov2007. The strain was isolated from faecal material of a 48 month old second parity Danish Holstein cow, with clinical symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and emaciation. The cultures were grown......, consisting of 4317 unique gene families. Comparison with M. avium paratuberculosis strain K10 revealed only 3436 genes in common (~70%). We have used GenomeAtlases to show conserved (and unique) regions along the Ejlskov2007 chromosome, compared to 2 other Mycobacterium avium sequenced genomes. Pan......-genome analyses of the sequenced Mycobacterium genomes reveal a surprisingly open and diverse set of genes for this bacterial genera....

  20. Genotypic Characterization of Seven Strains of Mycoplasma fermentans Isolated from Synovial Fluids of Patients with Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Clerc, Maïthé; Lequen, Laurence; Charron, Alain; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bannwarth, Bernard; Dehais, Joël; Bébéar, Christiane

    1998-01-01

    We performed a genotypic characterization of seven strains of Mycoplasma fermentans which have been isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 2), spondyloarthropathy (n = 1), and unclassified arthritis (n = 4). We compared them to three reference strains (strains PG18 and K7 and incognitus strain) and to a clinical isolate from the urethra of a patient with nongonococcal urethritis. The characterization methods included electrophoresis of native DNA, arbitrarily primed PCR, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis following conventional and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Southern blot analysis with a probe internal to an insertion sequence was performed with the restriction products produced by the last two techniques. No extrachromosomal DNA sequences were detected. The M. fermentans strains identified by these methods did not present a unique profile, but they could be separated into two main categories: four articular isolates were genetically related to PG18 and the three other isolates, the urethral isolate, and the incognitus strain were related to K7. We also looked for the presence of the bacteriophage MAV1 (associated with the arthritogenic property of Mycoplasma arthritidis in rodents) in the M. fermentans strains. MAV1 DNA was not detected in either the clinical isolates or the reference strains of M. fermentans. PMID:9574681

  1. The effect of co-colonization with community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains on competitive exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joanna; D'Agata, Erika M C; Webb, Glenn F

    2010-06-07

    We investigate the in-hospital transmission dynamics of two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains: hospital-acquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA). Under the assumption that patients can only be colonized with one strain of MRSA at a time, global results show that competitive exclusion occurs between HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA strains; the strain with the larger basic reproduction ratio will become endemic while the other is extinguished due to competition. Because new studies suggest that patients can be concurrently colonized with multiple strains of MRSA, we extend the model to allow patients to be co-colonized with HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA. Using the extended model, we explore the effect of co-colonization on competitive exclusion by determining the invasion reproduction ratios of the boundary equilibria. In contrast to results derived from the assumption that co-colonization does not occur, the extended model rarely exhibits competitive exclusion. More commonly, both strains become endemic in the hospital. When transmission rates are assumed equal and decolonization measures act equally on all strains, competitive exclusion never occurs. Other interesting phenomena are exhibited. For example, solutions can tend toward a co-existence equilibrium, even when the basic reproduction ratio of one of the strains is less than one. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from patients and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, R; Joutsen, S; Hofer, E; Säde, E; Björkroth, J; Ziegler, D; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2013-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are frequently isolated from the environment, foods, and animals, and also from humans with yersiniosis. There are controversial reports on the pathogenicity of biotype 1A strains. In this study, 811 fecal samples from asymptomatic humans from Switzerland were studied for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. Nine (1.1%) of the 811 samples were positive for Y. enterocolitica 1A. These strains were compared with 12 Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from Swiss patients with diarrhea isolated in the same year. Almost all (20/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains carried the ystB gene, seven strains carried the hreP gene, and none carried the ail, ystA, myfA, yadA, or virF genes. Most (17/21) Y. enterocolitica 1A strains belonged to two major clusters, A and B, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Strains of cluster B were only isolated from humans with diarrhea; however, ystB and hreP genes were detected in strains from both clinical and non-clinical samples and from strains of clusters A and B. Using ribotyping, six restriction patterns among biotype 1A strains were obtained with HindIII enzyme. The most common ribotype (RT I) was found in strains isolated from humans with and without diarrhea. All biotype 1A strains had a unique NotI profile by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), showing a very high genetic diversity. In this study, Y. enterocolitica 1A strains from clinical and non-clinical samples could not be clearly differentiated from each other. More research is needed in order to prove that biotype 1A strains are a primary cause for human yersiniosis and not only a secondary finding.

  3. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996-2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obszańska, Katarzyna; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabella; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Machura, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called "milleri" had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent "viridans streptococci" Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline.

  4. Formation of biofilm by strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantification of biofilm formation by 40 Listeria monocytogenes strains from wara soft cheese and its processing environment was assessed on glass vials surfaces. Attachement to glass surface was quantified using a crystal violet binding assay. All the 40 strains produced biofilms after 48 and 72 h incubation at 37oC.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF Haemophilus influenzae STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH INVASIVE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kostyanev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 H. influenzae strains were collected between 1994 and 2009 from all aged patient groups. The strains were isolated from patients with invasive and community-acquired respiratory tract infections. All strains were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by a coagglutination test and by molecular PCR capsular genotyping. Beta-lactamase production was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test with nitrocephin as substrate. Most of the isolated H. influenzae strains were from children under 5 years of age (57.7%. Overall, 61 strains belonged to serotype b (34.9% by the means of PCR capsular typing, 1 strain was type f, and 113 isolates (64.6% were non-typeable (non-encapsulated H. influenzae. Among the infants and children with meningitis or other invasive infections, aged 2 month to 5 years, all strains, except one, were serotype b. In respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and people with chronic pulmonary diseases - exacerbations of COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis the most common - 96.5% were non-typeable strains in both groups children and adults. Overall, the prevalence of beta-lactamase production was 19.4%. But, it was much higher for invasive strains from CSF isolates - 37.7%, 25% in blood samples, and 37.5% in otitis media causative strains. Beta-lactamase production was less frequent in respiratory tract isolates - in sputum 13.3% and in URT samples - 2.3%. The rate of beta-lactamase production in CSF isolates has not changed for the last 10 years.PCR capsular genotyping method has to be performed for all non-b-type strains. The implementation of Hib vaccine in our country will be accompanied by a reduction in invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b in children, but it is not useful in preventing infections caused by non-typeable H. influenzae strains.

  6. Expression of curli by Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients during outbreaks is different from similar strains isolated from leafy green production environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao Venkata Ravva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. More than half of the fecal strains (human and animal and a significant proportion of environmental isolates (82% were found to lack curli expression. EcO157 strains from several outbreaks linked with the consumption of contaminated apple juice, produce, hamburgers, steak and beef were also found to lack curli expression. Phylogenetic analysis of fecal strains indicates curli expression is distributed throughout the population. However, a significant proportion of animal fecal isolates (84% gave no curli expression compared to human fecal isolates (58%. In addition, analysis of environmental isolates indicated nearly exclusive clustering of curli expression to a single branch of the minimal spanning tree. This indicates that curli expression depends primarily upon the type of environmental exposure and the isolation source, although genotypic differences also contribute to clonal variation in curli. Furthermore, curli-deficient phenotype appears to be a selective trait for survival of EcO157 in agricultural environments.

  7. Urea hydrolysis can predict the potential pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysner, C A; Abeyta, C; Trost, P A; Wetherington, J H; Jinneman, K C; Hill, W E; Wekell, M M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to hydrolyze urea (uh+) can be used as a marker to predict which strains isolated from molluscan shellfish harvested in the Pacific Northwest are potentially pathogenic. The thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (TDH+) characteristic is a marker that is correlated with potential pathogenicity, and all of the TDH+ strains that we have isolated have been found to be uh+. Most of the uh+ strains belong to somatic antigen groups O3, O4 and O5. TDH+ strains are usually members of groups O4 and O5. The strains most often associated with human illness are members of the uh+, O4 group. The test for urease production is a simple screening test that can be helpful in predicting which strains are potentially pathogenic. PMID:8085837

  8. EVALUATION OF THERMOTOLERANT ACETOBACTER PASTEURIANUS STRAINS ISOLATED FROM MOROCCAN FRUITS CATALYZING OXIDATIVE FERMENTATION AT HIGH TEMPERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, M; Shafiei, R; Zarmehrkhorshid, R; Hamouda, A; Alaoui, M Ismaili; Thonart, P

    2015-01-01

    Six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from Moroccan local products and their potential as industrial strains was evaluated in lab-bioreactor. Three of them, namely TAV01, AF01 and CV01, isolated from traditional apple vinegar, apple and cactus fruit, respectively were selected and their responses to high temperature were assessed. Morphological and biochemical identification confirmed that these strains belong to Acetobacter species. Their growth and acetic acid production were compared with the thermoresistant reference strain, Acetobacter senegalensis and mesophilic strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus. The two strains AF01 and CV01 showed abundant growth and noticeable acetic acid production ability at high temperatures (38 to 41°C). A thermophilic character was observed for AF01 strain. Indeed, this bacterium grew better at 38 than 30°C.

  9. Cometabolic transformation and cleavage of nitrodiphenylamines by three newly isolated sulfate-reducing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzyzga, O; Schmidt, A; Blotevogel, K

    1996-05-01

    Three sulfate-reducing bacterial strains (Desulfovibrio sp. strain SHV, Desulfococcus sp. strain WHC, and Desulfomicrobium sp. strain WHB) with the capacity to cometabolize 2-nitrodiphenylamine, 4-nitrodiphenylamine, and 2,4-dinitrodiphenylamine were newly isolated. Before breaking down the diphenylamine structure, these strains cometabolically reduce the nitrodiphenylamines to the corresponding aminodiphenylamines during anaerobic oxidation of the growth substrate lactate (Desulfovibrio strain SHV and Desulfomicrobium strain WHC) or benzoate (Desulfococcus strain WHB), leading to the formation of aniline and a smaller quantity of methylaniline. These compounds were not further metabolized by the sulfate reducers. The anaerobic metabolism of aminodiphenylamines also led to the formation of heterocyclic condensation products such as phenazine and acridine derivatives, provided that they contained an amino group in the ortho position of the diphenylamine (e.g., 2-aminodiphenylamine or 2,4-diaminodiphenylamine). In addition, low levels of indole and benzothiazole derivatives were identified, but these also were not further metabolized by the three sulfate-reducing strains.

  10. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pesic; Heike I. Baumann; Katrin Kleinschmidt; Paul Ensle; Jutta Wiese; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2013-01-01

    New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean), and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea). The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a) present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle) rich ...

  11. High-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii isolated from water in Texas.

    OpenAIRE

    Steadham, J E

    1980-01-01

    Isolation techniques with membrane-filtered potable water samples resulted in the isolation of potentially pathogenic high-catalase strains of Mycobacterium kansasii from 8 of 19 representative outlets in a small central Texas town. Mycobacterium gordonae was isolated from all samples, and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from two samples. Data on chlorine levels are presented along with a possible explanation for the unusually high numbers of mycobacteria in these potable water samples. ...

  12. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF LACTOBACILLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS FROM MIDDLE SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of lactobacilli strains isolated from milk and milk products from middle Slovakia. The 42 samples of milk and milk products were collected from sheep farming from middle Slovakia. MRS agar was used for this cultivation. It was done at 37 °C during 36-48 hours in CO2 box with 10 % CO2. Identification of lactobacilli strains was done by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with Biotyper software – MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. Four anitibiotics M.I.C. We used four anitibiotics M.I.C. evaluators strips for antibiotic susceptibility testing. These antibiotics were used in this experiment: erythromycin (E 256 – 0.015 µg/ml, ampicillin (AMP 256 – 0.015 µg/ml, gentamycin (CN 256 – 0.015 µg/ml and tetracycline (TE 256 – 0.015 µg/ml. We isolated 42 lactobacilli strains and identified them as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus spp. We isolated 7 strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and 35 isolates were Lactobacillus spp. From the seven isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum 3 isolates were resistant to ampicillin (MIC 16 µg/ml in 2 isolates and MIC 12 µg/ml in one isolate and one resistant to tetracycline (MIC 16 µg/ml. From 35 isolates of Lactobacillus spp. 9 isolates were resistant to erytromycin (32 µg/ml, 10 isolates resistant to ampicillin (MIC 16 µg/ml in 4 isolates, MIC 12 µg/ml in 5 isolates and MIC 4 µg/ml in one isolate, 5 isolates resistant to tetracycline (16 µg/ml. Resistance to gentamycin was not detected. Lactobacilli isolated from milk and milk products were resistant to erytromycin (resistanece was 21.42 %, ampicillin (resistance was 30.95 % and tetracycline (resistance was 14.28 % and were sensitive in 100 % to gentamycin.

  13. Shiga Toxin-Producing Serogroup O91 Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peter C H; Delannoy, Sabine; Lacher, David W; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Fach, Patrick; Beutin, Lothar

    2017-09-15

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains of the O91:H21 serotype have caused severe infections, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Strains of the O91 serogroup have been isolated from food, animals, and the environment worldwide but are not well characterized. We used a microarray and other molecular assays to examine 49 serogroup O91 strains (environmental, food, and clinical strains) for their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships. Most of the isolates were identified to be strains of the O91:H21 and O91:H14 serotypes, with a few O91:H10 strains and one O91:H9 strain being identified. None of the strains had the eae gene, which codes for the intimin adherence protein, and many did not have some of the genetic markers that are common in other STEC strains. The genetic profiles of the strains within each serotype were similar but differed greatly between strains of different serotypes. The genetic profiles of the O91:H21 strains that we tested were identical or nearly identical to those of the clinical O91:H21 strains that have caused severe diseases. Multilocus sequence typing and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat analyses showed that the O91:H21 strains clustered within the STEC 1 clonal group but the other O91 serotype strains were phylogenetically diverse. IMPORTANCE This study showed that food and environmental O91:H21 strains have similar genotypic profiles and Shiga toxin subtypes and are phylogenetically related to the O91:H21 strains that have caused hemolytic-uremic syndrome, suggesting that these strains may also have the potential to cause severe illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Isolation and in vitro selection of actinomycetes strains as potential probiotics for aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro García Bernal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to describe a series of in vitro tests that may aid the discovery of probiotic strains from actinomycetes. Materials and Methods: Actinomycetes were isolated from marine sediments using four different isolation media, followed by antimicrobial activity and toxicity assessment by the agar diffusion method and the hemolysis of human blood cells, respectively. Extracellular enzymatic production was monitored by the hydrolysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Tolerance to different pH values and salt concentrations was also determined, followed by hydrophobicity analysis and genetic identification of the most promising strains. Results: Five out of 31 isolated strains showed antimicrobial activity against three Vibrio species. Three non-hemolytic strains (N7, RL8 and V4 among these active isolates yielded positive results in hydrophobicity tests and exhibited good growth at salt concentrations ranging from 0% to 10%, except strain RL8, which required a salt concentration >0.6%. Although these strains did not grow at pH<3, they showed different enzymatic activities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains N7 and V4 have more than 99% identity with several Streptomyces species, whereas the closest matches to strain RL8 are Streptomyces panacagri and Streptomyces flocculus, with 98% and 98.2% similarity, respectively. Conclusion: Three actinomycetes strains showing probiotic-like properties were discovered using several in vitro tests that can be easily implemented in different institutions around the world.

  15. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Varicella-zoster virus strains isolated from Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ho; Jeon, Jeong Seon; Kim, In Kyo; Park, Ji Seon; Park, Hosun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Lee, Chan Hee

    2017-08-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent of chickenpox in primary infection and shingles after its reactivation from latency. Complete or almost-complete genomic DNA sequences for various VZV strains have been reported. Recently, clinical VZV strains were isolated from Korean patients whose genome was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. In this study, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of VZV strains to genetically characterize Korean clinical isolates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that three Korean strains, YC01, YC02, and YC03, were linked to clade 2. Comprehensive SNP analysis identified 86 sites specific for the 5 VZV clades. VZV strains isolated from Korea did not form a phylogenetic cluster. Rather, YC02 and YC03 clustered strongly with Chinese strain 84-7 within clade 2, more specifically cluster 2a. Signature sequences for the cluster 2a were identified and found to play an important role in the separation of cluster 2a strains from other clade 2 strains, as shown in substitution studies. Further genetic analysis with additional strains isolated from Japan, China, and other Asian countries would provide a novel insight into the significance of two distinct subclades within clade 2.

  16. Antagonistic bioactivity of endophytic strains isolated from Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic-producing potential of endophytic populations from medical plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined. A total of 63 isolates was screened against five fungal and three bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. It showed that more isolates was antagonistic to fungi than to bacteria.

  17. Molecular characterization of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from Kashmir valley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reyaz, A L; Gunapriya, L; Indra Arulselvi, P

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Dengue Virus Serotype 4 Strain Isolated in Roraima, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Victor C.; Silva, George A. V.; Maito, Rodrigo M.; Granja, Fabiana; Siqueira, Thalita; Acosta, Pablo O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We report the complete genome sequence of a dengue virus serotype 4, genotype II strain isolated in 2010 from a patient with classical dengue fever in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. PMID:22247521

  19. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Algeria: Results of spoligotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Ifticene

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The study of strains isolated between January and December 2011 has allowed insight into the frequency of different genomic families and the importance of existing clusters in the population of central and eastern Algeria.

  20. Genotypic diversity and pathogenic potential of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, M R; Falcão, J P

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the pathogenic potential and genotypic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 2 strains isolated in Brazil and to compare these strains with other Y. enterocolitica biotypes using ERIC-PCR and PFGE. Forty strains of Y. enterocolitica biotype 2 (B2) isolated from humans (5), the environment (34) and animal (1), in Brazil over 19 years were studied. In addition to these isolates, we also analysed 26 Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to the biotypes 1A, 1B, and 3-5. All of the B2 strains contained the genes inv, ail, ystA, hreP, tccC and myfA. The genes fepD and fes were detected in 39 (97·5%) strains, virF was found in three (7·5%) strains, and ystB and fepA were not detected in any strains. The B2 strains showed genotypic similarities of more than 84·8% by ERIC-PCR and of more than 69·0% by PFGE. The pathogenic potential of the B2 strains examined in this study was highlighted by the occurrence of the majority of the virulence markers searched. The results of the ERIC-PCR and PFGE showed that the B2 strains evaluated in this study had a high genotypic similarity, suggesting that these strains differed little over the 19 year study period and that the environment was a possible source of contamination of humans and animals in Brazil. Furthermore, the ERIC-PCR technique grouped the strains belonging to Y. enterocolitica biotypes 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 according to their pathogenicity. This study provided new information about the pathogenic potential and genotypic similarity of Y. enterocolitica B2 isolated from diverse sources in Brazil. Furthermore, ERIC-PCR showed to be a valuable tool for grouping Y. enterocolitica of different biotypes according their pathogenicity. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Draft genome sequences of five clinical Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from different poultry species in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Thøfner, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report five draft genome sequences of Enterococcus cecorum strains that were isolated from different bird species of affected poultry flocks (commercial broilers [CB], broiler breeders [BB], commercial layers [CL], ducks [D], and geese [G]) in Poland.......Here, we report five draft genome sequences of Enterococcus cecorum strains that were isolated from different bird species of affected poultry flocks (commercial broilers [CB], broiler breeders [BB], commercial layers [CL], ducks [D], and geese [G]) in Poland....

  2. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Pereira; Luísa Barreira; Luísa Custódio; Salman Alrokayan; Fouzi Mouffouk; João Varela; Khalid M. Abu-Salah; Radhouan Ben-Hamadou

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from sam...

  3. RAPD Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Different Locations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine identification of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients in different locations in Egypt was confirmed by specific DNA fragment amplification. The susceptibilities of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against the four antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment (Isoniazid, INH; Rifampicin, Rif; Streptomycin, St and Ethambutol, E were examined. Our results indicated that, multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents about 19.5% of the tested strains, whereas sensitive strains represented 26.4%. The genetic polymorphism of the tested strains was examined using RAPD analysis. Six selected strains represent the different antibiotic susceptibility groups were examined using RAPD fingerprinting. No difference between the strains was recorded using the RFLP analysis of amplified specific fragment. The discrimination power of RAPD analysis was inadequate to clarify the genetic correlation between the tested strains. MDR-TB was approximately double time in 2008 compared with the value in 2007. Most of the new MDRTB was correlated with resident dense population regions.

  4. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  5. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  6. A rhizobia strain isolated from root nodule of gymnosperm Podocarpus macrophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, BaoLing; Lü, ChengQun; Wu, Bo; Fan, LiQin

    2007-04-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of rhizobia and leguminous plants is considered as the most important biologic nitrogen fixation system on earth. Symbiotic nodulation of gymnosperm Podocarpus macrophyllus and rhizobia has never been reported. In this study, 11 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated from root nodules of P. macrophyllus and its variation P. macrophyllus var. maki. The plant infection tests on these strains indicated that the isolated strains could be nodulated on P. macrophyllus plants, and weak nitrogenase activity of nodules was found in acetylene reduction method. According to the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the 11 strains, GXLO 02 was selected as the representative strain. 16S rDNA full-length sequence analysis of GXLO 02 confirmed that the representative strain GXLO 02 belongs to Rhizobium sp.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Sueli A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In São Paulo State, Brazil, the epidemic increase in isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis has been observed since 1994. A total of 105 S. Enteritidis strains (72 from human and 33 from non-human sources isolated during the period 1975-1995, previously characterized by phage typing, was analyzed by antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profile, and ribotyping. Over 70% of the strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, however, multiple resistance to antimicrobials was observed among the studied strains, mainly those from hospitalized patients. Phage type 8 (PT-8 was predominant among the strains isolated during the period of 1975-1992, but in the following years, PT-4 was the most frequent phage type identified. Seven different plasmid profiles were detected and 96% of the isolates harbored a plasmid of approximately 36 MDa. Ribotyping discriminated fourteen ribotypes (R1 to R14 among the strains examined. By analysis of dendrogram the strains were included in three groups with similarity level of 60%. The obtained results indicate that, a single ribotype (R11, determined for PT-4 strains isolated from 1993, characterizes the epidemic clone of S. Enteritidis in our region.

  8. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  9. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Abdelahhad; Philip, Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS). A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10) and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10) from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for pharmaceuticals and probiotics from S. salivarius generating different

  10. Variable characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelahhad Barbour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salivaricins are bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus salivarius, some strains of which can have significant probiotic effects. S. salivarius strains were isolated from Malaysian subjects showing variable antimicrobial activity, metabolic profile, antibiotic susceptibility and lantibiotic production. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we report new S. salivarius strains isolated from Malaysian subjects with potential as probiotics. Safety assessment of these strains included their antibiotic susceptibility and metabolic profiles. Genome sequencing using Illumina's MiSeq system was performed for both strains NU10 and YU10 and demonstrating the absence of any known streptococcal virulence determinants indicating that these strains are safe for subsequent use as probiotics. Strain NU10 was found to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A and 9 while strain YU10 was shown to harbour genes encoding salivaricins A3, G32, streptin and slnA1 lantibiotic-like protein. Strain GT2 was shown to harbour genes encoding a large non-lantibiotic bacteriocin (salivaricin-MPS. A new medium for maximum biomass production buffered with 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES was developed and showed better biomass accumulation compared with other commercial media. Furthermore, we extracted and purified salivaricin 9 (by strain NU10 and salivaricin G32 (by strain YU10 from S. salivarius cells grown aerobically in this medium. In addition to bacteriocin production, S. salivarius strains produced levan-sucrase which was detected by a specific ESI-LC-MS/MS method which indicates additional health benefits from the developed strains. CONCLUSION: The current study established the bacteriocin, levan-sucrase production and basic safety features of S. salivarius strains isolated from healthy Malaysian subjects demonstrating their potential for use as probiotics. A new bacteriocin-production medium was developed with potential scale up application for

  11. Heavy metal resistance by two bacteria strains isolated from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    T3-03, were isolated from the biggest tailing in Asia-Dexing ... well as affect the qualitative and quantitative structure of microbial communities (Giller et al., .... The enriched bacterial cells were collected. Olympus CX 31 optical.

  12. Isolation and characterization of a new Pseudomonas- related strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    . 64(11):4396-4402. Wei GH, Yu JF, Zhu YH, Chen WM, Wang L (2008). Characterization of phenol degradation by Rhizobium sp CCNWTB 701 isolated from. Astragalus chrysopteru in mining tailing region. J. Hazard. Mater.

  13. Isolation and characterization of some dominant yeast strains for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolate ACP12 showed even higher population number (9.7 ± 1.00 x 107 CFU/ml) than the standard culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with colony count of 8.7 ± 1.00 x 107 CFU/ml at 30°C and at pH 5. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the two isolates (ACE12 and ACP12) were ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Micromonospora sp. Strain HK10, Isolated from Kaziranga National Park, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Madhumita; Das, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Chiranjeeta; Deka Boruah, Hari Prasanna; Bora, Tarun Chandra

    2016-01-01

    We report the 6.92-Mbp genome sequence of Micromonospora sp. HK10, isolated from soil samples collected from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. The full genome of strain Micromonospora sp. strain HK10 consists of 6,911,179 bp with 73.39% GC content, 6,196 protein-coding genes, and 86 RNAs. PMID:27516496

  15. Isolation of a nitrate-reducing bacteria strain from oil field brine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) strain with vigorous growth, strong nitrate reduction ability, strain B9 2-1, was isolated from Suizhong36-1 oilfield, its routine identification and analysis of 16S rRNA and also the competitive inhibition experiments with the enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were carried out.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain wikim 20, Isolated from Korean Kimchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Min Young; Park, Boyeon; Sung-Oh, Sohn; Park, Hae Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus strain wikim 20 is a lactic acid bacterium that was isolated from kimchi, a representative traditional Korean fermented food. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of P. pentosaceus strain wikim 20 consisting of a 1,830,629-bp chromosome and provide a description of its annotation. PMID:27834699

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus curvatus Strain WiKim38 Isolated from Kimchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Min Young; Song, Jung-Hee; Lee, Moeun

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus curvatus WiKim38 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. The complete genome of the WiKim38 strain consisted of a circular chromosome of 1,940,170 bp in length with a G+C content of 41.93%. PMID:28473381

  18. Isolation of a nitrate-reducing bacteria strain from oil field brine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... A nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) strain with vigorous growth, strong nitrate reduction ability, strain B9. 2-1, was isolated from Suizhong36-1 oilfield, its routine identification and analysis of 16S rRNA and also the competitive inhibition experiments with the enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were.

  19. Genome sequence of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Shin, Seung Chul; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Yung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    The draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. strain PAMC 25724, which is a violacein-producing psychrotolerant bacterium, was determined. The strain was isolated from glacier cryoconite of the Alps mountain permafrost region. The sequence will allow identification and characterization of the genetic determination of its cold-adaptive properties.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the E. coli membrane protein production strain Mutant56(DE3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Schlegel, Susan; Wagner, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Membrane protein production is usually toxic to E. coli. However, using genetic screens strains can be isolated in which the toxicity of membrane protein production is reduced, thereby improving production yields. Best known examples are the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, which are both derived...

  1. Isolation and characterization of the E. coli membrane protein production strain Mutant56(DE3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Schlegel, Susan; Wagner, Samuel; Löw, Mirjam; Eriksson, Jonas; Bonde, Ida; Herrgård, Markus J; Heipieper, Hermann J; Nørholm, Morten H H; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2017-01-01

    Membrane protein production is usually toxic to E. coli. However, using genetic screens strains can be isolated in which the toxicity of membrane protein production is reduced, thereby improving production yields. Best known examples are the C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) strains, which are both derived from

  2. DIFFERENTIATION OF BIOMASS COMPOSITION BETWEEN ISOLATED AND COMMERCIAL STRAINS OF MICROALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZURAIFAH BT. MINHAT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass produced from the cultivation of microalgae has many potential in producing high value product. Main objective of this research is to investigate the potential of biomass produced by algae from isolated strains and commercialize strains as well as to compare their potential in producing high quality of biomass. Isolated microalgaestrains used were C. sorokiana (UKM 3 and Characium sp. (UKM 1 extracted from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME and commercial strains used were C. vulgaris and Ankistrodesmus sp.. Results shows that the commercial strain Ankistrodesmus sp has a highest biomass’s weight which is 3.0 g/L, followed by another type of commercial strain, C. vulgaris which is at 2.72g/L and the other two types of isolated strains, C.sorokiniana and Characium sp. both at 2.52g/L and 2.27g/L respectively. For the biomass composition, the highest concentration of protein was found in locally isolated strain, Characium sp. with concentration of 0.52g/L, while for carbohydrates and lipid were found highest in commercial strain, C. vulgaris with concentration at 0.27g/L and 2.07g/L respectively.

  3. Genome Sequence of Lawsonia intracellularis Strain N343, Isolated from a Sow with Hemorrhagic Proliferative Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wilson, Kim; Lainson, F Alex; Longbottom, David; Smith, David G E

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), causing mild or acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in infected animals. Here we report the genome sequence of strain N343, isolated from a sow that died of hemorrhagic PE. N343 contains 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 90 indels compared to the reference strain PHE/MN1-00.

  4. Increasing multidrug resistance in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from children and adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Camorlinga-Ponce, M; Pérez-Pérez, G; Madrazo-De la Garza, A; Dehesa, M; González-Valencia, G; Muñoz, O

    2001-07-01

    The susceptibilities to three antimicrobials of 195 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients is reported; 80% of the strains were resistant to metronidazole, 24% were resistant to clarithromycin, and 18% presented a transient resistance to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials increased significantly from 1995 to 1997.

  5. FERMENTATION OF INULIN BY A NEW STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM-THERMOAUTOTROPHICUM ISOLATED FROM DAHLIA TUBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENT, WJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1991-01-01

    A new inulin-fermenting strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum was isolated through enrichment on dahlia tubers, and subsequent plating on agar media with undissolved inulin. Both the cell-bound and cell-free inulinase(s) functioned optimally at 60-degrees-C and at neutral pH. This new strain I1

  6. Virulence genes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from mastitic milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A; Williamson, J; Cursons, R T

    2004-08-01

    Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative environmental pathogen associated with bovine mastitis was isolated from the milk of 34 symptomatic cows that had been diagnosed with clinical mastitis. Eighty isolates were obtained over a 17-month period and these isolates were screened by DNA amplification for the following E. coli virulence genes: cnf1, cnf2, eaeA, eagg, einv, ltx1, stx1, stx2 and vt2e. Thirty of the bacterial isolates, obtained from 23 different cows, had toxin genes identified in their DNA. The most common virulence gene detected was stx1, with a prevalence of 31%, followed by cnf2 (7.5%), vt2e (6.25%) and eaeA (4%). The possession of different virulence genes by the bacterial isolates had no discernable impact on the health status of the cows as there was no correlation between the potential for toxin production by the E. coli isolates and the systemic clinical condition of the respective infected cows.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a fluoranthene-utilizing strain of Pseudomonas paucimobilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, J G; Chapman, P J; Blattmann, B O; Pritchard, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of utilizing fluoranthene as the sole source of carbon and energy for growth was purified from a seven-member bacterial community previously isolated from a creosote waste site for its ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By standard bacteriological methods, this bacterium was characterized taxonomically as a strain of Pseudomonas paucimobilis and was designated strain EPA505. Utilization of fluoranthene by strain EPA 505 was demonstrated by increase i...

  8. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  9. Isolation, cultivation and molecular characterization of a new Trypanosoma equiperdum strain in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Suganuma, Keisuke; Narantsatsral, Sandagdorj; Battur, Banzragch; Yamasaki, Shino; Otgonsuren, Davaajav; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Battsetseg, Badgar; Inoue, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma equiperdum causes dourine via sexual transmission in Equidae. T. equiperdum is classified under the subgenus Trypanozoon along with the T. brucei sspp. and T. evansi; however, the species classification of Trypanozoon remains a controversial topic due to the limited number of T. equiperdum reference strains. In addition, it is possible that some were misclassified T. evansi strains. Thus, there is a strong need for a new T. equiperdum strain directly isolated from the g...

  10. Characterization of functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İspirli, Hümeyra; Demirbaş, Fatmanur; Dertli, Enes

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the functional properties of Enterococcus faecium strains identified after isolation from human faeces. Of these isolates, strain R13 showed the best resistance to low pH, bile salts, and survival in the simulated in vitro digestion assay, and demonstrated an important level of adhesion to hexadecane as a potential probiotic candidate. Analysis of the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium strains indicated that in general these isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics and no strain appeared to be resistant to vancomycin. Examination of the virulence determinants for E. faecium strains demonstrated that all strains contained the virulence genes common in gut- and food-originated enterococci, and strain R13 harboured the lowest number of virulence genes. Additionally, no strain contained the genes related to cytolysin metabolism and showed hemolytic activity. The antimicrobial role of E. faecium strains was tested against several pathogens, in which different levels of inhibitory effects were observed, and strain R13 was inhibitory to all tested pathogens. PCR screening of genes encoding enterocin A and B indicated the presence of these genes in E. faecium strains. Preliminary characterization of bacteriocins revealed that their activity was lost after proteolytic enzyme treatments, but no alteration in antimicrobial activity was observed at different pHs (3.5 to 9.5) and after heat treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed the functional characteristics of E. faecium R13 as a gut isolate, and this strain could be developed as a new probiotic after further tests.

  11. Antagonistic Activity of Three Newly Isolated Yeast Strains from the Surface of Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortansa Csutak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains isolated from white grapes(strains designated SG1 and SG2 and cherries (strain CPM1 from Romania were tested for antagonistic activity against natural and reference yeasts, fungi and E. coli. The best results were obtained for SG2 strain against the following microbes isolated from natural environments: yeasts Candida tropicalis OT4 and Candida albicans Cc, and fungal strains Botrytis cinerea BCS and BCF1. Using 2 % sodium hydrogen carbonate and 1 or 2 % calcium chloride, antimicrobial activities of strains SG1 and SG2 were maintained or even enhanced, while strain CPM1 was less influenced. Antimicrobial tests revealed four types of colonies and halos of strains SG1, SG2 and CPM1 reflecting differences in iron immobilization under similar growth conditions. Antifungal activity and the level of pigment production increased at 25 °C, and the largest diffusible pigment area was obtained by strain SG2, which altered Botrytis conidia germination and induced modifications of mycelium. Competition for iron seems to be the major mechanism of antagonistic action of our strains, which is reduced/absent under iron chloride addition. Lowering of antifungal activity by heating or proteolytic treatment indicates that a protein might also be involved. The inhibitory activity of yeast supernatants was less important, suggesting a cell-related mechanism. When combined, strains SG1 and SG2 had synergistic activity, which was reduced in the presence of CPM1 due to possible production of an inhibitory compound.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahem Khoshbakht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  13. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Isolation of soil thermophilic strains of actinomycetes for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylase enzyme produced by the strains. Extraction of α-amylase was done in liquid medium. The assay was observed by measuring the release of reducing sugar (RS) by 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and expressed in International ...

  15. methoxyethanol by a new bacterium isolate Pseudomonas sp. Strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    at room temperature by using a Clark - Type electrode Model 10 Ranke Brothers, Birmingham,. Great Britain) ... strain VB was determined with Clarke-Type electrode. Briefly, 3ml of 50mM phosphate buffer. (pH 7.2) was ... Aerobic transformation of 2 – methoxyethanol and hypothetical pathways intermediates: Studies of the.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new Pseudomonas- related strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... bacterial strains from phenol-formaldehyde resin manufacturing industrial wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater. B127:238-243. Ausubel FM , Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA,. Struhl K(1995). Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. Greene. Publishing Associates/Wiley Interscience, New ...

  17. Isolation of soil thermophilic strains of actinomycetes for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... proportional to the amount of α-amylase enzyme produced by the strains. Extraction of α-amylase was done in liquid medium. The assay was observed by measuring the release of reducing sugar (RS) by 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method and expressed in International Units (IU). The thermophilic ...

  18. Isolation and Identification of a Brevibacterium linens strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It showed tyrosine clearing and had meso-DAP as the characteristic cell wall amino acid. On the basis of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests the organism was identified as Brevibacterium linens. To our knowledge, this is the first report of any Brevibacterium strain able to degrade PNP. African Journal of ...

  19. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... has been Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This yeast also has the ability to produce ethanol which is not contaminated by other products from the substrate. Banana peels are readily available agricultural waste in. Nigeria, yet they seem to be underutilized as potential growth medium for local yeast strains, ...

  20. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Hopwood et al., 1985). Morphological characteristics. The micro morphology of the strain was carried out using a scan- ning electron microscope Philips XL 30 ESEM-FEG (Philips Optique. Electronique, Limeil Brévannes, FRANCE). The sample used for observation has been cultured for 14 days on Yeast ...

