Sample records for ca-doped lanbo4 thin

  1. The Investigation of the Zr-doped LaNbO4 Thin Ceramic Films by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Virbukas


    Full Text Available Thin Zr-doped lanthanum niobium oxide (LaNb1-xZrxO4 films were formed on the optical quartz (SiO2 substrates using magnetron sputtering technique. Formed LaNb1-xZrxO4 thin films were characterized using different techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and impedance spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of LaNb1-xZrxO4 thin ceramic were investigated in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1.0 MHz in temperature range from 773 to 1173 K.It was determined that LaNb1-xZrxO4 thin ceramic films have the tetragonal structure and non-Debye type of relaxation. The activation energy was estimated from the relaxation time of impedance, electric modulus and conductivity resulting the activation energies vary from 1.12 ± 1 eV (Zr 1.99at.%, to 1.24 eV±1 eV (Zr 0.62at.%.DOI:

  2. Effects of A- and B-site (co-)acceptor doping on the structure and proton conductivity of LaNbO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, M.; Ricote, Sandrine; Meulenberg, W.A.


    with monoclinic Fergusonite structure at room temperature. The unit cell volume increases slightly with the presence of the acceptor. The electrical conductivity of the materials, characterized as a function of the temperature from 300 °C to 900 °C under wet reducing conditions with AC impedance spectroscopy......, was dominated by protons. The maximum conductivity of 4.1 · 10−4 S · cm−1 at 900 °C was obtained for La0.99Ca0.01Nb0.99Ga0.01O4-δ, which is a factor of ~ 2.5 lower than the highest conductivity reported for the A-site Ca-doped LaNbO4. Based on a semi-quantitative evaluation it was shown that the hydration...

  3. Host-sensitized luminescence in LaNbO4:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)) with different emission colors. (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengmeng; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun


    In this work, a series of Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) singly-doped and co-doped LaNbO4 (LNO) phosphors have been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with Rietveld refinement, diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties, decay lifetimes, and PL quantum yields (QYs) were exploited to characterize the phosphors. Under UV excitation, energy transfer process from the host to the activators exists in the singly-doped samples, which leads to tunable emission color from blue to red for LNO:Eu(3+), green for LNO:Tb(3+), and yellow including white for LNO:Dy(3+). In Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) co-doped phosphors, LNO:Eu(3+), Tb(3+), the energy transfers from the host to the activators and Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions have also been deduced from the PL spectra, resulting in tunable emission color from green to red by adjusting the concentration ratio of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The decay times monitored at host emission and Tb(3+) emission confirm the existence of energy transfer in the as-prepared samples. The best quantum efficiency can reach 43.2% for LNO:0.01Tb(3+) among all the as-prepared phosphors. In addition, the CL spectra of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) are a little different from their PL spectra because another emission envelope around 530 nm appears in the samples, which is attributed to the bombardment of higher energy excitation source of low-voltage electron beam. However, the characteristic emissions similar to PL spectra were reserved. Moreover, the CL spectrum of LNO:0.02Tb(3+) has stronger emission intensity than that of ZnO:Zn commercial product. These results from the PL and CL properties of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) suggest their potential in solid-state lighting and display fields.

  4. Experimental evidence of enhanced ferroelectricity in Ca doped BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L.V.; Deus, R.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R.; Longo, E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Bauru, Dept. de Eng. Mecânica, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo C. Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Cilense, M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Instituto de Química – Laboratório Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica (LIEC), Rua Professor Francisco Degni s/n, 14800-90 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Simões, A.Z., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil)


    Calcium (Ca)-doped bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films prepared by using the polymeric precursor method (PPM) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polarization and piezoelectric measurements. Structural studies by XRD and TEM reveal the co-existence of distorted rhombohedral and tetragonal phases in the highest doped BiFeO{sub 3} where enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are produced by internal strain. Resistive switching is observed in BFO and Ca-doped BFO which are affected by the barrier contact and work function of multiferroic materials and Pt electrodes. A high coercive field in the hysteresis loop is observed for the BiFeO{sub 3} film. Piezoelectric properties are improved in the highest Ca-doped sample due to changes in the crystal structure of BFO for a primitive cubic perovskite lattice with four-fold symmetry and a large tetragonal distortion within the crystal domain. This observation introduces magnetoelectronics at room temperature by combining electronic conduction with electric and magnetic degrees of freedom which are already present in the multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • Ca doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were obtained by the polymeric precursor method. • Co-existence of distorted rhombohedral and tetragonal phases are evident. • Enhanced ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are produced by the internal strain in the Ca doped BiFeO{sub 3} film.

  5. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates. (United States)

    Chapman, J; Su, Y; Howard, C A; Kundys, D; Grigorenko, A N; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V; Nair, R R


    Despite graphene's long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental observation has not been achieved. We searched for superconductivity in weakly interacting, metal decorated graphene crystals assembled into so-called graphene laminates, consisting of well separated and electronically decoupled graphene crystallites. We report robust superconductivity in all Ca-doped graphene laminates. They become superconducting at temperatures (Tc) between ≈4 and ≈6 K, with Tc's strongly dependent on the confinement of the Ca layer and the induced charge carrier concentration in graphene. We find that Ca is the only dopant that induces superconductivity in graphene laminates above 1.8 K among several dopants used in our experiments, such as potassium, caesium and lithium. By revealing the tunability of the superconducting response through doping and confinement of the metal layer, our work shows that achieving superconductivity in free-standing, metal decorated monolayer graphene is conditional on an optimum confinement of the metal layer and sufficient doping, thereby bringing its experimental realization within grasp.

  6. Application of nanostructured Ca doped CeO{sub 2} for ultraviolet filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffault, Laurianne, E-mail: [Institute PRISME, site de Chartres, EA 4229 Universite d' Orleans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000 Chartres (France); Ta, Minh-Tri; Devers, Thierry [Institute PRISME, site de Chartres, EA 4229 Universite d' Orleans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000 Chartres (France); Konstantinov, Konstantin [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Harel, Valerie; Simmonard, Cyriaque [Institute PRISME, site de Chartres, EA 4229 Universite d' Orleans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000 Chartres (France); Andreazza, Caroline [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, UMR 6619-CNRS, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Nevirkovets, Ivan P. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Pineau, Alain [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, UMR 6619-CNRS, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Veron, Olivier; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe [Institute PRISME, site de Chartres, EA 4229 Universite d' Orleans, 21 rue de Loigny la Bataille, 28000 Chartres (France)


    Calcium doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with doping concentrations between 0 and 50 mol% were synthesized by a co-precipitation method for ultraviolet filtration application. Below 20 mol% doping concentration, the samples were single-phase. From 30 mol%, CaCO{sub 3} appears as a secondary phase. The calculated CeO{sub 2} mean crystallite size was 9.3 nm for the pure and 5.7 nm for the 50 mol% Ca-doped sample. Between 250 and 330 nm, the absorbance increased for the 10, 30, and 40 mol% Ca-doped samples compared to the pure one. The band-gap was found to be 3.20 eV for the undoped, and between 3.36 and 3.51 eV for the doped samples. The blue shifts are attributed to the quantum confinement effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the Ce{sup 3+} atomic concentration in the pure sample was higher than that of the 20 mol% Ca-doped sample.

  7. Novel electrical conductivity properties in Ca-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S. Y., E-mail: [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Liu, W. F., E-mail: [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Xi, X. J. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Zhang, H. [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Guo, F. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Xu, X. L. [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Li, M.; Liu, L.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Yang, J. B. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China)


    The charge defective structure in Bi{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (CBFO, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) nanoparticles (NPs) ranging from 140 to 25 nm as well as their relations to band gap and leakage current behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that Ca doping effectively narrows the band gap from ∼2.16 to ∼2.02 eV, due to the appearance and accumulation of oxygen vacancy. Subsequently, enhanced electrical conductivity was obtained in these CBFO NPs, which leads to the appearance of a distinct threshold switching behavior in Ca-doped BFO NPs with higher conductivity at room temperature. Possible mechanisms for Ca doping effects on the electric conduction were discussed upon the interplay of NPs’ size effect and mobile charged defects on the basis of reduced particle size and the increased density of oxygen vacancy analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectrum.

  8. Magnetism and electrode dependant resistive switching in Ca-doped ceramic bismuth ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi, D., E-mail: [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marlasca, F.G. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Reinoso, M. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonville, P. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, SPEC (CNRS URA 2464), F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Levy, P. [GIA and INN, CAC-CNEA, 1650, San Martin (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized ceramic samples of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy that the Fe valence remains 3+ upon Ca-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Ca-doping reduces the transition field from the spatially modulated to the collinear magnetic state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We suggest that resistive switching in Ag/Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} system is related to the formation of AgO{sub x} at the interface. - Abstract: Here we report on the preparation and structural, magnetic and electrical characterization of BiFeO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} ceramic multiferroic samples. We suggest that Ca-doping creates oxygen vacancies and destabilizes the BiFeO{sub 3} spiral magnetic structure. We also study resistive switching effects in Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} with metallic electrodes, finding that the appearance of the effect is dependant on the fabrication procedure of the metallic electrode. On the basis of these observations, we critically revise some assumptions in currently available models of resistive switching of complex oxides.

  9. Effect of Ca doping on the structure and scintillation properties of ZnWO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, H.; Mikhailik, V.B. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Vasylechko, L. [Semiconductor Electronics Department, Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera Str., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Day, D.; Hutton, K.B.; Telfer, J. [Hilger Crystals, Margate, Kent CT9 4JL (United Kingdom); Prots, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    The future application of ZnWO{sub 4} scintillator in a cryogenic search for rare events is the motivation for optimization of this material. We present results on the effect of Ca doping on the structure and scintillation properties of ZnWO{sub 4}. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is no mixing in the CaWO{sub 4}-ZnWO{sub 4} pseudobinary system due to a significant mismatch of the crystal structures of CaWO{sub 4} and ZnWO{sub 4}. The lattice parameters of Ca-doped ZnWO{sub 4} samples obtained from X-ray powder diffraction data confirmed this finding. It is also shown that ZnWO{sub 4} retains the monoclinic wolframite structure when cooling, at 12 K exhibiting the following lattice parameters: a=4.6826(2) Aa, b=5.7088(2) Aa, c=4.9230(2) Aa and {beta}=90.541(2) . The scintillation light yield of the Zn{sub 1-x}Ca {sub x} WO {sub 4} was measured using the multi-photon counting technique and it is found that small concentrations of Ca (x=0.001-0.02) cause no deterioration of this parameter. Ca doping of ZnWO{sub 4} is expected to facilitate production of a single-crystalline scintillator. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Ca-doped chromium oxide studied by the DFT method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Frank; Rivera, Richard [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Stashans, Arvids, E-mail: [Grupo de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)


    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations within the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) as well as GGA+U method we study Ca-doped {alpha}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties due to the singular impurity incorporation have been investigated and discussed in detail. Atomic shifts as well as computed Bader charges on atoms imply the importance of ionic nature in the atomic interactions in chromium oxide. The study improves our knowledge on how the crystalline lattice reacts on the presence of a Ca dopant. According to our research it is found that Ca impurity incorporation produces some local changes upon the electronic band structure of the material without occurrence of local states within the band-gap. It is found that Ca incorporation produces change in magnetic behaviour of the crystal: it becomes ferromagnetic.

  11. Calcination temperature influenced multiferroic properties of Ca-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, Gitanjali, E-mail:; Uniyal, Poonam; Verma, N. K. [Nano Research Lab, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (India)


    The influence of Ca-doping and particle size on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied. A sol-gel method was employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their particle size was tailored by varying the calcination temperature. Structural analysis revealed a rhombohedral distortion induced by Ca-substitution. The broadening of diffraction peaks with decreasing calcination temperature was indicative of reduction in crystallite size. The morphological analysis revealed the formation of agglomerated nanoparticles having average particle size ranging from 10-15 and 50-55 nm for C4 and C6, respectively. The agglomeration is attributed to high surface energy of nanoparticles. Ferromagnetism has been displayed by all the synthesized nanoparticles. Enhancement of saturation magnetization with Ca-substitution is attributed to suppression of spin cycloid structure by the reduction in size, lattice distortion and creation of oxygen vacancies by the substitution of divalent ion at trivalent site. Further, this value increases as a function of decreasing particle size. Strong particle size effects on magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are owed to increasing surface to volume ratio. All these observations are indicative of strong dependence of multiferroism on particle size.

  12. Effects of Ca doping and O deficiency on the charge distribution in the vicinity of a 45° [001] grain boundary in YBa2Cu3O7

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo


    The charge redistribution at grain boundaries is critical for the applicability of high-T c superconductors in electronic devices, because it determines the transport across the material. We investigate the charge transfer and the alterations of the electronic states due to local doping of a normal-state 45°-tilted [001] grain boundary in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 by means of first-principles calculations. Considering Ca doping and O deficiency as prototypical modifications we demonstrate that the redistribution of the charge carriers in the CuO 2 planes displays a very complex spatial pattern, which deviates even qualitatively from the naive expectation. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of pure and Ca-doped LaCoO3 nanopowders obtained by a sol-gel route. (United States)

    Armelao, Lidia; Barreca, Davide; Bottaro, Gregorio; Maragno, Cinzia; Tondello, Eugenio; Caneschi, Andrea; Sangregorio, Claudio; Gialanella, Stefano


    Pure and Ca-doped LaCoO3 nanopowders were prepared by a non-alkoxidic sol-gel route using cobalt(II) acetate, lanthanum(III) nitrate and calcium(II) acetate as oxide precursors. The structural evolution and magnetic properties of the samples were studied as a function of thermal treatments in air up to 1273 K. In particular, the microstructure and composition of the systems were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both pure and calcium-doped samples annealing at 973 K resulted in the formation of cubic LaCoO3 (average crystallite size <30 nm). This phase was fully retained in the calcium-doped materials even after annealing at higher temperatures, whereas a transition to the rhomboedral polymorph was detected in the pure samples at 1073 K. The magnetic behavior of the nanopowders was investigated as a function of temperature and applied field using both dynamic and static susceptibility measurements. Pure lanthanum cobaltite samples underwent a transition to an ordered state at 88 K, and their magnetic properties changed as a function of thermal treatments. As concerns calcium-doped samples, they ordered ferromagnetically at 171 and 185 K depending on the annealing temperature and displayed open hysteresis loops with coercive fields as large as 1.75 T at low temperatures.

  14. Surface chemical and photocatalytic consequences of Ca-doping of BiFeO{sub 3} as probed by XPS and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, Mohamed I., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia 61519 (Egypt); Ramadan, Wegdan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21511 (Egypt); Katrib, Ali [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Rabee, Abdallah I.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia 61519 (Egypt)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiFeO{sub 3} is a modest visible-light heterogeneous photocatalyst for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. • The ferrite activity is promoted with Ca-doping up to 10 wt%-Ca. • Favourable consequences are enhanced surface metal redoxability and oxide basicity. • Furthering doping to >10 wt%-Ca retrogresses the ferrite photocatalytic activity. • A retrogressive doping consequence is bulk phase separation of α(γ)-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Pure and Ca-doped Bi{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3} samples were prepared with x = 0.0–0.2, adopting a sol–gel method. Previously reported studies performed on similarly composed and prepared samples revealed that Ca-doping, above solubility limit (namely at ≥10%-Ca), results in phase separation and formation of BiFeO{sub 3}/α(γ)-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite particles. Hetero p/n nanojunctions thus established were considered to help separating photo-generated electron–hole pairs and, therefore, explain consequent promotion of photo-Fenton catalytic activity of BiFeO{sub 3} towards methylene blue degradation in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} additive. However, the encompassed decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was not addressed. To bridge this gap of knowledge, the present investigation was designed to assess Ca-doping-effected surface chemical modifications and gauge its impact on the heterogeneous photo-/thermo-catalytic activity of BiFeO{sub 3} towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition gravimetry. XPS results revealed generation of high binding energy Bi 4f and Fe 2p states, as well as enhancement of the surface basicity, upon doping to 10%-Ca. These surface chemical consequences are rendered hardly detectable upon further increase of the dopant magnitude to 20%-Ca. In parallel, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition activity of the ferrite, under natural visible light, is enhanced to optimize

  15. Effects of Mn3O4 precipitates on the vibrational properties of epitaxial Ca-doped LaMnO3 films (United States)

    Daoudi, Kais; Alawadhi, Hussain; El Helali, Saoussen; Boudard, Michel; Othmen, Zied; Gaidi, Mounir; Oueslati, Meherzi; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo


    This work presents a systematic study by Raman spectroscopy of the vibrational properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO70/30) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 single crystalline substrates. The epitaxial LCMO70/30 thin films were prepared using a metal organic deposition process with thermal annealing at 800 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C, with thicknesses ranging from 20-80 nm. The evolution of the Raman modes versus film thickness and annealing temperature have been investigated. The Raman spectra of the obtained films are found to be mainly dominated by three Raman lines at 225, 440 and 661 cm-1. The first two Raman lines are assigned to the vibrational modes of the LCMO70/30 films. However, by combining magnetization, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with Raman spectroscopy, we concluded that the 661 cm-1 Raman line is due to the existence of a precipitate of a Mn3O4 phase in the LCMO70/30 films.

  16. From n = 1 to n = 2 of the Ruddlesden-Popper Phases via Ca-doping and induced effects on electrical and optical properties of La2-xCaxCuO4-δ (United States)

    Midouni, Adnene; Houchati, Mohamed Ikbal; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem


    The results of the synthesis and characterization of the optimally doped La2xCaxCuO4-δ solid solution within the composition range 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 and x = 1 are reported. In this study, we have been investigated the effects of Ca contents on the crystal structure, chemical stability, electrical conductivity, magnetic and optical properties of La2xCaxCuO4-δ materials. Preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of three structural phases in the series belonging to Ruddlesden-Popper Phases. The increase of the symmetry (from orthorhombic towards the tetragonal) for the substitution rate x (Ca) = 15% was evaluated by combined neutron and X-ray powder diffraction. Electrical conductivity measurements show that the appropriate Ca doping in La2CuO4 leads to noticeable increase in low-temperature dc conductivity and oxygen kinetics. The maximum dc conductivity σ = 0.2386 S m-1 at a selected temperature of 280 °C was obtained when x = 0.165. The analysis by the RPE technique shows that all the phases obtained are paramagnetic except the phase with a substitution rate x (Ca) = 15% is diamagnetic.

  17. Magnetic field induced low temperature upturn of magnetization in highly Ca-doped La{sub 0.1875}Ca{sub 0.8125}MnO{sub 3} polycrystalline compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kalipada, E-mail: [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A. [CMP Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)


    Highlights: • Magnetic field induced super paramagnetic nanoclusters formation. • Magnetic field dependent change of the curvature of the magnetization. • We report the training effect in polycrystalline La{sub 0.1875}Ca{sub 0.8125}MnO{sub 3} compound. - Abstract: In our present study we have reported the magnetic properties of highly Ca-doped polycrystalline compound La{sub 0.1875}Ca{sub 0.8125}MnO{sub 3}. Along with the conventional charge ordered antiferromagnetic ground state, a small ferromagnetic phase fraction is present at the low temperature. The effect of the external magnetic field markedly modifies the ground state of the compound. Our experimental results indicate that in addition to the ferromagnetic phase fraction, another field induced super paramagnetic phase grow at low temperature (T < 50 K) above H = 10 kOe magnetic field within the charge ordered antiferromagnetic matrix. The nature of the temperature dependent magnetization curves influenced by the external applied magnetic field was observed and analyzed using Langevin theory of super paramagnetism.

  18. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, J; Su, Y; Howard, C A; Kundys, D; Grigorenko, A N; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V; Nair, R R


    Despite graphene's long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental...

  19. The effect of Ca doping on the superconductivity of (R sub 0 sub . sub 4 Pr sub 0 sub . sub 6)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta compounds prepared at high pressure (R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Y)

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Yu Shu; Che Guang Can; Ni Yong Ming; Liu Zhen Xing; Jia Shun Lian; Dong Cheng; Zhao Zhong Xian


    The nearly single phase (R sub 0 sub . sub 4 Pr sub 0 sub . sub 6) sub 0 sub . sub 5 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 5 Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (R = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Y) superconducting compounds should be prepared at high temperature and high pressure. The critical temperature of these compounds is over 100 K which is much higher than that of the traditional R-123 superconductors which do not have Ca doping on the rare-earth site. Our results shows that Pr behaves in the same way as other rare-earths in the 123-phase compounds due to the doping with Ca ions.

  20. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  1. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)


    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  2. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  3. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  4. Optical thin film devices (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng


    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  5. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  6. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet


    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  7. Ceramic Composite Thin Films (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)


    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  8. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  9. Multifunctional thin film surface (United States)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.


    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  10. Sputtered Thin Film Research (United States)


    and Idonllly hy block numbor) Reactive Sputtering, Heteroepitaxy, Thin Films Single Crystal Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Aluminum Nitride, Gallium...Conditions were determined for the deposition of amorphous neodymium ultra- phosphate films. This material holds the potential for the fabrication...reaching the substrate at any time during sputtering. A 17.2 cm diameter quartz plate was covered with a thin coating of zinc sulflde and placed on

  11. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.


    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is

  12. Thinning 'Elstar' apple with benzyladenine


    Maas, F.M.


    ‘Elstar’, the main apple cultivar grown in the Netherlands, requires adequate thinning to reach marketable fruit sizes and to achieve regular yields by preventing alternate bearing. At the moment, chemical thinning of ‘Elstar’ is the only economically feasible way of thinning. Thinning by hand is labour intensive and thus too expensive. Furthermore, hand thinning is usually carried out after June-drop, by which time only increases in fruit size are achieved and no reduction in alternate beari...

  13. Thin film ceramic thermocouples (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)


    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device (United States)

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.


    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  15. Shear Thinning in Xenon (United States)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.


    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  16. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.


    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  17. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka


    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  18. Epitaxial thin films (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan


    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  19. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram


    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  20. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  1. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.


    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  2. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L


    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  3. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  4. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut


    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  5. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.


    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  6. Dewetting of Thin Polymer Films (United States)

    Dixit, P. S.; Sorensen, J. L.; Kent, M.; Jeon, H. S.


    DEWETTING OF THIN POLYMER FILMS P. S. Dixit,(1) J. L. Sorensen,(2) M. Kent,(2) H. S. Jeon*(1) (1) Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, (2) Department 1832, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Dewetting of thin polymer films is of technological importance for a variety of applications such as protective coatings, dielectric layers, and adhesives. Stable and smooth films are required for the above applications. Above the glass transition temperature (Tg) the instability of polymer thin films on a nonwettable substrate can be occurred. The dewetting mechanism and structure of polypropylene (Tg = -20 ^circC) and polystyrene (Tg = 100 ^circC) thin films is investigated as a function of film thickness (25 Åh < 250 Åand quenching temperature. Contact angle measurements are used in conjunction with optical microscope to check the surface homogeneity of the films. Uniform thin films are prepared by spin casting the polymer solutions onto silicon substrates with different contact angles. We found that the stable and unstable regions of the thin films as a function of the film thickness and quenching temperature, and then constructed a stability diagram for the dewetting of thin polymer films. We also found that the dewetting patterns of the thin films are affected substantially by the changes of film thickness and quenching temperature.

  7. Chemical thinning of 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Kanne, H.J.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.


    The increasing difference in the market value of small and larger sized ‘Conference’ pears (>65 mm) and the high labour costs for hand thinning, makes it interesting for growers to find a cheaper and reliable method for thinning pear trees. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 trials were carried out to test

  8. Thin lenses of asymmetric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris


    Full Text Available It is generally supposed that thin systems, including refracting surfaces and thin lenses, have powers that are necessarily symmetric.  In other words they have powers which can be represented assymmetric dioptric power matrices and in the familar spherocylindrical form used in optometry and ophthalmology.  This paper shows that this is not correct and that it is indeed possible for a thin system to have a power that is not symmetric and which cannot be expressed in spherocylindrical form.  Thin systems of asymmetric power are illustratedby means of a thin lens that is modelled with small prisms and is chosen to have a dioptric power ma-trix that is antisymmetric.  Similar models can be devised for a thin system whose dioptric power matrix is any  2 2 ×  matrix.  Thus any power, symmetric, asymmetric or antisymmetric, is possible for a thin system.  In this sense our understanding of the power of thin systems is now complete.

  9. Center for Thin Film Studies (United States)


    12 (3.22) To understand (3.22) requires a basic knowledge of differential geometry (Do Carmo , 1976). The determinant and trace of M1dj are the...A.G. Dirks and H.J. Leamy, "Columnar Microstructure in Vapour Deposited Thin Films," Thin Solid Films 47 219-233 (1977). M.P. Do Carmo , Differential

  10. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K


    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  11. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan


    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor (United States)

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.


    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  13. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  14. The religion of thinness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lelwica


    Full Text Available This paper examines the almost religious-like devotion of especially women in pursuing the goal of a thinner body. The quest for a slender body is analysed as a ‘cultural religion’, which the author calls the ‘Religion of Thinness’. The analysis revolves around four observations. The first is that for many women in the US today, the quest for a slender body serves what has historically been a ‘religious’ function: providing a sense of purpose that orients and gives meaning to their lives, especially in times of suffering and uncertainty. Second, this quest has many features in common with traditional religions, including beliefs, myths, rituals, moral codes, and sacred images—all of which encourage women to find ‘salvation’ (i.e., happiness and well-being through the pursuit of a ‘better’ (i.e., thinner body.Third, this secular faith draws so many adherents in large part because it appeals to and addresses what might be referred to as spiritual needs—including the need for a sense of purpose, inspiration, security, virtue, love, and well-being—even though it shortchanges these needs, and, in the long run, fails to deliver the salvation it promises. Fourth, a number of traditional religious ideas, paradigms and motifs tacit­ly inform and support the Religion of Thinness. More specifically, its soteri­ology resurrects and recycles the misogynist, anti-body, other-worldly, and exclusivist aspects of patriarchal religion. Ultimately, the analysis is not only critical of the Religion of Thinness; it also raises suspicions about any clear-cut divisions between ‘religion’, ‘culture’, and ‘the body’. In fact, examining the functions, features, and ideologies embedded in this secular devotion gives us insight into the constitutive role of the body in the production and apprehension of religious and cultural meanings.

