Sample records for ca-help study design

  1. Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): study design and rationale for a tailored education and coaching intervention to enhance care of cancer-related pain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kravitz, Richard L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Street, Jr, Richard L; Kalauokalani, Donna; Grennan, Tim; Wun, Ted; Slee, Christina; Evans Dean, Dionne; Lewis, Linda; Saito, Naomi; Franks, Peter


    Cancer-related pain is common and under-treated. This article describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a theory-driven, patient-centered coaching intervention to improve cancer pain processes and outcomes...

  2. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær


    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...

  3. Design and data analysis 1 study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Suresh


    Full Text Available This article is intended to give the reader guidance in evaluating different study designs used in medical research for better scientific quality, reliability and validity of their research. This article explains three main types of study designs with understanding examples. Care and caution with skills and experience needed to design suitable studies and appropriate design coupled with reliable sampling techniques and appropriate statistical analysis, supported by clear objectives with decent communication of the findings, are essential for good research.

  4. ATW neutronics design studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D. C.; Yang, W. S.; Khalil, H.


    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept has been proposed as a transuranics (TRU) (and long-lived fission product) incinerator for processing the 87,000 metric tonnes of Light Water Reactor used fuel which will have been generated by the time the currently deployed fleet of commercial reactors in the US reach the end of their licensed lifetime. The ATW is proposed to separate the uranium from the transuranics and fission products in the LWR used fuel, to fission the transuranics, to send the LWR and ATW generated fission products to the geologic repository and to send the uranium to either a low level waste disposal site or to save it for future use. The heat liberated in fissioning the transuranics would be converted to electricity and sold to partially offset the cost of ATW construction and operations. Options for incineration of long-lived fission products are under evaluation. A six-year science-based program of ATW trade and system studies was initiated in the US FY 2000 to achieve two main purposes: (1) ''to evaluate ATW within the framework of nonproliferation, waste management, and economic considerations,'' and (2) ''to evaluate the efficacy of the numerous technical options for ATW system configuration.'' This paper summarizes the results from neutronics and thermal/hydraulics trade studies which were completed at Argonne National Laboratory during the first year of the program. Core designs were developed for Pb-Bi cooled and Na cooled 840 MW{sub th} fast spectrum transmuter designs employing recycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses were performed at Argonne for a He cooled 600 MW{sub th} hybrid thermal and fast core design proposed by General Atomics Co. which runs critical for 3/4 and subcritical for 1/4 of its four year once-thin burn cycle. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation have been calculated on a

  5. Studies in Interior Design (United States)

    Environ Planning Design, 1970


    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  6. Architecture as Design Study. (United States)

    Kauppinen, Heta


    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  7. HYPER system design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won S.; Han, Seok J.; Song, Tae Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    KAERI is developing ADS, named HYPER for the transmutation of nuclear waste. HYPER is designed to produce 1000 MWth with the subcriticality of 0.97. HYPER adopts a hollow cylinder type metal fuel and require 1.0GeV, 16mA proton beams. Pb-Bi is used as coolant and the inlet and outlet temperatures are 340 deg C, 510 deg C, respectively. In addition, Pb-Bi coolant is used as spallation target also. HYPER is expected to incinerate about 380 kg of TRU a year, which is corresponding to the support ratio 5 {approx} 6. 23 refs., 50 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  8. Advanced turbocharger design study program (United States)

    Culy, D. G.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Richardson, N. R.


    The advanced Turbocharger Design Study consisted of: (1) the evaluation of three advanced engine designs to determine their turbocharging requirements, and of technologies applicable to advanced turbocharger designs; (2) trade-off studies to define a turbocharger conceptual design and select the engine with the most representative requirements for turbocharging; (3) the preparation of a turbocharger conceptual design for the Curtiss Wright RC2-32 engine selected in the trade-off studies; and (4) the assessment of market impact and the preparation of a technology demonstration plan for the advanced turbocharger.

  9. Analytical considerations for study design (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; William M. Block


    Studies of the foraging behaviors of birds have been largely descriptive and comparative. One might then expect studies with similar objectives to have similar study designs but that is not the case. Papers in this symposium that focused specifically on study design contain a diversity of biological perspectives. Similarly, there is no accord among statisticians on...

  10. Study designs may influence results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena


    for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise......Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed...... appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies...

  11. Study Designs in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.


    In nephrology research, both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly applied. Clinicians using the evidence from epidemiological studies should be aware of the specific qualities and limitations of each study design. The purpose of the article is therefore to

  12. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.


    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  13. Optimal design of pharmacokinetic studies. (United States)

    Aarons, Leon; Ogungbenro, Kayode


    Experimental design is fundamental to successful scientific investigation. Poorly designed experiments lead to the loss of information, which is costly and potentially unethical. Experiments can be designed in an optimal fashion to maximize the amount of information they provide. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. In the case of population pharmacokinetic experiments, this involves the selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors, including the number and location of measurement times and the number of subjects to include in the study. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development. This MiniReview provides an introduction to optimal design using examples taken from different pharmacokinetic experiments.

  14. a prospectively designed pilot study


    Camerer, Christian


    The aim of the study was to analyze the preservation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (M. SCM) after modified radical neck dissection (MRND). To evaluate postoperative functional outcome and life quality, clinical data of patients after neck dissection level I-V were analyzed and compared: 20 patients with preservation of the M. SCM to 20 patients without preservation of the M. SCM. Matched-Pairs-design was performed previously to gain homogenization within the compared study groups. F...

  15. Design of acute neuroprotection studies. (United States)

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial public health problem. The discovery of progressive, ongoing damage to the brain by means of complex molecular mechanisms which follow the initial injury has raised the possibility of targeted therapeutic intervention. Despite a substantial investment in trials testing dozens of therapeutics in humans, however, to date none has demonstrated robust efficacy. Deficiencies in the design of human clinical trials is likely to explain many translational failures, at least in part. Here we review secondary injury mediators and key trials which have targeted them. We provide a thorough discussion of putative reasons why trials thus far have failed and suggestions for the design of future clinical studies. Important insights from the IMPACT study are also presented in detail; in addition to providing critical insights for future trial design and analysis it suggests that reanalysis of completed studies may reveal inappropriately discarded treatments. Unfortunately limited resources are available for translational research and it is difficult to procure funds needed for well-resourced, large and definitive studies. History suggests, however, that investing in studies that are unlikely to provide a definitive answer only serves to increase required investment as they tend to mandate further study. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Instructional designers at work: A study of how designers design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dicks


    Full Text Available Instructional design (ID in its short life has been dominated by behaviourist approaches despite critique focusing on issues of practice as well as theory. Nonetheless, little research has addressed two fundamental questions: “What constitutes good instructional design?” and “How do instructional designers create good design?” We have begun a search for answers by asking a sample of eight instructional designers to reconstruct how they helped faculty members deal with challenging design problems as they adopted a Learning Management System and other web-based technologies in support of their teaching. From audio-recordings we derived response categories consistently recurring within and across interviews, then validated our analysis with the sampled group of instructional designers. Our analysis suggests that instructional designers employ a set of social skills and cognitive tools that enable them to act as a pedagogical “conscience” in the design process. We interpret these skills in terms of “theory of mind” in the context of instructional design. Résumé : Durant sa courte existence, le domaine de la conception pédagogique a été dominé par les approches comportementales malgré la critique qui met l’accent sur les questions pratiques aussi bien que théoriques. Néanmoins, peu de recherches ont abordé deux questions fondamentales : « Qu’est-ce qu’une bonne conception pédagogique ? » et « Comment les concepteurs pédagogiques élaborent-ils un bon concept ? ». Nous avons commencé notre recherche de réponses en demandant à un échantillon de huit concepteurs pédagogiques de reconstruire la manière dont ils ont aidé les professeurs à composer avec des problèmes de conception particulièrement difficiles tandis que ces derniers procédaient à l’implantation d’un système de gestion de l’apprentissage et d’autres technologies Web comme soutien à l’enseignement. À partir des

  17. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.


    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R


    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  19. Design Issues in Transgender Studies. (United States)

    Hughes, James P; Emel, Lynda; Hanscom, Brett; Zangeneh, Sahar


    Transgender individuals constitute an important focus for HIV prevention, but studies in this population present some unique methodologic and operational challenges. We consider issues related to sampling, sample size, number of sites, and trial cost. We discuss relevant design issues for evaluating interventions in both HIV-negative and HIV-infected transgender populations, as well as a method for assessing the impact of an intervention on population HIV incidence. We find that HIV-endpoint studies of transgender individuals will likely require fewer participants but more sites and have higher operational costs than HIV prevention trials in other populations. Because any intervention targeted to transgender individuals will likely include antiretroviral drugs, small scale studies looking at potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy and hormone therapy are recommended. Finally, assessing the impact of an intervention targeted to transgender individuals will require better information on the contribution of such individuals to the population HIV incidence.

  20. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch


    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement......, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflection, and critical and creative thinking....

  1. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study (United States)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  2. ACSA : Conference book: Design Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, U.; Engel, H.; Van Velzen, E.; Willems Floet, W.; Van Duin, L.


    In recent years, the Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning has been undergoing large changes in the training and research program mes. These changes followon from the signals received from professional practice, but above all from the desire of staff and students to design

  3. A design study of VOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deen, P. P.; Vickery, Anette; Andersen, K. H.


    VOR, the versatile optimal resolution chopper spectrometer, is designed to probe dynamic phenomena that are currently inaccessible for inelastic neutron scattering due to flux limitations. VOR is a short instrument by the standards of the European Spallation Source (ESS), 30.2m moderator to sample...... an extra order of magnitude in flux. In addition, VOR has been optimised for repetition rate multiplication (RRM) and is therefore able to measure, in a single ESS period, 6-14 incident wavelengths, across a wavelength band of 9 Å with a novel chopper configuration that transmits all incident wavelengths...... with equivalent counting statistics. The characteristics of VOR make it a unique instrument with capabilities to access small, limited-lifetime samples and transient phenomena with inelastic neutron scattering....

  4. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.


    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  5. Interval Management Display Design Study (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.


    In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.

  6. Spiral 2: preliminary design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The scientific council of GANIL asked to perform a comparative study on the production methods based on gamma induced fission and rapid-neutron induced fission concerning the nature and the intensity of the neutron-rich products. The production rate expected should be around 10{sup 13} fissions per second. The study should include the implantation and the costs of the concerned accelerators. The scientific committee recommended also to study the possibility to re-inject the radioactive beams of SPIRAL-II in the cyclotrons available at GANIL in order to give access to an energy range from 1.7 to 100 MeV/nucleon. For that purpose, some study groups have been formed to evaluate the possibility of such a project in the different components: physics case, target-ion sources, drivers, post-acceleration and general infrastructure. The organization of the project study is given at the end of this report. The following report presents an overview of the study. Particularly the total costs have been assessed according to 3 options for the driver: 38.0*10{sup 6} euros for a 40 MeV deuteron linac, 18.7*10{sup 6} euros for a 45 MeV electron linac, and 29.1*10{sup 6} euros for a 80 MeV deuteron cyclotron.

  7. Collective design in 3D printing: A large scale empirical study of designs, designers and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan


    This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489 ...

  8. TLEP design study forges ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Alain Blondel & Mike Koratzinos


    As the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is launched, one of its component parts, TLEP, enjoys a successful workshop at CERN. The FCC study looks at all options for a future circular collider with the emphasis on a hadron machine with TLEP as a possible intermediate step.   The poster of the sixth TLEP workshop that took place at CERN. Japanese artist Kazuya Akimoto kindly agreed to the use of one of his works as the basis for the poster’s backdrop. October 16 to 18 saw a three-day workshop on TLEP, the sixth in the series. The workshop took place at CERN and was well attended, informative and stimulating. To name just one of the influential people present, Herwig Schopper, ex-Director General of CERN and instrumental in the approval, construction and success of LEP, was among the participants. But what exactly is TLEP? The name was, somehow serendipitously, coined from future lepton collider option studies and stands for triple-LEP, a machine three times the size of LEP. But th...

  9. Designing Mobile Service experiences, an exploratory study


    Sarmento, Teresa; Patrício, Lia; Bártolo, José


    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on the relevance of experiential factors when using services. The multidisciplinary approach is stressed seeing that is an important contribution in terms of service design interfaces. The project aimed at identifying elements for designing service experiences and for contributing to an improved service design and testing process. The paper presents a study carried out on a group of participants in a creative training cour...

  10. Statistical design and evaluation of biomarker studies. (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K


    We review biostatistical aspects of biomarker studies, including design and analysis issues, covering the range of settings required for translational research-from early exploratory studies through clinical trials.

  11. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.


    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  12. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server


    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  14. A Case Study in Acoustical Design. (United States)

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Brown, John A.


    Addresses concerns of both facilities planners and instructional designers in planning for the audio component of group presentations. Factors in the architectural design of enclosures for the reproduction of sound are described, including frequency, amplitude, and reverberation; and a case study for creating an acceptable enclosure is presented.…

  15. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo


    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...... and processing in design, discusses important issues on the selection of a research strategy and sums up the important variables that need to be controlled for....

  16. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard


    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  17. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  18. Cost studies for commercial fuselage crown designs (United States)

    Walker, T. H.; Smith, P. J.; Truslove, G.; Willden, K. S.; Metschan, S. L.; Pfahl, C. L.


    Studies were conducted to evaluate the cost and weight potential of advanced composite design concepts in the crown region of a commercial transport. Two designs from each of three design families were developed using an integrated design-build team. A range of design concepts and manufacturing processes were included to allow isolation and comparison of cost centers. Detailed manufacturing/assembly plans were developed as the basis for cost estimates. Each of the six designs was found to have advantages over the 1995 aluminum benchmark in cost and weight trade studies. Large quadrant panels and cobonded frames were found to save significant assembly labor costs. Comparisons of high- and intermediate-performance fiber systems were made for skin and stringer applications. Advanced tow placement was found to be an efficient process for skin lay up. Further analysis revealed attractive processes for stringers and frames. Optimized designs were informally developed for each design family, combining the most attractive concepts and processes within that family. A single optimized design was selected as the most promising, and the potential for further optimization was estimated. Technical issues and barriers were identified.

  19. Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ryan


    Full Text Available This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.

  20. Medication safety research by observational study design. (United States)

    Lao, Kim S J; Chui, Celine S L; Man, Kenneth K C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Wong, Ian C K


    Observational studies have been recognised to be essential for investigating the safety profile of medications. Numerous observational studies have been conducted on the platform of large population databases, which provide adequate sample size and follow-up length to detect infrequent and/or delayed clinical outcomes. Cohort and case-control are well-accepted traditional methodologies for hypothesis testing, while within-individual study designs are developing and evolving, addressing previous known methodological limitations to reduce confounding and bias. Respective examples of observational studies of different study designs using medical databases are shown. Methodology characteristics, study assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed in this review.

  1. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies. (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.


    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  2. Design study: fishing vessel technical information system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, C.H


    ... out. This study is primarily concerned with the design of a Fishing Vessel Technical Information System that will meet the requirements of the Department, and the determination of a schedule and means of data collection and management.

  3. Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per


    This is a study of the reasoning involved in justifying a decision chain from a given design brief (of an architectural competition on site planning) to a given solution (the winning entry). A logical method of analysis is presented and applied to the case data; the resulting findings include...... various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...

  4. Interactive design computation : A case study on quantum design paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, H.


    The ever-increasing complexity of design processes fosters novel design computation models to be employed in architectural research and design in order to facilitate accurate data processing and refined decision making. These computation models have enabled designers to work with complex geometry

  5. Rhetorical Design Studies: The Art of Making Design Choices Explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per L.


    Design has the potential to affect the situations we are in, the choices we make and the beliefs we live by. Being such an affective field, one might expect that canonized design thinking models and methods would be much concerned with how designers can discover arguments for their design choices...... in the situations they intend to address by design rather than first and foremost thinking of a problem to solve. In area two, the designers look through the available means of amplification. The purpose of this is to discover ideas for making the design solution as persuasive as possible. In area three....... However, these are predominantly concerned with the phases to go through in a design process and the steps to take rather than informing design practitioners of how to explore their arguments of why. Concepts and theories from rhetoric are employed here to explain how designers can develop a process where...

  6. Design Considerations for Artificial Pancreas Pivotal Studies. (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; Beck, Roy W


    The development of artificial pancreas systems has evolved to the point that pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety are in progress or soon to be initiated. These pivotal studies are intended to provide the necessary data to gain clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, coverage by payers, and adoption by patients and clinicians. Although there will not be one design that is appropriate for every system, there are certain aspects of protocol design that will be considerations in all pivotal studies designed to assess efficacy and safety. One key aspect of study design is the intervention to be used by the control group. A case can be made that the control group should use the currently available best technology, which is sensor-augmented pump therapy. However, an equally, if not more, compelling case can be made that the control intervention should be usual care. In this Perspective, we elaborate on this issue and provide a pragmatic approach to the design of clinical trials of artificial pancreas systems. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S.


    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  8. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  9. Generic turbine design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of Task 12, Generic Turbine Design Study was to develop a conceptual design of a combustion turbine system that would perform in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) application. A single inlet/outlet casing design that modifies the W251B12 combustion turbine to provide compressed air to the PFBC and accept clean hot air from the PFBC was developed. Performance calculations show that the net power output expected, at an inlet temperature of 59{degrees}F, is 20,250 kW.

  10. Conceptual study of advanced PWR core design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Keung Ku; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Kim, Young Il; Noh, Jae Man; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Taek Kyum; Yoo, Yon Jong


    The purpose of this project is for developing and verifying the core design concepts with enhanced safety and economy, and associated methodologies for core analyses. From the study of the sate-of-art of foreign advanced reactor cores, we developed core concepts such as soluble boron free, high convertible and enhanced safety core loaded semi-tight lattice hexagonal fuel assemblies. To analyze this hexagonal core, we have developed and verified some neutronic and T/H analysis methodologies. HELIOS code was adopted as the assembly code and HEXFEM code was developed for hexagonal core analysis. Based on experimental data in hexagonal lattices and the COBRA-IV-I code, we developed a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for hexagonal lattices. Using the core analysis code systems developed in this project, we designed a 600 MWe core and studied the feasibility of the core concepts. Two additional scopes were performed in this project : study on the operational strategies of soluble boron free core and conceptual design of large scale passive core. By using the axial BP zoning concept and suitable design of control rods, this project showed that it was possible to design a soluble boron free core in 600 MWe PWR. The results of large scale core design showed that passive concepts and daily load follow operation could be practiced. (author). 15 refs., 52 tabs., 101 figs.

  11. Selecting the appropriate study design for your research: Descriptive study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair


    Full Text Available This article describes the importance of selecting the appropriate epidemiological study design for a given study question. It provides an explanation to the different terms used in describing study designs with regards to observational versus interventional and descriptive versus analytical types of study designs. This article focuses on the description of the different types of descriptive study designs, that is, case report, case series, correlational, and cross-sectional study designs. The requirements for selecting these study designs are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of each study design. The descriptive studies are similar in the context that they are based on a single sample with no comparative group within the study design. Their basic purpose is to describe the characteristics of the sample with regards to the characteristics that are present and so are useful in generating a hypothesis. The absence of a comparative group is the main limitation of the descriptive studies, and this is the reason they cannot be used to determine an association by testing a hypothesis showing a relationship between a risk factor and disease. The analytical study designs will be discussed in the next article in this series.

  12. Core design and fuel management studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chan, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)


    The design target for the CANDU 9 requires a 20% increase in electrical power output from an existing 480-channel CANDU core. Assuming a net electrical output of 861 MW(e) for a natural uranium fuelled Bruce-B/Darlington reactor in a warm water site, the net electrical output of the reference CANDU 9 reactor would be 1033 MW(e). This report documents the result of the physics studies for the design of the CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The results of the core design and fuel management studies of the CANDU 9 480/SEU reactor indicated that up to 1033 MW(e) output can be achieved in a 480-channel CANDU core by using SEU core can easily be maintained indefinitely using an automated refuelling program. Fuel performance evaluation based on the data of the 500 FPDs refuelling simulation concluded that SEU fuel failure is not expected. (author). 2 tabs., 38 figs., 5 refs.

  13. Deepening Kindergarteners' Science Vocabulary: A Design Study (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Bryant, Camille Lawrence


    Early, effective instruction to introduce both science vocabulary and general academic language may help children build a strong conceptual and linguistic foundation for later instruction. In this study, a design research intervention was employed to expose children to a variety of interrelated science content words to increase both the breadth…

  14. Design Difficulties in Stand Density Studies (United States)

    Frank A. Bennett


    Designing unbiased stand density studies is difficult. An acceptable sample requires stratification of the plots of age, site, and density. When basal area, percent stocking, or Reineke's stand density index is used as the density measure, this stratification forces a high negative correlation between site and number of trees per acre. Mortality in trees per acre...

  15. Study design issues in evaluating immune biomarkers. (United States)

    Bosch, Ronald J; Zhang, Xinyan; Sandler, Netanya G


    The dramatic increase in the number and type of immune biomarkers that can be measured, particularly those assessing immune activation, has led to numerous investigations in HIV-infected individuals to explore pathogenesis and to assess therapeutic interventions that aim to attenuate immune activation. An overview is provided on study designs and related statistical and operational issues relevant to these investigations. Cohort studies and nested case-control studies within these cohorts have identified multiple biomarkers that are associated with an increased risk of disease. Early-stage clinical trials of therapies to address these risks in HIV-infected individuals with viral suppression on antiretroviral therapy are a substantial focus of current HIV research. Appropriate study design is essential in biomarker research.

  16. Design study of the CEPC booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Particle Acceleration Physics and Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 10049, China


    Design study of the CEPC booster is reported. The booster provides 120 GeV beams for the collider with topup injection frequency of 0.1 Hz. To save cost, energy of the linac injector for the booster is chosen as 6GeV, corresponding to the magnetic field of 30 Gs. In this paper, lattice of the booster is described; the low injection energy issues are studied; beam transfer from linac to booster and from booster to collider are discussed.

  17. A Design Study for Standard Nanofluid Coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, In Cheol [Energy Sciences, Global Edge Institute Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The experimental data for nanofluids in thermal-fluid systems have shown that the new fluids promise to become advanced heat transfer fluids in terms of thermal performance. While enhancing thermal characteristics, the solid-liquid mixtures present an unavoidable disadvantage in terms of pumping cost for economic operation of thermal-fluid systems. In addition, there is a lack of agreement between experimental data provided in the literature. We can find that this issue of nanofluids resembles that of designing new materials. Many nanofluids researchers tend to view the nanofluid field as a highly coupled 'tetrahedro' whose four vertices (performance, properties, structure, and processes) are interconnected to each other. The present design study has a big merit to systemize the nanofluid work and to reduce a lot of trial-error efforts. The present work found that there would be no comprehensible design strategy in developing nanofluids. In this work, the Axiomatic Design (AD) theory is applied to standardize the design of nanofluids in order to bring its practical use forward. According to the Independence Axiom of the AD theory, the excessive couplings between the functional requirements and the parameters of a nanofluid system prevent from meeting the functional goals of the entire system. At a parametric level, the design of a nanofluid system is inherently coupled due to the characteristics of thermal-fluid system; the design parameters physically affect each other sharing sub-level parameters for nanoparticles with making a feedback loop. Even though parts of the nanofluids are naturally coupled, it is possible to reduce and/or eliminate the degree of coupling by help of AD principles. From the perspective of AD, this implies that we are able to ascertain which nanofluid system is better one in the light of functional achievement.

  18. An empirical study of software design practices (United States)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.


    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  19. Thermodynamic studies for drug design and screening. (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B


    A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 - 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development toward an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in the design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  20. Thermodynamic Studies for Drug Design and Screening (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Chaires, Jonathan B.


    Introduction A key part of drug design and development is the optimization of molecular interactions between an engineered drug candidate and its binding target. Thermodynamic characterization provides information about the balance of energetic forces driving binding interactions and is essential for understanding and optimizing molecular interactions. Areas covered This review discusses the information that can be obtained from thermodynamic measurements and how this can be applied to the drug development process. Current approaches for the measurement and optimization of thermodynamic parameters are presented, specifically higher throughput and calorimetric methods. Relevant literature for this review was identified in part by bibliographic searches for the period 2004 – 2011 using the Science Citation Index and PUBMED and the keywords listed below. Expert opinion The most effective drug design and development platform comes from an integrated process utilizing all available information from structural, thermodynamic and biological studies. Continuing evolution in our understanding of the energetic basis of molecular interactions and advances in thermodynamic methods for widespread application are essential to realize the goal of thermodynamically-driven drug design. Comprehensive thermodynamic evaluation is vital early in the drug development process to speed drug development towards an optimal energetic interaction profile while retaining good pharmacological properties. Practical thermodynamic approaches, such as enthalpic optimization, thermodynamic optimization plots and the enthalpic efficiency index, have now matured to provide proven utility in design process. Improved throughput in calorimetric methods remains essential for even greater integration of thermodynamics into drug design. PMID:22458502

  1. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan


    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  2. Service Design, insights from nine case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gijbels; C. van Gessel; Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Tanja Enninga; Sjoukje Sleeswijk Visser; Fenne Verhoeven; Berit Godfroij; M.M. Manschot


    Service design is literally the design of services. Service designers improve existing services or design completely new ones. Nothing new so far. Services have been around for centuries, and every service was conceived and designed by someone. However, service design takes a different angle; a

  3. Conceptual design studies for surface infrastructure (United States)

    Bufkin, Ann L.; Jones, William R., II


    The utimate design of a manned Mars base will be the result of considerable engineering analysis and many trade studies to optimize the configuration. Many options and scenarios are available and all need to be considered at this time. Initial base elements, two base configuration concepts, internal space architectural concerns, and two base set-up scenarios are discussed. There are many variables as well as many unknowns to be reckoned with before people set foot on the red planet.

  4. Quantitative methods for studying design protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Jeff WT


    This book is aimed at researchers and students who would like to engage in and deepen their understanding of design cognition research. The book presents new approaches for analyzing design thinking and proposes methods of measuring design processes. These methods seek to quantify design issues and design processes that are defined based on notions from the Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) design ontology and from linkography. A linkograph is a network of linked design moves or segments. FBS ontology concepts have been used in both design theory and design thinking research and have yielded numerous results. Linkography is one of the most influential and elegant design cognition research methods. In this book Kan and Gero provide novel and state-of-the-art methods of analyzing design protocols that offer insights into design cognition by integrating segmentation with linkography by assigning FBS-based codes to design moves or segments and treating links as FBS transformation processes. They propose and test ...

  5. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim


    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  6. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)


    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  7. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies (United States)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.


    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  8. Design Study: Rocket Based MHD Generator (United States)


    This report addresses the technical feasibility and design of a rocket based MHD generator using a sub-scale LOx/RP rocket motor. The design study was constrained by assuming the generator must function within the performance and structural limits of an existing magnet and by assuming realistic limits on (1) the axial electric field, (2) the Hall parameter, (3) current density, and (4) heat flux (given the criteria of heat sink operation). The major results of the work are summarized as follows: (1) A Faraday type of generator with rectangular cross section is designed to operate with a combustor pressure of 300 psi. Based on a magnetic field strength of 1.5 Tesla, the electrical power output from this generator is estimated to be 54.2 KW with potassium seed (weight fraction 3.74%) and 92 KW with cesium seed (weight fraction 9.66%). The former corresponds to a enthalpy extraction ratio of 2.36% while that for the latter is 4.16%; (2) A conceptual design of the Faraday MHD channel is proposed, based on a maximum operating time of 10 to 15 seconds. This concept utilizes a phenolic back wall for inserting the electrodes and inter-electrode insulators. Copper electrode and aluminum oxide insulator are suggested for this channel; and (3) A testing configuration for the sub-scale rocket based MHD system is proposed. An estimate of performance of an ideal rocket based MHD accelerator is performed. With a current density constraint of 5 Amps/cm(exp 2) and a conductivity of 30 Siemens/m, the push power density can be 250, 431, and 750 MW/m(sup 3) when the induced voltage uB have values of 5, 10, and 15 KV/m, respectively.

  9. Tetracyanodibenzotetrathiafulvalene diimides: design, synthesis, and property study. (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Zhongli; Hu, Yunbin; Yang, Xiaodi; Li, Hongxiang; Gao, Xike; Zhu, Daoben


    Tetracyanodibenzotetrathiafulvalene diimide (TCDBTTF-DI), an isomer of core-expanded naphthalene diimides bearing two 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile moieties (NDI-DTYM2), has been designed and synthesized to explore the effect of its isomeric structure on the optical and electrochemical properties of the materials. UV-vis spectra show that TCDBTTF-DI exhibits variation in its absorption peaks while maintaining a similar optical band gap to NDI-DTYM2. Electrochemical studies indicate that TCDBTTF-DI can not only accept but also lose electrons, in contrast to the solely electron-accepting behavior of NDI-DTYM2.

  10. Protecting count queries in study design (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A


    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  11. A Study of Landscape Architecture Design Methods


    Lidy, Christopher James


    How do different methods employed by landscape architects impact the design outcome? This paper identifies and defines design methods in landscape architecture that may be classified as part of four internal and external connections and structures categories. Methods are further examined through two design exercises. In the first design exercise, the identified methods are individually applied to the same simple design which is used as a control. The only variable changed is the method used ...

  12. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan


    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  13. Design and analysis of biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merete Kjær

    been allocated this field. It is utterly important to utilize these ressources responsibly and efficiently by constantly striving to ensure high-quality biomedical studies. This involves the use of a sound statistical methodology regarding both the design and analysis of biomedical studies. The focus...... rate, the type II error rate is not explicitly specified during the statistical analysis and this entails that assessment of the type II error rate in practice is at risk of being neglected altogether. Concerns regarding type I errors, type II errors and adherence (or lack thereof) to model assumptions...... is specified prior to conducting the statistical analysis. However, all statistical models make assumptions and if violated the actual type I error rate may deviate from the pre-specified type I error rate. Type II errors occur when we fail to reject a false null hypothesis. On contrary to the type I error...

  14. DEMO port plug design and integration studies (United States)

    Grossetti, G.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Cismondi, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Fischer, U.; Franke, T.; Granucci, G.; Hernández, F.; Mozzillo, R.; Strauß, D.; Tran, M. Q.; Vaccaro, A.; Villari, R.


    The EUROfusion Consortium established in 2014 and composed by European Fusion Laboratories, and in particular the Power Plant Physics and Technology department aims to develop a conceptual design for the Fusion DEMOnstration Power Plant, DEMO. With respect to present experimental machines and ITER, the main goals of DEMO are to produce electricity continuously for a period of about 2 h, with a net electrical power output of a few hundreds of MW, and to allow tritium self-sufficient breeding with an adequately high margin in order to guarantee its planned operational schedule, including all planned maintenance intervals. This will eliminate the need to import tritium fuel from external sources during operations. In order to achieve these goals, extensive engineering efforts as well as physics studies are required to develop a design that can ensure a high level of plant reliability and availability. In particular, interfaces between systems must be addressed at a very early phase of the project, in order to proceed consistently. In this paper we present a preliminary design and integration study, based on physics assessments for the EU DEMO1 Baseline 2015 with an aspect ratio of 3.1 and 18 toroidal field coils, for the DEMO port plugs. These aim to host systems like electron cyclotron heating launchers currently developed within the Work Package Heating and Current Drive that need an external radial access to the plasma and through in-vessel systems like the breeder blanket. A similar approach shown here could be in principle followed by other systems, e.g. other heating and current drive systems or diagnostics. The work addresses the interfaces between the port plug and the blanket considering the helium-cooled pebble bed and the water cooled lithium lead which are two of four breeding blanket concepts under investigation in Europe within the Power Plant Physics and Technology Programme: the required openings will be evaluated in terms of their impact onto the

  15. Selecting the appropriate study design: Case–control and cohort study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair


    Full Text Available This article discusses the observational analytic study designs, i.e., case–control and cohort studies. These two study designs are useful for testing a hypothesis to determine the association between a risk factor and a disease. The analysis for both the studies is based on the conventional 2 × 2 table with the disease status in columns and the risk factor status in rows. The case–control studies start from the disease status and compare the exposure to the risk factor(s between the diseased (cases and the not diseased (controls groups. The odds ratio is determined to compare the proportion of exposed persons in the two groups. The cohort studies start from the exposure to the risk factor status and compare the incidence of the disease in the exposed and not exposed groups. The relative risk compares the incidence between the two groups. The 95% confidence interval is estimated for both studies to determine an actual association between the risk factor and the disease. The strengths and limitations of the two study designs differ based on the direction of the two designs. The case–control study goes backward from the disease status so is more useful for rare diseases and for evaluating multiple risk factors, but it cannot determine causality, and there are chances of recall bias affecting the results of the study. The cohort studies are generally prospective in design from the exposure status and can determine the causal association between the risk factor and the disease. However, the cohort studies are more expensive and require a longer time as well as a larger sample size; the loss to follow-up and misclassification biases can affect the results of the cohort studies.