  1. Many globally isolated AD hybrid strains of Cryptococcus neoformans originated in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific and intervarietal hybridization may contribute to the biological diversity of fungal populations. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and the most common fungal cause of meningitis in patients with AIDS. Most patients are infected with either of the two varieties of C. neoformans, designated as serotype A (C. neoformans var. grubii or serotype D (C. neoformans var. neoformans. In addition, serotype AD strains, which are hybrids of these two varieties, are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. While most isolates of serotype A and serotype D are haploid, AD strains are diploid or aneuploid, and contain two sets of chromosomes and two mating type alleles, MATa and MATalpha, one from each of the serotypes. The global population of serotype A is dominated by isolates with the MATalpha mating type (Aalpha; however, about half of the globally analyzed AD strains possess the extremely rare serotype A MATa allele (Aa. We previously described an unusual population of serotype A in Botswana, in which 25% of the strains contain the rare MATa allele. Here we utilized two methods, phylogenetic analysis of three genes and genotyping by scoring amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and discovered that AD hybrid strains possessing the rare serotype A MATa allele (genotype AaDalpha cluster with isolates of serotype A from Botswana, whereas AD hybrids that possess the MATalpha serotype A allele (AalphaDa and AalphaDalpha cluster with cosmopolitan isolates of serotype A. We also determined that AD hybrid strains are more resistant to UV irradiation than haploid serotype A strains from Botswana. These findings support two hypotheses: (i AaDalpha strains originated in sub-Saharan Africa from a cross between strains of serotypes A and D; and (ii this fusion produced hybrid strains with increased fitness, enabling the Botswanan serotype A MATa genome, which is otherwise geographically restricted, to survive, emigrate

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Novel Low-Abundance Species Strains Isolated from Kefir Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyu; Blasche, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of three novel bacterial species strains—Bacillus kefirresidentii Opo, Rothia kefirresidentii KRP, and Streptococcus kefirresidentii YK—isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. The draft genomes of these isolates were remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identities, 77.80%, 89.01%, and 92.10%, respectively) to those of the previously sequenced strains. PMID:28963201

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve CECT 7263, a strain isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Villar-Tajadura, M Antonia; Marín, María; Fontecha, Javier; Requena, Teresa; Arroyo, Rebeca; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-07-01

    Bifidobacterium breve is an actinobacterium frequently isolated from colonic microbiota of breastfeeding babies. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of a B. breve strain isolated from human milk, B. breve CECT 7263. The genome sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this potential probiotic organism and will allow the characterization of genes related to beneficial properties.

  4. Colorful microdiversity of Synechococcus strains (picocyanobacteria) isolated from the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, T.H.A.; Schouten, D.; Doeleman, M.; Wollenzien, U.; Huisman, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Synechococcus is a cosmopolitan genus of picocyanobacteria living in the photic zone of freshwater and marine ecosystems. Here, we describe the isolation of 46 closely related picocyanobacterial strains from the Baltic Sea. The isolates showed considerable variation in their cell size and

  5. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  6. SELECTION OF INDIGENOUS YEAST STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CV. GEWURZTRAMINER FROM ILOK WINEGROWING REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora DUJMOVIĆ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 36 indigenous strains belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex isolated from the variety of Gewurztraminer from Ilok winegrowing region were tested with the purpose of making top-quality wines. Microfermentation was applied in order to examine the synthesis of ethyl alcohol and volatile acidity. Killer factor, synthesis of pectinase, ß-glucosidase and H2S was determined in isolated yeast strains. In the selection results, strains RO 1344, RO 1351, RO 1364 were the best evaluated and they should be examined in midifermentation.

  7. [Molecular typing of 12 Brucella strains isolated in Guizhou province in 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jingzhu; Li, Shijun; Hang, Yan; Tang, Guangpeng; Wang, Dingming; Chen, Guichun

    2015-09-01

    To identify and characterize the Brucella strains from Guizhou province in 2010-2013. A total of 12 strains of Brucella suspicious bacteria were isolated in Guizhou province from 2010 to 2013. Four strains (GZLL3, GZLL4, GZLL11 and SH2) were isolated from goat blood samples and eight strains (SH4, GZZY, GZSQ, GZZA, BR13001, BR13004, BR13005 and BR13006) were isolated from blood samples of patient 12 Brucella suspicious strains were identified and characterized using conventional methods. Brucella genus specific gene BCSP31-based PCR (BCSP31-PCR) was used to identify the genus of Brucella and IS711 insert sequence-based PCR (AMOS-PCR) was applied to identify the species of Brucella strains. Goats and patients originated Brucella strains were comparatively analysed using Pulse-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both of conventional methods and PCR identified the 12 Brucella suspicious strains as B. melitensis biotype 3. BCSP31-PCR identification results showed that a specific DNA bands (223 bp) were detected in all the 12 strains and positive control samples with no DNA band in negative samples. AMOS-PCR amplified a 731 bp-DNA bands in all the 12 strains, with 731 bp, 498 bp and 275 bp in M5, S2 and A19 strains, respectively, and no DNA band was detected in the negative control samples. PFGE analysis showed that 12 Brucella isolates from patients and goats showed consistent PFGE patterns with the digestion of restriction enzyme Xba I. The epidemic species/type of Brucella in both human and animal in Guizhou province was B. melitensis biotype 3 and goat was the main animal source of infection of brucellosis in Guizhou province.

  8. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Sonia Q; Kimbason, Tara; Reindel, James; Dubois, Andre

    2005-06-15

    We recently reported the occurrence of natural infection with H. pylori in a group of cynomolgus monkeys with chronic active gastritis and gastric erosions. The goal of the present study was to characterize and to compare strains isolated from animals originating from two different geographical areas. Gross and microscopic pathology determined at the time of necropsy was similar in all animals. H. pylori were isolated from specimens harvested in five monkeys (four from Vietnam and one from the Philippines) with gastritis. Isolates from monkeys bred in Vietnam had a similar DNA fingerprint pattern, which was distinct from that of isolates from a monkey bred in the Philippines. All strains were of the s1a vacA subtype, but all the 'Vietnamese' strains were cagA+ and all but one were iceA1 whereas the 'Philippino' strains were cagA- and iceA2. The sequences of the 16S rRNA of the Vietnamese and Philippino strains shared 98% homology and both clustered with H. pylori sequences present in the NCBI database. In conclusion, cynomolgus monkeys can be naturally colonized by H. pylori, and the strains isolated from these animals appear to vary according to the geographical origin, thus indicating probable infection prior to importation. Since some of the cynomolgus monkeys developed antral erosions during natural infection, we propose that this animal model may be used to investigate the role of H. pylori in ulcerogenesis.

  9. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668) and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669). Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  10. Widespread pyocyanin over-production among isolates of a cystic fibrosis epidemic strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Joanne L; Panagea, Stavroula; Hart, Charles A; Walshaw, Martin J; Pitt, Tyrone L; Winstanley, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Some isolates of the Liverpool cystic fibrosis epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit an unusual virulence-related phenotype, characterized by over-production of quorum sensing-regulated exoproducts such as pyocyanin and LasA protease. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of this unusual phenotype amongst isolates of the epidemic strain, and to study other intraclonal phenotypic and genotypic variations. Results The unusual phenotype was detected in at least one epidemic strain isolate from the majority of cystic fibrosis patients tested, and can be retained for up to seven years during chronic infection. Multiple sequential isolates of the epidemic strain taken from six patients over a period of up to nine years exhibited a wide range of phenotypes, including different antimicrobial susceptibilities. Our data suggest that each sputum sample contains a mixture of phenotypes and genotypes within the epidemic strain population, including within colony morphotypes. Many isolates exhibit premature (during early rather than late exponential growth) and over-production of pyocyanin, which has a number of toxic effects directly relevant to cystic fibrosis. Conclusion The widespread occurrence of this unusual phenotype suggests that it may play an important role in the success of the epidemic strain. PMID:17521417

  11. Widespread pyocyanin over-production among isolates of a cystic fibrosis epidemic strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Tyrone L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some isolates of the Liverpool cystic fibrosis epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibit an unusual virulence-related phenotype, characterized by over-production of quorum sensing-regulated exoproducts such as pyocyanin and LasA protease. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of this unusual phenotype amongst isolates of the epidemic strain, and to study other intraclonal phenotypic and genotypic variations. Results The unusual phenotype was detected in at least one epidemic strain isolate from the majority of cystic fibrosis patients tested, and can be retained for up to seven years during chronic infection. Multiple sequential isolates of the epidemic strain taken from six patients over a period of up to nine years exhibited a wide range of phenotypes, including different antimicrobial susceptibilities. Our data suggest that each sputum sample contains a mixture of phenotypes and genotypes within the epidemic strain population, including within colony morphotypes. Many isolates exhibit premature (during early rather than late exponential growth and over-production of pyocyanin, which has a number of toxic effects directly relevant to cystic fibrosis. Conclusion The widespread occurrence of this unusual phenotype suggests that it may play an important role in the success of the epidemic strain.

  12. Selection of oleuropein-degrading lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from fermenting Moroccan green olives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Cidalia, P.; Markaouid, M.; Asehraoua, A.

    2011-07-01

    A total of 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from early-stage Moroccan Picholine green olive fermentation, including Lactobacillus plantarum (44.63%), Lactobacillus pentosus (25.99%), Lactobacillus brevis (9.61%) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (19.77%). All the isolates were screened for their tolerance to olive leaf extract and oleuropein. Most of the isolates (85.3%) were found able to degrade oleuropein, when evaluated by either oleuropein or 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl {beta}-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) as substrates. The biodegradation capacity of the selected strains of each species was confirmed by HPLC analysis. (Author).

  13. Spa typing and identification of pvl genes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a Libyan hospital in Tripoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed O; Baptiste, Keith E; Daw, Mohamed A; Elramalli, Asma K; Abouzeed, Yousef M; Petersen, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from clinical sources in Tripoli, Libya. A total of 95 MRSA strains collected at the Tripoli medical Centre were investigated by spa typing and identification of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) genes. A total of 26 spa types were characterized and distributed among nine clonal complexes; CC5 (n=32), CC80 (n=18), CC8 (n=17) and CC22 (n=12) were the most prevalent clonal complexes. In total, 34% of the isolates were positive for PVL. This study demonstrated the presence of CA-MRSA and pvl positive strains in hospital settings and underlines the importance of using molecular typing to investigate the epidemiology of MRSA. Preventative measures and surveillance systems are needed to control and minimize the spread of MRSA in the Libyan health care system. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacteriological Typing of C. Diphtheriae Strains Recently Isolated in Teheran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esterabady

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available From a total of 600 nose and throat introduction swabs examined for diphtherie, 200 or 33% were positive. Cultures were carfully classified on the basis of morphological appearance and biochemical characteristics into Gravis, Mitis and Intermedius groups.  A special tellurite serum agar was used for colonial appearance. Neill's broth culture was employed for haemolytic tests. The virulence of each culture was examined in laboratory animals by the agar gel precipitation method of Elek. From 200 cultures tested, 138 or 69% were gravis, 5 or 2.5% were intermedius, and 57 or 28% were mitis. 'I'hre.e strains of gravis type and one strain of mitis type were avirulent

  15. Characterization of Streptomyces strain SLO-105 isolated from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Actinomycetes represent a large group of Gram- positive filamentous bacteria that currently comprises over forty genera and hundreds of species among which is the important Streptomyces genus (Watve et al., 2001). Members of this group have been isolated from different soils, plant materials, waters and ...

  16. Characterization of Rhizobium strain isolated from the roots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... biofertilizer. Key words: Fenugreek, rhizobium isolation, biochemical analysis, immobilization, enzyme production. INTRODUCTION. Nutrient enrichment of soils by nitrogen fixing symbiotic bacteria present in legumes has been known for cen- turies. Scientific demonstration of this symbiosis was started in ...

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of a Serratia strain from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... suitable agar dishes and used in further experiments. Biochemical tests were selectively done according to the standards in Bergey's. Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (second ed) and The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria (third ed). The isolated colonies were differentiated by colonial ...

  18. Production Of Α-Galactosidase From Local Isolated Strain Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α- Galactosidase was detected in the culture media of Bacillus circulans isolated from soil of (plants Island in Aswan). The optimum condition for growth and enzyme production were determined where the optimum pH was 6.5 to 7and incubation temperatures was 35 to 40ºC. Maximum activity of α-galactosidase in the ...

  19. Two novel EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains isolated from human infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prager

    Full Text Available The so far highest number of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome was associated with a food-borne outbreak in 2011 in Germany which was caused by an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the rare serotype O104:H4. Most importantly, the outbreak strain harbored genes characteristic of both EHEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. Such strains have been described seldom but due to the combination of virulence genes show a high pathogenicity potential. To evaluate the importance of EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains in human disease, we analyzed the EHEC strain collection of the German National Reference Centre for Salmonella and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens (NRC. After exclusion of O104:H4 EHEC/EAEC strains, out of about 2400 EHEC strains sent to NRC between 2008 and 2012, two strains exhibited both EHEC and EAEC marker genes, specifically were stx2 and aatA positive. Like the 2011 outbreak strain, one of the novel EHEC/EAEC harbored the Shiga toxin gene type stx2a. The strain was isolated from a patient with bloody diarrhea in 2010, was serotyped as O59:H-, belonged to MLST ST1136, and exhibited genes for type IV aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF. The second strain was isolated from a patient with diarrhea in 2012, harbored stx2b, was typed as Orough:H-, and belonged to MLST ST26. Although the strain conferred the aggregative adherence phenotype, no known AAF genes corresponding to fimbrial types I to V were detected. In summary, EHEC/EAEC hybrid strains are currently rarely isolated from human disease cases in Germany and two novel EHEC/EAEC of rare serovars/MLST sequence types were characterized.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium setense Type Strain DSM-45070 and the Nonpathogenic Strain Manresensis, Isolated from the Bank of the Cardener River in Manresa, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Gabriel; Vilaplana, Cristina; Velasco, Juan; Pluvinet, Raquel; Santín, Sheila; Prat, Cristina; Julián, Esther; Alcaide, Fernando; Comas, Iñaki; Sumoy, Lauro; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2015-02-05

    We present here the draft genome sequences of two Mycobacterium setense strains. One of them corresponds to the M. setense type strain DSM-45070, originally isolated from a patient with a posttraumatic chronic skin abscess. The other one corresponds to the nonpathogenic M. setense strain Manresensis, isolated from the Cardener River crossing Manresa, Catalonia, Spain. A comparative genomic analysis shows a smaller genome size and fewer genes in M. setense strain Manresensis relative to those of the type strain, and it shows the genome segments unique to each strain. Copyright © 2015 Rech et al.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutheina Gargouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Mhiri, Najla; Karray, Fatma; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Two yeast strains are enriched and isolated from industrial refinery wastewater. These strains were observed for their ability to utilize several classes of petroleum hydrocarbons substrates, such as n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. Phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 variable domain and the ITS-region sequences indicated that strains HC1 and HC4 were members of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, respectively. The mechanism of hydrocarbon uptaking by yeast, Candida, and Trichosporon has been studied by means of the kinetic analysis of hydrocarbons-degrading yeasts growth and substrate assimilation. Biodegradation capacity and biomass quantity were daily measured during twelve days by gravimetric analysis and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry techniques. Removal of n-alkanes indicated a strong ability of hydrocarbon biodegradation by the isolated yeast strains. These two strains grew on long-chain n-alkane, diesel oil, and crude oil but failed to grow on short-chain n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons. Growth measurement attributes of the isolates, using n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and crude oil as substrates, showed that strain HC1 had better degradation for hydrocarbon substrates than strain HC4. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process and decreasing petroleum pollution in wastewater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  3. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular identification of Fonsecaea pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolina Rojas, O; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; Pérez-Maya, Antonio Alí; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Moreno-Treviño, María G; González, Gloria M

    2015-05-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused frequently by fungi of the Fonsecaea genus. The objective of this study was the phenotypic and molecular identification of F. pedrosoi strains isolated from chromoblastomycosis patients in Mexico and Venezuela. Ten strains were included in this study. For phenotypic identification, we used macroscopic and microscopic morphologies, carbohydrate assimilation test, urea hydrolysis, cixcloheximide tolerance, proteolitic activity and the thermotolerance test. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated against the isolates. Molecular identification was performed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA regions of the isolated strains. The physiological analysis and morphological features were variable and the precise identification was not possible. All isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine, voriconazole and posaconazole. Amphotericin B was the least effective drug. The alignment of the 559-nucleotide ITS sequences from our strains compared with sequences of GenBank revealed high homology with F. pedrosoi (EU285266.1). In this study, all patients were from rural areas, six from Mexico and four from Venezuela. Ten isolates were identified by phenotypic and molecular analysis, using ITS sequence and demonstrated that nine isolates from Mexico and Venezuela were 100% homologous and one isolate showed a small genetic distance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Phylogeny of bacteria isolated from Rhabditis sp. (Nematoda) and identification of novel entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T

    2013-02-01

    Twenty-five bacterial strains isolated from entomopathogenic nematodes were characterized to the genus level by 16S rRNA phylogeny and BLAST analyses. Bacteria strains isolated could be affiliated with seven genera. Microbacterium-like isolates phylogenetically affiliated with M. oxydans while those of Serratia were highly similar to S. marcescens. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus isolates matched those of both B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanesis. One isolate each matched Pseudomonas mosselii, Rheinheimera aquimaris, Achromobacter marplatensis, or Staphylococcus hominis. Serratia isolates were examined further for their pathogenicity to Galleria mellonella larvae. All the Serratia isolates exhibited potent pathogenicity toward G. mellonella larvae and possessed a metalloprotease gene encoding for a novel serralysin-like protein. The nucleotide sequence of the metalloprotease gene had 60 synonymous and 8 nonsynonymous substitutions when compared to the closest genBank entry, S. marcescens E-15, with an insertion of a new aspartic acid residue. Tajima's test for equality of evolutionary rate was significant between the metalloprotease gene sequence of S. marcescens strain DOAB 216-82 (this study) and strain E-15. This new insecticidal metalloprotease gene and/or its product could have applications in agricultural biotechnology.

  6. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggia, C; De Angelis, M; Pitino, I; Pino, A; Randazzo, C L

    2015-09-01

    In the present study 177 Lactobacillus spp. strains, isolated from Ragusano and Pecorino Siciliano cheeses, were in vitro screened for probiotic traits, and their characteristics were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, commercial strain. Based on acidic and bile salt resistance, thirteen Lactobacillus strains were selected. The multiplex-PCR application revealed that nine strains belonged to L. rhamnosus species and four to Lactobacillus paracasei species. All selected strains were further investigated for transit tolerance in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract (GI), for adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines, for hydrophobicity, for co-aggregation and auto-aggregation and for antimicrobial activities. Moreover, antibiotic resistance, hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities were investigated for safety assessment. Viable counts after simulated gastric and duodenal transit revealed that overall the selected lactobacilli tolerated better pancreatic juice and bile salts than acidic juice. In particular, three L. rhamnosus strains (FS10, FS2, and PS11) and one L. paracasei strain (PM8) increased their cell density after the simulated GI transit. The same strains showed also high percentage of auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with Escherichia coli. All strains were effective against both Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli and variability was achieved versus Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis used as pathogenic indicator strains. Different behavior was revealed by strains for adhesion ability and hydrophobicity, which are not always linked each other and are strongly strain-dependent. From the safety point of view, no isolate showed hemolytic and bile salt hydrolase activities, except one, and most of the strains were sensitive to a broad range of clinical antibiotics. This work showed that the L. rhamnosus FS10 and the L. paracasei PM8 are good promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo investigations

  7. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID BY PENICILLIUM CAMEMBERTI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CAMEMBERT TYPE CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate the strains of fungi from Camembert type cheese, identify them and to test isolated strains of Penicillium camemberti for their ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid. The description of micro- and macromorphological features was used for identification of Penicillium camemberti strains. Strains were subsequently in vitro tested on their potential ability to produce mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA. All of the 14 strains of Penicillium camemberti, which were obtained from 20 samples of Camembert type cheese, were cultivated 7, 14, 21, 27 and 30 days on CYA medium at 10±1°C, 15±1°C and 25±1°C in the dark. For determination of CPA production ability by P. camemberti isolates in vitro was TLC used. After 7 days of cultivation cyclopiazonic acid was produced only by 5 from 14 strains cultivated at all cultivation temperatures. After 14 and 21 days of cultivation was CPA produced by 6 strains at all of cultivation temperatures. After 27 and 30 days of cultivation was CPA identified in 7 strains cultivated at all temperatures of cultivation. The other strains also produced mycotoxin, however, not at each temperature. The most productive at all temperatures and after all days were 5 out of 14 tested strains (S9, S10, S13, S18 and S19. Strains S6 and S16 did not produce CPA at any temperature. The lowest production after all days of cultivation was found at 10±1 °C (44% and the highest at 25±1 °C (85%.

  8. Draft genome sequences of eight bacteria isolated from the indoor environment: Staphylococcus capitis strain H36, S. capitis strain H65, S. cohnii strain H62, S. hominis strain H69, Microbacterium sp. strain H83, Mycobacterium iranicum strain H39, Plantibacter sp. strain H53, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans strain H72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Coil, David A; Schichnes, Denise; Lindow, Steven E; Jospin, Guillaume; Eisen, Jonathan A; Adams, Rachel I

    2017-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of eight bacterial strains of the genera Staphylococcus, Microbacterium, Mycobacterium, Plantibacter, and Pseudomonas. These isolates were obtained from aerosol sampling of bathrooms of five residences in the San Francisco Bay area. Taxonomic classifications as well as the genome sequence and gene annotation of the isolates are described. As part of the "Built Environment Reference Genome" project, these isolates and associated genome data provide valuable resources for studying the microbiology of the built environment.

  9. Isolation and identification of a distinct strain of Culex Flavivirus from mosquitoes collected in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culexflavivirus (CxFV is an insect specific virus that has been isolated from Culexpipiens, Culexquinquefasciatus, Culextritaeniorhynchus and other Culex mosquitoes. It is a novel flavivirus isolated in Asia, North America, Central America and Africa. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, based on the envelope gene (E gene sequence, the worldwide CxFV strains can be divided into two genotypes. Result A virus (SDDM06-11 was isolated from Culexpipiens collected in Shandong Province, China in 2006. The strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE in Aedesalbopictus (C6/36 cells by 3 days post-infection and immunofluorescence assay (IFA showed a reaction with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV polyclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis of the E gene sequence showed CxFV formed two genotypes with the SDDM06-11 strain assigned to genotype 1. Analysis of the E gene nucleotide homology showed the virus possessed characteristic amino acids at specific sites. The nucleotide homology of the open reading frame (ORF was 94.8%-95.1% between SDDM06-11 and isolates from Japan, Iowa and Texas, and 90.2%-90.5% between SDDM06-11 and isolates from Uganda and Mexico. Conclusion In this paper we report the first isolation and identification of an isolate of CxFV in mainland China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the isolate belongs to genotype 1. Our findings provide insight into the occurrence of CxFV in Culex mosquito populations and its distribution on a global scale.

  10. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation from cattle of a prion strain distinct from that causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Béringue

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE and its human counterpart, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, have been associated with a single prion strain. This strain is characterised by a unique and remarkably stable biochemical profile of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res isolated from brains of affected animals or humans. However, alternate PrP(res signatures in cattle have recently been discovered through large-scale screening. To test whether these also represent separate prion strains, we inoculated French cattle isolates characterised by a PrP(res of higher apparent molecular mass--called H-type--into transgenic mice expressing bovine or ovine PrP. All mice developed neurological symptoms and succumbed to these isolates, showing that these represent a novel strain of infectious prions. Importantly, this agent exhibited strain-specific features clearly distinct from that of BSE agent inoculated to the same mice, which were retained on further passage. Moreover, it also differed from all sheep scrapie isolates passaged so far in ovine PrP-expressing mice. Our findings therefore raise the possibility that either various prion strains may exist in cattle, or that the BSE agent has undergone divergent evolution in some animals.

  12. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory probiotic strains isolated from pulque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Maravilla, Edgar; Lenoir, Marion; Mayorga-Reyes, Lino; Allain, Thibault; Sokol, Harry; Langella, Philippe; Sánchez-Pardo, María E; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host. Their use is more and more widespread for both prevention and treatment of diseases, including traveler’s diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In this work, we isolated and characterized novel candidate probiotic strains from pulque (xaxtle), a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage. A total of 14 strains were obtained from xaxtle samples isolated from three different Mexican regions. Species identification was performed by biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene targeted PCR. The isolates belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus composti phylogenetic groups, with L. brevis being the most dominant group. Bacteria were tested for lysozyme, low pH, and bile acid resistance. Moreover, the strains were tested for adherence to human intestinal epithelial cells and screened for their immunomodulatory properties using a cellular model. Selected bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory properties were then tested in vivo in a dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model, and weight loss, gut permeability, and cytokine profiles were measured as readouts of inflammation. One of the selected strains, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LBH1068, improved mice health as observed by a reduction of weight loss, significant decreases in gut permeability, and cytokine modulation. Altogether, our results highlighted the potential of lactobacilli isolated from pulque and in particular the strain L. sanfranciscensis LBH1068 as a novel probiotic to treat IBD.

  13. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 1A Strains Isolated from Swine Slaughterhouses and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paixão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%, and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%. Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  14. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Renata; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Sena de Gobbi, Débora Dirani; Raimundo, Daniele Cristine; Hofer, Ernesto; Matté, Maria Helena; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; de Moura Gomes, Vasco Tulio; Costa, Barbara Leticia Pereira; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is an important foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. Y. enterocolitica is also the most heterogeneous species of the genus and is divided into distinct serotypes and over six biotypes. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains are classically considered as nonpathogenic; however, some biotype 1A isolates have been considered as causative of gastrointestinal disease, yielding symptoms indistinguishable from those produced by pathogenic biotypes. Even after decades of isolation of clinical strains, the pathogenic mechanisms of these isolates are still not fully understood. In the present study, 122 Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were characterized according to the presence of the virulence genes ail, virF, and ystA. A total of 94 strains were positive to at least one virulence gene (77.05%), and 67 were positive to all of them (54.92%). Twenty-two strains were submitted to PFGE genotyping resulting in 22 distinct pulsotypes, varying from 50% to 84% of genetic similarity. Any clustering tendency among pulsotypes related to origin, isolation site, or even virulence profile was not observed. The present study reports an important contamination of the environment in swine slaughterhouses, meat markets, and pork, by potentially virulent Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A.

  15. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267 kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.

  16. Biochemical and serological characterization of mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Adewole, I F

    2006-06-01

    Fifty-five (55) Mycoplasma strains isolated from the genital tracts of humans were biochemically characterized using various biochemical tests and also serologically identified by growth inhibition technique using 5 mycoplasma antisera namely M. hominis PG2 1: M. genitalium G37: M. penetrans GTU54 and 2 strains of M. fermentans PG18 (HRC 6-62-S-170 and MB713-501-069). Biochemically, 43 (78.2%) strains were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, 8 (14.5%) strains as M. fermentans and 4 (7.3%) as M. penetrans. The M. hominis strains hydrolyzed only arginine while the M. fermentans and M. penetrans strains in addition to arginine hydrolysis also broke down glucose fermentatively and oxidatively. The M. fermentans strains showed varying reactions to phosphatase activity and to the reduction of tetrazolium chloride. Serologically, 4 (7.3%) mycoplasma strains were confirmed as M. penetrans GTU54 and of the 8 M. fermentans strains, 4 (7.3%) were identified as M. fermentans PG18 serotype HRC 6-62-S-170 and the other 4 (7.3%) as M. fermentans PG18 serotype MB 713-501-069. Only 13 (30.2%) of the 43 M. hominis strains were identified as M. hominis serotype PG2 1. None was identified as M. genitalium. The heterogeneity of the mycoplasma strains especially M. hominis was observed in this study and the need for the use of multiple antisera in growth inhibition test is hereby supported.

  17. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, from the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes disease in plants and humans (premature and immunocompromised persons of all age groups. The goal of this study was to isolate and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula (PIF milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU ward. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 125 consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward were surveyed. Isolation and Identification of microorganisms was carried out according to FDA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the standard disc diffusion method based on CLSI (2011 recommendations. Results: Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from 2 (1.6% of 125 PIF milk samples. The results showed that isolated strains are sensitive to most antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Conclusion: Since the infant formula (PIF samples are unsterile products and contamination could occure during different steps, it is imperative to prepare the infant formula milk foods according to the manufacturer’s instruction and in an aseptic condition. Contamination of PIF only could be reduced or prevented by monitoring the critical control points and taking appropriate action during the processing.

  18. Molecular Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance among Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Hospital Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadiyeh Abdollahi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of staphylococcal infections. They prevent the microbial protein synthesis system through binding to 23 S rRNA. The aim of this study was to apply molecular methods to detect inducible clindamycin resistance genes among staphylococcal strains isolated from clinical specimens.   Methods : Two hundred staphylococcus strains were isolated from nose and throat swabs of patients in Toohid and Besat hospitals in Sanandaj . Antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates were determined using disc diffusion method, agar screen test and D-Test. A multiplex PCR was performed using primers specific for erm (A, B, C, TR genes.   Results: Out of 200 isolates, 18.5 % were MRSA and 32% were MRCNS (methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci. Of 80 erythromycin resistant isolates, 48 were coagulase negative and 32 were S. aureus. Among the 48 coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS isolates, 11.63% expressed the MLSB-inducible phenotypes. Using PCR, the frequency of different genes in the collection of isolates were as follows: ermA 5.41 % , erm B 5.41 % , and erm C 3.13%. The ermTR gene was negative in all isolates. Among the 32 S. aureus isolates, 9.38% expressed the MLSB-nducible phenotype. Using PCR, these isolates harbored erm A (2.22%, ermB (2.22%, ermC (2.22% and ermTR (2.22% .   Conclusion: This is the first study to show the rate of inducible clindamycin clinical isolates of staphylococci harboring erm genes in Sananadaj. It also demonstrated the frequency of erm genes was higher among CONS isolates than S. aureus. This data suggested the transfer of resistance gene from nonpathogenic to pathogenic strains is likely to happen. Therefore, screening and control of these resistance genes is recommended at clinical laboratories.

  19. [Drug susceptibility and homologous analysis on Corynebacterium striatum strains isolated from inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junrui; Du, Xiaoli; Cui, Jinghua; Guo, Sufang; Fu, Quan; Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Wenbing; Han, Yanqiu

    2014-08-26

    To explore the molecular epidemiological features and in vitro susceptibility profile of Corynebacterium striatum strains isolated from different sites of inpatients, and further provide new data and idea for clinicians to better get knowledge of the clinical significance of Corynebacterium striatum. Fourty-five strains of Corynebacterium striatum isolated from different sites of inpatients from November, 2013 to March, 2014 in Affiliated hospital of Inner Mongolian medical university, and microdilution method was employed to do in vitro antibiotics susceptibility test. Saline-cotton swab method was used to sample the surrounding environmental surfaces for Corynebacterium striatum carrying patients, and suspected colonies were further identified and in vitro drug susceptibility test were performed. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis(PFGE) method was used to do molecular typing for 41 isolates of Corynebacterium striatum. Fourty-five isolates of Corynebacterium striatum strains were mainly isolated from neurosurgical unit(21 isolates), respiratory unit(8 isolates) and intensive care unit(8 isolates), 39 isolates of which were isolated from lower respiratory tract. The 45 isolates presented an aggregate distribution in the following 3 months, which were December 2013, January 2014 and February 2014.In vitro antibiotics susceptibility test showed that MIC90 for penecillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and clindamycin were 64 µg/ml or higher and the MIC90 for gentamicin, vancomycin and rifampicin were all 0.5 µg/ml. Only one isolate was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested, except clindamycin. PFGE typing results showed that 41 isolates were divided into 7 genotypes, among which 0002 type and 0006 type were the predominant types and accounted for 63% (26/41) and 22% (9/41), respectively. The isolates from different patients showed high homology, which were isolated from the same unit during the same periods.For surrounding surfaces sampling

  20. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens Strains Isolated from Healthy and Necrotic Enteritis-Afflicted Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Charles; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Gadde, Ujvala Deepthi; Ritter, Don; Oh, SungTaek

    2017-06-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important enteric disease in poultry, and Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A strains are the primary etiology. NE is responsible for annual losses of US $6 billion to the poultry industry in the United States. An increase in the incidence of NE has been also associated with withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry feed. In this study, CP strains isolated from healthy and NE-afflicted birds were characterized microbiologically and molecularly, and their virulence was experimentally tested in chickens. All strains were hemolytic, lecithinase positive, and identified as CP by biochemical tests. Three distinct colony morphologies were seen in brain-heart infusion media with 0.3% agarose, FeSO 4 , and ZnCl 2 . The CP strains responded differently to iron chelation with 2,2'-bidypinol. PCR toxinotyping showed that all tested strains were alpha toxin-positive, seven (N11, N10, CP1, CP5, CP13, JGS, and Del1) were beta2-toxin-positive, and only one (Del1) was necrotic enteritis toxin B-like-positive. In vivo studies indicated that most isolates, including strain N11 isolated from the normal chicken gut, were sufficiently virulent to produce NE disease in the Eimeria/CP dual infection model. The Del1 and N11 strains merit further investigation to identify their virulence factors and immune-protective antigens.

  1. UPEC strain characterization isolated from Mexican patients with recurrent urinary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Hernandez-Castro, Rigoberto; Delgado, Gabriela; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Manjarrez, Angel; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2016-04-28

    Any microorganism is capable of causing urinary tract infections (UTI). However, Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of UTI. A variety of virulence genes have been identified in UPEC. Diverse epidemiological studies support that specific subsets of genes are characteristic of each E. coli uropathogenic subtype involved in the development of cystitis, pyelonephritis, and urosepsis. Twenty-three E. coli strains isolated from women with cystitis, 25 from men with prostatitis were characterized according to serotype, virulence genes, PFGE profile and susceptibility antimicrobials. E. coli O25:H4-ST131 was more frequently isolated from cystitis than prostatitis. The majority of cystitis strains presented almost all the virulence genes, contrary to 60% of prostatitis strains. The strains characterized by serology, PFGE and MLST and virulence profile showed that cystitis strains shared a lineage with their own genomic fingerprint, indicating that these strains derived from a common ancestor. The prostatitis strains showed serotypes diverse and much higher degree of genetic diversity, indicating that they are an unrelated group.  More than 50% of isolates were resistant to at least 7 of the antimicrobials tested. Antibiotic-tolerant cells were observed, presenting with more frequency in response chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfometoxazole and dicloxicillin. Persister cells can be detected from the beginning of the infection. The importance of these persister cells that exhibit multidrug tolerance is that a single surviving bacterium can initiate again an infection making it clinical relevant in the chronic urinary tract infection.

  2. Genotypes of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from dogs in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Passaro, Diego; Samartino, Luis; Soncini, Analía; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of wide global distribution, which is endemic in Argentina. The objective of this study was to obtain the genetic profiles of Leptospira spp. strains isolated from clinical cases of dogs in the province of Buenos Aires by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Eight isolated canine strains were genotyped by MLVA, obtaining the identical profile of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola Hond Utrecht IV in the strains named Dogy and Mayo. The strains named Bel, Sarmiento, La Plata 4581 and La Plata 5478 were identical to the profile of the genotype of L. interrogans serovar Portlandvere MY 1039.The strain named Avellaneda was identical to the genotype profile of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae RGA and the strain named SB had the same profile as the L. interrogans serovar Pomona Baires genotype and was similar to the profile of serovar Pomona Pomona genotype. It would be useful to include a larger number of isolates from different dog populations in various provinces of Argentina and to characterize the genetic profiles of the strains circulating in the country. The information obtained will be useful for the control of leptospirosis in the dog population. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we monitored antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from different animals gastrointestinal tracts  (GIT. We isolated Enterobacteriaceae from chicken, ducks, lambs, pigs, sheeps, cows and rabbits collected from slovakian farms. Enterobacteriaceae strains were cultivated on MacConkey agar at 35° ± 2°C at 24 hours. Pure cultures of Enterobacteriaceae strains were obtained by four-way streak method on Chromogenic coliform agar. Identification of purified Enterobacteriaceae strains were done by Enterotest 24 and MALDI TOF MS. For susceptibility testing disk diffusion method was used according by EUCAST. We determined the most resistance in Enterobacteriaceae strains against streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, piperecillin, levofloxacine, chloramphenicol and smaller level of resistance against amikacin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacine. Equally we detected resistance to more antibiotics in one strain. The most resistance was Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Also E. coli was resistance against four antibiotics and Raoultella ornithinolytica too. Antibiotic resistance was found in other isolated strains too.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility, antibacterial activity and characterisation of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıvanç, Sertaç Argun; Kıvanç, Merih; Yiğit, Tülay

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci, which have useful biotechnological applications, produce bacteriocins, including those that exert anti-Listerial activity. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human breast milk. The strains were identified using carbohydrate fermentation tests and ribotyping. Subsequently, the antibacterial activity of the isolates was investigated, and the quantities of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide produced, and the proteolytic activity of E. faecium, were determined. In addition, biofilm formation by E. faecium strains was assessed. E. faecium strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. Furthermore, following 24 h incubation, the tested strains exhibited resistance to a pH range of 2.0–9.5 and tolerance of bile acid, lysozyme activity and phenol. Supernatants of the E. faecium TM13, TM15, TM17 and TM18 strains were shown to be effective against Listeria monocytogenes, and were also resistant to heat. Further studies are required in order to determine whether certain strains of E. faecium may be used for the development of novel antibacterial agents. PMID:27602088

  5. Antibacterial activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. extract against standard bacteria and isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Omidpanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have been trying to develop new broad-spectrum antibiotics against the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites for many decades. Prolonged usage of the antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug resistance among bacteria; therefore, there is a tremendous need for novel antimicrobial agents from different sources such as plants which are used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effect of Achillea tenuifolia. The plant material was extracted by maceration method using methanol three times at room temperature. The extract was concentrated after removing the solvent by rotary evaporator and then lyophilized using freeze dryer. Inhibitory effect of the extract was examined against four standard bacteria strains and two isolated strains from diseased hen using disk diffusion method and microdilution method to evaluate their inhibition zone diameter (IZD and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, respectively. The results showed that the extract of the plant was active against standard strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with IZDs of 10.3±0.5, 14±0.0, 12±0.0 and 11.6±0.5, respectively. However, growths of isolated strains were not inhibited in the presence of the extract. Although, the growths of isolated strains were not inhibited by the plant extract, the standard strains were moderately susceptible to the extract; among those P. aeroginosa was more sensible than other tested strains

  6. THE STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC- AND FAGOSENSITIVITY OF NOSOCOMIAL STRAINS BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM TRANSPLANTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic and fagosensitivity most etiologically important nosocomial strains of bacteria – Pseudomonas aeru- ginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Proteus spp., Staphylococcus spp. were studied. Multiple drug-resistant bacteria as gram-positive and gram-negative, isolated from 8 substrates, had been demonstrated. With regard to the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa >40% was observed in 40–50% of the strains to aminoglycosides – aztreonam, amikacin, netilmicin, and only 23–25% of the strains – to gentamicin and levofloxacin (an average of antibiotic susceptibility was 27%. All strains of ESBL Klebsiella drew up and were sensitive only to imipenem, meropenem and aminoglycosides. Specific phages lysed 43–48% of the strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Pro- teus spp., multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp. It is proposed to introduce the use of phages in clinical practice. 