  15. Formation of magnetic polarons in lightly Ca doped LaCoO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataev, Vladislav [IFW Dresden; Alfonsov, Aleksei [IFW Dresden; Vavilova, Eugenia [IFW Dresden; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Khomskii, D. I. [Universitat zu Koln, Koln, Germany; Buchner, B [IFW Dresden


    We performed high field electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and static magnetization measurements on a powder sample of lightly hole-doped La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x {approx} 0.002 in order to study the influence of the size of the substitution ion on the formation of the hole induced spin-state polaron. Previous works showed that doping of LaCoO{sub 3} with Sr in very small concentrations (x {approx} 0.002) yields the formation of a magnetic polaron with a big spin value and large spin orbital coupling. The Ca{sup 2+} ion, in contrast to the Sr{sup 2+} ion, has almost the same ionic radius as the La{sup 3+} ion. Therefore, the substitution of Ca for La provides mainly a hole to the system without creation of a sizeable crystal field distortion around the substituted Ca ion. The data obtained on La{sub 0.998}Ca{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3} provide experimental evidence that the introduced hole indeed plays the main role in the formation of the spin-state polaron. Accompanying crystal field distortions seem to play a minor role, e.g. influencing the fine splitting of the spin polaron energy levels and the contribution of the spin orbital coupling.

  16. Spark plasma sintering of hydrothermally derived ultrafine Ca doped lanthanum chromite powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendón-Angeles, J. C.


    Full Text Available Lanthanum chromite nano-particles, with a composition of La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 and La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, were produced by 1 h of hydrothermal reaction at 400 and 425°C respectively. The sintering of the powders was conducted using a spark plasma apparatus over the temperature range 1300-1550ºC for 1 min with a constant loading pressure of 45 MPa. Additional sintering experiments using conventional firing were carried out for comparison. Fully densified (98 % r.d. lanthanum chromite pellets with fine equiaxial grains 2.3 μm in size were obtained using the SPS (spark plasma sintering method. In contrast, a maximum relative density of 97 % was produced using La0.8Ca0.2CrO3 sintered conventionally at 1400ºC for 300 min, and the average grain size of the resulting sintered sample was 6 μm.

    Partículas ultrafinas de cromita de lantano, con una composición de La0.9Ca0.1CrO3 y La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, se obtuvieron después de 1 hora de síntesis hidrotermal a las temperaturas de 400 y 425°C respectivamente. Los compuestos obtenidos, con un tamaño de partícula de ~ 200 nm, se caracterizaron utilizando las técnicas de DRX, MEB y MET. La sinterización de estos polvos se efectuó en un equipo de chispa de plasma en el rango de temperatura de 1300-1500°C durante 1 min, y a una presión de compactación de 45 MPa. Ambos polvos también se sinterizaron siguiendo un tratamiento térmico convencional, en aire, con el propósito de comparar ambos métodos de sinterización. Las muestras de cromita de lantano sinterizadas por plasma presentaban una densidad relativa del 98 % (/t; y una microestructura monofásica con granos equaxiales con un tamaño medio de grano menor de 2.3 μm. En contraste, la composición La0.8Ca0.2CrO3, sinterizada a 1400°C/300 min, por métodos convencionales alcanzó una densidad relativa máxima del 97 % y su microestructura estaba formada por una sola fase con un tamaño medio de grano de 6 μm.

  17. Effect of Ca doping on thermally activated flux flow in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... has been carried out by using the thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model. The TAFF activation energy, , is field dependent and obeys the power law = –, where increases while decreases with the addition of Ca. Furthermore, and the calculated upper critical field, 2, decrease with the addition of Ca.

  18. Formation of magnetic polarons in lightly Ca doped LaCoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataev, V; Alfonsov, A; Vavilova, E; Buechner, B [IFW Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Podlesnyak, A [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Khomskii, D I, E-mail: v.kataev@ifw-dresden.d [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)


    We performed high field electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and static magnetization measurements on a powder sample of lightly hole-doped La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x {approx} 0.002 in order to study the influence of the size of the substitution ion on the formation of the hole induced spin-state polaron. Previous works [1, 2] showed that doping of LaCoO{sub 3} with Sr in very small concentrations (x {approx} 0.002) yields the formation of a magnetic polaron with a big spin value and large spin orbital coupling. The Ca{sup 2+} ion, in contrast to the Sr{sup 2+}ion, has almost the same ionic radius as the La{sup 3+} ion. Therefore, the substitution of Ca for La provides mainly a hole to the system without creation of a sizeable crystal field distortion around the substituted Ca ion. The data obtained on La{sub 0.998}Ca{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3} provide experimental evidence that the introduced hole indeed plays the main role in the formation of the spin-state polaron. Accompanying crystal field distortions seem to play a minor role, e.g. influencing the fine splitting of the spin polaron energy levels and the contribution of the spin orbital coupling.

  19. Effect of Ca doping on thermally activated flux flow in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The effect of doping Ca atoms into the Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor is studied by employing the electrical resistivity measurements at various magnetic fields. The possible degradation in microstructural and superconducting properties due to the addition of Ca was discussed. The resistivity as a function of temperature ...

  20. Study of thermoelectric properties of Ca-doped LaCoO3 (United States)

    Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Nagai, Ken; Takahashi, Masaru; Takakusa, Shosuke; Moriga, Toshihiro


    The samples of La1-xCaxCoO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) were synthesized by solid state reaction method for studying thermoelectric properties. The properties of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured in the temperature ranging from room temperature to 573 K. The results of electrical conductivity was increasing Ca substitution. The highest value of electrical conductivity is 1574 S/cm. It is concluded that Ca2+ doping in LaCoO3 has the effect to inhibit Seebeck coefficient from decreasing.

  1. Effects of K and Ca doping on twin boundary energy of cupperate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshnevisan, Bahram [Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Mahnaz, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qom University of Technology, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • Ab initio simulation for twin boundary energy in YBCO and doped YBCO system for the 1st time. • Local charge transfer and charge redistribution on the twin planes. • Structural and electronic properties of YBKCO and YCBCO systems. • Effect of Ca and K doping on twin boundary. • This explain the effect of twin boundaries in agreement with experimental data. • Structural and electronic properties of twined YBKCO and YCBCO systems. - Abstract: Ab-initio calculations under GGA approximation have been employed to find out the effect Ba substitution by K and Ca on the structural and electronic properties twined and untwined YBCO system. In this regard, the twin boundary energy, γ, and impact of the substitution on the boundary's charge distribution have been of special consideration. Our results show that despite the structural changes the presence of K (Ca) modifies substantially density of levels at the Fermi level, which could be responsible for empirical reports of decreasing the critical temperature (T{sub c}) by increasing the K(Ca) content. Although, the K doping reduces the γ value in YBa{sub 2–x}K{sub x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} system, after calcium doping it remains more or less unchanged. In addition, reduction of the carrier density occurs at twin boundary in CuO{sub 2} layer for the substituted system with respect to the untwined YBCO system. Our results would be noticeable in conjunction with the experimentally reported twinned and alkali substituted superconductive properties of the YBCO samples.

  2. Chemical thinning of 'Conference' pears


    Maas, F.M.; Kanne, H.J.; Steeg, van der, P.A.H.


    The increasing difference in the market value of small and larger sized ‘Conference’ pears (>65 mm) and the high labour costs for hand thinning, makes it interesting for growers to find a cheaper and reliable method for thinning pear trees. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 trials were carried out to test the thinning efficacy of several chemicals. Fruit set was only significantly reduced by a two-fold application of ammonium thiosulphate (ATS) or by a tankmix application of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and ...

  3. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization. (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.


    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  4. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A


    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  5. The endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: How thin is thin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Mahajan


    Full Text Available A thin endometrium is encountered infrequently (2.4% in assisted reproductive technology cycles. When it does occur it is a cause of concern as it is associated with lower implantation rate and pregnancy rate. Though pregnancies have been reported at 4 and 5 mm it is apparent that an endometrial thickness <6 mm is associated with a trend toward lower probability of pregnancy. Hormone replacement therapy – frozen embryo transfer (FET cycles appear to give better results due to an improvement in endometrial receptivity (ER. The etiology of thin endometrium plays a significant part in its receptivity. A number of treatments have been tried to improve endometrial growth, but none has been validated so far. Confirming ER of a thin endometrium by an ER array test before FET offers reassurance.

  6. Thin Films for Thermoelectric Applications (United States)

    Silva, M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Carmo, J. P.; Gonçalves, L. M.; Correia, J. H.

    The introduction of nanotechnology opened new horizons previously unattainable by thermoelectric devices. The nano-scale phenomena began to be exploited through techniques of thin-film depositions to increase the efficiency of thermoelectric films. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon of thermoelectricity and its evolution since it was discovered in 1822. This chapter also reviews the thermoelectric devices, the macro to nano devices, describing the most used techniques of physical vapor depositions to deposit thermoelectric thin-films. A custom made deposition chamber for depositing thermoelectric thin films by the thermal co-evaporation technique, where construction issues and specifications are discussed, is then presented. All the steps for obtaining a thermoelectric generator in flexible substrate with the custom deposition chamber (to incorporate in thermoelectric microsystems) are described. The aim of thermoelectric microsystem relays is to introduce an energy harvesting application to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) or biomedical devices. The scanning probe measuring system for characterization of the thermoelectric thin films are also described in this chapter. Finally, a few of the prototypes of thermoelectric thin films (made of bismuth and antimony tellurides, {Bi}2{Te}3, and {Sb}2{Te}3, respectively) obtained by co-evaporation (using the custom made deposition chamber) and characterized for quality assessment are dealt with. All the issues involved in the co-evaporation and characterization are objects of analysis in this chapter.

  7. New strategies for thinning peaches (United States)

    An evaluation of two mechanical thinners was conducted in four commercial peach orchard blocks in 2007. A mechanical blossom thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees that employed nylon cords (strings) to remove blossoms was tested on peach trees trained to either a perpendicula...

  8. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter


    , the bottom plate is lowered under gravity to produce a specified strain. The sample is thereby stretched into a filament. Provided the filament is sufficiently long, surface tension will induce a thinning of the filament until breakup in finite time. The numerical simulations are performed with a Lagrangian...

  9. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RACHANA GUPTA1,∗, MUKUL GUPTA2 and THOMAS GUTBERLET3. 1VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Sindhi Society, Chembur, Mumbai 400 071,. India. 2UGC-DAE Consortium for ... E-mail: Abstract. Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture.

  10. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.


    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  11. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G


    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  12. Thin slices and Sherlock Holmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arm and his dark haggard face, which indicated that he had been in the tropics and had undergone hardship and suffering. What was going on in Sherlock's mind has been called “thin slicing”, which is our ability to form hypotheses in our minds based on very little information, and often in a matter of seconds. This is partly ...

  13. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming


    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  14. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics


    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.


    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are descri...

  15. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik


    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  17. Thin polymeric films for building biohybrid microrobots. (United States)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Fujie, Toshinori


    This paper aims to describe the disruptive potential that polymeric thin films have in the field of biohybrid devices and to review the recent efforts in this area. Thin (thickness  3D systems, new advanced materials to be used for the fabrication of thin films, cell engineering opportunities and modelling/computational efforts.

  18. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications

    CERN Document Server


    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  19. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  20. Fundamentals of thin solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonovitch, E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    It is now widely recognized that thin solar cells can present certain advantages for performance and cost. This is particularly the case when light trapping in the semiconductor film is incorporated, as compensation for the diminished single path thickness of the solar cell. In a solar cell thinner than a minority carrier diffusion length, the current collection is of course very easy. More importantly the concentration of an equivalent number of carriers in a thinner volume results in a higher Free Energy, or open circuit voltage. This extra Free Energy may be regarded as due to the concentration factor, just as it would be for photons, electrons, or for any chemical species. The final advantage of a thin solar cell is in the diminished material usage, a factor of considerable importance when we consider the material cost of the high quality semiconductors which we hope to employ.

  1. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim


    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  2. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics


    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  3. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.


    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  4. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios avanzados del I.P.N., A.P. 14-700,07000 México, DF (Mexico); Lobo, Francisco S.N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edifício C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)


    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  5. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.


    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  6. Thin film solar energy collector (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.


    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  7. MCP performance improvement using alumina thin film (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile; Li, Yumei; Qi, Ming


    The performance improvement using alumina thin film on a dual microchannel plate (MCP) detector for single electron counting was investigated. The alumina thin film was coated on all surfaces of the MCPs by atomic layer deposition method. It was found that the gain, the single electron resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio of the dual MCP detector were significantly enhanced by coating the alumina thin film. The optimum operating conditions of the new dual MCP detector have been studied.

  8. Testing thin film adhesion strength acoustically (United States)

    Madanshetty, Sameer I.; Wanklyn, Kevin M.; Ji, Hang


    A new method of measuring the adhesion strength of thin films to their substrates is reported. The method is based on an analogy with the common tensile test of materials. This is an acoustic method that uses acoustic microcavitation to bring about controlled erosion of the thin film. Based on the insonification pressure and the time to complete erosion, the adhesion strength is assessed. The measurements correctly rank order a set of thin film samples of known adhesion strengths.

  9. Growth and characterization of PNZST thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Jiwei; Li, X.; Yao, Y.; Chen, Haydn


    We have grown and compared microstructures and dielectric properties of PNZST thin films prepared on two different substrates by sol-gel methods. To ensure a complete single-phase perovskite PNZST thin film, a capping layer of PbO must be added to the top surface of the thin film before final heat treatment. Microstructure characterization was examined with X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric and antiferroelectric properties were investigated as a function of temperature.

  10. Numerical modeling of thin film optical filters (United States)

    Topasna, Daniela M.; Topasna, Gregory A.


    Thin films are an important and sometimes essential component in many optical and electrical devices. As part of their studies in optics, students receive a basic grounding in the propagation of light through thin films of various configurations. Knowing how to calculate the transmission and reflection of light of various wavelengths through thin film layers is essential training that students should have. We present exercises where students use Mathcad to numerically model the transmission and reflection of light from various thin film configurations. By varying the number of layers and their optical parameters, students learn how to adjust the transmission curves in order to tune particular filters to suit needed applications.

  11. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating (United States)

    Shen, Dashen


    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  12. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H


    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  13. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)


    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2663 - Thin Leaf (C Group). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.2663 Section 29.2663... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2663 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves that are thin in body. Grades Grade names and specifications C1L Choice Light-brown Thin Leaf. Thin...

  15. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz


    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  16. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz


    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  17. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.


    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  18. Neutron activation analysis of thin orange pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G; Sayre, E V; Abascal, R


    The evidence thus far obtained supports the idea of ''Thin Orange'' ware, typical of classic Teotihuacan culture, easily identifiable petrographically or chemically, not necessarily made at Teotihuacan itself but widely traded, and ''thin, orange'' pottery, fabricated in many other places, and perhaps at other times as well.

  19. Delamination of Compressed thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Sørensen, Kim Dalsten


    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic film, attached to a substrate with a corner, is carried out. The film is in compression and the analysis is performed by combining results from fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. The results show a very strong dependency of the angle...

  20. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim Dalsten; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan


    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...

  1. Block copolymer directed nanoporous metal thin films.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, H.; Li, Z.H.; Sai, H.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Warren, S.C.; Wiesner, U.


    Porous metal thin films have high potential for use in applications such as catalysis, electrical contacts, plasmonics, as well as energy storage and conversion. Structuring metal thin films on the nanoscale to generate high surface areas poses an interesting challenge as metals have high surface

  2. TEC – Thin Environmental Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Tomasi


    Full Text Available Permasteelisa Group developed with Fiberline Composites a new curtain wall system (Thin Environmental Cladding or TEC, making use of pultruded GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer material instead of traditional aluminum. Main advantages using GFRP instead of aluminum are the increased thermal performance and the limited environmental impact. Selling point of the selected GFRP resin is the light transmission, which results in pultruded profiles that allow the visible light to pass through them, creating great aesthetical effects. However, GFRP components present also weaknesses, such as high acoustic transmittance (due to the reduced weight and anisotropy of the material, low stiffness if compared with aluminum (resulting in higher facade deflection and sensible fire behavior (as combustible material. This paper will describe the design of the TEC-facade, highlighting the functional role of glass within the facade concept with regards to its acoustic, structural, aesthetics and fire behavior.

  3. HTML thin client and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Touchette, J F


    When writing applications for thin clients such as Web browsers, you face several challenges that do not exist with fat-client applications written in Visual Basic, Delphi, or Java. For one thing, your development tools do not include facilities for automatically building reliable, nonrepeatable transactions into applications. Consequently, you must devise your own techniques to prevent users from transmitting duplicate transactions. The author explains how to implement reliable, nonrepeatable transactions using a technique that is applicable to any Java Server Development Kit based architecture. Although the examples presented are based on the IBM WebSphere 2.1 Application Server, they do not make use of any IBM WebSphere extensions. In short, the concepts presented here can be implemented in Perl CGI and ASP scripts, and the sample code has been tested with JDK 1.1.6 and 1.2. (0 refs).

  4. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf


    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  5. Versatility of the thin groin flap. (United States)

    Murakami, R; Fujii, T; Itoh, T; Tsutsui, K; Tanaka, K; Lio, Y; Yano, H


    The groin flap is one of the most usable flaps. It provides a large amount of skin coverage with an easily concealed donor site. However, when the flap is used to reconstruct areas of the neck, hand, or foot, a secondary procedure for defatting is usually necessary. Thinner flaps are thought to be more useful in these areas. We present an anatomical study of the thin groin flap, including its dissection and defatting, and 12 clinical cases using the thin groin flap for neck (n = 7), foot (n = 4), and scalp (n = 1) reconstruction. The largest successful flap measured 13 x 30 cm. Eight flaps survived completely, two had partial necrosis, and two had total necrosis. Complications were thought to be caused by dissection around the pedicle. Meticulous dissection and thinning are required to create the thin groin flap. Excellent aesthetic results requiring no secondary defatting procedures are possible with this new thin groin flap.

  6. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  7. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)


    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of thin films (United States)

    Burgess, James Shaw

    Raman spectroscopy was used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate structural and compositional information on a variety of samples. Raman was used on the unique La 2NiMnO6 mixed double perovskite which is a member of the LaMnO3 family of perovskites and has multiferroic properties. Raman was also used on nanodiamond films as well as some boron-doped carbon compounds. Finally, Raman was used to identify metal-dendrimer bonds that have previously been overlooked. Vibrational modes for La2NiMnO6 were ascribed by comparing spectra with that for LaMnO3 bulk and thin film spectra. The two most prominent modes were labeled as an asymmetric stretch (A g) centered around 535 cm-1 and a symmetric stretch (B g) centered around 678 cm. The heteroepitaxial quality of La2NiMnO 6 films on SrTiO3 (100) and LaAlO3 (100) substrates were examined using the Raman microscope by way of depth profile experiments and by varying the thickness of the films. It was found that thin films (10 nm) had much greater strain on the LaAlO3 substrate than on the SrTiO3 substrate by examining the shifts of the Ag and the Bg modes from their bulk positions. Changes in the unit cell owing to the presence of oxygen defects were also monitored using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the Ag and Bg modes shifted between samples formed with different oxygen partial pressures. These shifts could be correlated to changes in the symmetry of the manganese centers due to oxygen defects. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structural and compositional characteristics of carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond coated cutting tools were examined using the Raman Microscope. Impact, abrasion, and depth profile experiments indicated that delamination was the primary cause of film failure in these systems. Boron doped material of interest as catalyst supports were also examined. Monitoring of the G-mode and intensities of the D- and G-modes indicated that

  9. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří


    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  10. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.


    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  11. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute


    A class of spatial point process models that combine short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination of clustering...... and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae for the intensity...

  12. Delamination of Compressed Thin Layers at Corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim D.; Jensen, Henrik Myhre; Clausen, Johan


    An analysis of delamination for a thin elastic layer under compression, attached to a substrate at a corner is carried out. The analysis is performed by combining results from interface fracture mechanics and the theory of thin shells. In contrast with earlier results for delamination on a flat...... results for the fracture mechanical properties have been obtained, and these are applied in a study of the effect of contacting crack faces. Special attention has been given to analyse conditions under which steady state propagation of buckling driven delamination takes place. Keywords: Delamination, Thin...

  13. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c...... or less; and e. repeating steps b. and c. a total of N times, such that N repeating pairs of layers (A/B) are built up, wherein N is 1 or more. The invention also provides a thin film multi-layered heterostructure as such, and the combination of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure and a substrate...

  14. Laser thermoreflectance for semiconductor thin films metrology (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Hastanin, J.; Duterte, C.; Hernandez, Y.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Kupisiewicz, A.; Martin, P.-E.; Fleury-Frenette, K.


    We present a thermoreflectance-based metrology concept applied to compound semiconductor thin films off-line characterization in the solar cells scribing process. The presented thermoreflectance setup has been used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of thin CdTe films and to measure eventual changes in the thermal properties of 5 μm CdTe films ablated by nano and picosecond laser pulses. The temperature response of the CdTe thin film to the nanosecond heating pulse has been numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational and experimental results have been compared.

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  16. Nucleation and crystallization of Ca doped basaltic glass for the production of a glass-ceramic material (United States)

    Tarrago, Mariona; Royo, Irene; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martínez, Salvador


    Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a waste with a composition roughly similar to that of a basalt. It may contain potentially toxic elements that can be inertized by vitrification. Using a glass-ceramic process, these elements will be emplaced in newly formed mineral phases. Glass-ceramic production requires an accurate knowledge of the temperatures of nucleation (TN) and crystal growth of the corresponding minerals. This work arises from the study of the addition of ions to a basaltic matrix in order to establish a model of vitrification of sewage sludge. In this case a glass-ceramic is obtained from a glass made with a basalt that has been doped with 16% CaO. Two glasses which underwent different cooling processes have been produced and compared. The first was annealed at 650oC (AG) and the second was quenched (QG). The chemical composition of the glasses is SiO2 36.11 wt%, Al2O312.19 wt%, CaO 24.44 wt%, FeO 10.06 wt%, MgO 9.19 wt%, Na2O 2.28 wt%, TiO2 2.02 wt%, K2O 1.12 wt%, P2O5 0.46 wt%. Glass transition temperature obtained by dilatometry varies from 640 oC (AG) to 700 oC (QG). The temperatures of nucleation and crystal growth of the glass have been determined by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The phases formed after these treatments were identified by X-Ray Diffraction. The temperatures of exothermic and endothermic peaks measured in the quenched glass are, in average, 10 oC higher than those found for the annealed glass. The exothermic peaks provide crystallization temperatures for different phases: a first event at 857 oC corresponds to the growth of magnetite, pyroxene and nepheline, whereas a second event at 1030 oC is due to the crystallization of melilite from the reaction between previous minerals and a remaining amorphous phase. The complete melting of this system occurs at 1201 oC. This glass has been nucleated inside the DTA furnace (500-850° C/3 hours) and then heated up to 1300 oC using the fraction between 400-500μm. TN can be obtained by analysing the exothermic peak temperature (Tex) which is related to the number of nuclei per unit volume that is formed on the glass. If we represent (1000/Tex) versus TN, we obtain the range of nucleation and the temperature of maximum nucleation rate of glass. Three different nucleation events were observed for both glasses. The first event, assigned to the nucleation of magnetite starts between 550 (AG) and 600 oC (QG); the second event is linked to the start of nucleation of pyroxene at 655 oC (AG and QG); the third event is the nucleation of nepheline between 700 (QG) and 730 oC (AG). These thermal events are more evident in QG, hence it has been chosen to make the glass-ceramic. Its production would divided in 4 steps at a heating rate of 15 oC/min: is starts by heating the original glass up to 550 oC; further heating up to 655 oC; then up to 700 oC and a final heating up to 1050 oC. A 4h isothermal step was performed after each heating.

  17. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten


    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  18. TEC – Thin Environmental Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Tomasi


    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Alan Tomasi, Group R&D Project Manager, Permasteelisa S.p.A., viale E. Mattei 21/23 | 31029 Vittorio Veneto, Treviso, Italy. Tel.: +39 0438 505207; E-mail:; Permasteelisa Group developed with Fiberline Composites a new curtain wall system (Thin Environmental Cladding or TEC, making use of pultruded GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer material instead of traditional aluminum. Main advantages using GFRP instead of aluminum are the increased thermal performance and the limited environmental impact. Selling point of the selected GFRP resin is the light transmission, which results in pultruded profiles that allow the visible light to pass through them, creating great aesthetical effects. However, GFRP components present also weaknesses, such as high acoustic transmittance (due to the reduced weight and anisotropy of the material, low stiffness if compared with aluminum (resulting in higher facade deflection and sensible fire behavior (as combustible material. This paper will describe the design of the TEC-facade, highlighting the functional role of glass within the facade concept with regards to its acoustic, structural, aesthetics and fire behavior.

  19. Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.