  16. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study. (United States)

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Skurowski, Przemysław; Lach, Ewa; Pruszowski, Przemysław; Pęszor, Damian; Paszkuta, Marcin; Słupik, Janusz; Lebek, Kamil; Janiak, Mateusz; Polański, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad


    The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs). Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system's architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  17. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna


    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  18. Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob


    Microphone arrays have attracted a lot of interest over the last few decades since they have the potential to solve many important problems such as noise reduction/speech enhancement, source separation, dereverberation, spatial sound recording, and source localization/tracking, to name a few. However, the design and implementation of microphone arrays with beamforming algorithms is not a trivial task when it comes to processing broadband signals such as speech. Indeed, in most sensor arrangements, the beamformer tends to have a frequency-dependent response. One exception, perhaps, is the family of differential microphone arrays (DMAs) that have the promise to form frequency-independent responses. Moreover, they have the potential to attain high directional gains with small and compact apertures. As a result, this type of microphone arrays has drawn much research and development attention recently. This book is intended to provide a systematic study of DMAs from a signal processing perspective. The primary obj...

  19. Youth in the Netherlands Study (JOiN): Study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); K. Greaves-Lord (Kirstin); B.E. Evans (Brittany); A.S. Euser (Anja); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)


    textabstractBackground: Adolescence is a critical developmental period regarding exposure to substances. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify those adolescents who are most vulnerable to substance abuse in the (near) future. The JOiN study was specifically designed to examine two

  20. An Ethiopian birth cohort study: the study design | Asefa | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    93. We report here on the design and on the methods used in the study and describe the principal health outcomes. Infants were visited bimonthly until their first birthday. Background data on the physical, cultural and economic environment of ...

  1. Study design and description of patients. (United States)

    Lutz, P; Schmidt, H; Batzler, U


    A West German multicentre study (eight centres) of PKU was designed in 1976. The subjects of the study are the differential diagnosis, factors influencing the therapeutic outcome, and the extension of dietary therapy into adolescence. Between 1978 and 1984, 165 patients were enrolled, of whom 38 were of non-German nationality. The educational and occupational status of the West German parents were comparable to the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the central data bank located at the University Childrens Hospital in Heidelberg, data from recurrent medical examinations and from biochemistry, dietetics, neurology, psychometry and demography were collected. The differential diagnosis of the elevated plasma Phe level in the newborn period resulted in the detection of 2 patients with a PTPS-deficiency, and of 163 with an apo-enzyme defect. Depending upon the magnitude of the Phe levels during the first weeks of life, preliminary treatment groups were formed. They were revised at the age of 6 months with a protein challenge. The levels of Phe during the protein challenge resulted in three types of response. Of these, type III can apparently forgo dietary restrictions resulting in plasma Phe concentrations of around 10 mg/dl. Preliminary results of the whole study are now presented.

  2. Design and Co-Design of Project-Organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars


    ’ engagement, self-awareness, mutual evaluation, reflec- tion, and critical and creative thinking. The case presented and analyzed is the master’s program ICT and learning (MIL), where Roskilde University is partner in the cross-insti- tutional collaboration behind the program. Why. It is a challenge......-ended and directed at handling unknown and dynamic processes. Where. Problem-based approaches are relevant for master’s programs with a need for collaboration, flexibility, and implementation of technologies to overcome time, space, and geographical limitations, and for study programs, where students are involved...

  3. Design Study for A Low-Cost LH2 Turbopump (United States)

    Japikse, David; Baines, Nicholas; Platt, Michael J.


    A preliminary design study, focusing on potential component selections and design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMAR1) analysis, is presented in this study. The investigation focused on a nominal cost liquid hydrogen turbopump suitable for a private launch class vehicle. Utilizing a "turbocharger-like" design philosophy, preliminary feasibility studies of the basic pump design class, the rotordynamic design class, and the turbine design class were conducted with associated DFMA evaluations. Reasonable cost levels and sensible levels of product assurance have been established.

  4. A case study in value design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinclair


    Full Text Available The design of a special type of valve gave rise to a problem which lead the mechanical engineers who designed the valve to call in the help of the author. The final solution to the problem may not be mathematically sophisticated (in fact, it may seem trivial to some readers, but the steps through which the design team struggled and the final approach which resulted in a practically feasible solution may be of interest to other practitioners.

  5. Design and Phenomenology of the FEBSTAT Study (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Moshé, Solomon L; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Masur, David; Frank, L Matthew; Epstein, Leon G; Litherland, Claire; Seinfeld, Syndi; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Bagiella, Emilia; Sun, Shumei


    Purpose Febrile status epilepticus (FSE) has been associated with hippocampal injury and subsequent hipppocampal sclerosis (HS) and temporal lobe epilepsy. The FEBSTAT study was designed to prospectively examine the association between prolonged febrile seizures and development of HS and associated temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most controversial issues in epilepsy. We report on the baseline phenomenology of the final cohorts as well as detailed aims and methodology. Methods The “Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood” (FEBSTAT) study is a prospective, multicenter study. Enrolled are children, aged 1 month to 6 years, presenting with a febrile seizure lasting 30 minutes or more based upon ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, and parental interview. At baseline, procedures included an MRI and EEG done within 72 hours of FSE, and a detailed history and neurological examination. Baseline development and behavior are assessed at one month. The baseline assessment is repeated, with age- appropriate developmental testing at one and five years after enrollment as well as at the development of epilepsy and one year after that. Telephone calls every three months document further seizures. Two other groups of children are included: a ‘control’ group consisting of children with a first febrile seizure ascertained at Columbia University and with almost identical baseline and one year follow-up examinations and a pilot cohort of FSE from Duke University. Key findings The FEBSTAT cohort consists of 199 children with a median age at baseline of 16.0 months (Interquartile range (IQR)=12.0–24.0) and a median duration of FSE of 70.0 minutes (IQR=47.0–110.0). Seizures were continuous in 57.3% and behaviorally intermittent (without recovery in between) in 31.2%; most were partial (4;2.0%) or secondary generalized (65.8%), and almost all (98.0%) culminated in a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Of the 199 children, 86.4% had normal

  6. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.


    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  7. Groupware Design Case Study (ver.1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabert, Annie; Gram, Christian


    A draft paper, written by 5 members of IFIP Working Group 2.7, on how to design groupware systems with good usability properties.......A draft paper, written by 5 members of IFIP Working Group 2.7, on how to design groupware systems with good usability properties....

  8. How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering. (United States)

    Papantonopoulos, Sotiris


    The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

  9. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others


    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  10. Study on Reactive Automatic Compensation System Design (United States)

    Zhe, Sun; Qingyang, Liang; Peiqing, Luo; Chenfei, Zhang

    At present, low-voltage side of transformer is public in urban distribution network, as inductive load of household appliances is increasing, the power factor decreased, this lead to a large loss of public transformer low voltage side, the supply voltage indicators can not meet user's requirements. Therefore, the design of reactive power compensation system has become another popular research. This paper introduces the principle of reactive power compensation, analyzes key technologies of reactive power compensation, design an overall program of reactive power automatic compensation system to conquer various deficiencies of reactive power automatic compensation equipment.

  11. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 1 (United States)

    Onwubiko, Chinyere; Onyebueke, Landon


    This program report is the final report covering all the work done on this project. The goal of this project is technology transfer of methodologies to improve design process. The specific objectives are: 1. To learn and understand the Probabilistic design analysis using NESSUS. 2. To assign Design Projects to either undergraduate or graduate students on the application of NESSUS. 3. To integrate the application of NESSUS into some selected senior level courses in Civil and Mechanical Engineering curricula. 4. To develop courseware in Probabilistic Design methodology to be included in a graduate level Design Methodology course. 5. To study the relationship between the Probabilistic design methodology and Axiomatic design methodology.

  12. AASHTO mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide parametric study. (United States)


    This study focuses on assessing the robustness of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG v 1.1) for rigid pavement : design projects in Wisconsin. The primary tasks conducted in this study included performing sensitivity analys...

  13. Study on Design Method of New Age Food Machinery


    Xiaowei Jiang


    The study purpose is to investigate an effective design method for food machinery, thereby raising the external appearance quality and pleasant of food machinery, strengthening additional value and whole shape effect of product, satisfying the demand of market competition and creating higher economic efficiency. The study elaborates on the green design, optimal design, concurrent design and bionics design, including the shape bionics, structure bionics, interface bionics and texture bionics, ...

  14. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  15. Design Options Study. Volume I. Executive Summary. (United States)


    That is, the relative attractivness Of some of the design options in Group II (e.g., inclusion of an aft door) is dependent to some extent on the...acquire. Specifically, the total Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) costs for an aircraft such as that depicted in Figure 4 would be

  16. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace vehicle Design (IPAD). Volume 4: IPAD system design (United States)

    Goldfarb, W.; Carpenter, L. C.; Redhed, D. D.; Hansen, S. D.; Anderson, L. O.; Kawaguchi, A. S.


    The computing system design of IPAD is described and the requirements which form the basis for the system design are discussed. The system is presented in terms of a functional design description and technical design specifications. The functional design specifications give the detailed description of the system design using top-down structured programming methodology. Human behavioral characteristics, which specify the system design at the user interface, security considerations, and standards for system design, implementation, and maintenance are also part of the technical design specifications. Detailed specifications of the two most common computing system types in use by the major aerospace companies which could support the IPAD system design are presented. The report of a study to investigate migration of IPAD software between the two candidate 3rd generation host computing systems and from these systems to a 4th generation system is included.

  17. TCT hybrid preconceptual blanket design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, D.T.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Doherty, T.J.; Leonard, B.R.; McCann, R.A.; Newman, D.F.; Perry, R.T.; Stewart, C.W.


    The conceptual design of a tokamak fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor, which produces electric power and fissile material, has been performed in a cooperative effort between Princeton's Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). PPPL, who had overall project lead responsibility, designed the fusion driver system. Its core consists of a tokamak plasma maintained in the two-component torus (TCT) mode by both D and T beams and having a single null poloidal divertor. The blanket concept selected by PPPL consists of a neutron multiplying converter region, containing natural Uranium Molybdenum (U-Mo) slugs followed by a fuel burning blanket region of molten salt containing PuF/sub 3/. PNL analyzed this concept to determine its structural, thermal and hydraulic performance characteristics. An adequate first wall cooling method was determined, utilizing low pressure water in a double wall design. A conceptual layout of the converter region tubes was performed, providing adequate helium cooling and the desired movement of U-Mo slugs. A thermal hydraulic analysis of the power-producing blanket regions indicated that either more helium coolant tubes are needed or the salt must be circulated to obtain adequate heat removal capability.

  18. Design Study of a Low-Cost LOX Turbopump (United States)

    Japikse, David; Baines, Nicholas


    A preliminary design study, focusing on potential component selections and Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA(R)) analysis, is presented in this study. The investigation was focused on a nominal cost liquid oxygen turbopump suitable for a private launch class vehicle. Utilizing a "turbocharger-like" design philosophy, preliminary feasibility studies of the basic pump design class, the rotordynamic design class, and the turbine design class were conducted with associated DFMA evaluations. Reasonable cost levels and sensible levels of product assurance have been established.

  19. Study of Contemporary Jewelry Design Emotional Expression Skills


    Bai-hui Gong; Rong Yuan


    With the development of the society, people gradually realize the importance of design, design also has played a more and more important role in the life.More and more people are willing to choose the design work with unique emotions.Designers gives the new concept of life into the jewelry through the material, color, craft technique, etc. Jewelry as emotional carrier, can better deliver humanistic ideas behind the design in silence.This paper studies the emotional expression skills of contem...

  20. The Rotterdam Study: Objectives and design update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline)


    textabstractThe Rotterdam Study is a prospective cohort study ongoing since 1990 in the city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The study targets cardiovascular, neurological, ophthalmological and endocrine diseases. As of 2008 about 15,000 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study

  1. Innovative Offshore Wind Plant Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, William L. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nordstrom, Charles J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Morrison, Brent J. [Glosten Associates, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)


    Technological advancements in the Glosten PelaStar floating wind turbine system have led to projected cost of energy (COE) reductions from today’s best-in-class offshore wind systems. The PelaStar system is projected to deliver a COE that is 35% lower than that delivered by the current offshore wind plants. Several technology developments have been achieved that directly target significant cost of energy reductions. These include: Application of state-of-the-art steel construction materials and methods, including fatigue-resistant welding techniques and technologies, to reduce hull steel weight; Advancements in synthetic fiber tendon design for the mooring system, which are made possible by laboratory analysis of full-scale sub-rope specimens; Investigations into selected anchor technologies to improve anchor installation methods; Refinement of the installation method, specifically through development of the PelaStar Support Barge design. Together, these technology developments drive down the capital cost and operating cost of offshore wind plants and enable access to superb wind resources in deep water locations. These technology developments also reduce the uncertainty of the PelaStar system costs, which increases confidence in the projected COE reductions.

  2. Misclassification of Study Designs in the Dermatology Literature. (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Eun, Sang Jun; Kim, Do-Yeop; Park, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Yoon, Hyun-Sun


    The appropriate classification of study designs is important for review and assessment of the relevant scientific literature as a basis for decision-making. However, little is known about whether study designs have been appropriately reported in the dermatology literature. We aimed to validate the study designs in the dermatology literature and investigate discrepancies between author-reported and actual study designs. We reviewed all issues of three major dermatology journals from January to December 2016. A total of 295 original articles investigating associations between exposures and health outcomes were included for analysis. We used a validated algorithm to classify the study designs. Among the 295 articles, 174 (59.0%) clearly mentioned the study design in the text. All interventional studies were correctly classified based on the study design (n=42); however, 35 (26.5%) of 132 observational studies showed discrepancies between the author-reported and the actual study design. When the author-reported design was a prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, or case-control study (n=61), approximately half these studies were misclassified by the authors (n=30). We analyzed only three journals in the dermatology field. Our findings revealed substantial discrepancies between author-reported and actual study designs in the dermatologic literature, particularly among observational studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Infusing Technology Driven Design Thinking in Industrial Design Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Mubin, Omar; Novoa, Mauricio; Al Mahmud, Abdullah


    Purpose: This paper narrates a case study on design thinking-based education work in an industrial design honours program. Student projects were developed in a multi-disciplinary setting across a Computing and Engineering faculty that allowed promoting technologically and user-driven innovation strategies. Design/methodology/approach: A renewed…

  4. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change (United States)

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  5. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.


    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  6. Study of Screen Design Principles for Visualizing Medical Records. (United States)

    Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro


    To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.

  7. MuSR Beam Line Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. W. [Weirich Consulting Services, Inc. Hunterville, NC (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    When a substance is implanted with positive muons the precession of their magnetic moments can be used to sample the magnetic properties of the material. The information obtained is complementary to that from NMR, ESR, and neutron scattering. To date, only four user facilities exist in the world but none in the US. We explore the possibility of using the AGS complex at BNL for a μSR facility for the production of positive surface muons. With an incident proton intensity of 1014 protons per second hitting a 200 mm long 0.5 mm thick graphite target, our preliminary design of the beam line could produce low momentum surface muons (24–30 MeV/c) with a flux of 0.9 MHz/cm2 for experiments.

  8. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow


    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  9. A participant-observer study of ergonomics in engineering design: how constraints drive design process. (United States)

    Burns, C M; Vicente, K J


    Too often, ergonomics is relegated to being a "post-design" evaluation, leaving ergonomists little opportunity to make significant and important design changes. One way to start attacking this problem is to study the process of design and, in particular, ergonomics in design. This article describes the findings from a four-month long participant-observer study of the relationship between ergonomics and engineering design. The study was conducted in the context of a large, interdisciplinary project consisting of design of a control room for a nuclear power plant. It was observed that designers and ergonomists must negotiate through a changing web of constraints from many sources. The impact that these constraints had on the course of the design was documented. A model is developed based on the abstraction hierarchy (Rasmussen, 1985, IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cybernet. SMC-15, 234-243; 1990, Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 5, 5-16) which shows the interaction of conflicting goals as ergonomists and other designers attempt to solve a complex design problem. This model leads to several insights: (1) locally optimal ergonomic designs may not be globally optimal, (2) ergonomists can improve their solutions by understanding the goals of other designers, and (3) future tools to aid ergonomists must be compatible with the constraint-rich environments in which they work.

  10. Improving the design of maintenance studies for bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Gitlin, Michael J; Abulseoud, Osama; Frye, Mark A


    In contrast to the trial design of acute mania studies, there is no standard design for bipolar maintenance studies. Over the past 15 years, the design of monotherapy maintenance studies in bipolar disorder has evolved significantly, but recent study designs continue to differ in important ways. We reviewed the design of recent controlled bipolar maintenance studies, using PubMed, from August 2006 to August 2009, examining the strengths and weaknesses of different study design features. Design differences are sufficiently important that the disparate results across maintenance studies may reflect either true differences in medication efficacy or the effects of these design differences on outcome. Design elements such as recent episode polarity, stabilization criteria, using enriched versus nonenriched samples, length of stabilization before randomization, length of experimental phase, and recurrence outcome criteria are critical factors that differ widely across studies and likely play a role in study outcome. As consensus for trial designs for bipolar maintenance therapy is developed, it will be easier to develop algorithms for maintenance treatment based on results from studies as opposed to clinical opinions.

  11. Gundolf S. Freyermuth Games/ Game Design/ Game Studies: An Introduction


    Feleki, Despoina


    Gundolf S. Freyermuth Games/ Game Design/ Game Studies: An Introduction Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany 2015. Pp. 290. ISBN: 978-3-8376-2983-5. Despoina Feleki Games, Game Design, Game Studies: An Introduction scrutinizes the developments in game production from analog to digital technology, Game Design theories, and, finally, the newly formed academic discipline of Game Studies. It attempts a critical assessment of the interdisciplinarity in media studies that accounts for, according ...

  12. Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment: design studies based on superconducting and hybrid toroidal field coils. Design overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A. (ed.)


    This document is a design overview that describes the scoping studies and preconceptual design effort performed in FY 1983 on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) class of device. These studies focussed on devices with all-superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils and on devices with superconducting TF coils supplemented with copper TF coil inserts located in the bore of the TF coils in the shield region. Each class of device is designed to satisfy the mission of ignition and long pulse equilibrium burn. Typical design parameters are: major radius = 3.75 m, minor radius = 1.0 m, field on axis = 4.5 T, plasma current = 7.0 MA. These designs relay on lower hybrid (LHRH) current rampup and heating to ignition using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). A pumped limiter has been assumed for impurity control. The present document is a design overview; a more detailed design description is contained in a companion document.

  13. A Preliminary study on the seismic conceptual design (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Lili


    The seismic conceptual design is an essential part of seismic design codes. It points out that the term "seismic conceptual design" should imply three aspects, i.e., the given concept itself, the specific provisions related to the given concept and the designing following the provisions. Seismic conceptual design can be classified into two categories: the strict or traditional seismic conceptual design and the generalized seismic conceptual design. The authors are trying to define for both conceptual designs their connotations and study their characteristics, in particular, the differences between them. Authors emphasize that both conceptual designs sound very close, however, their differences are apparent. The strict conceptual designs are usually worked out directly from engineering practice and/or lessons learnt from earthquake damage, while the generalized conceptual designs are resulted in a series of visions aiming to realize the general objectives of the seismic codes. The strict conceptual designs, (traditional conceptual designs) are indispensable elements of seismic codes in assuring designed structures safer and the generalized conceptual designs are playing key roles in directing to a more advanced and effective seismic codes.

  14. Study of Contemporary Jewelry Design Emotional Expression Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-hui Gong


    Full Text Available With the development of the society, people gradually realize the importance of design, design also has played a more and more important role in the life.More and more people are willing to choose the design work with unique emotions.Designers gives the new concept of life into the jewelry through the material, color, craft technique, etc. Jewelry as emotional carrier, can better deliver humanistic ideas behind the design in silence.This paper studies the emotional expression skills of contemporary jewelry design.

  15. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The results of the design trade-off studies and the sensitivity analysis of Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) Program are presented. The effects of variations in the design of the vehicle body, propulsion systems, and other components on vehicle power, weight, cost, and fuel economy and an optimized hybrid vehicle design are discussed. (LCL)

  16. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.


    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  17. Embracing Wicked Problems: The Turn to Design in Composition Studies (United States)

    Marback, Richard


    Recent appeal to the concept of design in composition studies benefits teaching writing in digital media. Yet the concept of design has not been developed enough to fully benefit composition instruction. This article develops an understanding of design as a matter of resolving wicked problems and makes a case for the advantages of this…

  18. Design studies of a high-current radiofrequency quadrupole for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 2. Design studies of a high-current radiofrequency quadrupole for accelerator-driven systems programme ... We have followed the conventional design technique with slight modifications and compared that with the equipartitioned (EP) type of design.

  19. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell (United States)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.


    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  20. Design issues for evaluating seedling exposure studies. (United States)

    E. Charles Peterson; A. Robert. Mickler


    Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. While assuring a wide breadth of scientific information, sufficient consideration has...

  1. Study design is important for ESA biosimilars. (United States)

    Pollock, Allan; Grampp, Gustavo


    U.S. regulations require biosimilars to be highly similar to their reference product and demonstrate no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, or potency. For biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), this standard is challenging--structural differences are likely, and their effect on safety and efficacy cannot be predicted from analytical studies. Thus, clinical trials should compare hemoglobin, dose, and immunogenicity endpoints.

  2. Research study on IPS digital controller design (United States)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.


    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  3. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian


    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  4. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow (United States)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.


    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  5. Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. (United States)

    Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J


    In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. California Education in Environmental Design and Urban Studies. (United States)

    Anderson, Lawrence B.

    The purpose of the study was to examine California's needs in the broad field of environmental design and urban studies. Chapter 1 discusses the purposes, methods, and sources of the study. Chapter 2 deals with the Environmental Design Professions which include: architecture, landscape architecture, city planning, and their educational systems.…

  7. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117....117 Content of design studies. (a) The detail of studies shall be commensurate with the risk... inappropriate. (c) For encroachment locations, project plans shall show: (1) The magnitude, approximate...

  8. Study design and patient recruitment for the Japan Polyp Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Y


    , Japan Background: The Japan Polyp Study (JPS Workgroup was established in 2000 to evaluate colonoscopic follow-up surveillance strategies. The JPS was a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate follow-up surveillance strategies in patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies for control of colorectal cancer, with removal of all detected polyps. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the patient recruitment and whether the clinical characteristics were adequate for enrollment at the participating centers. Materials and methods: Among referrals for colonoscopy at the eleven participating centers, all patients who were 40–69 years old, without a family or personal history of familial polyposis, Lynch syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, or a personal history of polypectomy with unknown histology, and had no invasive colorectal cancer or colectomy, were considered for inclusion from February 2003. Results: Among 4,752 referrals, a total of 3,926 patients with a mean age of 57.3 (range 40–69 years, including 2,440 (62% males, were included in the JPS. The participation rate was 83%. Among them, a total of 2,757 patients who had undergone two complete colonoscopies with removal of all detected polyps were eligible, giving an eligibility rate of 70% (2,757 of 3,926. Among the eligible patients, 2,166 were assigned to randomized groups, and 591 patients to a nonrandomized group. The last steps of data lock, analysis, and complete histopathological assessment based on a pathology review are ongoing. Conclusion: Eligible patients recruited for the JPS were successfully assigned on the basis of the expected sample-size calculation. Keywords: colonoscopy, follow-up surveillance strategies, Japan Polyp Study (JPS, study design, multicenter randomized controlled trial

  9. Design of Orion Soil Impact Study using the Modern Design of Experiments (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard


    Two conventional One Factor At a Time (OFAT) test matrices under consideration for an Orion Landing System subscale soil impact study are reviewed. Certain weaknesses in the designs, systemic to OFAT experiment designs generally, are identified. An alternative test matrix is proposed that is based in the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), which achieves certain synergies by combining the original two test matrices into one. The attendant resource savings are quantified and the impact on uncertainty is discussed.

  10. High-reliability condenser design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Bell, R.J.; Impagliazzo, A.M.


    Steam condensers are a major source of problems causing poor power-plant availability and efficiency. EPRI sponsored this study to review US and European designs and practices in order to recommend improvements and further research needs. Improved designs to achieve condenser integrity, deaeration, and thermal performance are discussed. These designs include tube-material selections, joints, connections, tube-bundle designs, hot-well deaerators, air-removal capacities, and enhanced-heat-transfer tubes. Designs to improve the performance of condenser-associated systems are also presented. These include macro- and micro-fouling control technologies and improved cooling-water-pump designs. Innovative, but proven, features such as removable tube bundles, multiple tube bundles, and low-tuned turbine foundations can also reduce initial construction costs and improve maintenance conditions. This study determined that the technology is available to achieve a reliable condenser design. The report also identifies several areas for future research.

  11. A case study on topology optimized design for additive manufacturing (United States)

    Gebisa, A. W.; Lemu, H. G.


    Topology optimization is an optimization method that employs mathematical tools to optimize material distribution in a part to be designed. Earlier developments of topology optimization considered conventional manufacturing techniques that have limitations in producing complex geometries. This has hindered the topology optimization efforts not to fully be realized. With the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, the technology that builds a part layer upon a layer directly from three dimensional (3D) model data of the part, however, producing complex shape geometry is no longer an issue. Realization of topology optimization through AM provides full design freedom for the design engineers. The article focuses on topologically optimized design approach for additive manufacturing with a case study on lightweight design of jet engine bracket. The study result shows that topology optimization is a powerful design technique to reduce the weight of a product while maintaining the design requirements if additive manufacturing is considered.

  12. Studying retail design through a cross-cultural perspective


    PETERMANS, Ann; Gil Huerta, Ammin


    This paper proposes an approach to doing research in retail design, based on theoretical viewpoints and methodologies close to the realm of interior architects and retail designers. In particular, it focuses on the question how to study customer experiences with regard to actual stores’ retail design with the help of the Experience Web. The authors use the Experience Web to discuss the results of a cross-cultural study on customer experiences, whereby the authors, both from their proper cultu...

  13. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study


    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali


    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran?s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (H...

  14. Industry Experiences of Environmentally Conscious Design Integration: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles


    considerations into the design process.The findings in this thesis emerged from one in-depth study and a transatlantic industry survey, interviewing twenty four practitioners. A framework of factors affecting environmentally conscious design was derived from this research and a model of environmentally conscious......This research has explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced when companies have integrated environmental...... design integration developed which describes the industry’s experience of integrating environmental considerations into the design processes....

  15. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED


    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  16. Transitioning from Marketing-Oriented Design to User-Oriented Design: A Case Study (United States)

    Laster, Shari; Stitz, Tammy; Bove, Frank J.; Wise, Casey


    The transition to a new architecture and design for an academic library Web site does not always proceed smoothly. In this case study, a library at a large research university hired an outside Web development contractor to create a new architecture and design for the university's Web site using dotCMS, an open-source content management system. The…

  17. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study (United States)

    Luo, Yi


    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  18. [Strengthening the methodology of study designs in scientific researches]. (United States)

    Ren, Ze-qin


    Many problems in study designs have affected the validity of scientific researches seriously. We must understand the methodology of research, especially clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, and recognize the urgency in selection and implement of right study design. Thereafter we can promote the research capability and improve the overall quality of scientific researches.

  19. ASIPP remotely operated vehicle design (ROV) and feasibility study (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuanchen; Wang, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Zheng, Lei; Cheng, Yong; Wu, Jing


    The ROV is an important device for studying the underwater world. Thus, the ASIPP ROV is designed to meet this demand by ASIPP RH team. Through adding the wireless vision module, the performance of the robot is promoted in motion control, image collecting and so on. The rationality of the design and the effectiveness of the controller are validated by simulation and experimental study.

  20. 300 GeV Up-dated design study

    CERN Multimedia


    The 'Report on the Design Study of a 300 GeV Proton Synchrotron' (document CERN/ 563) was issued in November 1964. An Addendum (document CERN/702) to this Design Study was issued on 30 May as one of the up-to-date set of documents and relevant costs presented to the June Council Meeting.

  1. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn


    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  2. Children as Educational Computer Game Designers: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Baytak, Ahmet; Land, Susan M.; Smith, Brian K.


    This study investigated how children designed computer games as artifacts that reflected their understanding of nutrition. Ten 5th grade students were asked to design computer games with the software "Game Maker" for the purpose of teaching 1st graders about nutrition. The results from the case study show that students were able to…

  3. Interior Design Supports Art Education: A Case Study (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie A.


    Interior design, as a field of study, is a rapidly growing area of interest--particularly for teenagers in the United States. Part of this interest stems from the proliferation of design-related reality shows available through television media. Some art educators and curriculum specialists in the nation perceive the study of interior spaces as a…

  4. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  5. Research designs and making causal inferences from health care studies. (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B


    This article summarizes the major types of research designs used in healthcare research, including experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. Observational studies are divided into survey studies (descriptive and correlational studies), case-studies and analytic studies, the last of which are commonly used in epidemiology: case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort studies. Similarities and differences among the research designs are described and the relative strength of evidence they provide is discussed. Emphasis is placed on five criteria for drawing causal inferences that are derived from the writings of the philosopher John Stuart Mill, especially his methods or canons. The application of the criteria to experimentation is explained. Particular attention is given to the degree to which different designs meet the five criteria for making causal inferences. Examples of specific studies that have used various designs in chaplaincy research are provided.

  6. A Course in Medical Research Study Design and Analysis. (United States)

    Linskey, Mark E.; And Others


    A course to familiarize medical students with the principles of good medical research study design and analysis focuses on three types of studies: clinical trials, laboratory science, and epidemiology and biostatistics. (MSE)

  7. Fusion reactor design studies: standard accounts for cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, S.C.; Willke, T.L.; Young, J.R.


    The fusion reactor design studies--standard accounts for cost estimates provides a common format from which to assess the economic character of magnetically confined fusion reactor design concepts. The format will aid designers in the preparation of design concept costs estimates and also provide policymakers with a tool to assist in appraising which design concept may be economically promising. The format sets forth a categorization and accounting procedure to be used when estimating fusion reactor busbar energy cost that can be easily and consistently applied. Reasons for developing the procedure, explanations of the procedure, justifications for assumptions made in the procedure, and the applicability of the procedure are described in this document. Adherence to the format when evaluating prospective fusion reactor design concepts will result in the identification of the more promising design concepts thus enabling the fusion power alternatives with better economic potential to be quickly and efficiently developed.

  8. Advanced wind turbine design studies: Advanced conceptual study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P; Sherwin, R [Atlantic Orient Corp., Norwich, VT (United States)


    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Advanced Wind Turbine Program, the Atlantic Orient Corporation developed preliminary designs for the next generation of wind turbines. These 50 kW and 350 kW turbines are based upon the concept of simplicity. By adhering to a design philosophy that emphasizes simplicity, we project that these turbines will produce energy at extremely competitive rates which will unlock the potential of wind energy domestically and internationally. The program consisted of three distinct phases. First, we evaluated the operational history of the Enertech 44 series wind turbines. As a result of this evaluation, we developed, in the second phase, a preliminary design for a new 50 kW turbine for the near-term market. In the third phase, we took a clean-sheet-of-paper approach to designing a 350 kW turbine focused on the mid-1990s utility market that incorporated past experience and advanced technology.