  7. Isolates of Citrus tristeza virus that overcome Poncirus trifoliata resistance comprise a novel strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, S J; Dawson, T E; Pearson, M N

    2010-04-01

    The economically important rootstock species Poncirus trifoliata is resistant to most isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), but not to members of the CTV resistance-breaking (RB) strain presently found in New Zealand. In this study, five known and suspected RB isolates were separated from field mixtures, and their genomes were sequenced in full. It was found that the RB isolates are members of a single phylogenetically distinct clade with an average of 90.3% genomic nucleotide sequence identity to the closest extant isolate, T36. These isolates also show evidence of multiple recombination events throughout their evolutionary history, with T36, T30 and VT-like isolates, and with each other. Finally, the genomic sequences of these isolates show that several genes contain unique polymorphisms that may or may not be involved in overcoming resistance. These data will aid in the understanding of host-virus interactions, and the mechanism of resistance in P. trifoliata.

  8. Epidemiological typing of Acanthamoeba strains isolated from keratitis cases in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J F

    2003-01-01

    From the corneas of nine keratitis patients and from their contact lenses, contact lens boxes and saline solutions, 15 strains of Acanthamoeba have been isolated. An Acanthamoeba strain was isolated from the swimming pool where one of the patients swam, while in the tapwater of the houses of three patients investigated, no Acanthamoeba could be detected. All the Acanthamoeba isolates from the cornea belong to genotype T4, but are different subtypes of T4. The Acanthamoeba detected on the contact lenses (and/or associated paraphernalia) of a patient are of the same subtype as that isolated from the cornea. The only Acanthamoeba strain isolated from a contact lens which was not related to an Acanthamoeba keratitis infection proved to be another genotype. A strain of Hartmannella from a cornea and two vahlkampfiids isolated from contact lenses had no connection with keratitis. This study confirms that, as found elsewhere, only Acanthamoeba genotype T4 of the 12 known Acanthamoeba genotypes is responsible for keratitis in Belgium. Most cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis cases are due to poor hygiene in the treatment (cleaning and storage) of contact lenses.

  9. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  10. Whole-Genome Sequences of 14 Strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense and 1 Strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Isolated from Lupinus spp. in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekireb, Djamel; Crovadore, Julien; Brachmann, Andreas; Chablais, Romain; Cochard, Bastien; Lefort, François

    2017-07-20

    We report here the whole-genome sequences of 14 strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, isolated from root nodules of Lupinus microanthus and Lupinus angustifolius, and 1 strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum isolated from root nodules from Lupinus angustifolius in Algeria. These sequences add to the known diversity of this agronomically important genus. Copyright © 2017 Chekireb et al.

  11. The cultural and biochemical characters of Streptococcus milleri strains isolated from human sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyn C.; Parker, M. T.

    1979-01-01

    isolations from the bloodstream of patients suffering from systemic infections were β haemolytic and only 18% possessed a group antigen, but a considerably greater proportion of those from visceral abscesses were β haemolytic (28%). Among isolations from superficial lesions in some body sites there were considerably greater proportions of β-haemolytic and groupable strains; thus, nearly one-half of those isolated from the abdomen other than the female genital tract were β-haemolytic and over one-half were groupable. On the other hand, strains from the teeth and gums were nearly always non-haemolytic and ungroupable, and most vaginal isolations were of non-haemolytic strains with a wide sugar-fermentation pattern. PMID:762404

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  13. Bioprospecting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Algerian raw camel and goat milk for technological properties useful as adjunct starters

    OpenAIRE

    ZAROUR, K.; BENMECHERNENE, Z.; HADADJI, M.; MOUSSA-BOUDJEMAA, B.; HENNI, D.; Kihal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are lactic acid bacteria widely used in milk fermentation. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, 18 strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated and identified from 10 samples of goat's milk and camel's milk. Strains were identified as follows 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum The results of technological tests of the strains showed that strains produced dextran, car...

  14. Characteristics of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated in Geneva during colonization or infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Emonet, Stéphane; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2015-09-11

    This study determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in 27 clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Etest and the disc diffusion method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. All of the strains were defined as multi-drug resistant (MDR) and were susceptible to colistin and moderately susceptible to tigecycline. Uniplex PCR assays were used to detect the following β-lactamase genes: four class D carbapenem-hydrolysing oxacillinases (blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58), four class B metallo-β-lactamases genes (blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM and blaNDM) and two class A carbapenemases (blaKPC and blaGES). All of the strains were positive for blaOXA-51 (intrinsic resistance), 14/27 strains carried blaOXA-23, 2/27 strains carried a blaOXA-24-like gene, and 4/27 strains had a blaOXA-58 gene. blaGES-11 was found in three strains, and NDM-1-harbouring strains were identified in three patients. All of the A. baumannii isolates were typed by rep-PCR (DiversiLab) and excluded any clonality. Altogether, this analysis suggests a very high genetic diversity of imported MDR A. baumannii.

  15. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Antimicrobial Resistance of Lactococcus Sp. Strains Isolated from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ture Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A current profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of 29 Lactococcus garvieae and one Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss from farms throughout Turkey were investigated. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G (90%, ampicillin (86.7%, florfenicol (83.3%, amoxicillin (80.1%, and tetracycline (73.4%, and resistant to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (86.6% and gentamycin (46.6% by disc diffusion method. Twenty-eight (93% isolates had two to seven antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined by PCR. The most prevalent ARGs were tetracycline (tetB, erythromycin (ereB, and β-lactam (blaTEM. Bacterial strains were also screened for plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and two strains harboured plasmids, with sizes ranging from 3 to 9 kb.

  17. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  18. /sup 125/I-peptide mapping of protein III isolated from four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    Gonococcal outer-membrane protein I (PI) and PIII were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from reduced and unreduced whole-cell and outer-membrane lysates of four strains of nonpiliated (P-), transparent (O-) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These proteins were radioiodinated and digested with alpha-chymotrypsin. The resultant /sup 125/I-peptides were then resolved by high-voltage thin-layer electrophoresis, followed by ascending thin-layer chromatography, and visualized by autoradiography. Results corroborated previous observations regarding the structural relationships of PIs having different apparent subunit molecular weights. All PIIIs had very similar apparent primary structures, regardless of the strain from which they were isolated, the source (i.e., whole cells or outer membranes), or the reduction state of the sodium dodecyl sulfate lysates. By the techniques used, it appeared that PIII is structurally similar in all of the gonococcal strains studied, even though each strain had structurally unique PIs.

  19. [The susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from white stork (Ciconia ciconia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Jerzak, Leszek; Kamiński, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Proteus sp. rods are ubiquitous bacteria, widespread in the environment and classified also as opportunistic human pathogens. The aim of our study was to evaluate susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from white stork (Ciconia ciconia) regarding as his natural bacterial flora, compare and discuss their results with data obtained from scientific literature for clinical strains of the same species. Susceptibility of 59 P. mirabilis strains was estimated for 27 antimicrobials using disc-diffusion method and the ability to produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases was evaluated by double disc synergy test. Environmental P. mirabilis strains isolated from white stork were assessed as more susceptible to most of the examined antimicrobials and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases was not noted amongst them.

  20. Biochemical and serological study of two mycoplasma strains isolated from geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Z; Stipkovits, L; Dobos-Kovács, M; Czifra, G

    1989-01-01

    2 mycoplasma strains were isolated, one from the phallic lymph of a gander and the other from a cloacal swab of a laying goose. The strains proved to be different from mycoplasma species isolated from geese before. Strain No. 1223 is a glucose-negative and arginine-negative species belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. In the growth inhibition test, it fails to react with hyperimmune sera raised in rabbits against the presently known mycoplasma species of avian origin nor with sera produced against mammalian mycoplasma species sharing its biochemical properties. Strain No. 1225 belongs to the digitonin resistant Acholeplasmataceae family. It is glucose-positive and aesculin-positive. It is negative by all the other tests and fails to react with sera produced against the presently known acholeplasma species.

  1. Effect of CuO Nanoparticles over Isolated Bacterial Strains from Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Concha-Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of the nanoparticles (NPs on several processes is notorious. In contrast the ecotoxicological effects of NPs have been scarcely studied. The main current researches are related to the oxide metallic NPs. In the present work, fifty-six bacterial strains were isolated from soil, comprising 17 different OTUs distributed into 3 classes: Bacilli (36 strains, Flavobacteria (2 strains, and Gammaproteobacteria (18 strains. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs were synthesized using a process of chemical precipitation. The obtained CuONPs have a spherical shape and primary size less than 17 nm. Twenty-one strains were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of CuONPs and 11 of these strains showed high sensibility. Among those 11 strains, 4 (Brevibacillus laterosporus strain CSS8, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum strain CSA28, and Pantoea ananatis strains CSA34 and CSA35 were selected to determine the kind of damage produced. The CuONPs toxic effect was observed at expositions over 25 mg·L−1 and the damage to cell membrane above 160 mg·L−1. The electron microscopy showed the formation of cavities, holes, membrane degradation, blebs, cellular collapse, and lysis. These toxic effects may probably be due to the ions interaction, the oxide-reduction reactions, and the generation of reactive species.

  2. IncH plasmids in Escherichia coli strains isolated from broiler chicken carcasses.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaslus-Dancla, E; Lafont, J P

    1985-01-01

    Plasmids conferring tellurite resistance were transferred at low temperature (27 degrees C) from Escherichia coli strains isolated from chicken carcasses at the time of slaughter and after storage. They belonged to group IncH, as evidenced by their large molecular weight and incompatibility with plasmid pIP233. E. coli strains contaminating chickens meat can thus represent a source of IncH plasmids in the food chain of humans.

  3. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives ?-Zearalenol and ?-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Lu?s; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Ven?ncio, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, - and -zearalenol (-ZOL and -ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives -ZOL and -ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose...

  4. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsalehian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to broad spectrum cephalosporins may be mediated by extended spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs. These enzymes are encoded by different genes located either on chromosome or plasmids. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa isolates and screened for ESBL production. Methods: After isolation from burn patients in Tehran Hospital, identification of P. aeruginosa isolates were assessed using biochemical tests. We then performed disk agar diffusion (DAD according to CLSI guidelines to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. The frequency of ESBLs and prevalence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes were determined with combined disk and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods, respectively. Results: One hundred strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated. The resistance of these strains to cephpodoxime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, cefotaxime, levofloxacin, piperacilin- tazobactam and ceftriaxon was 100%, 90%, 83%, 92%, 85%, 88%, 63%, 66%, 98%, 89%, 70% and 91%, respectively. Of these, 40 strains (40% were ESBL positive, 29 strains (29% were OXA-10 positive and 18 strains (18% were PER-1 positive. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need for proper antimicrobial therapy in burn hospitals, considering the resistance pattern and frequency of strains producing ESBLs and the presence of the OXA-10 and PER-1 genes. Since an increase in the prevalence of ESBL in P. aeruginosa strains might lead to the transfer of these ESBL genes to other gram-negative bacteria, we recommend the use of appropriate drugs, especially cephalosporins, in burn hospitals.

  5. Purification Crude Extracellular Protease of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera strain R64 Isolated from Tape’ Indonesian Fermented Food

    OpenAIRE

    L.B. Roostita; W.S. Putranto; C. Charoenchai; E. Wulandari; L.U. Gemilang

    2013-01-01

    The research aims to purify crude extracellular protease produced by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera strain R64 that isolated from Tape' Indonesian fermented food. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera strain R64 was tested on Malt Extract Agar (MEA) that added 3% skim milk powder to discover the proteolytic activity. Extracellular protease purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-100. Bradford method used to measure protein content, protease ...

  6. Comparative analysis of phenol-soluble modulin production and Galleria mellonella killing by community-associated and healthcare-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Eve; Marbach, Helene; Lynham, Steven; Ward, Malcolm; Edgeworth, Jonathan D; Otter, Jonathan A

    2016-12-01

    Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have emerged globally and have been associated with more severe disease than healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether laboratory measures of virulence can distinguish dominant CA-MRSA clones from HA-MRSA clones. We compared the production of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) and ability to kill Galleria mellonella caterpillars for a range of CA- and HA-MRSA strains. Twenty-two HA-MRSA strains [ST22-IV (EMRSA-15), ST36-II (EMRSA-16) and ST239-III] and 26 CA-MRSA strains [ST1-IV (PVL+ USA400), ST1-IV (PVL-), ST8-IV (USA300), ST22-IV (PVL+), ST30-IV, ST59-IV and ST80-IV] were analysed. PSM production was measured using and compared using t-tests and ANOVA. A G mellonella (caterpillar) pathogenicity model was performed, and differences were compared using survival analysis and the log-rank test. There was no significant difference in overall PSM production between HA and CA strains (P=0.090), but there was significant variation between clones (P=0.003). G. mellonella caterpillar killing varied significantly by clone (P<0.001), and overall killing was greater for HA compared with CA clones (P=0.007). The increased acute virulence phenotype of CA-MRSA clones in humans is not associated with increased PSM production in vitro or increased killing in an in vivo caterpillar pathogenicity model.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Tan, N.C.G.; Broeke, H. ten; Kieboom, C. van den; Doesburg, W. van; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Gerritse, J.; Junca, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 μm wide and 1 to 2 μm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on

  8. Molecular analysis and susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing community- and health care-associated infections in the northern region of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Kamel; Jarrar, Naser; Abu-Hijleh, Awni; Adwan, Ghaleb; Awwad, Elena; Salameh, Yousef

    2013-03-01

    Community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a major global problem. This study attempted to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains among 360 healthy university students at An-Najah National University, Palestine. For the purpose of comparing the staphylococcal cassette chromosome methicillin resistant determinant (SCCmec) type of MRSA, 46 clinical MRSA isolates were also included in this study. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. The genetic association of MRSA isolates was investigated by SCCmec typing. A selected number of isolates were also used to amplify and sequence mecA. Nasal carriage of S aureus was found in 86 of 360 students (24%). MRSA accounted for 9% of S aureus isolates. All 86 strains of S aureus were sensitive to vancomycin. Resistance to penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin was found in 98%, 93%, 33%, 23%, and 12% of the isolates, respectively. Resistance rates of the MRSA isolates were as follows: 100% resistant to penicillin G and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 96% to ethromycin, 52% to clindamycin, and 48% to ciprofloxacin. No vancomycin-resistant isolates were identified. In our study, nearly half (52%) of the MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec types IVa and V. However, SCCmec types II and III are represented by 48%, whereas SCCmec type I was completely absent. The findings of this study indicate the existence of SCCmec type IVa in both student nasal carriers and health care settings. This emphasizes the need for implementation of a revised set of control measures in both settings. Moreover, the rational prescription of appropriate antibiotics should also be considered. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prophages in Enterococcal Isolates from Renal Transplant Recipients: Renal Failure Etiologies Promote Selection of Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Daca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. This results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. Enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. Prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. Here we evaluate a difference in presence of pp4, pp1, and pp7 prophages and ASA (aggregation substance gene expression in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients (RTx with different etiology of the end-stage renal failure. Prophages sequence was screened by PCR in strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from urine and feces of 19 RTx hospitalized at Medical University of Gdansk and 18 healthy volunteers. FLOW-FISH method with use of linear locked nucleic acid (LNA probe was used to assess the ASA gene expression. Additionally, ability of biofilm formation was screened by crystal violet staining method. Presence of prophages was more frequent in fecal isolates from immunocompromised patients than in isolates from healthy volunteers. Additionally, both composition of prophages and ASA gene expression were related to the etiology of renal disease.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Listeria monocytogenes STRAINS ISOLATED FROM FOOD TO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zanardi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 40 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from seafood and processing environments to 19 antibiotics currently used in veterinary and human therapy. Susceptibility tests were performed by the automated system VITEK2. Apart from Penicillin, Ampicillin and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, for which clinical breakpoint for Listeria susceptibility testing are defined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI, in the present study the CLSI criteria for staphylococci were applied. This study shows that isolated L. monocytogenes strains are susceptible to the antibiotics commonly used in veterinary and human listeriosis treatment. Very few strains (7,5% showed a resistance behaviour towards Oxacillin, whereas a variable pattern was showed for Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin. Moreover, an increase in tetracycline resistance, reported by several authors, can not be confirmed in this study, probably due to the different sources of strains isolation. At last, the VITEK2 system represents a rapid and easy-to-use means for antimicrobial susceptibility test of Listeria monocytogenes. In conclusion, because of the increase of antimicrobial resistance showed by L. monocytogenes, a continuous surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance among this pathogen is important to ensure effective treatment of human listeriosis. These data can be used for improve background data on antibiotic resistance of strains isolated from food and food environment, even considering the lack of clinical breakpoint provided by the CLSI.

  11. [Activity of imipenem and meropenem against strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from various Chilean hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, H; Domínguez, M; Sepúlveda, M; Cerda, F; González, G; Mella, S; Zemelman, R

    2000-12-01

    The activity of two carbapenem compounds, imipenem and meropenem, against 447 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated between 1990 and 1998 in different Chilean hospitals was determined. MIC ranges, MIC(50) and MIC(90), were determined by an agar dilution method. Similar antibacterial activities were observed for both antibacterials; however, a slight increase in the MIC(50) of imipenem and meropenem, and in the MIC(90) of meropenem was found among strains isolated from 1997-1998. Although A. baumannii remains susceptible to these antibiotics, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) have increased in recent years.

  12. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from

  13. Comparison of the serum sensitivity of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different diagnostic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vraneš,

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of serum caused by complement system is an important defence mechanism protecting the host organism against infection. The capacity to resist bactericidal activity of normal human serum contributes to the virulence of many gram-negative pathogens. Serum resistance in bacteria has been attributed to their surface components, but exact mechanism of resistance which most likely involves multiple factors is not well understood. In this study, the capacity of Escherichia coli to resist the bactericidal action of serum was examined in 85 clinical isolates obtained from patients with acute pyelonephritis (n=23, acute cystitis (n=22, chronic pyelonephritis (n=22 and asymptomatic bacteriuria (n=18. Serum sensitivity was also examined in relation to the serogroup specificity and expression of the different adhesins of the strains.Bacterial susceptibility to serum killing was measured by assessing regrowth after incubation in serum according to Schiller and Hatch method. The adhesins of E. coli were determined by hemagglutination and inhibition of hemagglutiation, and serotyping was performed on glass slides and confirmed using a mechanized microtechnique.The significant correlation between serum resistance of uropathogenic strains of E. coli and expression of P-fimbriae and O6 serogroup was observed.Theincidence of serum-resistant E. coli strains was significantly higher in strains isolated from urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis, as compared to strains isolated in other diagnostic groups, which is in accordance with higher virulence and invasive potential of these strains.

  14. Isolation of a novel 'atypical' Brucella strain from a bluespotted ribbontail ray (Taeniura lymma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Riße, Karin; Schauerte, Nicole; Geiger, Christina; Blom, Jochen; Scholz, Holger C

    2017-02-01

    A pleomorphic Gram-negative, motile coccobacillus was isolated from the gills of a wild-caught bluespotted ribbontail ray after its sudden death during quarantine. Strain 141012304 was observed to grow aerobically, to be clearly positive for cytochrome oxidase, catalase, urease and was initially identified as "Brucella melitensis" or "Ochrobactrum anthropi" by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and VITEK2-compact ® , respectively. Affiliation to the genus Brucella was confirmed by bcsp31 and IS711 PCR as well as by Brucella species-specific multiplex PCR, therein displaying a characteristic banding pattern recently described for Brucella strains obtained from amphibian hosts. Likewise, based on recA sequencing, strain 141012304 was found to form a separate lineage, within the so called 'atypical' Brucella, consisting of genetically more distantly related strains. The closest similarity was detected to brucellae, which have recently been isolated from edible bull frogs. Subsequent next generation genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the ray strain represents a novel Brucella lineage within the atypical group of Brucella and in vicinity to Brucella inopinata and Brucella strain BO2, both isolated from human patients. This is the first report of a natural Brucella infection in a saltwater fish extending the host range of this medically important genus.

  15. Isolation and characterization of new Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains as producers of the antimicrobial pigment pulcherrimin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkel, Sezai; Ener, Beyza

    2009-01-01

    Metschnikowia pulcherrima is a highly effective biocontrol yeast due to its pigment pulcherrimin that accumulates in the cells and in the growth medium. Three different strains of M. pulcherrima were isolated from local grapes. The yeast isolates were characterized on the basis of their biochemical, physiological and ITS1-5.8 s rDNA-ITS2 region. Based on the obtained results, the M. pulcherrima isolates were identified as new strains of M. pulcherrima. Strong antagonistic activities of the M. pulcherrima strains on the human pathogens Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, and Trichosporon mucoides were determined. In addition, antagonistic effects of these M. pulcherrima strains were also tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Bipolaris spp. and it was shown that the three different strains of M. pulcherrima also have an antagonistic effect on the growth of these fungal species at different extents. This study showed that all three strains of M. pulcherrima produce the same amount of the pigment pulcherrimin, but their antimicrobial activities on different microorganisms show important variations.

  16. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  17. Assimilation of cholesterol by yeast strains isolated from infant feces and Feta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomas, E I; Fletouris, D J; Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E; Tzanetakis, N

    2003-11-01

    Eight yeast strains isolated from infant feces and the traditional Greek Feta cheese, selected for their probiotic properties, were tested along with a commercially available strain of Saccharomyces boulardii for their ability to remove cholesterol from a growth medium (yeast extract glucose peptone broth) supplemented with 0.3% Oxgall. The amount of cholesterol removed during 72 h of growth at 37 degrees C revealed significant variations among the yeast strains examined. Two isolates from infant feces, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae KK1 and Isaatchenkia orientalis KK5.Y.1 and one isolate from Feta cheese, namely S. cerevisiae 832, along with the commercial strain S. boulardii, were able to remove cholesterol from the growth medium after 48 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. However, Saccharomyces strains proved to be able to remove cholesterol even after 24 h of growth at 37 degrees C. The cholesterol removed from the growth medium was not metabolically degraded but was rather assimilated into the yeast cells. The ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro and to tolerate low pH levels, gastric juice, and bile indicate that S. cerevisiae 832, and especially S. cerevisiae KK1 and I. orientalis KK5.Y.1 (being more bile and gastric juice tolerant because of their human origin) may be promising candidate strains for use as probiotics.

  18. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  19. Decolorization of Methyl Red by Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 Isolated from Textile Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to isolate methyl red, an azo dye, decolorizing bacteria from textile effluent. Among three isolates with methyl red decolorizing ability, the potential bacterial isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 was selected for identification and characterization. The organism was found to belong to the genus Staphylococcus and species saprophyticus. The isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 could decolorize 600, 700, 800, and 1000 mg/L of methyl red within 24 h and 48 h, respectively, in presence of 1.0 g/L of glucose. This bacterium showed 94 and 97 % methyl red (600 mg L-1 decolorization within 24 and 48 h, respectively. In case of temperature, the ranging between 30-40 �C was fond to be suitable for the decolorization by S. saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 and a further increase in the temperature drastically affected decolorization activity of bacterial culture. Thus, due to high potential for methyl red decolorization the isolate Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain AUCASVE3 can be used in the biological treatment plant of industrial effluent containing azo dyes.

  20. Screening, identification and characterization of bacteriocins produced by wine-isolated LAB strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, B; Schoeman, H; Franz, C M A P; du Toit, M

    2015-04-01

    To screen and identify wine-isolated LAB strains for bacteriocin production, and to identify and characterize bacteriocins. One hundred and fifty-five LAB strains isolated from South African red wines undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation were screened for bacteriocin production. Eight isolates were identified to be bacteriocin producers and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. All eight isolates had the same phenotypic and genotypic profiles. The peptides were preliminarily identified as enterocin P using mass spectrometry and further confirmed by PCR-amplifying enterocin P gene. The enterocin activity was inhibited by α-Chymotrypsin, papain and proteinase K treatments. It was heat stable at 37, 60, 80 and 100°C and showed activity over a broad pH range of 2-10. The production of the enterocin followed that of primary metabolite kinetics and, it showed bactericidal effect to some wine spoilage LAB strains. Our study identified the presence of the enterocin-producing Enterococcus in wine. The enterocin was heat stable; with broad pH range and bactericidal effects to sensitive strains. This is one of very few studies that isolated Enterococcus species from wine. It is, however, the first to report presence of bacteriocin-producing Enterococcus in wine fermentation. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Heat shock protein of Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-Kacouris, Blanca Rosa; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Miura, Tadashi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ikeda, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Rowland, Randal

    2002-11-01

    It has been suggested that infection by some mycoplasma species can act as possible cofactors in the acceleration of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected patients. The present study was designed to examine infections by oral mycoplasma species in HIV-seropositive (HIV(+)) patients. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale were isolated from 59.5% and 16.7% of 42 HIV(+) patients, respectively. Non-M. salivarium and non-M. orale species were isolated from 40.5% of saliva samples from the HIV(+) group and 20.8% of those from 24 HIV-seronegative (HIV(-)) subjects, respectively. Although the production of superantigen by human peripheral lymphocytes in the isolated mycoplasma species from HIV(+) and HIV(-) subjects was evaluated, none of the examined mycoplasma strains, including ATCC strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, Mycoplasma buccae and Mycoplasma penetrans, were found to produce superantigen. Production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by isolated mycoplasma strains was examined by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori HSP60. It was found that all the strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, and unidentified mycoplasma species isolated from HIV(+) and HIV(-) groups produced heat shock proteins. HSP production by oral mycoplasma may play a role in the immunomodulation of HIV(+) patients.

  2. Acetobacter strains isolated during the acetification of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; García, D; Romero, J; Mas, A; Torija, M J; Mateo, E

    2013-09-01

    Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are known to have positive health benefits. The production of blueberry vinegar is one method to preserve this seasonal fruit and allow extended consumption. In this study, blueberry wine acetification was performed with naturally occurring micro-organisms and with an inoculated Acetobacter cerevisiae strain. Acetifications were carried out in triplicate using the Schützenbach method. The successful spontaneous processes took up to 66% more time than the processes involving inoculation. The isolation of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and the analysis of these AAB using molecular methods allowed the identification of the main genotypes responsible of the blueberry acetification. Although the Acet. cerevisiae strain was the predominant strain isolated from the inoculated process samples, Acetobacter pasteurianus was isolated from samples for both processes and was the only species present in the spontaneous acetification samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the identification and variability of AAB isolated during blueberry acetification. The isolated Acet. pasteurianus strains could be used for large-scale blueberry vinegar production or as a starter culture in studies of other vinegar production methods. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Strain from Fecal Samples of Zoo Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Mohammed Hamzah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains from 22 out of 174 fecal samples from petting zoo animals representing twenty-two different species (camel, lion, goats, zebra, bear, baboon monkey, Siberian monkey, deer, elk, llama, pony, horses, fox, kangaroo, wolf, porcupine, chickens, tiger, ostrich, hyena, dogs, and wildcats were investigated. One petting Al-Zawraa zoological society of Baghdad was investigated for E. coli O157:H7 over a 16-month period that spanned two summer and two autumn seasons. Variation in the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7-positive petting zoo animals was observed, with animals being culture positive only in the summer months but not in the spring, autumn, or winter. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were distinguished by agglutination with E. coli O157:H7 latex reagent (Oxoid, identified among the isolates, which showed that multiple E. coli strains were isolated from one petting zoo animal, in which a single animal simultaneously shed multiple E. coli strains; E. coli O157:H7 was isolated only by selective enrichment culture of 2 g of petting zoo animal feces. In contrast, strains other than O157:H7 were cultured from feces of petting zoo animals without enrichment.

  4. Variation in susceptibility to benznidazole in isolates derived from Trypanosoma cruzi parental strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso VM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the susceptibility to benznidazole of two parental Trypanosoma cruzi strains, Colombian and Berenice-78, was compared to isolates obtained from dogs infected with these strains for several years. In order to evaluate the susceptibility to benznidazole two groups of mice were infected with one of five distinct populations isolated from dogs as well as the two parental strains of T. cruzi. The first group was treated with benznidazole during the acute phase and the second remained untreated controls. The animals were considered cured when parasitological and serological tests remained persistently negative. Mice infected with the Colombian strain and its isolates Colombian (A and B did not cure after treatment. On the other hand, all animals infected with Berenice-78 were cured by benznidazole treatment. However, 100%, 50% and 70% of cure rates were observed in animals infected with the isolates Berenice-78 B, C and D, respectively. No significant differences were observed in serological profile of infected control groups, with all animals presenting high antibody levels. However, the ELISA test showed differences in serological patterns between mice inoculated with the different T. cruzi isolates and treated with benznidazole. This variability was dependent on the T. cruzi population used and seemed to be associated with the level of resistance to benznidazole.

  5. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group strains to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin/clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEIXOTO JÚNIOR Arnaldo Aires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 strains of the B. fragilis group was isolated from clinical specimens in two hospital centers in Fortaleza from 1993 to 1997. The most frequently isolated species was Bacteroides fragilis (19 strains and most isolates came from intra-abdominal and wound infections. The susceptibility profile was traced for cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin-clavulanate by using the agar dilution reference method. All isolates were susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate (128/2mug/ml. Resistance rates of 15 and 70% were detected to cefoxitin (64mug/ml and cefoperazone (64mug/ml, respectively. Such regional results permit a better orientation in choosing this group of antibiotics for prophylaxis and therapy especially in relation to cefoxitin, which is frequently used in the hospital centers studied.

  6. Isolation, identification and characterization of an electrogenic microalgae strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Wu

    Full Text Available Extracellular electron transfer involving microbes is important as it closely reflects the ability of cells to communicate with the environment. However, there are few reports on electron transfer mechanisms of pure microalgae and a lack of any model alga to study the transfer processes. In the present study, nine green microalgae species were isolated from wastewater and characterized in terms of their ability to transfer electrons between cells and an electrode. One species showed direct electron transfer via membrane-associated proteins and indirect electron transfer via secreted oxygen. The microalga was identified as Desmodesmus sp. based on phylogenetic analysis and electron microscopy. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that Desmodesmus sp. was able to act as a cathodic microorganism. Stable current densities of -0.24, 35.54 and 170 mA m(-2 were achieved at potentials of +0.2, -0.2 and -0.4 V, respectively, under illumination. Dissolved oxygen concentration measurement showed gradients within the microalgae biofilm: 18.3 mg L(-1 in light decreasing to 4.29 mg L(-1 in the dark. This study diversified the exoelectrogen library and provided a potential model microalga to explore the associated mechanism of extracellular electron transfer.

  7. Antibioresistance of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Chicken Colibacillosis in Western Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    HAMMOUDI, Abdelhamid; AGGAD, Hebib

    2014-01-01

    In western Algeria, 251 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from broilers with clinical signs and lesions of colibacillosis. Serotyping showed that 82% of the isolates belong to one of the following serotypes: O78, O2, and O1. Antibiograms revealed a high level of resistance to oxytetracycline (82%), amoxicilline and ampicilline (47%), trimethoprim-sulfmethoxazole (42%), oxolinic acid and flumequine (31%). However, only a low percentage of strains were resistant to enrofloxacine (6%) and...

  8. Characterization and identification of newly isolated Acinetobacter baumannii strain serdang 1 for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadzir, Z. H. M.; Shukor, M. Y.; Nazir, M. S.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    A new indigenous bacterial strain from Malaysian soil contaminated with petroleum waste had been successfully isolated, characterized and identified for phenol removal. The gram negative bacteria showed 98% identity with Acinetobacter baumannii based on Biolog{trade mark, serif} Identification System and the determination of a partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence. The isolate clustered with species belonging to Acinetobacter clade in a 16S rDNA-based neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree.

  9. Species Identification, Strain Differentiation, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophyte Species Isolated From Clinically Infected Arabian Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Damaty, Hend M; Tartor, Yasmine H; Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Arabian horses, the eldest equine breeds, have great economic and social significance for its long, unique, and storied history. Molecular characterization of dermatophyte species affecting Arabian horses is a crucial necessity for epidemiologic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study...... was to identify and differentiate isolates of dermatophytes isolated from naturally infected Arabian horses at species and strains levels using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility testing using broth microdilution method was performed...

  10. Serological characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains isolated from pigs in two Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Plambeck, Tamara

    1997-01-01

    Eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae biotype 2 strains were isolated in pure culture from lungs of pigs originating from two Danish herds with growing and finishing pigs. The antigenic properties were studied by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and immunodiffusion (ID) tests using soluble surface...... antigens and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) using capsular enriched fractions and LPS. In all tests the strains proved antigenically homogeneous and serologically distinct from the known biotype 1 and 2 serotypes. Thus, the strains represent a new serotype which is provisionally proposed...... as biotype 2 serotype 14....

  11. Virulence Factors of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated from Humans and Pets

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLHAN, Timur; AKSAKAL, Abdulbaki; EKİN, İsmail Hakkı; SAVAŞAN, Serap; BOYNUKARA, Banur

    2006-01-01

    The virulence factors of 146 Enterococcus faecium and 32 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from faecal samples of humans, dogs, and cats were investigated. In total, 178 strains were examined by gelatinase (GelE), aggregation substance (AS), cytolysin, and slide haemagglutination tests. The results of detected virulence factors of E. faecium and E. faecalis strains were: GelE: 17.1% vs. 37.5%; AS: 13% vs. 12.5%; cytolysin: 7.5% vs. 12.5%; haemagglutination activities with rabbit erythroc...

  12. Genetic complementation analysis of two independently isolated hycanthone-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Pica-Mattoccia

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine whether various hycanthone resistant strains of schistosomes which have been independently isolated are all affected in the same gene. A strain obtained from a Brazilian patient was compared with a strain of Puerto Rican origin selected in the laboratory. If the mutation conferring resistance involved two different genes, one would expect that the progeny of a cross between the two strains would show complementation, i.e. it would be sensitive to the drug. We have performed such a cross and obtained F1 hybrid worms wich were essentially all resistant, thus suggesting that the mutation conferring resistance in the two strains involves the same gene.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain PSU-2 isolated from thermophilic hydrogen producing reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Khongkliang, Peerawat; Mamimin, Chonticha; Singkhala, Apinya; Prasertsan, Poonsuk; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2017-06-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain PSU-2 was isolated from thermophilic hydrogen producing reactor and subjected to draft genome sequencing on 454 pyrosequencing and annotated on RAST. The draft genome sequence of strain PSU-2 contains 2,552,497 bases with an estimated G + C content of 35.2%, 2555 CDS, 8 rRNAs and 57 tRNAs. The strain had a number of genes responsible for carbohydrates metabolic, amino acids and derivatives, and protein metabolism of 17.7%, 14.39% and 9.81%, respectively. Strain PSU-2 also had gene responsible for hydrogen biosynthesis as well as the genes related to Ni-Fe hydrogenase. Comparative genomic analysis indicates strain PSU-2 shares about 94% genome sequence similarity with Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum LX-11. The nucleotide sequence of this draft genome was deposited into DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession MSQD00000000.