    The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

  20. Soft materials: A remedy for thinning hair (United States)

    Luhar, Mitul


    Vast beds of 'hair' coat many living systems, and usually exhibit shear-thinning behaviour -- their flow resistance lessens with speed. But with geometric tweaks, such beds can also show shear-thickening and asymmetric ratchet-like behaviour.

  1. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria


    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...

  2. A modified K3M thinning algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabedzki Marek


    Full Text Available The K3M thinning algorithm is a general method for image data reduction by skeletonization. It had proved its feasibility in most cases as a reliable and robust solution in typical applications of thinning, particularly in preprocessing for optical character recognition. However, the algorithm had still some weak points. Since then K3M has been revised, addressing the best known drawbacks. This paper presents a modified version of the algorithm. A comparison is made with the original one and two other thinning approaches. The proposed modification, among other things, solves the main drawback of K3M, namely, the results of thinning an image after rotation with various angles.

  3. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  4. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin


    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  5. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail:; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  6. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Inverted Metamorphic (IMM) solar cells have achieved high efficiency at very low mass, but integration of the thin crystalline photovoltaic device into a flexible...

  7. Integrated Substrate and Thin Film Design Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaler, Stephen


    .... However, since modem thin film technology allows a wide range of exotic compositions and stoichiometries via deposition, surface treatments, and nano-fabrication, it is anticipated that this newly...

  8. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.


    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  9. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  10. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes (United States)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.


    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  11. Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films


    Fukao, Koji; Koizumi, Hiroki


    The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on the...

  12. Multilayer Thin Film Sensors for Damage Diagnostics (United States)

    Protasov, A. G.; Gordienko, Y. G.; Zasimchuk, E. E.


    The new innovative approach to damage diagnostics within the production and maintenance/servicing procedures in industry is proposed. It is based on the real-time multiscale monitoring of the smart-designed multilayer thin film sensors of fatigue damage with the standard electrical input/output interfaces which can be connected to the embedded and on-board computers. The multilayer thin film sensors supply information about the actual unpredictable deformation damage, actual fatigue life, strain localization places, damage spreading, etc.

  13. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty


    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W

  14. Laser processing for thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.


    Over the past decade major advances have occurred in the field of thin- film photovoltaics (PV) with many of them a direct consequence of the application of laser processing. Improved cell efficiencies have been achieved in crystalline and polycrystalline Si, in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and in two polycrystalline thin-film materials. The use of lasers in photovoltaics includes laser hole drilling for emitter wrap-through, laser trenching for buried bus lines, and laser texturing of crystalline and polycrystalline Si cells. In thin-film devices, laser scribing is gaining increased importance for module interconnects. Pulsed laser recrystallization of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used to form highly conductive p-layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon cells and in thin-film transistors. Optical beam melting appears to be an attractive method for forming metal semiconductor alloys for contact formation. Finally, pulsed lasers are used for deposition of the entire semiconductor absorber layer in two types of polycrystalline thin-film cells-those based on copper indium diselenide and those based on cadmium telluride. In our lab we have prepared and studied heavily doped polycrystalline silicon thin films and also have used laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) to prepare 'all-LPVD' CdS/CdTe solar cells on glass with efficiencies tested at NREL at 10.5%. LPVD is highly flexible and ideally suited for prototyping PV cells using ternary or quaternary alloys and for exploring new dopant combinations.

  15. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.


    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are described in detail, while other laser-based fabrication processes, such as laser-induced crystallization and pulsed laser deposition, are briefly reviewed. Lasers are also integrated into various diagnostic tools to analyze the composition of chemical vapors during deposition of Si thin films. Silane (SiH4), silane radicals (SiH3, SiH2, SiH, Si), and Si nanoparticles have all been monitored inside chemical vapor deposition systems. Finally, we review various thin-film characterization methods, in which lasers are implemented.

  16. Which trees should be removed in thinning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala


    Full Text Available Background: In economically optimal management, trees that are removed in a thinning treatment should be selected on the basis of their value, relative value increment and the effect of removal on the growth of remaining trees. Large valuable trees with decreased value increment should be removed, especially when they overtop smaller trees. Methods: This study optimized the tree selection rule in the thinning treatments of continuous cover management when the aim is to maximize the profitability of forest management. The weights of three criteria (stem value, relative value increment and effect of removal on the competition of remaining trees were optimized together with thinning intervals. Results and conclusions: The results confirmed the hypothesis that optimal thinning involves removing predominantly large trees. Increasing stumpage value, decreasing relative value increment, and increasing competitive influence increased the likelihood that removal is optimal decision. However, if the spatial distribution of trees is irregular, it is optimal to leave large trees in sparse places and remove somewhat smaller trees from dense places. However, the benefit of optimal thinning, as compared to diameter limit cutting is not usually large in pure one-species stands. On the contrary, removing the smallest trees from the stand may lead to significant (30–40 % reductions in the net present value of harvest incomes. Keywords: Continuous cover forestry, Tree selection, High thinning, Optimal management, Spatial distribution, Spatial growth model

  17. 7 CFR 29.3648 - Thin Leaf (C Group). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.3648 Section 29.3648... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3648 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves... specifications, and tolerances C1L Choice Quality Light-brown Thin Leaf. Ripe, thin, open leaf structure, smooth...

  18. Metabolic theory predicts animal self-thinning. (United States)

    Jonsson, Tomas


    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level. Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists. The goal of this study was to use animal self-thinning as a tool to test population-level predictions from MTE, by analysing (i) if self-thinning can be induced in populations of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and (ii) if the resulting thinning trajectories can be predicted from metabolic theory, using estimates of the species-specific metabolic rate of A. domesticus. I performed a laboratory study where the growth of A. domesticus was followed, from hatching until emergence as adults, in 71 cohorts of five different starting densities. Ninety-six per cent of all cohorts in the three highest starting densities showed evidence of self-thinning, with estimated thinning slopes in general being remarkably close to that expected under metabolic constraints: A cross-sectional analysis of all data showing evidence of self-thinning produced an ordinary least square (OLS) slope of -1·11, exactly that predicted from specific metabolic allometry of A. domesticus. This result is furthermore supported by longitudinal analyses, allowing for independent responses within cohorts, producing a mean OLS slope across cohorts of -1·13 and a fixed effect linear mixed effects models slope of -1·09. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results are robust to how the criterion for on-going self-thinning was defined. Finally, also as predicted by metabolic theory, temperature had a negative effect on the thinning intercept, producing

  19. Thin film dielectric composite materials (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho


    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  20. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation. (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana


    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.

  1. Thin film absorber for a solar collector (United States)

    Wilhelm, William G.


    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  2. The bio-ethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rakin


    Full Text Available In this paper, the bioethanol production with the thin stillage recirculation in mashing was investigated. The mashing was performed with recirculation of: 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the thin stillage. The thin stillage recirculation was repeated six times. In the experiment without the thin stillage, the recirculation bioethanol yield (compared to the theoretical yield was 97.96 %, which implicates that the experiment conditions were chosen and performed well. With the addition of the thin stillage, the bioethanol yield increased and was above 100 %. Higher bioethanol yield than 100 % can be explained by the fact that the thin stillage contains carbohydrates, amino acids and yeast cells degradation products. The bioethanol yield increased with the increased number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Dry matter content in fermenting slurry increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of the thin stillage recirculation cycles (8.04 % for the first and 9.40 % for the sixth cycle. Dry matter content in thin stillage increased with the increased thin stillage quantity and the number of thin stillage recirculation cycles. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that thin stillage recirculation increased the bioethanol yield. The highest bioethanol yields were obtained with recirculation of 10% thin stillage.

  3. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou


    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  4. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    A new class of spatial point process models that combines short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination of cluste......A new class of spatial point process models that combines short range repulsion with medium range clustering is introduced. The model is motivated by patterns of centres of non-overlapping spherical cells in biological tissue which tend to have a clustering behaviour. Such a combination...... of clustering and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae...

  5. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.


    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  6. Plasmonic modes in thin films: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePolitano


    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP.Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaes.

  7. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans


    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  8. Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyusung


    We demonstrate semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on thin metal electrodes and polymer photoactive layers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent OPV device comprising a 15-nm silver (Ag) rear electrode is 1.98% under AM 1.5-G illumination through the indium-tin-oxide side of the front anode at 100 mW/cm2 with 15.6% average transmittance of the entire cell in the visible wavelength range. As its thickness increases, a thin Ag electrode mainly influences the enhancement of the short circuit current density and fill factor. Its relatively low absorption intensity makes a Ag thin film a viable option for semitransparent electrodes compatible with organic layers. © 2013 ETRI.

  9. Multifractal characteristics of titanium nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţălu Ştefan


    Full Text Available The study presents a multi-scale microstructural characterization of three-dimensional (3-D micro-textured surface of titanium nitride (TiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in correlation with substrate temperature variation. Topographical characterization of the surfaces, obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, was realized by an innovative multifractal method which may be applied for AFM data. The surface micromorphology demonstrates that the multifractal geometry of TiN thin films can be characterized at nanometer scale by the generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α. Furthermore, to improve the 3-D surface characterization according with ISO 25178-2:2012, the most relevant 3-D surface roughness parameters were calculated. To quantify the 3-D nanostructure surface of TiN thin films a multifractal approach was developed and validated, which can be used for the characterization of topographical changes due to the substrate temperature variation.

  10. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server


    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  11. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan


    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  12. Recent advances in thin-layer cytology. (United States)

    Linder, J


    In recent years liquid-based cytology has emerged as an alternative to conventional cytopreparatory methods. In particular, the ThinPrep system has found broad acceptance in non-gynecologic cytopreparation. Many laboratories have successfully applied this technique to body fluids (e.g. urine, pleural effusions), brushing samples (e.g. gastrointestinal tract, lung) and fine-needle aspiration. Most comparative studies have shown the ThinPrep system to perform as well as or better than conventional preparations in nongynecologic cytology; plus, the residual cells within the vial can be used for DNA analysis or immunohistochemical and other special studies. Recently, the ThinPrep 2000 system has been approved for use in gynecologic cytology. This approval was based on a large, multicenter clinical study that showed the ThinPrep system to be favored over the conventional Pap smear for the detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, or more severe lesions. At screening centers the improved rate of detecting low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) or more severe diagnosis was up to 73%, with an average improvement of 65% as compared to the conventional Pap smears. Also, for specimen adequacy, the ThinPrep method was statistically favored over conventional cytology methods. This multicenter clinical trial demonstrates the ThinPrep 2000 system was more effective than the conventional Pap smear for the detection of atypical cells and cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. In addition, by collecting cells in a liquid-based medium the opportunity is present to improve the Pap test by adjunctive testing for Human Papilloma Virus or other procedures. This creates the opportunity for improved triage and management of patients with cervical abnormalities.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of carbon dioxide and boiling water stable proton conducting double perovskite-type metal oxides (United States)

    Bhella, Surinderjit Singh; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, chemical stability and electrical properties of three new Ta-substituted double perovskite-type Ba 2Ca 2/3Nb 4/3O 6 (BCN). The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirms the formation of double perovskite-like structure Ba 2(Ca 0.75Nb 0.59Ta 0.66)O 6- δ, Ba 2(Ca 0.75Nb 0.66Ta 0.59)O 6- δ and Ba 2(Ca 0.79Nb 0.66Ta 0.55)O 6- δ. The PXRD of CO 2 treated (800 °C; 7 days) and water boiled (7 days) samples remain the same as the as-prepared samples, suggesting a long-term structural stability against the chemical reaction. The electrical conductivity of the investigated perovskites was found to vary in different atmospheres (air, dry N 2, wet N 2, H 2 and D 2O + N 2). The AC impedance investigations show bulk, grain-boundary and electrode contributions in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 7 MHz. Below 600 °C, the bulk conductivity in wet H 2 and wet N 2 was higher than in air, dry H 2 and dry N 2. However, an opposite trend was observed at high temperatures, which may be ascribed to p-type electronic conduction. The electrical conductivity of the investigated perovskites was decreased in D 2O + N 2 compared to that of H 2O + N 2 atmosphere. This clearly shows that the investigated Ta-doped BCN compounds exhibit proton conduction in wet atmosphere which was found to be consistent with water uptake. The water uptake was further confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) characterization. Among the samples investigated, Ba 2(Ca 0.79Nb 0.66Ta 0.55)O 6- δ shows the highest proton conductivity of 4.8 × 10 -4 S cm -1 (at 1 MHz) at 400 °C in wet (3% H 2O) N 2 or H 2, which is about an order of magnitude higher than the recently reported 1% Ca-doped LaNbO 4 at the same atmosphere and at 10 kHz.

  14. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.


    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  15. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)

  16. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Simeone, Claudio


    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a standard thin shell and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  17. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)


    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  18. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham


    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  19. Thin section casting program. Volume 2: Horizontal TSC (Thin-Section Casting) approach (United States)


    In horizontal thin-section casting (HTSC), 1-inch-thick steel sections are produced at speeds up to 600 ipm or about 60 tons per hour per foot of width (tphf). Liquid steel is fed from the ladle, and flows through a specially designed tundish, then flows through a refractory feeding tube and nozzle, with approximately the same external dimensions as the cast section, into a near-horizontal rectangular mold whose all four sides are traveling in the same direction and speed as the steel casting. This report is the second of a six volume set on thin section casting. This volume covers the research on horizontal thin section casting (TSC).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    circuit current were compared to the parameters of crystalline silicon pit-junction solar cells. The effect of irradiance and spectral illumination on the cell performance was investigated. Finally, the applicability of the investigated thin. film a-Si:H solar cells for its practical operation in Ethiopia is discussed. Key words/phrases: ...

  1. Thin-slab casting–New possibilities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The new installtion produce thin slabs (50-70 mm) that are directly rolled into strips without the need of an intermediate furnace for raising the stock temperature; the so-called tunnel furance prior to the rolling stands serving only to equalise stock temperatures. Additionally, what started as a step for reducing investment in ...

  2. Minimizing Experimental Error in Thinning Research (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe


    Many diverse approaches have been made prescribing and evaluating thinnings on an objective basis. None of the techniques proposed hasbeen widely accepted. Indeed. none has been proven superior to the others nor even widely applicable. There are at least two possible reasons for this: none of the techniques suggested is of any general utility and/or experimental error...

  3. (Fe3O4) thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    resistance vs temperature measurements. Implantation decreases the change in resistance at 120 K and this effect saturates beyond 3 × 1014 ions/cm2. The Verwey transition temperature, TV, shifts towards lower temperatures with increase in ion dose. Keywords. Implantation; magnetite; thin films; pulsed laser ablation; ...

  4. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio


    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...

  5. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.


    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials

  6. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.


    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  7. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.


    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP ...

  8. Self-thinning in four pine species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunet-Navarro, Pau; Sterck, Frank J.; Vayreda, Jordi; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mohren, Frits


    Key message: Self-thinning lines are species- and climate-specific, and they should be used when assessing the capacity of different forest stands to increase biomass/carbon storage. Context: The capacity of forests to store carbon can help to mitigate the effects of atmospheric CO2

  9. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.


    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  10. Amorphous silicon for thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Rudolf Emmanuel Isidore


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has considerable potential as a semiconducting material for large-area photoelectric and photovoltaic applications. Moreover, a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFT’s) are very well suited as switching devices in addressable liquid crystal display panels and

  11. Thin Time-Of-Flight PET project

    CERN Multimedia

    The pre-R&D aims at designing and producing a compact and thin Time-Of-Flight PET detector device with depth of interaction measurement capability, which employs layered silicon sensors as active material, with a readout consisting of a new generation of very-low noise and very fast electronics based on SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) components.

  12. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.


    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  13. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an analysis of the first 2MASS (The Two Micron All Sky Survey) sampler data as observed at lower Galactic latitude in our Galaxy. These new near-infrared data provide insight into the structure of the thin disk of our Galaxy, The interpretation of star counts and color distributions of stars in the ...

  14. Thin-Slice Perception Develops Slowly (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca


    Body language and facial gesture provide sufficient visual information to support high-level social inferences from "thin slices" of behavior. Given short movies of nonverbal behavior, adults make reliable judgments in a large number of tasks. Here we find that the high precision of adults' nonverbal social perception depends on the slow…

  15. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex


    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  16. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.


    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic

  17. Thin Scintillating Polarized Targets for Spin Physics (United States)

    van den Brandt, B.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J. A.


    At PSI polarized scintillating targets are available since 1996. Proton polarizations of more than 80%, and deuteron polarizations of 25% in polystyrene-based scintillators can be reached under optimum conditions in a vertical dilution refrigerator with optical access, suited for nuclear and particle physics experiments. New preparation procedures allow to provide very thin polarizable scintillating targets and widen the spectrum of conceivable experiments.

  18. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.


    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance

  19. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations (United States)

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles


    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was achieved by truncating the two domain Taylor Maclaurin's series at the seventh term to evolve the general deflection polynomial function for thin rectangular plate continuum. Consequently, the SSSS plate boundary conditions were applied, reducing the polynomial function to four degrees of freedom function.

  1. Photon transport in thin disordered slabs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We examine using Monte Carlo simulations, photon transport in optically `thin' slabs whose thickness is only a few times the transport mean free path *, with particles of different scattering anisotropies. The confined geometry causes an auto-selection of only photons with looping paths to remain within the slab.

  2. Photon transport in thin disordered slabs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We examine using Monte Carlo simulations, photon transport in optically 'thin' slabs whose thickness Д is only a few times the transport mean free path РЈ, with particles of different scattering anisotropies. The confined geometry causes an auto-selection of only photons with looping paths to remain within the slab.

  3. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, hR, ... be preferred to investigate the stellar distribution, specially at large distances from the. Sun. In this paper, we present ... city gradient according to age metallicity and age scale height relations. In the model, the key ...

  4. Thin metastructures with engineered thermal expansion (United States)

    Gdoutos, Eleftherios E.

    The geometry and constituent materials of metastructures can be used to engineer the thermal expansion coefficient. In this thesis, we design, fabricate, and test thin thermally stable metastructures consisting of bi-metallic unit cells and show how the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these metastructures can be finely and coarsely tuned by varying the CTE of the constituent materials and the unit cell geometry. Planar and three-dimensional finite element method modeling is used to drive the design and inform experiments, and predict the response of these metastructures. We demonstrate computationally the significance of out-of-plane effects in the metastructure response. We develop an experimental setup using digital image correlation and an infrared camera to experimentally measure full displacement and temperature fields during testing and accurately measure the metastructures' CTE. We experimentally demonstrate high aspect ratio metastructures of Ti/Al and Kovar/Al which exhibit near-zero and negative CTE, respectively. We demonstrate robust fabrication procedures for thermally stable samples with high aspect ratios in thin foil and thin film scales. We investigate the lattice structure and mechanical properties of thin films comprising a near-zero CTE metastructure. The mechanics developed in this work can be used to engineer metastructures of arbitrary CTE and can be extended to three dimensions.

  5. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.


    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  6. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with ...

  7. Electrospinning of ultra-thin polymer fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Raimund; Bergshoef, M.M.; Batlle, C.M.; Martin i Batlle, C.; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.


    The electrospinning technique was used to spin ultra-thin fibers from several polymer/solvent systems. The diameter of the electrospun fibers ranged from 16 nm to 2 μm. The morphology of these fibers was investigated with an atomic force microscope (AFM) and an optical microscope. Polyethylene

  8. Soil Compaction Absent in Plantation Thinning (United States)

    Tony King; Sharon Haines


    We examine the effects on soil bulk density by using a TH-105 Thinner Harvester and two forwarders in a mechanically thinned slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantation. Points in the machine tracks were sampled before and after harvesting at depths of 5 and 10 cm (2 and 4 in) for moisture and bulk density. Both the standard gravimetric method...

  9. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.


    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  10. Mass transport in thin supported silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, Nieck Edwin


    In this thesis multi-component mass transport in thin supported amorphous silica membranes is discussed. These membranes are micro-porous, with pore diameters smaller than 4Å and show high fluxes for small molecules (such as hydrogen) combined with high selectivities for these molecules with respect

  11. Thermocouple installation in thin-walled tubes (United States)

    Curren, A. N.; Wycoff, K. C.


    Brazing process attaches thermocouples to slot in type-347 stainless steel tube flush around its circumference. Electrolytic flashing with gold enhances brazing process. This installation procedure does not significantly change calibration of thermocouples used and does not cause major wear spots in the thin-walled devices.

  12. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD


    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  13. Growth after thinning in 110-year old Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    A 6-year record of growth after thinning indicates that 110-year-old Douglas-fir stands on site 111 land have passed the age when growth capacity can be fully transferred to fewer stems through thinning.

  14. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.


    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  15. Thinning interior live oak in California's Southern Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald


    This study describes a thinning and resprout control study in Madera County. The study site was a dense, 40-year old interior live oak stand (Quercus wislizeni) that originated from resprouting, with 100 percent canopy cover. Tree thinning was initiated in 1998 in cooperation with the local Resource Conservation District to evaluate thinning...

  16. Growth of Planted Slash Pine Under Several Thinning Regimes (United States)

    W.F. Mann; Hans G. Enghardt


    Three intensities of thinning, each started at 10, 13, and 16 years, were applied to slash pine planted on a highly productive, cutover site in central Louisiana. Over a 9-year period, early and heavy thinnings increased diameter growth but reduced volume growth. The longer initial thinnings were deferred, the slower was the response in diameter growth. Growth on...

  17. Practical design and production of optical thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Willey, Ronald R


    Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics and the Use of Graphical Methods in Thin Film Design Estimating What Can Be Done Before Designing Fourier Viewpoint of Optical Coatings Typical Equipment for Optical Coating Production Materials and Process Know-How Process Development Monitoring and Control of Thin Film Growth Appendix: Metallic and Semiconductor Material Graphs Author IndexSubject Index

  18. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  19. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury


    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  20. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom


    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  1. Thin Magnetically Soft Wires for Magnetic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady Zhukov


    Full Text Available Recent advances in technology involving magnetic materials require development of novel advanced magnetic materials with improved magnetic and magneto-transport properties and with reduced dimensionality. Therefore magnetic materials with outstanding magnetic characteristics and reduced dimensionality have recently gained much attention. Among these magnetic materials a family of thin wires with reduced geometrical dimensions (of order of 1–30 μm in diameter have gained importance within the last few years. These thin wires combine excellent soft magnetic properties (with coercivities up to 4 A/m with attractive magneto-transport properties (Giant Magneto-impedance effect, GMI, Giant Magneto-resistance effect, GMR and an unusual re-magnetization process in positive magnetostriction compositions exhibiting quite fast domain wall propagation. In this paper we overview the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of these microwires that make them suitable for microsensor applications.

  2. Shunts in thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, Stephanie; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Wischnath, Uli F. [aleo solar Deutschland GmbH, 26122 Oldenburg (Germany); Rechid, Juan [CIS Solartechnik GmbH and Co. KG, 20539 Hamburg (Germany)


    Shunts can lead to severe performance reduction in thin film solar cells. This work reports on a microscopic approach to locate and characterize the details of shunts in order to reveal their origin. Localization of hot spots and film disruptions is commonly addressed by lock-in infrared thermography (LIT) through visualization of the Joule heating. The resolution of this method is restricted to the {mu}m-range. We use different methods of LIT for the fast localization of local-lateral peculiarities in order to identify positions of interest. For a more detailed analysis of these features we use high resolution microscopy like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and AFM-based methods. These small-scale investigations can for example reveal whether areas of high heat dissipation are rather related to the inner structure of the involved thin films or to accidentally incorporated imperfections.

  3. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors (United States)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer


    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  4. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films (United States)


    oriented ZnO:Ga  thin   films   deposited  on  glass  by  laser   ablation   at  different  deposition  temperatures.  The  surface  morphology,  crystalline...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1    Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films   Abstract  The present review  paper  reports on the...resistivity provided by indium‐doped  tin  oxide (ITO)  ~ 0.7 x 10‐4 Ω‐cm achieved by deposition of  ITO  films  on glass at 300 oC by pulsed  Laser

  5. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas


    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  6. Method for casting thin metal objects (United States)

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F


    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  7. Geometry of Thin Nematic Elastomer Sheets (United States)

    Aharoni, Hillel; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz


    A thin sheet of nematic elastomer attains 3D configurations depending on the nematic director field upon heating. In this Letter, we describe the intrinsic geometry of such a sheet and derive an expression for the metric induced by general nematic director fields. Furthermore, we investigate the reverse problem of constructing a director field that induces a specified 2D geometry. We provide an explicit recipe for how to construct any surface of revolution using this method. Finally, we show that by inscribing a director field gradient across the sheet's thickness, one can obtain a nontrivial hyperbolic reference curvature tensor, which together with the prescription of a reference metric allows dictation of actual configurations for a thin sheet of nematic elastomer.

  8. DNA Strand Patterns on Aluminium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahhosseini


    Full Text Available A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS applications in general.

  9. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  10. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang


    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  11. Thin Films of Polypyrrole on Particulate Aluminum (United States)


    C H R I S T O P H E R V E T T E R , X I A O N I N G Q I , S U B R A M A N Y A M V . K A S I S O M A Y A J U L A , A N D Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...layer 3 Why Polypyrrole /Flake? Polypyrrole  Poor mechanical properties  Poor adhesion  Solubility issues  Continuous layer needed 4 Polypyrrole Coated

  12. Magnetic Surfaces, Thin Films, and Multilayers (United States)


    Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720. ABSTRACT A brief review of the state of the art in the field of surface, inter- face and thin-film magnetism is presented... art and maturing science [I]. In particular, growing epitaxial films of monolayer or near-monolayer thickness allows the investigation of two...understood considering steps. A such study is under progress. Aknowledgments This work was partially supported by " Acciones Integradas Hispano-Francesas

  13. Thin body treatment on unstructured, Cartesian grid


    Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Lahur, Paulus R.; 中村 佳朗


    Cartesian grid does not follow the contour of body, as in commonly used, body-fitted schemes. This grid makes grid generation easy and reduces generation time cycle when handling complex body geometry such as complete aircraft configuration. These are the main advantages over body-fitted schemes. However, in a simple Cartesian grid generation, when the body dimension is less than cell size (thin body), the separate fluid regions in the cell are mistakenly considered as one fluid region (multi...