  9. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon


    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  10. Improving Creativity Training: A Study of Designer Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Li-Ying, Jason


    .g. [Scott et al. 2004], [Robbinsand Kegley 2010]. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how individual creativity skills influence the creative process of design teams working within the fuzzy front end (as defined in [Koenet al. 2002]) of innovation; an important first step in identifying...... which individual creativity skills shouldbe trained in designers. An exploratory study was designed, using participatory observation of two design teams in a six-month case study in two major organizations, with individual skills being the unit of analysis. The focus of the study was to observe...... the process the teams operated within and its progresswhen individuals applied their creativity skills to advance its progress, while the intent was not to assessthe creative product or output as such.Design is a collaborative effort and creativity has to be understood both on an individual and on a team...

  11. A study product design of optimal solution for customer requirements


    LIAO, Shih-Chung


    In this paper, the author uses an evaluative criteria model and their associated criteria status, product evaluative criteria software of results and product objective function of optimal values solution, along with product morphological analysis, to synthesize evaluative criteria and optimize product design values. This study focuses on how to use an evaluative criteria model’s imprecise market information by evaluative criteria design software; product mapping relationships between design p...

  12. A Study of Airports - Design, Art and Architecture (United States)


    Conservation and terminal was resource conser- Thermal Insulation Building vation. The architects designed Code Amendment" dated June the building to use native... design included an ice ceiling mounted and extend poured in place. Porcelain en- melting device in the roadway completely across the passage- ameled...AND ENVIRONMENTAL NEEDS DIVISION, APP-600 APRIL 1981 RELEASE OF FAA HANDBOOK ENTITLED DESIGN , ART AND ARCHITECTURE - A STUDY OF AIRPORTS The Federal

  13. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 2 (United States)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon


    The structural design, or the design of machine elements, has been traditionally based on deterministic design methodology. The deterministic method considers all design parameters to be known with certainty. This methodology is, therefore, inadequate to design complex structures that are subjected to a variety of complex, severe loading conditions. A nonlinear behavior that is dependent on stress, stress rate, temperature, number of load cycles, and time is observed on all components subjected to complex conditions. These complex conditions introduce uncertainties; hence, the actual factor of safety margin remains unknown. In the deterministic methodology, the contingency of failure is discounted; hence, there is a use of a high factor of safety. It may be most useful in situations where the design structures are simple. The probabilistic method is concerned with the probability of non-failure performance of structures or machine elements. It is much more useful in situations where the design is characterized by complex geometry, possibility of catastrophic failure, sensitive loads and material properties. Also included: Comparative Study of the use of AGMA Geometry Factors and Probabilistic Design Methodology in the Design of Compact Spur Gear Set.

  14. Sustainable Design Approach: A case study of BIM use (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Wael


    alternative's consequences. The architect would settle down and proceed in the alternative design of the best sustainable analysis. In later design stages, using the sustainable types of materials such as insulation, cladding, etc., and applying sustainable building components such as doors, windows, etc. would add more improvements and enhancements in reaching better values and metrics. The paper describes the methodology of this design approach through BIM strategies adopted in design creation. Case studies of architectural designs are used to highlight the details and benefits of this proposed approach.

  15. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond


    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  16. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet


    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  17. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.


    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  18. Meaning Making Using New Media: Learning by Design Case Studies (United States)

    Neville, Mary


    This article discusses a study of three Australian middle-years teachers who deployed Learning by Design principles and practice to support multiliteracies learning through students' production of digital/multimodal texts. The aim of the research was to develop an understanding of how three teachers embraced new e-learning pedagogical designs for…

  19. A Shape Optimization Study for Tool Design in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogomolny, Michael; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    The purpose of this study is to apply shape optimization tools for design of resistance welding electrodes. The numerical simulation of the welding process has been performed by a simplified FEM model implemented in COMSOL. The design process is formulated as an optimization problem where...

  20. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  1. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian


    A design study for a stellar reference unit, or star tracker, for SIRTF was conducted in FY96 in conjunction with the Tracking Sensors Group of the Avionic Equipment Section of JPL. The resulting design was derived from the Oersted, autonomous, Advanced Stellar Compass, star tracker. The projecte...

  2. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.


    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  3. Concussion Awareness Education: A Design and Development Research Study (United States)

    Pilbeam, Renee M.


    This research study looks at the design and development of an online concussion awareness education module. The Keep Your Head in the Game: Concussion Awareness Training for High School Athletes, or Brainbook, is a stand-alone e-learning module designed to run for fifty minutes and to be highly interactive using short video clips with associated…

  4. A Case Study of Framework Design for Horizontal Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Røn, Henrik


    In this experience report, we present a case study in designing, implementing and reusing an object-oriented framework for constructing and editing complex search expressions over arbitrary data domains. We present a framework design that achieves a large degree of business domain decoupling...

  5. Class 1 devices case studies in medical devices design

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrodnik, Peter J


    The Case Studies in Medical Devices Design series consists of practical, applied case studies relating to medical device design in industry. These titles complement Ogrodnik's Medical Device Design and will assist engineers with applying the theory in practice. The case studies presented directly relate to Class I, Class IIa, Class IIb and Class III medical devices. Designers and companies who wish to extend their knowledge in a specific discipline related to their respective class of operation will find any or all of these titles a great addition to their library. Class 1 Devices is a companion text to Medical Devices Design: Innovation from Concept to Market. The intention of this book, and its sister books in the series, is to support the concepts presented in Medical Devices Design through case studies. In the context of this book the case studies consider Class I (EU) and 510(k) exempt (FDA) . This book covers classifications, the conceptual and embodiment phase, plus design from idea to PDS. These title...

  6. Block 2 SRM conceptual design studies. Volume 1, Book 1: Conceptual design package (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Williams, Neal; Miller, John; Ralston, Joe; Richardson, Jennifer; Moore, Walt; Doll, Dan; Maughan, Jeff; Hayes, Fred


    The conceptual design studies of a Block 2 Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) require the elimination of asbestos-filled insulation and was open to alternate designs, such as case changes, different propellants, modified burn rate - to improve reliability and performance. Limitations were placed on SRM changes such that the outside geometry should not impact the physical interfaces with other Space Shuttle elements and should have minimum changes to the aerodynamic and dynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle vehicle. Previous Space Shuttle SRM experience was assessed and new design concepts combined to define a valid approach to assured flight success and economic operation of the STS. Trade studies, preliminary designs, analyses, plans, and cost estimates are documented.

  7. Fluid design studies of integrated modular engine system (United States)

    Frankenfield, Bruce; Carek, Jerry


    A study was performed to develop a fluid system design and show the feasibility of constructing an integrated modular engine (IME) configuration, using an expander cycle engine. The primary design goal of the IME configuration was to improve the propulsion system reliability. The IME fluid system was designed as a single fault tolerant system, while minimizing the required fluid components. This study addresses the design of the high pressure manifolds, turbopumps and thrust chambers for the IME configuration. A physical layout drawing was made, which located each of the fluid system components, manifolds and thrust chambers. Finally, a comparison was made between the fluid system designs of an IME system and a non-network (clustered) engine system.

  8. Scenario for concurrent conceptual assembly line design: A case study (United States)

    Mas, F.; Ríos, J.; Menéndez, J. L.


    The decision to design and build a new aircraft is preceded by years of research and study. Different disciplines work together throughout the lifecycle to ensure not only a complete functional definition of the product, but also a complete industrialization, a marketing plan, a maintenance plan, etc. This case study focuses on the conceptual design phase. During this phase, the design solutions that will meet the functional and industrial requirements are defined, i.e.: the basic requirements of industrialization. During this phase, several alternatives are studied, and the most attractive in terms of performance and cost requirements is selected. As a result of the study of these alternatives, it is possible to define an early conceptual design of the assembly line and its basic parameters. The plant needs, long cycle jigs & tools or industrial means and human resources with the necessary skills can be determined in advance.

  9. Conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system, phase 1 (United States)

    Adams, D.; Grant, C.; Johnson, C.; Meirick, R.; Polhemus, C.; Ray, A.; Rittenhouse, D.; Skidmore, R.


    Results are reported for work performed during the first phase of the conceptual design study for a teleoperator visual system. This phase consists of four tasks: General requirements, concept development, subsystem requirements and analysis, and concept evaluation.

  10. Design effect in multicenter studies: gain or loss of power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierron Emilie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a multicenter trial, responses for subjects belonging to a common center are correlated. Such a clustering is usually assessed through the design effect, defined as a ratio of two variances. The aim of this work was to describe and understand situations where the design effect involves a gain or a loss of power. Methods We developed a design effect formula for a multicenter study aimed at testing the effect of a binary factor (which thus defines two groups on a continuous outcome, and explored this design effect for several designs (from individually stratified randomized trials to cluster randomized trials, and for other designs such as matched pair designs or observational multicenter studies. Results The design effect depends on the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (which assesses the correlation between data for two subjects from the same center but also on a statistic S, which quantifies the heterogeneity of the group distributions among centers (thus the level of association between the binary factor and the center and on the degree of global imbalance (the number of subjects are then different between the two groups. This design effect may induce either a loss or a gain in power, depending on whether the S statistic is respectively higher or lower than 1. Conclusion We provided a global design effect formula applying for any multicenter study and allowing identifying factors – the ICC and the distribution of the group proportions among centers – that are associated with a gain or a loss of power in such studies.

  11. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.


    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  12. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)


    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  13. A study on the development of an infographic designer questionnaire and designer opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan


    Full Text Available Technological developments and changes in how learning is understood have not only changed learning environments, but also how educational materials are developed. Infographics, one of the materials that are becoming increasingly more popular in learning environments, have nowadays become quite commonplace. Demonstrating the understanding of those who design such instructional materials is important with respect to the organisation of learning processes. In this study, we devised a questionnaire that aims to demonstrate the understanding infographic designers have of infographic design. A total of 94 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education took part in this study conducted during the fall semester of the 2013–2014 academic year. The participants were given a questionnaire consisting of 41 items that enquired about the readers’ views regarding infographic design. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a questionnaire form consisting of 27 items and 8 factors (Understanding of Design, Design Process, Copyrights, Introduction, Readability, Sharing, References, Development was developed.

  14. Case-Control Studies - An Efficient Observational Study Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.


    Case-control studies are an efficient research method for investigating risk factors of a disease. The method involves the comparison of the odds of exposure in a patient group with that of the odds of exposure in a control group. As only a minority of the population is included in the study, less

  15. Reverse design and characteristic study of multi-range HMCVT (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Long; Zeng, Falin


    The reduction of fuel consumption and increase of transmission efficiency is one of the key problems of the agricultural machinery. Many promising technologies such as hydromechanical continuously variable transmissions (HMCVT) are the focus of research and investments, but there is little technical documentation that describes the design principle and presents the design parameters. This paper presents the design idea and characteristic study of HMCVT, in order to find out the suitable scheme for the big horsepower tractors. Analyzed the kinematics and dynamics of a large horsepower tractor, according to the characteristic parameters, a hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission has been designed. Compared with the experimental curves and theoretical curves of the stepless speed regulation of transmission, the experimental result illustrates the rationality of the design scheme.

  16. Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort (United States)

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Royle, J. Andrew


    1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occupancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short timeframe, a number of similar methods have now been developed to provide unbiased occupancy estimates. However, practical guidance on the efficient design of occupancy studies has been lacking. 2. In this paper we comment on a number of general issues related to designing occupancy studies, including the need for clear objectives that are explicitly linked to science or management, selection of sampling units, timing of repeat surveys and allocation of survey effort. Advice on the number of repeat surveys per sampling unit is considered in terms of the variance of the occupancy estimator, for three possible study designs. 3. We recommend that sampling units should be surveyed a minimum of three times when detection probability is high (> 0.5 survey-1), unless a removal design is used. 4. We found that an optimal removal design will generally be the most efficient, but we suggest it may be less robust to assumption violations than a standard design. 5. Our results suggest that for a rare species it is more efficient to survey more sampling units less intensively, while for a common species fewer sampling units should be surveyed more intensively. 6. Synthesis and applications. Reliable inferences can only result from quality data. To make the best use of logistical resources, study objectives must be clearly defined; sampling units must be selected, and repeated surveys timed appropriately; and a sufficient number of repeated surveys must be conducted. Failure to do so may compromise the integrity of the study. The guidance given here on study design issues is particularly applicable to studies of species

  17. Softdesk energy: A case study in early design tool integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowri, K.; Chassin, D.P.; Friedrich, M.


    Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). This tool provides users of computer aided software the opportunity to evaluate the aided design/drafting (CAD) energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with energy analysis software. The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and a usage scenario from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the Softdesk Energy approach. As a unique example of integrating decision and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines.

  18. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  19. Introducing single case study research design: an overview. (United States)

    Gray, Morag


    An overview of case study research The use of case study design in research has a long and distinguished history in many disciplines ( 1 ). It is used in law, education, history, medicine, psychology and business ( 2 ). Yin ( 3 ) stated that case studies are essential for social science and that they are used extensively in practice-oriented professions. Examples of studies include those of Freud, from which he derived his theories of personality ( 4 ), and Whyte's study of neighbourhood gangs in Chicago ( 5 ), which was found by other researchers ( 6 ) to be a typical case and again, as in the example of Freud, led to the development of theory. The term 'case study' refers to both a process of inquiry - that is, studying a case or designing and executing a case study - and its end product, the case study or 'case report' ( 7 ).

  20. The Aesthetics of Sundanese Traditional Design, Case study: Rice Containers Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Jamaludin


    Full Text Available The traditional design that is still made and exists today is a legacy from mythical culture period. That is to say that it has its own aesthetical concept that is different from modern aesthetics. Some of the traditional designs in Sundanese society is the rice containers that come in different form depends on the rice condition. The design of a traditional rice container in Sundanese culture is made in basic shapes, such as square, circle and triangle or configuration of the basic shapes resulted in a beautiful design. The rice containers mostly made of woven bamboo. Uniquely, these visual basic shapes also found in proverbs and idioms in Sundanese language as a symbol of perfection of conduct.  Square symbolizes attitude or behavior, circle is for belief or faith, and triangle represents a holy place. Rice in traditional community such as Baduy in Banten has a connection with the myth of the goddess of rice. Thus, Sundanese traditional culture and society highly respect the rice. This is one of the reasons why the traditional rice containers are designed in those form. This study has come to a conclusion that traditional design made is not merely to fulfill utility needs but also to represent the Sundanese macrocosm.

  1. Traditional Approach towards Contemporary Design: A Case Study


    Sushama S. Dhepe; Dr. Sheeba Valsson


    Traditional architecture acts as a valuable source of inspiration for contemporary designs. The paper aims to analyse the link established between contemporary architecture that with the traditional architecture; as architecture and time are considered as two variables. The study investigates how traditional architecture has been integrated and manifested in contemporary architecture. The paper examines a contemporary house based on traditional design and a view into the past era. The attempt...

  2. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  3. Health workers cohort study: methods and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Objective. To examine different health outcomes that are associated with specific lifestyle and genetic factors. Materials and methods. From March 2004 to April 2006, a sample of employees from three different health and academic institutions, as well as their family members, were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. At baseline and follow-up (2010-2013, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, a physical examination, and provided blood samples. Results. A total of 10 729 participants aged 6 to 94 years were recruited at baseline. Of these, 70% were females, and 50% were from the Mexican Social Security Institute. Nearly 42% of the adults in the sample were overweight, while 20% were obese. Conclusion. Our study can offer new insights into disease mechanisms and prevention through the analysis of risk factor information in a large sample of Mexicans.

  4. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies. (United States)

    Majid, Arshad; Bae, Ok-Nam; Redgrave, Jessica; Teare, Dawn; Ali, Ali; Zemke, Daniel


    Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  5. The Potential of Adaptive Design in Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Majid


    Full Text Available Clinical trials are the backbone of medical research, and are often the last step in the development of new therapies for use in patients. Prior to human testing, however, preclinical studies using animal subjects are usually performed in order to provide initial data on the safety and effectiveness of prospective treatments. These studies can be costly and time consuming, and may also raise concerns about the ethical treatment of animals when potentially harmful procedures are involved. Adaptive design is a process by which the methods used in a study may be altered while it is being conducted in response to preliminary data or other new information. Adaptive design has been shown to be useful in reducing the time and costs associated with clinical trials, and may provide similar benefits in preclinical animal studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize various aspects of adaptive design and evaluate its potential for use in preclinical research.

  6. Health workers cohort study: methods and study design


    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Flores, Yvonne N; Katia Gallegos-Carrillo; Paula Ramírez-Palacios; Berenice Rivera-Paredez; Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre; Rafael Velázquez-Cruz; Leticia Torres-Ibarra; Joacim Meneses-León; Pablo Méndez-Hernández; Rubí Hernández-López; Eduardo Salazar-Martínez; Talavera, Juan O.; Juan Tamayo; Susana Castañón


    Objective. To examine different health outcomes that are associated with specific lifestyle and genetic factors. Materials and methods. From March 2004 to April 2006, a sample of employees from three different health and academic institutions, as well as their family members, were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. At baseline and follow-up (2010-2013), participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, a physical examination, and provided blood samples. Results. A...

  7. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam


    Disease: Clinical and Psychological outcomes in WOMEN) study to examine gender differences on (1) patient-reported outcomes (PROs), (2) procedure- and device-related complications, and (3) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort....... METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multicenter, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish...

  8. [The HBSC Study in Germany--study design and methodology]. (United States)

    Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Kolip, P; Hoffarth, K; Bucksch, J; Melzer, W; Klocke, A; Richter, M; Ravens-Sieberer, U


    The aim of the HBSC-Study is to collect data on the physical and mental health and health behaviour of children and adolescents and to gain a deeper insight into their situation and the specific environment they grow up in. The HBSC-study is an international school-based cross-sectional survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The survey takes place every 4 years since 1982 and is based on a standardised protocol. In Germany the survey was first conducted in 1994 as a pilot study in North Rhine-Westphalia. The German sample is based on a random sample of classes in all public schools in Germany. 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old pupils are surveyed by means of a paper and pencil questionnaire. The questionnaire comprises a broad selection of -topics, including sociodemographics, health and risk behaviours, family, school and peers. The reported trends in the supplement are based on the data from surveys in 2002 (N=5.650), 2006 (N=7.274) and 2010 (N=5.005). The representative samples for each of the survey years are defined as follows: in 2002 the data is based on information collected in 4 Federal States (Berlin, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony); in 2006 5 states define the German data file (Berlin, Hamburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony). The data from the 2010 survey comprises data from 15 Federal States. The HBSC-data contributes towards a better understanding of the relationship between health and living conditions of young people. The papers in this supplement deliver important insights into the living context of young people and in doing this they provide important information about their health and the long-term effectiveness of public-health-measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Parametric design of the Vela roof : A case study on performance oriented exploration of design alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Stouffs, R.M.F.; Sariyildiz, I.S.


    The paper presents a case study, in which parametric modeling has been used to explore the geometrical design alternatives of a large span roof. Explorative criteria are oriented to the use of on site energy resources, with specific focus on the mitigation of summer discomfort. After broadly

  10. On Becoming a Civic-Minded Instructional Designer: An Ethnographic Study of an Instructional Design Experience (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula


    This ethnographic study took place in a graduate course at a large research university in the Midwestern United States. It presents an in-depth examination of the experiences and challenges of a group of four students learning to be Instructional Design and Technology professionals who are concerned with the well-being of all members of a society,…

  11. Corporate culture and design : Theoretical reflections on case-studies in the web design industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; van Meel, JJ; Smulders, F; Teurling, S


    In this paper we present a framework to study the relationship between culture and office design. Different levels of culture are discussed as well as various ways in which culture can be expressed in the physical work environment. The framework is applied to contemporary changes in organisational

  12. Design Core Commonalities: A Study of the College of Design at Iowa State University (United States)

    Venes, Jane


    This comprehensive study asks what a group of rather diverse disciplines have in common. It involves a cross-disciplinary examination of an entire college, the College of Design at Iowa State University. This research was intended to provide a sense of direction in developing and assessing possible core content. The reasoning was that material…

  13. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care


    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.


    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations.

  14. Computing requirements for S. S. C. accelerator design and studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragt, A.; Talman, R.; Siemann, R.; Dell, G.F.; Leemann, B.; Leemann, C.; Nauenberg, U.; Peggs, S.; Douglas, D.


    We estimate the computational hardware resources that will be required for accelerator physics studies during the design of the Superconducting SuperCollider. It is found that both Class IV and Class VI facilities (1) will be necessary. We describe a user environment for these facilities that is desirable within the context of accelerator studies. An acquisition scenario for these facilities is presented.

  15. Experiences of Computer Science Curriculum Design: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Sloan, Arthur; Bowe, Brian


    This paper presents a qualitative study of 12 computer science lecturers' experiences of curriculum design of several degree programmes during a time of transition from year-long to semesterised courses, due to institutional policy change. The background to the study is outlined, as are the reasons for choosing the research methodology. The main…

  16. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes (United States)

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey


    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  17. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions (United States)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.


    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  18. Design and statistical analysis of oral medicine studies: common pitfalls. (United States)

    Baccaglini, L; Shuster, J J; Cheng, J; Theriaque, D W; Schoenbach, V J; Tomar, S L; Poole, C


    A growing number of articles are emerging in the medical and statistics literature that describe epidemiologic and statistical flaws of research studies. Many examples of these deficiencies are encountered in the oral, craniofacial, and dental literature. However, only a handful of methodologic articles have been published in the oral literature warning investigators of potential errors that may arise early in the study and that can irreparably bias the final results. In this study, we briefly review some of the most common pitfalls that our team of epidemiologists and statisticians has identified during the review of submitted or published manuscripts and research grant applications. We use practical examples from the oral medicine and dental literature to illustrate potential shortcomings in the design and analysis of research studies, and how these deficiencies may affect the results and their interpretation. A good study design is essential, because errors in the analysis can be corrected if the design was sound, but flaws in study design can lead to data that are not salvageable. We recommend consultation with an epidemiologist or a statistician during the planning phase of a research study to optimize study efficiency, minimize potential sources of bias, and document the analytic plan.

  19. Use of factorial designs in combination toxicity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.; Schoen, E.D.; Feron, V.J.


    The use of factorial designs, in which n chemicals are studied at x(n) dose levels (x treatment groups), has been put forward as one of the valuable statistical approaches for hazard assessment of chemical mixtures. Very recently a '25 study' was presented to describe interactions between the

  20. Studying visual and spatial reasoning for design creativity

    CERN Document Server


    Creativity and design creativity in particular are being recognized as playing an increasing role in the social and economic wellbeing of a society. As a consequence creativity is becoming a focus of research. However, much of this burgeoning research is distributed across multiple disciplines that normally do not intersect with each other and researchers in one discipline are often unaware of related research in another discipline.  This volume brings together contributions from design science, computer science, cognitive science and neuroscience on studying visual and spatial reasoning applicable to design creativity. The book is the result of a unique NSF-funded workshop held in Aix-en-Provence, France. The aim of the workshop and the resulting volume was to allow researchers in disparate disciplines to be exposed to the other’s research, research methods and research results within the context of design creativity. Fifteen of the papers presented and discussed at the workshop are contained in this volu...

  1. High performance APCS conceptual design and evaluation scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.; Liekhus, K.; Chambers, A.; Anderson, G.


    This Air Pollution Control System (APCS) Conceptual Design and Evaluation study was conducted to evaluate a high-performance (APC) system for minimizing air emissions from mixed waste thermal treatment systems. Seven variations of high-performance APCS designs were conceptualized using several design objectives. One of the system designs was selected for detailed process simulation using ASPEN PLUS to determine material and energy balances and evaluate performance. Installed system capital costs were also estimated. Sensitivity studies were conducted to evaluate the incremental cost and benefit of added carbon adsorber beds for mercury control, specific catalytic reduction for NO{sub x} control, and offgas retention tanks for holding the offgas until sample analysis is conducted to verify that the offgas meets emission limits. Results show that the high-performance dry-wet APCS can easily meet all expected emission limits except for possibly mercury. The capability to achieve high levels of mercury control (potentially necessary for thermally treating some DOE mixed streams) could not be validated using current performance data for mercury control technologies. The engineering approach and ASPEN PLUS modeling tool developed and used in this study identified APC equipment and system performance, size, cost, and other issues that are not yet resolved. These issues need to be addressed in feasibility studies and conceptual designs for new facilities or for determining how to modify existing facilities to meet expected emission limits. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation with current and refined input assumptions and calculations can be used to provide system performance information for decision-making, identifying best options, estimating costs, reducing the potential for emission violations, providing information needed for waste flow analysis, incorporating new APCS technologies in existing designs, or performing facility design and permitting activities.

  2. Partial gravity habitat study: With application to lunar base design (United States)

    Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kio; Bell, Larry; Trotti, Guillermo; Neubek, Deb


    Comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment were investigated and then applied to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable gravity research facilities, or a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include: (1) locomotion changes in less than normal Earth gravity; (2) facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter and geometry; and (3) volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a Lunar Base, it was necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress. Radiation protection issues were addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew, and finally, the overall site was studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning was not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario was used as an outline for the Lunar Base application, which was then modified to meet the project needs.

  3. Railroad classification yard design methodology study : East Deerfield Yard, a case study (United States)


    This interim report documents the application of a railroad classification yard design methodology to Boston and Maine's East Deerfield Yard Rehabiliation. This case study effort represents Phase 2 of a larger effort to develop a yard design methodol...

  4. Railroad classification yard design methodology study Elkhart Yard Rehabilitation : a case study (United States)


    This interim report documents the application of a railroad classification : yard design methodology to CONRAIL's Elkhart Yard Rehabilitation. This : case study effort represents Phase 2 of a larger effort to develop a yard : design methodology, and ...

  5. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.


    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  6. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies. (United States)

    Liu, Chen-yu; Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C


    Both nurture (environmental) and nature (genetic factors) play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the "-omics" era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Design and analysis issues in gene and environment studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-yu


    Full Text Available Abstract Both nurture (environmental and nature (genetic factors play an important role in human disease etiology. Traditionally, these effects have been thought of as independent. This perspective is ill informed for non-mendelian complex disorders which result as an interaction between genetics and environment. To understand health and disease we must study how nature and nurture interact. Recent advances in human genomics and high-throughput biotechnology make it possible to study large numbers of genetic markers and gene products simultaneously to explore their interactions with environment. The purpose of this review is to discuss design and analytic issues for gene-environment interaction studies in the “-omics” era, with a focus on environmental and genetic epidemiological studies. We present an expanded environmental genomic disease paradigm. We discuss several study design issues for gene-environmental interaction studies, including confounding and selection bias, measurement of exposures and genotypes. We discuss statistical issues in studying gene-environment interactions in different study designs, such as choices of statistical models, assumptions regarding biological factors, and power and sample size considerations, especially in genome-wide gene-environment studies. Future research directions are also discussed.

  8. Designing an Effective, Small-Scope Practice-based Study. (United States)

    Parker, R David; Regier, Michael D


    Present a methodology to promote good practices in designing small-scale, practice-based studies. We propose the following methods to assist clinicians and other practice-based researchers in designing and conducting good quality, small-scale studies in a clinical setting. Research projects applied to a limited, practice-based study may require modification to increase the consistency of patient research. Although common requests to collaborative methodologists mirror methods for experimental design, clinic-based studies may face different limitations. Each participant enrolled consumes resources, including time, and personnel. If practice-based studies have a different goal, to learn about the health outcomes of patients in a medical practice with limited intent for generalization, should the same methods be used? When limitations are clearly stated and the findings are described within the study context, these limitations may not be so severe to discourage the research. We propose a systematic method to conduct practice-based research intended for small-scale study use. Relying heavily on existing research from similar areas, the incorporation of data from the practice, and the a priori defined timelines and resources, we set forth some guiding principles to assist clinic-based investigators. Individualized focus and small-scale studies are growing in use and acceptance especially given the focus on personalized health.

  9. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P


    Full Text Available Proceedings, Puerto Rico, 13 - 15 August 2015 Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies Paula Kotzé CSIR Meraka Institute and Department of Informatics, University of Pretoria Alta van der Merwe...

  10. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies. (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G


    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials.

  11. Usability Studies and User-Centered Design in Digital Libraries (United States)

    Comeaux, David J.


    Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…

  12. Crucial design issues for special access technology; a Delphi study. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Pearl; Ekins, Ray; Timmins, Bernard; Timmins, Fiona; Long, Siobhan; Coyle, Eugene


    To develop and demonstrate a method to involve professional users of assistive technology (AT) in the development process of customisable products. Employing the ideas of user participation and mass customisation, this research addresses the need for reduced product costs and optimised product flexibility. An adaptable six-question Delphi study was developed to establish consensus among AT professionals on design issues relating to a specified AT domain requiring innovation. The study is demonstrated for the special access technology (SAT) domain. A modified morphological matrix structures the application of the study results to the product design process. Fourteen professionals from the Republic of Ireland and the UK participated. Consensus was reached on prevalent parts of SAT that malfunction, primary reasons for SAT malfunction, characteristics of clients associated with SAT selection, client needs regarding SAT use and training, desirable traits of SAT and clinicians' frustrations with SAT. The study revealed a range of problems related to SAT, highlighting the complexities of successful SAT adoption. The questions led to differentiated insights and enabled design solution conceptualisation from various perspectives. The approach was found to help facilitate efficient generation and application of professional users' knowledge during the design process of customisable AT.

  13. Conflicts Management Model in School: A Mixed Design Study (United States)

    Dogan, Soner


    The object of this study is to evaluate the reasons for conflicts occurring in school according to perceptions and views of teachers and resolution strategies used for conflicts and to build a model based on the results obtained. In the research, explanatory design including quantitative and qualitative methods has been used. The quantitative part…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    DESIGNING THE SET IN NIGERIAN HOME VIDEO FILMS: A STUDY OF. AMAZING GRACE. EMMANUEL A. EREGARE & ONAJITE K. AKPOBOME. ABSTRACT. The Nigerian movie industry has grown to be a very popular art that welcomes any new player so care is not taken to apply all the techniques of good filmmaking.

  15. A Simple Approach to Study Designs in Complex Biochemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somdatta Sinha

    Indian Institute of Technology,. New Delhi, 31 October 2008. Indian Academy of Sciences,. 74th Annual Meeting, New Delhi. Oct. 31 – Nov. 2, 2008. SOMDATTA SINHA. Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR). Hyderabad. A Simple Approach to Study. Designs in Complex. Biochemical Pathways. Symposium on.