  14. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  15. Biodegradation of nicotine by a novel Strain Shinella sp. HZN1 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong J; Ma, Yun; Qiu, Guo J; Wu, Fei L; Chen, Sheng L

    2011-01-01

    The nicotine-degrading bacterium HZN1 was isolated from activated sludge and identified as Shinella sp. based on its physiological characteristics and analysis of 16S rDNA gene. Strain HZN1 is capable of using nicotine as the sole carbon source in the mineral salts medium. The optimum temperature and pH for strain HZN1 growth and nicotine degradation were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. It could degrade approximately 100 % of 0.5 g L(-1) of nicotine within 9 h. Three intermediate metabolites were produced by the strain HZN1 and identified as cotinine, myosmine and nicotyrine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first report of nicotine-degrading strain from the genus of Shinella. The results showed that strain HZN1 could be potentially employed in bioremediation of nicotine. Our findings would provide a new insight into the biodegradation of nicotine.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin

    2004-01-01

    Genomics provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe in minute detail into the genomes of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacteria- Yersinia pestis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain 91001, a human-avirulent strain isolated from the rodent Brandt's vole......-Microtus brandti. The genome of strain 91001 consists of one chromosome and four plasmids (pPCP1, pCD1, pMT1 and pCRY). The 9609-bp pPCP1 plasmid of strain 91001 is almost identical to the counterparts from reference strains (CO92 and KIM). There are 98 genes in the 70,159-bp range of plasmid pCD1. The 106,642-bp...... comparison, we conclude that strain 91001 and other strains isolated from M. brandti might have evolved from ancestral Y. pestis in a different lineage. The large genome fragment deletions in the 91001 chromosome and some pseudogenes may contribute to its unique nonpathogenicity to humans and host...

  17. [Pathogenicity island region of clinical and environmental strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Harold; Ulloa, María Teresa; Guerra, Fabiola; Osorio, Carlos G

    2009-02-01

    Most clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus produce a major virulence factor known as the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). TDH is encoded by the tdh gene which is located in a genomic pathogenicity island (PAI). Most environmental isolates are described as tdh negative. To assess if environmental strains lack the full pathogenicity island or if only the tdh gene is deleted. Thirty eight clinical and 66 environmental strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied. PAI was characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of tdhA and tdhS genes, was determined by Southern blot. Fifty three environmental strains (80%) lacked a full PAI when compared with clinical strains. In environmental strains, Southern blot and sequence analysis showed that a genetic region of 80 kilobase pairs including genes from VPA1310 to VPA1396 was missing. These results highlight the genetic dynamism of Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenecity island region and suggest that new pathogenic strains could appear by horizontal transfer of the island between toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains.

  18. Diversity of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains isolated from solid-state fermentation of cereal vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaJia; Gullo, Maria; Chen, FuSheng; Giudici, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Vinegar production is based on the acetification process by indigenous acetic acid bacteria (AAB). Among vinegar technologies, solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes are widespread in Asian countries to produce vinegar at small-scale. In this study, 21 AAB strains isolated from Chinese cereal vinegars produced by SSF collected in different regions of China were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Isolates exhibited high degree of phenotypic variability as well as suitable traits for their uses as selected strains in SSF vinegar production (growth modality by superficial biofilm, no production of cellulose, ability to growth on ethanol media). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of representative strains showed that strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus have a close association to cereal vinegars, whereas Gluconacetobacter europaeus population is not favoured. Selection of single or multiple strains culture within A. pasteurianus species was predicted in view of their application in SSF technology. This seems to be the first report showing phenotypic and genetic variability of AAB strains involved in SSF processes. Results can be exploited for the implementation of large-scale SSF processes by selected strains for vinegar production and other innovative biotechnological applications.

  19. Full genomic analysis of a human rotavirus G1P[8] strain isolated in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Kyu; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Chul Jong; Jung, Kum Hee; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-01-01

    A rotavirus G1P[8] strain C1-81 was isolated from a 5-month-old female infant admitted to hospital with fever and severe diarrhea in Incheon, South Korea. To investigate its full genomic relatedness and its group, the full genome of strain C1-81 was determined. Based on a full genome classification system, C1-81 was shown to possess the typical Wa-like genotype constellation: G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. On the basis of sequence similarities, the strain was shown to be the closest related strain to contemporary human rotavirus strains with recent strains isolated in Asia. This C1-81 strain showed the highest degree of nucleic acid similarity (98.8% and 97%) to G1 B4633-03 and P[8] (Thai-1604 and Dhaka8-02), respectively. This is the first report that group A rotavirus was analyzed with G1P[8] in South Korea. The study of the complete genome of the virus will help understanding of the evolution of rotavirus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Adhesion patterns in diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Barletta, Francesca; Cabello, Martín; Durand, David; Mercado, Erik H; Contreras, Carmen; Rivera, Fulton P; Mosquito, Susan; Lluque, Angela; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2011-03-01

    Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) is the sixth recognized group of diarrheagenic E. coli. However, its association with diarrhea remains controversial. Variability in the adherence patterns of clinical strains is unknown. To compare the adherence patterns between strains isolated from children with and without diarrhea. A total of 31 DAEC strains were analyzed, 25 from children with diarrhea and 6 from asymptomatic (control) children, isolated from a cohort study of children under one year of age in the southern districts of Lima. DAEC were identified by PCR (daaD gene). The pattern and adherence score in HEp-2 cell culture were evaluated, Actin polimerization was determined by fluorescence actin staining (FAS) and motility was evaluated by conventional microbiology methods. Diffuse adherence pattern was found in 88% of diarrhea samples and in the total of control strains. The number of bacteria adhered per cell was significantly lower in diarrhea samples (p<0.05). However, actin polymerization was greater in diarrhea samples (60% vs. 17%). Motility test was positive in 60% of the diarrhea samples and in all control samples. Our findings suggest a difference between adherence patterns, actin polymerization and motility between DAEC strains corresponding to diarrhea and control groups. The significance of these results must be confirmed with a bigger number of strains and determining the presence of virulence genes in the strains.

  1. Draft genome assembly of two Pseudoclavibacter helvolus strains, G8 and W3, isolated from slaughterhouse environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette Lyng

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of twoPseudoclavibacter helvolusstrains. Strain G8 was isolated from a meat chopper and strain W3 isolated from the wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The two annotated genomes are 3.91 Mb and 4.00 Mb in size, respectively.......We report the draft genome sequences of twoPseudoclavibacter helvolusstrains. Strain G8 was isolated from a meat chopper and strain W3 isolated from the wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The two annotated genomes are 3.91 Mb and 4.00 Mb in size, respectively....

  2. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Park, Hyung Soo; Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Da Hye; Ravikumar, Sivanesan; Choi, Ki Choon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  3. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus Strains with Antifungal Activity Isolated from Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundharrajan Ilavenil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB from animal manure. Among the thirty LAB strains, four strains, namely, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. Biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the Lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The strains exhibited susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics with negative hemolytic property. Strains KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium roqueforti, Botrytis elliptica, and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Fermentation studies noted that the strains were able to produce significant amount of lactic, acetic, and succinic acids. Further, the production of extracellular proteolytic and glycolytic enzymes, survival under low pH, bile salts, and gastric juice together with positive bile salt hydrolase (Bsh activity, cholesterol lowering, cell surface hydrophobicity, and aggregation properties were the strains advantages. Thus, KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could have the survival ability in the harsh condition of the digestive system in the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, novel L. plantarum KCC-25, KCC-26, KCC-27, and KCC-28 could be considered as potential antimicrobial probiotic strains.

  4. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from the heart valve of an infective endocarditis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans, known to be an aetiological agent of dental caries, is occasionally isolated from patients with infective endocarditis (IE). S. mutans strains with a defect in all three types of glucosyltransferase (GTF) obtained from an infected heart valve extirpated from an IE patient have been reported previously. In this study, molecular analyses of strains detected in heart valve (strain V1) and dental plaque (strain P1) samples taken from the same patient were performed. Complete nucleotide alignments of the gtfB, gtfC and gtfD regions in strains V1 and P1, as well as in the reference strain MT8148, were determined, which revealed the existence of alignments with a high similarity to erythromycin- and spectinomycin-resistance genes in the middle of the gtfB-gtfC and gtfD genes, respectively, of V1. Strain V1 also showed a higher MIC for these two antibiotics compared with strain P1. Next, primers to detect the specific sequences of the antibiotic-resistance genes in strain V1 were constructed and PCR amplification was performed with template DNA from dental plaque and infected valve tissue samples taken from the patient. Attenuated expression of GTFs in V1 caused a significantly lower susceptibility to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes compared with the reference strain. These results suggest that the blood isolate V1 found in the oral cavity invaded and survived in the bloodstream for a long duration and that this was related to its virulence in IE in our patient.

  5. Screening and evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate-producing strains from indigenous isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Chin-Kuei; Wu, Ho-Shing; Sun, Yi-Ming; Lo, Chi-Wei; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-05

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanensis 184, which obtains polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Cultivation of C. taiwanensis 184 under a pH of 7.0, at 30 °C, and at an agitation rate of 200 rpm, obtained a PHB content of 10% and PHB production of 0.14 g/L. The carbon and nitrogen types selected for analysis of PHB production by C. taiwanensis 184 were gluconic acid and NH(4)Cl, respectively. Optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio for PHB production was also determined. This study demonstrated a PHB content of 58.81% and a PHB production of 2.44 g/L when the carbon/nitrogen ratio of 8/1 was selected for C. taiwanensis 184. A two-stage fermentation strategy significantly enhanced PHB content and PHB production. Under a two-stage fermentation strategy with nutrient-limited conditions, C. taiwanensis 184 obtained a PHB content of 72% and a PHB concentration of 7 g/L. Finally, experimental results confirmed that optimizing the growth medium and fermentation conditions for cultivating the indigenous C. taiwanensis 184 strain substantially elevated PHB content from 10% to 72% and PHB production from 0.14 g/L to 7 g/L, respectively.

  6. Screening and Evaluation of Polyhydroxybutyrate-Producing Strains from Indigenous Isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om-Murugan Janarthanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR and Gas Chromatography (GC analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanensis 184, which obtains polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. Cultivation of C. taiwanensis 184 under a pH of 7.0, at 30 °C, and at an agitation rate of 200 rpm, obtained a PHB content of 10% and PHB production of 0.14 g/L. The carbon and nitrogen types selected for analysis of PHB production by C. taiwanensis 184 were gluconic acid and NH4Cl, respectively. Optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio for PHB production was also determined. This study demonstrated a PHB content of 58.81% and a PHB production of 2.44 g/L when the carbon/nitrogen ratio of 8/1 was selected for C. taiwanensis 184. A two‑stage fermentation strategy significantly enhanced PHB content and PHB production. Under a two-stage fermentation strategy with nutrient‑limited conditions, C. taiwanensis 184 obtained a PHB content of 72% and a PHB concentration of 7 g/L. Finally, experimental results confirmed that optimizing the growth medium and fermentation conditions for cultivating the indigenous C. taiwanensis 184 strain substantially elevated PHB content from 10% to 72% and PHB production from 0.14 g/L to 7 g/L, respectively.

  7. Screening and Evaluation of Polyhydroxybutyrate-Producing Strains from Indigenous Isolate Cupriavidus taiwanensis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Chin-Kuei; Wu, Ho-Shing; Sun, Yi-Ming; Lo, Chi-Wei; Janarthanan, Om-Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biodegradable material with many potential biomedical applications, including medical implants and drug delivery. This study developed a system for screening production strains in order to optimize PHA production in Cupriavidus taiwanensis 184, 185, 186, 187, 204, 208, 209 and Pseudomona oleovorans ATCC 29347. In this study, Sudan black B staining, Infrared (IR) and Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis indicated that the best strain for PHA synthesis is C. taiwanensis 184, which obtains polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Cultivation of C. taiwanensis 184 under a pH of 7.0, at 30 °C, and at an agitation rate of 200 rpm, obtained a PHB content of 10% and PHB production of 0.14 g/L. The carbon and nitrogen types selected for analysis of PHB production by C. taiwanensis 184 were gluconic acid and NH4Cl, respectively. Optimal carbon/nitrogen ratio for PHB production was also determined. This study demonstrated a PHB content of 58.81% and a PHB production of 2.44 g/L when the carbon/nitrogen ratio of 8/1 was selected for C. taiwanensis 184. A two-stage fermentation strategy significantly enhanced PHB content and PHB production. Under a two-stage fermentation strategy with nutrient-limited conditions, C. taiwanensis 184 obtained a PHB content of 72% and a PHB concentration of 7 g/L. Finally, experimental results confirmed that optimizing the growth medium and fermentation conditions for cultivating the indigenous C. taiwanensis 184 strain substantially elevated PHB content from 10% to 72% and PHB production from 0.14 g/L to 7 g/L, respectively. PMID:21339985

  8. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  9. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, V; Kumar, A

    2011-03-01

    Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India. Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM), SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation) was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 µmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3. This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  10. Detection and measurement of staphylococcal enterotoxin-like K (SEl-K) secretion by Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jorge L; Varshney, Avanish K; Wang, Xiaobo; Stanford, Lindsay; Scharff, Matthew; Fries, Bettina C

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like K (SEl-K) is a potent mitogen that elicits T-cell proliferation and cytokine production at very low concentrations. However, unlike the classical enterotoxins SEB and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), the gene for SEl-K is commonly present in more than half of all Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates and is present in almost all USA300 community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates. Sequencing of the sel-k gene in over 20 clinical isolates and comparative analysis with all 14 published sel-k sequences indicate that there are at least 6 variants of the sel-k gene, including one that is conserved among all examined USA300 strains. Additionally, we have developed a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that specifically detects and measures SEl-K protein in culture supernatants and biological fluids. Quantification of in vitro SEl-K secretion by various S. aureus isolates using this novel capture ELISA revealed detectable amounts of SEl-K secretion by all isolates, with the highest secretion levels being exhibited by MRSA strains that coexpress SEB. In vivo secretion was measured in a murine thigh abscess model, where similar levels of SEl-K accumulation were noted regardless of whether the infecting strain exhibited high or low secretion of SEl-K in vitro. We conclude that SEl-K is commonly expressed in the setting of staphylococcal infection, in significant amounts. SEl-K should be further explored as a target for passive immunotherapy against complicated S. aureus infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Virulence factors and genetic variability of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw sheep's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Vincenzo; Spanu, Carlo; Virdis, Salvatore; Cossu, Francesca; Scarano, Christian; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2012-02-01

    Contamination of dairy products with Staphylococcus aureus can be of animal or human origin. The host pathogen relationship is an important factor determining genetic polymorphism of the strains and their potential virulence. The aim of the present study was to carry out an extensive characterization of virulence factors and to study the genetic variability of S. aureus strains isolated from raw ewe's milk cheese. A total of 100 S. aureus strains isolated from cheese samples produced in 10 artisan cheese factories were analyzed for the presence of enterotoxins (sea-see) and enterotoxins-like genes (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep), leukocidins, exfoliatins, haemolysins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and the accessory gene regulator alleles (agr). Strains were also typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). AMOVA analysis carried out on PFGE and PCR data showed that the major component explaining genetic distance between strains was the dairy of origin. Of the total isolates 81% had a pathogenicity profile ascribable to "animal" biovar while 16% could be related to "human" biovar. The biovar allowed to estimate the most likely origin of the contamination. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antimicrobial agents and the presence of the corresponding genes coding for antibiotic resistance was also investigated. 18 strains carrying blaZ gene showed resistance to ampicillin and penicillin and 6 strains carrying tetM gene were resistant to tetracycline. The presence of mecA gene and methicillin resistance, typical of strains of human origin, was never detected. The results obtained in the present study confirm that S. aureus contamination in artisan cheese production is mainly of animal origin. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of isolation techniques for contemporary Influenza A virus strains circulating in exhibition swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Andrew S; Nelson, Sarah W; Edwards, Jody L; Hofer, Christian C; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Davis, Ian C; Slemons, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    The current study sought to compare the effectiveness of 2 virus isolation methods for the recovery of contemporary Influenza A virus (FLUAV) strains circulating in swine at agricultural exhibitions. Following the emergence of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, increased surveillance of FLUAV strains among swine was recommended for early detection of emerging strains that threaten animal and human health. The increase in genetic drift and genomic reassortment among FLUAV strains infecting swine since 1998 necessitates that detection protocols be periodically validated for contemporary FLUAV strains. During 2009, nasal swabs were collected from 221 clinically healthy pigs at 12 agricultural exhibitions in Ohio. Nasal swabs were tested in parallel for the presence of FLUAV strains using 3 methodologies: 2 passages through Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells adapted to serum-free medium (SFM), 2 passages through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs), and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Of the 221 samples, 40 (18.1%) were positive for FLUAV recovery in MDCK cell culture and 13 (5.9%) were positive in ECEs (P = 0.015). All samples positive in ECEs were also positive in MDCK cell culture. MDCK cell culture virus isolation results were in perfect agreement with results of the real-time RT-PCR. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations of the recovered isolates were H1N2 and H3N2, which were consistent with FLUAV strains circulating in U.S. pigs. Effectiveness and cost savings justify the use of SFM-adapted MDCK cell culture over ECEs for the recovery of contemporary FLUAV strains from exhibition swine.

  13. Phylogenomics of Brazilian epidemic isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii reveals relationships of global outbreak strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M.; Hasan, Nabeeh A.; de Moura, Vinicius Calado Nogueira; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in the Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) species are emerging pathogens that cause various diseases including skin and respiratory infections. The species has undergone recent taxonomic nomenclature refinement, and is currently recognized as two subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus (MAB-A) and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii (MAB-B). The recently reported outbreaks of MAB-B in surgical patients in Brazil from 2004 to 2009 and in cystic fibrosis patients in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2006 to 2012 underscore the need to investigate the genetic diversity of clinical MAB strains. To this end, we sequenced the genomes of two Brazilian MAB-B epidemic isolates (CRM-0019 and CRM-0020) derived from an outbreak of skin infections in Rio de Janeiro, two unrelated MAB strains from patients with pulmonary infections in the United States (US) (NJH8 and NJH11) and one type MAB-B strain (CCUG 48898) and compared them to 25 publically available genomes of globally diverse MAB strains. Genome-wide analyses of 27,598 core genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed that the two Brazilian derived CRM strains are nearly indistinguishable from one another and are more closely related to UK outbreak isolates infecting CF patients than to strains from the US, Malaysia or France. Comparative genomic analyses of six closely related outbreak strains revealed geographic-specific large-scale insertion/deletion variation that corresponds to bacteriophage insertions and recombination hotspots. Our study integrates new genome sequence data with existing genomic information to explore the global diversity of infectious M. abscessus isolates and to compare clinically relevant outbreak strains from different continents. PMID:24055961

  14. Virulence genotype of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from different hosts with various disease status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Christa; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Bethe, Astrid; Kiebling, Sabine; Filter, Matthias; Wieler, Lothar H

    2006-05-31

    To learn more about the molecular biology of Pasteurella multocida 289 strains isolated from various clinically healthy and diseased hosts were examined for capsule biosynthesis genes (capA, B, D, E, and F) and 14 virulence associated genes by PCR and DNA-DNA-hybridization. As expected, capsule type A strains were highly adapted to bovines (92.3%) and poultry (85.7%) while we mainly found capA (34.9%)- and capD (58.1%)-positive strains in swine. A noticeable amount of capD-positive strains also originated from small ruminants (34.9%) and capF was detected in wild type strains from diseased cattle (2.2%) and cats (7.4%). None of the isolates harboured capE, while capB was exclusively found in all strains from buffaloes. Nearly all isolates showed a combination of genes encoding outer membrane proteins, colonization factors, iron aquisition factors and superoxid-dismutases without any clue for host specificity. In contrast, the transferrin binding protein encoding gene tbpA (31.5%) was limited to ruminant strains and only 37.0% of all P. multocida strains harboured pfhA, coding for a filamentous hemagglutinin, supposed to be a putative adhesion- und serum resistance factor. PfhA revealed a strong positive association to the outcome of disease in bovine hosts and in combination with toxA to that in swine. The dermonecrotoxin encoding toxA, present in 12.5% of all strains, was detected in isolates from swine, small ruminants, cattle, and poultry. A significant association to the disease status, however, was only existent in swine, although with 66.7% we found a notably high prevalence of the toxin gene among strains from small ruminants. The genes toxA, tbpA and pfhA as well as capsule biosynthesis genes are supposed to be important epidemiological marker genes for characterizing P. multocida field strains.

  15. Characterization of Methylobacterium strains isolated from the phyllosphere and description of Methylobacterium longum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knief, Claudia; Dengler, Vanina; Bodelier, Paul L E; Vorholt, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium strains are abundantly found in the phyllosphere of plants. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties of 12 previously isolated strains were analyzed in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the characteristics of phyllosphere colonizing Methylobacterium strains. All strains showed the typical properties of the genus Methylobacterium, including pink pigmentation, facultative methylotrophy, a fatty acid profile dominated by C18:1 ω7c, and a high G+C content of 65 mol % or more. However, some strains showed only weak growth on methanol and pigmentation varied from pale pink to red. Strains grew best under mesophilic, neutrophilic conditions and low salt (≤1%) concentrations, but variation was seen with respect to the temperature and pH range under which growth occurred. Likewise, differences were seen with respect to carbon source utilization. Some strains were versatile and utilized diverse organic acids, amino acids and sugars, while others could only metabolize a restricted number of organic acids. The strains that were most distinct from existing type strains based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were selected for DNA-DNA hybridization experiments to analyze whether they are sufficiently different at the genomic level from existing type strains to justify their classification as new species. This resulted in the delineation of strain 440 and its description as Methylobacterium longum sp. nov. strain 440 (=DSM 23933(T) = CECT 7806(T)). A main characteristic of this species is the formation of relatively long rods compared to other Methylobacterium species.

  16. Clinical analysis of bacterial strain profiles isolated from urinary tract infections: A 30-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koichiro; Uehara, Shinya; Yamamoto, Masumi; Sadahira, Takuya; Mitsuhata, Ritsuko; Araki, Motoo; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Ayano; Kariyama, Reiko; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed bacterial strains isolated from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) at Okayama University Hospital over a 30-year period to characterize trends in species and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Clinical isolates were collected from in- and out-patients with pyuria and bacteriuria who were treated between 1984 and 2014 (one episode per patient and plural isolates were counted in polymicrobial infection). We examined these isolates to identify pathogens and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Isolates from complicated UTI over a 30-year period revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) was the most frequently isolated in the first decade (1984-1994), MRSA in the second decade (1995-2004), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the latest decade (2005-2014). In uncomplicated UTI examined over 20 years, E. coli was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 47-94% of isolates. Fluoroquinolone (FQs)-insusceptible E. coli were first isolated in 1994 and increased to about 35% in 2013 in patients with complicated UTI. Complicated UTI involving P. aeruginosa and MRSA decreased over the last 10 years. Our data suggest that several factors such as shorter hospitalizations, shorter indwelling catheter use, and appropriate antimicrobial use has decreased colonization of P. aeruginosa and MRSA with relative increases in isolation of E. coli including FQs-insusceptible strains. We must continue our surveillance of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria isolated from urine samples and evaluate antibiograms, since their persistence in the urinary tract would be problematic. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains native to Assam soil of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabha, Mihir; Sharma, Shaswati; Acharjee, Sumita; Sarmah, Bidyut Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We have identified both crystalliferous and acrystalliferous Bt isolates from the Assam soil of North East India for the first time. A total of 301 Bacillus type colonies were selected based on their appearance and colony morphology. Out of these colonies, 42 isolates had characteristics similar to Bt isolates on MYP (Mannitol Egg Yolk Polymyxin) agar base medium. The ERIC-PCR and 16S rDNA analyses confirmed that 42 isolates are Bacillus thuringiensis. Phase contrast microscopy showed that 37 isolates produced crystal endospore during the sporulation phase and 5 acrystalliferous isolates were also found. Amplification of cry gene was carried out using general Cry primers along with one cry2 gene specific primer. Out of 42 isolates, 50% of the isolates showed presence of cry2 gene followed by cry9 (40.47) and cry1 (40.47). Moreover, 21.42% of isolates showed the presence of more than one cry genes. We also screened these isolates for the possibility of having new Bt genes using universal primer and found two strains having a new type of Cry1I gene with 82 and 85% similarities with the available Cry1I gene sequences. Thus, these new types of Bt gene could be useful for Bt-based bioformulations and generation of transgenic plants.

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of a highly virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain isolated from the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, M. C.; Moreno, E.

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus [Vp] is a Gram-negative bacterium and a natural inhabitant of coastal marine ecosystems worldwide. Vp is also a coincidental pathogen of humans. Virulent strains are commonly identified by the presence of the thermostable direct (tdh) or tdh-related (trh) hemolysin genes. However, virulence is multifaceted and many clinical Vp isolates do not carry tdh or trh. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the draft genome of a tdh- and trh-negative environmental isolate (805) shown previously to be highly virulent in zebrafish. To investigate potential mechanisms of virulence, we compared 805 to the clinical V. parahaemolyticus type strain (RIMD2210633). Pairwise comparison revealed the presence of multiple genomic regions including an IncF conjugative pilus (1.3 Kb) and a colicin V plasmid (1.49 Kb). These features are homologous to genomic regions present in clinical V. vulnificus and V. cholerae strains. Genome comparison also revealed the presence of five toxin-antitoxin systems. Isolate 805 likely attained these new features through the lateral acquisition of mobile genomic material - a hypothesis supported by the aberrant GC content of these regions. Colicin V plasmids are a diverse group of IncF plasmids found in invasive bacterial strains. Similarly, an abundance of toxin-antitoxin systems have been linked to virulence in Gram-negative bacteria. Current efforts are focused on characterizing 142 coding features present in 805 but absent from the type strain.

  19. Typing of Brucella field strains isolated from livestock populations in Italy between 2001 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of species and biovars of Brucella field strains isolated in outbreaks is essential to fully understand the epidemiology of the disease and to trace sources of infection, thereby improving the outcome of brucellosis eradication programmes. It is important to identify the presence of Brucella strains in livestock populations and to determine the presence of new strains that might previously have been considered exotic. In this study, 732 Brucella strains isolated from livestock were submitted for typing by the Italian Istituti Zooprofilattici Sperimentali to the National Reference Laboratory for brucellosis between 2001 and 2006. Animal species affected, biovars typed and spatial distribution of isolates are discussed. Brucella field strains were identified using both conventional bacteriological methods and molecular techniques. Species identification was performed using the AMOS (AbortusMelitensisOvisSuis-polymerase chain reaction. For biovar identification, amplification of omp2a, omp2b and omp31 genes was performed, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Final biovar identification was performed by growth in the presence of basic fuchsin and thionin, using the slide agglutination test with Brucella A- and M- specific antisera.

  20. Detection of enterotoxins and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from Isfahan Educational Hospital, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Asghar Havaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Staphylococcus aureus is known as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens, which may lead to several infections. The aim of this study was determining the enterotoxins A, C, and TSST-1 and molecular characterization of S. aureus strains with PFGE and MLST typing methods. Materials and methods: In the present study during the sixmonths sampling, fifty S. aureus strains were isolated from patients admitted to Al-Zahra university hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Multiplex PCR for detection of enterotoxin A, C and TSST-1, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST were used for molecular typing. Results: In antibiogram the highest and lowest percentage of resistance was belonged to tetracycline and rifampin respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that 30% of the strains harbored sea and 34% harbored sec genes. However, only 4% of our collected isolates had tsst gene. In PFGE method analysis on all S. aureus strains, a total of 19 different patterns were identified. Nine various sequence types in 27 selected S. aureus isolates were identified by MLST. Conclusions: Present study indicates a possible higher variability among our S. aureus strains by two different molecular typing methods; nevertheless four main common types (CT1, CT7, CT9, and CT11 with at least one toxin genes were determined.

  1. Isolation and Fatty Acid Profile of Selected Microalgae Strains from the Red Sea for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of lipid-rich autochthonous strains of microalgae is a crucial stage for the development of a microalgae-based biofuel production plant, as these microalgae already have the necessary adaptations to withstand competition, predation and the temperatures observed at each production site. This is particularly important in extreme climates such as in Saudi Arabia. Resorting to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS we screened for and isolated several microalgal strains from samples collected from the Red Sea. Relying on the fluorescence of BODIPY 505/515 (4,4-difluoro-1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diazasindacene and growth performance, four promising candidates were identified and the total lipid content and fatty acid profile was assessed for biofuels production. Selected isolates were classified as chlorophytes, belonging to three different genera: Picochlorum, Nannochloris and Desmochloris. The lipid contents were assessed microscopically by means of BODIPY 505/515-associated fluorescence to detect intracellular lipid bodies, which revealed several lipid drops in all selected strains. This result was confirmed by lipid gravimetric determination, which demonstrated that all strains under study presented inner cell lipid contents ranging from 20% to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl esters profile of all strains seems ideal for biodiesel production due to a low degree of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters and high amount of palmitic and oleic acids.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Tedesco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc. Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains.

  3. Isolation and identification of bacterial strain I33M producing milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igbigbi

    Full Length Research Paper. Isolation and identification of bacterial strain I33M producing milk-clotting enzyme: Optimization of culture parameters using response surface. Talantikite-Kellil, S1, Nouani, A. 1,2*, Saunier, M3, Gillmann, L3, Brahmi, A4 and Fazouane, F1. 1Food Technology Laboratory, University of Boumerdes ...

  4. Virulence potential of Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from selected Nigerian traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IYABO C. OLADIPO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Five Enterococcus isolates from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum by using phenotypic and genotypic tests. Safety properties such as antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene detection, haemolysin, gelatinase and bacteriocin production were determined using standard methods. There was no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Virulence gene for collagen binding antigen and aggregation substance were detected in 60% of the E. gallinarum strains; while surface adhesin was detected in 20%, but none of the strains had cytolysin activator and gelatinase. Phenotype characterizations of the E. gallinarum isolates indicated that none of the isolates produced haemolysin and gelatinase. Enterococcus gallinarum C103 and U82 had no antimicrobial activity against all the selected bacteria pathogens while E. gallinarum W184, T71 and W21 were active against some of the indicator bacteria pathogens. Only E. gallinarum T71 and W21 showed broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Combination of virulence factors did not appear in these food isolates. Therefore, these strains particularly the two strains with high spectra of antimicrobial activity could be exploited as functional starters in foods.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BH072, Isolated from Honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin; de Jong, Anne; Zhou, Zhijiang; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BH072, isolated from a honey sample and showing strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, is 4.07 Mb and harbors 3,785 coding sequences (CDS). Several gene clusters for nonribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and a complete gene

  6. Genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25886, isolated from alpine glacial cryoconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Su Jin; Hong, Soon Gyu; Ahn, Do Hwan; Lee, Yung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Lee, Jungeun; Park, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Pseudomonas spp. have shown characteristics of efficiently metabolizing environmental pollutants and also producing exopolysaccharides known as biofilms. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25886, which was isolated from glacier cryoconite in the Alps mountain permafrost region and which may provide further insight into biodegradative and/or biofilm-producing mechanisms in a cold environment.

  7. Genome comparison and physiological characterization of eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from Italian dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendramin, Veronica; Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Eight Streptococcus thermophilus strains of dairy origin isolated in Italy were chosen to investigate autochthonous bacterial diversity in this important technological species. In the present study a comparative analysis of all the 17 S. thermophilus genomes publicly available was performed to id...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis Strain MCE529, Isolated from a Belgian Warmblood Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Laurent; Touzain, Fabrice; de Boisséson, Claire; Breuil, Marie-France; Duquesne, Fabien; Laugier, Claire; Blanchard, Yannick; Petry, Sandrine

    2014-11-26

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We herein report the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain MCE529, isolated in 2009 from the urethral fossa of a 15-year-old Belgian Warmblood horse in France. Copyright © 2014 Hébert et al.

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae Clinical Isolate from Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A Potential Atherogenic Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Simone; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Minniti, Gianluca; Ortolani, Emanuela; Romano, Silvio; Sessa, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated to atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our study was to characterize, for the first time, a C. pneumoniae strain isolated from the gingival crevicular fluid of a patient with chronic periodontitis, described as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. C. pneumoniae isolate was characterized and compared to the respiratory AR-39 strain by VD4-ompA genotyping and by investigating the intracellular growth in epithelial and macrophage cell lines and its ability to induce macrophage-derived foam cells. Inflammatory cytokine levels were determined in the gingival crevicular fluid sample. C. pneumoniae isolate showed a 99% similarity with the AR-39 strain in the VD4-ompA gene sequence and shared a comparable growth kinetic in epithelial cells and macrophages, as evidenced by the infectious progeny and by the number of chlamydial genomic copies. C. pneumoniae isolate significantly increased the number of foam cells as compared to uninfected and LDL-treated macrophages (45 vs. 6%, P = 0.0065) and to the AR-39 strain (45 vs. 30%, P = 0.0065). Significantly increased levels of interleukin 1-β (2.1 ± 0.3 pg/μL) and interleukin 6 (0.6 ± 0.08 pg/μL) were found. Our results suggest that C. pneumoniae may harbor inside oral cavity and potentially be atherogenic, even though further studies will be needed to clarify the involvement of C. pneumoniae in chronic periodontitis as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a virulent Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P isolated from diseased Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138P was isolated from the kidney of diseased Nile tilapia in Idaho during a 2007 streptococcal disease outbreak. The full genome of S. agalactiae 138P is 1,838,716 bp. The availability of this genome will allow comparative genomics to identify genes for antigen disco...

  11. Identification and typing of the yeast strains isolated from bili bili, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy six yeast strains isolated form bili bili and others sample were identified and typed in purpose of selecting appropriate starter culture. Identification techniques included conventional phenetic method, PCR/RFLP of NTS2 rDNA region, partial sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA and karyotyping using ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r that degrades lignin in plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C A; Couger, M B; Prabhakaran, M; Ramachandriya, K D; Canaan, P; Fathepure, B Z

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate novel lignin-degrading organisms. Several pure cultures of bacteria that degrade lignin were isolated from bacterial consortia developed from decaying biomass. Among the isolates, Rhizobium sp. strain YS-1r (closest relative of Rhizobium petrolearium strain SL-1) was explored for its lignin-degrading ability. Microcosm studies showed that strain YS-1r was able to degrade a variety of lignin monomers, dimers and also native lignin in switchgrass and alfalfa. The isolate demonstrated lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity when grown on alkali lignin, p-anisoin, switchgrass or alfalfa, and only negligible activity was measured in glucose-grown cells suggesting inducible nature of the LiP activity. Analysis of the strain YS-1r genome revealed the presence of a variety of genes that code for various lignin-oxidizing, H 2 O 2 -producing as well as polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzymes. This study shows both the genomic and physiological capability of bacteria in the genus Rhizobium to metabolize lignin and lignin-like compounds. This is the first detailed report on the lignocellulose-degrading ability of a Rhizobium species and thus this study expands the role of alpha-proteobacteria in the degradation of lignin. The organism's ability to degrade lignin is significant since Rhizobia are widespread in soil, water and plant rhizospheres and some fix atmospheric nitrogen and also have the ability to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Complete genome sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from Nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. We provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain K. pneumoniae 5-1. This data provides guidance to study the...

  14. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization.

  15. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization. PMID:6784672

  16. Use of lactic strains isolated from Algerian ewe's milk in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Accepted 29 February, 2008. Fifty three strains of thermophilic and mesophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the ewe's milk. ... at 10 and 45°C (cocci) or 15 and 45°C (rods), and gas production from MRS-broth (Falsen .... therefore certainly rates amino acids) in the medium. In addition, during the ...

  17. Isolation and identification of a cold-adapted lipase producing strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cold-adapted lipase producing strain of mesophilic bacterium, named SYBC LIP-Y, was isolated from the decayed seeds of Ginkgo biloba L. by screening with plates containing Victoria Blue B and with the flask-shaking fermentation. It was identified as a novel Burkholderia species. The properties of its lipase after ...

  18. Isolation and identification of a cold-adapted lipase producing strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... A cold-adapted lipase producing strain of mesophilic bacterium, named SYBC LIP-Y, was isolated from the decayed seeds of Ginkgo biloba L. by screening with plates containing Victoria Blue B and with the flask-shaking fermentation. It was identified as a novel Burkholderia species. The properties of its.

  19. The sensitivity to antibiotics of strains of group B streptococcus isolates from pregnant women in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Luka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Group B streptococcus (GBS is a significant human pathogen. GBS colonizes the vagina and it is one of the most important causes of early neonatal sepsis and meningitis. In many countries, screening of pregnant women and intrapartal use of antibiotics are common practice. Macrolide and lincosamide resistant strains of GBS are a significant problem, because these antibiotics are the second line therapy in case of penicillin allergy. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the frequency of antibiotic resistant strains of GBS and to detect macrolide resistance phenotypes in GBS strains obtained from pregnant women in Belgrade. Material and Methods: 105 GBS isolates were obtained from vaginal swabs of pregnant women attending two Gynecology and Obstetrics Centers in Belgrade. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and D test were performed on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Macrolide and lincosamide resistance was found in 30.4 %, and 23.8 % of isolates, respectively. There was a high frequency of tetracycline resistant strains (88.6 %. Most frequent macrolide resistant phenotype was iMLSb (macrolide and inducibile lincosamide resistance (62.4%. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that there is a high level of macrolide resistance among GBS isolates in Serbia and the active surveillance is needed.