  14. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.


    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  15. Quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole


    Jusufi, Kimet


    Recently, Ali and Khalil (Nucl Phys B, 909, 173–185, 2016 ), based on Bohmian quantum mechanics, derived a quantum corrected version of the Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we construct a quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole (QSTSW) and investigate the stability of this wormhole. First we compute the surface stress at the wormhole throat by applying the Darmois–Israel formalism to the modified Schwarzschild metric and show that exotic matter is required at the throat to kee...

  16. Thin wideband absorber with optimal thickness


    Kazemzadeh, Alireza


    The known methods for designing nonmagnetic absorbers usually aim for either the reduction of total thickness or increase of absorption bandwidth by sacrificing the other parameter. The conventional circuit analog absorbers aim for large bandwidths whereas the newly proposed meta-material or optimized geometry designs try to reduce the thickness of the absorber. By the aid of the capacitive circuit absorber approach, an optimal method for designing thin absorbers with practical bandwidths is...

  17. Superconductivity of Thin Film Intermetallic Compounds. (United States)


    D-RISE 2?I SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILM INTERMETLLIC COMPOUNDS I/i. (U) MINNESOTR UNIV MINNERPOLIS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND RSTRONOMY R M GOLDMRN 15...parameters to either higher temperatures of higher critical fields. Materials under study are the superconducting Chevrel phase compounds, selected Heavy...superconducting field effect. Processing of the Chevrel Phase I compounds is carried out in a multi-source deposition system. The latter has been upgraded and

  18. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois


    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  19. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu


    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  20. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei


    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  1. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Nogradi, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Szeged, H-6720, Szeged, Koranyi fasor 10-11 (Hungary)


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 x 10{sup -3} Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified 'protein cube' method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  2. A new look on blood shear thinning (United States)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Lanotte, Luca; Fromental, Jean-Marc; Mendez, Simon; Fedosov, Dmitry; Gompper, Gerhard; Mauer, Johannes; Claveria, Viviana


    Blood is a shear-thinning fluid. At shear rates γ˙ cells (RBCs). For higher γ˙ in the range 10 - 1000 s-1 , where RBCs flow as single elements, studies demonstrated that RBCs suspended in a viscous fluid mimicking the viscosity of whole blood, deformed into ellipsoids aligned steadily in the direction of the flow, while their membrane rotated about their center of mass like a tank-tread. Such drop-like behavior seemed to explain shear-thinning. Here, using rheometers, microfluidics and simulations, we show that the dynamics of single RBCs in plasma-like fluids display a different sequence of deformation for increasing shear rates going from discocytes to successively, stomatocytes, folded stomatocytes, trilobes and tetralobes, but never ellipsoids. This result is also identical for physiological hematocrits. We correlate this shape diagram to the different regimes in blood rheology for high shear rates and propose a new-look on the interpretation of blood shear-thinning behavior.

  3. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.


    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect of thin Terbium films (United States)

    Mello, V. D.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Almeida, N. S.


    We report a theoretical study of the magnetocaloric effect of Terbium (Tb) thin films due to finite size and surface effects in the helimagnetic phase, corresponding to a temperature range from TC=219 K to TN=231 K, for external fields of the order of kOe. For a Tb thin film of 6 monolayers submitted to an applied field (ΔH =30 kOe, ΔH =50 kOe and ΔH = 70 kOe) we report a significative change in adiabatic temperature, ΔT / ΔH , near the Néel temperature, of the order ten times higher than that observed for Tb bulk. On the other hand, for small values of the magnetic field, large thickness effects are found. For external field strength around few kOe, we have found that the thermal caloric efficiency increases remarkably for ultrathin films. For an ultrathin film with 6 monolayers, we have found ΔT / ΔH = 43 K/T while for thicker films, with 20 monolayers, ΔT / ΔH = 22 K/T. Our results suggest that thin films of Tb are a promising material for magnetocaloric effect devices for applications at intermediate temperatures.

  5. Study of zinc oxide thin film characteristics (United States)

    Johari, Shazlina; Yazmin Muhammad, Nazalea; Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd


    This paper presents the characterization of ZnO thin films with the thickness of 8nm, 30nm, and 200nm. The thin films were prepared using sol-gel method and has been deposited onto different substrate of silicon wafer, glass and quartz. The thin films were annealed at 400, 500 and 600°C. By using UV-Vis, the optical transmittance measurement were recorded by using a single beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength 250nm to 800nm. However, the transmittance in the visible range is hardly influenced by the film thickness, substrate used and annealed temperature and the averages are all above 80%. On surface morphology observed by AFM and FESEM, the results show that the increase of film thickness and annealed temperature will increase the mean grain size, surface-to-volume ration and RMS roughness. Besides that, higher annealing temperature cause the crystalline quality to gradually improve and the wurtzite structure of ZnO can be seen more clearly. Nonetheless, the substrate used had no effect on surface morphology, yet the uniformity of deposition on silicon wafer is better than glass and quartz.

  6. Thinning and thickening in active microrheology (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sperl, Matthias


    When pulling a probe particle in a many-particle system at a fixed velocity, the probe's effective friction, defined as the average external force over its velocity, γeff:= /u , first stays constant (linear response), then decreases (thinning), and, finally, increases again (thickening). We propose a three-time-scale picture to describe the thinning and thickening behavior. There are three distinct time scales for the bath particles: diffusion, damping, and single probe-bath collision. The dominating time scales are controlled by the pulling velocity and determine the behavior of the probe's friction. We test and confirm this description with a Langevin dynamics simulation. Microscopically, we find that for computing the effective friction, the Maxwellian distribution of bath particles' velocities fails in the regime of high Reynolds and Peclet numbers. This can be understood based on the microscopic mechanism of thickening obtained in the T =0 limit. The dynamic regimes defined by the ratio of different time scales can explain several observations of thinning and thickening in literature.

  7. Shear thinning in non-Brownian suspensions. (United States)

    Chatté, Guillaume; Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro; Ducouret, Guylaine; Lequeux, François; Lenoir, Nicolas; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Colin, Annie


    We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load. Coupling measurements from those three techniques, we propose that (1) the first shear-thinning regime at low shear rates occurs for a lubricated rheology and can be interpreted as a decrease of the effective volume fraction under increasing particle pressures, due to short-ranged repulsive forces and (2) the second shear thinning regime after the shear-thickening transition occurs for a frictional rheology and can be interpreted as stemming from a decrease of the microscopic friction coefficient at large normal load.

  8. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films (United States)

    Bae, Albert


    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (media with a mineral oil overlayer, and III. microfluidic chambers fabricated in PDMS (˜7um tall). We find greatly reduced, if not eliminated, cell on cell layering in the microfluidic system when compared to the wetting layer preparations. The ultrathin films reveal robust behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  9. Imaging Electrons in Ultra-thin Nanowires (United States)

    Boyd, Erin E.


    Ultra-thin semiconductor nanowires are promising systems in which to explore novel low-dimensional physics and are attractive candidates for future nanoelectronics. Ultra-thin nanowires with diameters of 20 to 30 nm are essentially one-dimensional (ID) for moderate electron number, because only one radial subband is occupied. Low-temperature scanning gate microscopy is especially well suited for improving our understanding of nanowires in order to optimize the construction of nanowire systems. We use a home-built liquid-He cooled scanning gate microscope (SGM) to probe and manipulate electrons beneath the surface of devices. The SGM's conductance images are obtained by scanning the charged SGM tip above the sample and recording the change in conductance through the device as a function of tip position. We present simulations of extracting the amplitude of the 1D electron wavefunction along the length of the quantum dot in an ultra-thin InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire (diameter = 30 nm) using a SGM. A weakly perturbing SGM tip slightly dents the electron wavefunction inside the quantum dot, and we propose measuring the change in energy of the dot due to the perturbation as a function of tip position. By measuring the change in energy of the dot and by knowing the form of the tip potential, the amplitude of the wavefunction can be found. This extraction technique could serve as a powerful tool to improve our understanding of electron behavior in quasi-1 D systems. We have used our SGM to image the conductance through an ultra-thin (diameter ˜ 30 nm) 1nAs nanowire with two InP barriers. Our imaging technique provides detailed information regarding the position and flow of electrons in the nanowire. We demonstrate that the charged SPM tip's position or voltage can be used to control the number of electrons on the quantum dots. We spatially locate three quantum dots in series along the length of the ultra-thin nanowire. Using energy level spectroscopy and the

  10. Thin Crystalline Gallium Arsenide Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Patkar, Mahesh Pandharinath


    The numerous existing and developing applications for two closely related devices, III-V light emitting diode (LEDs) and solar cells, demand improved device efficiencies. Removing the substrate should increase the efficiency of both LEDs and solar cells by eliminating the absorption losses in the substrate. We have used the phenomenon of photon recycling in thin-crystalline device geometries to enhance efficiencies of LEDs and solar cells. GaAs LEDs were fabricated and removed from the substrate by the epitaxial lift-off process. Devices with and without an underlying GaAs substrate were then characterized by optical and electrical measurements. Efficiency enhancements of up to a factor of six were achieved. By carefully analyzing the electrical and optical measurements, we demonstrate that the device operation can be explained in terms of accepted theories for radiative recombination and photon recycling which supports our hypothesis that the efficiency enhancement is due to photon recycling in the thin-crystalline device structure. Electrical and optical characterization of ELO LEDs is also shown to be a convenient diagnostic tool for examining recombination losses in thin-crystalline solar cells. Thin crystalline solar cells were fabricated and characterized by I-V and QE measurements. Alloyed ohmic contacts are used extensively for GaAs devices. However, alloyed contacts produce rough interfaces that do not make good reflectors needed for many optoelectronic devices. Non-alloyed ohmic contacts to optoelectronic devices could make good reflectors, if one uses highly reflective metal like Au to make an ohmic contact. Ex-situ non-alloyed contacts to n-GaAs were made by using low temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Ag and Ti/Au contacts to this structure exhibited specific contact resistivities of mid 10^{-7} Omega-cm^2. Low temperature molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs with high concentrations of Be followed by an anneal under As over pressure was used to minimize

  11. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof


    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  12. THIN - A Computer Program for Analyzing the Axisymmetric Behavior of Thin Spherical Shells (United States)


    The .e,m5 Jir^zz^T:^ m THIN ta additfo" - •-= ’"p-’/o-tput THIN Appendix A CHIB X EPPB h EPTB h FKPB H FKTB ke FMPB K FMTB Me FNPB % FNTB...ii-VBf n )/DP W0III»0.5»(VB«T*1>*VBCI»>»CTZ«II «rHIBII*l)-CHIBrT)l/DP C.5»(CHIC(I»1)*CHTB(II»»CT2III I»:rPP3*PR» EPTB -TMB«I» II=EPT3»PR»EPPB-TMBIT

  13. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.


    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  14. Exploiting Elasticity with Thin Polymer Films (United States)

    Croll, Andrew


    Soft matter is often dominated by long-ranging mechanical distortion and is thus intimately linked to elastic theory. The detailed understanding provided by theory has allowed remarkable technological achievements to be made with polymers and other soft systems. However, as technology pushes lengthscales downward many challenges have arisen and even basic problems such as measuring Young's modulus become difficult. To move forward, many polymer thin-film researchers have been attracted to the simple repetitive buckling pattern known as wrinkling because the instability provides a convenient tool to measure mechanical properties. As with all technology the wrinkle system does have physical limits on its applicability, several of which may not be obvious and may have implications for extreme measurement. Here we highlight some of our recent work examining the limits of this elastic pattern and the implications for thin polymer films. We first show how the morphology of ultra-thin wrinkled polystyrene and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films show signs of localization effects - a clear deviation from linear elasticity. We go on to show how roughness, in certain cases, can induce similar morphologies, even in the limits of vanishing applied stress. As random roughness influences a film's elastic behaviour it is natural to examine periodic roughness as means to control localization and create more complex morphologies. Colloidal polystyrene is an excellent test material as it can easily be assembled in highly ordered crystalline monolayers. Remarkably, this ``discrete'' polymer film shows the same wrinkled morphology as does a continuum film. We show how a completely different type of elasticity is necessary to explain the effect, that of a granular material. More disordered ``glassy'' colloidal monolayers provide a means to push our understanding of the granular elastic theory, and suggest an interesting, albeit highly speculative limit for extreme continuum

  15. Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films (United States)

    Torres, Jessica


    This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of

  16. Moving groups in the Galactic thin disk (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham Eswar

    Apart from the large scale structures named as thick disk and thin disk, many small scale structures or overdensities are observed in the velocity fields of disk stars in the solar neighborhood. Such structures include open clusters, OB associations, stellar streams etc. Stellar streams or moving groups are kinematically coherent groups of stars which are gravitationally unbound and are seen scattered all over the sky. Although they have been known and studied for long, their origin is not well understood. The most popular scenarios explaining the origin of moving groups are cluster disruption, dynamical perturbations within the Galaxy and the tidal disruption of satellite galaxies by the Galaxy. Arcturus stream is a well known example of streams in the thick disk, while Hercules stream, Sirius stream, Hyades stream etc, are the popular ones in the thin disk of the Galaxy. Here, we present the results of our analysis of three streams -Sirius, Hercules and Hyades. Candidate members for each of the streams were chosen based on the kinematic classification provided in the literature. The kinematic motion (U, V, W) of the sample stars, and the probability with which stars belong to the Galactic thin disk are calculated. Main focus of our study is to understand the chemistry of the stream members. The detailed chemical composition is obtained through high resolution spectroscopy and the results are compared with the abundance patterns of different Galactic components. We do not find chemical homogeneity among the stream members. It appears that the member stars are of different origin. Although, the abundance patterns in these streams favour dynamical perturbations within the Galaxy, the association of Hyades stream with Hyades cluster has been discussed.

  17. Optimized pre-thinning procedures of ion-beam thinning for TEM sample preparation by magnetorheological polishing. (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Yin, Shaohui; Zhang, Guanhua; Liu, Chunhui; Tang, Qingchun; Guo, Meijian


    Ion-beam-thinning is a well-established sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but tedious procedures and labor consuming pre-thinning could seriously reduce its efficiency. In this work, we present a simple pre-thinning technique by using magnetorheological (MR) polishing to replace manual lapping and dimpling, and demonstrate the successful preparation of electron-transparent single crystal silicon samples after MR polishing and single-sided ion milling. Dimples pre-thinned to less than 30 microns and with little mechanical surface damage were repeatedly produced under optimized MR polishing conditions. Samples pre-thinned by both MR polishing and traditional technique were ion-beam thinned from the rear side until perforation, and then observed by optical microscopy and TEM. The results show that the specimen pre-thinned by MR technique was free from dimpling related defects, which were still residual in sample pre-thinned by conventional technique. Nice high-resolution TEM images could be acquired after MR polishing and one side ion-thinning. MR polishing promises to be an adaptable and efficient method for pre-thinning in preparation of TEM specimens, especially for brittle ceramics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell patterning using microstructured ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Chen, Chia-Yi; Lee, Chiun-Peng; Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Wei, Zung-Hang


    Magnetic cell patterning is demonstrated through controlling the micromagnetic states in microstructured ferromagnetic thin films. The number of magnetic nanoparticles entering the cells by endocytosis can be determined by magnetophoresis experiment and is found to be dependent of the cocultured extracellular magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. In zigzag magnetic films the effects of cell patterning differ for magnetic films at as-deposited state and at remanent states after applying fields in different directions. Remanent states of concentric rings are proposed for cell patterning. Cells can be arranged at any positions in sequence by selectively changing the magnetic field directions.

  19. Thin Polymer Films Containing Carbon Nanostructures (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, S.; Piesowicz, E.; Irska, I.; Roslaniec, Z.; Szymczyk, A.; Pawelec, I.


    Within the framework of the presented paper, the research experiments were conducted on the preparation and characterization of polymer thin films containing carbon nanotubes, graphene derivatives and hybrid systems of both CNTs/graphene derivatives, in which condensation polymers constituted the matrix. The use of in situ synthesis allowed to obtain nanocomposites with a high degree of homogeneity, which is a key issue for further industrial applications, while the analysis of the physical properties of the obtained materials showed effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphene derivatives on their structure, barrier properties and thermal and electrical conductivity.

  20. Working adjacent seams separated by thin interbeddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I. (Donetskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Ugol' nyi Institut (Ukraine))


    Discusses problems related to working pairs of seams separated by thin interbeddings in Ukrainian black coal mines. Working pairs of seams in descending or ascending order is considered. Exemplary cases of working closely lying seams in five mines are studied. It was found that excavation of under- or overworked seams causes deterioration of the immediate roof and caving of draw roof. It is concluded that very close lying seams should not be worked in ascending order; pillarless working of the upper seam is indispensable in the case of working in descending order. Caving of unstable roofs can be prevented by roof bolting and consolidation by fluid injection. 4 refs.

  1. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C


    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...... by pressing a silicon stamp containing a mu m size raised grid structure into the TiO2 by use of a hydraulic press (1 ton/50 cm(2)). The performance of these microstructured substrates in a ETA cell sensitized by a thermally evaporated or chemical bath deposited PbS film and completed by a PEDOT:PSS hole...

  2. Birefringent thin films and polarizing elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgkinson, Ian J


    This book describes the propagation of light in biaxial media, the properties of biaxial thin films, and applications such as birefringent filters for tuning the wavelength of dye lasers.A novel feature of the first part is the parallel treatment of Stokes, Jones, and Berreman matrix formalisms in a chapter-by-chapter development of wave equations, basis vectors, transfer matrices, reflection and transmission equations, and guided waves. Computational tools for MATLAB are included.The second part focuses on an emerging planar technology in which anisotropic microstructures are formed by obliqu

  3. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.


    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  4. Slip effects in polymer thin films


    Baeumchen, O.; Jacobs, K.


    Probing the fluid dynamics of thin films is an excellent tool to study the solid/liquid boundary condition. There is no need for external stimulation or pumping of the liquid due to the fact that the dewetting process, an internal mechanism, acts as a driving force for liquid flow. Viscous dissipation within the liquid and slippage balance interfacial forces. Thereby, friction at the solid/liquid interface plays a key role towards the flow dynamics of the liquid. Probing the temporal and spat...

  5. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)


    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Advanced Channel Engineering for Thin Body Transistors


    Chien, Po-Yen


    As transistor dimension kept scaling down, many challenges arises such as worse electrostatic control and higher variability. In order to address these issues, thin down body thickness is widely accepted and device structures such as FinFET and SOI are employed. Although FinFET has been adopted as main device structure by major foundries like Intel and TSMC in 20nm node and beyond, its analog performances like gm and fT are still lagging behind the bulk and SOI and prevent it from applying to...

  7. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication (United States)

    Scofield, John H.


    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  8. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell


    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than C.

  9. Interface Effects in Perovskite Thin Films (United States)

    Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette; Mercey, Bernard; Simon, Charles


    The control of matter properties (transport, magnetic, dielectric,…) using synthesis as thin films is strongly hindered by the lack of reliable theories, able to guide the design of new systems, through the understanding of the interface effects and of the way the substrate constraints are imposed on the material. The present Letter analyzes the energetic contributions at the interfaces, and proposes a model describing the microscopic mechanisms governing the interactions at an epitaxial interface between a manganite and another transition metal oxide in perovskite structure (as for instance SrTiO3). The model is checked against experimental results and literature analysis.

  10. Failure analysis of thin metal foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bolzon


    Full Text Available The mechanical response and the failure mode of thin metal foils under tensile load has been analyzed supplementing the usual test records with full-field measurements performed by three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC techniques. The experiments have been simulated by finite element models formulated within a non-linear continuum framework. The study presented in this contribution concerns symmetrically pre-cracked aluminum samples. The wrinkling of the specimens during the test and the possible and alternative failure mechanisms are evidenced and discussed

  11. Thin organosilicon films for integrated optics. (United States)

    Tien, P K; Smolinsky, G; Martin, R J


    The continued development of integrated optics is heavily dependent upon the availability of materials that are suitable for the construction of thin-film optical circuitry and devices. We report here an investigation of new films made by an rf discharge polymerization process of organic chemical monomers. We concentrate our discussion on films prepared from vinyltrimethylsilane and hexamethyldisilbxane. These films are smooth, tough, pinhole-free, transparent from 0.4 microm to 0.75 microm, and exhibit very low loss (prism-film coupler for studying the refractive index of each material is discussed in detail.

  12. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)


    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  13. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  14. Riparian buffers and forest thinning: Effects on headwater vertebrates 10 years after thinning (United States)

    Deanna H. Olson; Jeffery B. Leirness; Patrick G. Cunningham; E. Ashley Steel


    We monitored instream vertebrate and stream-bank-dwelling amphibian counts during a stand-scale experiment of the effect of riparian buffer width with upland forest thinning in western Oregon, USA using a before/after/control methodology. We analyzed animal counts along 45 streams at 8 study sites, distributed from the foothills of Mount Hood to Coos Bay, Oregon using...

  15. Located in the Thin of It: Young Children's Use of Thin Moral Concepts (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer Cole; Sedlock, Trisha; West, Jenny; Saulpaugh, Kelly; Hopkins, Michelle


    One important socio-cultural medium through which young children's moral understanding is cultivated is parent/child discourse. Of particular interest to us was young children's use of basic ("thin") evaluative concepts ("good," "bad," "right" and "wrong"), which are ubiquitous in everyday…

  16. Thin Images Reflected in the Water : Narcissism and Girls’ Vulnerability to the Thin-Ideal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Sander; Sedikides, Constantine


    The purpose of this research is to test how adolescent girls’ narcissistic traits—characterized by a need to impress others and avoid ego-threat—influence acute adverse effects of thin-ideal exposure. Participants (11–15 years; total N = 366; all female) reported their narcissistic traits. Next, in

  17. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.


    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  18. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J


    Stereological estimation of nuclear volume was performed in a case control study of 72 malignant melanomas, thickness measurements could be performed in only 57 thin melanomas due to too sparse cellularity. Thus, 21 thin metastasizing...... melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed...

  19. The Impact of the Ideal Thin Body Image on Women


    Hawkins, Nicole


    Researchers and clinicians have postulated that the thin-ideal image portrayed in the media leads to body dissatisfaction and negative self-appraisals among women; however, there is little research that has directly examined the effects of these images on women. The purpose of this research investigation was to experimentally examine the effects of exposure to the thin-ideal on women's affect, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and level of internalization of the thin body image. This study also...

  20. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo


    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  1. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  2. Thin-Plate Forming by Thixo- and Rheoforging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin


    Full Text Available Thin plates with a thickness of 1.2 mm are fabricated using two processes, thixoforging and rheoforging, which are semisolid forming techniques. The die design, formability, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the fabricated thin plates are analysed. A fan-shaped gate is designed by analysing the filling behaviour using semisolid material, and uniform filling behaviour of material is obtained by arranging nine overflows in product area. semisolid metal is prepared through a semisolid process in which reheating, a thixoprocess, and cooling with stirring, a rheoprocess, are applied. The semisolid material is injected into a forging die and is formed into thin plate at a punch speed of 300 mm/s and under a pressure of 100 MPa. Since semisolid material with a solid fraction below 45% has mainly small primary α-Al particles, the formability of the thin plate is improved. The formed thin plate also has good mechanical properties since the small and globular grains are evenly distributed. The thin plate formed from semisolid material with a solid fraction above 50% has poor mechanical properties owing to the large quantity of coarse primary α-Al particles. A rheoforged thin plate exhibits poorer mechanical properties than a thixoforged thin plate, but rheoforging produces a more precise thin plate.

  3. Crystalline thin films: The electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) view

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M


    Full Text Available Electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique is selected as one of the methods to prepare thin films for various applications, including electrocatalytic materials and compound....

  4. Thin and Automated Blanket Lamination and Encapsulation Systems (TABLES) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible photovoltaic array technologies require very thin and precisely controlled deposition of the polymeric films used to fabricate them. In most flexible...

  5. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep


    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  6. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser (United States)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.


    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  7. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian


    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  8. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  9. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L


    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  10. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.


    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  11. Ta-based amorphous metal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, John M., E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States); Olsen, Kristopher R. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Stickle, William F.; Abbott, James E.; Pugliese, Roberto A.; Long, Greg S. [Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis, OR, 97333 (United States); Keszler, Douglas A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Wager, John F. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States)


    With their lack of grains and grain boundaries, amorphous metals are known to possess advantageous mechanical properties and enhanced chemical stability relative to crystalline metals. Commonly, however, they exhibit poor high-temperature stability because of their metastable nature. Here, we describe two new Ta-based ternary metal thin films that retain thermal stability to 600 °C and above. The new thin-film compositions, Ta{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 1} and Ta{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}Si{sub 1}, are amorphous, exhibiting ultra-smooth surfaces (<0.4 nm) and resistivities typical of amorphous metals (224 and 177 μΩ cm, respectively). - Highlights: • New Ta-based amorphous metals were sputter deposited from individual targets. • As-deposited amorphous structure was confirmed through diffraction techniques. • Electrical and surface properties were characterized and possess smooth surfaces. • No evidence of crystallization up to 600 °C (TaNiSi) and 800 °C (TaMoSi). • Ultra-smooth surfaces remained unchanged up to crystallization temperature.