  16. Aeronautics Study Takes Off! Glider Design for Beginners (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Carlson, Katie


    Study of aeronautics is an interesting and motivating subject for students and educators alike. The activity described in this article--appropriate for upper elementary or middle school students--provides an excellent introduction to airplane design and the science of aerodynamics. It also gives students good experience applying knowledge from a…

  17. Service-Learning and Interior Design: A Case Study (United States)

    Sterling, Mary


    The case study approach was used to analyze experiential learning through its three components: knowledge, action, and reflection. Two interior design courses were integrated through a university service-learning project. The restoration/adaptive reuse of a 95-year-old library building was to serve as a prototype for future off-campus…

  18. Integrated Bioprocess Design: A Case Study for Undergraduates. (United States)

    Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Zhou, Yu-Hong


    Presents a case study for use in the teaching of bioprocess design. Taking the production and isolation of the intracellular protein s. cerevisae, demonstrates how undergraduates can use a range of data to construct and then investigate the range of processes flowsheet options available for a process duty. (Author/SAH)

  19. Designing occupancy studies when false-positive detections occur (United States)

    Clement, Matthew


    1.Recently, estimators have been developed to estimate occupancy probabilities when false-positive detections occur during presence-absence surveys. Some of these estimators combine different types of survey data to improve estimates of occupancy. With these estimators, there is a tradeoff between the number of sample units surveyed, and the number and type of surveys at each sample unit. Guidance on efficient design of studies when false positives occur is unavailable. 2.For a range of scenarios, I identified survey designs that minimized the mean square error of the estimate of occupancy. I considered an approach that uses one survey method and two observation states and an approach that uses two survey methods. For each approach, I used numerical methods to identify optimal survey designs when model assumptions were met and parameter values were correctly anticipated, when parameter values were not correctly anticipated, and when the assumption of no unmodelled detection heterogeneity was violated. 3.Under the approach with two observation states, false positive detections increased the number of recommended surveys, relative to standard occupancy models. If parameter values could not be anticipated, pessimism about detection probabilities avoided poor designs. Detection heterogeneity could require more or fewer repeat surveys, depending on parameter values. If model assumptions were met, the approach with two survey methods was inefficient. However, with poor anticipation of parameter values, with detection heterogeneity, or with removal sampling schemes, combining two survey methods could improve estimates of occupancy. 4.Ignoring false positives can yield biased parameter estimates, yet false positives greatly complicate the design of occupancy studies. Specific guidance for major types of false-positive occupancy models, and for two assumption violations common in field data, can conserve survey resources. This guidance can be used to design efficient

  20. Design considerations for genetic linkage and association studies. (United States)

    Nsengimana, Jérémie; Bishop, D Timothy


    This chapter describes the main issues that genetic epidemiologists usually consider in the design of linkage and association studies. For linkage, we briefly consider the situation of rare, highly penetrant alleles showing a disease pattern consistent with Mendelian inheritance investigated through parametric methods in large pedigrees or with autozygosity mapping in inbred families, and we then turn our focus to the most common design, affected sibling pairs, of more relevance for common, complex diseases. Theoretical and more practical power and sample size calculations are provided as a function of the strength of the genetic effect being investigated. We also discuss the impact of other determinants of statistical power such as disease heterogeneity, pedigree, and genotyping errors, as well as the effect of the type and density of genetic markers. Linkage studies should be as large as possible to have sufficient power in relation to the expected genetic effect size. Segregation analysis, a formal statistical technique to describe the underlying genetic susceptibility, may assist in the estimation of the relevant parameters to apply, for instance. However, segregation analyses estimate the total genetic component rather than a single-locus effect. Locus heterogeneity should be considered when power is estimated and at the analysis stage, i.e. assuming smaller locus effect than the total the genetic component from segregation studies. Disease heterogeneity should be minimised by considering subtypes if they are well defined or by otherwise collecting known sources of heterogeneity and adjusting for them as covariates; the power will depend upon the relationship between the disease subtype and the underlying genotypes. Ultimately, identifying susceptibility alleles of modest effects (e.g. RR≤1.5) requires a number of families that seem unfeasible in a single study. Meta-analysis and data pooling between different research groups can provide a sizeable study

  1. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph : technology and mission design studies (United States)

    Ford, Virginia G.


    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) coronagraph study involves exploring the technologies that enable a coronagraph style instrument to image and characterize earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars. Testbeds have been developed to demonstrate the emerging technologies needed for this effort and an architecture study has resulted in designs of a facility that will provide the environment needed for the technology to function in this role. A broad community of participants is involved in this work through studies, analyses, fabrication of components, and participation in the design effort. The scope of activities - both on the technology side and in the architecture study side - will be presented in this paper. The status and the future plans of the activities will be reviewed.

  2. Conceptual design study of a scyllac fusion test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K.I. (comp.)


    The report describes a conceptual design study of a fusion test reactor based on the Scyllac toroidal theta-pinch approach to fusion. It is not the first attempt to describe the physics and technology required for demonstrating scientific feasibility of the approach, but it is the most complete design in the sense that the physics necessary to achieve the device goals is extrapolated from experimentally tested MHD theories of toroidal systems,and it uses technological systems whose engineering performance has been carefully calculated to ensure that they meet the machine requirements.

  3. An Empirical Study on Design Partner Selection in Green Product Collaboration Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Liu


    Full Text Available Green production has become an important issue in PCD (Product Collaboration Design for almost every enterprise, and will determine the sustainability of enterprises in the long term. The choice of design partner is a necessary condition in order to achieve green production. For the uncertain, fuzzy, and dynamic information such as unknown indices and weights, fuzzy semantics, and dynamic time factors in GPCD (Green Product Collaboration Design, a two-stage dynamic hybrid MADM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making approach based on fuzzy DEMATEL (Decision-Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory, fuzzy KMA (Karnik–Mendel Algorithm, and fuzzy VIKOR (VlseKriterjumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje was proposed. In the first stage, fuzzy DEMATEL was used to determine the evaluation indices. Then, in the second stage, to accurately depict the dynamic information generated by the different phases of a product design, the dynamic evaluation method based on fuzzy theories was employed, and the weights of the indices were calculated by fuzzy KMA, then sorted by fuzzy VIKOR. Finally, a case study and a comparative analysis wre provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Kids in the city study: research design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwai Hector


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for optimal physical and psychological health but substantial declines in children's activity levels have occurred in New Zealand and internationally. Children's independent mobility (i.e., outdoor play and traveling to destinations unsupervised, an integral component of physical activity in childhood, has also declined radically in recent decades. Safety-conscious parenting practices, car reliance and auto-centric urban design have converged to produce children living increasingly sedentary lives. This research investigates how urban neighborhood environments can support or enable or restrict children's independent mobility, thereby influencing physical activity accumulation and participation in daily life. Methods/Design The study is located in six Auckland, New Zealand neighborhoods, diverse in terms of urban design attributes, particularly residential density. Participants comprise 160 children aged 9-11 years and their parents/caregivers. Objective measures (global positioning systems, accelerometers, geographical information systems, observational audits assessed children's independent mobility and physical activity, neighborhood infrastructure, and streetscape attributes. Parent and child neighborhood perceptions and experiences were assessed using qualitative research methods. Discussion This study is one of the first internationally to examine the association of specific urban design attributes with child independent mobility. Using robust, appropriate, and best practice objective measures, this study provides robust epidemiological information regarding the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes for this population.

  5. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico


    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Donin


    Full Text Available Knowledge is the new strategic imperative of organizations. The ability to manage knowledge is a crucial part of any organizations operational processes. The creation and diffusion of knowledge have become ever more important factors in competitiveness. This paper investigates the Knowledge Management and flow information and in small design firms. It is divided into three main parts. The first part of this paper describes the importance of Knowledge Management for organizations are described together with responsibilities needed to ensure successful Knowledge Management implementations and the Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation conception. The second part approaches literature available about process and organizational structure and information flow related to Brazilian design firms. Finally, this paper presents a case study of small design office of Civil Engineering identifying organizational process, verifying the types of communication practices and identifying the types of dynamic process of The Spiral of Organizational Knowledge Creation, KM strategy and dynamic through Knowledge Transfer.

  7. Study of percolation behavior depending on molecular structure design (United States)

    Yu, Ji Woong; Lee, Won Bo

    Each differently designed anisotropic nano-crystals(ANCs) are studied using Langevin dynamic simulation and their percolation behaviors are presented. Popular molecular dynamics software LAMMPS was used to design the system and perform the simulation. We calculated the minimum number density at which percolation occurs(i.e. percolation threshold), radial distribution function, and the average number of ANCs for a cluster. Electrical conductivity is improved when the number of transfers of electrons between ANCs, so called ''inter-hopping process'', which has the considerable contribution to resistance decreases and the number of inter-hopping process is directly related with the concentration of ANCs. Therefore, with the investigation of relationship between molecular architecture and percolation behavior, optimal design of ANC can be achieved.

  8. Developing Educational designs supporting student engagement through networked project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars


    within a networked learning structure are studying in groups combining on-site seminars with independent and challenging virtually organized project periods, implementing new educational technology, which require teachers who are flexible and aware of the different challenges in the networked environment...... in the online dialogues. Thus in contrast to the traditional understanding of the teacher as the sole designer of the learning environment, here the students were involved as active co-designers. Our understanding of problem-based learning is characterized by collaborative project work in groups, where students...... and interconnected learners, and discuss cases of developing student engagement through educational designs that facilitates group organized project work and learners’ participation in dialogically organized online seminars. Here we will focus on how the dimensions of participation and reification are played out....

  9. Architecture and Design for Virtual Conferences: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sempere


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the design issues facing a large multi-format virtual conference. The conference took place twice in two different years, each time using an avatar-based 3D world with spatialized audio including keynote, poster and social sessions. Between year 1 and 2, major adjustments were made to the architecture and design of the space, leading to improvement in the nature of interaction between the participants. While virtual meetings will likely never supplant the effectiveness of face-to-face meetings, this paper seeks to outline a few design principles learned from this experience, which can be applied generally to make computer mediated collaboration more effective.

  10. Multiphysics Based Design Study of an Atmospheric Icing Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal


    Full Text Available A design study of an atmospheric icing sensor is presented in this article. The proposed design of the sensor is aimed to detect an atmospheric icing event, to determine ice type as well as to measure icing load, icing rate and melting rate. This sensor is constantly slowly rotating cylinder with four fins which measure atmospheric icing load and icing rate using rotational load measurement technique. By replacing the fins with capacitance measurement cards, this sensor will be able to confirm an icing event, determining icing type and measure melting rate. Combination of multiphysics tools are employed to optimize the various design parameters of the sensor. Finally a working model was manufactured to check the basic functionality of the sensor in the laboratory.

  11. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts (United States)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul


    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  12. An Industrial Case Study: Identification of Competencies of Design Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema


    identified and the importance of these for design engineers in industry was investigated. In addition, the number of years of relevant experience required to become an expert in these types of knowledge was investigated. Knowledge related to the process was perceived as more important to those related......This paper describes the findings from an empirical study carried out with engineers in senior roles within a large company manufacturing complex products. This research aimed to identify the types of knowledge that are important for design engineers. Twenty-four knowledge categories were...... to the product. However, the number of years to become an expert in process knowledge was found to be lower than for product knowledge, despite process knowledge being perceived as more important. The findings of this research contribute to the education and training of design engineers....

  13. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.


    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  14. What Does It Take to Be a Successful Graphic Designer: A Phenomenological Study on Graphic Design Curriculum (United States)

    Beller, Shannon


    This study examined the phenomenon of what it takes to be a successful graphic designer. With an identity crisis in graphic design education, design curriculum is faced with uncertainties. With the diversity of programs and degrees in graphic design, the competencies and skills developed among the various programs reflect different purposes, thus…

  15. Designing pharmacogenomic studies to be fit for purpose. (United States)

    Burns, Daniel K; Hughes, Arlene R; Power, Aidan; Wang, Sue-Jane; Patterson, Scott D


    The 2010 US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) Pharmacogenomics Workshop, the fifth in a series of meetings that begun in 2002, brought together multidisciplinary experts from regulatory authorities, medical research, healthcare and drug development. This article summarizes the 'Designing Pharmacogenomic Studies to be Fit for Purpose' track in which considerations regarding the use of retrospective and prospective studies were examined in relation to their ability to influence treatment decisions and labeling for drugs. The aim of the session, using real-world examples (KRAS/panitumumab and HLA-B*5701/abacavir), was to identify good scientific principles that would guide the design of studies to identify subgroups of responders during development programs (including marketed drugs), which could subsequently be used to guide treatment decisions.

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  17. Representing and extracting lung cancer study metadata: study objective and study design. (United States)

    Garcia-Gathright, Jean I; Oh, Andrea; Abarca, Phillip A; Han, Mary; Sago, William; Spiegel, Marshall L; Wolf, Brian; Garon, Edward B; Bui, Alex A T; Aberle, Denise R


    This paper describes the information retrieval step in Casama (Contextualized Semantic Maps), a project that summarizes and contextualizes current research papers on driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. Casama׳s representation of lung cancer studies aims to capture elements that will assist an end-user in retrieving studies and, importantly, judging their strength. This paper focuses on two types of study metadata: study objective and study design. 430 abstracts on EGFR and ALK mutations in lung cancer were annotated manually. Casama׳s support vector machine (SVM) automatically classified the abstracts by study objective with as much as 129% higher F-scores compared to PubMed׳s built-in filters. A second SVM classified the abstracts by epidemiological study design, suggesting strength of evidence at a more granular level than in previous work. The classification results and the top features determined by the classifiers suggest that this scheme would be generalizable to other mutations in lung cancer, as well as studies on driver mutations in other cancer domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on the Design of Electronic SAMG Functional Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Ahn, K. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper describes a study on the design of e-SAMG functional modules. A study of for the design of e-SAMG was introduced. During an emergency status of a severe accident, the items for the functional module during a rapid and exact action are surveyed. The results are being implemented in e-SAMG. The operators can be supported through the use of e-SAMG. Based on the design of functional modules, the implementation will be accelerated and the refined design can also be applied. As a part of the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning (MSIP) Project, we at KAERI are developing electronic SAMG (e-SAMG, severe accident mitigation guideline) for general SAMG for nuclear power plants. Due to computerized trends, various efforts related to computer systems have been carried out for safety systems in nuclear power plants. In particular, since the Fukushima accident, unexpected accidents or extreme damages have become a concern. With this status, a rapid and exact confrontation such as a computerized attempt in SAMG has been tried. To develop an electronic SAMG, based on an analysis of the general SAMG, the architecture of e-SAMG was founded. The functional modules occupy important parts in the e-SAMG.

  19. Energy efficient engine preliminary design and integration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.E.


    The technology and configurational requirements of an all new 1990's energy efficient turbofan engine having a twin spool arrangement with a directly coupled fan and low-pressure turbine, a mixed exhaust nacelle, and a high 38.6:1 overall pressure ratio were studied. Major advanced technology design features required to provide the overall benefits were a high pressure ratio compression system, a thermally actuated advanced clearance control system, lightweight shroudless fan blades, a low maintenance cost one-stage high pressure turbine, a short efficient mixer and structurally integrated engine and nacelle. A conceptual design analysis was followed by integration and performance analyses of geared and direct-drive fan engines with separate or mixed exhaust nacelles to refine previously designed engine cycles. Preliminary design and more detailed engine-aircraft integration analysis were then conducted on the more promising configurations. Engine and aircraft sizing, fuel burned, and airframe noise studies on projected 1990's domestic and international aircraft produced sufficient definition of configurational and advanced technology requirements to allow immediate initiation of component technology development.

  20. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.


    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  1. Elliptic Volume Grid Generation for Viscous CFD Parametric Design Studies (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil


    This paper presents a robust method for the generation of zonal volume grids of design parametrics for aerodynamic configurations. The process utilizes simple algebraic techniques with parametric splines coupled with elliptic volume grid generation to generate isolated zonal grids for changes in body configuration needed to perform parametric design studies. Speed of the algorithm is maximized through the algebraic methods and reduced number of grid points to be regenerated for each design parametric without sacrificing grid quality and continuity within the volume domain. The method is directly applicable to grid reusability, because it modifies existing ow adapted volume grids and enables the user to restart the CFD solution process with an established flow field. Use of this zonal approach reduces computer usage time to create new volume grids for design parametric studies by an order of magnitude, as compared to current methods which require the regeneration of an entire volume grid. A sample configuration of a proposed Single Stage-to-Orbit Vehicle is used to illustrate an application of this method.

  2. Design dimensions: In-depth retrospective studies of K-12 science curriculum design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, Deborah; McKenney, Susan; Barber, Jacquey; Bopardikar, Anushree; Drayton, Brian; Walkup, Sara; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Schunn, Christian


    Design and development are critically important to the educational enterprise. Unfortunately, there is little research on which design and development processes produce optimal outcomes for curricular materials intended for large-scale implementation. The Design Dimensions project asks: Across

  3. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling


    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  4. Outline and Status of the FCC-ee Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank


    The Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics in 2013 [1] declared as its second highest priority that “…to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project….., CERN should undertake design studies for accelerator projects in a global context,…with emphasis on proton-proton and electron-positron high-energy frontier machines…”. In response to this request, the global Future Circular Collider (FCC) study is designing a 100-TeV proton collider (FCC-hh) in a new ~100 km tunnel near Geneva, a high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee) as a potential intermediate step, and a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). The FCC study comprises accelerators, technology, infrastructure, detector, physics, concepts for worldwide data services, international governance models, and implementation scenarios. The FCC study is mandated to deliver a Conceptual Design Report and preliminary cost estimate by the time of the next European Strategy Update expected for 2019. As of July 2015, 58 institutes from...

  5. Load management and rate design: a progress report on the EPRI-EEI rate design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhler, R.G.


    A progress report on the EPRI-EEI rate design study on electric power shows peak-load pricing occupying ''center stage,'' but the efficiency in providing service broadly is being examined sufficiently. The background and plan of work, organization and functions, and overall status of research are summarized. The first participating utility to serve as a case study is Virginia Electric Power Company. The Plan of Study contains 10 topics for study: analysis of various pricing approaches, rate experiments for smaller customers, elasticity of demand for electricity, costing for peak-load pricing, ratemaking, measuring advantages of peak-load pricing, metering, technology for utilization, mechanical controls and penalty pricing, and customer acceptance. (MCW)

  6. Summary of the Preliminary Optical ICHMI Design Study: A Preliminary Engineering Design Study for a Standpipe Viewport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This summary report examines an in-vessel optical access concept intended to support standoff optical instrumentation, control and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems for future advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. Optical-based measurement and sensing systems for AdvSMR applications have several key benefits over traditional instrumentation and control systems used to monitor reactor process parameters, such as temperature, flow rate, pressure, and coolant chemistry (Anheier et al. 2013). Direct and continuous visualization of the in-vessel components can be maintained using external cameras. Many optical sensing techniques can be performed remotely using open optical beam path configurations. Not only are in-vessel cables eliminated by these configurations, but also sensitive optical monitoring components (e.g., electronics, lasers, detectors, and cameras) can be placed outside the reactor vessel in the instrument vault, containment building, or other locations where temperatures and radiation levels are much lower. However, the extreme AdvSMR environment present challenges for optical access designs and optical materials. Optical access is not provided in any commercial nuclear power plant or featured in any reactor design, although successful implementation of optical access has been demonstrated in test reactors (Arkani and Gharib 2009). This report outlines the key engineering considerations for an AdvSMR optical access concept. Strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) construction codes must be followed for any U.S. nuclear facility component (ASME 2013); however, the scope of this study is to evaluate the preliminary engineering issues for this concept, rather than developing a nuclear-qualified design. In addition, this study does not consider accident design requirements. In-vessel optical access using a standpipe viewport concept serves as a test case to explore the engineering challenges and performance requirements

  7. Thermal-structural combined loads design criteria study (United States)

    Deriugin, V.; Brogren, E. W.; Jaeck, C. L.; Brown, A. L.; Clingan, B. E.


    A study was conducted to determine methodology for combining thermal structural loads and assessing the effects of the combined loads on the design of a thermal protection system and a hot structure of a high cross range delta wing space shuttle orbiter vehicle. The study presents guidelines for establishing a basis for predicting thermal and pressure environments and for determining limit and ultimate design loads on the vehicle during reentry. Limit trajectories were determined by using dispersions on a representative nominal mission and system parameters expected during the life of the vehicle. Nine chosen locations on the vehicle surface having TPS or hot structures were examined, and weight sensitivity analyses were performed for each location.

  8. Sizing study and aerodynamic design in hope concept (United States)

    Kobayashi, Osamu; Ito, Tetsuichi; Akimoto, Toshio; Nomoto, Hideki; Suzuki, Norio

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been studying an unmanned, winged vehicle for space transportation called H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE). In determining the size of HOPE, it is necessary to consider the compatibility with the H-II rocket and the maximum possible wing loading of HOPE. Higher wing loading leads to more payload capability, as the wing area is limited by the attitude control capability of H-II rocket. HOPE has a double-delta wing. The wing design should be aimed at further improvement of the lift characteristics in hypersonic and low speed regions, so that HOPE has heavier payloads or better flight performances. Furthermore, this paper refers briefly to the design of the tip fins and the fuselage, and the trade study about the adoption of canard wings to HOPE.

  9. Design study on quasi-constant gradient accelerator structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.W. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Littmann, B.W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik


    In order to obtain high luminosity, the Next Linear Collider will operate in multibunch mode with ten or more bunches per bunch train. This leads to the need for detuning and/or damping of higher modes to control multibunch beam breakup. Continued studies of wake fields for a detuned structure with a Gaussian distribution of dipole modes showed encouraging results, and a detuned structure model has been tested experimentally. It is desirable to study the design method for this type of structure, which has a quasi-constant accelerating gradient. This note gives a brief summary of the design procedure. Also, the RF parameters of the structure are evaluated to compare with conventional constant gradient and constant impedance structures.

  10. Design study of a medical proton linac for neutron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.; Raparia, D.


    This paper describes a design study which establishes the physical parameters of the low energy beam transport, radiofrequency quadrupole, and linac, using computer programs available at Fermilab. Beam dynamics studies verify that the desired beam parameters can be achieved. The machine described here meets the aforementioned requirements and can be built using existing technology. Also discussed are other technically feasible options which could be attractive to clinicians, though they would complicate the design of the machine and increase construction costs. One of these options would allow the machine to deliver 2.3 MeV protons to produce epithermal neutrons for treating brain tumors. A second option would provide 15 MeV protons for isotope production. 21 refs., 33 figs.

  11. Optimal design in pediatric pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic clinical studies. (United States)

    Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Balch, Alfred; Yu, Tian; Ward, Robert M; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T


    It is not trivial to conduct clinical trials with pediatric participants. Ethical, logistical, and financial considerations add to the complexity of pediatric studies. Optimal design theory allows investigators the opportunity to apply mathematical optimization algorithms to define how to structure their data collection to answer focused research questions. These techniques can be used to determine an optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how to determine optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required from each patient by presenting specific examples using optimal design tools. Additionally, this review aims to discuss the relative usefulness of sparse vs rich data. This review is intended to educate the clinician, as well as the basic research scientist, whom plan on conducting a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic clinical trial in pediatric patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Satellite Servicing in Mission Design Studies at the NASA GSFC (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.


    Several NASA missions in various stages of development have undergone one-week studies in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC), mostly in preparation for proposals. The possible role of satellite servicing has been investigated for several of these missions, applying the lessons learned from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing, taking into account the current state of the art, projecting into the future, and implementing NASA long-range plans, and is presented here. The general benefits and costs of injecting satellite servicing are detailed, including components such as mission timeline, mass, fuel, spacecraft design, risk abatement, life extension, and improved performance. The approach taken in addressing satellite servicing during IMDC studies is presented.

  13. Research in dentistry: Question, search and studies design.


    Pedro Aravena


    Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) concept has caused great impact and interest in the field of dentistry. For its development is important to use research protocols and study designs according to the research problem. The aim of this review is to present basic aspects for the start of a quantitative research in dentistry.It presents the topics necessary to transform a research problem to a question with clinical approach. Then, concepts about finding relevant scientific articles in the electroni...

  14. Design study of ITER-like divertor target for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescenzi, Fabio, E-mail: [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bachmann, C. [EFDA, Power Plant Physics and Technology, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Richou, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Roccella, S.; Visca, E. [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    Highlights: • ‘DEMO’ is a near-term Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS). • The ITER-like design concept represents a promising solution also for DEMO plasma facing units. • The optimization of PFUs aims to enhance the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the component. • The optimized geometry was evaluated by ITER SDC-IC criteria and in terms of low cycle fatigue (LCF). - Abstract: A near-term water-cooled target solution has to be evaluated together with the required technologies and its power exhaust limit under ‘DEMO’ conditions. The ITER-like design concept based on the mono-block technology using W as armour material and the CuCrZr-IG as structural material with an interlayer of pure copper represents a promising solution also for DEMO. This work reports the design study of an “optimized” ITER-like Water Cooled Divertor able to withstand a heat flux of 10 MW m{sup −2}, as requested for DEMO operating conditions. The optimization of plasma facing unit (PFU) aims to enhance the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the component by varying some geometrical parameters (monoblock size, interlayer thickness and, tube diameter and thickness). The optimization was performed by means of the multi-variable optimization algorithms using the FEM code ANSYS. The coolant hydraulic conditions (inlet pressure, temperature and velocity) were fixed for simplicity. This study is based on elastic analysis and 3 dimensional modelling. The resulting optimized geometry was evaluated on the basis of the ITER SDC-IC criteria and in terms of low cycle fatigue (LCF). The margin to the critical heat flux (CHF) was also estimated. Further design study (taking into account the effect of neutron radiation on the material properties) together with mock-up fabrication and high-heat-flux (HHF) tests are foreseen in next work programmes.

  15. Study of Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design (United States)


    shelter spaces display a great deal of Regional variation , caused mostly by differences in zonal ventilation requirements. These large Regional...Ma -M FEMA Work Unit 12170 Contmct No. DCPA01-76-C-0318 L EF 0 FINAL REPORT RTI/1703/00-OSF STUDY OF FALLOUT SHELTER VENTILATION KIT PLACEMENT 0...Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design by S. •. York, III and J. A. Armstrong for Vt FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENfT AGENCY Washington, D.C. 2041

  16. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review


    Sharma, P.K.; Patel, B. P.; Harbans Lal


    The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one ...

  17. Designing a mixed methods study in primary care. (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V


    Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.

  18. Fuel assembly design study for a reactor with supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, J. [RWE Power AG, Huyssenallee 2, D-45128 Essen (Germany); Waata, C. [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Staudenfeldweg 12, D-83624 Otterfing (Germany); Starflinger, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail:; Laurien, E. [University of Stuttgart, Institute for Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE), Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The European concept of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) differs from current light water reactors in a higher system pressure beyond the critical point of water, as well as a higher heat-up of the coolant within the core and thus higher core outlet temperatures, leading to a significant increase in turbine power and thermal efficiency of the power plant. The motivation to develop a novel fuel assembly for the HPLWR is caused by the high variation of coolant density in the core by more than a factor of seven. A systematic design study shows that a square fuel assembly with two rows of fuel rods and a central moderator box is best to minimize the structural material, to optimize the moderator to fuel ratio and to reduce differences of fuel rod power. Using neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses, a detailed mechanical design of a fuel assembly of the HPLWR has been worked out. Moreover, concepts for the head piece, the foot piece, the steam plenum and the lower mixing plenum, including the lower core plate, have been developed to account for the individual flow paths of this reactor. These allow a leak-tight counter current flow of moderator water and coolant as well as uniform mixing of different mass flows. The assembly design concept can be used as a general key component for any advanced core design of this reactor.

  19. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  20. Genetic Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Susceptibility: Impact of Study Design (United States)

    Stein, Catherine M.


    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB. PMID:21283783

  1. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 3. STOL design summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambell, K.W.


    A conceptual design study is presented of 1,985 commercial tilt rotor STOL transports for a NASA 200 n. mi. (370 km) STOL Mission. A 100-passenger STOL Variant (Bell D313) of the Phase I VTOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft is defined. Aircraft characteristics are given; with the aircraft redesigned to meet 2,000-foot (610 m) field criteria, with emphasis on low fuel consumption and low direct operating cost. The 100-passenger STOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft was analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprint and aeroelastic stability. (GRA)

  2. Interim Design Report for the International Design Study for a Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, S.; Gandhi, R.; Goswami, S.; /Harish-Chandra Res. Inst.; Berg, J.S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J.C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Souchlas, N.; /Brookhaven; Ellis, M.; /Brunel U. /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Fermilab /Geneva U. /Glasgow U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Imperial Coll., London /Jefferson Lab /Saha Inst.


    The starting point for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) was the output of the earlier International Scoping Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS). The accelerator facility described in section 2 incorporates the improvements that have been derived from the substantial amount of work carried out within the Accelerator Working Group. Highlights of these improvements include: (1) Initial concepts for the implementation of the proton driver at each of the three example sites, CERN, FNAL, and RAL; (2) Detailed studies of the energy deposition in the target area; (3) A reduction in the length of the muon beam phase-rotation and bunching systems; (4) Detailed analyses of the impact of the risk that stray magnetic field in the accelerating cavities in the ionization cooling channel will reduce the maximum operating gradient. Several alternative ionization-cooling lattices have been developed as fallback options to mitigate this technical risk; (5) Studies of particle loss in the muon front-end and the development of strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of such losses; (6) The development of more complete designs for the muon linac and re-circulating linacs; (7) The development of a design for the muon FFAG that incorporates insertions for injection and extraction; and (8) Detailed studies of diagnostics in the decay ring. Other sub-systems have undergone a more 'incremental' evolution; an indication that the design of the Neutrino Factory has achieved a degree of maturity. The design of the neutrino detectors described in section 3 has been optimized and the Detector Working Group has made substantial improvements to the simulation and analysis of the Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) resulting in an improvement in the overall neutrino-detection efficiency and a reduction in the neutrino-energy threshold. In addition, initial consideration of the engineering of the MIND has

  3. Clinical studies in restorative dentistry: Design, conduct, analysis. (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Opdam, Niek


    Clinical studies should be one main aspect underlying dentists' decision-making towards dental materials. Study design, conduct, analysis and reporting impact on the usefulness of studies. We discuss problems with current studies and highlight areas where improvement might be possible. Based on systematically and non-systematically collected data, we demonstrate where and why current studies in clinical dentistry deliver less-than-optimal results. Lending from general medicine, we suggest ways forward for clinical dental material science. Randomized controlled (efficacy) trials remain a major pillar in dental material science, as they reduce selection bias and, if well-designed and conducted, have high internal validity. Given their costs and limited external validity, alternatives like practice-based or pragmatic controlled trials or observational studies can complement the evidence-base. Prior to conduct, researchers should focus on study comparators and setting (answering questions with relevance to clinical dentistry), and pay attention to statistical power, considering the study aim (superiority or non-inferiority trial), the expected event rate, and attrition. Study outcomes should be chosen on the basis of a core outcome set or, if not available, involving patients and other stakeholders. Studies should be registered a priori, and reporting should adhere to standards. Possible clustering should be accounted for during statistical analysis. Many clinical studies in dental material science are underpowered, and of limited validity and usefulness for daily decision-making. Dental researchers should mirror existing efforts in other medical fields in making clinical studies more valid and applicable, thus contributing to better dental care. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying Semiotic Theories to Graphic Design Education: An Empirical Study on Poster Design Teaching (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan


    The rationales behind design are dissimilar to those behind art. Establishing an adequate theoretical foundation for conducting design education can facilitate scientising design methods. Thus, from the perspectives of the semiotic theories proposed by Saussure and Peirce, we investigated graphic design curricula by performing teaching…

  5. Destined to Design? How and Why Australian Women Choose to Study Industrial Design (United States)

    Lockhart, Cathy; Miller, Evonne


    Despite over three decades of legislation and initiatives designed to tackle the traditional gender divide in the science, technology and design fields, only a quarter of the registered architects in Australia are women. There are no statistics available for other design disciplines, with little known about why women choose design as a career path…

  6. A designed screening study with prespecified combinations of factor settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Timothy J [U. WYOMING


    In many applications, the experimenter has limited options about what factor combinations can be chosen for a designed study. Consider a screening study for a production process involving five input factors whose levels have been previously established. The goal of the study is to understand the effect of each factor on the response, a variable that is expensive to measure and results in destruction of the part. From an inventory of available parts with known factor values, we wish to identify a best collection of factor combinations with which to estimate the factor effects. Though the observational nature of the study cannot establish a causal relationship involving the response and the factors, the study can increase understanding of the underlying process. The study can also help determine where investment should be made to control input factors during production that will maximally influence the response. Because the factor combinations are observational, the chosen model matrix will be nonorthogonal and will not allow independent estimation of factor effects. In this manuscript we borrow principles from design of experiments to suggest an 'optimal' selection of factor combinations. Specifically, we consider precision of model parameter estimates, the issue of replication, and abilities to detect lack of fit and to estimate two-factor interactions. Through an example, we present strategies for selecting a subset of factor combinations that simultaneously balance multiple objectives, conduct a limited sensitivity analysis, and provide practical guidance for implementing our techniques across a variety of quality engineering disciplines.