  20. Isolation of bacterial strains able to metabolize lignin and lignin-related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J-H; Pourcher, A-M; Peu, P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we identified five strains isolated from soil and sediments able to degrade kraft lignin, aromatic dyes and lignin derivatives. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as Serratia sp. JHT01, Serratia liquefacien PT01, Pseudomonas chlororaphis PT02, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PT03 and Mesorhizobium sp. PT04. All the isolates showed significant growth on lignin with no water-extractable compounds. Synthetic aromatic dyes were used to assess the presence of oxidative enzymes. All the isolates were able to use the thiazine dye Methylene blue and the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R as the sole carbon source. Guaiacol, veratryl alcohol and biphenyl were also mineralized by all the strains isolated. These results suggest they could be used for the treatment of aromatic pollutants and for the degradation of the lignocellulosic biomass. The valorization of waste lignin and lignocellulosic biomass by biocatalysis opens up new possibilities for the production of value-added substituted aromatics, biofuel and for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. Bacteria with ligninolytic potential could be a source of novel enzymes for controlled lignin depolymerization. In this work, five soil bacteria were isolated and studied. Every isolate showed significant growth on lignin and was able to degrade several lignin monomers and ligninolytic indicator dyes. They could thus be a source of novel ligninolytic enzymes as well as candidates for a bacterial consortium for the delignification of lignocellulosic biomass. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  2. [Investigation of the virulence genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from biomaterial surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudağidan, Mert; Cavuşoğlu, Cengiz; Bacakoğlu, Feza

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococci are the most important agents of nosocomial infections originating from biomaterials. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of virulence genes and their phenotypic expressions in 11 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from the surfaces of clinically used biomaterials of 48 thorasic intensive-care unit patients. By the use of specific primers, the presence of genes encoding the attachment and biofilm production (icaA, icaC, bap), methicillin resistance (mecA), enterotoxins A-E (sea, seb, sec, sed, see), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tst), exfoliative toxins A and B (eta and etb), alpha- and beta-hemolysins (hla and hlb), staphylococcal exotoxin-like protein-1 (set1), proteases (sspA, sspB, aur, serine proteaz gene), lipase (geh) and the regulatory genes (sarA and agrCA) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The phenotypic properties of the isolates such as biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility, extracellular protease and lipase production were also evaluated. None of the isolates were found to be biofilm and/or slime producers, however, all strains were found to have icaA gene which is responsible for biofilm formation. Nevertheless the presence of icaC and bap genes that are also responsible for biofilm formation were not detected. All the strains have had mecA gene and were resistant to oxacillin, penicilin G and gentamicin, while 10 were also resistant to erythromycin and nine were also resistant to ofloxacin. The isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and co-trimoxazole. Screening of toxin and regulatory genes revealed that all the strains harboured sea, set1, hla, hlb and sarA genes. The phenotypic tests for the determination of extracellular protease production revealed that all the strains formed very weak zones on skim milk and milk agar plates, and yielded negative results on casein agar plates. Furthermore, all strains were found to harbour sspA, sspB, aur and serine

  3. Isolation and characterization of a high-efficiency erythromycin A-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Qiu, Lina; Gong, Aijun; Yuan, Xiaotao

    2017-01-30

    In this work, Erythromycin A(EA)- degrading bacteria was isolated from the contaminated soil obtained from a pharmaceutical factory in China. The isolate designated as strain WX-J1 was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. by sequence analysis of its 16S rDNA gene. It can grow in a medium containing EA as the sole source of carbon and its optimal growth pH and temperature were 6.5 and 32°C, respectively. Under these conditions, when the initial Erythromycin A concentration was 100mg·L-1, 97% of Erythromycin A has been degraded. HPLC-MS analyses indicated that Erythromycin A degradation produced intermediates contained the following three substances: 3-depyranosyloxy erythromycin A, 7,12-dyhydroxy-6-deoxyerythronolide B, 6-deoxyerythronolide B and propionaldehyde. Since Erythromycin A-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. strain rapidly degraded Erythromycin A, this strain might be useful for bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IMMUNOLOGIC STUDY OF STRAINS OF BACILLUS PFEIFFERI ISOLATED FROM A CASE OF MENINGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R A; Schultz, O T

    1921-04-30

    Five strains of Bacillus pfeifferi were isolated from a case of meningitis. These strains came from the spinal fluid, blood, nose, throat, and nasopharynx. Immunologic reactions show no definite relations between these strains, although those from the nose, throat, and nasopharynx might be presumed to be related to one another. It is also presumable that the spinal fluid strain was derived from the upper air passages, and that the blood was invaded from the meninges. In spite of immunologic differences, it is believed that the five strains were genetically related. The variations in these five strains from a single case are as great as those which have been found by others for strains from different cases, or individuals. As determined by immunologic reactions, the number of so called strains of Bacillus pfeifferi is apparently limited only by the number of cultures which have been or might be isolated. It is inconceivable that under the designation Bacillus pfeifferi is included a heterogeneous mixture of innumerable distinct races of bacteria; there must be some biological relation which cannot be established by agglutination, complement fixation, or opsonin reactions. The variations which have been noted, may be an indication of a degree of instability which may have some bearing upon questions relating to the epidemiology of Bacillus pfeifferi infections and to the serum therapy of influenzal meningitis. The strain variations which have been shown to exist by immunologic methods do not support the theory of the etiological relationn of Bacillus pfeifferi to epidemic influenza, unless it can be shown that such variations are due to instability of the organism. The fact that the incidence of meningeal involvement was only slightly increased during the last pandemic is also evidence against the causal relation of the organism to the pandemic disease.

  5. Molecular and virulence characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Anabela; Gargaté, Maria João; Ferreira, Idalina; Martins, Susana; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis which infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds. The majority of studies conducted in Europe have revealed that more than 80 % of strains isolated from human infections belong to genotype II, whereas genotypes I and III are responsible for a small number of cases. Atypical and recombinant strains are generally associated with more severe infections. In Portugal, there is a lack of data concerning genetic diversity as the classical typing studies in humans have never been performed. We aimed to determine the Sag2 and microsatellite-based (TUB2, TgM-A, W35, B17, B18) genotypes of T. gondii isolated from humans in Portugal, as well as to study their virulence in mice. We analyzed 48 strains from congenital and acquired toxoplasmosis collected during the last two decades. Sag2-based genotyping of T. gondii was achieved in all 48 strains where 35 (73 %) were classified as type II and 13 (27 %) were type I. The multilocus PCR of five microsatellites allowed the classification of 10 strains (21 %) as recombinant strains that had been previously identified as type II or I by Sag2 typing. Seven out of the 48 strains, including three type I, three recombinant, and one type I, were virulent in mice. This study constitutes the first evidence of recombinant strains circulating in Portugal in humans from congenital infection, highlighting the need for a better evaluation of these strains as their phenotype is still barely understood.

  6. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Bacteremic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; García, Wilfredo; García, Coralith; Durand, David; Mercado, Erik; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2017-11-01

    Escherichia coli is an important cause of Gram-negative bacteremia. The aim of this study was to characterize at the molecular and phenotypic levels E. coli strains belonging to different diarrheagenic pathotypes [diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)] isolated from bacteremia in children younger than 5 years of age. Seventy bacteremia E. coli strains were collected in a prospective study in 12 hospitals in Lima, Peru. The presence of virulence genes associated with DEC [enterotoxigenic (lt and st), enteropathogenic (eaeA), shiga toxin-producing (stx1and stx2), enteroinvasive (ipaH), enteroaggregative (aggR), and diffusely adherent (daaD)] was determined by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Those positive E. coli strains were further analyzed for 18 additional virulence factors encoding genes and others phenotypic features. Virulence genes associated with DEC were identified in seven bacteremic children (10%), including: one aggR-positive [enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)], one eaeA-positive [enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)], one st-positive [enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)], one daaD-positive [diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC)], and three strain positive for aggR and daaD (EAEC/DAEC) at the same time. All strains, except EPEC, had the Ag43 adhesin, and all, except ETEC had the siderophore gene fyuA. The phylogenetic profile of these strains was variable, two (B2), two (D), two (A), and one (B1) strain. These isolates were susceptible to all tested antibacterial agents except to ampicillin and gentamicin. The three EAEC/DAEC strains showed biofilm formation and aggregative adhesion and had the same repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR patterns. These findings suggest that some DEC strains, especially agg-R and daa-D positive, might cause bacteremia in children.

  7. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  8. [Isolation, identification and characterization of a microcystin-degrading bacterium Paucibacter sp. strain CH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Di-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Guo; Xiang, Hui-Yi; Ouyang, Liao; Yang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    A bacterium capable of degrading microcystin (MC), strain CH, was isolated from the sediment of Lake Chaohu, China. Strain CH was tentatively identified as Paucibacter sp. based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Paucibacter sp. strain CH can use microcystin LR (MCLR) as the sole carbon and energy sources, and 11.6 microg x mL(-1) of MCLR was degraded to below the detection limit within 10 hours with the first-order reaction rate constant of 0.242 h(-1). The optimum temperature and initial pH for MC degradation were 25-30 degrees C and pH 6-9, respectively. A novel intermediate product containing the Adda residue was detected during the degradation of MCLR, which is different from those produced by strain ACM-3962, and Adda was recognized as the final product of the degradation process. Furthermore, no homologue to any of the four genes, mlrA, mlrB, mlrC and mlrD previously associated with the degradation of MCLR by strain ACM-3962 was found in strain CH. These findings suggest that Paucibacter sp. strain CH mighe degrade MC through a different pathway from that of strain ACM-3962.

  9. Technological aptitude and applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bioactive strains isolated from Algerian raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  10. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  11. Identification of mosquito larvicidal bacterial strains isolated from north Sinai in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, two of the most toxic bacterial strains of Bacillus sphaericus against mosquito were identified with the most recent genetic techniques. The PCR product profiles indicated the presence of genes encoding Bin A, Bin B and Mtx1 in all analyzed strains; they are consistent with protein profiles. The preliminary bioinformatics analysis of the binary toxin genes sequence revealed that the open reading frames had high similarities when matched with nucleotides sequence in the database of other B. sphaericus strains. The biological activity of B. sphaericus strains varied according to growing medium, and cultivation time. The highest yield of viable counts, spores and larvicidal protein were attained after 5 days. Poly (P) medium achieved the highest yield of growth, sporulation, protein and larvicidal activity for all tested strains compared to the other tested media. The larvicidal protein produced by local strains (B. sphaericus EMCC 1931 and EMCC 1932) in P medium was more lethal against the 3rd instar larvae of Culex pipiens than that of reference strains (B. sphaericus 1593 and B. sphaericus 2297). The obtained results revealed that P medium was the most effective medium and will be used in future work in order to optimize large scale production of biocide by the locally isolated Bacillus sphaericus strains. PMID:22280528

  12. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster strains from goats in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haoju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the prevalence of the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in goats in Chongqing, China, an epidemiological survey in this area was carried out. A total of 68 samples were subjected to bacteria isolation on Hartley’s medium. Four isolates (three from lung tissue and one from nasal discharges were recovered from the samples and identified as the Mycoplasma species by their morphological and biochemical characteristics. They were further confirmed by PCR using 16S rRNA specific primer pairs and by restriction enzyme analysis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates indicated that some strains had developed resistance to the antibiotics tested. This is the first report on the isolation, identification, and molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from goats in Chongqing. This study also revealed a prevalence of Mycoplasma species infection in goats in this area.

  13. Genomic differentiation among two strains of the PS1 clade isolated from geographically separated marine habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Infante, Francy M.

    2014-05-22

    Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation, we isolated a strain affiliated with the PS1 clade from surface waters of the Red Sea. Strain RS24 represents the second isolate of this group of marine Alphaproteobacteria after IMCC14465 that was isolated from the East (Japan) Sea. The PS1 clade is a sister group to the OCS116 clade, together forming a putatively novel order closely related to Rhizobiales. While most genomic features and most of the genetic content are conserved between RS24 and IMCC14465, their average nucleotide identity (ANI) is < 81%, suggesting two distinct species of the PS1 clade. Next to encoding two different variants of proteorhodopsin genes, they also harbor several unique genomic islands that contain genes related to degradation of aromatic compounds in IMCC14465 and in polymer degradation in RS24, possibly reflecting the physicochemical differences in the environment they were isolated from. No clear differences in abundance of the genomic content of either strain could be found in fragment recruitment analyses using different metagenomic datasets, in which both genomes were detectable albeit as minor part of the communities. The comparative genomic analysis of both isolates of the PS1 clade and the fragment recruitment analysis provide first insights into the ecology of this group. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  14. Molecular characterization of four Haemophilus influenzae serotype a strains isolated from patients in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, Michelle L; Zhou, Jianwei; Law, Dennis K S; Lorange, Manon; Ringuette, Louise; Bekal, Sadjia; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2007-10-01

    Four epidemiologically unrelated Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) strains from patients in Quebec, Canada, were characterized and found to represent 3 distinct groups. One isolate, found to be biotype I and sequence type (ST)-62 by multilocus sequence typing, was shown to possess the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase gene, sodC, and was suspected to belong to clonal division II. The other 3 isolates were classified as clonal division I based on the absence of the sodC gene. Among the 3 sodC-negative Hia strains, 2 were biotype II and had related STs (ST-23 and ST-403) and highly similar DNA fingerprints, similar to a group of previously described Hia isolates causing invasive disease in Manitoba, Canada. The remaining sodC-negative strain belonged to biotype I and ST-4 and shared no common allele with ST-23, ST-403, or ST-62. This isolate also possessed the IS1016-bexA partial deletion, which is often associated with increased virulence. Despite the small number of isolates used in this study, our finding of 3 distinct groups shows the existence of a potential genetic diversity not previously described for Hia. Whether this genetic diversity is related to the severity and epidemiology of Hia disease requires further studies.

  15. GROWTH CAPACITY OF BACILLUS POTENTIAL STARTER STRAINS ISOLATED FROM COCOA BEANS FERMENTATION UNDER CULTURE STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFRIED YAO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the growth capacity of Bacillus with pectinolytic activity, acidifying and citrate metabolism capacities under culture stress conditions. Spontaneous heaps fermentation was conducted from cocoa of six producing regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacillus isolated using plate agar on nutrient medium were analyzed for pectinolytic enzymes production, citric acid breakdown, acidification and growth capacity under different stress conditions. A total of 970 Bacillus strains were isolated and 44.53 % of them produced pectinolytic activity. Among pectinolytic strains, 163 (37.73 % exhibited acidifying and citrate metabolism capacity. Five (5 of these strains exhibited a strong thermotolerance at 50 ºC with the optimal growth at 35 ºC and a good capacity to grow at pH 4 to pH 8. Moreover, sugar concentrations ranged 5 to 25 % showed low effect on all tested strains growth with a maximum growth at 5 % fructose and sucrose concentration and at 15% glucose concentration. However, ethanol stress conditions (up to 8 % repress strongly growth capacity of the strains analyzed. This study indicates that Bacillus strains involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation possess some properties essential for a well-fermented cocoa. Therefore, these results show that Bacillus studied should be potential candidate as starter for cocoa beans fermentation control.

  16. Comparative analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from bovine respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellyei, Boglárka; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Jánosi, Szilárd; Makrai, László

    2015-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration.

  17. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings. © 2013.

  18. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  19. [Isolation and characterization of a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate degrading bacterial strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chu

    2006-12-01

    A bacterial strain, designated as WZR-A, which could utilize sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as sole carbon and energy source for growth, was isolated from contaminated river. The strain was identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi based on its morphological and physiological properties, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The optimum pH and temperature for cell growth and SDBS degradation were 7.0 and 30 degrees U, respectively. The degradation rate of SDBS by strain WZR-A was higher than 80% when its concentration was lower than 400mg/L. The results of whole cell protein SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that there were very obvious differences in the total cell protein composition of the strain between before and after SDBS induction. The enzyme distribution experiment showed that the enzymes relative SDBS degradation in the bacterium was intracellular one. Results from the characterization of degradation substrates together with the detection of activities of relative catabolic enzymes in crude extracts indicated that the aromatic ring cracking of SDBS by the strain probably via the modified ortho cleavage pathway and the strain could use broader spectrum substrates. A large plasmid was detected by utilizing plasmid isolating and curing technique and it was found that the genes involved in SDBS degradation were likely located on the plasmid.

  20. Polymorphism of viral dsRNA in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains isolated from different geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libkind Diego

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA elements was described in some isolates. This kind of viruses is widely distributed among yeasts and filamentous fungi and, although generally are cryptic in function, their studies have been a key factor in the knowledge of important fungi. In this work, the characterization and genetic relationships among dsRNA elements were determined in strains representatives of almost all regions of the earth where X. dendrorhous have been isolated. Results Almost all strains of X. dendrorhous analyzed carry one, two or four dsRNA elements, of molecular sizes in the range from 0.8 to 5.0 kb. Different dsRNA-patterns were observed in strains with different geographic origin, being L1 (5.0 kb the common dsRNA element. By hybridization assays a high genomic polymorphism was observed among L1 dsRNAs of different X. dendrorhous strains. Contrary, hybridization was observed between L1 and L2 dsRNAs of strains from same or different regions, while the dsRNA elements of minor sizes (M, S1, and S2 present in several strains did not show hybridization with neither L1 or L2 dsRNAs. Along the growth curve of UCD 67-385 (harboring four dsRNAs an increase of L2 relative to L1 dsRNA was observed, whiles the S1/L1 ratio remains constant, as well as the M/L1 ratio of Patagonian strain. Strains cured of S2 dsRNA were obtained by treatment with anisomycin, and comparison of its dsRNA contents with uncured strain, revealed an increase of L1 dsRNA while the L2 and S1 dsRNA remain unaltered. Conclusion The dsRNA elements of X. dendrorhous are highly variable in size and sequence, and the dsRNA pattern is specific to the geographic region of isolation. Each L1 and L2 dsRNA are viral elements able to self replicate and to coexist into a cell, and L1 and S2 dsRNAs elements could

  1. Polymorphism of viral dsRNA in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains isolated from different geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Marcelo; Sanhueza, Mario; Flores, Oriana; Oviedo, Vicente; Libkind, Diego; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2009-10-08

    Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements was described in some isolates. This kind of viruses is widely distributed among yeasts and filamentous fungi and, although generally are cryptic in function, their studies have been a key factor in the knowledge of important fungi. In this work, the characterization and genetic relationships among dsRNA elements were determined in strains representatives of almost all regions of the earth where X. dendrorhous have been isolated. Almost all strains of X. dendrorhous analyzed carry one, two or four dsRNA elements, of molecular sizes in the range from 0.8 to 5.0 kb. Different dsRNA-patterns were observed in strains with different geographic origin, being L1 (5.0 kb) the common dsRNA element. By hybridization assays a high genomic polymorphism was observed among L1 dsRNAs of different X. dendrorhous strains. Contrary, hybridization was observed between L1 and L2 dsRNAs of strains from same or different regions, while the dsRNA elements of minor sizes (M, S1, and S2) present in several strains did not show hybridization with neither L1 or L2 dsRNAs. Along the growth curve of UCD 67-385 (harboring four dsRNAs) an increase of L2 relative to L1 dsRNA was observed, while the S1/L1 ratio remains constant, as well as the M/L1 ratio of Patagonian strain. Strains cured of S2 dsRNA were obtained by treatment with anisomycin, and comparison of its dsRNA contents with uncured strain, revealed an increase of L1 dsRNA while the L2 and S1 dsRNA remain unaltered. The dsRNA elements of X. dendrorhous are highly variable in size and sequence, and the dsRNA pattern is specific to the geographic region of isolation. Each L1 and L2 dsRNA are viral elements able to self replicate and to coexist into a cell, and L1 and S2 dsRNAs elements could be part of a helper/satellite virus system in X

  2. Exploring the Genomic Traits of Non-toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. As reported in other countries, after the rise and fall of the pandemic strain in Chile, other post-pandemic strains have been associated with clinical cases, including strains lacking the major toxins TDH and TRH. Since the presence or absence of tdh and trh genes has been used for diagnostic purposes and as a proxy of the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus isolates, the understanding of virulence in V. parahaemolyticus strains lacking toxins is essential to detect these strains present in water and marine products to avoid possible food-borne infection. In this study, we characterized the genome of four environmental and two clinical non-toxigenic strains (tdh-, trh-, and T3SS2-. Using whole-genome sequencing, phylogenetic, and comparative genome analysis, we identified the core and pan-genome of V. parahaemolyticus of strains of southern Chile. The phylogenetic tree based on the core genome showed low genetic diversity but the analysis of the pan-genome revealed that all strains harbored genomic islands carrying diverse virulence and fitness factors or prophage-like elements that encode toxins like Zot and RTX. Interestingly, the three strains carrying Zot-like toxin have a different sequence, although the alignment showed some conserved areas with the zot sequence found in V. cholerae. In addition, we identified an unexpected diversity in the genetic architecture of the T3SS1 gene cluster and the presence of the T3SS2 gene cluster in a non-pandemic environmental strain. Our study sheds light on the diversity of V. parahaemolyticus strains from the southern Pacific which increases our current knowledge regarding the global diversity of this organism.

  3. Physiological and symbiotic diversity of Cupriavidus necator strains isolated from nodules of Leguminosae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligiane Aparecida Florentino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation, performed by diazotrophic bacteria, plays an important role in the maintenance of agricultural systems, as it contributes with significant amounts of the nitrogen (N needed for plant growth, totally or partially exempting the use of industrial N fertilisers. Twenty-five bacterial strains isolated from nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris trap plants were studied. These nodules were formed after inoculation with suspensions of soil samples collected close to the root system of Sesbania virgata. In previous studies, these bacteria were identified as Cupriavidus necator. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of these strains to fix N2 in the free-living state and to use carbon (C sources; their resistance to antibiotics; growth in media with different pH values and salt concentrations and symbiotic efficiency with L. leucocephala and P. vulgaris. In each test, these strains were compared to C. taiwanensis LMG 19424T. Although a high variability regarding antibiotic resistance, salt tolerance and use of C sources were observed among the 25 C. necator strains, a large group behaved similar regarding salt tolerance (20 strains and antibiotic resistance (22 strains. C. necator strains behaved in a different way of LMG 19424T. Only one of the 25 strains studied, UFLA02-69, was not able to establish symbiosis with its trap species, P. vulgaris. Only the strains LMG19424T and UFLA01-672 were efficient in symbiosis with L. leucocephala. The ability to use C sources, grow in different pHs and salt concentrations and resistance to several antibiotics, may grant high saprophytic competence and greater competitivity to these strains in relation to the native Leguminosae-nodulating bacterial populations, suggesting potential use in inoculant strain selection studies for legumes cultivated in soils with a wide range of pH and salt concentrations.

  4. [Antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains with K1 antigen isolated from pregnant women and newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Budzyńska, Anna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was comparison of the susceptibility to antibiotics of E. coli strains with K1 antigen (E. coli K1+) and non-K1 E. coli strains (E. coli K1-). This study included 67 of E. coli K1+ and 67 of E. coli K1- strains isolated in the time period from June to September of 2008 from pregnant women and newborns hospitalized at dr. J. Biziel University Hospital number 2 L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. Antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli strains was tested by the disc-diffusion method, on the Mueller Hinton 2 Agar (Becton Dickinson). It was found that 64,2% of E. coli K1+ strains and 53,7% of E. coli K1-strains were susceptible to all tested antibiotics and chemioterapeutics. E. coli K1- strains were more often than E. coli K1+ nonsusceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent. The obtained results indicate that E. coli K1+ strains significant differed in the susceptibility to ampicillin/sulbactam (85,1% versus 95,5%) (p=0,041), cephalothin (70,1% versus 85,1%) (p=0,038) and tetracycline (91,0% versus 74,6%) (p=0,012) from E. coli K1-strains. All tested E. coli K1+ and K1-strains were sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, netilmicin and tigecycline. There weren't the ESBL-producing strains among tested E. coli K1+ and K1- rods.

  5. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of a Bacteriocin-Like Substance Produced by Geobacillus toebii Strain HBB-247.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başbülbül Özdemir, Gamze; Biyik, Haci Halil

    2012-03-01

    A total of 201 thermophilic bacteria isolated from various thermal spring, mud and soil were tested for their antibacterial activity. Among the mostly active isolates, Geobacillus toebii HBB-247 was further examined. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) produced by strain HBB-247 was found to be stable up to 60°C, sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and effective against Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria sp., E. avium, Clostridium pasteurianum, Cellulomonas fimi and some thermophilic strains isolated and identified in this study. As a result of Tricine-SDS-PAGE molecular weight of BLIS was estimated about 38 kDa. Production studies showed that G. toebii HBB-247 starts to produce antibacterial substance at early logarithmic phase of growth and maximum production was detected at the end of the logarithmic phase.

  7. Characterization of Thermotolerant Chitinases Encoded by a Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain Isolated from a Suburban Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To isolate and characterize chitinases that can be applied with practical advantages, 57 isolates of chitin-degrading bacteria were isolated from the soil of a suburban wetland. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that the majority of these strains belonged to two genera, Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus. Taking thermostability into account, the chitinases (ChiA and ChiC of a B. laterosporus strain were studied further. Ni-NTA affinity-purified ChiA and ChiC were optimally active at pH 7.0 and 6.0, respectively, and showed high temperature stability up to 55 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that ChiC has a lower affinity and stronger catalytic activity toward colloidal chitin than ChiA. With their stability in a broad temperature range, ChiA and ChiC can be utilized for the industrial bioconversion of chitin wastes into biologically active products.

  8. [Genomic characteristics of coxsackievirus B5 A210/KM/09 strain isolated in Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Shao, Congwen; Zhao, Weizhong; Zhang, Yunkun; Ji, Ma; Zhu, Yanju; Ma, Zhongfei; Ma, Shaohui

    2014-03-01

    To characterize the complete genome sequence of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5)A210/KM/09 strain which was isolated from Yunnan, China, 2009. Eight overlapping clones covering the whole viral genome (excluding the poly-A tail)were obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced, with their nucleotide and amino acid sequences compared with other known CVB5 strains. The genome of the CVB5 A210/KM/09 strain had 7 372 nucleotides in length, and containing a 742-nt non-translated region (NTR) at the 5' end and a 98-nt NTR at the 3' end. The entire open reading frame contained 6 555 nt, encoding a 2 185-aa polyprotein. In the coding region, there appeared no nucleotide deletion or insertion, but some changes of amino acid seemed unique. Based on the complete genome sequence alignments, CVB5 isolate A210/KM/09 strain showed the highest nucleotide (92.5%) and amino acid (97.3%) identities to the CVB5/CC10/10. It also shared nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) homology with other CVB5 strains: 17Y, 19CSF, 20CSF, 1954/85/US, 2000/CSF/KOR, 03001N, CoxB5/Henan/2010, VB5/SD/09 and Faulkner. Blast between genome fragments, A210/KM/09 showed similarity on nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) identities with other CVB5 strains. The phylogenetic tree, constructed on the complete VP1 regions, indicated that CVB5 could be divided into genotype A, B, C and D. while Genotype C and D could be further divided into C1-C4 and D1-D4 subgenotypes. A210/KM/09 and other CVB5 predominant strains isolated in China belonged to CVB5 subgenotype C4.

  9. Genetic diversity of environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Taichiro; Murase, Kazunori; Maruyama, Fumito; Tran, Thi Luong; Ota, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nguyen, Dong Tu; Ngo, Tu Cuong; Nguyen, Thi Hang; Tokizawa, Asako; Morita, Masatomo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Nguyen, Binh Minh; Yamashiro, Tetsu

    2017-10-01

    Cholera epidemics have been recorded periodically in Vietnam during the seventh cholera pandemic. Since cholera is a water-borne disease, systematic monitoring of environmental waters for Vibrio cholerae presence is important for predicting and preventing cholera epidemics. We conducted monitoring, isolation, and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in Nam Dinh province of Northern Vietnam from Jul 2013 to Feb 2015. In this study, four V. cholerae O1 strains were detected and isolated from 110 analyzed water samples (3.6%); however, none of them carried the cholera toxin gene, ctxA, in their genomes. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four O1 isolates were separated into two independent clusters, and one of them diverged from a common ancestor with pandemic strains. The analysis of pathogenicity islands (CTX prophage, VPI-I, VPI-II, VSP-I, and VSP-II) indicated that one strain (VNND_2014Jun_6SS) harbored an unknown prophage-like sequence with high homology to vibriophage KSF-1 phi and VCY phi, identified from Bangladesh and the USA, respectively, while the other three strains carried tcpA gene with a distinct sequence demonstrating a separate clonal lineage. These results suggest that the aquatic environment can harbor highly divergent V. cholera strains and serve as a reservoir for multiple V. cholerae virulence-associated genes which may be exchanged via mobile genetic elements. Therefore, continuous monitoring and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in the environment should contribute to the early detection of the sources of infection and prevention of cholera outbreaks as well as to understanding the natural ecology and evolution of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of trh2 Harbouring Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Isolated in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlars, Silke; Jäckel, Claudia; Diescher, Susanne; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ralf; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a recognized human enteropathogen. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) as well as the type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) are considered as major virulence factors. As tdh positive strains are not detected in coastal waters of Germany, we focused on the characterization of trh positive strains, which were isolated from mussels, seawater and patients in Germany. Results Ten trh harbouring V. parahaemolyticus strains from Germany were compared to twenty-one trh positive strains from other countries. The complete trh sequences revealed clustering into three different types: trh1 and trh2 genes and a pseudogene Ψtrh. All German isolates possessed alleles of the trh2 gene. MLST analysis indicated a close relationship to Norwegian isolates suggesting that these strains belong to the autochthonous microflora of Northern Europe seawaters. Strains carrying the pseudogene Ψtrh were negative for T3SS2β effector vopC. Transcription of trh and vopC genes was analyzed under different growth conditions. Trh2 gene expression was not altered by bile while trh1 genes were inducible. VopC could be induced by urea in trh2 bearing strains. Most trh1 carrying strains were hemolytic against sheep erythrocytes while all trh2 positive strains did not show any hemolytic activity. TRH variants were synthesized in a prokaryotic cell-free system and their hemolytic activity was analyzed. TRH1 was active against sheep erythrocytes while TRH2 variants were not active at all. Conclusion Our study reveals a high diversity among trh positive V. parahaemolyticus strains. The function of TRH2 hemolysins and the role of the pseudogene Ψtrh as pathogenicity factors are questionable. To assess the pathogenic potential of V. parahaemolyticus strains a differentiation of trh variants and the detection of T3SS2β components like vopC would improve the V. parahaemolyticus diagnostics and could lead to a refinement of the risk

  11. Intraspecies cellular fatty acids heterogeneity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from fermented foods in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmasheva, I; Vasyliuk, O; Kovalenko, N; Ostapchuk, A; Oleschenko, L

    2015-09-01

    The intraspecies heterogeneity of cellular fatty acids composition of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Ukrainian traditional fermented foods was examined. Seven cellular fatty acids were identified. All Lact. plantarum strains investigated contained C16:0 (from 7·54 to 49·83% of total fatty acids), cC18:1 (3·23-38·67% of total fatty acids) and cycC19:0 acids (9·03-67·68% of total fatty acids) as the major fatty acids. The tC18:1 acid made up 1·47-22·0% of the total fatty acids. The C14:0 and C16:1 acids were present in small amounts (0·22-6·96% and 0·66-7·42% respectively) in most Lact. plantarum strains. Differences in relative contents of some fatty acids between Lact. plantarum strains depending on the source isolation were found. Isolates of dairy origin contained slightly greater levels of the C16:0 and tC18:1 fatty acids and lower levels of the cC18:1 than strains obtained from fermented vegetables. The origin of Lact. plantarum strains affects their fatty acids composition, which in turn, appears to be related to their ability to growth under stress factors. Cellular fatty acids composition is an important chemotaxonomic characteristic of bacterial cells. At the same time cellular fatty acids play a key role in maintaining the viability of micro-organisms in different environmental conditions. In this study, intraspecies heterogeneity of cellular fatty acids composition of Lactobacillus plantarum strains was examined. This work provides novel and important information about a relationship between cellular fatty acids composition of Lact. plantarum strains and source of isolation or stress resistance profile. Our results showed that cellular fatty acids composition is quite diverse among Lact. plantarum strains derived from different sources and may reflect previous cell's history. Our findings should be considered in chemotaxonomic studies of lactic acid bacteria and its ecology. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Genetic features of human and bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianciola, L; D'Astek, B A; Mazzeo, M; Chinen, I; Masana, M; Rivas, M

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens associated with human diseases. In Argentina, O157:H7 is the dominant serotype in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases. Previously, we have described the almost exclusive circulation of human E. coli O157 strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 in Neuquén Province. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by a broad molecular characterization, if this particular distribution of E. coli O157 clades in Neuquén is similar to the situation in other regions of the country and if it may be originated in a similar profile in cattle, its main reservoir. Two-hundred and eighty O157 strains (54 bovine and 226 human) isolated between 2006 and 2008 in different regions of Argentina were studied. All strains harbored rfbO157, fliCH7, eae, and ehxA genes. The predominant genotype was stx2a/stx2c in human (76.1%) and bovine (55.5%) strains. All human isolates tested by Lineage-Specific Polymorphism Assay (LSPA-6), were lineage I/II; among bovine strains, 94.1% belonged to lineage I/II and 5.9% to lineage I. No LSPA-6 lineage II isolates were detected. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis has revealed the existence of nine clade phylogenetic groups. In our clinical strains collection, 87.6% belonged to the hypervirulent clade 8, and 12.4% were classified as clade 4/5. In bovine isolates, 59.3% strains were clade 8, 33.3% clade 4/5 and 7.4% clade 3. More than 80% of human strains showed the presence of 6 of the 7 virulence determinants described in the TW14359 O157 strain associated with the raw spinach outbreak in the U.S. in 2006. More than 80% of bovine strains showed the presence of 3 of these factors. The q933 allele, which has been related to high toxin production, was present in 98.2% of clinical strains and 75.9% of the bovine isolates. The molecular characterization of human STEC O157 strains allows us to conclude that the particular situation previously described

  13. Identification of bacterial strains isolated from the Mediterranean Sea exhibiting different abilities of biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Armougom, Fabrice; Blache, Yves; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has rarely been investigated for the characterization of marine bacteria as compared to other marine environments such as the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean. Bacteria recovered from inert surfaces are poorly studied in these environments, when it has been shown that the community structure of attached bacteria can be dissimilar from that of planktonic bacteria present in the water column. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize marine bacteria isolated from biofilms developed on inert surfaces immersed in the Mediterranean Sea and to evaluate their capacity to form a biofilm in vitro. Here, 13 marine bacterial strains have been isolated from different supports immersed in seawater in the Bay of Toulon (France). Phylogenetic analysis and different biological and physico-chemical properties have been investigated. Among the 13 strains recovered, 8 different genera and 12 different species were identified including 2 isolates of a novel bacterial species that we named Persicivirga mediterranea and whose genus had never been isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. Shewanella sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. were the most preponderant genera recovered in our conditions. The phenotypical characterization revealed that one isolate belonging to the Polaribacter genus differed from all the other ones by its hydrophobic properties and poor ability to form biofilms in vitro. Identifying and characterizing species isolated from seawater including from Mediterranean ecosystems could be helpful for example, to understand some aspects of bacterial biodiversity and to further study the mechanisms of biofilm (and biofouling) development in conditions approaching those of the marine environment.