  12. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials (United States)

    Gu, Wei

    A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.

  13. Vortex dynamics in thin elliptic ferromagnetic nanodisks (United States)

    Wysin, G. M.


    Vortex gyrotropic motion in thin ferromagnetic nanodisks of elliptical shape is described here for a pure vortex state and for a situation with thermal fluctuations. The system is analyzed using numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations, including the demagnetization field calculated with a Green's function approach for thin film problems. At finite temperature the thermalized dynamics is found using a second order Heun algorithm for a magnetic Langevin equation based on the LLG equations. The vortex state is stable only within a limited range of ellipticity, outside of which a quasi-single-domain becomes the preferred minimum energy state. A vortex is found to move in an elliptical potential, whose force constants along the principal axes are determined numerically. The eccentricity of vortex motion is directly related to the force constants. Elliptical vortex motion is produced spontaneously by thermal fluctuations. The vortex position and velocity distributions in thermal equilibrium are Boltzmann distributions. The results show that vortex motion in elliptical disks can be described by a Thiele equation.

  14. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotovsky, J; Tooker, A; Horsley, D A


    This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying, contact-stress between two solid interfaces (e.g. in vivo cartilage contact-stress and body armor dynamic loading). This CS sensor is a silicon-based device with a load sensitive diaphragm. The diaphragm is doped to create piezoresistors arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge. The sensor is similar in performance to established silicon pressure sensors, but it is reliably produced to a thickness of 65 {micro}m. Unlike commercial devices or other research efforts, this CS sensor, including packaging, is extremely thin (< 150 {micro}m fully packaged) so that it can be unobtrusively placed between contacting structures. It is built from elastic, well-characterized materials, providing accurate and high-speed (50+ kHz) measurements over a potential embedded lifetime of decades. This work explored sensor designs for an interface load range of 0-2 MPa; however, the CS sensor has a flexible design architecture to measure a wide variety of interface load ranges.

  15. Turbulent flow over thin rectangular riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ei-Samni, O. A. [The University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Yoon, Hyun Sik; Chun, Ho Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    The effect of longitudinal thin rectangular riblets aligned with the flow direction on turbulent channel flow has been investigated using direct numerical simulation. The thin riblets have been modeled using the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) where the velocities at only one set of vertical nodes at the riblets positions are enforced to be zeros. Different spacings, ranging between 11 and 43 wall units, have been simulated aiming at the getting the optimum spacing corresponding to the maximum drag reduction while keeping the height/spacing ratio at 0.5. Reynolds number based on the friction velocity u{sub {tau}} and the channel half depth {delta} is set to 150. The flow is driven by adjusted pressure gradient so that the mass flow rate is kept constant in all the simulations. This study shows similar trend of the drag ratio to that of the experiments at the different spacings. Also, this research provides an optimum spacing of around 17 wall units leading to maximum drag reduction as experimental data. Explanation of drag increasing/decreasing mechanism is highlighted.

  16. Thin-Slice Measurement of Wisdom. (United States)

    Hu, Chao S; Ferrari, Michel; Wang, Qiandong; Woodruff, Earl


    Objective Measurement of Wisdom within a short period of time is vital for both the public interest (e.g., understanding a presidential election) and research (e.g., testing factors that facilitate wisdom development). A measurement of emotion associated with wisdom would be especially informative; therefore, a novel Thin-Slice measurement of wisdom was developed based on the Berlin Paradigm. For about 2 min, participants imagined the lens of a camera as the eyes of their friend/teacher whom they advised about a life dilemma. Verbal response and facial expression were both recorded by a camera: verbal responses were then rated on both the Berlin Wisdom criteria and newly developed Chinese wisdom criteria; facial expressions were analyzed by the software iMotion FACET module. Results showed acceptable inter-rater and inter-item reliability for this novel paradigm. Moreover, both wisdom ratings were not significantly correlated with Social desirability, and the Berlin wisdom rating was significantly negatively correlated with Neuroticism; feeling of surprise was significantly positively correlated with both wisdom criteria ratings. Our results provide the first evidence of this Thin-slice Wisdom Paradigm's reliability, its immunity to social desirability, and its validity for assessing candidates' wisdom within a short timeframe. Although still awaiting further development, this novel Paradigm contributes to an emerging Universal Wisdom Paradigm applicable across cultures.

  17. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.


    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  18. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets (United States)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. EMAT Evaluation of Thin Conductive Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Cap


    Full Text Available At present a non-destructive testing of conducting materials becomes very important one in connection with monitoring and control of strategic technical facilities, e.g. nuclear power plants. There are more methods of material testing and evaluation and every of them has its advantages and disadvantages. Recently the electromagnetic methods are in increasing interest. There are many ways of conducting material testing. One of them often used utilises investigation of eddy currents induced in the surface layer by means of a proper coil. The arrangement is very simple and inexpensive but it offers only local information on cracks and other inhomogeneities in the thin surface layer. On the other hand there exist a method based on an electromagnetic – acoustic transducer (EMAT, which is able to generate and detect acoustic wave in a conducting body in a contact-less way. The present paper deals with a survey of EMATs for investigation of thin metalliclayers by means of Lamb waves. The new design of generation coil is presented.

  20. Characterization of thin films using local magneometer

    CERN Document Server

    Katyan N.


    SIS nanocomposite (Superconductor/Insulator/Superconductor) could improve efficiency of accelerating cavities. The SRF multilayers concept focuses on the enhancement of HC1 using thin layers (d~λ). The use of thin layers makes it easier to avoid avalanche penetration of vortices in case of local defects. Several layers are needed in order to attenuate the external field to values below Nb HC1, decoupled using dielectric layers. We don’t know yet how the predicted properties evolve in realistic conditions; hence it seems reasonable to do their optimization. Two parameters need to be measured to study their behavior in cavity operating conditions: HC1 and Rs surface resistance (especially residual). For that purpose two instruments were developed in Saclay and in Orsay. A local magnetometer allows measuring the vortex penetration on samples without the orientation and edge effects encountered in SQUID magnetometers. Its operating conditions range from 2-40 K, with field up to 150 mT, and upgradation to highe...

  1. Tribological characterization of thin, hard coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogmark, S. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Technology, Materials Science Div. (Sweden)); Hedenqvist, P. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Technology, Materials Science Div. (Sweden))


    The use of thin, hard coatings in tribological applications has become more widespread. Thus the need to fully understand the relationships between the intrinsic properties of the coating, the properties of the coating/substrate composite and the tribological performance of the composite in different tribological systems has become more pressing. The present paper contributes to this effort by presenting and discussing the use of a selected number of physical and mechanical tests to obtain a general characterization of the tribological properties of a coated material: its tribological profile. The tribological tests include dry sliding wear, solid particle erosion and microabrasion. Even if the emphasis of the present paper is put on tribological characterization of thin, hard coatings, some of the current techniques frequently employed to characterize some of the more general properties of a coating, e.g. thickness, hardness, adhesion, residual stress state, etc., are treated. Examples from tribology profile determination and general characterization are collected from PVD and CVD coating systems. (orig.)

  2. Tunable plasmons in atomically thin gold nanodisks (United States)

    Manjavacas, Alejandro; Garcia de Abajo, Javier


    The ability to modulate light at high speeds is of paramount importance for telecommunications, information processing, and medical imaging technologies. This has stimulated intense efforts to master optoelectronic switching at visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) frequencies, although coping with current computer speeds in integrated architectures still remains a major challenge. Here we show that atomically thin noble metal nanoislands can extend optical modulation to the vis-NIR spectral range. We find plasmons in thin metal nanodisks to produce similar absorption cross-sections as spherical particles of the same diameter. Using realistic levels of electrical doping, plasmons are shifted by about half their width, thus leading to a factor-of-two change in light absorption. These results are supported by a microscopic quantum-mechanical calculations based on the random-phase approximation (RPA), which we compare with classical simulations obtained solving Maxwell's equations using tabulated dielectric functions. Both approaches result in an excellent agreement for nanodisks with diameters above 13 nm, although quantum confinement and nonlocal effects play an important role for smaller sizes. A.M. acknowledges financial support from the Welch foundation through the J. Evans Attwell-Welch Postdoctoral Fellowship Program of the Smalley Institute of Rice University (Grant L-C-004).

  3. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus


    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  4. 3D modeling of thin wires interacting with thin plates: Extracting the singularity due to the loop wire self inductance (United States)

    Abakar, A.; Meunier, G.; Coulomb, J.-L.; Zgainski, F.-X.


    The 3D modeling of thin structures by the finite element method leads to a high number of elements or elements of bad quality, which yields to badly conditioned problems. For the thin plates, shell formulations have been used by several authors. In the case of thin wires, we use a model of unmeshed conductor in which the current is unknown. Physics characteristics: resistance, inductance are integrated in the circuit equation. This article presents a method that extracts the inductance computation which introduced a singularity in the case of thin wires.

  5. The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation was conducted on an area covered by a dense stand of Colophospermum mopane. Seven plots (65 m × 180 m) were subjected to different intensities of tree thinning, ranging from a totaly cleared plot (0%) to plots thinned to the equivalent of 10%, 20%, 35%, 50% and 75% of the leaf biomass of a control ...

  6. Wood properties of immature ponderosa pine after thinning (United States)

    Donald C. Markstrom; Harry E. Troxell; C. E. Boldt


    Trees from growing stock levels of 20, 60, and 100 in sapling and pole stands were sampled at three vertical positions -zero, 25, and 50 percent of total height above the 1-foot stump. Wood grown during the 10-year period after initial thinning was compared for growth and wood properties. Wide differences in radial growth, induced by thinning treatments, were not...

  7. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which form perfectly polar assemblies in their crystalline state are found to organize as uniaxially oriented crystallites in vapor deposited thin films on glass substrate.

  8. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  9. Ambipolar MoS2 Thin Flake Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yijin; Ye, Jianting; Matsuhashi, Yusuke; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Field effect transistors (FETs) made of thin flake single crystals isolated from layered materials have attracted growing interest since the success of graphene. Here, we report the fabrication of an electric double layer transistor (EDLT, a FET gated by ionic liquids) using a thin flake of MoS2, a

  10. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present review article, we have described in detail, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method of metal chalcogenide thin films. An extensive survey of thin film materials prepared during past years is made to demonstrate the versatility of SILAR method. Their preparative parameters and structural, ...

  11. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik


    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  12. Meanings of thinness and dysfunctional eating in black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Subjects reported a wide range of different meanings for thinness, which included traditional idioms of distress and typically western pressures towards thinness, which was particularly evident in the multicultural schools. Subjects also reported a wide range of dysfunctional eating practices (such as purging) which ...

  13. Heavy thinning of ponderosa pine stands: An Arizona case study (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jr. Baker; Gerald J. Gottfried


    Growth and structural changes in a mosaic of even-aged ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands were studied for 25 years to determine the long-term impacts of a heavy thinning treatment to a basal-area level of 25 ft2/acre. Basal area and volume growth of these stands has increased since thinning and likely will continue to...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by chemical the bath technique. ... The band gap energy of the samples deduced from the fundamental absorption edge gave the values of 1.60 – 2.80 eV for the direct ... Keywords: Chemical bath technique, zinc oxide thin films, x-ray, photovoltaic cells ...

  15. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.


    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  16. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S


    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  17. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  18. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  19. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films (United States)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor


    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase…

  20. 7 CFR 29.2438 - Thin Leaf (C Group). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thin Leaf (C Group). 29.2438 Section 29.2438... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2438 Thin Leaf (C Group). This group consists of leaves... body than those of the B group, and show little or no ground injury. Choice- and fine-quality tobacco...

  1. Pre-staining thin layer chromatography method for amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modified thin layer chromatography can be used for the analysis of amino acids. When compared to the classical thin layer chromatography, the improved method was more rapid and inexpensive and the results obtained were clean and reproducible. However, it is suitable for the high throughput screening of amino ...

  2. synthesis and optical characterization of acid-doped polyaniline thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (PANI) thin films were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of Hydrochloric .... Applied Physics, Vol. 11, Number 2, pp 217-222,. 2010. [2] Vhanakhande, B., Madhale, K.and Puri, V. “Microwave properties of electropolymerised polyaniline thin films on stainless steel”, Scholars.

  3. An Investigation on the Problem of Thinning in Fingerprint Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Omeiza


    Full Text Available A high-integrity thinning procedure for binarised fingerprints is proposed in this paper. Several authors and software developers have approached the thinning problems in fingerprint-processing differently. Their approach produced in most cases, fingerprint skeletons with low reliability and thus require additional minutiae-pruning stage to discard the erroneous minutiae in the obtained skeletons. The work involves a careful blending of some already existing algorithms to achieve optimal performance in thinning binarised fingerprint images. The algorithms considered are as follows. The "Zhang and Suen" parallel algorithm for thinning digital patterns, the improved parallel thinning algorithm by Holt and company and template-based thinning algorithm by Stentiford and Mortimer. The idea of combining these stand-alone algorithms to improve the quality of obtained objects skeleton in general image processing was first suggested in a text by Parker in 1998. However, his work does not specifically address the fingerprint problem. This work has examined and proves the plausibility of this thinning approach in the particular case of fingerprint application domain. The thinning procedure obtained satisfactory skeletons for fingerprint applications.

  4. Seed production of Douglas-fir increased by thinning. (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema


    In planning thinnings and final harvest cuttings for stands of young-growth Douglas-fir, foresters need reliable information on the capacity of young-growth stands to bear seed, on the periodicity of seed crops, and on the effects of thinning and other forest practices on seed production. One of the first studies designed to help provide this information was begun in...

  5. Global Measurements of Optically Thin Ice Clouds Using CALIOP (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Avery, M.; Tackett, J.


    Optically thin ice clouds have been shown to have a net warming effect on the globe but, because passive instruments are not sensitive to optically thin clouds, the occurrence frequency of this class of clouds is greatly underestimated in historical passive sensor cloud climatology. One major strength of CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization), onboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) spacecraft, is its ability to detect these thin clouds, thus filling an important missing piece in the historical data record. This poster examines the full mission of CALIPSO Level 2 data, focusing on those CALIOP retrievals identified as thin ice clouds according to the definition shown to the right. Using this definition, thin ice clouds are identified and counted globally and vertically for each season. By examining the spatial and seasonal distributions of these thin clouds we hope to gain a better understanding these thin ice clouds and how their global distribution has changed over the mission. This poster showcases when and where CALIOP detects thin ice clouds and examines a case study of the eastern pacific and the effects seen from the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  6. Stability of charged thin shell wormhole supported by polytropic gas (United States)

    Eid, A.


    In the framework of Darmois-Israel formalism, the general equations describing the motion of thin shell wormhole with a general form of equation of state of a polytropic gas are derived. The mechanical stability analysis of thin shell wormhole with charge in Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbation about static equilibrium solution is carried out.

  7. Thin-Layer Fuel Cell for Teaching and Classroom Demonstrations (United States)

    Shirkhanzadeh, M.


    A thin-layer fuel cell is described that is simple and easy to set up and is particularly useful for teaching and classroom demonstrations. The cell is both an electrolyzer and a fuel cell and operates using a thin layer of electrolyte with a thickness of approximately 127 micrometers and a volume of approximately 40 microliters. As an…

  8. Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatographic profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the phytochemicals and thin layer chromatographic profile of. Nauclea diderrichii (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts. Phytochemical in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were determined using standard chemical tests. Thin layer chromatographic techniques were carried out using various ...

  9. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole


    Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin-film se...

  10. Genetic influences on thinning of the cerebral cortex during development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Schnack, H.G.; Peper, J.S.; Collins, D.L.; Evans, A.C.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.


    During development from childhood to adulthood the human brain undergoes considerable thinning of the cerebral cortex. Whether developmental cortical thinning is influenced by genes and if independent genetic factors influence different parts of the cortex is not known. Magnetic resonance brain

  11. Fluxons in thin-film superconductor-insulator superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Bodin, P.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    In a system of thin alternating layers of superconductors and insulators the equations describing static and dynamic fluxon solutions are derived. The approach, represented by a useful compact matrix form, is intended to describe systems fabricated for example of niobium or niobium-nitride thin...

  12. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  13. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.


    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using

  14. Ferroelectricity in Sodium Nitrite Thin Films | Britwum | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations have been conducted on the ferroelectric property of thin films of NaNO2. The thin films were prepared with the dip coating technique. The phase transition was investigated by observing the change in the dielectric constant with temperature change. The presence of ferro-electricity was investigated with a ...

  15. Pre-staining thin layer chromatography method for amino acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 13, 2010 ... The modified thin layer chromatography can be used for the analysis of amino acids. When compared to the classical thin layer ... amino acid-producing microbes as well as amino acid fermentation processes. ... sodium hydroxide solution to a final concentration of 0.01M. The fermentation broth was directly.

  16. Photoconductivity of ZnTe thin films at elevated temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    made to assess the predominance of the Poole–Frenkel con- duction mechanism in the dark and photoconductivities of. ZnTe thin films at room temperature and higher ambient temperatures. 2. Experimental. ZnTe thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on properly cleaned glass substrates with the help of a Hind.

  17. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore


    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  18. Experimental and modeling analysis of highly oriented octithiophene thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videlot, C; Grayer, [No Value; Ackermann, J; El Kassmi, A; Fichou, D; Hadziioannou, G


    We present a detailed study on the structure and morphology of highly oriented thin films of octithiophene (8T), the longest non-substituted oligothiophene so far. 8T thin films are vacuum-deposited on glass substrates and oriented either vertically by adjusting deposition rate and substrate

  19. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    possibility of developing quantum lasers, single electron transistors and various other applications.2 ... In the initial growth of thin films, three types of growth can occur, depending on the surface free energy of the ... nano devices and single electron transistors.9 In this context, initial growth stages of Ge ultra thin films on ...

  20. Evaluating effects of thinning on wood quality in southeast Alaska (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis P. Dykstra; Robert A. Monserud


    We examined the effect of thinning on wood quality of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) located on Prince of Wales and Mitkof Islands in southeast Alaska. Sample trees came from paired plots (thinned versus unthinned) in eight naturally regenerated, mixed stands of young-growth western...

  1. Magnetowetting of Ferrofluidic Thin Liquid Films (United States)

    Tenneti, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sri Ganesh; Chakraborty, Monojit; Soni, Gaurav; Dasgupta, Sunando


    An extended meniscus of a ferrofluid solution on a silicon surface is subjected to axisymmetric, non-uniform magnetic field resulting in significant forward movement of the thin liquid film. Image analyzing interferometry is used for accurate measurement of the film thickness profile, which in turn, is used to determine the instantaneous slope and the curvature of the moving film. The recorded video, depicting the motion of the film in the Lagrangian frame of reference, is analyzed frame by frame, eliciting accurate information about the velocity and acceleration of the film at any instant of time. The application of the magnetic field has resulted in unique changes of the film profile in terms of significant non-uniform increase in the local film curvature. This was further analyzed by developing a model, taking into account the effect of changes in the magnetic and shape-dependent interfacial force fields.

  2. Thin-wall vacuum domain evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Berezin


    Full Text Available In the framework of general relativity the equation of motion of a thin-wall vacuum shell is derived at arbitrary values of the vacuum parameters inside and outside the shell. We obtain that the velocity of the walls of the true vacuum bubble at its expansion does not tend to the velocity of light. We find that vacuum shells could exist now in the universe, which do not contradict to observational cosmology. The types of black holes created are investigated. Restrictions on the mass of the black holes formed from remnants of the false vacuum and on the fraction of the vacuum energy pumped into such black holes are obtained.

  3. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  4. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael


    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  5. Statistical mechanics of thin spherical shells

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmrlj, Andrej


    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes and the local out-of-plane undulations, leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated "pressure". Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows non-linearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power law expone...

  6. Levan nanostructured thin films by MAPLE assembling. (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Sima, Livia E; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Mihailescu, Ion N


    Synthesis of nanostructured thin films of pure and oxidized levan exopolysaccharide by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is reported. Solutions of pure exopolysaccharides in dimethyl sulfoxide were frozen in liquid nitrogen to obtain solid cryogenic pellets that have been used as targets in pulsed laser evaporation experiments with a KrF* excimer source. The expulsed material was collected and assembled onto glass slides and Si wafers. The contact angle studies evidenced a higher hydrophilic behavior in the case of oxidized levan structures because of the presence of acidic aldehyde-hydrogen bonds of the coating formed after oxidation. The obtained films preserved the base material composition as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. They were compact with high specific surface areas, as demonstrated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy investigations. In vitro colorimetric assays revealed a high potential for cell proliferation for all coatings with certain predominance for oxidized levan.

  7. Quantum Corrected Schwarzschild Thin Shell Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet


    Recently, Ali and Khalil \\cite{ahmed}, based on the Bohmian quantum mechanics derived a quantum corrected version of the Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we construct a quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin shell wormhole (QSTSW) and investigate the stability of this wormhole. First we compute the surface stress at the wormhole throat by applying the Darmois-Israel formalism to the modified Schwarzschild metric and show that exotic matter is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. We then study the stability analysis of the wormhole by considering phantom-energy for the exotic matter, generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), and the linearized stability analysis. It is argued that, quantum corrections can affect the stability domain of the wormhole.

  8. Quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusufi, Kimet [State University of Tetovo, Physics Department, Tetovo (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)


    Recently, Ali and Khalil (Nucl Phys B, 909, 173-185, 2016), based on Bohmian quantum mechanics, derived a quantum corrected version of the Schwarzschild metric. In this paper, we construct a quantum corrected Schwarzschild thin-shell wormhole (QSTSW) and investigate the stability of this wormhole. First we compute the surface stress at the wormhole throat by applying the Darmois-Israel formalism to the modified Schwarzschild metric and show that exotic matter is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. We then study the stability analysis of the wormhole by considering phantom-energy for the exotic matter, generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG), and the linearized stability analysis. It is argued that quantum corrections can affect the stability domain of the wormhole. (orig.)

  9. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim


    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  10. Mechanical losses in thin fused silica fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilenko, I A; Braginsky, V B; Lourie, S L [Department of Oscillatory Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University (Russian Federation)


    Intracavity topology of the readout system for LIGO III project and table-top QND mechanical measurements under development require the use of small probe masses and suspensions with a very low level of internal losses. A good choice is to use thin fused silica fibres similar to LIGO II mirrors suspensions. Mechanical losses of silica fibres are investigated in this work through the study of quality factor dependence on diameter for pendulum and violin modes of oscillations with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 40 {mu}m. The estimated values of effective mechanical loss angle show noticeably greater growth with lower diameters than might be expected while extrapolating known results of research done for thicker fibres.

  11. Amperometric noise at thin film band electrodes. (United States)

    Larsen, Simon T; Heien, Michael L; Taboryski, Rafael


    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model presented here can be used for choosing an electrode material and dimensions and when designing chip-based devices for low-noise current measurements.

  12. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael


    ; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model......Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...... polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains...

  13. Seasonal dynamic thinning at Helheim Glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas


    We investigate three annual mass-balance cycles on Helheim Glacier in south-east Greenland using TanDEM-X interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs), bedrock GPS measurements, and ice velocity from feature-tracking. The DEMs exhibit seasonal surface elevation cycles at elevations up to 800 m...... of 671±70kgm-3 and calculate that total water equivalent volume loss from the active part of the glacier (surface flow speeds >1 m day-1) ranges from 0.5 km3 in 2011 to 1.6 km3 in 2013. A rough ice-flux divergence analysis shows that at lower elevations (... the time series, that melt-induced acceleration is most likely the main driver of the seasonal dynamic thinning, as opposed to changes triggered by retreat....

  14. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N. Acquaroli


    Full Text Available Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m−1 K−1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s−1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  15. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter


    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  16. Experiments on Elastic Cloaking in Thin Plates (United States)

    Stenger, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Manfred; Wegener, Martin


    Following a theoretical proposal [M. Farhat , Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.024301], we design, fabricate, and characterize a cloaking structure for elastic waves in 1 mm thin structured polymer plates. The cloak consists of 20 concentric rings of 16 different metamaterials, each being a tailored composite of polyvinyl chloride and polydimethylsiloxane. By using stroboscopic imaging with a camera from the direction normal to the plate, we record movies of the elastic waves for monochromatic plane-wave excitation. We observe good cloaking behavior for carrier frequencies in the range from 200 to 400 Hz (one octave), in good agreement with a complete continuum-mechanics numerical treatment. This system is thus ideally suited for demonstration experiments conveying the ideas of transformation optics.

  17. Thermal analysis of thin layer boilover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanoglu, Bulent [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla (Mexico); Mechanical Engineering Department, Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep; Casal, Joaquim [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)


    A mathematical model is developed to simulate the thin layer boilover phenomenon. This model takes into account convective currents as well as conduction and radiation absorption through the fuel layer and is resolved numerically employing a scheme of Runge-Kutta, combined with the numerical method of lines. Solutions of the model showed a good agreement with the experimental data, both from this work and by other authors, demonstrating the importance of the convective currents. The model provided velocities of these currents, of the same order of magnitude as the values reported in the technical literature. Thickness of the remaining fuel and the interface temperature are correctly calculated by the model, allowing the prediction of the time required for the boilover to start. (orig.)