  7. The role of interior designers in design and implementation of retail stores : the case study of Edcon



    M.Tech. The study explores the role of interior designers in the design and implementation of retail stores. Through application of case study methodology, the process of retail design within the Group Property Development Department of Edgars Consolidated Stores (Edcon) was established and the role of interior designers within this process determined. The context of the case is the clothing and footwear retail market in South Africa. Presently, this market is dominated by several large ho...

  8. A Preliminary Study on Gender Differences in Studying Systems Analysis and Design (United States)

    Lee, Fion S. L.; Wong, Kelvin C. K.


    Systems analysis and design is a crucial task in system development and is included in a typical information systems programme as a core course. This paper presented a preliminary study on gender differences in studying a systems analysis and design course of an undergraduate programme. Results indicated that male students outperformed female…

  9. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ninno, Giovanni; Fawley, William M.; Penn, Gregory E.; Graves,William


    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of seeded harmonic generation and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second undulator line, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and use two harmonic stages operating as a cascade. The FEL design assumes continuous wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range, and polarization tunability of the output radiation including vertical or horizontal linear as well as helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We review the studies that have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and undulator errors. Findings for the expected output radiation in terms of the power, transverse and longitudinal coherence are reported.

  10. Spherical Cryogenic Hydrogen Tank Preliminary Design Trade Studies (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.; Yarrington, Phillip W.


    A structural analysis, sizing optimization, and weight prediction study was performed by Collier Research Corporation and NASA Glenn on a spherical cryogenic hydrogen tank. The tank consisted of an inner and outer wall separated by a vacuum for thermal insulation purposes. HyperSizer (Collier Research and Development Corporation), a commercial automated structural analysis and sizing software package was used to design the lightest feasible tank for a given overall size and thermomechanical loading environment. Weight trade studies were completed for different panel concepts and metallic and composite material systems. Extensive failure analyses were performed for each combination of dimensional variables, materials, and layups to establish the structural integrity of tank designs. Detailed stress and strain fields were computed from operational temperature changes and pressure loads. The inner tank wall is sized by the resulting biaxial tensile stresses which cause it to be strength driven, and leads to an optimum panel concept that need not be stiffened. Conversely, the outer tank wall is sized by a biaxial compressive stress field, induced by the pressure differential between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum between the tanks, thereby causing the design to be stability driven and thus stiffened to prevent buckling. Induced thermal stresses become a major sizing driver when a composite or hybrid composite/metallic material systems are used for the inner tank wall for purposes such as liners to contain the fuel and reduce hydrogen permeation.

  11. Influence analysis on crossover design experiment in bioequivalence studies. (United States)

    Huang, Yufen; Ke, Bo-Shiang


    Crossover designs are commonly used in bioequivalence studies. However, the results can be affected by some outlying observations, which may lead to the wrong decision on bioequivalence. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of aberrant observations. Chow and Tse in 1990 discussed this issue by considering the methods based on the likelihood distance and estimates distance. Perturbation theory provides a useful tool for the sensitivity analysis on statistical models. Hence, in this paper, we develop the influence functions via the perturbation scheme proposed by Hampel as an alternative approach on the influence analysis for a crossover design experiment. Moreover, the comparisons between the proposed approach and the method proposed by Chow and Tse are investigated. Two real data examples are provided to illustrate the results of these approaches. Our proposed influence functions show excellent performance on the identification of outlier/influential observations and are suitable for use with small sample size crossover designs commonly used in bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali


    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  13. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali


    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  14. Design Methodology And Performance Studies Of A Flexible Electrotextile Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayacan Ozan


    Full Text Available ‘The smart textiles’ concept has to develop products based not only on design, fashion and comfort but also in terms of functions. The novel electro-textiles in the market open up new trends in smart and interactive gadgets. ‘Easy to care and durability’ properties are among the most important features of these products. On the other hand, wearable electronic knitwear has been gaining the attention of both researchers and industrial sectors. Combining knitting technology with electronics may become a dominant trend in the future because of the wide application possibilities. This research is concerned primarily with the design methodology of knitted fabrics containing electrically conductive textiles and especially in-use performance studies. The structural characteristics of the fabrics have been evaluated to enhance the performance properties.

  15. Research in dentistry: Question, search and studies design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Aravena


    Full Text Available Evidence-based dentistry (EBD concept has caused great impact and interest in the field of dentistry. For its development is important to use research protocols and study designs according to the research problem. The aim of this review is to present basic aspects for the start of a quantitative research in dentistry.It presents the topics necessary to transform a research problem to a question with clinical approach. Then, concepts about finding relevant scientific articles in the electronic databases available on the Internet. It also presents observational and experimental research designs, their classification and topics for your choice. These elements represents simple and clear recommendations for research in dentistry.

  16. Design study of an upgraded charge breeder for ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A; Wenander, F; Pikin, A


    In this work we present our progress in the design study of a new Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) to be installed as a charge breeder for reacceleration of rare ions at ISOLDE. The work is triggered by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade {[}1] and the planned TSR@ISOLDE project {[}2]. To fulfill the requests of the user community the new EBIS should reach an electron beam density of 10(4) A/cm(2) at electron energies up to 150 key and, provide UHV environment and ion cooling in the breeding region to ensure confinement of the ions long enough to reach the requested charge states. We report on the established design parameters and first prototyping steps towards production and testing of suitable equipment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Five Principles for MOOC Design: With a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Drake


    Full Text Available New web technologies have enabled online education to take on a massive scale, prompting many universities to create massively open online courses (MOOCs that take advantage of these technologies in a seemingly effortless manner. Designing a MOOC, however, is anything but trivial. It involves developing content, learning activities, and assessments to accommodate both the massiveness and openness of the course. To design an effective MOOC, instructors need to integrate both pedagogical and information systems theory. In this paper, we present a case study of a MOOC grant and a series of decisions made in its development. These decisions, when paired with the theoretical framework, suggest five principles – meaningful, engaging, measurable, accessible, and scalable – may be applicable to future MOOC development projects.

  18. User Systems Architectures - Two studies in design and assessment. (United States)

    Tainsh, Michael


    The concept of User System Architectures (USA) is introduced as part of the overall systems architecture. A USA is defined as a set of ergonomics information and knowledge assembled to represent system structure and content. It is described in the context of the system development lifecycle. The characteristics associated with a USA are outlined. These include layers of description, viewpoints, coherency and traceability. The concept of coherency between layers and the techniques for tracing the design characteristics back to the requirements (i.e. traceability) are discussed with their implications for ergonomics. Two studies (one design and one assessment) are used to demonstrate the use of USA techniques. The benefits, shortfalls and costs of using the USA technique are outlined for each case, and in a more general range of applications. The validity and reliability of the representations are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Competence-Based Curriculum Design for Entrepreneurship Study Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska J.R. Siagian


    Full Text Available Indonesia is affected by global crisis. Increasing the number of entrepreneurs is one of many solutions to increase the economic growth in Indonesia. The number of entrepreneurs in Indonesia to leverage the economic growth is still limited. Entrepreneurs can be prepared through an Entrepreneurship Study Program. Entrepreneurship Study Program attempts to create qualified entrepreneurs who have relevant competences. In order to create a qualified entrepreneurs, the Entrepreneurial Studies Program requires a competency-based curriculum that will support the educational process and provide all the necessary to become future entrepreneurs who can survive through a global challenge. This research aims to design a competence-based curriculum for entrepreneurial study and uses Quality Function Deployment (QFD as the major tool to design the competence-based curriculum. From the QFD process, this research finds core and elective courses for the Entrepreneurship Study Program. The result shows the competences covered by the courses and sequence, credits, and teaching methods for each course. The competences prepared the potential entrepreneurs can be achieved through specific courses which can be acquired within 8 semesters.

  20. [Introduction to critical reading of articles: study design and biases]. (United States)

    García Villar, C


    The critical evaluation of an article enables professionals to make good use of the new information and therefore has direct repercussions for the benefit of our patients. Before undertaking a detailed critical reading of the chosen article, we need to consider whether the study used the most appropriate design for the question it aimed to answer (i.e., whether the level of evidence is adequate). To do this, we need to know how to classify studies in function of their design (descriptive or analytical; prospective or retrospective; cross-sectional or longitudinal) as well as their correlation with the levels of evidence. In critical reading it is also important to know the main systematic errors or biases that can affect a study. Biases can appear in any phase of a study; they can affect the sample, the development of the study, or the measurement of the results. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Bridging from Goals to Tasks with Design Study Analysis Reports. (United States)

    Lam, Heidi; Tory, Melanie; Munzner, Tamara


    Visualization researchers and practitioners engaged in generating or evaluating designs are faced with the difficult problem of transforming the questions asked and actions taken by target users from domain-specific language and context into more abstract forms. Existing abstract task classifications aim to provide support for this endeavour by providing a carefully delineated suite of actions. Our experience is that this bottom-up approach is part of the challenge: low-level actions are difficult to interpret without a higher-level context of analysis goals and the analysis process. To bridge this gap, we propose a framework based on analysis reports derived from open-coding 20 design study papers published at IEEE InfoVis 2009-2015, to build on the previous work of abstractions that collectively encompass a broad variety of domains. The framework is organized in two axes illustrated by nine analysis goals. It helps situate the analysis goals by placing each goal under axes of specificity (Explore, Describe, Explain, Confirm) and number of data populations (Single, Multiple). The single-population types are Discover Observation, Describe Observation, Identify Main Cause, and Collect Evidence. The multiple-population types are Compare Entities, Explain Differences, and Evaluate Hypothesis. Each analysis goal is scoped by an input and an output and is characterized by analysis steps reported in the design study papers. We provide examples of how we and others have used the framework in a top-down approach to abstracting domain problems: visualization designers or researchers first identify the analysis goals of each unit of analysis in an analysis stream, and then encode the individual steps using existing task classifications with the context of the goal, the level of specificity, and the number of populations involved in the analysis.

  2. Study and Redefining Beneficiary Participation in Process Of House Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monshizadeh Morteza


    Full Text Available Since housing has a special place in human life and his physical, psychological and interactions, so in addition the unity of humans, multiplicity and diversity of them must be considered. This possible only by beneficiary participation in the design process, but because society has different economic and social texture and classes; and settling suit because of the time and place of special indexes are entitled, so prepare a comprehensive model includes the testimony and circumstances; identify factors influencing participation optimum need to selection population and certain species of private construction. Standard tool to study topic does not exist, so in order to produce tools using qualitative research methods; interpretation - historical correlation to extract components and variables and their effects on each other and enjoyed target table Content consisting of four domains of general knowledge - specialized knowledge of participation - participation mechanisms and factors influencing participation achieved. Extracted factors are: the initial formation of partnership - partnership executive process - the role of participant - optimal participation; by study and analyze the theoretical model. Due to history and social aspects; cultural participation in Shiraz; promote scientific and participatory approach designed to make operating housing; bed and new horizons of development of facilities and areas in the design of residential environment created and due consultation and decision making in addition to beneficiary participation to promote optimum utility of space; mutual flexibility and utilization of space; increase fixation and motivation will lead beneficiary reside” and the main question: “how is the model of scientific position optimal participation planning instrument in private housing in the city of Shiraz, in the process of design, implementation and use”.

  3. Dedicated medical ion accelerator design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Results and conclusions are reported from a design study for a dedicated medical accelerator. Basing efforts on the current consensus regarding medical requirements, the resulting demands on accelerator and beam delivery systems were analyzed, and existing accelerator technology was reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of meeting these demands. This general analysis was augmented and verified by preparing detailed preliminary designs for sources of therapeutic beams of neutrons, protons and heavy ions. The study indicates that circular accelerators are the most desirable and economical solutions for such sources. Synchrotrons are clearly superior for beams of helium and heavier ions, while synchrotrons and cyclotrons seem equally well suited for protons although they have different strengths and weaknesses. Advanced techniques of beam delivery are of utmost importance in fully utilizing the advantages of particle beams. Several issues are invloved here. First, multi-treatment room arrangements are essential for making optimal use of the high dose rate capabilities of ion accelerators. The design of corresponding beam switching systems, the principles of which are already developed for physics experimental areas, pose no problems. Second, isocentric beam delivery substantially enhances flexibility of dose delivery. After several designs for such devices were completed, it was concluded that high field magnets are necessary to keep size, bulk and cost acceptable. Third, and most important, is the generation of large, homogeneous radiation fields. This is presently accomplished with the aid of scattering foils, occluding rings, collimators, ridge filters, and boluses. A novel approach, three-dimensional beam scanning, was developed here, and the most demanding components of such a system (fast-scanning magnet and power supply) were built and tested.

  4. Nanobiological studies on drug design using molecular mechanic method. (United States)

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Mousavi, Maryam; Araghi, Mahmood; Rasoolzadeh, Reza; Hosseini, Zahra


    Influenza H1N1 is very important worldwide and point mutations that occur in the virus gene are a threat for the World Health Organization (WHO) and druggists, since they could make this virus resistant to the existing antibiotics. Influenza epidemics cause severe respiratory illness in 30 to 50 million people and kill 250,000 to 500,000 people worldwide every year. Nowadays, drug design is not done through trial and error because of its cost and waste of time; therefore bioinformatics studies is essential for designing drugs. This paper, infolds a study on binding site of Neuraminidase (NA) enzyme, (that is very important in drug design) in 310K temperature and different dielectrics, for the best drug design. Information of NA enzyme was extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) websites. The new sequences of N1 were downloaded from the NCBI influenza virus sequence database. Drug binding sites were assimilated and homologized modeling using Argus lab 4.0, HyperChem 6.0 and Chem. D3 softwares. Their stability was assessed in different dielectrics and temperatures. Measurements of potential energy (Kcal/mol) of binding sites of NA in different dielectrics and 310K temperature revealed that at time step size = 0 pSec drug binding sites have maximum energy level and at time step size = 100 pSec have maximum stability and minimum energy. Drug binding sites are more dependent on dielectric constants rather than on temperature and the optimum dielectric constant is 39/78.

  5. The Study of the Relationship between Probabilistic Design and Axiomatic Design Methodology. Volume 3 (United States)

    Onwubiko, Chin-Yere; Onyebueke, Landon


    Structural failure is rarely a "sudden death" type of event, such sudden failures may occur only under abnormal loadings like bomb or gas explosions and very strong earthquakes. In most cases, structures fail due to damage accumulated under normal loadings such as wind loads, dead and live loads. The consequence of cumulative damage will affect the reliability of surviving components and finally causes collapse of the system. The cumulative damage effects on system reliability under time-invariant loadings are of practical interest in structural design and therefore will be investigated in this study. The scope of this study is, however, restricted to the consideration of damage accumulation as the increase in the number of failed components due to the violation of their strength limits.

  6. Status of PEP-X Light Source Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Bertsche, K.J.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Huang, X.; Jiao, Y.; Ng, C.-K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Rivetta, C.H.; Safranek, J.A.; Stupakov, G.V.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.-H.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC; Rabedeau, T.; /SLAC


    The SLAC Beam Physics group and other SLAC collaborators continue to study options for implementing a near diffraction-limited ring-based light source in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel that will serve the SSRL scientific program in the future. The study team has completed the baseline design for a 4.5-GeV storage ring having 160 pm-rad emittance with stored beam current of 1.5 A, providing >10{sup 22} brightness for multi-keV photon beams from 3.5-m undulator sources. The team has also investigated possible 5-GeV ERL configurations which, similar to the Cornell and KEK ERL plans, would have {approx}30 pm-rad emittance with 100 mA current, and {approx}10 pm-rad emittance with 25 mA or less. Now a 4.5-GeV 'ultimate' storage ring having emittance similar to the ERL and operating with {approx}200 mA is under study. An overview of the progress of the PEP-X design study and SSRL's plans for defining performance parameters that will guide the choice of ring options is presented.

  7. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies. (United States)

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T


    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated learning in practical machine element design course: a case study of V-pulley design (United States)

    Tantrabandit, Manop


    To achieve an effective integrated learning in Machine Element Design course, it is of importance to bridge the basic knowledge and skills of element designs. The multiple core learning leads the pathway which consists of two main parts. The first part involves teaching documents of which the contents are number of V-groove formulae, standard of V-grooved pulleys, and parallel key dimension's formulae. The second part relates to the subjects that the students have studied prior to participating in this integrated learning course, namely Material Selection, Manufacturing Process, Applied Engineering Drawing, CAD (Computer Aided Design) animation software. Moreover, an intensive cooperation between a lecturer and students is another key factor to fulfill the success of integrated learning. Last but not least, the students need to share their knowledge within the group and among the other groups aiming to gain knowledge of and skills in 1) the application of CAD-software to build up manufacture part drawings, 2) assembly drawing, 3) simulation to verify the strength of loaded pulley by method of Finite Element Analysis (FEA), 4) the software to create animation of mounting and dismounting of a pulley to a shaft, and 5) an instruction manual. The end product of this integrated learning, as a result of the above 1 to 5 knowledge and skills obtained, the participating students can create an assembly derived from manufacture part drawings and a video presentation with bilingual (English-Thai) audio description of Vpulley with datum diameter of 250 mm, 4 grooves, and type of groove: SPA.

  9. Conceptual design study of the GSI electron-nucleon collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Design concepts, beam-beam instability, ion bunch cooling, intrabeam scattering, conventional collective effects, lattice design, polarization control, injection chain, basic technical systems, cost estimations, time schedule.

  10. Optimization Studies of the FERMI at ELETTRA FEL Design

    CERN Document Server

    De Ninno, G


    The FERMI at ELETTRA project at Sincotrone Trieste involves two FEL's, each based upon the principle of a seeded harmonic cascade and using the existing ELETTRA injection linac at 1.2 GeV beam energy. Scheduled to be completed in 2008, FEL-1 will operate in the 40-100 nm wavelength range and will involve one stage of harmonic up-conversion. The second phase, FEL-2, will begin operation two years later in the 10-40 nm wavelength range and will involve two cascade stages. FEL design assumes wavelength tunability over the full wavelength range and polarization tunability of the output radiation including helical polarization. The design considers focusing properties and segmentation of realizable undulators and available input seed lasers. We discuss how the interplay between various limitations and self-consistent accelerator simulations [1,2] have led to our current design. We present results of simulations using GENESIS and GINGER simulation codes including studies of various shot-to-shot fluctuations and und...

  11. Design study of a high power rotary transformer (United States)

    Weinberger, S. M.


    A design study was made on a rotary transformer for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface. The analysis was performed for a 100 KW, 20 KHz unit having a ""pancake'' geometry. The rotary transformer had a radial (vertical) gap and consisted of 4-25 KW modules. It was assumed that the power conditioning comprised of a Schwarz resonant circuit with a 20 KHz switching frequency. The rotary transformer, mechanical and structural design, heat rejection system and drive mechanism which provide a complete power transfer device were examined. The rotary transformer losses, efficiency, weight and size were compared with an axial (axial symmetric) gap transformer having the same performance requirements and input characteristics which was designed as part of a previous program. The ""pancake'' geometry results in a heavier rotary transformer primarily because of inefficient use of the core material. It is shown that the radial gap rotary transformer is a feasible approach for the transfer of electrical power across a rotating interface and can be implemented using presently available technology.

  12. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology. (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy


    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lessons learned studying design issues for lunar and Mars settlements. (United States)

    Litton, C E


    In a study of lunar and Mars settlement concepts, an analysis was made of fundamental design assumptions in five technical areas against a model list of occupational and environmental health concerns. The technical areas included the proposed science projects to be supported, habitat and construction issues, closed ecosystem issues, the "MMM" issues (mining, material processing, and manufacturing), and the human elements of physiology, behavior, and mission approach. Four major lessons were learned. First it is possible to relate public health concerns to complex technological development in a proactive design mode, which has the potential for long-term cost savings. Second, it became very apparent that prior to committing any nation or international group to spending the billions to start and complete a lunar settlement, over the next century, that a significantly different approach must be taken from those previously proposed, to solve the closed ecosystem and "MMM" problems. Third, it also appears that the health concerns and technology issues to be addressed for human exploration into space are fundamentally those to be solved for human habitation of the Earth (as a closed ecosystem) in the 21st century. Finally, it is proposed that ecosystem design modeling must develop new tools, based on probabilistic models as a step up from closed circuit models.

  14. Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain (United States)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)


    Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

  15. Distilling Design Patterns From Agile Curation Case Studies (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Young, J. W.


    In previous work the authors have argued that there is a need to take a new look at the data management lifecycle. Our core argument is that the data management lifecycle needs to be in essence deconstructed and rebuilt. As part of this process we also argue that much can be gained from applying ideas, concepts, and principles from agile software development methods. To be sure we are not arguing for a rote application of these agile software approaches, however, given various trends related to data and technology, it is imperative to update our thinking about how to approach the data management lifecycle, recognize differing project scales, corresponding variations in structure, and alternative models for solving the problems of scientific data curation. In this paper we will describe what we term agile curation design patterns, borrowing the concept of design patterns from the software world and we will present some initial thoughts on agile curation design patterns as informed by a sample of data curation case studies solicited from participants in agile data curation meeting sessions conducted in 2015-16.

  16. Designing for Diverse Learning: Case Study of Place-Based Learning in Design and Technologies Pre-Service Teacher Education (United States)

    Best, Marnie; MacGregor, Denise; Price, Deborah


    Place-based learning experiences in Design and Technologies education connect people and place with design processes and products. Drawing on place-based learning, this case study shares the experiences of eight final year pre-service Design and Technologies education students from the University of South Australia as they collaborated with…

  17. The design of serious games: a pedagogical experience inthe field of BA design studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Morales Moras


    Full Text Available Academic programs in Design have always faced the challenge of providing the best education in a sphere so changing as Design discipline itself. This is especially true within the current renewal of curricula derived from the implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA and, to a much more general level, the adaptation of the discipline of Design to the new challenges posed by the Knowledge Society. In this context, we present the educational experience of a serious games design workshop, which has been conducted at the Universitat de Barcelona’s Design BA. This pedagogical activity emphasises on three aspects which we believe are fundamental to the current pedagogy of design: to give a more transverse view of this discipline, to value the role of Design as a means of innovation in today's Knowledge Society, and to rethink the social function of Design.

  18. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.


    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  19. Designer as Ethnographer: A Study of Domestic Cooking and Heating Product Design for Irish Older Adults


    White, P. J.


    In many ways, the design of domestic cooking and heating products reflects the zeitgeist of Irish culture throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. From domesticity to materialism, these products have evolved to meet fundamental human needs within the home. Concurrent with this, the methods and processes designers use to create domestic artefacts have evolved and changed. The emergence of Design Ethnography illustrates an evolution where Design has appropriated an establis...

  20. Design Study on a New Separator for PEEM3

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Weishi; Padmore, Howard A


    A new aberration-corrected Photoemission Electron Microscope, called PEEM3, is under development at the Advanced Light Source. The resolution and transmission improvement is realized by correcting the lowest order spherical and chromatic aberrations using an electron mirror. A separator is required to separate the incoming uncorrected electron beam to the mirror from the corrected outgoing electron beam to the projector column. In this paper, we present a design study of a new separator for PEEM3. The layout, the Gaussian optics, the analysis of aberrations and the tolerance on power supply stability and alignment errors are reported.

  1. Design study on advanced reprocessing systems for FR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Kawamura, F.; Nishimura, T.; Kamiya, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)


    A design study has been carried out for four advanced reprocessing technologies for the future fast rector (FR) recycle systems (advanced aqueous, and three non-aqueous systems based on oxide electrowinning, metal electrorefining, and fluoride volatility methods). The systems were evaluated mainly from the viewpoint of economics. It has been shown that, for MOX fuel reprocessing, all the systems with a capacity of 200 t/y attains the economical target, whereas for such a small capacity as 50 t/y, only the non-aqueous systems have potential to attain the target. For metallic and nitride fuel, a metal electrorefining system has been shown to be advantageous. (author)

  2. Subsonic vortex-flow design study for slender wings (United States)

    Lamar, J. E.


    A theoretical study describing the effects of spanwise camber on the lift dependent drag of slender delta wings having leading-edge-vortex-flow is presented. The earlier work by Barsby, using conical flow, indicated that drag levels similar to those in attached flow could be obtained. This is reexamined and then extended to the more practical case of nonconical flow by application of the vortex-lattice method coupled with the suction-analogy and the recently developed Boeing free-vortex-sheet method. Lastly, a design code is introduced which employs the suction analogy in an attempt to define 'optimum' camber surfaces for minimum lift dependent drag for vortex flow conditions

  3. Study of a Modified Design of a Potential Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA


    Full Text Available The conventional potential transformers suffer from ratio error and phase angle error, due to the effects of secondary current, magnetizing current and eddy current. In the present paper attempts have been made to reduce these currents by modifying the conventional design of a potential transformer using feedback technique. A low voltage prototype of this modified potential transformer has been fabricated and its performance characteristics have been experimentally studied in storage oscilloscope. The experimental results are reported in this paper. From these results a very good linear response with negligible phase angle error has been observed.

  4. Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech


    In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....

  5. Study and Design of Communication Strategies for the TLEP Project

    CERN Document Server

    Martin Perez, Cristina


    TLEP (Triple LEP) is a project developed at CERN that proposes to build a new high energy and high luminosity circular electron-positron collider, to be hosted in an 80-to-100 km tunnel in the Geneva area. As a project in its infancy, the study and design of its communication strategies is essential to cluster seed for new potential collaborators, to foster internal knowledge sharing and to be able to be a single point of contact for all external interest in the project.

  6. Design study of an ERL Test Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Goddard, B; Klein, M; Torres-Sanchez, R; Valloni, A


    The modern concept of an Energy Recovery Linac allows providing large electron currents at large beam energy with low power consumption. This concept is used in FEL’s, electron-ion colliders and electron coolers. CERN has started a Design Study of an ERL Test Facility with the purpose of 1) studying the ERL principle, its specific beam dynamics and operational issues, as relevant for LHeC, 2) providing a test bed for superconducting cavity modules, cryogenics and integration, 3) studying beam induced quenches in superconducting magnets and protection methods, 4) providing test beams for detector R&D and other applications. It will be complementary to existing or planned facilities and is fostering international collaboration. The operating frequency of 802 MHz was chosen for performance and for optimum synergy with SPS and LHC; the design of the cryomodule has started. The ERL Test Facility can be constructed in stages from initially 150 MeV to ultimately 1 GeV in 3 passes, with beam currents of up to 8...

  7. Designing Games, Designing Roles: A Study of Youth Agency in an Urban Informal Education Program (United States)

    Sheridan, Kimberly M.; Clark, Kevin; Williams, Asia


    Collaboration (GDMC), an informal education program in 3D computer modeling and 2D interactive game design serving primarily African American youth aged 7 to 19 years in the Washington, D.C. metro area, transformed from a program designed and taught by adults to one designed and taught by youth. In Year 1, 8% of youth participants held a…

  8. On the Pragmatic Design of Literature Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Daneva, Maya


    Systematic literature studies have received much attention in empirical software engineering in recent years. They have become a powerful tool to collect and structure reported knowledge in a systematic and reproducible way. We distinguish systematic literature reviews to systematically analyze...... reported evidence in depth, and systematic mapping studies to structure a field of interest in a broader, usually quantified manner. Due to the rapidly increasing body of knowledge in software engineering, researchers who want to capture the published work in a domain often face an extensive amount....... In this article, we present an experience-based guideline to aid researchers in designing systematic literature studies with special emphasis on the data collection and selection procedures. Our guideline aims at providing a blueprint for a practical and pragmatic path through the plethora of currently available...

  9. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  10. Patterns of change in design metaphor: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A.


    Design metaphors play an important role in the development of many software projects. However, the influence of metaphors on project functionality, design methodology and the interactions among members of the development team is not well understood. This paper seeks insights into these issues by examining the experiences of a design team in building a system under the influence of a particularly strong design metaphor.

  11. Self-Authored Graphic Design: A Strategy for Integrative Studies (United States)

    McCarthy, Steven; De Almeida, Cristina Melibeu


    The purpose of this essay is to introduce the concepts of self-authorship in graphic design education as part of an integrative pedagogy. The enhanced potential of harnessing graphic design's dual modalities--the integrative processes inherent in design thinking and doing, and the ability of graphic design to engage other disciplines by giving…

  12. Design and analysis of in vitro antitumor pharmacodynamic studies. (United States)

    Kalns, J E; Millenbaugh, N J; Wientjes, M G; Au, J L


    The relationship between drug concentration (C), exposure time (t), and the resulting effect (h) for a chemotherapeutic agent is expressed as Cn x t = h. The value of n, derived from curve fitting of the C versus t plot, indicates the relative importance of concentration and exposure time. The selection of concentrations and exposure times in a pharmacodynamic experiment may affect the precision and accuracy of parameter estimation. The use of optimal designs is even more critical when the numbers of experimental conditions are limited by tumor availability (e.g., small size of surgical specimens from patients). The present study used computer-simulated data to define the most efficient in vitro pharmacodynamic experimental designs and the optimal method of pharmacodynamic data analysis. All studies used Monte Carlo simulations to compare designs with varying numbers of drug concentrations, exposure times, and replications. For each selected design, 50-100 error-containing data sets were created by addition of experience-based random errors to expected concentration-response profiles. To compare methods of data analysis, the same 1250 simulated data sets were analyzed by two methods (i.e., surface response method and traditional method). The results showed that simultaneous fitting of drug effect at all concentrations and all exposure times by the surface response method yielded n estimates that had greater precision and accuracy than a traditional method that required sequential determination of the effective inhibitory concentration (e.g., IC50) and then the n value using the IC50 at different exposure times. Subsequent studies were analyzed using the surface response method. To evaluate the effect of selection of concentrations and exposure times on the precision of n estimation, between 1100 and 2200 simulated data sets, with 400 observations per data set, were generated using different exposure times and drug concentrations. Because the number of observations

  13. A study into the design of steerable microphone arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Chiong Ching; Leung, Yee Hong


    The book covers the design formulations for broadband beamformer targeting nearfield and farfield sources. The book content includes background information on the acoustic environment, including propagation medium, the array geometries, signal models and basic beamformer designs. Subsequently it introduces design formulation for nearfield, farfield and mixed nearfield-farfield beamformers and extends the design formulation into electronically steerable beamformers. In addition, a robust formulation is introduced for all the designs mentioned.

  14. ESPRIT study design and outcomes--a critical appraisal. (United States)

    Einhäupl, Karl


    Evidence is needed to guide therapeutic decisions on patients who had ischaemic cerebral events. The recently published European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), an open-label randomised controlled study, compared long-term treatment of patients randomised to aspirin 30-325 mg daily with (n = 1363) or without (n = 1376) dipyridamole 200 mg twice daily. The study found the combination to be superior to aspirin alone (13% vs. 16% events in a composite endpoint of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding; hazard ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.98). In the interpretation of the results, criticism has been raised related to the study design (open-label, change during the study), the study conduct (half of the aspirin patients underdosed, 33% drop-out rate in the combination group, missing information on potential confounders such as protective concomitant medication), and the outcomes (lack of differences in the efficacy outcomes between the intent-to-treat and the on-treatment populations, lack of differences in minor bleedings between treatment groups, borderline statistical significance of primary study endpoint). Further studies are needed to determine the place of aspirin/dipyridamole combinations in the secondary prevention of stroke.