  14. [ISOLATION OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE GENES IN VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1 AND O139 SEROGROUP STRAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnova, S P; Smirnova, N I

    2015-01-01

    Determination of sensitivity of V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar and O139 serogroup strains to antibiotics and determination of the presence of antibiotics resistance genes in their genome. The studies were carried out in 75 V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroup strains. Sensitivity of cultures to antibiotics was determined by disc-diffusion method. DNA isolation was carried out in the presence of 6M guanidine thiocyanate. PCR was carried out in multi-channel amplificator Tercyc. A multiplex PCR was constructed, that includes 5 primer pairs for the detection of O1 and O139 serogroup resistance genes of vibrios to sulfame- thoxazolum, streptomycin B, trimethoprim, the presence of SXT element, an amplification program was developed. Using the developed PCR, V. cholerae O1 serogroup El Tor biovar strains with multiple drug resistance were established to be imported into Russia in 1993. The presence of SXT elements with genes of resistance to 4 antibiotics simultaneously was detected precisely in these strains, that belong to toxigenic genovariants of V. cholerae El Tor biovar. All the El Tor vibrio strains imported in the subsequent years were shown to stably preserve SXT element, this indicates its important role in biology of cholera vibrios. O139 serogroup strains with intact SXT element and having a deletion of the gene coding trimethoprim resistance were isolated. The data obtained may be used to establish molecular-genetic mechanisms of emergence of antibiotics resistant strains of cholera vibrio, construction of novel gene diagnostic test-systems and carrying out passportization of strains that are stored in the State collection of pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Inference of population structure of Leishmania donovani strains isolated from different Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Gelanew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasites' evolution in response to parasite-targeted control strategies, such as vaccines and drugs, is known to be influenced by their population genetic structure. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure of Ethiopian strains of Leishmania donovani derived from different areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL as a prerequisite for the design of effective control strategies against the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-three strains of L. donovani newly isolated from VL cases in the two main Ethiopian foci, in the north Ethiopia (NE and south Ethiopia (SE of the country were investigated by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. The microsatellite profiles of 60 previously analysed L. donovani strains from Sudan, Kenya and India were included for comparison. Multilocus microsatellite typing placed strains from SE and Kenya (n = 30 in one population and strains from NE and Sudan (n = 65 in another. These two East African populations corresponded to the areas of distribution of two different sand fly vectors. In NE and Sudan Phlebotomus orientalis has been implicated to transmit the parasites and in SE and Kenya P. martini. The genetic differences between parasites from NE and SE are also congruent with some phenotypic differences. Each of these populations was further divided into two subpopulations. Interestingly, in one of the subpopulations of the population NE we observed predominance of strains isolated from HIV-VL co-infected patients and of strains with putative hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, high inbreeding irreconcilable from strict clonal reproduction was found for strains from SE and Kenya indicating a mixed-mating system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified a hierarchical population structure of L. donovani in East Africa. The existence of two main, genetically and geographically separated, populations could reflect different parasite-vector associations

  16. Molecular characteristics of Polish field strains of Marek's disease herpesvirus isolated from vaccinated chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdruń Wojciech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty-nine Marek's disease virus (MDV strains were isolated during a 3 year period (2007-2010 from vaccinated and infected chicken flocks in Poland. These strains had caused severe clinical symptoms and lesions. In spite of proper vaccination with mono- or bivalent vaccines against Marek's disease (MD, the chickens developed symptoms of MD with paralysis. Because of this we decided to investigate possible changes and mutations in the field strains that could potentially increase their virulence. We supposed that such mutations may have been caused by recombination with retroviruses of poultry - especially reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV. Methods In order to detect the possible reasons of recent changes in virulence of MDV strains, polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses for meq oncogene and for long-terminal repeat (LTR region of REV were conducted. The obtained PCR products were sequenced and compared with other MDV and REV strains isolated worldwide and accessible in the GeneBank database. Results Sequencing of the meq oncogene showed a 68 basepair insertion and frame shift within 12 of 24 field strains. Interestingly, the analyses also showed 0.78, 0.8, 0.82, 1.6 kb and other random LTR-REV insertions into the MDV genome in 28 of 29 of strains. These genetic inserts were present after passage in chicken embryo kidney cells suggesting LTR integration into a non-functional region of the MDV genome. Conclusion The results indicate the presence of a recombination between MDV and REV under field conditions in Polish chicken farms. The genetic changes within the MDV genome may influence the virus replication and its features in vivo. However, there is no evidence that meq alteration and REV insertions are related to the strains' virulence.

  17. Establishing the change in antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Dutch broilers by logistic regression and survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, J.A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Khalifa, O.A.; Broek, van den J.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the change in the resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Dutch broilers against erythromycin and virginiamycin in 1998, 1999 and 2001 by logistic regression analysis and survival analysis. The E. faecium strains were isolated from caecal samples that

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain LC33 Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, J?ssica B.; de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimar?es, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Na?la C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge; Marques, Lucas M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain LC33, isolated from human breast milk in Brazil. This microorganism has been typed as ST1/t127/sccmecV. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant S.?aureus strain isolated from human breast milk.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain LC33 Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jéssica B.; de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimarães, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain LC33, isolated from human breast milk in Brazil. This microorganism has been typed as ST1/t127/sccmecV. To our knowledge, this is the first draft genome sequence of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain isolated from human breast milk. PMID:28408673

  20. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens Strain RM66262, Isolated from a Patient with a Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna, Roberto E.; Revale, Santiago; Garc?a V?scovi, Eleonora; Mariscotti, Javier F.

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strains are ubiquitous bacteria isolated from environmental niches and also constitute emergent nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. Here, we report on the draft genome sequence of S.?marcescens strain RM66262, which was isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection in the Bacteriology Service of the Rosario National University, Rosario, Argentina.

  1. Draft Genome Assembly of Two Pseudoclavibacter helvolus Strains, G8 and W3, Isolated from Slaughterhouse Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Prem K; Herschend, Jakob; Røder, Henriette L; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-03-31

    We report the draft genome sequences of twoPseudoclavibacter helvolusstrains. Strain G8 was isolated from a meat chopper and strain W3 isolated from the wall of a small slaughterhouse in Denmark. The two annotated genomes are 3.91 Mb and 4.00 Mb in size, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Raghupathi et al.

  2. Isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with altered susceptibility to carbapenems not carbapenemase mediated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Cian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of enterobacteria producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs is sharply increasing in Italy, while the detection of isolates resistant to carbapenems is still sporadic. Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to all cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones have been isolated in Trieste since 2008. Because of the altered profile of resistance to carbapenems, these strains were reported as ESBL-negative and possible carbapenemases producer by the expert system, leaving tigecycline as the only therapeutic choice.The purpose of this study is the characterization of the mechanisms involved in resistance to carbapenems in these strains and the evaluation of a reliable and simple test for phenotypic confirmation of ESBL and/or carbapenemase production. 25 isolates of MDR K. pneumoniae were collected between October 2008 and May 2009, mainly from urinary samples of elderly patients hospitalized in medicine wards. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed using the Vitek 2 system.The double-disc (DD test was used to check the production of ESBLs, while imipenem and imipenem-EDTA synergy test was used to detect the production of metallo-ßlactamase (MBL. Carbapenemase activity was tested by an hydrolysis assay and the production of MBLs was also investigated by PCR. The DD synergy test highlighted the possible production of ESBLs in 18 out of 22 strains, considered as negative by Vitek. All ESBLs producers tested positive for the blaCTX-M-15 allele. Only one isolate was resistant to carbapenems and resulted positive for production of MBL by the phenotypic test.The crude extract showed carbapenemase activity inhibited by EDTA; PCR test gave positive result for a blaVIM-type allele. PCR analysis performed on representative isolates, followed by sequencing, showed that coding sequence of ompk35 was not functional. Results of this study confirmed the emergence of ESBL-positive strains of K. pneumoniae that

  3. Technological properties of indigenous wine yeast strains isolated from wine production regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmacı, Simel; Özçelik, Filiz; Tokatlı, Mehmet; Çakır, İbrahim

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the important technological and fermentative properties of wine yeast strains previously isolated from different wine producing regions of Turkey. The determination of the following important properties was made: growth at high temperatures; fermentative capability in the presence of high sugar concentration; fermentation rate; hydrogen sulfide production; killer activity; resistance to high ethanol and sulfur dioxide; foam production; and enzymatic profiles. Ten local wine yeast strains belonging to Saccharomyces, and one commercial active dry yeast as a reference strain were evaluated. Fermentation characteristics were evaluated in terms of kinetic parameters, including ethanol yield (YP/S), biomass yield (YX/S), theoretical ethanol yield (%), specific ethanol production rate (qp; g/gh), specific glucose uptake rate (qs; g/gh), and the substrate conversion (%). All tested strains were able to grow at 37 °C and to start fermentation at 30° Brix, and were resistant to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide. 60 % of the strains were weak H2S producers, while the others produced high levels. Foam production was high, and no strains had killer activity. Six of the tested strains had the ability to grow and ferment at concentrations of 14 % ethanol. Except for one strain, all fermented most of the media sugars at a high rate, producing 11.0-12.4 % (v/v) ethanol. Although all but one strain had suitable characteristics for wine production, they possessed poor activities of glycosidase, esterase and proteinase enzymes of oenological interest. Nine of the ten local yeast strains were selected for their good oenological properties and their suitability as a wine starter culture.

  4. Isolation, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence Genes of Pasteurella multocida Strains from Swine in China▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xibiao; Zhao, Zhanqin; Hu, Junyong; Wu, Bin; Cai, Xuwang; He, Qigai; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-01-01

    A total of 233 isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from 2,912 cases of clinical respiratory disease in pigs in China, giving an isolation rate of 8.0%. Serogroup A P. multocida isolates were isolated from 92 cases (39.5%), and serogroup D isolates were isolated from 128 cases (54.9%); 12 isolates (5.2%) were untypeable. P. multocida was the fourth most frequent pathogenic bacterium recovered from the respiratory tract, after Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Escherichia coli. All isolates were characterized for their susceptibilities to 20 antibiotics and the presence of 19 genes for virulence factors (VFs). The frequency of antimicrobial resistance among P. multocida isolates from swine in China was higher than that reported among P. multocida isolates from swine in from other countries, and 93.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. There was a progressive increase in the rate of multiresistance to more than seven antibiotics, from 16.2% in 2003 to 62.8% in 2007. The resistance profiles suggested that cephalosporins, florfenicol, and fluoroquinolones were the drugs most likely to be active against P. multocida. Use of PCR showed that colonization factors (ptfA, fimA, and hsf-2), iron acquisition factors, sialidases (nanH), and outer membrane proteins occurred in most porcine strains. The VFs pfhA, tadD, toxA, and pmHAS were each present in multocida isolates and suggest that the potential threat of such multiresistant bacteria in food-producing animals should not be neglected. PMID:19158260

  5. Isolation, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence genes of Pasteurella multocida strains from swine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xibiao; Zhao, Zhanqin; Hu, Junyong; Wu, Bin; Cai, Xuwang; He, Qigai; Chen, Huanchun

    2009-04-01

    A total of 233 isolates of Pasteurella multocida were obtained from 2,912 cases of clinical respiratory disease in pigs in China, giving an isolation rate of 8.0%. Serogroup A P. multocida isolates were isolated from 92 cases (39.5%), and serogroup D isolates were isolated from 128 cases (54.9%); 12 isolates (5.2%) were untypeable. P. multocida was the fourth most frequent pathogenic bacterium recovered from the respiratory tract, after Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Escherichia coli. All isolates were characterized for their susceptibilities to 20 antibiotics and the presence of 19 genes for virulence factors (VFs). The frequency of antimicrobial resistance among P. multocida isolates from swine in China was higher than that reported among P. multocida isolates from swine in from other countries, and 93.1% of the isolates showed multiple-drug resistance. There was a progressive increase in the rate of multiresistance to more than seven antibiotics, from 16.2% in 2003 to 62.8% in 2007. The resistance profiles suggested that cephalosporins, florfenicol, and fluoroquinolones were the drugs most likely to be active against P. multocida. Use of PCR showed that colonization factors (ptfA, fimA, and hsf-2), iron acquisition factors, sialidases (nanH), and outer membrane proteins occurred in most porcine strains. The VFs pfhA, tadD, toxA, and pmHAS were each present in multocida isolates and suggest that the potential threat of such multiresistant bacteria in food-producing animals should not be neglected.

  6. Serratia marcescens: Biochemical, Serological, and Epidemiological Characteristics and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Strains Isolated at Boston City Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfert, James N.; Barrett, Fred F.; Ewing, W. H.; Finland, Maxwell; Kass, Edward H.

    1970-01-01

    The biochemical, serological, and epidemiological characteristics of 95 strains of Serratia marcescens isolated at the Boston City Hospital were examined. Several strains were shown to be endemic, and the majority of isolates were cultured from urine or respiratory secretions. Serratia species were highly resistant to polymyxin B and the cephalosporins, and various proportions were also resistant to other antibiotics including kanamycin, but all of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin. The appearance of resistance to kanamycin and nalidixic acid among endemic strains was demonstrated. The nosocomial nature of Serratia infections, particularly those involving the urinary tract, was confirmed. Many clinical bacteriology laboratories currently fail to identify the nonpigmented strains. PMID:4314379

  7. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  8. Susceptibility to tigecycline of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Katarzyna; Krzyściak, Paweł; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to cure due to the acquisition of resistance by these bacteria and lead to an increase in the general costs of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine tigecycline susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit and non-intensive care unit patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MICs were tested by Etest among 70 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The MIC range was from 0.5 to 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For ESBL-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, as well as for strains without carbapenemases, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For AmpC-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 6.0 mg L⁻¹ and, for MBL-producing strains, 2.0 mg L⁻¹. The majority of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from ICU and non-ICU patients demonstrated high values of MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 to tigecycline.

  9. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  10. Molecular and serological characterization of the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Bruno Alonso; Moreno, Luisa Zanolli; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Sousa, Gisele Oliveira de; Loureiro, Ana Paula; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Hagiwara, Mitika Kuribayashi

    2016-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Dogs can become asymptomatically infected, acting like reservoir hosts for pathogenic Leptospira, notably Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola. Identification of such individuals and characterization of leptospires involved in chronic infections may unravel the role of dogs in the epidemiology of particular leptospiral strains. The aim of the present work was to describe the first Leptospira santarosai strain isolated from a dog. The dog was kept in a public shelter in São Paulo city, Brazil, and presented asymptomatic urinary shedding detected by PCR. Prospective evaluation was performed to fully characterize its chronic carrier state. The dog did not present anti-Leptospira titles or clinical/laboratorial abnormalities during the evaluations; nevertheless long-term urinary shedding was confirmed by PCR and leptospires were recovered from two occasions. The isolated strain was molecularly characterized by partial 16S rRNA and secY gene sequencing and MLST analysis. Serogroup identification was performed using polyclonal antibodies. The strain was identified as Leptospira santarosai, serogroup Sejroe. This is the first evidence in the literature of the isolation of L. santarosai in dogs. Our findings show that dogs can persistently harbor leptospires other than L. interrogans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro effects of various xenobiotics on Azotobacter chroococcum strains isolated from soils of southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen Azotobacter chroococcum strains isolated from soils of Southern Poland were studied concerning resistance to various xenobiotics: heavy metal ions: Cd(2+,) Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), pesticides: herbicides linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) and combination of mecoprop ((RS)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid), dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) and MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid), fungicide copper oxychloride, insecticide fenitrothion (O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) and eight antibiotics commonly used against Gram-negative bacteria. The tested soils were divided into seven groups of land use: forest, field crop, park, urban lawn, industrial area, garden and fallow land, and were analyzed for the following heavy metal ion concentrations using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) technique: Cd(2+,) Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+). All strains were resistant to Pb(2+), whereas other metals caused the growth inhibition of the analyzed strains. There was no significant relationship between metal concentrations in the analyzed soils and metal resistance of the isolates. Herbicide linuron did not inhibit the growth of A. chroococcum in any of the concentrations. All other pesticides caused the growth inhibition only in the concentrate forms. All isolates were sensitive to β-lactam antibiotic Meropenem, however high intraspecies differentiation was observed concerning resistance to other antibiotics. The obtained results require further study regarding resistance mechanisms and possible use of the xenobiotic-resistant strains in land rehabilitation.

  12. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  13. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Two Italian Wine-Producing Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Granchi, Lisa; Guerrini, Simona; Mangani, Silvia; Romaniello, Rossana; Vincenzini, Massimo; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies, based on different molecular techniques analyzing DNA polymorphism, have provided evidence that indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations display biogeographic patterns. Since the differentiated populations of S. cerevisiae seem to be responsible for the regional identity of wine, the aim of this work was to assess a possible relationship between the diversity and the geographical origin of indigenous S. cerevisiae isolates from two different Italian wine-producing regions (Tuscany and Basilicata). For this purpose, sixty-three isolates from Aglianico del Vulture grape must (main cultivar in the Basilicata region) and from Sangiovese grape must (main cultivar in the Tuscany region) were characterized genotypically, by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis and MSP-PCR by using (GTG)5 primers, and phenotypically, by determining technological properties and metabolic compounds of oenological interest after alcoholic fermentation. All the S. cerevisiae isolates from each region were inoculated both in must obtained from Aglianico grape and in must obtained from Sangiovese grape to carry out fermentations at laboratory-scale. Numerical analysis of DNA patterns resulting from both molecular methods and principal component analysis of phenotypic data demonstrated a high diversity among the S. cerevisiae strains. Moreover, a correlation between genotypic and phenotypic groups and geographical origin of the strains was found, supporting the concept that there can be a microbial aspect to terroir. Therefore, exploring the diversity of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains can allow developing tailored strategies to select wine yeast strains better adapted to each viticultural area.

  14. [The incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Proteus mirabilis strains isolated in 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Proteus sp. rods are opportunistic human pathogens, isolated mainly from urinary tract infections. They are naturally susceptible to most antimicrobials. However, acquisition of genes for extended spectrum beta-lactamases on plasmids and irrational antimicrobial treatment increase amount of multidrug resistant strains and lead to their selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate production of ESBLs by double disc synergy test and antimicrobial susceptibility of P mirabilis strains by disc diffusion method. Strains included into the study were isolated from patients of dr A. Jurasz University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz between 2007 and 2009. P mirabilis strains were isolated mainly from urine. In this study 10,4%, 18,7% and 14,4% ESBL(+) P mirabilis strains were isolated in 2007, 2008, 2009, respectively. Resistance to majority of the investigated antimicrobials was observed in ESBL(+) P mirabilis strains.

  15. Molecular screening of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy neonatal calves in Cordoba province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Natalia Y; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Bellingeri, Romina V; Grosso, María C; Motta, Carlos E; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Vissio, Claudina; Tiranti, Karina I; Terzolo, Horacio R; Moreira, Ana R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7%) healthy and 225 (36.3%) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1% isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Janulaitiene, Migle; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is considered a substantial player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We analysed 17 G. vaginalis strains isolated from the genital tract of women diagnosed with BV to establish a potential link between genotypes/biotypes and the expression of virulence factors, vaginolysin (VLY) and sialidase, which are assumed to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BV. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed two G. vaginalis genotypes. Gardnerella vaginalis isolates of genotype 2 appeared more complex than genotype 1 and were subdivided into three subtypes. Biochemical typing allowed us to distinguish four different biotypes. A great diversity of the level of VLY production among the isolates of G. vaginalis may be related to a different cytotoxicity level of the strains. We did not find any correlation between VLY production level and G. vaginalis genotype/biotype. In contrast, a link between G. vaginalis genotype and sialidase production was established. Our findings on the diversity of VLY expression level in different clinical isolates and linking sialidase activity with the genotype of G. vaginalis could help to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different G. vaginalis strains. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotyping of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains isolated from nasal swabs of healthy individuals in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; González, Ana C; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Free Living Amoebae (FLA) of Acanthamoeba genus are widely distributed in the environment and can be found in the air, soil and water; and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. In humans, they are causative agents of a sight-threating infection of the cornea, Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and a fatal infection of the central nervous system known as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE). In this study, a survey was conducted in order to determine the presence and pathogenic potential of free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus in nasal swabs from individuals in two regions of Peru. Identification of isolates was based on cyst morphology and PCR-sequencing of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 to identify strains at the genotype level. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was also assayed using temperature and osmotolerance assays and extracellular proteases zymograms. The obtained results revealed that all isolated strains exhibited pathogenic potential. After sequencing the highly variable DF3 (Diagnostic Fragment 3) region in the 18S rRNA gene as previously described, genotype T4 was found to be the most common one in the samples included in this study but also genotype T15 was identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the characterization of Acanthamoeba strains at the genotype level and the first report of genotype T4 and T15 in Peru. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FMD virus isolates: the candidate strains for polyvalent vaccine development in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelet, G; Soressa, M; Sisay, T; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Jembere, S; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses with the aim of selecting appropriate vaccinal strain to control of FMD in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two-dimensional virus neutralization assay to determine the antigenic relationship 'r' value between the candidate vaccine strains and field isolates. A total of 21 serotype O, 7 serotype A, and 8 serotype SAT 2 FMD viruses, which were isolated from cattle and swine. A couple of isolates from each serotype were identified as vaccine candidates in the trial (O-ETH/38/2005, O-ETH/58/2008, A-ETH/7/2008, A-ETH/6/2000, SAT2-ETH/76/2009 and SAT2-ETH/64/2009). The finding revealed all the vaccine candidate depicted high antigenic similarity, above the mean "r" value, to their own serotypes in the studied serotype population except for one serotype A field isolate, A-ETH/13/1981, with "r" value=0.14 and 0.25) which is significantly lower than the minimum requirement. In general, the result indicated that these candidate vaccinal strains can be used for polyvalent vaccine production in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium strains from stems of hypernodulated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Mizue; Ikeda, Seishi; Eda, Shima; Okubo, Takashi; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium strains that responded to soybean nodulation phenotypes and nitrogen fertilization rates in a previous culture-independent analysis (Ikeda et al. ISME J. 4:315-326, 2010). Two strategies were adopted for isolation from enriched bacterial cells prepared from stems of field-grown, hypernodulated soybeans: PCR-assisted isolation for Aurantimonas and selective cultivation for Methylobacterium. Thirteen of 768 isolates cultivated on Nutrient Agar medium were identified as Aurantimonas by colony PCR specific for Aurantimonas and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Meanwhile, among 187 isolates on methanol-containing agar media, 126 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences as Methylobacterium. A clustering analysis (>99% identity) of the 16S rRNA gene sequences for the combined datasets of the present and previous studies revealed 4 and 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for Aurantimonas and Methylobacterium, respectively, and showed the successful isolation of target bacteria for these two groups. ERIC- and BOX-PCR showed the genomic uniformity of the target isolates. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of Aurantimonas revealed a phyllosphere-specific cluster in the genus. The isolates obtained in the present study will be useful for revealing unknown legume-microbe interactions in relation to the autoregulation of nodulation.

  20. Strain Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Belay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n=13 isolates were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%. Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers.

  1. Major clonal lineages in impetigo Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Machová, Ivana; Kostýlková, Karla; Doškař, Jiří

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven exfoliative toxin-producing (ET-positive) strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected in 23 Czech and one Slovak maternity hospitals from 1998 to 2011 were genotypically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, and ETA-converting prophage carriage, which resulted in the identification of 21 genotypes grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC). Ninety-one isolates carried the eta gene alone whilst 12 isolates harboured only the etb gene. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t6644 and t6645) and 2 novel sequence types (ST2194 and ST2195) were identified in the set of strains under study. The predominant CC121 occurred in 13 Czech hospitals. CC15, CC9, and ST88 (CC88) exclusively included eta gene-positive strains while the strains belonging to ST121 harboured the eta and/or etb genes. This study highlights not only significant genomic diversity among impetigo strains and the distribution of major genotypes disseminated in the Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals, but also reveals their impact in epidermolytic infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanardi, Davide; Drigo, Ilenia; De Vidi, Beatrice; Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Viel, Laura; Capello, Katia; Berto, Giacomo; Bano, Luca

    2016-06-01

    One hundred and six Clostridium perfringens field strains, isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy between 2006 and 2015, were toxinotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Strains were derived from intestines (87), livers (17) and subcutaneous tissues (2). In addition to the four major toxins, strains were also screened for NetB toxin, enterotoxin and beta2 toxin encoding genes. The intestinal gross lesions of turkeys with enteric disorders were statistically studied with respect to the presence of C. perfringens beta2 toxin encoding gene and coccidia in the gut. All the isolates belonged to the toxinotype A and were netB negative. Enterotoxin (cpe) and beta2 toxin (cpb2) encoding genes were detected in two (2.63%) and 76 (71.69%) strains, respectively. Toxinotype results agree with the few published reports concerning the genetic characterization of C. perfringens of turkey origin. On the contrary, the presence of netB and cpb2 genes differs from the results of a previous study where these genes were detected respectively in 6.6% and in 0.5% of the tested strains. Necrotic enteritis in turkeys was not statistically correlated either to the presence of cpb2 gene, or to the synergistic effect operated by coccidia, even though a high percentage of birds with these protozoa in the gut showed necrotic enteritis lesions (64.29%).

  3. Biochemical behavior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains isolated from mice submitted to specific chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesila Pinto M. Marretto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of chemotherapy on the biochemical beha vior of Trypanosoma cruzi strains, three groups of mice were infected with one of three strains of T. cruzi of different biological and isoenzymic patterns (Peruvian, 21 SF and Colombian strains. Each group was subdivided into subgroups: 1 - treated with nifurtimox; 2 - treated with benznidazole and 3 - untreated infected controls. At the end of treatment, that lasted for 90 days, xenodiagnosis, sub inoculation of blood into new born mice and haemoculture were performed as tests of cure. From the positive tests, 22 samples of T. cruzi were isolated from all subgroups. Electrophoretic analysis of the isoenzymes PGM, GP1, ALAT and AS AT failed to show any difference between parasite strains isolated from treated and untreated mice, which indicates that no detectable clonal selection or parasite genetic markers alterations concerning the isoenzymes analysed have been determined by treatment with drugs of recognized antiparasitic effect, suggesting stability of the phenotypic characteristics of the three biological types of T. cruzi strains.

  4. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Personnel of Jahrom Hospitals in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saadat

    2014-01-01

    Undo edits Methods: In this cross - sectional study, 397 of the anterior nasal samples of medical personnel and hospital services were collected by swab. The identification of S.aureus was determined by biochemical tests and microbiology, and the antibiotic resistances of isolates were determined by disk diffusion method for 13 antibiotics. In this method, the inhibition zone for methicillin-resistant strains was ≤ 10 mm the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC against antibiotic vancomycin, ticoplanin, linezolid and synercid were determined by E-test method. Results: In the present study, 11.3% of personals carried S. aureus in the nose. Among them, 90% were health care workers and 10% were health service workers. The most sensitivity was observed resistance to Ciprofloxacin, rifampin, linezolid and synercid (91.1%, but the lowest sensitivity was to penicillin (4.7%. of 9 MRSA strains, 1 strain was resistance to vancomycin and 2 strains were resistant to teicoplanin and linezolid. Conclusion: Because of S. aureus strains isolated from hospital staffs were resistant to most common antibiotics, identification and treatment of health care and health service workers can prevent nosocomial infections. Key words: Staphylococcu aureus carriers, hospital personnel, antibiotic resistance.

  5. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SEVİM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bacillus strains which were isolated from soil samples were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin and, novabiocin and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese and, cadmium and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, and B12 which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. These results showed that there was a correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos; Barbosa, André Victor; Rusak, Leonardo Alves; Vallim, Deyse Christina; Hofer, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3%) was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%), 1/2b (13.2%) and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%). All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5%) showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2 μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Bacillus flexus strain As-12, a new arsenic transformer bacterium isolated from contaminated water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeli, Mohammad Ahmadi; Maleki, Afshin; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Izanloo, Hassan; Gharibi, Fardin

    2017-02-01

    A total of 14 arsenic-resistant bacteria were isolated from an arsenic-contaminated travertine spring water in the central district of Qorveh county, Kurdistan Province, Iran. One of strains designated As-12 was selected for further investigation because of its ability to transform arsenic. The strain was identified by cultural, morphological and biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Finally, the growth characteristics of the isolate were investigated in a chemically defined medium which included varied ranges of environmental factors such as pH, temperature and salinity. Moreover, the resistance of this strain to some heavy metals was evaluated. The bacterium was a Gram-positive, endospore-forming with all other characteristics of the genus Bacillus. It revealed maximum similarity at the 16S rRNA gene level with Bacillus flexus. The optimum growth of the strain was observed at 38 °C, pH 9 and 2% salinity. This strain was resistant to heavy metals such as zinc, chromium, lead, nickel, copper, mercuric and cadmium at concentrations of 15 mM, 15.5 mM, 11.5 mM, 12 mM, 11 mM, 5.5 mM, and 1 mM, respectively. The isolated bacterium was able to reduce As (V) to As (III) (about 28%) and oxidize As (III) to As (V) (about 45%) after 48 h of incubation at 37 °C. In conclusion, Bacillus flexus strain As-12, was identified as an arsenic transformer, for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  9. [The in-vitro action of amoxicillin on 87 strains of Staphylococcus aureus of 1st isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, N A; Bononi, L J; Mastroviti, S

    1976-01-01

    In vitro activity of Amoxycillin towards 87 strains of Staphilococcus aureus clinically isolated was analyzed. The 70% of the strains were very sensitive to the antibiotic action. Moreover the growth of the 50% of the strains was inhibited by Amoxycillin concentrations less than 0.20 mcg/ml.

  10. Emerging azithromycin-resistance among the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexandra; Nemes-Nikodem, Eva; Jeney, Csaba; Szabo, Dora; Marschalko, Marta; Karpati, Sarolta; Ostorhazi, Eszter

    2016-09-20

    In the 1990s, azithromycin became the drug of choice for many infectious diseases but emerging resistance to the drug has only been reported in the last decade. In the last 5 years, the National Neisseria gonorrhoeae Reference Laboratory of Hungary (NNGRLH) has also observed an increased number of N. gonorrhoeae strains resistant to azithromycin. The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent sequence types (ST) of N. gonorrhoeae related to elevated levels of azithromycin MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration). Previously and currently isolated azithromycin-resistant strains have been investigated for the existence of molecular relationship. Maldi-Tof technic was applied for the identification of the strains isolated from outpatients attending the reference laboratory. Testing antibiotic susceptibility of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, spectinomycin and ciprofloxacin was carried out for all the identified strains, using MIC strip test Liofilchem(®). N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed exclusively on azithromycin-resistant isolates. A phylogenetic tree was drawn using MEGA6 (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0) Neighbour-Joining method. Out of 192 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 30.0 % (58/192) proved resistant to azithromycin (MIC > 0.5 mg/L). Of the azithromycin-resistant isolates, ST1407, ST4995 and ST11064 were the most prevalent. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the latter two STs are closely related. In contrast to West-European countries, in our region, resistance to azithromycin has increased up to 30 % in the last 5 years, so the recommendation of the European Guideline -500 mg of ceftriaxone combined with 2 g of azithromycin as first choice therapy against N. gonorrhoeae- should be seriously considered in case of Hungary.

  11. Cholera on Guam, 1974: epidemiologic findings and isolation of non-toxinogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, M H; Martin, W T; Craig, J P; Morris, G K; Blake, P A; Craun, G F; Feeley, J C; Camacho, J C; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    In August 1974, six cases of cholera occurred on Guam. The index case had severe diarrhea and metabolic acidosis and died from pneumonia on the ninth day of illness; the other five cases had only mild to moderate diarrhea. Fish caught in Agana Bay and home-preserved was found to be the vehicle most likely responsible for the cases. Vibrio cholerae, El Tor Ogawa, was isolated from two patients, the Guam sewerage system, and a river emptying into Agana Bay. V. cholerae, El Tor Inaba, was isolated from the sewerage system, three storm drains imptying into Agana Bay, and Agana Bay. The Ogawa and Inaba isolates differed in their sucrose fermentation and hemolysis reactions, phage type and ability to produce toxin. Although this was the first reported cholera outbreak on Guam, the isolation of differentV. cholerae strains suggested that multiple introductions of V. cholerae had occurred on the island.

  12. Salmonella serovars and antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hidalgo, Gabriela; López-Valenzuela, Martin; Juárez-Barranco, Felipe; Montiel-Vázquez, Edith; Valenzuela-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp. strains from wild animals in captivity at the Culiacan Zoo and the Mazatlan Aquarium in Sinaloa, Mexico. We identified 17 different Salmonella enterica serovars at a prevalence of 19.90% (Culiacan Zoo) and 6.25% (Mazatlan Aquarium). Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that, of the 83 strains studied, 100% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The drugs against which the greatest resistance was observed were: penicillin, erythromycin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and chloramphenicol. We therefore conclude that MDR is common among Salmonella isolates originating from wild animals in captivity in Sinaloa.

  13. Molecular serotyping of rough Salmonella strains isolated from Danish pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Boel, Jeppe; Sisic, E.

    2013-01-01

    for subtyping is necessary and serotyping is one of the most commonly used approaches for Salmonella. Traditionally, serotyping is done by slide agglutination using antisera aiming at two cell surface antigens: somatic (O) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and flagellar (H). Some Salmonella strains have incomplete LPS...... structures, referred to as rough strains, or do not express H antigens, therefore serotyping by agglutination cannot be performed on these isolates. This results in data gaps when subtyping data is needed. To overcome this obstacle, serotypes can be determined on DNA level, i.e. by determining the presence...

  14. Experimental infections with rifampicin-resistant Clostridium perfringens strains in broiler chickens using isolator facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Bjerrum, Lotte; Nauerby, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    Experimental infection studies were carried out on the ability of three Clostridium perfringens type A rifampicin-resistant strains to colonize the intestinal tract of broiler chickens kept in isolators from 1-day-old. Various doses of C. perfringens were given orally at 22 days, 9 days or at 1 day...... replaced by naturally occurring strains of C. perfringens in all groups but they persisted for considerably longer in chickens inoculated at 1-day-old or at 9 days than those at 22 days, indicating a possible resistance to colonization with increasing age. The findings emphasize the difficulties...... of establishing a reproducible model for infection with C. perfringens in broiler chickens....

  15. Enterococcus faecalis as multidrug resistance strains in clinical isolates in Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Ghafourian, S; Mohebi, R; Taherikalani, M; Pakzad, I; Valadbeigi, H; Hatami, V; Sadeghifard, N

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in E. faecalis and E. faecium and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, then dominant genes responsible for vancomycin resistance were determined. For this propose, 180 clinical isolates of Enterococcus were subjected for identification and antibiotic susceptibility assay. Then, the gene responsible vancomycin resistant strains were determined. The results demonstrated the E. faecalis as a dominant Enterococcus. Resistance to erythromycin was dominant and multidrug resistance strains observed in E. faecalis. vanA was responsible for vancomycin resistance. In conclusion, a high rate of resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus is clearly problematic, and a novel strategy is needed to decrease resistance in Enterococcus.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Leptospira Strains Isolated from Environmental Soil and Water in the Philippines and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Sharon Y. A. M.; Chakraborty, Antara; Miyahara, Satoshi; Segawa, Takaya; Asoh, Tatsuma; Ozuru, Ryo; Gloriani, Nina G.; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    There have been few reports on the epidemiological analysis of environmental Leptospira isolates. This is probably because the isolation of leptospires from the environment was usually unsuccessful due to the overgrowth of contaminants and the slow growth of Leptospira. In this study, we collected a total of 88 samples of soil and water from three sites: Metro Manila and Nueva Ecija, Philippines (an area where Leptospira is now endemic), and Fukuoka, Japan (an area where Leptospira was once endemic). We succeeded in isolating Leptospira from 37 samples by using the novel combination of five antimicrobial agents reported in 2011. The frequencies of positive isolation of Leptospira in the Philippines and Japan were 40 and 46%, respectively. For Leptospira-positive samples, five colonies from each sample were isolated and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The isolates from each area showed their respective characteristics in phylogenetic trees based on the PFGE patterns. Some isolates were closely related to each other across borders. Based on 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis, four isolates in Fukuoka were identified as a pathogenic species, L. alstonii; however, its virulence had been lost. One isolate from Nueva Ecija was identified as the intermediate pathogenic species Leptospira licerasiae. Most of the isolates from the environment belonged to nonpathogenic Leptospira species. We also investigated the strain variation among the isolates in a puddle over 5 months. We demonstrated, using PFGE analysis, that Leptospira survived in the wet soil on dry days and appeared in the surface water on rainy days. These results showed that the soil could be a reservoir of leptospires in the environment. PMID:23144130

  17. [Carotenogenesis of five strains of the algae Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyceae) isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Miguel; Lodeiros, César; Gómez, Olga; Lemus, Nathalie; Núñez, Paulino; Romero, Lolymar; Vásquez, Aléikar; Rosales, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated discontinuous cultures (Algal medium at 0.5 mM of NaNO3, and 27% NaCI) of five strains of Dunaliella sp. isolated from Venezuelan hypersaline lagoons (Araya, Coche, Peonia, Cumaraguas. and Boca Chica) and one strain from a reference collection (Dunaliella salina, LB1644). Cultures were maintained to 25+/-1 degrees C, with constant aeration, photoperiod 12:12, and two light intensities (195 and 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1)) during 30 days. Cell count was recorded on a daily basis using a Neubaüer camera. Totals of chlorophyll a and carotenoids were measured at the end of the experiment. The largest cellular densities were measured during the smallest light intensities. The strain with the largest cellular density was isolated from Boca Chica (8 xl0(6) and 2.5 xl0(6) cel.ml(-1) a 390 and 195microE.m(-2).s(-1), respectively). The increment of light intensity produced a significant reduction of growth rates in all strains. Totals of carotenoids by volume were as large as 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). Strains LB 1644, from Coche and Araya were those that produced the largest amount of carotenoids (38.4; 32.8 and 21.0 microg.ml(-1), respectively). Differences total carotenoids by cell between treatments were significant. The largest concentration was 390 microE.m(-2).s(-1). The strains LB 1644 and Coche produced the highest values of carotenes (137.14 and 106.06 pg.cel(-1), respectively). Differences in the relation carotenoid:chlorophyll a between the strains at various light intensities was significant. Strains LB1644 presented the largest value of the relation carotenoids:chlorophyll a (20:1) at 195 microE.m(-2).s(-1). No significant differences were detected in the strain Coche (15:1). All the other strains showed relations lower than one. Our results suggest that the strains of Coche and Araya show potential to be used in the biotechnology of carotenoids production.