  18. Neutron sensitivity of thin gap chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Nanjo, H; Hasuko, K; Ishino, M; Kobayashi, T; Takemoto, T; Tsuno, S; Ye, B


    Thin gap chambers (TGC) will be used for triggering forward muons in the ATLAS detector for the LHC at CERN. A large amount of neutron background is foreseen in the ATLAS experiment. This paper describes the measurements of the neutron sensitivities (detection efficiencies) of the TGCs. The sensitivities of both small and real size TGCs to 2.5 and 14MeV mono-energetic neutrons were measured. For a small size TGC, sensitivities of 0.032% and 0.10% were measured to 2.5 and 14MeV neutrons, respectively, whereas for a real size TGC, sensitivities of 0.048% and 0.13% were measured. These measured values were in reasonably good agreement with the simulations based on the Geant4.

  19. Digital thin-film color optical memory (United States)

    Chi, C. J.; Steckl, A. J.


    A promising optical memory device called digital thin-film (DTF) color optical memory is presented. The DTF optical memory utilizes localized regions of varying thickness to adjust the spectral characteristic of reflected light from a broad band source. The DTF structure has been fabricated by Ga+ focused ion beam milling on thermally grown silicon dioxide on Si to prove the concept. A charge-coupled device array is used as the optical detector for the readout of the stored data. The reflected light image of the DTF memory reveals easily discriminated color levels and proves the suitability of using optical means to extract the stored data. DTF optical memory structures with 16 physical levels or 4 bits/pixel have been fabricated providing an equivalent storage density in excess of 5 Gb/in.2

  20. An Australian thin route satellite communications system (United States)

    Zacher, G. H.

    The design of a ground terminal for thin-route SCPC satellite digital telephony (at 32 kb/s) and data transmission (at up to 9.6 kb/s, encoded for error protection) is presented. The operation of the terminal is described, and a block diagram and a table of specifications are provided. The components of the indoor unit (voice and data module, data module, channel-control module, terminal controller, modulator/synthesizer, demodulator/synthesizer, pilot receiver, power supply, and digital switch) and the outdoor unit (up/down-converter, SHF local oscillator, solid-state power amplifier, forward power detector, combiner, transmit reject filter, low-noise amplifier, TVRO converter, and power supply and interface module are listed and briefly characterized.

  1. Modelling the tribology of thin film interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zugic, R


    substrate). Within each group of simulations, three lubricant film thicknesses are studied to examine the effect of varying lubricant thickness. Statistical data are collected from each simulation and presented in this work. Via these data, together with the evolution, of atomic and molecular configurations, a very detailed picture of the properties of this thin film interface is presented. In particular, we conclude that perfluoropolyether lubricant forms distinct molecular layers when confined between two substrates, the rate of heat generation under shearing conditions typical of those in a head-disk interface is insufficient for thermal mechanisms to result directly in lubricant degradation, and mechanical stresses attained in the head-disk interface are unlikely to result in any significant degree of lubricant degradation. This thesis examines the tribology of a head-disk interface in an operating hard disk drive via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations. The aim of this work is to deri...

  2. Plant thin cell layers: update and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.


    Full Text Available Thin cell layers (TCLs are small and versatile explants for the in vitro culture of plants. At face value, their morphogenic productivity may appear to be less than conventional explants, but once the plant growth correction factor and geometric factor have been applied, the true (potential productivity exceeds that of a conventional explant. It is for this reason that for almost 45 years, TCLs have been applied to the in vitro culture of almost 90 species or hybrids, mainly ornamentals and orchids, but also to field and vegetable crops and medicinal plants. Focusing on 12 new studies that have emerged in the recent past (2013-2015, this paper brings promise to other horticultural species that could benefit from the use of TCLs.

  3. Galvanostatic Ion Detrapping Rejuvenates Oxide Thin Films. (United States)

    Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G


    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvanostatic treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li(+) trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li(+) detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li(+) detrapping.

  4. Statics of Thin-Walled Pretwisted Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Gunneskov, O.


    The displacement and strain fields of thin-walled pretwisted beams are prescribed in terms of generalized displacements for extension, bending, torsion and warping. Differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained from the elastic potential energy functional without assuming coincidence...... of the beam axis with any of the structural axes. This procedure gives a unique consistent definition of sectional moments and generalized forces. Some simple explicit formulae are derived for homogeneous tension–torsion. For the general case a computer code is developed on the basis of discretized...... generalized displacements and a modified energy functional, devised to obtain consistent lengthwise variation of the stresses and a unique decomposition of the torsional moment. Examples show agreement with analytical results for cylindrical beams and illustrate the various coupling effects for beams...

  5. Intermediate thinnings as a source of energywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammallahti, K.; Laespae, O.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    During 2008 and 2009 10 hectares of spruce stand was harvested with an energy wood method and 3,8 hectares with a conventional method. Average DBH was 21 cm, length 19 m and the number of stems per hectare was 674. The harvester productivity was in this study 10 % higher with the conventional method (36,2 m3 / ha) than with the energy wood method (32,6 m3 / ha). The second part of the study consisted baling with a Timberjack 1490D residue baler on an intermediate thinning. In 2008 residues were baled from a total area of 8,7 hectares. Total yield was 218 bales and yield per hectare was 26 bales. Yield per hour was 19,7 bales and the average time consumption per bale was 3,18 minutes. (orig.)

  6. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H


    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  7. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed


    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  8. Transparent Conductive Oxides in Thin Film Photovoltaics (United States)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.


    This paper show results from the development of transparent conductive oxides (TCO's) on large areas for the use as front electrode in thin film silicon solar modules. It is focused on two types of zinc oxide, which are cheap to produce and scalable to a substrate size up to 6 m2. Low pressure CVD with temperatures below 200°C can be used for the deposition of boron doped ZnO with a native surface texture for good light scattering, while sputtered aluminum doped ZnO needs a post deposition treatment in an acid bath for a rough surface. The paper presents optical and electrical characterization of large area samples, and also results about long term stability of the ZnO samples with respect to the so called TCO corrosion.

  9. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Bing [Albuquerque, NM; Cecchi, Joseph L [Albuquerque, NM; Brinker, C Jeffrey [Albuquerque, NM


    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  10. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.


    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  11. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  12. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G


    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  13. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K


    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  14. Self-gravitating splitting thin shells (United States)

    Ramirez, Marcos A.


    In this paper we show that thin shells in spherically symmetric spacetimes, whose matter content is described by a pair of non-interacting spherically symmetric matter fields, generically exhibit instability against an infinitesimal separation of its constituent fields. We give explicit examples and construct solutions that represent a shell that splits into two shells. Then we extend those results for five-dimensional Schwarzschild-AdS bulk spacetimes, which is a typical scenario for brane-world models, and show that the same kind of stability analysis and splitting solution can be constructed. We find that a widely proposed family of brane-world models are extremely unstable in this sense. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of these features and their relation to the initial value problem for concentrated sources.

  15. Magnetoimpedance spectroscopy of epitaxial multiferroic thin films (United States)

    Schmidt, Rainer; Ventura, Jofre; Langenberg, Eric; Nemes, Norbert M.; Munuera, Carmen; Varela, Manuel; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Leon, Carlos; Santamaria, Jacobo


    The detection of true magnetocapacitance (MC) as a manifestation of magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) in multiferroic materials is a nontrivial task, because pure magnetoresistance (MR) of an extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type dielectric relaxation can lead to changes in capacitance [G. Catalan, Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2177543 88, 102902 (2006)]. In order to clarify such difficulties involved with dielectric spectroscopy on multiferroic materials, we have simulated the dielectric permittivity ɛ' of two dielectric relaxations in terms of a series of one intrinsic film-type and one extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type relaxation. Such a series of two relaxations was represented in the frequency- (f-) and temperature- (T-) dependent notations ɛ' vs f and ɛ' vs T by a circuit model consisting in a series of two ideal resistor-capacitor (RC) elements. Such simulations enabled rationalizing experimental f-, T-, and magnetic field- (H-) dependent dielectric spectroscopy data from multiferroic epitaxial thin films of BiMnO3 (BMO) and BiFeO3 (BFO) grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3. Concomitantly, the deconvolution of intrinsic film and extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner relaxations in BMO and BFO films was achieved by fitting f-dependent dielectric data to an adequate equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the H-dependent data in the form of determining the H-dependent values of the equivalent circuit resistors and capacitors then yielded the deconvoluted MC and MR values for the separated intrinsic dielectric relaxations in BMO and BFO thin films. Substantial intrinsic MR effects up to 65% in BMO films below the magnetic transition (TC≈100 K) and perceptible intrinsic MEC up to -1.5% near TC were identified unambiguously.

  16. Materials availability for thin film solar cells (United States)

    Makita, Yunosuke


    Materials availability is one of the most important factors when we consider the mass-production of next generation photovoltaic devices. "In (indium)" is a vital element to produce high efficient thin film solar cells such as InP and CuIn(Ga)Se2 but its lifetime as a natural resource is suggested to be of order of 10˜15 years. The lifetime of a specific natural resource as an element to produce useful device substances is directly related with its abundance in the earth's crust, consumption rate and recycling rate (if recycling is economically meaningful). The chemical elements having long lifetime as a natural resource are those existing in the atmosphere such as N (nitrogen) and O (oxygen); the rich elements in the earth's crust such as Si, Ca, Sr and Ba; the mass-used metals such as Fe (iron), Al (aluminum) and Cu (copper) that reached the stage of large-scale recycling. We here propose a new paradigm of semiconductor material-science for the future generation thin film solar cells in which only abundant chemical elements are used. It is important to remark that these abundant chemical elements are normally not toxic and are fairly friendly to the environment. β-FeSi2 is composed of two most abundant and nontoxic chemical elements. This material is one of the most promising device materials for future generation energy devices (solar cells and thermoelectric device that is most efficient at temperature range of 700-900 °C). One should remind of the versatility of β-FeSi2 that this material can be used not only as energy devices but also as photodetector, light emitting diode and/or laser diode at the wavelength of 1.5 μm that can be monolithically integrated on Si substrates due to the relatively small lattice mismatch.

  17. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda


    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  18. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J. K.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.


    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 100 nm) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle behind this type of detector is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theory uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. Work is being undertaken to develop a new crater diameter scaling law using iron particles in 52 μm thick PVDF. Samples were brought to the Heidelberg Dust Accelerator and exposed to a selected range of mass and velocities. Samples are being analyzed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) using 3D reconstruction photogrammetry using stereo pairs taken in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cross sections taken in a focused ion beam (FIB). Further work is planned at the CCLDAS dust accelerator.

  19. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring (United States)

    Welch, Kimo M.


    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  20. Evaluation of Thin-Film Photodiodes and Development of Thin-Film Phototransistor (United States)

    Yamashita, Takehiko; Shima, Takehiro; Nishizaki, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Mutsumi; Hara, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Satoshi


    First, a p/i/n thin-film photodiode (TFPD) is evaluated, and it is found that the photoinduced current (Iphoto) is relatively large. Next, a p/n TFPD is evaluated, and it is found that the Iphoto is independent of the applied voltage (Vapply). However, it is difficult to simultaneously achieve a large and independent Iphoto. Therefore, a p/i/n thin-film phototransistor (TFPT) is developed, and it is found that the Iphoto can be both relatively large and independent of the Vapply by optimizing the gate voltage. These characteristics are obtained because the depletion layer is formed in the entire intrinsic region and the electric field is always high. It is expected that these characteristics are preferable for some types of photosensor application such as artificial retina.

  1. Organic thin-film transistors using thin ormosil-based hybrid dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sunho; Kim, Dongjo; Lee, Sul; Park, Bong Kyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    We synthesized a novel thermally-crosslinkable ormosil-based hybrid material as a solution-processable dielectric layer for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Dielectrics with a thickness of 50-260 nm were fabricated via spin-coating in order to evaluate their applicability as an ultra-thin gate dielectric. It was observed that the capacitance of the hybrid dielectric increases with decreasing film thickness. Hybrid dielectrics with a thickness of 260 nm and 160 nm, respectively, exhibited adequate leakage current behavior. Coplanar-type OTFTs were fabricated using each of the hybrid dielectrics (i.e., thickness of 260 nm and 160 nm). The off-current, threshold voltage, and field-effect mobility of both transistors were analyzed to investigate the effects of capacitance and film thickness on the electrical performance of the transistors.

  2. Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films (United States)

    McCue, Ian; Demkowicz, Michael J.


    Liquid metal dealloying is a promising route for making metal nanocomposites with a wide range of microstructure morphologies. However, it is not well suited for synthesizing nanocomposites in thin-film form. We propose a new route to fabricating fully dense nanocomposite thin films by dealloying a binary parent alloy in a unary solid metal solvent. We fabricated and tested three thin-film diffusion couples to understand the alloy design criteria for synthesizing dealloyed thin films free of cracks and voids. We find that the best-quality dealloyed thin films may be obtained from alloys that do not undergo large volume changes upon dealloying and that exhibit minimal net vacancy flux during interdiffusion.

  3. Deformation Measurement of Wall Thinning Elbow by Using Shearography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Chul; Kim, Koung Suk; Chang, Ho Sub; Jung, Sung Wook [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the deformation of wall thinning elbow is measured and the position of the internal thinning defect is found out by shearography. Shearography is an optical method which has applied to nondestructive testing (NDT) and the strain/stress and deformation analysis. This technique has the merit of the directly measuring the first derivative of displacement with sensitivity which can be adjusted by handling the tilt mirror in the interferometer. In this paper, we tested carbon steel pipe locally wall thinned and loaded internal pressure and the shearography was applied to measure the out-of-plane deformation of wall thinning elbow and to investigate the internal thinning defect of it. From the results, it was confirmed that this technique is proper to the practical application on the pipe line system with internal defect

  4. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T


    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  5. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion


    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  6. Thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He


    We investigate the thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations for the first time in the literature. Without loss of generality, we study the thin-shell wormholes in ωCDM model and analyze their stability under perturbations preserving the symmetry. Firstly, we constrain the ωCDM model using a combination of Union 2.1 SNe Ia data, the latest H(z) data and CMB data. Secondly, we use the constrained dark energy equation of state (EoS) ω which lies in [ - 1 . 05 , - 0 . 89 ] to investigate thin-shell wormholes generated by various black hole spacetimes. We find that the stable Schwarzschild and Reinssner-Nordström thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations do not exist. In addition, the method we developed can be applied in exploring the stable thin-shell wormholes from any black hole spacetime in the framework of any cosmological theory.

  7. Visible light laser voltage probing on thinned substrates (United States)

    Beutler, Joshua; Clement, John Joseph; Miller, Mary A.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Cole, Jr., Edward I.


    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing visible light in conjunction with a thinned structure to enable characterization of operation of one or more features included in an integrated circuit (IC). Short wavelength illumination (e.g., visible light) is applied to thinned samples (e.g., ultra-thinned samples) to achieve a spatial resolution for laser voltage probing (LVP) analysis to be performed on smaller technology node silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and bulk devices. Thinning of a semiconductor material included in the IC (e.g., backside material) can be controlled such that the thinned semiconductor material has sufficient thickness to enable operation of one or more features comprising the IC during LVP investigation.

  8. Gadolinium thin films as benchmark for magneto-caloric thin films (United States)

    Helmich, Lars; Bartke, Marianne; Teichert, Niclas; Schleicher, Benjamin; Fähler, Sebastian; Hütten, Andreas


    We report on the preparation of Gadolinium thin films by means of sputter deposition on Silicon Oxide wafers. A series of samples with different buffer layers and various substrate temperatures has been produced. The film on an amorphous Tantalum buffer deposited at 773 K shows the highest increase of magnetization during the phase transition at the Curie temperature. Further detailed analysis of the magnetic properties has been conducted by VSM.

  9. Status of Joining Thin Sheet and Thin Wall Tubes of 14YWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Beginning this fiscal year, the FCRD research project initiated an investigation on joining thin sections of the advanced ODS 14YWT ferritic alloy. Friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated as a method to join thin plate and tubing of 14YWT since it is a solid state joining method that has been shown in past studies to be a promising method for joining plates of ODS alloys, such as 14YWT. However, this study will attempt to be the first to demonstrate if FSW can successfully join thin plates and thin wall tubing of 14YWT. In the first FSW attempt, a 1.06 cm thick plate of 14YWT (SM13 heat) was successfully rolled at 1000ºC to the target thickness of 0.1 cm with no edge cracking. This achievement is a highlight since previous attempts to roll 14YWT plates have resulted in extensive cracking. For the FSW run, a pin tool being developed by the ORNL FSW Process Development effort was used. The first FSW run successfully produced a bead-on-plate weld in the 0.1 cm thick plate. The quality of the weld zone appears very good with no evidence of large defects such as cavities. The microstructural characterization study of the bead-on-plate weld zone has been initiated to compare the results of the microstructure analysis with those obtained in the reference microstructural analysis of the 14YWT (SM13 heat) that showed ultra-fine grain size of 0.43 μm and a high number density of ~2-5 nm sizes oxygen-enriched nanoclusters.

  10. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)


    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  11. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices. (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae


    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van Strien, T.


    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin

  13. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van


    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6–8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin

  14. Tuning the kondo effect in thin Au films by depositing a thin layer of Au on molecular spin-dopants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ataç, Derya; Gang, T.; Yilmaz, M.D.; Bose, Saurabh; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Huskens, Jurriaan; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard


    We report on the tuning of the Kondo effect in thin Au films containing a monolayer of cobalt(II) terpyridine complexes by altering the ligand structure around the Co2+ ions by depositing a thin Au capping layer on top of the monolayer on Au by magnetron sputtering (more energetic) and e-beam

  15. Analysis of US underground thin seam mining potential. Volume 1. Text. Final technical report, December 1978. [In thin seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimental, R. A; Barell, D.; Fine, R. J.; Douglas, W. J.


    An analysis of the potential for US underground thin seam (< 28'') coal mining is undertaken to provide basic information for use in making a decision on further thin seam mining equipment development. The characteristics of the present low seam mines and their mining methods are determined, in order to establish baseline data against which changes in mine characteristics can be monitored as a function of time. A detailed data base of thin seam coal resources is developed through a quantitative and qualitative analysis at the bed, county and state level. By establishing present and future coal demand and relating demand to production and resources, the market for thin seam coal has been identified. No thin seam coal demand of significance is forecast before the year 2000. Current uncertainty as to coal's future does not permit market forecasts beyond the year 2000 with a sufficient level of reliability.

  16. Vibrations and acoustic radiation of thin structures: physical basis, theoretical analysis and numerical methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filippi, P


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 General Considerations on Thin Structures . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Overview of the Energy Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Thin Plates...

  17. Process compilation methods for thin film devices (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammed Hasanuz

    This doctoral thesis presents the development of a systematic method of automatic generation of fabrication processes (or process flows) for thin film devices starting from schematics of the device structures. This new top-down design methodology combines formal mathematical flow construction methods with a set of library-specific available resources to generate flows compatible with a particular laboratory. Because this methodology combines laboratory resource libraries with a logical description of thin film device structure and generates a set of sequential fabrication processing instructions, this procedure is referred to as process compilation, in analogy to the procedure used for compilation of computer programs. Basically, the method developed uses a partially ordered set (poset) representation of the final device structure which describes the order between its various components expressed in the form of a directed graph. Each of these components are essentially fabricated "one at a time" in a sequential fashion. If the directed graph is acyclic, the sequence in which these components are fabricated is determined from the poset linear extensions, and the component sequence is finally expanded into the corresponding process flow. This graph-theoretic process flow construction method is powerful enough to formally prove the existence and multiplicity of flows thus creating a design space {cal D} suitable for optimization. The cardinality Vert{cal D}Vert for a device with N components can be large with a worst case Vert{cal D}Vert≤(N-1)! yielding in general a combinatorial explosion of solutions. The number of solutions is hence controlled through a-priori estimates of Vert{cal D}Vert and condensation (i.e., reduction) of the device component graph. The mathematical method has been implemented in a set of algorithms that are parts of the software tool MISTIC (Michigan Synthesis Tools for Integrated Circuits). MISTIC is a planar process compiler that generates

  18. Update on Thin Melanoma: Outcome of an International Workshop. (United States)

    Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Shea, Chris; Duncan, Lyn; de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Landman, Gilles; Landsberg, Jennifer; ven den Oord, Joost; Lowe, Lori; Cook, Martin G; Yun, Sook Jung; Clarke, Loren; Messina, Jane; Elder, David E; Barnhill, Raymond L


    The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a 1-day Workshop of the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group, which was devoted to thin melanoma. The definitions and histologic criteria for thin melanoma were reviewed. The principal differential diagnostic problems mentioned included the distinction of thin melanoma from nevi, especially from nevi of special site, irritated nevi, inflamed and regressing nevi, and dysplastic nevi. Histologic criteria for this analysis were discussed and the importance of clinico-pathologic correlation, especially in acral sites, was emphasized. Criteria for the minimal definition of invasion were also discussed. In addition, a new technique of m-RNA expression profiling with 14 genes was presented and facilitated the distinction of thin melanomas from nevus in histologically obvious cases. However, for particular nevi, it was not obvious why the results indicated a malignant lesion. Despite many molecular and other ancillary investigations, Breslow thickness remains the most important prognostic factor in thin melanoma. The prognostic significance of radial (horizontal) and vertical growth phases, Clark level, regression, and mitotic rate were also discussed. Because of the increasing frequency of thin melanomas, there is a great need to develop more refined predictors of thin melanomas with worse clinical outcome.

  19. Transferable and flexible thin film devices for engineering applications (United States)

    Mutyala, Madhu Santosh K.; Zhou, Jingzhou; Li, Xiaochun


    Thin film devices can be of significance for manufacturing, energy conversion systems, solid state electronics, wireless applications, etc. However, these thin film sensors/devices are normally fabricated on rigid silicon substrates, thus neither flexible nor transferrable for engineering applications. This paper reports an innovative approach to transfer polyimide (PI) embedded thin film devices, which were fabricated on glass, to thin metal foils. Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) were fabricated on a thin PI film, which was spin coated and cured on a glass substrate. Another layer of PI film was then spin coated again on TFTC/PI and cured to obtain the embedded TFTCs. Assisted by oxygen plasma surface coarsening of the PI film on the glass substrate, the PI embedded TFTC was successfully transferred from the glass substrate to a flexible copper foil. To demonstrate the functionality of the flexible embedded thin film sensors, they were transferred to the sonotrode tip of an ultrasonic metal welding machine for in situ process monitoring. The dynamic temperatures near the sonotrode tip were effectively measured under various ultrasonic vibration amplitudes. This technique of transferring polymer embedded electronic devices onto metal foils yield great potentials for numerous engineering applications.

  20. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.


    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  1. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s (United States)


    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  2. Content Model Use and Development to Redeem Thin Section Records (United States)

    Hills, D. J.


    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a catalog of documents and datasets that provide information about geothermal resources located primarily within the United States. The goal of NGDS is to make large quantities of geothermal-relevant geoscience data available to the public by creating a national, sustainable, distributed, and interoperable network of data providers. The Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) has been a data provider in the initial phase of NGDS. One method by which NGDS facilitates interoperability is through the use of content models. Content models provide a schema (structure) for submitted data. Schemas dictate where and how data should be entered. Content models use templates that simplify data formatting to expedite use by data providers. These methodologies implemented by NGDS can extend beyond geothermal data to all geoscience data. The GSA, using the NGDS physical samples content model, has tested and refined a content model for thin sections and thin section photos. Countless thin sections have been taken from oil and gas well cores housed at the GSA, and many of those thin sections have related photomicrographs. Record keeping for these thin sections has been scattered at best, and it is critical to capture their metadata while the content creators are still available. A next step will be to register the GSA's thin sections with SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and assign an IGSN (International Geo Sample Number) to each thin section. Additionally, the thin section records will be linked to the GSA's online record database. When complete, the GSA's thin sections will be more readily discoverable and have greater interoperability. Moving forward, the GSA is implementing use of NGDS-like content models and registration with SESAR and IGSN to improve collection maintenance and management of additional physical samples.

  3. Biomass conversion and expansion factors are afected by thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Duque Enes


    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors (BCEFs in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. stands subjected to thinning.Area of the study: The study area refers to different ecosystems of maritime pine stands inNorthern Portugal.Material and methods: The study is supported by time data series and cross sectional data collected in permanent plots established in the North of Portugal. An assessment of BCEF values for the aboveground compartments and for total was completed for each studied stand. Identification of key variables affecting the value of the BCEFs in time and with thinning was conducted using correlation analysis. Predictive models for estimation of the BCEFs values in time and after thinning were developed using nonlinear regression analysis.Research highlights: For periods of undisturbed growth, the results show an allometric relationship between the BCEFs, the dominant height and the mean diameter. Management practices such as thinning also influence the factors. Estimates of the ratio change before and after thinning depend on thinning severity and thinning type. The developed models allow estimating the biomass of the stands, for the aboveground compartments and for total, based on information of stand characteristics and of thinning descriptors. These estimates can be used to assess the forest dry wood stocks to be used for pulp, bioenergy or other purposes, as well as the biomass quantification to support the evaluation of the net primary productivity.Keywords: carbon; softwood; thinning; volume; wood energy; maritime pine.

  4. Debt Financing and Thin-Capitalization: Case Study in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Hauptman


    Full Text Available Since each form of financing provides a different level of security and risk, companies are often faced with a dilemma, which equity to debt ratio to choose in financial structure. In order to avoid overexploitation of certain types of debt financing, tax legislation defines a thin capitalization rule. In this paper we present, how the relationship between equity and debt financing has changed in the period 1997–2012 and how the thin capitalization rules affected this relationship in the selected parent companies in Slovenia. The analysis reveals that the proportion of debt financing increased before and after the introduction of thin capitalization rules throughout the period.