  15. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  16. [Design and study of carbon fiber tracheal prosthesis]. (United States)

    Qi, L; Liu, D; Han, Z; Wang, F


    32 healty adult dogs were selected for this experiment. 10 of them were subjected to the tracheal biomechanics test using indices including the relation between stretcher ratio (lambda) and stress (T), the squeeze stress (delta jy) of medical silk thread on trachea, the side stress (Ts) inducing the tracheal collapse, the functional maximum angle (psi max) of tracheal, and the sever area torsion angle (theta max) of tracheal functional maximum curved. According to the indices measured, two types of tracheal prosthesis were designed, and were made of carbon fiber and silicon. They were the straight tube type tracheal prosthesis and the bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis. The straight tube type tracheal prosthesis was studied with a design of two groups comprising a total of 11 dogs. In the experiment group (n = 6), the outer surface of the tube was not coated with silicon, the average survival period was 379.8 days. In the control group (n = 5), the outer surface of the tube was coated with silicon, the average survival period was 90.4 days. The bifurcate type tracheal prosthesis was studied in 11 dogs, the average survival period was 4.32 days. The main causes of death in the experiment were infection and anastomotic dehiscent.

  17. Parametric study of turbine NGV blade lean and vortex design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shaowen


    Full Text Available The effects of blade lean and vortex design on the aerodynamics of a turbine entry nozzle guide vane (NGV are considered using computational fluid dynamics. The aim of the work is to address some of the uncertainties which have arisen from previous studies where conflicting results have been reported for the effect on the NGV. The configuration was initially based on the energy efficient engine turbine which also served as the validation case for the computational method. A total of 17 NGV configurations were evaluated to study the effects of lean and vortex design on row efficiency and secondary kinetic energy. The distribution of mass flow ratio is introduced as an additional factor in the assessment of blade lean effects. The results show that in the turbine entry NGV, the secondary flow strength is not a dominant factor that determines NGV losses and therefore the changes of loading distribution due to blade lean and the associated loss mechanisms should be regarded as a key factor. Radial mass flow redistribution under different NGV lean and twist is demonstrated as an addition key factor influencing row efficiency.

  18. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.


    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  19. Educational Designs Supporting Student Engagement Through Network Project Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche


    , developed from the traditions of organizing university studies through student-driven project work and problem-driven learning approaches, which have been developed at the Danish universities of Roskilde and Aalborg as early as from the beginning of the 1970s. Specific educational designs integrating...... digital media are discussed, especially focusing on student engagement and the implications of organizing the pedagogical practice as networked project work. The discussions are based on the author’s experiences during 16 years of teaching and supervising at the Danish Master’s Program of ICT and Learning...... (MIL), where students conduct blended learning study in groups within a networked learning structure. In problem-oriented learning and teaching, teachers act as well as teachers and as supervisors of students’ projects. This challenges the traditional teacher role, and it is crucial for a teacher...

  20. The Study on Mental Health at Work: Design and sampling. (United States)

    Rose, Uwe; Schiel, Stefan; Schröder, Helmut; Kleudgen, Martin; Tophoven, Silke; Rauch, Angela; Freude, Gabriele; Müller, Grit


    The Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) generates the first nationwide representative survey enabling the exploration of the relationship between working conditions, mental health and functioning. This paper describes the study design, sampling procedures and data collection, and presents a summary of the sample characteristics. S-MGA is a representative study of German employees aged 31-60 years subject to social security contributions. The sample was drawn from the employment register based on a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Firstly, 206 municipalities were randomly selected from a pool of 12,227 municipalities in Germany. Secondly, 13,590 addresses were drawn from the selected municipalities for the purpose of conducting 4500 face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire covers psychosocial working and employment conditions, measures of mental health, work ability and functioning. Data from personal interviews were combined with employment histories from register data. Descriptive statistics of socio-demographic characteristics and logistic regressions analyses were used for comparing population, gross sample and respondents. In total, 4511 face-to-face interviews were conducted. A test for sampling bias revealed that individuals in older cohorts participated more often, while individuals with an unknown educational level, residing in major cities or with a non-German ethnic background were slightly underrepresented. There is no indication of major deviations in characteristics between the basic population and the sample of respondents. Hence, S-MGA provides representative data for research on work and health, designed as a cohort study with plans to rerun the survey 5 years after the first assessment.

  1. The first structure-activity relationship studies for designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs. (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Choo, Hyunah; Huang, Xi-Ping; Yang, Xiaobao; Stone, Orrin; Roth, Bryan L; Jin, Jian


    Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand-receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine (ACh), but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs, and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure-activity relationships (SARs) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10 000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3.

  2. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  3. Topics in Study Design and Analysis for Multistage Clinical Proteomics Studies. (United States)

    Zeng, Irene Sui Lan


    This chapter discusses the design issues in clinical proteomics study and provides specific suggestions for addressing these questions when using the standard guidelines for the planning. It provides two methods for the sample size estimation in study design. The first method is used for the planning of a clinical proteomic study at the discovery or verification stage; the second method is proposed for the systematic planning of a multistage study. The second part of the chapter introduces three approaches to analyzing the clinical proteomic study and provides analyses for two case studies of clinical proteomic discoveries.

  4. Optimal design of studies of influenza transmission in households. I: case-ascertained studies. (United States)

    Klick, B; Leung, G M; Cowling, B J


    Case-ascertained household transmission studies, in which households including an 'index case' are recruited and followed up, are invaluable to understanding the epidemiology of influenza. We used a simulation approach parameterized with data from household transmission studies to evaluate alternative study designs. We compared studies that relied on self-reported illness in household contacts vs. studies that used home visits to collect swab specimens for virological confirmation of secondary infections, allowing for the trade-off between sample size vs. intensity of follow-up given a fixed budget. For studies estimating the secondary attack proportion, 2-3 follow-up visits with specimens collected from all members regardless of illness were optimal. However, for studies comparing secondary attack proportions between two or more groups, such as controlled intervention studies, designs with reactive home visits following illness reports in contacts were most powerful, while a design with one home visit optimally timed also performed well.

  5. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.


    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb/sub 3/Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given.

  6. Design (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene


    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  7. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu


    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  8. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M


    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  9. Service life and sustainable design methods: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Duling, J


    Full Text Available design methods and inappropriate maintenance levels. Unsustainable design methods, such as long narrow multi-floor structures resulting in excessive walking distances and ineffective flow of patients and visitors, and insufficient structural depth...

  10. How university teachers design assessments: a cross disciplinary study


    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth; Boud, David; Joughin, Gordon


    There are dissonances between educators’ aspirations for assessment design and actual assessment implementation in higher education. Understanding how assessment is designed ‘on the ground’ can assist in resolving this tension. Thirty-three Australian university educators from a mix of disciplines and institutions were interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts indicated that assessment design begins as a response to an impetus for change. The design process itself was shaped by envi...

  11. An Industrial Designer's Ethic, A Study: Products for Urban Ecology


    Johnson, Bonnie Kathryn


    This body of work aims to discover opportunities for industrial design to support sustainable ways of living in a materialistic society. At first glance, sustainable living and product design seem incongruent. Perhaps through investigation of the nature of product design and models of sustainability, a plan can be established which actually strengthens the reality of each in light of social, economic and environmental issues.

  12. The three visions of design in the field of Cognitive Design Studies. Introduction to issue 2 of Collection, on "Art + Design & Psychology"


    Visser, Willemien


    There is a French version of this paper: W. Visser (2010). Les trois visions du design dans le champ des Cognitive Design Studies. Introduction au numéro 2 de Collection : " Art + Design & Psychologie ". Collection [version française](2), 7-9. see; International audience; This text is the introduction to issue 2 of Collection, on "Art + Design & Psychology". It briefly presents the three visions of design in the field of Cognitive Des...

  13. Theoretical and computational studies in protein folding, design, and function (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael Patrick


    In this work, simplified statistical models are used to understand an array of processes related to protein folding and design. In Part I, lattice models are utilized to test several theories about the statistical properties of protein-like systems. In Part II, sequence analysis and all-atom simulations are used to advance a novel theory for the behavior of a particular protein. Part I is divided into five chapters. In Chapter 2, a method of sequence design for model proteins, based on statistical mechanical first-principles, is developed. The cumulant design method uses a mean-field approximation to expand the free energy of a sequence in temperature. The method successfully designs sequences which fold to a target lattice structure at a specific temperature, a feat which was not possible using previous design methods. The next three chapters are computational studies of the double mutant cycle, which has been used experimentally to predict intra-protein interactions. Complete structure prediction is demonstrated for a model system using exhaustive, and also sub-exhaustive, double mutants. Nonadditivity of enthalpy, rather than of free energy, is proposed and demonstrated to be a superior marker for inter-residue contact. Next, a new double mutant protocol, called exchange mutation, is introduced. Although simple statistical arguments predict exchange mutation to be a more accurate contact predictor than standard mutant cycles, this hypothesis was not upheld in lattice simulations. Reasons for this inconsistency will be discussed. Finally, a multi-chain folding algorithm is introduced. Known as LINKS, this algorithm was developed to test a method of structure prediction which utilizes chain-break mutants. While structure prediction was not successful, LINKS should nevertheless be a useful tool for the study of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The last chapter of Part I utilizes the lattice to explore the differences between standard folding, from

  14. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole


    project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  15. Designing Evaluations: A Study Examining Preferred Evaluation Designs of Educational Evaluators (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Szanyi, Michael


    A sample of educational evaluators was asked to design an outcomes-focused evaluation of a school program that aims to improve the academic achievement and self-esteem of students. Evaluators provided detailed descriptions of their evaluation design and methodology in their responses. These descriptions were coded and analyzed to determine the…

  16. Incomplete by Design: A Study of a Design-in-Use Approach to Systems Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten


    In complex work settings the design of a system, including the associated work practices, must be completed in use to derive full benefit from the system. We investigate the introduction of an electronic whiteboard throughout a hospital in which management substituted a local design-in-use process...

  17. Preliminary Design of a Modular Unmanned Research Vehicle. Volume 2. Subsystem Technical Development Design Study (United States)


    Estimate the weight of trapped fuel and oil, WTFO. Roskam suggests that this weight is often neglible in initial estimates for gross weight [83:7j...Roskain, Jan. Airplane Design: Part 1, Preliminary Sizing of Airplanes. Ottawa KA: Roskam Aviation and Engineering Corp., 1985. 84. --. Airplane Design

  18. Designing with 3D Printed Textiles : A case study of Material Driven Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lussenburg, K.; Van der Velden, N.M.; Doubrovski, E.L.; Geraedts, J.M.P.; Karana, E.


    This paper describes the findings and results of a design project with the goal to design a wearable garment using 3D Printed textiles, which not only has functional or environmental superiorities, but also experiential ones. The approach that was adopted for this project is a recently developed

  19. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.


    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  20. Collaborative Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roybal, Adam [Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative, Inc., Hernandez, NM (United States); Bailey, Jr., Richard J. [Northern New Mexico College, Espanola, NM (United States)


    In May of 2017, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) through the Applied Engineering Technology Division, Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. (JMEC), and Northern New Mexico College (NNMC) agreed to enter into a small, joint, non-binding Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) design study related to grid level energy storage to begin a process of collaboration. Los Alamos National Laboratory's mission is to solve national security challenges through scientific excellence. The mission of Northern New Mexico College is to ensure student success by providing access to affordable, community-based learning opportunities that meet the educational, cultural, and economic needs of the region. Jemez Mountain Electric Cooperative Inc. is the largest electric co-op in the State of New Mexico providing affordable and reliable electricity to customers in the five counties of Rio Arriba, Santa Fe, San Juan, McKinley and Sandoval.

  1. Preliminary Design Study for a National Digital Seismograph Network (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.


    Introduction Recently, the National Research Council published a report by the Panel on National, Regional, and Local Seismograph Networks of the Committee on Seismology in which the principal recommendation was for the establishment of a national digital seismograph network (NDSN). The Panel Report (Bolt, 1980) addresses both the need and the scientific requirements for the new national network. The purpose of this study has been to translate the scientific requirements into an instrumentation concept for the NSDS. There are literally hundreds, perhaps thousands, of seismographs in operation within the United States. Each serves an important purpose, but most have limited objectives in time, in region, or in the types of data that are being recorded. The concept of a national network, funded and operated by the Federal Government, is based on broader objectives that include continuity of time, uniform coverage, standardization of data format and instruments, and widespread use of the data for a variety of research purposes. A national digital seismograph network will be an important data resource for many years to come; hence, its design is likely to be of interest to most seismologists. Seismologists have traditionally been involved in the development and field operation of seismic systems and thus have been familiar with both the potential value and the limitations of the data. However, in recent years of increasing technological sophistication, the development of data sstems has fallen more to system engineers, and this trend is likely to continue. One danger in this is that the engineers may misinterpret scientific objectives or subordinate them to purely technological considerations. Another risk is that the data users may misuse or misinterpret the data because they are not aware of the limitations of the data system. Perhaps the most important purpose of a design study such as this is to stimulate a dialogue between system engineers and potential data users

  2. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery


    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  3. A case study of collaborative facilities in engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pugmire, David [ORNL


    In this paper we describe the use of visualization tools and facilities in the collaborative design of a replacement weapons system, the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW). We used not only standard collaboration methods but also a range of visualization software and facilities to bring together domain specialists from laboratories across the country to collaborate on the design and integrate this disparate input early in the design. This was the first time in U.S. weapons history that a weapon had been designed in this collaborative manner. Benefits included projected cost savings, design improvements and increased understanding across the project.

  4. Passive solar house design studies. Northern England and Scotland. Group 3. Single developer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M.; Tillotson, R.B.; Warren, B.F.; Wilkinson, W.; Wiltshire, T.J.


    During the progress of the Design Studies the methodology, particularly of the performance assessments had been evolving. It became apparent on completion of the reports on individual studies that meaningful comparisons across the studies needed a common methodology. As a result ETSU commissioned a number of further assessments, the results of which appear as an Addendum to this report. (author)

  5. Design of the Blood Pressure Goals in Dialysis pilot study. (United States)

    Gul, Ambreen; Miskulin, Dana; Gassman, Jennifer; Harford, Antonia; Horowitz, Bruce; Chen, Joline; Paine, Susan; Bedrick, Edward; Kusek, John W; Unruh, Mark; Zager, Philip


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is markedly increased among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Optimizing blood pressure (BP) among HD patients may present an important opportunity to reduce the disparity in CVD rates between HD patients and the general population. The optimal target predialysis systolic BP (SBP) among HD patients is unknown. Current international guidelines, calling for a predialysis SBP patients are randomized to either a target-standardized predialysis SBP of 110 to 140 mm Hg or 155 to 165 mm Hg. This is the first study to randomize HD patients to 2 different SBP targets. Primary outcomes are feasibility and safety. Feasibility parameters include recruitment and retention rates, adherence with prescribed BP measurements and achievement and maintenance of selected BP targets. Safety parameters include rates of hypotension and other adverse and serious adverse events. The authors obtained preliminary data on changes in left ventricular mass, aortic pulse wave velocity, vascular access thromboses and health-related quality of life across study arms, which may be the secondary outcomes in the full-scale study. The data acquired in the pilot RCT will determine the feasibility and safety and inform the design of a full-scale trial, powered for hard outcomes, which may require 2000 participants.

  6. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study. (United States)

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R


    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Lunar Lander Structural Design Studies at NASA Langley (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Antol, Jeffrey; Watson, Judith J.; Flick, John J.; Saucillo, Rudolph J.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; North, David D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing mission architectures, vehicle concepts and flight hardware to support the planned human return to the Moon. During Phase II of the 2006 Lunar Lander Preparatory Study, a team from the Langley Research Center was tasked with developing and refining two proposed Lander concepts. The Descent-Assisted, Split Habitat Lander concept uses a disposable braking stage to perform the lunar orbit insertion maneuver and most of the descent from lunar orbit to the surface. The second concept, the Cargo Star Horizontal Lander, carries ascent loads along its longitudinal axis, and is then rotated in flight so that its main engines (mounted perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal axis) are correctly oriented for lunar orbit insertion and a horizontal landing. Both Landers have separate crew transport volumes and habitats for surface operations, and allow placement of large cargo elements very close to the lunar surface. As part of this study, lightweight, efficient structural configurations for these spacecraft were proposed and evaluated. Vehicle structural configurations were first developed, and preliminary structural sizing was then performed using finite element-based methods. Results of selected structural design and trade studies performed during this activity are presented and discussed.

  8. Study for optimizing the design of optical temperature sensor (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Sun, Zhen; Shi, Ruixin; Liu, Guofeng; Fu, Zuoling; Wei, Yanling


    The correlations between temperature sensitivity (relative sensitivity Sr and absolute sensitivity Sa) and thermally coupled level gaps (ΔE) are vital but less-studied for potential applications in scientific research, industrial production, clinical medicine, and so on. We take YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) up-conversion phosphors as a case to study the relationships between temperature sensitivity (Sr, Sa) and ΔE. The results of various discussions, including the experimental data of temperature sensitivity based on YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) and theoretical derivation from original formulas, show that Sr and ΔE are linearly positive correlation, which is invalid for Sa. Noticeably, YbPO4:Tm3+ nanoparticles display intense near infrared red emission within the biological window, leading to great potential application in biological sensing and biological imaging. All the research studies would benefit the design of optical temperature sensing.

  9. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.


    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  10. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Design Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornacchia, Massimo


    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the wavelength range 1.5-15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called the ''Linac Coherent Light Source'' (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. Starting in FY 1998, the first two-thirds of the SLAC linac will be used for injection into the B factory. This leaves the last one-third free for acceleration to 15 GeV. The LCLS takes advantage of this opportunity, opening the way for the next generation of synchrotron light sources with largely proven technology and cost effective methods. This proposal is consistent with the recommendations of the Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (Synchrotron Radiation Light Source Working Group, October 18-19, 1997). The report recognizes that ''fourth-generation x-ray sources...will in all likelihood be based on the free electron laser concepts. If successful, this technology could yield improvements in brightness by many orders of magnitude.'' This Design Study, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of constructing an x-ray FEL based on the SLAC linac. Although this design is based on a consistent and feasible set of parameters, some components require more research and development to guarantee the performance. Given appropriate funding, this R and D phase can be completed in 2 years.

  11. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386 (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.


    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  12. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group


    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  13. Evaluating clinical and public health interventions: a practical guide to study design and statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H


    .... Because the choice of research design depends on the nature of the intervention, the book covers randomized and nonrandomized designs, prospective and retrospective studies, planned clinical trials...

  14. Mechanical Design and Fabrication Studies for SPL Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; Aviles Santillana, I; Capatina, O; Renaglia, T; Tardy, T; Valverde Alonso, N; Weingarten, W


    CERN’s R&D programme on the Superconducting Proton Linac’s (SPL) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) elliptical cavities made from niobium sheets explores new mechanical design and consequently new fabrication methods, where several opportunities for improved optimization were identified. A stainless steel helium vessel is under design rather than a titanium helium vessel using an integrated brazed transition between Nb and the SS helium vessel. Different design and fabrication aspects were proposed and the results are discussed hereafter.

  15. A case study of collaborative facilities use in engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this paper we describe the use of visualization tools and facilities in the collaborative design of a replacement weapons system, the Reliable Replacement Warhead. We used not only standard collaboration methods but also a range of visualization software and facilities to bring together domain specialists from laboratories across the country to collaborate on the design and integrate this disparate input early in the design.

  16. Sustainable Interactions: Studies in the Design of Energy Awareness Artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broms, Loove


    This thesis presents a collection of experimental designs that approach the problem of growing electricity consumption in homes. From the perspective of design, the intention has been to critically explore the design space of energy awareness artefacts to reinstate awareness of energy use in everyday practice. The design experiments were used as vehicles for thinking about the relationship between physical form, interaction, and social practice. The rationale behind the concepts was based on a small-scale ethnography, situated interviews, and design experience. Moreover, the thesis compares designer intention and actual user experiences of a prototype that was installed in nine homes in a residential area in Stockholm for three months. This was done in order to elicit tacit knowledge about how the concept was used in real-world domestic settings, to challenge everyday routines, and to enable both users and designers to critically reflect on artefacts and practices. From a design perspective, contributions include design approaches to communicating energy use: visualizations for showing relationships between behaviour and electricity consumption, shapes and forms to direct action, means for turning restrictions caused by energy conservation into central parts of the product experience, and ways to promote sustainable behaviour with positive driving forces based on user lifestyles. The general results indicate that inclusion is of great importance when designing energy awareness artefacts; all members of the household should be able to access, interact with, and reflect on their energy use. Therefore, design-related aspects such as placement and visibility, as well as how the artefact might affect the social interactions in the home, become central. Additionally, the thesis argues that these types of artefacts can potentially create awareness accompanied by negative results such as stress. A challenge for the designer is to create artefacts that communicate and

  17. Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module (United States)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.


    The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.

  18. 77 FR 9946 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications... (United States)


    ... on Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and Labeling... entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and Labeling... availability of a revised draft guidance for industry entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data...

  19. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.


    This report contains a review of design studies for inertial confinement reactors. The first of three volumes briefly discusses the following: Introduction; Key objectives, requirements, and assumptions; Systems modeling and trade studies; Prometheus-L reactor plant design overview; Prometheus-H reactor plant design overview; Key technical issues and R&D requirements; Comparison of IFE designs; and study conclusions.

  20. The Role of Context Free Collaboration Design Patterns in Learning Design within LAMS: Lessons Learned from an Empirical Study (United States)

    Kordaki, Maria


    This study presents an experiment aimed at the design of short learning courses in the context of LAMS, using a number of specific context-free collaboration design patterns implemented within LAMS. In fact, 25 Prospective Computer Engineers (PCEs) participated in this experiment. The analysis of the data shows that PCEs fully used these context…

  1. New Perspective on Visual Communication Design Education: An Empirical Study of Applying Narrative Theory to Graphic Design Courses (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan


    Visual communication design (VCD) is a form of nonverbal communication. The application of relevant linguistic or semiotic theories to VCD education renders graphic design an innovative and scientific discipline. In this study, actual teaching activities were examined to verify the feasibility of applying narrative theory to graphic design…

  2. GIS-based landscape design research : Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.


    Landscape design research is important for cultivating spatial intelligence in landscape architecture. This study explores GIS (geographic information systems) as a tool for landscape design research – investigating landscape designs to understand them as architectonic compositions and to acquire

  3. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal-Crespo Laura


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22 to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can

  4. Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Daru


    Full Text Available Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors.

  5. The Elements and Principles of Design: A Baseline Study (United States)

    Adams, Erin


    Critical to the discipline, both professionally and academically, are the fundamentals of interior design. These fundamentals include the elements and principles of interior design: the commonly accepted tools and vocabulary used to create and communicate successful interior environments. Research indicates a lack of consistency in both the…

  6. How University Teachers Design Assessments: A Cross-Disciplinary Study (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth; Boud, David; Joughin, Gordon


    There are dissonances between educators' aspirations for assessment design and actual assessment implementation in higher education. Understanding how assessment is designed "on the ground" can assist in resolving this tension. Thirty-three Australian university educators from a mix of disciplines and institutions were interviewed. A…

  7. Data-Enabled Design for Social Change: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Marti


    Full Text Available Smartness in contemporary society implies the use of massive data to improve the experience of people with connected services and products. The use of big data to collect information about people’s behaviours opens a new concept of “user-centred design” where users are remotely monitored, observed and profiled. In this paradigm, users are considered as sources of information and their participation in the design process is limited to a role of data generators. There is a need to identify methodologies that actively involve people and communities at the core of ecosystems of interconnected products and services. Our contribution to designing for social innovation in ecosystems relies on developing new methods and approaches to transform data-driven design using a participatory and co-creative data-enabled design approach. To this end, we present one of the methods we have developed to design “smart” systems called Experiential Design Landscapes (EDL, and two sample projects, Social Stairs and [Y]our Perspective. Social Stairs faces the topic of behaviour change mediated by sensing technologies. [Y]our Perspective is a social platform to sustain processes of deliberative democracy. Both projects exemplify our approach to data-enabled design as a social proactive participatory design approach.

  8. Relating Right Brain Studies to the Design Process. (United States)

    Hofland, John

    Intended for teachers of theatrical design who need to describe a design process for their students, this paper begins by giving a brief overview of recent research that has described the different functions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It then notes that although the left hemisphere tends to dominate the right hemisphere, it is the…

  9. Optimization of Blocked Designs in fMRI Studies (United States)

    Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.


    Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…

  10. Performance Design Study Programme Description Fagmodul i performancedesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Lydoptagelse af studieordningsteksten 'fagmodul i performance design'. Til brug ved performativ situation ved semesterstart for fagmodulstuderende efterår 2015. Varighed: 7 min 42 sek.......Lydoptagelse af studieordningsteksten 'fagmodul i performance design'. Til brug ved performativ situation ved semesterstart for fagmodulstuderende efterår 2015. Varighed: 7 min 42 sek....

  11. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.


    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  12. Designing pilot projects as boundary objects a Brazilian case study in the promotion of sustainable design

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Francesco


    This book describes a collaborative Design Pilot Project held in Brazil (called MODU.Lares) involving micro and small enterprises and other actors in the furniture sector. The experience was based on an action research method and evaluated by using a tool, in order to assess the value of pilot project as a boundary object capable of fostering innovation and sustainability. The impact of the Design Pilot Project in triggering change in a fragmented local system with a poor environmental and social record, as well as management and innovation issues, were assessed with the help of the same tool, taking into account environmental, technological, economic, sociocultural, and organizational indicators. The collaborative network established was chiefly based on four elements: prototypes, meetings, exhibitions and the Pilot Project (as an overall process). The results indeed demonstrate that a Design Pilot Project can be a valid instrument for establishing a collaborative environment that promotes sustainability an...

  13. Interactive flutter analysis and parametric study for conceptual wing design (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek


    An interactive computer program was developed for wing flutter analysis in the conceptual design stage. The objective was to estimate the flutter instability boundary of a flexible cantilever wing, when well defined structural and aerodynamic data are not available, and then study the effect of change in Mach number, dynamic pressure, torsional frequency, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, taper ratio, center of gravity, and pitch inertia, to guide the development of the concept. The software was developed on MathCad (trademark) platform for Macintosh, with integrated documentation, graphics, database and symbolic mathematics. The analysis method was based on nondimensional parametric plots of two primary flutter parameters, namely Regier number and Flutter number, with normalization factors based on torsional stiffness, sweep, mass ratio, aspect ratio, center of gravity location and pitch inertia radius of gyration. The plots were compiled in a Vaught Corporation report from a vast database of past experiments and wind tunnel tests. The computer program was utilized for flutter analysis of the outer wing of a Blended Wing Body concept, proposed by McDonnell Douglas Corporation. Using a set of assumed data, preliminary flutter boundary and flutter dynamic pressure variation with altitude, Mach number and torsional stiffness were determined.

  14. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher


    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  15. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies. (United States)

    Hansen, Lara; Hoffman, Jennifer; Drews, Carlos; Mielbrecht, Eric


    To be successful, conservation practitioners and resource managers must fully integrate the effects of climate change into all planning projects. Some conservation practitioners are beginning to develop, test, and implement new approaches that are designed to deal with climate change. We devised four basic tenets that are essential in climate-change adaptation for conservation: protect adequate and appropriate space, reduce nonclimate stresses, use adaptive management to implement and test climate-change adaptation strategies, and work to reduce the rate and extent of climate change to reduce overall risk. To illustrate how this approach applies in the real world, we explored case studies of coral reefs in the Florida Keys; mangrove forests in Fiji, Tanzania, and Cameroon; sea-level rise and sea turtles in the Caribbean; tigers in the Sundarbans of India; and national planning in Madagascar. Through implementation of these tenets conservation efforts in each of these regions can be made more robust in the face of climate change. Although these approaches require reconsidering some traditional approaches to conservation, this new paradigm is technologically, economically, and intellectually feasible.

  16. Design study of a bar-type EMR device

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian


    It is well known that extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) depends on the geometric parameters of the EMR device and the locations of the electrodes. In this paper, the performance of a bar-type EMR device is simulated with respect to the device geometry and electrode locations. The performance is evaluated with regards to the output sensitivity of the device, rather than the often analyzed EMR ratio, since it is more relevant than the EMR ratio for potential applications ranging from read heads to smart biomedical sensors. The results obtained with the finite element method show the dependence of the output sensitivity on the device geometry the placements of the electric contacts as well as the strength of the applied magnetic field in different configurations and allow finding the optimum parameters. Within the studied range of -1 to 1 T both IVVI and VIIV configurations show very similar behavior. For EMR sensors of high sensitivity, the results suggest that a simple two-contact device would provide the best performance replacing the conventional four-contact design. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics. (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Ge, Siqi; Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Anxin; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Qiu, Jing; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Wei


    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations. SHSQ-25 thus affords a window of opportunity for early detection and intervention, contributing to the reduction of chronic disease burdens. To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), we initiated the China suboptimal health cohort study (COACS), a longitudinal study starting from 2013. Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; and Phase II: a longitudinal yearly follow-up study investigating how SHS contributes to the incidence and pattern of NCD. (1) Cross-sectional survey: in total, 4313 participants (53.8 % women) aged from 18 to 65 years were included in the cohort. The prevalence of SHS was 9.0 % using SHS score of 35 as threshold. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of SHS (10.6 % in the female vs. 7.2 % in the male, P differed significantly between subjects of SHS (SHS score ≥35) and those of ideal health (SHS score difference in prevalence of SHS might partly explain the gender difference of incidence of certain chronic diseases. The COACS will enable a thorough characterization of SHS and establish a cohort that will be used for longitudinal analyses of the interaction between the genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and etiology of targeted chronic diseases. The study together with the designed prospective cohort provides a chance to characterize and evaluate the effect of SHS

  18. Aerocapture Design Study for a Titan Polar Orbiter (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Kirchman, F.; Esper, J.; Folta, D.; Mashiku, A.


    In 2014 a team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) studied the feasibility of using active aerocapture to reduce the chemical ΔV requirements for inserting a small scientific satellite into Titan polar orbit. The scientific goals of the mission would be multi-spectral imaging and active radar mapping of Titan's surface and subsurface. The study objectives were to: (i) identify and select from launch window opportunities and refine the trajectory to Titan; (ii) study the aerocapture flight path and refine the entry corridor; (iii) design a carrier spacecraft and systems architecture; (iv) develop a scientific and engineering plan for the orbital portion of the mission. Study results include: (i) a launch in October 2021 on an Atlas V vehicle, using gravity assists from Earth and Venus to arrive at Titan in January 2031; (ii) initial aerocapture via an 8-km wide entry corridor to reach an initial 350-6000 km orbit, followed by aerobraking to reach a 350-1500 km orbit, and a periapse raise maneuver to reach a final 1500 km circular orbit; (iii) a three-part spacecraft system consisting of a cruise stage, radiator module, and orbiter inside a heat shield; (iv) a 22-month mission including station keeping to prevent orbital decay due to Saturn perturbations, with 240 Gb of compressed data returned. High-level issues identified include: (i) downlink capability - realistic downlink rates preclude the desired multi- spectral, global coverage of Titan's surface; (ii) power - demise of the NASA ASRG (Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator) program, and limited availability at present of MMRTGs (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generators) needed for competed outer planet missions; (iii) thermal - external radiators must be carried to remove 4 kW of waste heat from MMRTGs inside the aeroshell, requiring heat pipes that pass through the aeroshell lid, compromising shielding ability; (iv) optical navigation to reach the entry corridor; (v) the NASA requirement of continuous

  19. Trophic magnification factors: considerations of ecology, ecosystems, and study design. (United States)

    Borgå, Katrine; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, Derek C G; Berglund, Olof; Conder, Jason M; Gobas, Frank A P C; Kucklick, John; Malm, Olaf; Powell, David E


    Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (δ(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of δ(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to

  20. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications. (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O


    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  1. The treatment of severe child aggression (TOSCA study: Design challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Cristan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy (the concurrent use of more than one psychoactive drug and other combination interventions are increasingly common for treatment of severe psychiatric problems only partly responsive to monotherapy. This practice and research on it raise scientific, clinical, and ethical issues such as additive side effects, interactions, threshold for adding second drug, appropriate target measures, and (for studies timing of randomization. One challenging area for treatment is severe child aggression. Commonly-used medications, often in combination, include psychostimulants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and alpha-2 agonists, which vary considerably in terms of perceived safety and efficacy. Results In designing our NIMH-funded trial of polypharmacy, we focused attention on the added benefit of a second drug (risperidone to the effect of the first (stimulant. We selected these two drugs because their associated adverse events might neutralize each other (e.g., sleep delay and appetite decrease from stimulant versus sedation and appetite increase from antipsychotic. Moreover, there was considerable evidence of efficacy for each drug individually for the management of ADHD and child aggression. The study sample comprised children (ages 6-12 years with both diagnosed ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder accompanied by severe physical aggression. In a staged sequence, the medication with the least problematic adverse effects (stimulant was openly titrated in 3 weeks to optimal effect. Participants whose behavioral symptoms were not normalized received additional double-blind medication, either risperidone or placebo, by random assignment. Thus children whose behavioral symptoms were normalized with stimulant medication were not exposed to an antipsychotic. All families participated in an empirically-supported parent training program for disruptive behavior, so that the actual

  2. Study and design of beam expander with wide aperture (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Jin, Guangyong; Cai, Jixing; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Zhi


    In order to improve the capacity of beam collimation for laser beam expander, it is necessary to design a more reasonable and feasible structure of beam expander system. Laser beam expander is used to compress the laser divergence angle, in order to reduce the energy losing in long distance scanning acquisition system. This paper introduces the working principle and design idea of the laser beam expander, the collimating multiplying power focal length and the collimated magnification formula of expander main, secondary mirror. According to the third-order aberration theory, Considering the spherical aberration, sine difference and divergence angle, the reasonable analysis of optical path, ZEMAX optical design software was used to design large-diameter laser beam expander and analysis and optimize, And given the actual design data and results. Display the maximum optical path difference is +/-0.01λ of the main light ray and each light ray. To combination the rear- group objective lens of Galileo and Kepler beam expander, a large-diameter(1.475m) laser beam expander was designed with 0.2m in the diameter, 1/2m in the relative caliber. In the objective lens System, a high-order aspherical was used to the aberration of extra-axial point. we can see that the image quality is close to the diffraction limit from the curves of wavefront. In addition to improve image quality effectively, the system has the characteristics of simple structure, less costly and less design difficulty to compare with the other beam expanding system. And make the output beam's divergence angle smaller, energy density higher, and the beam quality has been greatly improved. The results show that the beam expander is fully meet the design requirements, the use effect is good. Design and research of laser beam expanding system not only improves the quality of the laser beam in the laser system, but also enlarge the application field of laser technology in photoelectric system.