  18. [Isolation and identification of Sulfobacillus sp. strains and their application in pyrite bioleaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tangjian; Zhong, Shuiping; Chen, Chaoran; Peng, Cheng; Jiang, Chengying

    2013-12-04

    The work aimed to isolate and culture the acidophilic and moderately thermophilic microorganisms for leaching the sulfide ore. We enriched and incubated iron- or sulfur-oxidizing strains from muddy water of acuric hot spring utilizing ferrous irons or elemental sulfur as substrates. Then, we identified the strains by their morphological, physiological, biochemical properties and phylogenetic positions, and estimated their bioleaching potential according to their oxidation rate of pyrite. Two acidophilic, aerobic and facultative heterotrophic bacterial strains, Costa C and Costa E, were isolated from the samples of sulfuric hot springs of Costa Rica. Cells of the two strains were gram-positive, spore-forming and rod-shaped [(0.4 - 0.6) microm x (2.5 - 4.0) microm and (0.4 - 0.7) microm x (2.4 - 4.9) microm, respectively]. Strain Costa C grew at a temperature range of 30 degrees C - 55 degrees C and a pH range of 1.2 - 5.0, optimally at 50 degrees C and 2.8. Strain Costa E grew at a temperature range of 30 degrees C - 55 degrees C and at a pH range of 1.4 - 5.0, optimally at 40 degrees C and 2.8. Two strains could autotrophically grow on inorganic substrates such as ferrous irons, element sulfur and K2 S4 O6 and also could utilize organic substrates like yeast extract for heterotrophic growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences alignment demonstrated that the highest similarity between strain Costa C, Costa E and other species of the genus Sulfobacillus was above 99%. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, Costa C and Costa E can be affiliated to the genus Sulfobacillus, for which the names Sulfobacillus sp. strain Costa C and Sulfobacillus sp. strain Costa E were proposed. Both strains could oxidize pyrite, and the oxidation rates arrived 63.0 mg/L x d and 56.8 mg/L x d, respectively.

  19. Phenotypic Resistance to Disinfectants and Antibiotics in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, E; Moreno Roldan, E; Espigares, M; Abreu, R; Castro, B; Dib, A L; Arias, Á

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method. Susceptibility to the disinfectants glutaraldehyde, peracetic acid and silver nitrate was assessed, as well as to the antiseptics chlorhexidine, benzalkonium chloride and povidone iodine. Susceptibility to a wide array of antibiotics representing the main groups was determined by means of the disc diffusion method. All the strains demonstrated susceptibility to the disinfectants tested at the recommended concentration, and even to dilutions equal to or lesser than 1/16. The most effective antiseptic and disinfectant were, respectively, chlorhexidine and silver nitrate. With regard to the antibiotics, the strains proved to be multiresistant. All presented phenotypic resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, penicillin and cefoxitin, as well as to numerous aminoglycosides, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. It was also observed that 61.1% of the strains were carriers of plasmids. Our results underline that in the strains such as MRSA, which show multiple resistances to antibiotics, the antiseptics and disinfectants show great efficacy. Moreover, as other authors also suggest, for the treatment and prevention of infections caused by MRSA, the use of β-lactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics may be less effective. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. [Characterization of genotypes for Burkholderia cepacia complex strains isolated from patients in hospitals of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A L; Chernukha, M Yu; Shaginyan, I A; Kunda, M S; Avetisyan, L R; Orlova, A A; Lunin, V G; Avakyan, L V; Kapranov, N I; Amelina, E L; Chuchalin, A G; Gintsburg A L

    2013-01-01

    88 cultures of microorganisms referred to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) during initial identification were analyzed by multilocus sequencing (Multilocus Sequence Typing, MLST). 13 genotypes (sequence type, ST) were detected, 9 of them (708, 709, 710, 711, 712, 714, 727, 728, 729) were identified for the first time. Two new alleles for the gene trpB (357, 358), one of the genes atpD (306) and gltB (352) were detected and registered. It was found that strains of 2 genotypes (711, 712) belong to the species B. multivorans, 1 (ST102) - B. contaminans, 1 (ST51) - B. stabilis, 1 (ST729) - B. vietnamiensis. Most strains of the sample, representing 8 genotypes (208, 241, 728, 727, 708, 709, 710, 714), belong to the species B. cenocepacia. Identified genotypes differ in the global spread of the world: 4 genotype (51, 102, 208, 241) have intercontinental distribution, 1 (712) - intra. It is shown that strains causing nosocomial infections, in most cases refer to genotypes 728 and 708. Epidemiologically significant in respect of patients with cystic fibrosis should recognize genotype 709, detected in strains isolated from patients in seven federal districts (FD) of Russia. The Bcc strains of genotypes 241 (B. cenocepacia) and 729 (B. vietnamiensis) were isolated from the patients of the Far Eastern FD. They are not typical for other FD Russia. The possibility of concomitant infection in cystic fibrosis patient with two genotypes 709 - epidemiologically significant and 708 - nosocomial, was indicated. The long-termpersistence of a single genotype strain in the organism of patients with cystic fibrosis was demonstrated as for Bcc species B. cenocepacia (ST 709), so for B. multivorans (ST712). The possibility of transferring the strain Bcc, typical for nosocomial environment to patient with cystic fibrosis at surgery was observed.

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from industrial cleanrooms under regular routine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribič, U; Klančnik, A; Jeršek, B

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 57 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from cleanroom environments, based on their biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Biofilm formation was investigated using real-time PCR (icaA, aap, bhp genes), the Congo red agar method and the crystal violet assay. The majority of the strains (59·7%; 34/57) did not form biofilms according to the crystal violet assay, although the biofilm-associated genes were present in 94·7% (54/57) of the strains. Of the biofilm formers (40·4%; 23/57), 39·1% (9/23) have been identified as strong biofilm formers (>4× crystal violet absorbance cut-off). Resistance to a commercial disinfectant and its quaternary ammonium active component, didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride (DDAC), was determined according to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the presence of the qac (quaternary ammonium compound) genes. More than 95% (55/57) of the Staph. epidermidis strains had the qacA/B and qacC genes, but not the other qac genes. The MICs for the disinfectant and DDAC varied among the Staph. epidermidis strains, although none were resistant. Although 59·6% of the Staph. epidermidis strains did not form biofilms and none were resistant to DDAC, more than 94% had the genetic basis for development of resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, and among them at least 14·0% (8/57) might represent a high risk to cleanroom hygiene as strong biofim formers with qacA/B and qacC genes. To assure controlled cleanroom environments, bacterial strains isolated from cleanroom environments need to be characterized regularly using several investigative methods. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T and Sediminibacterium sp. C3, a Novel Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Ayarza, Joaquín M.; Figuerola, Eva Lucia Margarita; Erijman, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Sediminibacterium comprises species present in diverse natural and engineered environments. Here, we report for the first time the genome sequences of the type strain Sediminibacterium salmoneum NJ-44T (NBRC 103935) and the strain Sedi- minibacterium sp. strain C3 (BNM541), isolated from activated sludge, a valuable model for the study of substrate-dependent autoaggregation. Fil: Ayarza, Joaquín M.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investig...

  3. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sheep strains isolated from Cyprus sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapi, M; Botsaris, G; Slana, I; Moravkova, M; Babak, V; Avraam, M; Di Provvido, A; Georgiadou, S; Pavlik, I

    2015-04-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. Molecular characterization of Map isolates classifies them into two major groups, 'Cattle' or Type II and 'Sheep' or Type I/III with a different phenotype, epidemiology, virulence and pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine 192 Map ELISA-positive sheep and goats from Cyprus using faecal culture and genotype Map isolates using IS1311 PCR and restriction endonuclease analysis (IS1311 PCR-REA) with HinfI restriction enzyme. Map was isolated from only four (4.6%) faecal samples out of 88 sheep and 15 (14.4%) faecal samples out of 104 goats. Genotyping of the isolates using IS1311 PCR-REA revealed that sheep and goat populations on the island are infected primarily by 'Sheep' strains. Only three Map isolates from goats originated from one farm were characterized as 'Cattle' strains. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Characterization of plasmids from Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains isolated from short-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolles, A; de los Reyes-Gavilán, C G

    1998-02-17

    The plasmid content of 30 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes and 18 isolates of Listeria innocua obtained from short-ripened cheeses was analysed. The isolates of L. monocytogenes serogroup 1 harboured a single plasmid, pLM33 (33.2 kbp), whereas the serogroup 4 isolates did not contain plasmids. One group of L. innocua strains harboured the plasmid pLI71 (71 kbp) and another one contained two plasmids: pLI59 (59.5 kbp) and pLI56 (56.5 kbp). These plasmid groups were in accordance with clusters previously defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the chromosomal DNA of Listeria isolates. Plasmids pLM33, pLI71 and pLI59 shared homology regions of at least 20 kbp. Plasmid pLI56 did not encode genes for any known character (such as carbohydrate fermentation, resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals or disinfectants, growth at low pH, NaCl tolerance or thermal inactivation by pasteurisation) and displayed different characteristics to the other three plasmids. It was also the only one cured from the parent strain and the sole plasmid not digested by the restriction enzyme PstI. In addition, its lack of homology with pLM33, pLI71 and pLI59 enhanced the possibility of a different origin for plasmid pLI56.

  6. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  7. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children and adults constitute two different populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansan-Almeida Rosane

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children.

  8. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression.

  9. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Lactobacillus curvatus strain isolated from homemade Azerbaijani cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadova, Aynur; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Hadji-Sfaxi, Imen; Choiset, Yvan; Rabesona, Hanitra; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Kuliyev, Akif; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize inhibitory activity spectra, some probiotic properties and safety of Lactobacillus curvatus A61 for its future application in production of fermented foods. The studied strain was isolated from traditional homemade cheese manufactured in Azerbaijan. The cell-free supernatant of culture of Lb. curvatus A61 inhibited the growth of tested LAB, as well as of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus strains. The strain presented antifungal activity and inhibited the growth of Cladosporium and Fusarium ssp. during co-cultivation on agar media. PCR amplification with specific primers revealed the presence of curvacin A encoding gene in Lb. curvatus A61. Bacteriocin produced by the studied strain was heat stable and active in a broad pH range, and in the presence of Triton X-20, Triton X-80, Triton X-100, β-mercaptoethanol, Na-EDTA, SDS and NaCl. The mode of action of bacteriocin against selected indicator strains was found to be bacteriostatic. Lb. curvatus A61 was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts and showed high auto-aggregation ability, as well as co-aggregation ability with pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains. It was sensitive to chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin, but resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological properties and probiotic potential of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwo, K; Sanni, A; Tan, H

    2013-01-01

    To identify enterococci from the fermentation of milk for the production of nono, an African fermented dairy product, to determine the technological properties for suitability as starter cultures and safety as probiotics. Enterococcus faecium CM4 and Enterococcus faecium 2CM1 were isolated from raw cow's milk. The strains were phenotypically and genotypically identified. Technological properties, safety investigations, in vitro adherence properties and antimicrobial characteristics were carried out. Strong acidification and tolerance to bile salts were recorded. The strains were bile salts hydrolytic positive and no haemolysis. There was no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. The strains exhibited adherence to human collagen type IV, human fibrinogen and fibronectin. The bacteriocins were active against Bacillus cereus DSM 2301, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocins were stable at pH 4-9 and on treatment with lipase, catalase, α-amylase and pepsin, while their activity was lost on treatment with other proteases. The bacteriocins produced were heat stable at 100°C for 10 min. The bacteriocin produced by the strains was identified as enterocin A. The E. faecium strains in this study exhibited probiotic activity, and the safety investigations indicate their suitability as good candidates for a starter culture fermentation process. The use of bacteriocin-producing E. faecium strains as starter cultures in fermented foods is beneficial but, however, their safety investigations as probiotics must be greatly emphasized. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Prevalence of newly isolated, cytopathic small round virus (Aichi strain) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Sakae, K; Ishihara, Y; Isomura, S; Utagawa, E

    1993-01-01

    Cytopathic small round virus (Aichi strain), isolated from a patient with oyster-associated gastroenteritis, showed no reaction in the polymerase chain reaction method for enteroviruses or in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the five serotypes of astroviruses. Our ELISA was sensitive in detecting the Aichi strain antigen in stool samples, but there was no reaction in this ELISA with any non-Aichi strains of enteric viruses, with such origins as enterovirus, rotavirus, Norwalk virus, calicivirus, or astrovirus. In the ELISA, 13 of 47 stool samples from adult patients in five of nine oyster-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were positive, but only 1 of 397 pediatric stool samples in Aichi Prefecture was positive. The prevalence rate for Aichi strain antibody was found to be 7.2% for persons aged 7 months to 4 years. The prevalence rate for antibody to Aichi strain increased with age, to about 80% in persons 35 years old. On the basis of the results of the present study, it was hypothesized that Aichi strain could be a new type of small round virus that mainly produces diarrhea in patients in the 15- to 34-year-old age group, 50 to 76% of whom possess neutralizing antibody. Images PMID:8263178

  12. Coaggregation between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Sharifzadeh, Shahab; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, coaggregation interactions between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from food-processing surfaces were characterized. Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3727 formed intrageneric coaggregates with Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3803 and intergeneric coaggregates with 2 strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MF3293, MF3627). Stronger coaggregation between A. calcoaceticus MF3727 and Rhodococcus sp. MF3293 was observed after growth in batch culture at 30 °C than at 20 °C, after growth in tryptic soy broth than in liquid R2A medium, and between cells in exponential and early stationary phases than cells in late stationary phase. The coaggregation ability of Rhodococcus sp. MF3727 was maintained even after heat and Proteinase K treatment, suggesting its ability to coaggregate was protein independent whereas the coaggregation determinants of the other strains involved proteinaceous cell-surface-associated polymers. Coaggregation was stable at pH 5-9. The mechanisms of coaggregation among Acinetobacter and Rhodococcus strains bare similarity to those displayed by coaggregating bacteria of oral and freshwater origin, with respect to binding between proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous determinants and the effect of environmental factors on coaggregation. Coaggregation may contribute to biofilm formation on industrial food surfaces, protecting bacteria against cleaning and disinfection.

  13. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis under sulfidic conditions: insights from the isolate Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring—a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis. We hypothesize that the specific adaptation mechanisms of the isolate to H2S emerged from a close spatial interaction with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The new isolate, Leptolyngbya sp. strain hensonii, is not closely related to other well-characterized Cyanobacteria that can perform anoxygenic photosynthesis, which further highlights the need to characterize the diversity and biogeography of metabolically versatile Cyanobacteria. The isolate will be an ideal model organism for exploring the adaptation of Cyanobacteria to sulfidic conditions. PMID:29328062

  14. Molecular typing of Escherichia coli strains isolated from food in Casablanca (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, S; Fassouane, A; Filliol, I; Hassar, M; Cohen, N

    2009-06-15

    Serotyping of O- and H- antigens is regarded as the gold standard in classification of E. coli for taxonomic and epidemiological purposes similar to the Kaufmann-White scheme for Salmonella enterica. Molecular methods to replace or to support the serotyping were recently applied. Using the molecular polymorphism of the somatic (O- antigen) gene rfb cluster and flagella (H- antigen) gene fliC, 74 E. coli strains carrying the virulent genes isolated from food were characterised by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that 49 (66%) of the isolates revealed a reproducible and clear cut classification, with a very good correlation to the collection of reference strains, were found.

  15. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.

  16. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2000-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance can make the efficient treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals more difficult. Antimicrobial use in food animals may be one of the factors contributing to resistance. The Spanish surveillance network VAV has established a baseline of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials used in animals and humans were determined for 205 faecal strains isolated in a sampling frame of four slaughterhouses in Spain from 220 pigs in 1998. Higher levels of resistance were seen against antimicrobial agents authorised for use in food animals especially tetracycline, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and amoxycillin. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials employed mainly in humans such as ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam and amikacin.

  17. [Morphology and immunotyping of AC-43 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolated from a Japanese child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T

    1992-05-01

    A strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) which had been isolated from a Japanese child (AC-43) was examined morphologically and serologically using micro-immunofluorescent (micro-IF) test. Inclusions of AC-43 were stained by an indirect immunofluorescent method using C. pneumoniae specific monoclonal antibody. They were dense round inclusions which had been reported as a characteristic figure for C. pneumoniae. An elementary body (EB) of AC-43 was pear-shaped by electron micrograph, which was the same as previous reports for C. pneumoniae. We produced monoclonal antibodies using purified EB of AC-43 as antigen. Culture fluids of these clones reacted with C. pneumoniae antigens, but did not react with C. trachomatis or C. psittaci antigens by micro-IF tests. There was no difference in morphological and serological findings among standard strains and Japanese isolate of C. pneumoniae.

  18. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  19. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Hulak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may result in the potential use of selected strains as starter, bioprotective or even probiotic cultures. This study focuses on potential use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from traditional Istrian cheese as starter cultures, by using methods that determine their proteolytic, lipolytic, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential, as well as their ability of acidification, autoaggregation and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Our results indicated that from 12 representative strains most revealed a low or moderate proteolytic activity as well as absence of lipolytic and haemolytic activities. From 12 strains, 5 of them showed a medium to strong acidification ability and lowered the pH of milk below 5.00 after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, almost all isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against Serratia marcescens, and lowest number of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The studied Lactobacillus strains revealed high survival rate in a simulated oral cavity and duodenum conditions, while the survival ability in a simulated gastric conditions was much lower. Ability to aggregate was low for all tested strains, after 3 hours and after 5 hours of incubation.

  20. [Phage types recognized within Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated in Poland in 1996-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dera-Tomaszewska, Bozena; Tokarska-Pietrzak, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Phage typing carried out according to the well-defined schemes is still recommended as a standard, fast and inexpensive method for epidemiological investigations all over the world to control Salmonella infections. However, the method should be in the hands of well-trained staff. This means that it is generally limited to reference laboratories. The aim of this study was to perform an analysis of Salmonella Enteritidis phage types occurring in Poland in 1996-2007 basing on the strains received by the National Salmonella Centre for phage typing. The phage typing (according to the Lalko et al. scheme) carried out in this research work was associated with 750 Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated in Poland from human and non-human sources, in the dying out period of over 25 years lasting second epidemic caused by this serovar. Types 1, 6 and 7 were the most often identified phage types. They were dominant among human as well as non-human (food, feeds, animals, environment and others) isolates. The great majority of them were of type 7. Type 1 Salmonella Enteritidis strains were isolated in the same number as type 6 strains. A little higher number of strains which presented phage type 3 was reported in comparison with the previous periods of time. It is worth to be noted that except the same, permanent phage types continuously existing in the environment (i.e., 1, 3, 6, 7), the new types start to appear. They can suggest an appearance of new sources of Salmonella Enteritidis infections, unknown in our country yet, which is very possible as a result of effective elimination of currently existing ones. The obtained results constitute the continuation of the previously done studies and provide the essential and unique data which allow to estimate the more completely epidemiological situation associated with occurrence of this pathogen in Poland.

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?zner, D?nes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M.; R?nai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivn?k, Veronika; Turcs?nyi, Ibolya; J?nosi, Szil?rd; Gyuranecz, Mikl?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Euro...

  2. DETECTION, RIBOTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE CASES OF DIARRHEA

    OpenAIRE

    Kouzegaran, Samaneh; Ganjifard, Mahmood; Tanha, Amir Saber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. Materials and methods: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and no...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against uropathogenic strains isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Alshami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the antimicrobial effect and biofilm forming capacity of the uropathogenic strains that have been isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs in the presence of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: Six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients with recurrent UTIs. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to H. sabdariffa extracts were tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by using the broth microdilution method in accordance to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Time-kill curves were plotted against the eight isolates based on the MIC results. The biofilm forming capacity of the isolates were evaluated using the microtiter plate assay. Detection of biofilms was done using the crystal violet staining method. Results: Various levels of the extracts MIC were observed against all the uropathogenic isolates. MIC values ranged from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL, and MBC values ranged from 8 to 64 mg/mL. Both the time-kill experiment and MBC-MIC ratio demonstrated that the extracts' effect was in general, bacteriostatic. The biofilm capacity inhibition assay results showed that extracts inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. The level of biofilm inhibition however, had varied among the bacterial strains and ranged from 8%-60% reduction in optical density. Conclusions: The results of the study support the effective potential of H. sabdariffa extract to prevent recurrent UTIs and to emphasize the significance of the plant extract, in order to approach it as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer strains isolated from geese and ducks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Éva; Wehmann, Enikő; Czeibert, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes anatipestifer disease in many avian species. A total of 185 R. anatipestifer strains isolated in Hungary between 2000 and 2014 from geese and ducks were tested against 13 antibiotics (ampicillin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, sulphonamide compounds, and tetracycline) by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains were susceptible to florfenicol (97.9%), ampicillin (95.1%), penicillin (93%), sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (92.4%), and spectinomycin (86.5%). The highest resistance rates were observed for flumequine, tetracycline, erythromycin and streptomycin (94%, 91.4%, 75.1% and 71.4% resistance, respectively). The resistance patterns showed some variation depending on the geographical origin of the strains. The average rate of extensive drug resistance was 30.3%, and its proportion tended to increase in the period examined.

  5. Antimycobacterial activity of a Brevibacillus Laterosporus strain isolated from a moroccan soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of tuberculosis has become more difficult with the worldwide spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, the prevalence of human disease caused by atypical mycobacteria has also increased in the past two decades and has further complicated the problem of the treatment of mycobacterial infections. It is therefore urgent to develop new highly active molecules against these bacteria. The present study reports the isolation from a Moroccan soil of a Bacillus strain that exhibits an important antimycobacterial activity. The strain was identified as Brevibacillus laterosporus using DNA sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The antimycobacterial activity was assigned to a substance with a protein nature. This nature was revealed using a liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents, precipitation with ammonium sulfate and treatment with a protease. This study suggested the identification and the characterization of this active metabolite enabling therapeutic investigations further.

  6. A comparative assay of epidemiological markers for Acinetobacter strains isolated in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, A; Vieu, J F; Bouvet, P J; Sarzana, A; Sinatra, A

    1989-12-01

    A comparative assay for epidemiological evaluation of three different Acinetobacter typing procedures, i.e. biotyping, phage-typing, and the analysis of the bacterial envelope protein profiles, was carried out using sixty-four multiresistant Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens. The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was also considered. After geno-species identification, biotyping allowed the recognition of a relatively large and long-lasting presence, at an Intensive Therapy Unit, of two A. baumannii biotypes. Phage-typing and the analysis of the susceptibility to antibiotics allowed for the differentiation of strains belonging to different geno-species and biotypes, and in some cases also to the same biotypes. On the contrary, the analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the cell-envelope proteins failed to show any diversity not only within, but also between some of the biotypes of A. baumannii, the most prevalent species of the genus in the hospital environment.

  7. Antibiotics resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkman, Aytekin; Parlak, Mehmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    A limited number of antibiotics are recommended for the therapy of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections due to therapy difficulties caused by its numerous mechanisms of resistance. In this study conducted over a period of approximately 5 years we aimed to determine resistance rates of S. maltophilia based on drug classification recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 118 S. maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical specimens between January 2006 and June 2012 were included in the study. BD Phoenixautomated microbiology system (Becton Dickinson, USA) was utilized for species level identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Sixty seven of S. maltophilia strains were isolated from tracheal aspirate isolates, 17 from blood, 10 from sputum, 10 from wound and 14 from other clinical specimens. Levofloxacin was found to be the most effective antibiotic against S. maltophilia strains with resistance rate of 7.6%. The resistance rates to other antibiotics were as follows: chloramphenicol 18.2%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 20.3% and ceftazidime 72%. The study revealed that S. maltophilia is resistant to many antibiotics. The treatment of infections caused by S. maltophilia should be preferred primarily as levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and TMP-SXT, respectively.

  8. Phosphate solubilizing ability of Emericella nidulans strain V1 isolated from vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Satya Sunder; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Duary, Raj Kumar; Goswami, Linee; Mandal, Narayan C

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. Its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from Eisenia fetida vermicompost. Out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), identified by custom sequencing of beta-tubulin gene and BLAST analysis. This strain solubilized 13 to 36% phosphate from four different rock phosphates. After three days of incubation of isolated culture with black Mussorie phosphate rock, the highest percentage of phosphate solubilization was 35.5 +/- 1.01 with a pH drop of 4.2 +/- 0.09. Kinetics of solubilization and acid production showed a linear relationship until day five of incubation. Interestingly, from zero to tenth day of incubation, solubility of soil phosphate increased gradually from 4.31 +/- 1.57 to 13.65 +/- 1.82 (mg kg(-1)) recording a maximum of 21.23 +/- 0.54 on day 45 in respect of the V1 isolate. Further, enhanced phosphorus uptake by Phaseolus plants with significant pod yield due to soil inoculation of Emericella nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), demonstrated its prospect as an effective biofertilizer for plant growth.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

    2013-10-01

    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.

  10. Effect of Antimicrobials on Salmonella Spp. Strains Isolated from Poultry Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mion

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The routine use of antimicrobials in animal production for the treatment of infections, disease prevention, or as growth promoters is a predisposing factor for the development and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. In food industries, sanitizers are used for the control of microbial colonization, and their efficacy depends on contact time and on the dilution of the products used. The present study assessed the effect of 12 antimicrobials and four commercial sanitizers on 18 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from poultry processing plants. None of the evaluated antimicrobials was 100% effective against the tested Salmonella spp. strains; however, 94% of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 77% to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and to ampicillin, and 72% to enrofloxacin, whereas 100% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin G, 16% to tetracycline, and 11% to sulfonamide. The tested Salmonella spp. strains were 100% inhibited by peracetic acid after five minutes of contact, 0.5% by quaternary ammonium after 15 minutes, and 85.7% by chlorhexidine after 15 minutes. The results indicate the importance of testing of efficacy of antimicrobials used in animal production and in public health to monitor their action and the development of resistance.

  11. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Different Sources Reveals Candidate Virulence Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus garvieae is a major pathogen for fish. Two complete (ATCC 49156 and Lg2 and three draft (UNIUD074, 8831, and 21881 genome sequences of L. garvieae have recently been released. We here present the results of a comparative genomic analysis of these fish and human isolates of L. garvieae. The pangenome comprised 1,542 core and 1,378 dispensable genes. The sequenced L. garvieae strains shared most of the possible virulence genes, but the capsule gene cluster was found only in fish-pathogenic strain Lg2. The absence of the capsule gene cluster in other nonpathogenic strains isolated from mastitis and vegetable was also confirmed by PCR. The fish and human isolates of L. garvieae contained the specific two and four adhesin genes, respectively, indicating that these adhesion proteins may be involved in the host specificity differences of L. garvieae. The discoveries revealed by the pangenomic analysis may provide significant insights into the biology of L. garvieae.

  12. Molecular characterization of a novel Muscovy duck parvovirus isolate: evidence of recombination between classical MDPV and goose parvovirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixian; Huang, Yu; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-11-09

    Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are important etiological agents for Muscovy duck parvoviral disease and Derzsy's disease, respectively; both of which can cause substantial economic losses in waterfowl industry. In contrast to GPV, the complete genomic sequence data of MDPV isolates are still limited and their phylogenetic relationships largely remain unknown. In this study, the entire genome of a pathogenic MDPV strain ZW, which was isolated from a deceased Muscovy duckling in 2006 in China, was cloned, sequenced, and compared with that of other classical MDPV and GPV strains. The genome of strain ZW comprises of 5071 nucleotides; this genome was shorter than that of the pathogenic MDPV strain YY (5075 nt). All the four deleted nucleotides produced in strain ZW are located at the base-pairing positions in the palindromic stem of inverted terminal repeats (ITR) without influencing the formation of a hairpin structure. Recombination analysis revealed that strain ZW originated from genetic recombination between the classical MDPV and GPV strain. The YY strain of MDPV acts as the major parent, whereas the virulent strains YZ99-6 and B and the vaccine strain SYG61v of GPV act as the minor parents in varying degrees. Two recombination sites were detected in strain ZW, with the small recombination site surrounding the P9 promoter, and the large recombination site situated in the middle of the VP3 gene. The SYG61V strain is a vaccine strain used for preventing goose parvoviral disease. This strain was found to be solely involved in the recombination event detected in the P9 promoter region. Phylogenetic analyses between strain ZW and other classical strains of MDPV and GPV were performed. The results supported the in silico recombination analysis conclusion. MDPV Strain ZW is a novel recombinant parvovirus, and the bulk of its genome originates from the classical MDPV strain. Two virulent strains and a vaccine strain of GPV were involved in the

  13. Detection and Characterization of Histamine-Producing Strains of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Isolated from Mullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Trevisani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (Pdd is considered to be an emerging pathogen of marine fish and has also been implicated in cases of histamine food poisoning. In this study, eight strains isolated from mullets of the genera Mugil and Liza captured in the Ligurian Sea were characterized, and a method to detect histamine-producing Pdd from fish samples was developed. The histamine-producing potential of the strains was evaluated in culture media (TSB+ using a histamine biosensor. Subsequently, two strains were used to contaminate mackerel fillets (4 or 40 CFU/g, simulating a cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls. Sample homogenates were enriched in TSB+. The cultures were then inoculated on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS and the dark green colonies were cultured on Niven agar. The violet isolates were characterized using specific biochemical and PCR based tests. All Pdd strains were histamine producers, yielding concentration varying from 167 and 8977 µg/mL in TSB+ cultures incubated at 30 °C for 24 h. Pdd colonies were detected from the inoculated mackerel samples and their histidine decarboxylase gene was amplified using species-specific primer pairs designed for this study. The results indicate that mullets can be source of Pdd and the fish retailers needs to evaluate the risk posed by cross-contamination on the selling fish stalls.

  14. Virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and integrons in Escherichia coli strains isolated from synanthropic birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, C; Esperón, F; Herrera-León, S; Iglesias, I; Neves, E; Nogal, V; Muñoz, M J; de la Torre, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles in P. multocida strains isolated from cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cats are often described as carriers of Pasteurella multocida in their oral microbiota. This agent is thought to cause pneumonia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, gingivostomatitis, abscess and osteonecrosis in cats. Human infection with P. multocida has been described in several cases affecting cat owners or after cat bites. In Brazil, the cat population is approximately 21 million animals and is increasing, but there are no studies of the presence of P. multocida in the feline population or of human cases of infection associated with cats. In this study, one hundred and ninety-one healthy cats from owners and shelters in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for the presence of P. multocida in their oral cavities. Twenty animals were positive for P. multocida, and forty-one strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. The P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes and resistance profile. A total of 75.6% (31/41 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 24.4% (10/41 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA, tbpA or pfhA genes. The frequencies of the other genes tested were variable, and the data generated were used to build a dendrogram showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. The most common resistance profile observed was against sulfizoxazole and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  16. [Antibioresistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from raw chicken meat in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, A; Bada Alambedji, R; Seydi, M; Akakpo, A J

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and others pathogens bacteria can be transferred from animals to humans through consumption of contaminated food and foods products and thus present a public health risk. The increase in E. coli resistance to commonly used antimicrobials both in the public health and veterinary sectors is one of the major threats of health care worldwide. The present study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from raw chicken meat in Dakar. Levying of skin and muscle have been carried out on 120 chicken carcasses bought from 13 sale points and 23 flocks beetween November 2003 and April 2004. 102 Escherichia coli strains have been isolated, among which, 90 were tested for their susceptibilities to 16 selected antibiotics by agar diffusion method. All Escherichia coli strains (100%), were resistant to one or more antibiotic; 60 strains (66.66%) being resistant to more than five antibiotics. Those frequently encountererd are: ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, tetracycline, sulfonamides, streptomycin, nalidixic acid. Multiple resistances to 12 antibiotics were also observed. The lowest resistances were noted with gentamicin (3.33%) and neomycin (5.56%). This study showed the significance of chicken meat as source of Escherichia coli strains with a simple or multiple resistance to various antibiotics tested. Further studies are necessary in order to determine bacterium mechanisms of resistance.

  17. Antagonism and synergism in Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G S; Soares-Brandão, K L K; Branco, K M G R; Sampaio, J L M; Nardi, R M D; Mendonça, M; Almeida, R B; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R; Nicoli, J R

    2010-08-01

    Antagonistic and synergistic substances are important for interactions between micro-organisms associated with human body surfaces, either in healthy or in diseased conditions. In the present study, such compounds produced by Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) were detected in vitro and the antagonistic ones were partially characterized. Among 11 G. vaginalis strains tested, all showed antagonistic activity against at least one of the 22 indicator bacteria assayed. Interestingly, for some of these strains, antagonism reverted to synergism, favouring one of the indicator strains (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius) when the growth medium was changed. Partial characterization of antagonistic substances suggested a bacteriocin-like chemical nature. Depending on growth conditions, G. vaginalis isolated from women with BV produced antagonistic or synergistic compounds for other bacterial components of the vaginal ecosystem. This is the first report to our knowledge of the production of antagonistic and/or synergistic substances by G. vaginalis. This ability may be a pivotal factor in understanding BV and the ecological role of this bacterium in the vaginal environment.

  18. Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana Silva Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract.

  19. Identification and adhesion profile of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ticiana Silva; Baptista, Ana Angelita Sampaio; Donato, Tais Cremasco; Milbradt, Elisane Lenita; Okamoto, Adriano Sakai; Andreatti Filho, Raphael Lucio

    2014-01-01

    In the aviculture industry, the use of Lactobacillus spp. as a probiotic has been shown to be frequent and satisfactory, both in improving bird production indexes and in protecting intestine against colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion is an important characteristic in selecting Lactobacillus probiotic strains since it impedes its immediate elimination to enable its beneficial action in the host. This study aimed to isolate, identify and characterize the in vitro and in vivo adhesion of Lactobacillus strains isolated from birds. The Lactobacillus spp. was identified by PCR and sequencing and the strains and its adhesion evaluated in vitro via BMM cell matrix and in vivo by inoculation in one-day-old birds. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum were collected one, four, 12 and 24 h after inoculation. The findings demonstrate greater adhesion of strains in the cecum and an important correlation between in vitro and in vivo results. It was concluded that BMM utilization represents an important technique for triage of Lactobacillus for subsequent in vivo evaluation, which was shown to be efficient in identifying bacterial adhesion to the enteric tract.

  20. Identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from burn patients by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Effat Abbasi; Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Jolodar, Abbas; Ghaderpanah, Mozhgan; Azarpira, Samireh

    2015-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) as important human pathogens are causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Burn patients are at a higher risk of local and systemic infections with these microorganisms. A screening method for MRSA by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), mecA, and nuc genes was developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of this PCR assay for the detection of MRSA strains in samples from burn patients. During an 11-month period, 230 isolates (53.11%) of Staphylococcus spp. were collected from burn patients. The isolates were identified as S. aureus by using standard culture and biochemical tests. DNA was extracted from bacterial colonies and multiplex PCR was used to detect MRSA and MRCoNS strains. Of the staphylococci isolates, 149 (64.9%) were identified as S. aureus and 81 (35.21%) were described as CoNS. Among the latter, 51 (62.97%) were reported to be MRCoNS. From the total S. aureus isolates, 132 (88.6%) were detected as MRSA and 17 (11.4%) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). The presence of the mecA gene in all isolates was confirmed by using multiplex PCR as a gold standard method. This study presented a high MRSA rate in the region under investigation. The 16S rRNA-mecA-nuc multiplex PCR is a good tool for the rapid characterization of MRSA strains. This paper emphasizes the need for preventive measures and choosing effective antimicrobials against MRSA and MRCoNS infections in the burn units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menocci, Vivian; Goulart, Antonio José; Adalberto, Paulo Roberto; Tavano, Olga Luisa; Marques, Daniela Parreira; Contiero, Jonas; Monti, Rubens

    2008-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR) were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40°C. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55°C. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40°C. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0×10–3 and 2.2×10–3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4×10–3 and 3.0×10–3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4×10–3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4×10–3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins), thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product. PMID:24031289

  2. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Taurasi DOCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after 1 week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M.) pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star.) bacillaris; Pichia (P.) kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L.) thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H.) uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud.) aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii, and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%), while, L. thermotolerans, Star. Bacillaris, and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant differences were

  3. Potential Role of Yeast Strains Isolated from Grapes in the Production of Taurasi DOCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Twelve samples of Aglianico grapes, collected in different locations of the Taurasi DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) production area were naturally fermented in sterile containers at room temperature. A total of 70 yeast cultures were isolated from countable WL agar plates: 52 in the middle of the fermentation and 18 at the end. On the basis of ITS-RFLP analysis and ITS sequencing, all cultures collected at the end of fermentations were identified as Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae; while, the 52 isolates, collected after 1 week, could be referred to the following species: Metschnikowia (M.) pulcherrima; Starmerella (Star.) bacillaris; Pichia (P.) kudriavzevii; Lachancea (L.) thermotolerans; Hanseniaspora (H.) uvarum; Pseudozyma (Pseud.) aphidis; S. cerevisiae. By means of Interdelta analysis, 18 different biotypes of S. cerevisiae were retrieved. All strains were characterized for ethanol production, SO2 resistance, H2S development, β-glucosidasic, esterasic and antagonistic activities. Fermentation abilities of selected strains were evaluated in micro-fermentations on Aglianico must. Within non-Saccharomyces species, some cultures showed features of technological interest. Antagonistic activity was expressed by some strains of M. pulcherrima, L. thermotolerans, P. kudriavzevii, and S. cerevisiae. Strains of M. pulcherrima showed the highest β-glucosidase activity and proved to be able to produce high concentrations of succinic acid. L. thermotolerans produced both succinic and lactic acids. The lowest amount of acetic acid was produced by M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans; while the highest content was recorded for H. uvarum. The strain of Star. bacillaris produced the highest amount of glycerol and was able to metabolize all fructose and malic acid. Strains of M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum showed a low fermentation power (about 4%), while, L. thermotolerans, Star. Bacillaris, and P. kudriavzevii of about 10%. Significant differences were

  4. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in enterococcus strains isolated from different hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was molecular characterization of the antibiotic resistance profiles of some Enterococcus isolates obtained from different hospitals in Taif governorate in KSA. Out of the 89 bacterial isolates obtained, 12 isolates of Enterococcus spp. were subjected to fingerprinting based on repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR, and tested their resistance/susceptibility against some antibiotics which are commonly used in KSA. They were identified using the specific primers for different antibiotic resistance genes of Enterococcus spp. as Tuf, VanC-1, VanC-2-VanC-3 genes and sequencing fragments of 16S rDNA gene. The obtained results indicated that about 58.3% of Enterococcus isolates were Enterococcus faecium, 16.6% were Enterococcus durans and 25.1% were other Enterococcus species. Sixty-seven per cent of the isolates had multi-drug resistance patterns against gentamicin, vancomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, cefazolin and tetracycline. Data on the prevalence and types of antibiotic resistance in Enterococcus species may be used to describe baseline antibiotic susceptibility profiles associated with Enterococcus spp. that were isolated from the hospitals’ environment. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the Tuf, VanC-1, VanC-2-VanC-3 genes, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequencing of 12 Enterococcus isolates were deposited in Gene Bank under the accession numbers from KT366721 to KT366732, respectively. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and some virulence factors were detected by PCR. Finally, these Enterococcus isolates were molecularly characterized by Rep-PCR into a diverse genetic background. The data collected may also help to elucidate the role of hospitals in the transmission of antibiotic-resistant strains to human populations.