  5. Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane thin films for corrosion protection (United States)

    Saloum, S.; Alkhaled, B.; Alsadat, W.; Kakhia, M.; Shaker, S. A.


    This study focused on the corrosion protection performance of plasma polymerized HMDSO thin films in two different corrosive medias, 0.3M NaCl and 0.3M H2SO4. The pp-HMDSO thin films were deposited on steel substrates for electrochemical tests using the potentiodynamic polarization technique, they were deposited also on aluminum and silicon substrates to investigate their resistance to corrosion, through the analysis of the degradation of microhardness and morphology, respectively, after immersion of the substrates for one week in the corrosive media. The results showed promising corrosion protection properties of the pp-HMDSO thin films.

  6. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez


    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  7. Magnetostriction of sputtered Sm-Fe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. (Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan). Sendai Research Lab.); Hayashi, Y.; Arai, K.I.; Ishiyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Institute of Electrical Communication)


    The magnetostriction and the magnetic properties of amorphous Sm[sub x]Fe[sub 100[minus]x] thin films prepared by sputtering were investigated at room temperature. The magnetostriction, -[lambda], of these films increased rapidly in low fields (<1kOe) and reached the maximum values of 300--400[times]10[sup [minus]6] at 16kOe for x = 30--40. These results suggest that Sm-Fe thin films could be used for micro-actuators. lie magnetic properties of Sm-Fe thin films did not show clear dependence on the sputtering conditions such as input power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature.

  8. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro


    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  9. Prognosis of thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, Karin Kjærgaard; Drzewiecki, K T


    Thin malignant melanomas, i.e. tumours less than 1 mm, are generally considered to have a good prognosis. The records of 148 patients with thin invasive melanomas located to the head and neck region were reviewed. All patients were followed for the excision of the primary tumour until death...... of these 16 patients (75%) died of disseminated melanoma. We conclude that thin head and neck melanomas do not necessarily carry an excellent prognosis. Prognosis is not dependent upon tumour thickness when less than 1.00 mm....

  10. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  11. Thin films and coatings toughening and toughness characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Thin Films and Coatings: Toughening and Toughness Characterization captures the latest developments in the toughening of hard coatings and in the measurement of the toughness of thin films and coatings. Featuring chapters contributed by experts from Australia, China, Czech Republic, Poland, Singapore, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this first-of-its-kind book:Presents the current status of hard-yet-tough ceramic coatingsReviews various toughness evaluation methods for films and hard coatingsExplores the toughness and toughening mechanisms of porous thin films and laser-treated surfacesExamines

  12. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J


    melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed......Stereological estimation of nuclear volume was performed in a case control study of 72 malignant melanomas, thickness melanomas due to too sparse cellularity. Thus, 21 thin metastasizing...... no significant differences in nuclear volume between metastasizing and non-metastasizing thin malignant melanomas....

  13. Thermal convection of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids (United States)

    Albaalbaki, Bashar; Khayat, Roger E.; Ahmed, Zahir U.


    The Rayleigh-Bénard convection for non-Newtonian fluids possessing both viscoelastic and shear-thinning behaviours is examined. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation is implemented to model the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. It is found that while the shear-thinning and viscoelastic effects could annihilate one another for the steady roll flow, presence of both behaviours restricts the roll stability limit significantly compared to the cases when the fluid is either inelastic shear-thinning or purely viscoelastic with constant viscosity.

  14. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics


    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  15. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: [Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Salzer, S.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R. [Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Electrical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)


    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz{sup 1/2} in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhanced by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (α{sub ME}) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.

  16. Cerium Dioxide Thin Films Using Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei


    Full Text Available Cerium dioxide (CeO2 thin films with varying Ce concentrations (0.1 to 0.9 M, metal basis were deposited on soda-lime-silica glass substrates using spin coating. It was found that all films exhibited the cubic fluorite structure after annealing at 500°C for 5 h. The laser Raman microspectroscopy and GAXRD analyses revealed that increasing concentrations of Ce resulted in an increase in the degree of crystallinity. FIB and FESEM images confirmed the laser Raman and GAXRD analyses results owing to the predicted increase in film thickness with increasing Ce concentration. However, porosity and shrinkage (drying cracking of the films also increased significantly with increasing Ce concentrations. UV-VIS spectrophotometry data showed that the transmission of the films decreased with increasing Ce concentrations due to the increasing crack formation. Furthermore, a red shift was observed with increasing Ce concentrations, which resulted in a decrease in the optical indirect band gap.

  17. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.


    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  18. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)


    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  19. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)


    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  20. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios


    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  1. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Padmanabhan


    Full Text Available Collagen cross-linking (CXL has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety.

  2. Thin Films for X-ray Optics (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  3. Polymer Based Thin Film Screen Preparation Technique (United States)

    Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountzoula, C.; Fountos, G.; Saatsakis, G.; Karabotsos, A.; Panayiotakis, G. S.; Kandarakis, I.


    Phosphor screens, mainly prepared by electrophoresis, demonstrate brightness equal to the standard sedimentation on glass or quartz substrate process and are capable of very high resolution. Nevertheless, they are very fragile, the shape of the screen is limited to the substrate shape and in order to achieve adequate surface density for application in medical imaging, a significant quantity of the phosphor will be lost. Fluorescent films prepared by the dispersion of phosphor particles into a polymer matrix could solve the above disadvantages. The aim of this study is to enhance the stability of phosphor screens via the incorporation of phosphor particles into a PMMA (PolyMethyl MethAcrylate) matrix. PMMA is widely used as a plastic optical fiber, it shows almost nearly no dispersion effects and it is transparent in the whole visible spectral range. Different concentrations of PMMA in MMA (Methyl Methacrylate) were examined and a 37.5 % w/w solution was used for the preparation of the thin polymer film, since optical quality characteristics were found to depend on PMMA in MMA concentration. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the polymer screens demonstrated high packing density and uniform distribution of the phosphor particles. This method could be potentially used for phosphor screen preparation of any size and shape.

  4. Extremely Thin Dielectric Metasurface for Carpet Cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, LiYi; Kanté, Boubacar


    We demonstrate a novel and simple approach to cloaking a scatterer on a ground plane. We use an extremely thin dielectric metasurface ({\\lambda}/12) to reshape the wavefronts distorted by a scatterer in order to mimic the reflection pattern of a flat ground plane. To achieve such carpet cloaking, the reflection angle has to be equal to the incident angle everywhere on the scatterer. We use a graded metasurface and calculate the required phase gradient to achieve cloaking. Our metasurface locally provides additional phase to the wavefronts to compensate for the phase difference amongst light paths induced by the geometrical distortion. We design our metasurface in the microwave range using highly sub-wavelength dielectric resonators. We verify our design by full-wave time-domain simulations using micro-structured resonators and show that results match theory very well. This approach can be applied to hide any scatterer on a ground plane not only at microwave frequencies, but also at higher frequencies up to th...

  5. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.


    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 physical vapor deposition (PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  6. The general relativistic thin disc evolution equation (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.


    In the classical theory of thin disc accretion discs, the constraints of mass and angular momentum conservation lead to a diffusion-like equation for the turbulent evolution of the surface density. Here, we revisit this problem, extending the Newtonian analysis to the regime of Kerr geometry relevant to black holes. A diffusion-like equation once again emerges, but now with a singularity at the radius at which the effective angular momentum gradient passes through zero. The equation may be analysed using a combination of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin techniques, local techniques and matched asymptotic expansions. It is shown that imposing the boundary condition of a vanishing stress tensor (more precisely the radial-azimuthal component thereof) allows smooth stable modes to exist external to the angular momentum singularity, the innermost stable circular orbit, while smoothly vanishing inside this location. The extension of the disc diffusion equation to the domain of general relativity introduces a new tool for numerical and phenomenological studies of accretion discs, and may prove to be a useful technique for understanding black hole X-ray transients.

  7. Collagen cross-linking in thin corneas (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Prema; Dave, Abhishek


    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) has become the standard of care for progressive keratoconus, after numerous clinical studies have established its efficacy and safety in suitably selected eyes. The standard protocol is applicable in eyes which have a minimum corneal thickness of 400 μm after epithelial debridement. This prerequisite was stipulated to protect the corneal endothelium and intraocular tissues from the deleterious effect of ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation. However, patients with keratoconus often present with corneal thickness of less than 400 μm and could have otherwise benefited from this procedure. A few modifications of the standard procedure have been suggested to benefit these patients without a compromise in safety. Transepithelial cross-linking, pachymetry-guided epithelial debridement before cross-linking, and the use of hypoosmolar riboflavin are some of the techniques that have been attempted. Although clinical data is limited at the present time, these techniques are worth considering in patients with thin corneas. Further studies are needed to scientifically establish their efficacy and safety. PMID:23925328

  8. Laser scribing of polycrystalline thin films (United States)

    Compaan, A. D.; Matulionis, I.; Nakade, S.


    We have investigated the use of several different types of lasers for scribing of the polycrystalline materials used for thin-film solar cells: CdTe, CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS), ZnO, SnO 2, Mo, Al, and Au. The lasers included four different neodymium-yttrium-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) (both 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths), a Cu vapor (511/578 nm), an XeCl excimer (308 nm), and a KrF excimer (248 nm). Pulse durations ranged from ˜0.1 to ˜250 ns. We found that the fundamental and frequency-doubled wavelengths of the Nd:YAG systems work well for almost all of the above materials except for the transparent conductor ZnO. The diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG was particularly convenient to use. For ZnO the uv wavelengths of the two excimer lasers produced good results. Pulse duration was found generally not to be critical except for the case of CIGS on Mo where longer pulse durations (≥250 ns) are advantageous. The frequently observed problem of ridge formation along the edges of scribe lines in the semiconductor films can be eliminated by control of intensity gradients at the film through adjustment of the focus conditions.

  9. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne


    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  10. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh


    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  11. RF screening by thin resistive layers

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; González, C; Jensen, E; Keil, Eberhard; Morvillo, M; Ruggiero, F; Schröder, G; Zotter, Bruno W; Dyachkov, M


    We discuss the results of recent impedance measurements for an LHC dump kicker prototype, performed at CERN using the coaxial wire method. The kicker design includes a vacuum barrier consisting of a ceramic chamber internally coated with a thin metallic layer having good electric contact with the external beam pipe. For the bench test the coated ceramic tube was replaced by a kapton foil with a 0.2 \\mu\\m copper layer having the same DC resistance of 0.7 Ømega\\m. The measurements show that this resistive coating provides a very effective RF screening down to frequencies below 1 MHz, where the skin depth is two orders of magnitude larger than the layer thickness and one could expect full penetration of the electromagnetic fields. We also present simulation results and analytic considerations in agreement with the measurements, showing that the return currents almost entirely flow through the copper layer down to frequencies where the reactive impedance of the kicker elements located behind it becomes comparabl...

  12. Optical-Quality Thin Polymer Membranes (United States)

    Moore, James; Patrick, Brian


    A method of fabricating both curved and flat thin polymer membranes of optical quality has been developed. The method was originally intended to enable the fabrication of lightweight membrane imaging and interferometric optics, possibly with apertures multiple meters wide, for use in scientific instruments that would operate in outer space. The method may also be applicable to the fabrication of lightweight membrane optics for terrestrial use. The method involves flow-casting of a soluble polymer with mechanical and environmental controls that provide nearly ideal conditions for the formation of a membrane. The preferred environmental conditions and other details of the process depend on the choice of polymer and substrate material and on the shape and size of the membrane to be cast. Once the polymer has dried to a membrane, it is cured with convective heating, then released. Membranes with root-mean-square surface roughnesses of less than 10.5 can be produced routinely by this method. Variations in the thicknesses of the membranes have ranged from 1/3 wavelength down to as little as 1/20 wavelength (at a wavelength of 633 nm). Membranes fabricated thus far have had diameters up to 0.5 m, and there appears to be no major obstacle to scaling up to multiple-meter diameters.

  13. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  14. Density of organic thin films in organic photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy X.; Xiao, Steven; Xu, Gu


    A practical parameter, the volume density of organic thin films, found to affect the electronic properties and in turn the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), is investigated in order to benefit the polymer synthesis and thin film preparation in OPVs. To establish the correlation between film density and device performance, the density of organic thin films with various treatments was obtained, by two-dimensional X-ray diffraction measurement using the density mapping with respect to the crystallinity of thin films. Our results suggest that the OPV of higher performance has a denser photoactive layer, which may hopefully provide a solution to the question of whether the film density matters in organic electronics, and help to benefit the OPV industry in terms of better polymer design, standardized production, and quality control with less expenditure.

  15. Biomolecular papain thin films growth by laser techniques. (United States)

    György, Enikö; Santiso, Jose; Figueras, Albert; Socol, Gabriel; Mihailescu, Ion N


    Papain thin films were synthesised by matrix assisted and conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques. The targets submitted to laser radiation consisted on a frozen composite obtained by dissolving the biomaterials in distilled water. For the deposition of the thin films by conventional PLD pressed biomaterial powder targets were submitted to laser irradiation. An UV KrF* excimer laser source was used in the experiments at 0.5 J/cm(2) incident fluence value, diminished one order of magnitude as compared to irradiation of inorganic materials. The surface morphology of the obtained thin films was studied by atomic force profilometry and atomic force microscopy. The investigations showed that the growth mode and surface quality of the deposited biomaterial thin films is strongly influenced by the target preparation procedure.

  16. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.


    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  17. Thin Cell Layer technology in ornamental plant micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... successful using conventional methods. This review examines the fundamentals behind TCLs, and their application in ornamental plant micropropagation and transformation. Key words: Chrysanthemum, lily, somatic embryogenesis, thin cell layer, tobacco, transformation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp.

  18. Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth. (United States)

    Kaiser, Norbert


    The properties of a thin film of a given material depend on the film's real structure. The real structure is defined as the link between a thin film's deposition parameters and its properties. To facilitate engineering the properties of a thin film by manipulating its real structure, thin-film formation is reviewed as a process starting with nucleation followed by coalescence and subsequent thickness growth, all stages of which can be influenced by deposition parameters. The focus in this review is on dielectric and metallic films and their optical properties. In contrast to optoelectronics all these film growth possibilities for the engineering of novel optical films with extraordinary properties are just beginning to be used.

  19. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.


    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection...

  20. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija


    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  1. Electrical properties of silver selenide thin films prepared by reactive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    805 Å. Keywords. Thin film; silver selenide; reactive evaporation; electrical conductivity. 1. Introduction. Silver selenide attracts the interest of researchers because of its application in the switching devices. The binary and ternary ...

  2. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew


    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  3. Advances in targetry with thin diamond-like carbon foils

    CERN Document Server

    Liechtenstein, V K; Olshanski, E D; Repnow, R; Levin, J; Hellborg, R; Persson, P; Schenkel, T


    Thin and stable diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils, which were fabricated at the Kurchatov Institute by sputter deposition, have proved recently to be advantageous for stripping and secondary electron timing of high energy heavy ions in a number of accelerator experiments. This resulted in expanding applications of these DLC foils which necessitated further development efforts directed toward the following applications of DLC targetry: (i) thin stripper foils for lower energy tandem accelerators, (ii) enlarged (up to 66 mm in diameter) stop foils for improved time-of-flight elastic recoil detection ion beam analysis, and (iii) ultra-thin (about 0.6 mu g/cm sup 2) DLC foils for some fundamental and applied physics experiments. Along with the fabrication of thin DLC stripper foils for tandem accelerators, much thicker (up to 200 mu g/cm sup 2) foils for post-stripping of heavy-ion beams in higher energy linacs, are within reach.

  4. Thermoviscoelastic dynamic response for a composite material thin narrow strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Hong Liang; Qi, Li-Li; Liu, Hai-Bo [Hunan University, Changsha (China)


    Based on von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships and classical thin plate theory, a list of nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations for a viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under thermal and mechanic loads are deduced. According to the material constitutive relationship and the relaxation modulus in the form of the Prony series, combing with the Newmark method and the Newton-cotes integration method, a new numerical algorithm for direct solving the whole problem in the time domain is established. By applying this numerical algorithm, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip as the research subject is analyzed systematically, and its rich dynamical behaviors are revealed comprehensively. To verify the accuracy of the present work, a comparison is made with previously published results. Finally, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under harmonic excitation load and impact load are discussed in detail, and many valuable thermoviscoelastic dynamic characteristics are revealed.

  5. Rip-Stop Reinforced Thin Film Sun Shield Structure Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During a proposed Phase I and Phase II program, PSI will advance the TRL from 3 to 6 for the ripstop reinforcement of thin film membranes used for large deployable...

  6. Cracking and debonding of a thin fiber reinforced concrete overlay. (United States)


    Previous field studies suggested that macro-fibers incorporated in thin overlay pavements will result in reduced crack opening widths, vertical deflections, and debonding rates compared to that of unreinforced overlays. A simple finite element (FE) m...

  7. Surface Morphology of Zinc Oxide Thin Films deposited by TCVD (United States)

    Rafaie, H. A.; Noor, F. W. M.; Amizam, S.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.


    Surface morphology study of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films by using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (Thermal-CVD) was investigated. The ZnO compound was synthesized from zinc acetate dehydrate which act as a starting material to form the ZnO thin films. It was deposited on as-prepared Nanonstructured Silicon (NSi) with deposition temperature ranging from 400-600° C without catalyst-assisted. The surface morphology of the samples before and after the deposition process was examined by using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows that the obtained ZnO thin films possess good crystalline structure at deposition temperature of 600° C and the surface morphologies of the ZnO thin films improved greatly with an increase in deposition temperature. XRD was employed to study the evolution of the crystalline orientation using X-Ray Diffractrometer (XRD).

  8. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  9. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  10. Role of Microstructural Phenomena in Magnetic Thin Films. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, D. E.; Lambeth, D. N.


    Over the period of the program we systematically varied microstructural features of magnetic thin films in an attempt to better identify the role which each feature plays in determining selected extrinsic magnetic properties. This report summarizes the results.

  11. Being Thin Could Boost Stress Fracture Risk in Female Runners (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_166853.html Being Thin Could Boost Stress Fracture Risk in Female Runners Researcher says less muscle ... low body weight are more likely to have stress fractures and take longer to recover from them, according ...

  12. On the geometry of thin exceptional sets in Manin's conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Brian; Tanimoto, Sho


    Manin’s Conjecture predicts the rate of growth of rational points of a bounded height after removing those lying on an exceptional set. We study whether the exceptional set in Manin’s Conjecture is a thin set....

  13. Innovative Detection System of Ochratoxin A by Thin Film Photodiodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caputo, Domenico; de Cesare, Gianpiero; Fanelli, Corrado; Nascetti, Augusto; Ricelli, Alessandra; Scipinotti, Riccardo


    ...) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) sensors. 2 μl of acidified toluene containing OTA at different concentrations werespotted on the silica side of a High Performance Thin Layer Cromatography plate andaligned with a a...

  14. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. For the first time, sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been used as a CO2 gas sensor. Zinc oxide thin films have been synthesized using reactive d.c. sputtering method for gas sensor applications, in the deposition temperature range from 130–153°C at a chamber pressure of 8⋅5 mbar for 18 h. Argon and ...

  15. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya


    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  16. Dynamic Stiffness Analysis of Curved Thin-Walled Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.T. Leung


    Full Text Available The natural vibration problem of curved thin-walled beams is solved by the dynamic stiffness method. The dynamic stiffness of a curved open thin-walled beam is given. The computed natural frequencies of the beam are compared with those obtained by a completely analytical method to show the high accuracy of the present method. The interaction of in-plane and out-of-plane modes is emphasized.

  17. Thermal Management Investigations in Ceramic Thin Disk Lasers (United States)


    new alternative is the use of ceramic materials. Highly translucent and low scattering ceramic materials have been produced using purely chemical...MANAGEMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CERAMIC THIN DISK LASERS William P. Latham et al. 14 January 2011 Technical Note...Investigations in Ceramic Thin Disk Lasers 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63605F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  18. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  19. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning (United States)

    Brown, Ari


    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  20. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria


    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  1. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.


    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  2. Summertime canopy albedo is sensitive to forest thinning


    Otto, J.; Berveiller, D.; F. M. Bréon; Delpierre, N.; Geppert, G.; Granier, A.; Jans, W.W.P.; Knohl, A.; MOORS, E. J.


    Despite an emerging body of literature linking canopy albedo to forest management, understanding of the process is still fragmented. We combined a stand-level forest gap model with a canopy radiation transfer model and satellite-derived model parameters to quantify the effects of forest thinning, that is removing trees at a certain time during the forest rotation, on summertime canopy albedo. The effects of different forest species (pine, beech, oak) and four thinning strategies (light to int...

  3. No fear of thin films; Frykter ikke tynnfilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelsen, Atle


    New investments in crystalline silicon based solar cells are made by the Norwegian companies Elkem Solar and REC Group, despite the increased competition from polymer based thin film solar cells. A new production method named solar grade silicon will reduce the production costs. Thin films are also less effective, with 5-6 percent efficiency compared to silicon based solar cells with 15-20 percent efficiency.

  4. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing


    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.


    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste treatment are reviewed. Waste streams in thin film module manufacturing are analyzed in detail and treatment methods are discussed. Finally the technological options for thin film module recycling are inve...

  5. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)


    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  6. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation


    Santagata, F.


    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film encapsulation. With this method, MEMS are already sealed during wafer processing. Thin-film encapsulation poses a number of challenges, in particular to hermeticity, mechanical robustness, and compatibility wit...

  7. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A. [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali


    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  8. Growth of cuprate high temperature superconductor thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-U Habermeier


    Full Text Available   This paper reviews briefly the development of physical vapour deposition based HTS thin film preparation technologies to today’s state-of-the-art methods. It covers the main trends of in-situ process and growth control. The current activities to fabricate tapes for power applications as well as to tailor interfaces in cuprate are described. Some future trends in HTS thin film research, both for science as well as application driven activities are outlined.

  9. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films (United States)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn

  10. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)


    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm{sup 2}). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  11. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.


    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm 2 the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm 2 the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm 2). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  12. Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations (United States)

    Ra'di, Y.; Simovski, C. R.; Tretyakov, S. A.


    With recent advances in nanophotonics and nanofabrication, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin composite layers designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic radiation, from microwaves to the visible. If the layer is structured at a subwavelength scale, thin perfect absorbers are usually called "metamaterial absorbers," because these composite structures are designed to emulate some material responses not reachable with any natural material. On the other hand, many thin absorbing composite layers were designed and used already in the time of the introduction of radar technology, predominantly as a means to reduce radar visibility of targets. In view of a wide variety of classical and new topologies of optically thin metamaterial absorbers and plurality of applications, there is a need for a general, conceptual overview of the fundamental mechanisms of full absorption of light or microwave radiation in thin layers. Here, we present such an overview in the form of a general theory of thin perfectly absorbing layers. Possible topologies of perfect metamaterial absorbers are classified based on their fundamental operational principles. For each of the identified classes, we provide design equations and give examples of particular realizations. The concluding section provides a summary and gives an outlook on future developments in this field.

  13. How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets (United States)

    Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.


    Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.

  14. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru


    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  15. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics (United States)

    He, Yongli; Wang, Xiangyu; Gao, Ya; Hou, Yahui; Wan, Qing


    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends. Project supported in part by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (No. 61425020), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674162).

  16. Statistical and fractal features of nanocrystalline AZO thin films (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, S.; Abrinaei, F.; Shirazi, M.


    In this paper, We investigate the morphology effect of Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on the physical properties such as conductivity and grain size. The AZO thin films are prepared by spray pyrolysis at different thicknesses in the range 100-400 nm. Height fluctuations obtained from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis are applied to the statistical and fractal analysis of thin films. We show that the conductivity of thin films is proportional to the roughness parameter as σ ∼Wm which m = 6 . 42 ± 0 . 50. Calculating the nonlinear measures (skewness and kurtosis) of height fluctuations demonstrates the isotropic nature of AZO rough surfaces. Fractal analysis of the mentioned thin films using two dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis illustrates the multifractality scaling and the strength of multifractality increases with thickness. Our results show that the reason for the multi-affinity is the existence of different correlations in the height fluctuations of the thin films. Calculating the contour loops features of the height fluctuations reveals that the radius, length, and area of loops increase with thickness enhancement and the radius of contour loops is introduced as a new statistical parameter which is linearly related to the grain size and could be useful to calculate it.

  17. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films (United States)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freestanding thin films. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm are visualized and analyzed using IDIOM protocols. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters and show that the non-flat features are sculpted by oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids

  18. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.


    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  19. Thin film characterization by resonantly excited internal standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fonzio, S. [SINCROTRONE TRIESTE, Trieste (Italy)


    This contribution describes how a standing wave excited in a thin film can be used for the characterization of the properties of the film. By means of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry one can deduce the total film thickness. On the other hand in making use of a strong resonance effect in the electric field intensity distribution inside a thin film on a bulk substrate one can learn more about the internal structure of the film. The profile of the internal standing wave is proven by diffraction experiments. The most appropriate non-destructive technique for the subsequent thin film characterization is angularly dependent X-ray fluorescence analysis. The existence of the resonance makes it a powerful tool for the detection of impurities and of ultra-thin maker layers, for which the position can be determined with very high precision (about 1% of the total film thickness). This latter aspect will be discussed here on samples which had a thin Ti marker layer at different positions in a carbon film. Due to the resonance enhancement it was still possible to perform these experiments with a standard laboratory x-ray tube and with standard laboratory tool for marker or impurity detection in thin films.

  20. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson


    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  1. Anisotropic magnetothermoelectric power of ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Lacoste, B.; Aarts, J.