  3. Reactive silence design: conceptual design study of silencer with perforated tube bundle. Rev.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swamy, M.; Buijs, L.J.; Smeulers, J.P.M.


    Two screw compressors used for the recycling of waste gas showed high vibration in the discharge piping. To mitigate the vibration problems new silencers had to be designed. A great challenge was the large variation in operating conditions, especially the variation of the molecular weight of the

  4. The Internet and HIV study: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elford Jonathan


    on both qualitative and quantitative research among online and offline samples, as well as taking advantage of recent advances in web survey design. The study's findings will help us better understand the role of the Internet in relation to gay men's sexual practice

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness studies: study design and data analysis. (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L


    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements have been widely used as primary endpoint in studies into the effects of new interventions as alternative for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There are no accepted standards on the use of CIMT measurements in intervention studies and choices in the design and analysis of a CIMT study are generally based on experience and expert opinion. In the present review, we provide an overview of the current evidence on several aspects in the design and analysis of a CIMT study on the early effects of new interventions. A balanced evaluation of the carotid segments, carotid walls, and image view to be used as CIMT study endpoint; the reading method (manual or semi-automated and continuously or in batch) to be employed, the required sample size, and the frequency of ultrasound examinations is provided. We also discuss the preferred methods to analyse longitudinal CIMT data and address the possible impact of, and methods to deal with missing and biologically implausible CIMT values. Linear mixed effects models are the preferred way to analyse CIMT data and do appropriately handle missing and biologically implausible CIMT values. Furthermore, we recommend to use extensive CIMT designs that measure CIMT at regular points during the multiple carotid sites as such approach is likely to increase the success rates of CIMT intervention studies designed to evaluate the effects of new interventions on atherosclerotic burden.

  6. Communicating Emotion through Haptic Design: A Study Using Physical Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Marie Kjær; Larsen, Anne Cathrine; Maier, Anja


    and prototypes of four ‘haptically enhanced’ (physical) keys were created. Types of keys selected include home, bicycle, hobby, and basement. An experiment with ten participants was conducted, using word association and a software to elicit product emotions (PrEmo). Results show a mapping between the designer’s......This paper explores how designers may communicate with the users of their products through haptic design. More specifically, how tactile properties of materials evoke emotions such as satisfaction, joy, or disgust. A research through design approach has been followed; mood- and material boards...... intent and the user’s inference. We conclude that it is thus viable to communicate emotions using haptic design. Moreover, we found that when using their sense of touch, participants’ previous positive or negative memories and experiences were projected onto the objects....

  7. Study designs and potential biases in sports injury research. The case-control study. (United States)

    Schootman, M; Powell, J W; Torner, J C


    Several different epidemiological study designs can be used for aetiological investigations of potential risk factors for the occurrence of sports injuries. The case-control study is an example of a retrospective design in which the investigator starts with the classification of injury status (case or control) and obtains information regarding prior exposure to risk factors. Several decisions need to be made when designing case-control studies. Firstly, the source of the study participants needs to be considered. Cases and controls need to be identified from the same source, i.e. same sport or clinic. Secondly, the same eligibility criteria need to be applied to potential cases and controls. Thirdly, when an injury occurred must be established. The fourth issue concerns the status of cases (incident or prevalent cases). Finally, the number and size of the control groups needs to be determined. Strengths of the case-control study design are the high level of information obtained, the relatively low cost and its usefulness for studying rare sports injuries. The higher susceptibility to bias is one of the limitations of case-control studies. Bias in a case-control study can lead to over or underestimation of the true association between an alleged risk factor and the occurrence of sports injuries. Three types of bias have been distinguished: (i) selection bias; (ii) information bias; and (iii) confounding. Furthermore, the applicability of this type of design is limited to risk factors that remain relatively stable after the occurrence of an injury. The effect of changeable risk factors, such as quadriceps strength and range of motion, is difficult to assess since in many cases data at the time of injury are unavailable.



    RAJAEI, Bahareh; ESMAILI, Niaz


    Abstract. As climate change and global warming effects have increased worldwide, sustainability becomes the main aspect for constructing new buildings and conserving existing ones.Sustainable design should be applied in all phases of the life cycle of a building, including programming, design, building construction, building operation, and finally demolition.  Sustainability is not yet a term which is described in the building decree. However, it is a very important theme of this moment .The ...

  9. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study


    Hope Angelique Wells; Lyubava Fartushenko; Andrew Chamberlain


    In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdiscip...

  10. Genetic Algorithms with Niching for Conceptual Design Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, S


    The paper describes the use of genetic algorithms with the concept of niching for the conceptual design of superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider, LHC at CERN. The method provides the designer with a number of possible solutions which can then be further optimized for field quality and manufacturability. Two 6 block dipole coils were found and proved to have advantages compared to the standard 5 block version.

  11. Design study of toroidal traction CVT for electric vehicles (United States)

    Raynard, A. E.; Kraus, J.; Bell, D. D.


    The development, evaluation, and optimization of a preliminary design concept for a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to couple the high-speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle is discussed. An existing computer simulation program was modified and used to compare the performance of five CVT design configurations. Based on this analysis, a dual-cavity full-toroidal drive with regenerative gearing is selected for the CVT design configuration. Three areas are identified that will require some technological development: the ratio control system, the traction fluid properities, and evaluation of the traction contact performance. Finally, the suitability of the selected CVT design concept for alternate electric and hybrid vehicle applications and alternate vehicle sizes and maximum output torques is determined. In all cases the toroidal traction drive design concept is applicable to the vehicle system. The regenerative gearing could be eliminated in the electric powered vehicle because of the reduced ratio range requirements. In other cases the CVT with regenerative gearing would meet the design requirements after appropriate adjustments in size and reduction gearing ratio.

  12. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)


    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  13. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies. (United States)

    Chapin, R E; Sloane, R A


    The Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) design has been used by the National Toxicology Program for approximately 15 years. This article details the evolutions in the thinking behind the design and the end points used in the identification of hazards to reproduction. Means of nominating chemicals are provided, and both early and current designs are described as well as some proposed changes for the future. This introduction is followed by a text and tabular summary of each study performed to date. We hope that this will not only be an explicit presentation of the findings of this testing program to date, but will help stimulate thinking about new ways to detect and measure reproductive toxicity in rodents, and help identify new relationships among the end points that are measured in such studies.

  14. Design of informative renal impairment studies: evaluation of the impact of design stratification on bias, precision and dose adjustment error. (United States)

    van Hasselt, J G Coen; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R


    Renal impairment (RI) studies are conducted to estimate the impact of RI on pharmacokinetics (PK). In some disease areas, these studies can be difficult to conduct, for instance due to the limited number of eligible patients. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate bias and precision of population PK parameters, and the dose adjustment error (DAE) for RI studies i) with different levels of study design imbalance in the stratification of subjects across RI categories, and ii) that include additional patients in the control arm of RI studies, that may be available from previously conducted PK studies. Study designs were simulated and re-estimated using a hypothetical 2-compartmental PK model with varying magnitude of the fraction of renal elimination (FR) and magnitude of between-subject variability (BSV). The DAE was computed based on the difference between the theoretical necessary dose adjustment versus the empirical estimated dose adjustment to reach a similar exposure as controls. Although some design imbalance may still lead to DAEs of acceptable magnitude (DAE design, the DAE changed from design imbalance on bias and precision of PK parameters and DAE, as may occur for RI studies in some indications. Adding additional data from earlier studies to the analysis dataset improves the bias and precision of PK parameters.

  15. The Bipolar Interactive Psychoeducation (BIPED study: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorders affect between 3–5% of the population and are associated with considerable lifelong impairment. Since much of the morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is caused by recurrent depressive symptoms, which are often only poorly responsive to antidepressants, there is a need to develop alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. Psychoeducational interventions have emerged as promising long-term therapeutic options for bipolar disorder. Methods/design The study is an exploratory, individually randomised controlled trial. The intervention known as 'Beating Bipolar' is a psychoeducational programme which is delivered via a novel web-based system. We will recruit 100 patients with a diagnosis of DSM-IV bipolar disorder (including type I and type II currently in clinical remission. The primary outcome is quality of life. This will be compared for those patients who have participated in the psychoeducational programme with those who received treatment as usual. Quality of life will be assessed immediately following the intervention as well as 10 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes include current depressive and manic symptoms, number of episodes of depression and mania/hypomania experienced during the follow-up period, global functioning, functional impairment and insight. An assessment of costs and a process evaluation will also be conducted which will explore the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention as well as potential barriers to effectiveness. Discussion Bipolar disorder is common, under-recognised and often poorly managed. It is a chronic, life-long, relapsing condition which has an enormous impact on the individual and the economy. This trial will be the first to explore the effectiveness of a novel web-based psychoeducational intervention for patients with bipolar disorder which has potential to be easily rolled out to patients. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  16. Distributed Experiments in Design Sciences, a Next Step in Design Observation Studies?

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesi, Carlo; Aalto-Setala, Laura; Anvik, Anders; Balters, Stephanie; Baracchi, Alessia; Jensen, Bisballe Matilde; Bjorkli, Leif Erik; Buzzaccaro, Nicolo; Cortesi, Dario; D'Onghia, Francesco; Dosi, Clio; Franchini, Giulia; Fuchs, Matt; Gerstenberg, Achim; Hansen, Erik; Hiekkanen, Karri Matias; Hyde, David; Ituarte, Inigo; Kalasniemi, Jani; Kurikka, Joona; Lanza, Irene; Laurila, Anssi; Lee, Tik Ho; Lonvik, Siri; Mansikka-Aho, Anniina; Nordberg, Markus; Oinonen, Paivi; Pedrelli, Luca; Pekuri, Anna; Rane, Enna; Reime, Thov; Repokari, Lauri; Ronningen, Martin; Rowlands, Stephanie; Sjoman, Heikki; Slattsveen, Kristoffer; Strachan, Andy; Stromstad, Kirsti; Suren, Stian; Tapio, Peter; Utriainen, Tuuli; Vignoli, Matteo; Vijaykumar, Saurabh; Welo, Torgeir; Wulvik, Andreas


    This paper describes and proposes a new method for conducting globally distributed design research. Instead of using e.g. a software we tried out a completely analogue approach: Five carefully prepared packages, containing all the necessary materials and instructions for a design challenge, were sent out to supervisors in Norway, Finland, Italy, and Australia. These local supervisors then conducted the egg-drop exercise with students that are part of an international course held at CERN. As the task is conducted according to a previously tested protocol, the results gathered with this new method can then be benchmarked with this available data. This new approach to globally conducted engineering design activities avoids local bias and enables for gathering large amounts of diverse data points. One can also think of a research community where every member can send out one experiment per year and, in return, receives data points from across the world. Based on the feedback from the supervisors we can say that ...

  17. Search for design intelligence: A field study on the role of emotional intelligence in architectural design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Nazidizaji


    Full Text Available The design studio is the core of the architecture curriculum. Interpersonal interactions have a key role during the processes of design and critique. The influence of emotional intelligence (EQ on interpersonal communication skills has been widely proven. This study examines the correlation between EQ and architectural design competence. To achieve this, 78 architecture students were selected via a simple random sampling method and tested using an EQ test questionnaire developed by Bradbury and Greaves (2006. The scores of five architectural design studio courses (ADS-1, ADS-2, ADS-3, ADS-4, and ADS-5 were used as indicators of the progress in design of the students. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were both employed to analyze the research data. The methods included correlation analysis, mean comparison t-test for independent samples, and single sample t-test. Findings showed no significant relationship between EQ and any of the indicators.

  18. Logistics Facilities Designing Method - a Study of a Procedure for Logistics Facilities Designing and Its OL09 Software Implementation (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Mariusz


    The paper describes the new logistics facilities designing method, which includes e.g. the procedure for logistics facilities designing and the procedure for optimisation of functional and spatial areas. Some information is given on implementation of the new designing method into the designing software OL09. In case of testing the OL09 software’s correctness, the verification of implemented logistics facilities designing procedure has been prepared and described. The verification was done in a way of a case study. As a result, some indicators and rates were compared. It was done using a weight method. While working on a method and implementing it into software, some theoretical and practical aspects connected to the problem were identified. Those aspects are mentioned in the paper’s conclusion.

  19. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM


    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  20. Polar narcosis: Designing a suitable training set for QSAR studies. (United States)

    Ramos, E U; Vaes, W H; Verhaar, H J; Hermens, J L


    Substituted phenols, anilines, pyridines and mononitrobenzenes can be classified as polar narcotics. These chemicals differ from non-polar narcotic compounds not only in their toxic potency (normalized by log K(ow)), but also in their Fish Acute Toxicity Syndrome profiles, together suggesting a different mode of action. For 97 polar narcotics, which are not ionized under physiological conditions, 11 physico-chemical and quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated. Using principal component analysis, 91% of the total variance in this descriptor space could be explained by three principal components which were subsequently used as factors in a statistical design. Eleven compounds were selected based on a two-level full factorial design including three compounds near the center of the chemical domain (a 2(3)+3 design). QSARs were developed for both the design set and the whole set of 63 polar narcotics for which guppy and/or fathead minnow data were available in the literature. Both QSARs, based on partial least squares regression (3 latent variables), resulted in good models (R(2)=0.96 and Q(2)=0.82; R(2)=0.86 and Q(2)=0.83 respectively) and provided similar pseudo-regression coefficients. In addition, the model based on the design chemicals was able to predict the toxicity of the 63 compounds (R(2) =0.85). Models show that acute fish toxicity is determined by hydrophobicity, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and hydrogen-bond acceptor capacity.

  1. Randomized Controlled Studies and Alternative Designs in Outcome Studies: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Shadish, William R.


    This article reviews several decades of the author's meta-analytic and experimental research on the conditions under which nonrandomized experiments can approximate the results from randomized experiments (REs). Several studies make clear that we can expect accurate effect estimates from the regression discontinuity design, though its statistical…

  2. Design and implementation of observational studies to measure disease burden with a focus on stroke. (United States)

    Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J


    Observational epidemiological studies have the dual goals of measuring disease burden and assessing the association between exposures and outcomes. This report focuses on the first of these goals and provides an overview of design considerations of commonly used approaches, specifically community surveillance studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Each of these designs has strengths and weaknesses, with no study design being superior in all cases. Rather, these designs are complementary to achieve a better understanding of the burden of stroke.

  3. Comparative Study of Antenna Designs for RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Shrestha


    Full Text Available In the last few years, several antenna designs of rectenna that meet various objectives have been proposed for use in RF energy harvesting. Among various antennas, microstrip patch antennas are widely used because of their low profile, light weight, and planar structure. Conventional patch antennas are rectangular or circular in shape, but variations in their basic design are made for different purposes. This paper begins with an explanation and discussion of different designs, put forward with an aim of miniaturization, harmonic rejection, and reconfigurability. Finally, microstrip patch structured rectennas are evaluated and compared with an emphasis on the various methods adopted to obtain a compact rectenna, harmonic rejection functionality, and frequency and polarization selectivity.

  4. Study and design of a cryogenic propellant acquisition system (United States)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.


    The development of an acquisition system for supplying subcooled liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen under in-orbit conditions is discussed. The system will be applied to the integrated cryogenic feed requirements for space systems such as a space shuttle cryogenic auxiliary propulsion system (APS) and main propulsion for an advanced spacecraft propulsion module (ASPM). Concepts that use the favorable surface tension characteristics of fine mesh screens are emphasized. The specific objectives of the program are: (1) to evolve conceptual designs for candidate acquisition systems, (2) to formulate the analytical models needed to analyze the systems, and (3) to generate parametric data on overall candidate system performance, characteristics, and operational features in sufficient depth to establish critical design problems and criteria to support a sound system design and evaluation.

  5. A Study on Design Method of Intelligent platform trolley (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Song, Mengmeng; Xiao, Shungen; Luo, Zhishen


    In this paper, a design method of detachable intelligent platform trolley is presented. The detachable intelligent platform trolley has three driving modes, and the rubber blanket and the cardan joint in the structure filter effectively the road surface turbulence and improve the safety of the driver. The design idea of the active wheel fixed structure and the driven steering wheel structure is emphatically introduced. At last, The results show that the right panel of intelligent platform trolley as the research object and analyses the load, static stress of the right panel of platform trolley mainly concentrated in the panel at the front and back ends and other connectors on the contact surface. In addition, the safety factor can meet the design requirements by analysis.

  6. The study and design of a wireless ECG monitoring system. (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Chai, Jihong


    This paper describes a research project on wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring systems. A detection and measurement processor designed by a MSP430 microcontroller accomplishes the analog-to-digital conversion, digital filtering, QRS wave detection, and heart rate calculation. The data of detection can be sent to the central controller and personal computer (PC) by wireless on-chip MG2455 through a ZigBee network. This design can be used widely in home healthcare, community healthcare, and sports training, as well as in healthcare facilities, due to its characteristics of low power consumption, small size, and reliability.

  7. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Angelique Wells


    Full Text Available In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdisciplinary opens many doors to a variety of collaborative efforts in seeking proactive solutions to environmental and social issues.

  8. Design element analysis on juice market Case study: Prigat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU


    Full Text Available : If at the beginning package was considered simply a package that contained a product, now due to the development and modernization of the trade, it is a very valuable component of the marketing policy, being a carrier of messages to the consumer. Classic design elements that are included in any packaging refer to shape, color and graphics. The Romanian Juices Market was marked by originality and innovation in terms of packaging design elements. Thus, from 1998 until now the following have appeared: the first wide mouth square bottle, the first sport opening head PET bottle for Prigat Active, the first opening gable top box produced in our country.

  9. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) (United States)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.


    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  10. Deepwater offshore windfarm. Design fabrication and installation study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report discusses the plans and benefits of using the Beatrice oil field installation for the development of the offshore Beatrice windfarm in the Moray Firth. The development of an economic support structure for wind turbine generators to allow development of deepwater wind farms was investigated, and the screening of structural designs, and the analysis of fatigue, fabrication and installation considerations is described. Details are given of the recommendation for a further examination of two structural designs as options for the Beatrice windfarm development, the estimated costs, and the results of an environmental review.

  11. Study on designing of hexapole magnet of ECR ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Liang Ting; Zhao Hong, Wei


    Detailed research has been done on the aspects of the design of a Halbach structure permanent hexapole, such as the permanent material adoption, the structure design, the dimension selection, etc. A possible method has been proposed to solve the problem of demagnetization in some magnetic blocks. By optimizing the geometry structure, the magnetic field in the working aperture is made to be the maximum for a certain condition. Some useful codes like POISSON, PERMAG, and TOSCA are used to simulate the sextuple magnetic field. Some useful plots are also presented.

  12. Simulation Environment for Orion Launch Abort System Control Design Studies (United States)

    McMinn, J. Dana; Jackson, E. Bruce; Christhilf, David M.


    The development and use of an interactive environment to perform control system design and analysis of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System is described. The environment, built using a commercial dynamic systems design package, includes use of an open-source configuration control software tool and a collaborative wiki to coordinate between the simulation developers, control law developers and users. A method for switching between multiple candidate control laws and vehicle configurations is described. Aerodynamic models, especially in a development program, change rapidly, so a means for automating the implementation of new aerodynamic models is described.

  13. A Survey study on design procedure of Seismic Base Isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Keywords: Seismic Isolation, Base Isolation, Earthquake Resistant Design, Seismic Protective Systems .... KV which is the dominant parameter controlling the verticalfrequency of an isolated structure. The vertical stiffness of a rubber bearing is given by the formula 1: ... The non-linear force-deformation characteristic of.

  14. Optical design study of the PEARL beamline at SLS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Flechsig, U.; Muntwiler, M.; Quitmann, C.


    Roč. 635, č. 1 (2011), s. 116-120 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PGM * beamline design * photo-emision Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  15. Study of design parameters of flapping-wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, F.


    As one of the most important components of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV), the design of an energy-efficient flapping-wing has been a research interest recently. Research on insect flight from different perspectives has been carried out, mainly with regard to wing morphology, flapping

  16. The content and design of Web sites : an empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, EKRE


    To support the emergence of a solid knowledge base for analyzing Web activity, we have developed a framework to analyze and categorize the capabilities of Web sites. This distinguishes content from design. Content refers to the information, features, or services that are offered in the Web site,

  17. Options Study Documenting the Fast Reactor Fuels Innovative Design Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu


    This document provides presentation and general analysis of innovative design concepts submitted to the FCRD Advanced Fuels Campaign by nine national laboratory teams as part of the Innovative Transmutation Fuels Concepts Call for Proposals issued on October 15, 2009 (Appendix A). Twenty one whitepapers were received and evaluated by an independent technical review committee.

  18. Stochastic approaches for product recovery network design: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractIncreased uncertainty is one of the characteristics of product recovery networks. In particular the strategic design of their logistic infrastructure has to take uncertain information into account. In this paper we present stochastic programming based approaches by which a deterministic

  19. Design and analysis of control systems case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Stein Shiromoto, Humberto


    This book provides methods to unify different approaches to tackle stability theory problems. In particular, it presents a methodology to blend approaches obtained from measure theory with methods obtained from Lyapunov’s stability theory. The author summarizes recent works on how different analysis/design methods can be unified and employed for systems that do not belong to either of domains of validity.

  20. Regenerative design practices in Nigeria: a case study of Ngozika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Design has been acknowledged as a potent process of engaging the imagination, aspiration and creativity of the mind, in recent times, it has not been adequately deployed to engage the 'natural' world thus creating the vast rift that we see in the environment in the form of urban decay. In its resolution, an interest in ...

  1. Toolkit for healthcare facility design evaluation - some case studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Jager, Peta


    Full Text Available "? This is notoriously difficult to evaluate but, this paper argues, there would be much to be gained from a systematic, reliable and replicable framework for doing so. Internationally, some design evaluation toolkits specifically for healthcare facilities have been...

  2. Toolkit for healthcare facility design evaluation - some case studies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Jager, Peta


    Full Text Available "? This is notoriously difficult to evaluate but, this paper argues, there would be much to be gained from a systematic, reliable and replicable framework for doing so. Internationally, some design evaluation toolkits specifically for healthcare facilities have been...

  3. Synthetic Environments as design tool - A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, J.; Meijer, F.; Wang, Huaxin; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van den Broek, Egon; Vergeest, Joris S.M.; Amditis, A.


    Successful product design requires intensive communication between all stakeholders of the product or service in the very beginning of the development process. In this stage of the development, often communication is inefficient due to the absence of a prototype. We propose the use of a synthetic

  4. Case Study in Biomimetic Design: Handling and Assembly of Microparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Li; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta


    This paper describes the application of the biomimetic design process to the development of automated gripping devices for microparts. Handling and assembly of micromechanical parts is complicated by size effects that occur when part dimensions are scaled down. A common complication involves...

  5. Virtual personas: A case study on truck cabin design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, Jos; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Marcus, Aaron


    User involvement can help designers reach beyond functionality and usability, and identify the user’s deeper needs for a pleasurable product experience. In practice, direct user involvement can be limited by a lack of knowledge of appropriate techniques, confidentiality constraints or limited access

  6. Design And Implementation Of An Interactive Website; A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interactive website has been designed for the Department of Physics, University of Uyo, using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) involving structuring, coding, and testing. This will enable the Department to gather, process, store and disseminate an up- to- date information to the whole world on the academic ...

  7. The INTERPHONE study: design, epidemiological methods, and description of the study population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Richardson, Lesley; Deltour, Isabelle


    The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases....... This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2...

  8. Applying a Conceptual Design Framework to Study Teachers' Use of Educational Technology (United States)

    Holmberg, Jörgen


    Theoretical outcomes of design-based research (DBR) are often presented in the form of local theory design principles. This article suggests a complementary theoretical construction in DBR, in the form of a "design framework" at a higher abstract level, to study and inform educational design with ICT in different situated contexts.…

  9. Towards an Understanding of Instructional Design Heuristics: An Exploratory Delphi Study (United States)

    York, Cindy S.; Ertmer, Peggy A.


    Evidence suggests that experienced instructional designers often use heuristics and adapted models when engaged in the instructional design problem-solving process. This study used the Delphi technique to identify a core set of heuristics designers reported as being important to the success of the design process. The overarching purpose of the…

  10. The Statistical Power of the Cluster Randomized Block Design with Matched Pairs--A Simulation Study (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo; Lipsey, Mark


    This study uses simulation techniques to examine the statistical power of the group- randomized design and the matched-pair (MP) randomized block design under various parameter combinations. Both nearest neighbor matching and random matching are used for the MP design. The power of each design for any parameter combination was calculated from…

  11. Making a Case for a Blended Approach: The Need for The Design-Based Case Study (United States)

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.


    Design-based case studies address research questions that involve instructional innovations within a bounded system. This blend of case study and design-based research provides a systematic approach to examining instructional innovations that are bounded by perspective, context, and time. Design-based case studies provide a framework for engaging…

  12. 78 FR 11207 - Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for....115). The guidance represents the Agency's current thinking on clinical study designs for surgical...) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Clinical Study Designs for Surgical...

  13. Development and Formative Evaluation of Multimedia Case Studies for Instructional Design and Technology Students (United States)

    Sugar, William


    This study describes the development of three case studies that included a combination of multimedia production and instructional design skills within a particular setting. These case studies incorporated real-life incidents from 47 professional instructional designers. These instructional designers described a total of 146 activities involving…

  14. Integration process of theoretical courses with design studios in undergraduate education: Case studies of architecture and interior design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozmehmet Ecehan


    Full Text Available The formulations of studios are the most critical problem of design studies, because the foundation of further architectural education is based on these design studios. This paper focuses on discussions of studiobased design learning systems and curriculum developments on integral design studios that aims significant and innovative frameworks. In this context, integrated design studios are the newest approaches of architectural education. In this education system every studio has its own integral course. Integral courses give support to the design studios. This support can be either theoretical or practical. Knowledge that is related with the context of the design studio can be explained in this integrated course in some cases, in some cases as simulation program can be explained in some parts of the course. The support of the integral courses to the studios must be evaluated deeply. This paper presents the positive parts and negative parts of the new integral studio approach in this context. By this way, strong and weak parts of this education system is put forward.

  15. The Healthy Elderly: Case Studies in Persuasive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen van Turnhout


    Full Text Available Self-care and self-orchestration are focal points for transformations in health care and well-being in the Netherlands. Citizens should live healthily, be active every day and manage their own health. In this context, we explore how persuasive information technology may support older people in developing and maintaining healthy behavior. In two cases (in the Dutch cities Wijchen and Arnhem we designed concepts of services in co-creation with professionals and citizens. These concepts were based on persuasive guidelines and positively tested with professionals and citizens. In this paper, we present these concepts and critically examine them in relation to existing literature on persuasive technology and personal informatics. We argue for backing persuasive interface with genuine support for user needs and for increasing the actionability of personal informatics solutions. The presented solutions also highlight how self-, family-, and professional care can be connected in the design of health support systems

  16. Designing for disability - a Danish case study on DR BYEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker


    Considerations for the disabled have become increasingly important in most countries. The building codes set a number of requirements with a minimum standard, but these have been supplemented by various recommendations and guidelines. The requirements and recommendations vary from country...... an evaluation of the activities and measures in relation to disability considerations and draws conclusions in relation to the need of in-creased awareness and competencies on accessibility in the design process....

  17. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.J.


    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  18. Limited Scope Design Study for Multi-Sensor Towbody (United States)


    MacArtney felt this was possible from a control standpoint and that heights of 1 m off the bottom for this secondary array are feasible. From an...constructed using carbon fibre technology for the wing sections like the successful FOCUS 2 and TRIAXUS vehicle designs, whereas the...FOCUS 3 features ■ Carbon fibre wing sections ■ Instrumentation pods made from anodised aluminium ■ Neutral to heavy trimming in water ■ Extended

  19. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Efron


    Full Text Available The Image Transceiver Device (ITD design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, “deep p-well” ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  20. The Image Transceiver Device: Studies of Improved Physical Design. (United States)

    David, Yitzhak; Efron, Uzi


    The Image Transceiver Device (ITD) design is based on combining LCOS micro-display, image processing tools and back illuminated APS imager in single CMOS chip [1]. The device is under development for Head-Mounted Display applications in augmented and virtual reality systems. The main issues with the present design are a high crosstalk of the backside imager and the need to shield the pixel circuitry from the photocharges generated in the silicon substrate. In this publication we present a modified, "deep p-well" ITD pixel design, which provides a significantly reduced crosstalk level, as well as an effective shielding of photo-charges for the pixel circuitry. The simulation performed using Silvaco software [ATLAS Silicon Device Simulator, Ray Trace and Light Absorption programs, Silvaco International, 1998] shows that the new approach provides high photo response and allows increasing the optimal thickness of the die over and above the 10-15 micrometers commonly used for back illuminated imaging devices, thereby improving its mechanical ruggedness following the thinning process and also providing a more efficient absorption of the long wavelength photons. The proposed deep p-well pixel structure is also a technology solution for the fabrication of high performance back illuminated CMOS image sensors.

  1. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P


    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  2. Design and study of aqueous processable positive-tone photoresists (United States)

    Yamada, Shintaro; Owens, Jordan; Rager, Timo; Nielsen, Morton; Byers, Jeff D.; Willson, C. Grant


    Interest in developing materials with reduced environmental impact has led us to design resist formulations that can be cast from and developed with aqueous media. A water soluble chemically amplified positive tone photoresist based on thermal decarboxylation of a half ester of malonic acid has been designed. Two solubility switches are required for this application. Sequential volatilization of ammonia followed by decarboxylation of a malonic acid gives the first solubility switch and an acid catalyzed thermolysis of an acid labile protecting group gives the second. The thermal stability of the acid labile protecting group is critical in this design. Tert-butyl esters decompose during the decarboxylation process resulting in poor imaging contrast. Polymers bearing isobornyl esters are more thermally stable, and show excellent reaction selectivity between the decarboxylation and the thermolysis of the ester. Preliminary imaging of this system provided 1 micrometer resolution with 248 nm exposure and standard TMAH developer. The dry etch stability of the photoresist films is comparable to a conventional photoresist APEX-ER.