  5. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  6. Antibacterial potential and genetic profile of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from human normal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaei, Samira; Sadeghi, Javad; Asadian, Mahla; Esghaei, Maryam; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Malihe

    2016-07-01

    Enterococci have a widespread attendance in the circumference and belongs to the enteric commensal microbiota. Most of them produce the antimicrobial compounds and have an inhibition effect on pathogenic microorganisms. The objective of this study was to characterize the enterococcal strains isolated from human normal flora and assess their antibacterial activity. Enterococcal isolates were obtained from the feces of eighteen healthy humans. All enterococcal species were identified by biochemical and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were investigated further to examine their ability to inhibit growth of Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli by well diffusion assay. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed and genetic relatedness of all isolates was evaluated by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 432 isolates were obtained from fecal samples. All of the isolates identified as Enterococcus faecium by biochemical and molecular (PCR) methods. Using repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR method 54 patterns have been obtained and were selected for further evaluation. The results indicated that 66%, 38% and 24% of our isolates had antimicrobial effect against S. typhi, S flexneri and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant inhibition effect against enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. On the other hand, the resistance rates for erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were 20%, 22%, and 1.8% respectively. In addition, the analysis of PFGE showed forty patterns with eight (40.7%) common types (CT) and thirty two (59.2%) single types (ST). Among eight common types, only one common type (CT5) had similar antimicrobial effect. These results suggested that enterococcal isolates obtained from

  7. Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dry milk samples in Mexico: occurrence and antibiotic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Suárez, O R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Fernández, F J; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    2013-09-01

    Dry milk is a particular concern in Mexico, as approximately 150,000 metric tons of dry milk are imported every year at a cost of around $250 million. Dry milk is used to make many products, most of which are dairy products widely distributed among the population covered by welfare programs. The purpose of the study described in this article was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. in imported dry milk samples in Mexico, and to determine the sensitivity of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates to different antimicrobial agents. Listeria isolates (7.8% of 550 bacterial isolates) were identified as L. monocytogenes (53.49%), L. innocua (30.23%), L. seeligeri (13.95%), and L. ivanovii (2.33%). L. monocytogenes strains isolated showed multiresistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, dicloxacillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9%-14%). The results provide additional evidence of the emergence of multiresistant Listeria strains both in nature and in widely consumed dairy products, representing a potential threat to human health.

  8. Enterotoxigenic Genes in strains of Staphylococcus spp., isolated from cheese made in Pamplona-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Herrera A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the incidence of coagulase-positive strains of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in doble crema (double cream cheese samples produced in Pamplona. Materials and methods. Bacterial isolation was performed following the routine method for coagulase positive Staphylococcus provided by the Colombian Technical Standard 4779, by using Baird Parker medium with confirmation of typical colonies by performing the coagulase test. Detection of genes for principal enterotoxins was done by PCR. Results. The prevalence of coagulase positive Staphylococcus in cheese samples was 31%, with 27% of the samples failing to meet the requirements of the NTC 750. In 24.6% of the studied isolates, genes for enterotoxin production were detected. The presence, in the isolated strains, of genes for SEB, SEA and SED was 18.5%, 4.6% and 3.0%, respectively. Conclusions. The significant presence of enterotoxigenic genes found in the isolates obtained from samples of double cream cheese made in Pamplona, suggests an important hazard to the health of consumers.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand.

  10. [Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from sterile body sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oznur, A K; Ozer, Serdar; Benzonana, Nur A

    2006-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has become an important issue in the last years. Penicillin resistance rates vary among countries and among different regions in countries. It is important to know penicillin resistance rates among isolates, in planning empirical antimicrobial therapy in pneumococcal infections. In this study, the antibiotic resistance rates of S. pneumoniae strains isolated from sterile body sites were investigated with both E-test and disc diffusion methods for penicillin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, and with only disc diffusion method for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), clindamycin, and tetracycline. A total of 165 strains were included into the study of which 52 were isolated from blood, 46 from cerebrospinal fluids, 25 from pleural fluids, 24 from dacryocystitis materials, 13 from tympanocentesis materials, 3 from joint fluids and 2 from wound specimens. Intermediate resistance to penicilin was 18.8%, while the resistance rates to TMP-SMX, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and levofloxacin were detected as 21.2%, 10.9%, 9.7%, 5.4% and 0.6%, respectively. None of the isolates were highly resistant to penicillin, nor resistant to vancomycin, ceftriaxone and rifampin. In conclusion, penicillin is still the first line therapeutic agent for pneumococcal infections except for severe infections such as meningitis, in our region.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella strains isolated from public water sources in Macau and Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lina; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Mo, Ziyao

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 8/16 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, and 0.031/0.062 mg/L, respectively. Legionella isolates were inhibited by either low concentrations of macrolides and fluoroquinolones, or high concentrations of CTX and tetracycline drugs. LEV was the most effective drug against different Legionella species and serogroups of L. pneumophila isolates. The latter were inhibited in decreasing order by MIN > CTX >DOC, while non-L. pneumophila isolates were inhibited by CTX> MIN >DOC. In this study, we evaluated drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from the environment. This may help predict the emergence of drug resistance, improve patient outcomes, and reduce hospitalization costs.

  12. Isolation, cultivation and molecular characterization of a new Trypanosoma equiperdum strain in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Keisuke; Narantsatsral, Sandagdorj; Battur, Banzragch; Yamasaki, Shino; Otgonsuren, Davaajav; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Davaasuren, Batdorj; Battsetseg, Badgar; Inoue, Noboru

    2016-08-31

    Trypanosoma equiperdum causes dourine via sexual transmission in Equidae. T. equiperdum is classified under the subgenus Trypanozoon along with the T. brucei sspp. and T. evansi; however, the species classification of Trypanozoon remains a controversial topic due to the limited number of T. equiperdum reference strains. In addition, it is possible that some were misclassified T. evansi strains. Thus, there is a strong need for a new T. equiperdum strain directly isolated from the genital mucosa of a horse with a clinically- and parasitologically-confirmed dourine infection. Trypanosomes isolated from the urethral tract of a stallion with suspected dourine, were directly cultivated using soft agarose media at 37 °C in 5 % CO2. For molecular characterization, 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 8 maxicircle DNA regions were amplified by a PCR and their sequences were determined. To analyze the ratio of the kinetoplastic/akinetoplastic population, the kinetoplasts and the nuclei of trypanosomes were subjected to Hoechst staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition to the clinical symptoms and the molecular diagnosis, this stallion was definitively diagnosed with dourine by the detection of trypanosomes in the urethral mucosa. These results strongly suggested that the isolated trypanosome was true T. equiperdum. T. equiperdum isolated from the urethral tract was adapted in vitro using soft agarose media. Based on the results of a phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS, this T. equiperdum isolate was classified into the Trypanozoon clade. In a PCR of the maxicircle DNA region, only NADH-dehydrogenase subunits 4 and 5 was amplified. Clear kinetoplasts were observed in most of the T. equiperdum isolates. In contrast, most culture-adapted T. equiperdum were of the akinetoplastic form. We concluded that our isolated trypanosome was the first confirmed case of T. equiperdum in Mongolia and named it "T. equiperdum

  13. Genetic diversity and physiological traits of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Tuscan Sangiovese wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolucci, M; Vigentini, I; Capurso, G; Merico, A; Tirelli, A; Compagno, C; Foschino, R; Nuti, M

    2009-04-15

    Eighty four isolates of Brettanomyces bruxellensis, were collected during fermentation of Sangiovese grapes in several Tuscan wineries and characterized by restriction analysis of 5.8S-ITS and species-specific PCR. The isolates were subsequently analysed, at strain level, by the combined use of the RAPD-PCR assay with primer OPA-02 and the mtDNA restriction analysis with the HinfI endonuclease. This approach showed a high degree of polymorphism and allowed to identify seven haplotypes, one of them being the most represented and widely distributed (72 isolates, 85.7%). Physiological traits of the yeasts were investigated under a wine model condition. Haplotypes clustered into two groups according to their growth rates and kinetics of production of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol. Hexylamine was the biogenic amine most produced (up to 3.92 mg l(-1)), followed by putrescine and phenylethylamine. Formation of octapamine was detected by some haplotypes, for the first time.

  14. Phenotypes and genotypes of campylobacter strains isolated after cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-04-30

    Campylobacter is responsible for human bacterial enteritis and poultry meat is recognised as a primary source of infection. In slaughterhouses, cleaning and disinfection procedures are performed daily, and it has been suggested that disinfectant molecules might select for antibiotic resistant strains if shared targets or combined resistance mechanisms were involved. The aim of the study was to investigate if cleaning and disinfection procedures in poultry slaughterhouses select for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and to determine the genotypes of isolates collected after cleaning and disinfection. Nine sampling visits were made to four French slaughterhouses. Samples were collected from transport crates and equipment surfaces, before and after cleaning and disinfection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the recovered C. jejuni and C. coli isolates to six antibiotics and two disinfectants were measured. The C. jejuni isolates collected from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection were subjected to PCR-RFLP typing. Twenty-five C. jejuni isolates and 1 C. coli were recovered from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection during five visits to three different slaughterhouses. Those isolates did not show an increased resistance to the tested antibiotics compared to isolates collected before cleaning and disinfection. Only one or two genotypes were recovered after cleaning and disinfection during single visits to each slaughterhouse. This observation suggests that such genotypes may be particularly adapted to survive cleaning and disinfection stress. Understanding the survival mechanisms of Campylobacter should facilitate the implementation of better-targeted strategies and reduce the public health burden associated with Campylobacter infection.

  15. Metabolic functions of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from Populus deltoides depend on rhizosphere or endosphere isolation compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Collin M; Campbell, Alisha G; Utturkar, Sagar M; Jun, Se-Ran; Parales, Rebecca E; Tan, Watumesa A; Robeson, Michael S; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Jawdy, Sara; Brown, Steven D; Ussery, David W; Schadt, Christopher W; Tuskan, Gerald A; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Weston, David J; Pelletier, Dale A

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work, we used phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models to investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. These isolates represent a single OTU and were collected from the rhizosphere and endosphere of Populus deltoides. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased toward endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias toward chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates.

  16. Metabolic functions of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from Populus deltoides depend on rhizosphere or endosphere isolation compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin M Timm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1,000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs associated with any individual plant. In this work we investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains, isolated from Populus deltoides rhizosphere and endosphere and which represent a single OTU, using phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased towards endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias towards chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates.

  17. An investigation of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration creep among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pediatric patients and healthy children in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ning Chang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Vancomycin MIC creeps existed in both clinical MRSA isolates and colonized MRSA strains. Great diversity of PFGE typing was in both strains collected. There was no association between the clinical and colonized MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC creep.

  18. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...... as a live vaccine in Poland, and the Hungarian isolates were related to the Bartha K-61 vaccine strain widely used in Hungary. Pigs experimentally infected with derivatives of BUK-TK-900 or BUK-TK-900 itself were found to develop gI-antibodies, while pigs infected with derivatives of Bartha K-61 showed a g...

  19. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of coffee-infecting Xylella fastidiosa strains isolated from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Deibs; Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Santos, Daiene Souza; de Freitas Oliveira, Ana Cláudia; de Souza, Alessandra A; Coletta-Filho, Helvecio D; de Oliveira, Regina Souza; Nunes, Luiz R

    2015-05-01

    Strains of Xylella fastidiosa constitute a complex group of bacteria that develop within the xylem of many plant hosts, causing diseases of significant economic importance, such as Pierce's disease in North American grapevines and citrus variegated chlorosis in Brazil. X. fastidiosa has also been obtained from other host plants, in direct correlation with the development of diseases, as in the case of coffee leaf scorch (CLS)--a disease with potential to cause severe economic losses to the Brazilian coffee industry. This paper describes a thorough genomic characterization of coffee-infecting X. fastidiosa strains, initially performed through a microarray-based approach, which demonstrated that CLS strains could be subdivided in two phylogenetically distinct subgroups. Whole-genomic sequencing of two of these bacteria (one from each subgroup) allowed identification of ORFs and horizontally transferred elements (HTEs) that were specific to CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Such analyses confirmed the size and importance of HTEs as major mediators of chromosomal evolution amongst these bacteria, and allowed identification of differences in gene content, after comparisons were made with previously sequenced X. fastidiosa strains, isolated from alternative hosts. Although direct experimentation still needs to be performed to elucidate the biological consequences associated with such differences, it was interesting to verify that CLS-related bacteria display variations in genes that produce toxins, as well as surface-related factors (such as fimbrial adhesins and LPS) that have been shown to be involved with recognition of specific host factors in different pathogenic bacteria. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Bordetella bronchiseptica Strains Isolated from Stray and Pet Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Sayin1*, Asli Sakmanoglu1, Osman Erganis1, Uckun Sait Ucan1, Hasan Huseyin Hadimli1, Zeki Aras2, Gokcenur Sanioglu2 and Alp Aslan Coskun3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica is the most important pathogen associated with kennel cough in dogs. The presence of B. bronchiseptica in pet dogs and shelter dogs with clinical respiratory disease was investigated in present study. The genetic relatedness among the strains was determined to evaluate the role of stray dogs in spread of B. bronchiseptica to pet dogs by detection of virulence genes such as filamentous hemagglutinin (fha, pertactin (prn and dermonecrotic toxin (dnt. We also performed the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. A total of 96 B. bronchiseptica were isolated from stray and pet dogs. The fha, prn and dnt virulence genes were detected in 86, 83.3 and 61.4% strains, respectively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The most common genotype from stray and pet dogs was fha+prn+dnt+ as detected in 37.5% and 11.4% of all the strains, respectively. The RAPD assay showed that 3 different patterns were obtained from 96 B. bronchiseptica strains. Sixty one (63.5% of them were clustered in one main group and then further placed in another 2 sub-groups by RAPD assay. Genetic association was seen between the B. bronchiseptica strains from stray and pet dogs. In conclusion, this study revealed that B. bronchiseptica is present at a higher rate in stray dogs than pet dogs. Stray dogs might have a significant role in the transmission of B. bronchiseptica to pet dogs.

  2. Mycotoxin production of Alternaria strains isolated from Korean barley grains determined by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong T T; Kim, Jueun; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Chul Won; Magan, Naresh; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2018-03-02

    Twenty-four Alternaria strains were isolated from barley grain samples. These strains were screened for the production of mycotoxins on rice medium using thin layer chromatography. All 24 strains produced at least one of the five mycotoxins (ALT, AOH, ATX-I, AME, and TeA). Three representative strains, namely EML-BLDF1-4, EML-BLDF1-14, and EML-BLDF1-18, were further analyzed using a new LC-MS/MS-based mycotoxin quantification method. This method was used to detect and quantify Alternaria mycotoxins. We used positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry with multiple reaction mode (MRM) for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria mycotoxins produced by these strains. Five Alternaria toxins (ALT, ATX-I, AOH, AME, and TeA) were detected and quantified. Sample preparation included methanol extraction, concentration, and injection into LC-MS/MS. Limit of detection ranged from 0.13 to 4μg/mL and limit of quantification ranged from 0.25 to 8μg/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Candida albicans Strains Isolated from Users of Dental Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julliana Cariry Palhano Freire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity of citral, selected by screening natural products, against Candida albicans isolates from subjects who use dental prostheses. Methodology. Screening of essential oils, including those from Mentha piperita L. (Briq, Origanum vulgare, and Zingiber officinale L., and the phytoconstituents citral and limonene, to select an appropriate natural product. Citral, which mediated the best antifungal response, was selected for biological assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs for citral and nystatin were determined by the microdilution method. Micromorphological analyses, time-kill curve, and modulation tests were performed. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were established as 32 μg/mL, consistent with fungicidal activity. The clinical strains were resistant to nystatin. Citral caused micromorphological alteration in the strains. In the time-kill curve, the growth of the clinical strain was reduction in growth equal to 3 log10 colony-forming units per milliliter after exposure to the MIC and MIC×2 of citral for 2 h. Citral did not modulate the resistance of the studied strains to nystatin. Conclusion. This study revealed the potential of citral as a fungicidal agent and highlighted the resistance of clinical strains of C. albicans to nystatin.

  4. Characterization of an Argentine isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis similar to the HD-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Basurto-Ríos, Regina E; Ibarra, Jorge E; Benintende, Graciela B

    2010-01-01

    We report the characterization of an Argentine isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis (INTA TA24-6) similar to the HD-1 strain, which harbors a cryptic cry2Ab gene that apparently is transcribed but not translated into a protein. INTA TA24-6 showed a Rep-PCR pattern identical to the HD-1 strain, a plasmid pattern that resembled that of this strain and cry1 and cry2 genes as HD-1. Screening of cry1 and cry2 genes showed that INTA TA24-6 harbors only cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes. Furthermore, crystalline inclusions of INTA TA24-6 exhibit a bipyramidal shape, typical of Lepidoptera-active B. thuringiensis strains, containing a major protein of ca. 130 kDa toxic to Epinotia aporema Wals. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae. Neither the flat-square to cuboidal crystal nor a ca. 65 kDa protein typical of strains expressing Cry2 proteins were detected in INTA TA24-6. In agreement with this information, parasporal crystals of INTA TA24-6 did not show toxicity to Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera:Culicidae) larvae. Gene transcription analyses suggested that the cry2A gene might be cryptic in INTA TA24-6 despite its transcription at different sporulation stages.

  5. Production and characterization of L-fucose dehydrogenase from newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. strain SA-134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Takashi; Morita, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms producing L-fucose dehydrogenase were screened from soil samples, and one of the isolated bacterial strains SA-134 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. by 16S rDNA gene analysis. The strain grew well utilizing L-fucose as a sole source of carbon, but all other monosaccharides tested such as D-glucose and D-arabinose did not support the growth of the strain in the absence of L-fucose. D-Arabinose inhibited the growth even in the culture medium containing L-fucose. Although the strain grew on some organic acids and amino acids such as citric acid and L-alanine as sole sources of carbon, the enzyme was produced only in the presence of L-fucose. The fucose dehydrogenase was purified to apparently homogeneity from the strain, and the native enzyme was a monomer of 25 kD. L-Fucose and D-arabinose were good substrates for the enzyme, but L-galactose was a poor substrate. The enzyme acted on both NAD(+) and NADP(+) in the similar manner.

  6. RNAseq-based transcriptome comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from diverse fermentative environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Clara; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Morard, Miguel; Toft, Christina; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-09-18

    Transcriptome analyses play a central role in unraveling the complexity of gene expression regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This species, one of the most important microorganisms for humans given its industrial applications, shows an astonishing degree of genetic and phenotypic variability among different strains adapted to specific environments. In order to gain novel insights into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae biology of strains adapted to different fermentative environments, we analyzed the whole transcriptome of three strains isolated from wine, flor wine or mezcal fermentations. An RNA-seq transcriptome comparison of the different yeasts in the samples obtained during synthetic must fermentation highlighted the differences observed in the genes that encode mannoproteins, and in those involved in aroma, sugar transport, glycerol and alcohol metabolism, which are important under alcoholic fermentation conditions. These differences were also observed in the physiology of the strains after mannoprotein and aroma determinations. This study offers an essential foundation for understanding how gene expression variations contribute to the fermentation differences of the strains adapted to unequal fermentative environments. Such knowledge is crucial to make improvements in fermentation processes and to define targets for the genetic improvement or selection of wine yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of monocrotophos-degrading strain Sphingobiumsp. YW16 and cloning of its TnopdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Liu, Hongming; Gao, Xinhua; Chen, Wei; Huang, Kaihua; Zhang, Sui

    2017-12-04

    The bacterial strain Sphingobium sp. YW16, which is capable of degrading monocrotophos, was isolated from paddy soil in China. Strain YW16 could hydrolyze monocrotophos to dimethylphosphate and N-methylacetoacetamide and utilize dimethylphosphate as the sole carbon source but could not utilize N-methylacetoacetamide. Strain YW16 also had the ability to hydrolyze other organophosphate pesticides. A fragment (7067 bp) that included the organophosphorus hydrolase gene, opdA, was acquired from strain YW16 using the shotgun technique combined with SEFA-PCR. Its sequence illustrated that opdA was included in TnopdA, which consisted of a transpose gene, a putative integrase gene, a putative ATP-binding protein gene, and opdA. Additionally, a conjugal transfer protein gene, traI, was located downstream of TnopdA. The juxtaposition of TnopdA with TraI suggests that opdA may be transferred from strain YW16 to other bacteria through conjugation. OpdA was able to hydrolyze a wide range of organophosphate pesticides, with the hydrolysis efficiency decreasing as follows: methyl parathion > fenitrothion > phoxim > dichlorvos > ethyl parathion > trichlorfon > triazophos > chlorpyrifos > monocrotophos > diazinon. This work provides the first report of opdA in the genus Sphingobium.

  8. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi by Bacillus strains isolated from fish intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Correa, Ana Paula Folmer; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-12-05

    Bacillus strains isolated from the aquatic environment of the Brazilian Amazon region were tested for their activity against mycotoxigenic fungi. All tested bacteria showed antifungal activity, inhibiting at least 7 indicator fungi. Four Bacillus strains showing promising antifungal results were subsequently evaluated for their activity in reducing mycelial growth rate, sporulation, spore germination percentage, and mycotoxin production. Bacillus sp. P1 and Bacillus sp. P11 had a remarkable antifungal effect on toxigenic fungi. Washed bacterial cell suspension of strains P1 and P11 (10(7)CFU/ml) reduced by >70% the fungal colony diameters, including a complete inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) producing Aspergillus spp. Significant reduction of growth rate, sporulation and spore germination were also observed. The bacteria influenced the production of mycotoxins, causing a reduction around 99 and 97% in AFB1 and OTA concentration, respectively. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of lipopeptides (iturin A and surfactin isomers) in butanol extracts of cell-free supernatants and cell pellets of strains P1 and P11. Furthermore, antifungal activity of these extracts was confirmed against A. flavus A12 and A. carbonarius ITAL293, producers of AFB1 and OTA, respectively. These bacterial strains could be promising biocontrol agents against toxigenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dark fermentation: isolation and characterization of hydrogen-producing strains from sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajhi, Haifa; Conthe, Mónica; Puyol, Daniel; Díaz, Emiliano; Sanz, José Luis

    2013-03-01

    To improve bacterial hydrogen production, ten hydrogen-producing strains belonging to Clostridium spp. were isolated from various sludges under low vacuum. Hydrogenogenesis by dark fermentation in batch cultures of these strains was optimal at about 35 degrees C and an initial pH of 6.5, which for all strains gradually dropped to ca. pH 4 during the fermentation. Clostridium roseum H5 and C. diolis RT2 had the highest hydrogen yields per total substrate (120 ml H2/g initial COD). Substrate consumption alone by C. beijerinckii UAM and C. diolis RT2 reached 573 and 475 ml H2/g consumed COD, respectively. Butyric acid fermentation was predominant, with butyrate and acetate as the major by-products and propionate, ethanol, and lactate as secondary metabolites. The acetate:butyrate ratios and fermentation pathways varied depending on the strains and environmental conditions. Hydrogenogenesis was studied in greater detail in C. saccharobutylicum H1. In butyric acid fermentation by this representative strain, acetoacetate was detected as an intermediate metabolite. Hydrogenogenesis was also analyzed in an enrichment culture, which behaved similarly to the axenic cultures.

  10. In vitro susceptibility to mecillinam of Escherichia coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duployez, C; Loiez, C; Cattoen, C; Descamps, D; Wallet, F; Vachée, A

    2016-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a safe beta-lactam for use in pregnancy. It has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Nordic countries where its efficacy, minor impact on the microbiota, and low level of resistance among the Escherichia coli strains have been proven. However, susceptibility data related to E. coli involved in asymptomatic bacteriuria and lower UTIs in pregnant women is lacking. We aimed to support the 2015 recommendations issued by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) on gestational UTI, with a particular focus on pivmecillinam. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by 12 hospitals with a maternity department on 235 E. coli strains isolated from the urine of pregnant women. Susceptibility to mecillinam was tested by disk diffusion method using the 2015 recommendations of the antibiogram committee of the French microbiology society (CA-SFM). Global susceptibility to mecillinam was 86.4%. Susceptibility to mecillinam was 96.5% for strains susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 38.7% for resistant strains. All six extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to mecillinam. Given the efficacy and safety of pivmecillinam during pregnancy, it may be used for the documented treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis in pregnant women. It also represents an alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  12. Technological and safety properties of newly isolated GABA-producing Lactobacillus futsaii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchart, C; Rattanaporn, O; Haltrich, D; Phukpattaranont, P; Maneerat, S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the technological and safety properties of Lactobacillus futsaii CS3 and CS5 isolated from Thai fermented shrimp products (Kung-Som) in order to develop a valuable gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing starter culture. Both strains showed a high GABA-producing ability (>8 mg ml(-1) ) in MRS broth containing 20 mg ml(-1) monosodium glutamate (MSG) for 120 h. They also exhibited inhibitory activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Cell surface hydrophobicity and proteolytic activity were observed in both strains. Strain CS3 survived better under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions with only 1·5 log-units cell decrease over 8 h. Both strains showed the ability to deconjugate taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate acid. Neither virulence genes nor biogenic amine production was detected. Strain CS3 exhibited susceptibility to all tested antibiotics with the exception of vancomycin, while strain CS5 showed resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Based on the results obtained, Lact. futsaii CS3 is very promising as a GABA-producing and potentially probiotic starter culture strain for applications in functional fermented foods. This study focuses on the technological and safety characteristics of Lact. futsaii CS3 and CS5 including their high GABA-producing capacity for the first time. This provides a way of replacing chemical GABA by natural GABA using a GABA-producing starter culture candidate, at the same time offering the consumer new attractive food products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Isolation, screening and molecular identification of novel bacterial strain removing methylene blue from water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Mona

    2017-11-01

    The potentially deleterious effects of methylene blue (MB) on human health drove the interest in its removal promptly. Bioremediation is an effective and eco friendly for removing MB. Soil bacteria were isolated and examined for their potential to remove MB. The most potent bacterial candidate was characterized and identified using 16S rRNA sequence technique. The evolutionary history of the isolate was conducted by maximum likelihood method. Some physiochemical parameters were optimized for maximum decolorization. Decolorization mechanism and microbial toxicity study of MB (100 mg/l) and by-products were investigated. Participation of heat killed bacteria in color adsorption have been investigated too. The bacterial isolate was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain Kilany_MB 16S ribosomal RNA gene with 99% sequence similarity. The sequence was submitted to NCBI (Accession number = KU533726). Phylogeny depicted the phylogenetic relationships between 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence (1442 bp), of the isolated strain and other strains related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in the GenBank database. The optimal conditions were investigated to be pH 5 at 30 °C, after 24 h using 5 mg/l MB showing optimum decolorization percentage (61.3%). Microbial toxicity study demonstrated relative reduction in the toxicity of MB decolorized products on test bacteria. Mechanism of color removal was proved by both biosorption and biodegradation, where heat-killed and live cells showed 43 and 52% of decolorization, respectively, as a maximum value after 24-h incubation. It was demonstrated that the mechanism of color removal is by adsorption. Therefore, good performance of S maltophilia in MB color removal reinforces the exploitation of these bacteria in environmental clean-up and restoration of the ecosystem.

  14. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  15. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakiya, Riddhi N; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Mody, Kalpana H; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655) similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661) and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development), heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis). The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15-C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM), and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96). Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II), an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s) detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s). In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat), India showed promising antibacterial

  16. Cellulose synthesis by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus strain P 1463 isolated from Kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semjonovs, Pavels; Ruklisha, Maija; Paegle, Longina; Saka, Madara; Treimane, Rita; Skute, Marite; Rozenberga, Linda; Vikele, Laura; Sabovics, Martins; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2017-02-01

    Isolate B17 from Kombucha was estimated to be an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose (BC). The isolate was deposited under the number P 1463 and identified as Komagataeibacter rhaeticus by comparing a generated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP™) DNA fingerprint against a reference database. Static cultivation of the K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 in Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium resulted in 4.40 ± 0.22 g/L BC being produced, corresponding to a BC yield from glucose of 25.30 ± 1.78 %, when the inoculum was made with a modified HS medium containing 10 g/L glucose. Fermentations for 5 days using media containing apple juice with analogous carbon source concentrations resulted in 4.77 ± 0.24 g/L BC being synthesised, corresponding to a yield from the consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 37.00 ± 2.61 %. The capacity of K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 to synthesise BC was found to be much higher than that of two reference strains for cellulose production, Komagataeibacter xylinus DSM 46604 and Komagataeibacter hansenii DSM 5602T, and was also considerably higher than that of K. hansenii strain B22, isolated from another Kombucha sample. The BC synthesised by K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 after 40 days of cultivation in HS medium with additional glucose supplemented to the cell culture during cultivation was shown to have a degree of polymerization of 3300.0 ± 122.1 glucose units, a tensile strength of 65.50 ± 3.27 MPa and a length at break of 16.50 ± 0.83 km. For the other strains, these properties did not exceed 25.60 ± 1.28 MPa and 15.20 ± 0.76 km.

  17. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Novel Actinobacteria Strain Isolated from Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi N. Dholakiya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial secondary metabolites possess a wide range of biologically active compounds including antibacterial and antioxidants. In this study, a Gram-positive novel marine Actinobacteria was isolated from sea sediment which showed 84% 16S rRNA gene sequence (KT588655 similarity with Streptomyces variabilis (EU841661 and designated as Streptomyces variabilis RD-5. The genus Streptomyces is considered as a promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites. The isolated novel bacterial strain was characterized by antibacterial characteristics and antioxidant activities. The BIOLOG based analysis suggested that S. variabilis RD-5 utilized a wide range of substrates compared to the reference strain. The result is further supported by statistical analysis such as AWCD (average well color development, heat-map and PCA (principal component analysis. The whole cell fatty acid profiling showed the dominance of iso/anteiso branched C15–C17 long chain fatty acids. The identified strain S. variabilis RD-5 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities for the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCIM 2065, Shigella boydii NCIM, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas sp. NCIM 2200 and Salmonella enteritidis NCIM, and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96. Extract of S. variabilis strain RD-5 showed 82.86 and 89% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and metal chelating activity, respectively, at 5.0 mg/mL. While H2O2 scavenging activity was 74.5% at 0.05 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, polyketide synthases (PKSs types I and II, an enzyme complex that produces polyketides, the encoding gene(s detected in the strain RD-5 which may probably involve for the synthesis of antibacterial compound(s. In conclusion, a novel bacterial strain of Actinobacteria, isolated from the unexplored sea sediment of Alang, Gulf of Khambhat (Gujarat, India showed promising

  18. Evaluating synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzsele, Ákos; Pásztiné-Gere, Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to marbofloxacin and gentamicin, and investigate the possible synergistic, additive, indifferent or antagonistic effects between the two agents. P. aeruginosa strains can develop resistance quickly against certain antibiotics if used alone, thus the need emerges to find synergistic combinations. A total of 68 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from dogs were examined. In order to describe interactions between marbofloxacin and gentamicin the checkerboard microdilution method was utilized. The MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) for marbofloxacin and gentamicin were in the range 0.25-64 mg/L and 0.25-32 mg/L, respectively. The combination of marbofloxacin and gentamicin was more effective with a MIC range of 0.031-8 mg/L and a MIC90 of 1 mg/L, compared to 16 mg/L for marbofloxacin alone and 8 mg/L for gentamicin alone. The FIC (fractional inhibitory concentration) indices ranged from 0.0945 (pronounced synergy) to 1.0625 (indifference). Synergy between marbofloxacin and gentamicin was found in 33 isolates. The mean FIC index is 0.546, which represents a partial synergistic/additive effect close to the full synergy threshold. In vitro results indicate that marbofloxacin and gentamicin as partially synergistic agents may prove clinically useful in combination therapy against P. aeruginosa infections. Although marbofloxacin is not used in the human practice, the interactions between fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides may have importance outside the veterinary field.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  20. [Multilocus sequence typing analysis of 47 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from poultry in Hubei province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Han, Mei; Zhou, Kang; Luo, Qingping; Shao, Huabin; Zhang, Tengfei

    2016-01-04

    To study the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry in Hubei province, we used multilocus sequence typing method to classify 47 local C. jejuni strains. Genomic DNA of each isolated strain was extract, seven housekeeping genes including aspA, g1nA, g1tA, glyA, pgm, tkt and uncA were amplified by PCR and sequenced, and then the sequences of genes were analyzed using MLST database. There were a total of 38 sequence types and 10 clonal complexes, and ST353 and ST464 complexes were the largest amount of the population of C. jejuni analyzed, of which 2 new allelic profile and 25 new sequence types were found. Phylogenetic tree shows that sequence types from different types of poultry and different regions were different. Forty-seven C. jejuni strains isolated from poultry in Hubei were analyzed using MLST and showed abundant genetic diversity, it will provide scientific data to the epidemiological investigation of C. jejuni in Hubei, China.

  1. Mercury remediation potential of a mercury resistant strain Sphingopyxis sp. SE2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain SE2 was isolated from contaminated soil. The 16s rRNA gene sequencing confirms the strain as Sphingopyxis belongs to the Sphingomonadaceae family of the α-Proteobacteria group. The isolate showed high resistance to mercury with estimated concentrations of Hg that caused 50% reduction in growth (EC50) of 5.97 and 6.22mg/L and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32.19 and 34.95mg/L in minimal and rich media, respectively. The qualitative detection of volatilized mercury and the presence of mercuric reductase enzyme proved that the strain SE2 can potentially remediate mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of the remaining mercury in experimental broths indicated that a maximum of 44% mercury was volatilized within 6hr by live SE2 culture. Furthermore a small quantity (23%) of mercury was accumulated in live cell pellets. While no volatilization was caused by dead cells, sorption of mercury was confirmed. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. Homology was observed among the amino acid sequences of mercuric reductase enzyme of different organisms from α-Proteobacteria and ascomycota groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Isolation of a yeast strain able to produce a polygalacturonase with maceration activity of cassava roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alicia Martos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was the isolation of a yeast strain, from citrus fruit peels, able to produce a polygalacturonase by submerged fermentation with maceration activity of raw cassava roots. Among 160 yeast strains isolated from citrus peels, one strain exhibited the strongest pectinolytic activity. This yeast was identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus by 5.8S-ITS RFLP analysis and confirmed by amplification of the nucleotide sequence. The yeast produced a polygalacturonase (PG in Erlenmeyer shake flasks containing YNB, glucose, and citrus pectin. PG synthesis occurred during exponential growth phase, reaching 51 UE.mL-1 after 8 hours of fermentation. A growth yield (Yx/s of 0.43 gram of cell dry weight per gram of glucose consumed was obtained, and a maximal specific growth rate (µm of 0.346 h-1 was calculated. The microorganism was unable to assimilate sucrose, galacturonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, or citrus pe