  3. Study of a Fine Grained Threaded Framework Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher


    Traditionally, HEP experiments exploit the multiple cores in a CPU by having each core process one event. However, future PC designs are expected to use CPUs which double the number of processing cores at the same rate as the cost of memory falls by a factor of two. This effectively means the amount of memory per processing core will remain constant. This is a major challenge for LHC processing frameworks since the LHC is expected to deliver more complex events (e.g. greater pileup events) in the coming years while the LHC experiment's frameworks are already memory constrained. Therefore in the not so distant future we may need to be able to efficiently use multiple cores to process one event. In this presentation we will discuss a design for an HEP processing framework which can allow very fine grained parallelization within one event as well as supporting processing multiple events simultaneously while minimizing the memory footprint of the job. The design is built around the libdispatch framework created ...

  4. The importance of user centered design methods applied to the design of a new workstation: a case study. (United States)

    Duschenes, Ronaldo; Mendes, Andressa; Betiol, Adriana; Barreto, Suzana


    This paper presents a case study of the application of user centered design methodologies in the product development for a line of ergonomic office furniture. The study aimed to analyze the experience of using a workstation from the perspective of two groups of users, installers and end users. The observation of users in their natural context of use not only allowed the development team to identify key needs and strategies of the users, transforming them into design solutions, but mainly it warned them of the importance and impact of user involvement in the product development cycle.

  5. How to optimise drug study design: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies introduced to paediatricians. (United States)

    Vermeulen, Eric; van den Anker, John N; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Hoppu, Kalle; van der Lee, Johanna H


    In children, there is often lack of sufficient information concerning the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a study drug to support dose selection and effective evaluation of efficacy in a randomised clinical trial (RCT). Therefore, one should consider the relevance of relatively small PKPD studies, which can provide the appropriate data to optimise the design of an RCT. Based on the experience of experts collaborating in the EU-funded Global Research in Paediatrics consortium, we aimed to inform clinician-scientists working with children on the design of investigator-initiated PKPD studies. The importance of the identification of an optimal dose for the paediatric population is explained, followed by the differences and similarities of dose-ranging and efficacy studies. The input of clinical pharmacologists with modelling expertise is essential for an efficient dose-finding study. The emergence of new laboratory techniques and statistical tools allows for the collection and analysis of sparse and unbalanced data, enabling the implementation of (observational) PKPD studies in the paediatric clinic. Understanding of the principles and methods discussed in this study is essential to improve the quality of paediatric PKPD investigations, and to prevent the conduct of paediatric RCTs that fail because of inadequate dosing. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Designs to balance cost and success rate for an early phase clinical study. (United States)

    Foo, Lee Kien; Duffull, Stephen


    We present an initial exploration of a fully cost-driven design. A design criterion was proposed that represented the minimum expected cost of an early phase clinical study, where costs include resource use as well as study failure. The design was based on attainment of a target concentration in a cohort of study participants. The model and parameter values arose from a previous population pharmacokinetic analysis of a phase I study. The resulting design naturally balanced the cost and the success rate of an early phase clinical study, without the need to define arbitrary constraints on the design space.

  7. NMR study of the gelation of a designed gelator. (United States)

    Brand, Torsten; Nolis, Pau; Richter, Sven; Berger, Stefan


    The gelation of a designed gelator was investigated by different NMR methods, which showed a clear thermal hysteresis. Two very simple approaches for the NMR determination of the gelation point are suggested. One involves the observation of the NMR integral, and the other records the ratio of the diffusion coefficients between the gelator and the solvent. Differential behavior of the gelator protons are interpreted as a hint that a part of the gelator molecule might still be flexible as in the dissolved state. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  8. Design study of CEPC Alternating Magnetic Field Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, T; Cai, Y; Cui, X; Gao, J; Koratzinos, M; Su, F; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Xiao, M; Zhang, C


    The CEPC is a next generation circular e+e- collider proposed by China. The design of the full energy booster ring of the CEPC is especially challenging. The ejected beam energy is 120 GeV, but that of the injected beam is only 6 GeV. In a conventional approach, the low magnetic field of the main dipole magnets creates problems. We propose operating the booster ring as a large wiggler at low beam energies and as a normal ring at high energies to avoid the problem of very low dipole magnet fields.

  9. SLD Reaction Control and Propulsion System. Preliminary Design Study (United States)


    thruster (P/N 239500, S/N 001 and 002) initiated in June of 1980. This thruster is to be used in the Ford Aero- space & Communications Corporation ...quotations have been received from the Brunswick Corporation for their Kevlar wrapped aluminum liner and titan- ium liner tank designs. These cost datc...type tank is rcduced to 0.8%. Since the space- craft temperatura Is not expected to reach 1400 F, the actual ullage will always be greater than 0.8

  10. Crew emergency return vehicle - Electrical power system design study (United States)

    Darcy, E. C.; Barrera, T. P.


    A crew emergency return vehicle (CERV) is proposed to perform the lifeboat function for the manned Space Station Freedom. This escape module will be permanently docked to Freedom and, on demand, will be capable of safely returning the crew to earth. The unique requirements that the CERV imposes on its power source are presented, power source options are examined, and a baseline system is selected. It consists of an active Li-BCX DD-cell modular battery system and was chosen for the maturity of its man-rated design and its low development costs.

  11. Aeroassisted-vehicle design studies for a manned Mars mission (United States)

    Menees, Gene P.


    An aerobrake design accounting for all of the important flow phenomenology which are characteristic of aerobraking vehicles is proposed as the mission baseline. Flight regimes and aerothermal environments for both Mars and earth entry are calculated using advanced methods to account for real-gas, thermochemical, relaxation effects. The results are correlated with thermal-protection and structural requirements and mission performance capability. The importance of nonequilibrium radiative heating for earth aerocapture is demonstrated. It is suggested that two aerobrakes of different sizes will produce optimal performance for the three phases of the mission (i.e., one aerobrake for Mars aerocapture and descent of the surface lander and another for earth return).

  12. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.


    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  13. Service design as an approach to new service development:reflections and futures studies


    Yu, Eun; Sangiorgi, Daniela


    This paper illustrates how, although Service Design has been described as evolving from a narrow description of a phase in New Service Development (NSD) to an approach to Service Innovation, the current Service Design research is still focused on the initial stages of NSD. Comparing existing Service Design research with foundational knowledge on NSD, the authors have proposed two complementary directions for future Service Design studies: 1) the expansion of ‘service design as a phase’ to inv...

  14. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone


    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  15. Computing and information sciences preliminary engineering design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J O; Pearson, E W; Thomas, J J; Brothers, J W; Campbell, W K; DeVaney, D M; Jones, D R; Littlefield, R J; Peterson, M J


    This document presents the preliminary design concept for the integrated computing and information system to be included in the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The EMSL is scheduled for completion and occupancy in 1994 or 1995 and will support the DOE environmental mission, in particular hazardous waste remediation. The focus of the report is on the Computing and Information Sciences engineering task of providing a fully integrated state-of-the-art computing environment for simulation, experimentation and analysis in support of molecular research. The EMSL will house two major research organizations, the Molecular Sciences Research Center (MSRC) and part of the Environmental Sciences Research Center (ESRC). Included in the report is a preliminary description of the computing and information system to be included. The proposed system architecture is based on a preliminary understanding of the EMSL users' needs for computational resources. As users understand more about the scientific challenges they face, the definition of the functional requirements will change. At the same time, the engineering team will be gaining experience with new computing technologies. Accordingly, the design architecture must evolve to reflect this new understanding of functional requirements and enabling technologies. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1 (United States)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; hide


    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  17. The active comparator, new user study design in pharmacoepidemiology: historical foundations and contemporary application. (United States)

    Lund, Jennifer L; Richardson, David B; Stürmer, Til


    Better understanding of biases related to selective prescribing of, and adherence to, preventive treatments has led to improvements in the design and analysis of pharmacoepidemiologic studies. One influential development has been the "active comparator, new user" study design, which seeks to emulate the design of a head-to-head randomized controlled trial. In this review, we first discuss biases that may affect pharmacoepidemiologic studies and describe their direction and magnitude in a variety of settings. We then present the historical foundations of the active comparator, new user study design and explain how this design conceptually mitigates biases leading to a paradigm shift in pharmacoepidemiology. We offer practical guidance on the implementation of the study design using administrative databases. Finally, we provide an empirical example in which the active comparator, new user study design addresses biases that have previously impeded pharmacoepidemiologic studies.

  18. Identifying Effective Design Approaches to Allocate Genotypes in Two-Phase Designs: A Case Study in Pelargonium zonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Molenaar


    Full Text Available Robust phenotypic data allow adequate statistical analysis and are crucial for any breeding purpose. Such data is obtained from experiments laid out to best control local variation. Additionally, experiments frequently involve two phases, each contributing environmental sources of variation. For example, in a former experiment we conducted to evaluate production related traits in Pelargonium zonale, there were two consecutive phases, each performed in a different greenhouse. Phase one involved the propagation of the breeding strains to obtain the stem cutting count, and phase two involved the assessment of root formation. The evaluation of the former study raised questions regarding options for improving the experimental layout: (i Is there a disadvantage to using exactly the same design in both phases? (ii Instead of generating a separate layout for each phase, can the design be optimized across both phases, such that the mean variance of a pair-wise treatment difference (MVD can be decreased? To answer these questions, alternative approaches were explored to generate two-phase designs either in phase-wise order (Option 1 or across phases (Option 2. In Option 1 we considered the scenarios (i using in both phases the same experimental design and (ii randomizing each phase separately. In Option 2, we considered the scenarios (iii generating a single design with eight replicates and splitting these among the two phases, (iv separating the block structure across phases by dummy coding, and (v design generation with optimal alignment of block units in the two phases. In both options, we considered the same or different block structures in each phase. The designs were evaluated by the MVD obtained by the intra-block analysis and the joint inter-block–intra-block analysis. The smallest MVD was most frequently obtained for designs generated across phases rather than for each phase separately, in particular when both phases of the design were

  19. The design of a study environment for acquiring academic and professional competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Vilsteren, P. van

    Proposes a framework for the design of a learning environment which encourages the acquisition of academic and professional competence. Definition of knowledge, cognitive skill and competence; Acquisition of competence; Designing an environment for competence acquisition; Implementation of study

  20. Anticipating needs and designing new items rapidly - a case study for the design of postural aid equipment. (United States)

    Prévost, Marie-Claude; Spooner, Daniel


    In this case study, designers proactively proposed new product ideas to a client by using an ergonomic approach. This approach differs from a more traditional approach where one works within a specific, clientdefined project. The methodology used included basic ergonomic techniques such as task analysis and information gathering sessions conducted with users. It was adapted so that these enriched user sessions could be conducted within a short time period. After meeting with five users in seven days, designers identified 20 problems that could be tackled and eight design ideas that could be implemented over the short, medium and long term. The ideas encompassed a wide range of potential projects, including physical product improvements, new product lines, Web-site and software improvements and longer term research. Problems identified and ideas generated involved many disciplines including occupational therapy, mechanical engineering, graphical design, software engineering, sales and manufacturing know-how. This wide range was possible because designers were not constrained to specific project scopes and timelines. The client was involved in the idea evaluation process. As a result of this study two new projects were initiated so far.

  1. Case Study for Enhanced Accident Tolerance Design Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koonce, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yang, Timothy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, reliability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  2. Design study of a normal conducting helical snake for AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Junpei; Okamura, Masahiro; Roser, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Luccio, Alfredo U; Takano, Koji


    A new normal conducting snake magnet is being fabricated for the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project, a superconducting type helical dipole magnets had been developed and it performed successfully in high-energy polarized proton acceleration. The new AGS helical snake has the same basic magnetic structure but is more complicated. To achieve no beam shift and no beam deflection in one magnetic device, helical pitches and rotating angles were carefully calculated. Compared to a superconducting magnet, a normal warm magnet must have a large cross- sectional area of conductors which make it difficult to design a magnet with large helical pitch. We developed a modified window frame structure to accommodate the large number of conductors. Its three dimensional magnetic field was simulated by using OPERA3D/TOSCA. 3 Refs.

  3. Design study for wood gasifier/engine test project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bircher, K.G.; Sutherland, R.P.


    This report investigates various aspects of coupling wood gasifiers with engine/generators for commercial use (size greater than 1.0 MWe). A brief review of current available gas cleaning and cooling equipment and low heating value engines is presented. Accelerated research into dry methods of scrubbing wood gas will assist greatly in making commercial gasifier/engine combinations a viable alternative. Process design of a gas cleaning system for an 800 kW/sub e/ generator, includes heat and mass balances and instrumentation requirements. A testing program for the gasifier-gas cleaning unit-engine/generator system is outlined. The benfits and drawbacks of upgrading the calorific value of the producer gas by both carbon dioxide removal and oxygen addition are discussed briefly. 10 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.


    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  5. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B


    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  6. Design, Synthesis and Antiviral Activity Studies of Schizonepetin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwei Ding


    Full Text Available A series of schizonepetin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in order to obtain potent antivirus agents. The antiviral activity against HSV-1 and influenza virus H3N2 as well as the cytotoxicity of these derivatives was evaluated by using cytopathic effect (CPE inhibition assay in vitro. Compounds M2, M4, M5 and M34 showed higher inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus with the TC50 values being in micromole. Compounds M28, M33, and M35 showed higher inhibitory activity against influenza virus H3N2 with their TC50 values being 96.4, 71.0 and 75.4 μM, respectively. Preliminary biological activity evaluation indicated that the anti-H3N2 and anti-HSV-1 activities improved obviously through the introduction of halogen into the structure of schizonepetin.

  7. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi


    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  8. Effects of newly designed hospital buildings on staff perceptions : a pre-post study to validate design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.J.A.; Heel, L. van; Goedhart, R.; Dusseldorp, E.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Burdorf, A.


    Objective: This study investigates effects of the newly built nonpatient-related buildings of a large university medical center on staff perceptions and whether the design objectives were achieved. Background: The medical center is gradually renewing its hospital building area of 200,000 m.(2) This

  9. [Clinical studies in oncology. Relevance, design, ethical considerations]. (United States)

    Wörmann, B; Wulf, G; Hiddemann, W


    Clinical research in oncology includes the evaluation of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic parameters in order to establish standards for the different tumor entities. Prerequisite is the retrospective and prospective analysis of large patient groups with established statistical methods. New potentially better strategies have to be compared in randomised studies with the respective "gold standard". The central role of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapy can be considered as moral obligation to included the maximal possible number of patients in clinical studies. However, only a small number of tumor patients in Germany is treated in controlled clinical studies. Reasons are lack of organisational structures, but also ethical considerations. In this article several models for clinical studies are discussed with respect to their statistical significance, indication, and potential ethical objections. Aim of the discussion is to increase the acceptance of the necessity of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapeutic options in oncology.

  10. Design Integration - a theroretical and empirical study of design integration in small and medium sized Danish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Pia Geisby

    dynamiske modeller i ældre dele af design management litteraturen (som ikke blev identificeret i første litteratur studie a design management). Her blev Dumas & Mintzbergs (1989) forskning identificeret som en relevant model for at få en bedre forståelse af designintegration. Inddragelsen af disse...... resulterede i, at der kunne peges på flere forskellige drivkræfter og barrierer i et dynamisk perspektiv – dvs. på de forskellige trin på Designtrappen og i forhold til Dumas & Mintzbergs (1989) forskning. Barrierene, som blev identificeret, var blandt andet mangel på ressourcer, et dominerende analytisk...

  11. Design, synthesis, characterization and study of novel conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    After introducing the subject of conjugated polymers, the thesis has three sections each containing a literature survey, results and discussion, conclusions, and experimental methods on the following: synthesis, characterization of electroluminescent polymers containing conjugated aryl, olefinic, thiophene and acetylenic units and their studies for use in light-emitting diodes; synthesis, characterization and study of conjugated polymers containing silole unit in the main chain; and synthesis, characterization and study of silicon-bridged and butadiene-linked polythiophenes.

  12. Factorial design studies of antiretroviral drug-loaded stealth liposomal injectable: PEGylation, lyophilization and pharmacokinetic studies (United States)

    Sudhakar, Beeravelli; Krishna, Mylangam Chaitanya; Murthy, Kolapalli Venkata Ramana


    The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate the ritonavir-loaded stealth liposomes by using 32 factorial design and intended to delivered by parenteral delivery. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method using 32 factorial designs and characterized for various physicochemical parameters such as drug content, size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. The optimization process was carried out using desirability and overlay plots. The selected formulation was subjected to PEGylation using 10 % PEG-10000 solution. Stealth liposomes were characterized for the above-mentioned parameters along with surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, differential scanning calorimeter, stability and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Stealth liposomes showed better result compared to conventional liposomes due to effect of PEG-10000. The in vivo studies revealed that stealth liposomes showed better residence time compared to conventional liposomes and pure drug solution. The conventional liposomes and pure drug showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics, whereas stealth liposomes showed long circulation half-life compared to conventional liposomes and pure ritonavir solution. The results of statistical analysis showed significance difference as the p value is (<0.05) by one-way ANOVA. The result of the present study revealed that stealth liposomes are promising tool in antiretroviral therapy.

  13. Novice-Expert Design Consultations : Findings from a Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deken, F.; Aurisicchio, M.; Kleinsmann, M.; Lauche, K.


    This study aimed to investigate the process of novice-expert consultation meetings in an organizational context by identifying phases of the discourse and analysing the nature of these phases. An empirical study was performed at Rolls-Royce Aerospace Engineering by capturing 7 audio-records of

  14. Design and outline of the healthy pregnancy 4 all study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Denktaş (Semiha); V.J.J. Poeran (Jashvant); S.F. van Voorst (Sabine); A.A. Vos (Amber); L.C. de Jong-Potjer (L.); W. Waelput (Wim); E. Birnie (Erwin); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)


    textabstractBackground: Promotion of healthy pregnancies has gained high priority in the Netherlands because of the relatively unfavourable perinatal health outcomes. In response a nationwide study Healthy Pregnancy 4 All was initiated. This study combines public health and epidemiologic research to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Dundar


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss role of international exchange programs in design education based on experiences and outputs of the summer school course ICSA (Inter-Cultural Study of Architecture held in Japan with the participation of Japanese and Turkish students for 50 days under the collaboration of Mukogawa Women’s University (MWU, Japan and Bahcesehir University (BSU, Turkey. After the introduction, chapter One will compare educational methods used in architectural design courses. Chapter Two will mainly provide general observations of ICSA in Japan summer school course. In chapter Three, contributions of international exchange programs to design education will be discussed in terms of two different approaches. Finally, chapter Four will outline the main arguments discussed in this paper.

  16. Experimental studies of tuned particle damper: Design and characterization (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xi, Yanhui; Chen, Tianning; Ma, Zhihao


    To better suppress the structural vibration in the micro vibration and harsh environment, a new type of damper, tuned particle damper (TPD), was designed by combining the advantage of classical dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and particle damper (PD). An equivalent theoretical model was established to describe the dynamic behavior of a cantilever system treated with TPD. By means of a series of sine sweep tests, the dynamic characteristic of TPD under different excitation intensity was explored and the damping performance of TPD was investigated by comparing with classical DVA and PD with the same mass ratio. Experimental results show that with the increasing of excitation intensity TPD shows two different dynamic characteristics successively, i.e., PD-like and DVA-like. TPD shows a wider suppression frequency band than classical DVA and better practicability than PD in the micro vibration environment. Moreover, to characterize the dynamic characteristic of TPD, a simple evaluation of the equivalent dynamic mass and equivalent dynamic damping of the cantilever system treated with TPD was performed by fitting the experimental data to the presented theoretical model. Finally, based on the rheology behaviors of damping particles reported by the previous research results, an approximate phase diagram which shows the motion states of damping particles in TPD was employed to analyze the dynamic characteristic of TPD and several motion states of damping particles in TPD were presented via a high-speed camera.

  17. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California at Los Angeles, is proposing to build a Free-Electron-Laser (FEL) R and D facility operating in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode in the wavelength range 1.5--15 {angstrom}. This FEL, called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC linac and produces sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength x-rays with very high peak brightness and full transverse coherence. In this report, the Design Team has established performance parameters for all the major components of the LCLS and developed a layout of the entire system. Chapter 1 is the Executive Summary. Chapter 2 (Overview) provides a brief description of each of the major sections of the LCLS, from the rf photocathode gun, through the experimental stations and electron beam dump. Chapter 3 describes the scientific case for the LCLS. Chapter 4 provides a review of the principles of the FEL physics that the LCLS is based on, and Chapter 5 discusses the choice of the system's physical parameters. Chapters 6 through 10 describe in detail each major element of the system. Chapters 11 through 13 respectively cover undulator controls, mechanical alignment, and radiation issues.

  18. Permanently split capacitor motor-study of the design parameters (United States)

    Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce


    Paper analyzes the influence of various design parameters on torque of permanently split capacitor motor. Motor analytical model is derived and it is used for calculating the performance characteristics of basic motor model. The acquired analytical model is applied in optimization software that uses genetic algorithms (GA) as an optimization method. Optimized motor model with increased torque is derived by varying three motor parameters in GA program: winding turns ratio, average air gap flux density and motor stack length. Increase of torque has been achieved for nominal operation but also at motor starting. Accuracy of the derived models is verified by Simulink. The acquired values of several motor parameters from transient characteristics of Simulink models are compared with the corresponding values obtained from analytical models of both motors, basic and optimized. Numerical analysis, based on finite element method (FEM), is also performed for both motor models. As a result of the FEM analysis, magnetic flux density in motor cross-section is calculated and adequate conclusions are derived in relation to core saturation and air gap flux density in both motor models.

  19. Complexity in Design-Driven Innovation: A Case Study of Knowledge Transfer Flow in Subsea Seismic Sensor Technology and Design Education (United States)

    Pavel, Nenad; Berg, Arild


    To the extent previously claimed, concept exploration is not the key to product innovation. However, companies that are design-focused are twice as innovative as those that are not. To study design-driven innovation and its occurrence in design education, two case studies are conducted. The first is an example of design practice which includes…

  20. A Case Study of Educational Computer Game Design by Middle School Students (United States)

    An, Yun-Jo


    Only a limited number of research studies have investigated how students design educational computer games and its impact on student learning. In addition, most studies on educational game design by students were conducted in the areas of mathematics and science. Using the qualitative case study approach, this study explored how seventh graders…

  1. Statistical methods for genetic association studies with response-selective sampling designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliu, Brunilda


    This dissertation describes new statistical methods designed to improve the power of genetic association studies. Of particular interest are studies with a response-selective sampling design, i.e. case-control studies of unrelated individuals and case-control studies of family members. The

  2. 77 FR 50514 - Post-Approval Studies 2012 Workshop: Design, Methodology, and Role in Evidence Appraisal... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Post-Approval Studies 2012 Workshop: Design, Methodology... ``Post-Approval Studies 2012 Workshop: Design, Methodology, and Role in Evidence Appraisal Throughout the... experiences with post- approval studies, improvement of implementation strategies for post- approval studies...

  3. PopED lite: An optimal design software for preclinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. (United States)

    Aoki, Yasunori; Sundqvist, Monika; Hooker, Andrew C; Gennemark, Peter


    Optimal experimental design approaches are seldom used in preclinical drug discovery. The objective is to develop an optimal design software tool specifically designed for preclinical applications in order to increase the efficiency of drug discovery in vivo studies. Several realistic experimental design case studies were collected and many preclinical experimental teams were consulted to determine the design goal of the software tool. The tool obtains an optimized experimental design by solving a constrained optimization problem, where each experimental design is evaluated using some function of the Fisher Information Matrix. The software was implemented in C++ using the Qt framework to assure a responsive user-software interaction through a rich graphical user interface, and at the same time, achieving the desired computational speed. In addition, a discrete global optimization algorithm was developed and implemented. The software design goals were simplicity, speed and intuition. Based on these design goals, we have developed the publicly available software PopED lite ( Optimization computation was on average, over 14 test problems, 30 times faster in PopED lite compared to an already existing optimal design software tool. PopED lite is now used in real drug discovery projects and a few of these case studies are presented in this paper. PopED lite is designed to be simple, fast and intuitive. Simple, to give many users access to basic optimal design calculations. Fast, to fit a short design-execution cycle and allow interactive experimental design (test one design, discuss proposed design, test another design, etc). Intuitive, so that the input to and output from the software tool can easily be understood by users without knowledge of the theory of optimal design. In this way, PopED lite is highly useful in practice and complements existing tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polinski Jennifer M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ≥3 months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes.

  5. Indian chronic kidney disease study: Design and methods. (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Gang, Sishir; John, Oommen; Modi, Gopesh K; Ojha, Jai Prakash; Pandey, Rajendra; Parameswaran, Sreejith; Prasad, Narayan; Sahay, Manisha; Varughese, Santosh; Baid-Agarwal, Seema; Jha, Vivekanand


    The rate and factors that influence progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in developing countries like India are unknown. A pan-country prospective, observational cohort study is needed to address these knowledge gaps. The Indian Chronic Kidney Disease (ICKD) study will be a cohort study of approximately 5000 patients with mild to moderate CKD presenting to centres that represent different geographical regions in India. Time to 50% decline in baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, need of renal replacement therapy or any new cardiovascular disease (CVD) event or death from CVD are the primary end points. This study will provide the opportunity to determine risk factors for CKD progression and development of CVD in Indian subjects and perform international comparisons to determine ethnic and geographical differences. A bio-repository will provide a chance to discover biomarkers and explore genetic risk factors. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal


    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  7. Strategy for standardization of preeclampsia research study design. (United States)

    Myatt, Leslie; Redman, Christopher W; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Hansson, Stefan; Wilson, Melissa L; Laivuori, Hannele; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, James M


    Preeclampsia remains a major problem worldwide for mothers and babies. Despite intensive study, we have not been able to improve the management or early recognition of preeclampsia. At least part of this is because of failure to standardize the approach to studying this complex syndrome. It is possible that within the syndrome there may be different phenotypes with pathogenic pathways that differ between the subtypes. The capacity to recognize and to exploit different subtypes is of obvious importance for prediction, prevention, and treatment. We present a strategy for research to study preeclampsia, which will allow discrimination of such possible subtypes and also allow comparison and perhaps combinations of findings in different studies by standardized data and biosample collection. To make studies relevant to current clinical practice, the definition of preeclampsia can be that currently used and accepted. However, more importantly, sufficient data should be collected to allow other diagnostic criteria to be used and applied retrospectively. To that end, we present what we consider to be the minimum requirements for a data set in a study of preeclampsia that will facilitate comparisons. We also present a comprehensive or optimal data set for in-depth investigation of pathophysiology. As we approach the definition of phenotypes of preeclampsia by clinical and biochemical criteria, adherence to standardized protocols will hasten our understanding of the causes of preeclampsia and development of targeted treatment strategies.

  8. The Dutch Vascular Factors in Dementia Study: rationale and design. (United States)

    van Kooten, F; Bots, M L; Breteler, M M; Haverkate, F; van Swieten, J C; Grobbee, D E; Koudstaal, P J; Kluft, C


    Dementia is a rapidly increasing health problem in the industrialized countries. With the ageing of the population the number of demented persons increases both in relative and absolute terms. Obviously, there is a need for prevention and intervention strategies. We describe the methods and baseline findings of a large study aimed at identifying potentially modifiable vascular, thrombogenic, and metabolic determinants of dementia. The study population consists of subjects 55 years of age or older. Since the vascular wall of the cerebral vessels is different from that of the coronary or peripheral vessels, we formed three subgroups in which vascular risk factors for dementia are studied. Subjects with stroke were distinguished from subjects with coronary or peripheral artery disease, and from subjects without stroke or coronary or peripheral artery disease. To obtain a large enough number of subjects with stroke, cases and controls from a stroke registry were combined with cases and controls of a population-based study from the same region. For the diagnosis of dementia the DSM-III-R criteria were used. Extensive information on cardiovascular risk factors was collected, including indicators of atherosclerosis. Blood and urine were sampled to study platelet function and thrombogenic and metabolic factors. The study population consists of 7,466 subjects, of whom 300 were recruited from a hospital-based stroke registry. Coronary or peripheral artery disease was present in 956 subjects and stroke in 617. Dementia was present in 434 (5.8%) of all subjects. The prevalence of dementia was 3.0, 24.0, and 4.4% in subjects with a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease, a history of stroke, and subjects without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke, respectively. The study will allow us to investigate the role of vascular factors in dementia, irrespective of its cause.

  9. Schoolyard upgrade in a randomized controlled study design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Toftager, Mette; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau


    School recess physical activity is important for adolescent s health and development, and several studies have established evidence based on cross-sectional studies that it is influenced by the environment in the schoolyard. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and variation across...... schools of a school-based intervention on students perceived opportunities for physical activity in the schoolyard, and to evaluate if an improved collective perception of opportunities was followed by an increase in PA during recess for the 13–15 year-old students. The intervention components included...... schoolyard renovation; mandatory outdoor recess; and increased adult supervision and support. Students collective perceptions were evaluated by a newly developed Schoolyard index (SYi) with seven items, and physical activity was objectively measured with accelerometer. We found variations in the change...

  10. Empirical evidence of study design biases in randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma


    search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta......-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective"). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ...) characteristic. Results: We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate) sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7...

  11. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.


    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  12. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.


    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDO Naomi


    Full Text Available This study examines the effectiveness of our computer graphics education package named “Design by Lines”, which we have developed for our Descriptive and Geometry education in Architectural department. “Design by Lines” is a method to design 3D forms by describing 3D lines which are generated by mathematical algorithms.

  14. Does decision documentation help junior designers rationalize their decisions? A comparative multiple-case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, U. van; Avgeriou, P.; Tang, A.

    Software architecture design is challenging, especially for junior software designers. Lacking practice and experience, junior designers need process support in order to make rational architecture decisions. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative multiple-case study conducted to find

  15. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments (United States)

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.


    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  16. The Learner-Centered Instructional Design Model: A Modified Delphi Study (United States)

    Melsom, Duane Allan


    The learner-centered instructional design model redefines the standard linear instructional design model to form a circular model where the learner's needs are the first item considered in the development of instruction. The purpose of this modified Delphi study was to have a panel of experts in the instructional design field review the…

  17. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions (United States)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.


    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  18. A foundational observation method for studying design situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hicks, Ben; Culley, Steve


    that covers capture, coding, and analysis. The capture step defines overall and situational context as well as multiple capture streams, generating a broad data-set that can be examined from multiple perspectives. The coding step employs a multi-level approach that seeks to minimise workload while describing...... both detailed and high-level information. The analysis step builds on the multi-level approach to provide for a flexible yet standardised examination of the data-set. The overall approach is introduced theoretically and illustrated using a comparison of an industrial study and an experimental study...

  19. On the Pragmatic Design of Literature Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Daneva, Maya


    Systematic literature studies have received much attention in empirical software engineering in recent years. They have become a powerful tool to collect and structure reported knowledge in a systematic and reproducible way. We distinguish systematic literature reviews to systematically analyze...... reported evidence in depth, and systematic mapping studies to structure a field of interest in a broader, usually quantified manner. Due to the rapidly increasing body of knowledge in software engineering, researchers who want to capture the published work in a domain often face an extensive amount...

  20. Studies of molecular modeling on drug design of Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For deeper investigations of β–sheet folding, thermodynamic signatures of this biomolecule as an island of cooperatively–ordered hydrogen–bonded network by ... Then, NMR studies was carried out on the basis of gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) method at HF/6–31G (d,p) level of theory, to gain more insight to ...