    In this article, we report the measurements of the magnetothermoelectric power (MTEP) in metallic ferromagnetic thin films of Ni80 Fe20 (Permalloy; Py), Co and CrO2 at temperatures in the range of 100 K to 400 K. In 25 nm thick Py films and 50 nm thick Co films both the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and MTEP show a relative change in resistance and thermoelectric power (TEP) of the order of 0.2% when the magnetic field is reversed, and in both cases there is no significant change in AMR or MTEP after the saturation field has been reached. Surprisingly, both Py and Co films have opposite MTEP behaviour although both have the same sign for AMR and TEP. The data on half metallic ferromagnet CrO2 films show a different picture. Films of thickness of 100 nm were grown on TiO2 and on sapphire. The MTEP behavior at low fields shows peaks similar to the AMR in these films, with variations up to 1 % . With increasing field both the MR and the MTEP variations keep growing, with MTEP showing relative changes of 1.5% with the thermal gradient along the b -axis and even 20% with the gradient along the c -axis, with an intermediate value of 3% for the film on sapphire. It appears that the low-field effects are due to the magnetic domain state, and the high-field effects are intrinsic to the electronic structure of CrO2 and intergarian tunnelling magnetoresistance that contributes to MTEP as tunnelling-MTEP. Our results will stimulate the research work in the field of spin dependent thermal transport in ferromagnetic materials to further develop spin-Caloritronics.

  2. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment (United States)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory


    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  3. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbecaru, C. [Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor nr. 405, P.O. Box MG 11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:; Alexandru, H.V. [Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor nr. 405, P.O. Box MG 11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:; Ianculescu, Adelina [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)], E-mail:; Popescu, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Socol, G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Sima, F. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Mihailescu, Ion [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO{sub 2} content (and Na{sub 2}O-K{sub 2}O-CaO-MgO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 deg. C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 {mu}m particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  4. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants (United States)

    Berbecaru, C.; Alexandru, H. V.; Ianculescu, Adelina; Popescu, A.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Mihailescu, Ion


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO 2 content (and Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 °C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 μm particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO 43- maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  5. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes (United States)

    Cès, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire


    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S1-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S1-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  6. Simulating a Thin Accretion Disk Using PLUTO (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Vogeley, Michael S.; Boyd, Patricia T.


    Accreting black hole systems such as X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei exhibit variability in their luminosity on many timescales ranging from milliseconds to tens of days, and even hundreds of days. The mechanism(s) driving this variability and the relationship between short- and long-term variability is poorly understood. Current studies on accretion disks seek to determine how the changes in black hole mass, the rate at which mass accretes onto the central black hole, and the external environment affect the variability on scales ranging from stellar-mass black holes to supermassive black holes. Traditionally, the fluid mechanics equations governing accretion disks have been simplified by considering only the kinematics of the disk, and perhaps magnetic fields, in order for their phenomenological behavior to be predicted analytically. We seek to employ numerical techniques to study accretion disks including more complicated physics traditionally ignored in order to more accurately understand their behavior over time. We present a proof-of-concept three dimensional, global simulation using the astrophysical hydrodynamic code PLUTO of a simplified thin disk model about a central black hole which will serve as the basis for development of more complicated models including external effects such as radiation and magnetic fields. We also develop a tool to generate a synthetic light curve that displays the variability in luminosity of the simulation over time. The preliminary simulation and accompanying synthetic light curve demonstrate that PLUTO is a reliable code to perform sophisticated simulations of accretion disk systems which can then be compared to observational results.

  7. Advanced thin dicing blade for sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Matsumaru, Atsushi Takata and Kozo Ishizaki


    Full Text Available Advanced thin dicing blades for cutting sapphire were fabricated and evaluated for cutting performance with respect to dicing blade wear and meandering of cutting lines. Three kinds of different commercial blades were used to compare the cutting performance. These blades had the same thickness and the same diamond grain size. The matrix material of one dicing blade was nickel–phosphorus alloy and two other were a vitric material. Newly developed dicing blades consisted of a vitric material with pore. A dicing machine was used for cutting sapphire. Turning velocity, cutting depth and feeding rate were 20,000 min−1, 200 μm and 1 mm s−1, respectivity. Cutting directions were 110 and 010. All blades could cut 1000 mm and more in the 110 direction. On the other hand, commercial dicing blades generated meandering lines and were broken only by 50 mm of cutting length in 010 direction. Fabricated blade can cut 1000 mm and more in 010 direction. The wear of fabricated dicing blade was the largest in the dicing blades. Although cutting performance of commercial dicing blades depended on the sapphire orientation, that of fabricated blade was independent of the sapphire orientation. It has been confirmed that the fabricated dicing blade was kept a cutting ability by flash diamonds on the dicing blade surface, which were created by wear of blade during cutting sapphire. Low cutting ability of commercial blades increased cutting force between with increase of cutting length. The increased cutting force produced to bend a blade and cutting lines, and finally a fracture of blade.

  8. Gas sensing applications of phthalocyanine thin films (United States)

    Starke, Thomas

    This thesis reports an investigation into the NO2 sensing properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at room temperature in air. The gas sensing properties of the CuPc films were investigated using electrical conductivity and surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensing devices. Conductivity and SAW sensors were employed to detect changes of the film properties upon NO2 exposure in electrical conductivity and mass loading respectively. Initially, the response of electrical conductivity and SAW sensors incorporating an untreated layer of CuPc was investigated. Laser illumination of the films during the sensing experiments was found to have a significant effect on the mass loading response but little effect on the change in electrical conductivity. From these experiments it was suggested that NO2 adsorption on CuPc may be dominated by two different mechanisms, surface adsorption and bulk diffusion. It was also suggested that a reduction of one of these components would lead to a more controllable response. In order to minimise the effect of bulk diffusion, some of the CuPc films were doped with NO2 after deposition so filling the strongly bound bulk adsorption sites. In other devices, cooling of the CuPc layer in liquid nitrogen was used after deposition to change the surface structure in order to facilitate bulk diffusion. It was shown that these post-deposition treatment significantly changed the response characteristics of the CuPc film. Response kinetics of the experiments were analysed using the Langmuir and Elovich adsorption models, a method was suggested to determine the concentration of NO2 within the first few minutes of exposure using the value for the maximum rate of current change. A good correlation between this value and the concentration was found.

  9. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials (United States)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.


    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  10. Fabrication of supported Ca-doped lanthanum niobate electrolyte layer and NiO containing anode functional layer by electrophoretic deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, Francesco; Bonanos, Nikolaos


    The technique of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been applied for the preparation of a dense calcium-doped lanthanum niobate electrolyte film. La0.995Ca0.005NbO4 (LCN) powder was suspended in a solution of acetylacetone, iodine and water. The effects of suspension composition and deposition...... conditions were analyzed in order to identify a suitable set of EPD process parameters. The powders were deposited on a composite substrate of LCN, NiO, binder and graphite. A dense 8 μm film of lanthanum niobate supported on a porous substrate was obtained after sintering at 1200 °C. The technique was found...

  11. Ca-doped fluorite-like compounds based on Nd{sub 5}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronkova, V.I., E-mail: [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Kharitonova, E.P.; Orlova, E.I. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Levchenko, A.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Antipin, A.M. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Akademika Kurchatova pl. 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Sorokina, N.I. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Belov, D.A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)


    We have studied phase relations in a molybdenum oxide-rich region of the ternary system CaO–Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MoO{sub 3}. Using polycrystalline samples prepared by solid–state reactions in air, the system has been shown to contain a rather broad region of cubic fluorite-like phases isostructural with Nd{sub 5}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 16}. The atomic structure of a calcium-doped fluorite-like Nd{sub 5}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 16} {sub +} {sub δ} single crystal grown from an off-stoichiometric melt has been studied by X-ray diffraction. The peculiarities of the structure of calcium-doped fluorite-related compounds were revealed. Experimental structural data demonstrate partial mutual substitutions of Nd and Mo cations, splitting of the O{sub 2} position into several additional positions, and the presence of excess oxygen, which occupies octahedral sites in the voids of the structure. Some of the fluorite-like samples have high electrical conductivity, on the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at 800 °C. - Highlights: • A broad region of fluorite-like phases exists in the CaO–Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–MoO{sub 3} system. • The maximum Ca content have CaNd{sub 4}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 16} fluorite-like compound. • Single crystal XRD experiment detected presence of excess oxygen in the structure. • Partial mutual substitutions of Nd and Mo cations were found in the structure. • Mixed conductivity of Ca-contained samples may reach 10{sup −2} S/cm at 800 °C.

  12. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  13. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.


    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  14. Incidence of decay fungi in stumps of two thinned western larch stands in northeastern Oregon. (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Catherine A. Parks; Kenneth W. Seidel; Frances F. Lombard


    Incidence of decay fungi was measured in stumps from two thinned western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stands (9 and 15 years after thinning), one precommercially thinned and one commercially thinned, in northeastern Oregon. Ten species of decay fungi were positively identified from 180 stumps. Two root pathogenic species, ...

  15. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo


    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. >5 m3 (STP) m-2 h -1 bar-1. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO2 philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. The effect of Argon pressure dependent V thin film on the phase transition process of (020) VO2 thin film (United States)

    Meng, Yifan; Huang, Kang; Tang, Zhou; Xu, Xiaofeng; Tan, Zhiyong; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chunrui; Wu, Binhe; Wang, Chang; Cao, Juncheng


    It has been proved challenging to fabricate the single crystal orientation of VO2 thin film by a simple method. Based on chemical reaction thermodynamic and crystallization analysis theory, combined with our experimental results, we find out that when stoichiometric number of metallic V in the chemical equation is the same, the ratio of metallic V thin film surface average roughness Ra to thin film average particle diameter d decreases with the decreasing sputtering Argon pressure. Meanwhile, the oxidation reaction equilibrium constant K also decreases, which will lead to the increases of oxidation time, thereby the crystal orientation of the VO2 thin film will also become more uniform. By sputtering oxidation coupling method, metallic V thin film is deposited on c-sapphire substrate at 1 × 10-1 Pa, and then oxidized in the air with the maximum oxidation time of 65s, high oriented (020) VO2 thin film has been fabricated successfully, which exhibits ∼4.6 orders sheet resistance change across the metal-insulator transition.

  17. The AMBRE project: The thick thin disk and thin thick disk of the Milky Way (United States)

    Hayden, M. R.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Worley, C. C.


    We analyze 494 main sequence turnoff and subgiant stars from the AMBRE:HARPS survey. These stars have accurate astrometric information from Gaia DR1, providing reliable age estimates with relative uncertainties of ±1 or 2 Gyr and allowing precise orbital determinations. The sample is split based on chemistry into a low-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often identified as thin disk stellar populations, and high-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often associated with thick disk stellar populations. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence has extended star formation for several Gyr and is coeval with the oldest stars of the low-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence: both the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences were forming stars at the same time. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] stellar populations are only vertically extended for the oldest, most-metal poor and highest [Mg/Fe] stars. When comparing vertical velocity dispersion for the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences, the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence has lower vertical velocity dispersion than the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence for stars of similar age. This means that identifying either group as thin or thick disk based on chemistry is misleading. The stars belonging to the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence have perigalacticons that originate in the inner disk, while the perigalacticons of stars on the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence are generally around the solar neighborhood. From the orbital properties of the stars, the high-[Mg/Fe] and low-[Mg/Fe] sequences are most likely a reflection of the chemical enrichment history of the inner and outer disk populations, respectively; radial mixing causes both populations to be observed in situ at the solar position. Based on these results, we emphasize that it is important to be clear in defining what populations are being referenced when using the terms thin and thick disk, and that ideally the term thick disk should be reserved for purely geometric definitions to avoid confusion and be consistent with definitions in external

  18. Ultra-Thin Coatings Beautify Art (United States)


    The craftsmen in the Roman Empire who constructed the Lycurgus Cup 17 centuries ago probably didn't think their artifact would survive for nearly 2,000 years as a prized possession. And they certainly couldn't have known that the technology they used to make it would eventually become an important part of space exploration. Carved from one solid mass, the cup is one of the few complete glass objects from that period, and the only one made from dichroic glass. Meaning "two-colored" in Greek, dichroic glass was originally created by adding trace amounts of gold and silver to a large volume of glass melt. The resulting medium partially reflects the light passing through it, causing an observer to see different colors depending on the direction of the light source. The Lycurgus Cup, for example, is famous for appearing green in daylight and red when lit at night, symbolic of the ripening grapes used to fill it with wine. NASA revitalized the production of dichroic glass in the 1950s and 1960s as a means of protecting its astronauts. Ordinary clear substances cannot protect human vision from the harsh rays of unfiltered sunlight, and everything from the human body to spacecraft sensors and computers are at risk if left unprotected from the radiation that permeates space. The microscopic amounts of metal present in dichroic glass make it an effective barrier against such harmful radiation. While the ancient manufacturing technique called for adding metals to glass melt, NASA developed a process in which metals are vaporized by electron beams in a vacuum chamber and then applied directly to surfaces in an ultra-thin film. The vapor condenses in the form of crystal structures, and the process is repeated for up to several dozen coatings. The resulting material, still only about 30 millionths of an inch thick, is sufficient to reflect radiation even while the glass, or polycarbonate, as in the case of space suit helmets, remains transparent to the human eye.

  19. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  20. Role of asphaltenes in stabilizing thin liquid emulsion films. (United States)

    Tchoukov, Plamen; Yang, Fan; Xu, Zhenghe; Dabros, Tadeusz; Czarnecki, Jan; Sjöblom, Johan


    Drainage kinetics, thickness, and stability of water-in-oil thin liquid emulsion films obtained from asphaltenes, heavy oil (bitumen), and deasphalted heavy oil (maltenes) diluted in toluene are studied. The results show that asphaltenes stabilize thin organic liquid films at much lower concentrations than maltenes and bitumen. The drainage of thin organic liquid films containing asphaltenes is significantly slower than the drainage of the films containing maltenes and bitumen. The films stabilized by asphaltenes are much thicker (40-90 nm) than those stabilized by maltenes (∼10 nm). Such significant variation in the film properties points to different stabilization mechanisms of thin organic liquid films. Apparent aging effects, including gradual increase of film thickness, rigidity of oil/water interface, and formation of submicrometer size aggregates, were observed for thin organic liquid films containing asphaltenes. No aging effects were observed for films containing maltenes and bitumen in toluene. The increasing stability and lower drainage dynamics of asphaltene-containing thin liquid films are attributed to specific ability of asphaltenes to self-assemble and form 3D network in the film. The characteristic length of stable films is well beyond the size of single asphaltene molecules, nanoaggregates, or even clusters of nanoaggregates reported in the literature. Buildup of such 3D structure modifies the rheological properties of the liquid film to be non-Newtonian with yield stress (gel like). Formation of such network structure appears to be responsible for the slower drainage of thin asphaltenes in toluene liquid films. The yield stress of liquid film as small as ∼10(-2) Pa is sufficient to stop the drainage before the film reaches the critical thickness at which film rupture occurs.

  1. Thinning factors influence on custom-made mouthguards thermoforming. (United States)

    Kojima, Ichiro; Takeda, Tomotaka; Nakajima, Kazunori; Narimatsu, Keishiro; Konno, Michiyo; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi


    The aim of this study was to clarify and quantify factors influencing thinning during a thermoforming using a special simulation model that has three different flat surfaces such as 0 degree, 45 degree and 90 degree against a pressurizing force. Air pressure type samples were made by EVA and acrylic resin blank. Vacuum type samples were also made by EVA. Thickness gauge was employed to measure the thickness. As results, pressure forming showed significantly larger thinning at 45 and 90 degree surfaces and smaller thinning at 0 degree surface, 36% in thinning rate by vacuum forming and 66% by the pressure forming at 90 degree surface, and 17% and 20% at 45 degree surface, and 11% and 2% at 0 degree surfaces. Thinning was increased with the increase in distance from the centre in 0 degree surface and increased with the decrease in height in the vertical surface significantly. The air pressure, the material thickness in EVA (Drufosoft) and difference in material colour did not affect thinning rate. An acrylic resin material showed approximately 10% smaller thinning than EVA (Drufosoft). To retain enough thickness of 3 mm on 90 degree surface corresponding to an incisal labial aspect for pressure laminate type, over 55% reduction is taken into consideration and at least two 3-mm-thickness materials should be laminated. 0 degree surface showed at most 2 % reduction in pressure lamination; post thermoforming occlusal thickness became almost 6 mm with a usual 3 mm plus 3 mm lamination. Therefore, careful occlusal adjustment in an actual mouthguard fabrication to achieve an appropriate 2 mm thickness on this surface should be requested. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.


    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.

  3. Thin Film Evolution Over a Thin Porous Layer: Modeling a Tear Film on a Contact Lens (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Nong, Kumnit


    We examine a mathematical model that describes the behavior of the pre-contact lens tear film of a human eye. Our work examines the effect of contact lens thickness and lens permeability and slip on the film dynamics. A mathematical model for the evolution of the tear film is derived using a lubrication approximation applied to the hydrodynamic equations of motion in the fluid film and the porous layer. The model is a nonlinear fourth order partial differential equation subject to boundary conditions and an initial condition for post-blink film evolution. We find that increasing the lens thickness, permeability and slip all contribute to an increase in the film thinning rate although for parameter values typical for contact lens wear these modifications are minor. The presence of the contact lens can, however, fundamentally change the nature of the rupture dynamics as the inclusion of the porous lens leads to rupture in finite time rather than infinite time.

  4. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  5. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  6. Ferroelectric Properties of Large Area Evaporated Vinylidene Fluoride Thin Films (United States)

    Foreman, Keith; Poddar, Shashi; Workman, Adam; Callori, Sara; Ducharme, Stephen; Adenwalla, Shireen

    Organic electronics provide advantages in price, processing, and functionality. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a popular organic ferroelectric used a in wide variety of applications. The VDF oligomer features a higher surface charge density than PVDF and its copolymers and oligomer thin films can be deposited in vacuum, allowing for deposition on a metallic thin film without breaking vacuum. Despite these advantages, there has been little work towards employing the VDF oligomer in devices. Here, we report on stable and tunable ferroelectric behavior of large area VDF oligomer thin films and the interface with Co thin films. Pyroelectric measurements are used to identify the operating temperature of VDF oligomer-based devices and probe the stability of the ferroelectric polarization states over long periods of time. Using capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and x-ray diffraction measurements, the remanent polarization and crystalline phase are reported, and the effects of annealing are clarified. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to characterize the VDF/Co interface. Finally, piezoresponse force microscopy is used to demonstrate large area ferroelectric domain writing VDF oligomer thin films. This work sets the stage for VDF oligomer based organic electronics. Supported by NSF ECCS-1101256 and MRSEC DMR-1420645.

  7. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim


    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  8. Pulsed photonic fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide thin films (United States)

    Bourgeois, Briley B.; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian C.; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.


    Nanostructured metal oxide thin films with a large specific surface area are preferable for practical device applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report instantaneous (milliseconds) photonic synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured metal oxide thin films through the pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis of organometallic precursor films made by chemical solution deposition. High wall-plug efficiency-pulsed photonic irradiation (xenon flash lamp, pulse width of 1.93 ms, fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 and frequency of 1.2 Hz) is used for scalable photonic processing. The photothermal effect of subsequent pulses rapidly improves the crystalline quality of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films in minutes. The following paper highlights pulsed photonic fabrication of 3-D nanostructured TiO2, Co3O4, and Fe2O3 thin films, exemplifying a promising new method for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxide thin films for energy applications.

  9. Reflectometric monitoring of the dissolution process of thin polymeric films. (United States)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Räty, Jukka; Korhonen, Kristiina; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik


    Pharmaceutical thin films are versatile drug-delivery platforms i.e. allowing transdermal, oral, sublingual and buccal administration. However, dissolution testing of thin films is challenging since the commonly used dissolution tests for conventional dosage forms correspond rather poorly to the physiological conditions at the site of administration. Here we introduce a traditional optical reflection method for monitoring the dissolution behavior of thin polymeric films. The substances, e.g. drug molecules, released from the film generate an increase in the refractive index in the liquid medium which can be detected by reflectance monitoring. Thin EUDRAGIT(®) RL PO poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate chloride) (RLPO) films containing the model drug perphenazine (PPZ) were prepared by spraying on a glass substrate. The glass substrates were placed inside the flow cell in the reflectometer which was then filled with phosphate buffer solution. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the reflectance of the buffer liquid. The method was able to detect the distinctive dissolution characteristics of different film formulations and measured relatively small drug concentrations. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that a traditional optical reflection method can provide valuable information about the dissolution characteristics of thin polymeric films in low liquid volume surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Swimming efficiency in a shear-thinning fluid (United States)

    Nganguia, Herve; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Pak, On Shun


    Micro-organisms expend energy moving through complex media. While propulsion speed is an important property of locomotion, efficiency is another factor that may determine the swimming gait adopted by a micro-organism in order to locomote in an energetically favorable manner. The efficiency of swimming in a Newtonian fluid is well characterized for different biological and artificial swimmers. However, these swimmers often encounter biological fluids displaying shear-thinning viscosities. Little is known about how this nonlinear rheology influences the efficiency of locomotion. Does the shear-thinning rheology render swimming more efficient or less? How does the swimming efficiency depend on the propulsion mechanism of a swimmer and rheological properties of the surrounding shear-thinning fluid? In this work, we address these fundamental questions on the efficiency of locomotion in a shear-thinning fluid by considering the squirmer model as a general locomotion model to represent different types of swimmers. Our analysis reveals how the choice of surface velocity distribution on a squirmer may reduce or enhance the swimming efficiency. We determine optimal shear rates at which the swimming efficiency can be substantially enhanced compared with the Newtonian case. The nontrivial variations of swimming efficiency prompt questions on how micro-organisms may tune their swimming gaits to exploit the shear-thinning rheology. The findings also provide insights into how artificial swimmers should be designed to move through complex media efficiently.

  11. A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described in the presence of capillarity, wettability, and mixing effects. In the present work, we apply Onsager\\'s variational principle to the formulation of thin film hydrodynamics for binary fluid mixtures. We first derive the dynamic equations in two spatial dimensions, one along the substrate and the other normal to the substrate. Then, using long-wave asymptotics, we derive the thin film equations in one spatial dimension along the substrate. This enables us to establish the connection between the present variational approach and the gradient dynamics formulation for thin films. It is shown that for the mobility matrix in the gradient dynamics description, Onsager\\'s reciprocal symmetry is automatically preserved by the variational derivation. Furthermore, using local hydrodynamic variables, our variational approach is capable of introducing diffusive dissipation beyond the limit of dilute solute. Supplemented with a Flory-Huggins-type mixing free energy, our variational approach leads to a thin film model that treats solvent and solute in a symmetric manner. Our approach can be further generalized to include more complicated free energy and additional dissipative processes.

  12. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho


    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  13. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide: Nanocrystals versus Thin Films. (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI 3 ) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is dominant in NC ensemble because of the localization of electron-hole pairs. A promisingly high quantum yield above 70%, and a large absorption cross-section (5.2 × 10 -13 cm -2 ) are measured. At high pump fluence, biexcitonic recombination is observed, featuring a slow recombination lifetime of 0.4 ns. In polycrystalline thin films, the quantum efficiency is limited by nonradiative trap-assisted recombination that turns to bimolecular at high pump fluences. From the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a phase transition is clearly observed in both NC ensemble and polycrystalline thin film. It is interesting to note that NC ensemble shows PL temperature antiquenching, in contrast to the strong PL quenching displayed by polycrystalline thin films. This difference is explained in terms of thermal activation of trapped carriers at the nanocrystal's surface, as opposed to the exciton thermal dissociation and trap-mediated recombination, which occur in thin films at higher temperatures. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.


    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Thin film PV manufacturing. Materials costs and their optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Thin Film PV Partnership, 1617 Cole Boulevard, 80401 Golden, CO (United States)


    Thin film PV technologies face a number of hurdles as they advance towards low-cost goals that would make them competitive with traditional sources of electricity. The US Department of Energy cost goal for thin films is about $0.33/W{sub p}, which corresponds to module efficiencies of about 15% and module manufacturing costs of about $50/m{sup 2}. Past papers have provided a framework for examining thin film efficiencies and manufacturing costs, especially those costs for equipment, labor, materials, utilities, and others. Although materials costs appear to be a large fraction of the total, we have not yet broken them down in enough detail to seek significant improvement. In the future, with more mature thin film production, materials costs such as those from semiconductor layers, contacts, pottants, substrates, and electrical interconnection will dominate total module cost. This paper (1) breaks down the materials costs into two broad categories (active and inactive materials) and then (2) investigates the issues associated with reducing their costs much below today's levels. Materials will likely be such an overwhelming cost-driver for mature manufacturing of thin film PV that issues associated with their optimization should be examined as soon as possible in order to meet the DOE long-term goals for PV module costs.

  16. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor


    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  17. Single crystalline thin films as a novel class of electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder Joshua


    Full Text Available The ubiquitous use of single crystal metal electrodes has garnered invaluable insight into the relationship between surface atomic structure and functional electrochemical properties. However, the sensitivity of their electrochemical response to surface orientation and the amount of precious metal required can limit their use. We present here a generally applicable procedure for producing thin metal films with a large proportion of atomically flat (111 terraces without the use of an epitaxial template. Thermal annealing in a controlled atmosphere induces long-range ordering of magnetron sputtered thin metal films deposited on an amorphous substrate. The ordering transition in these thin metal films yields characteristic (111 electrochemical signatures with minimal amount of material and provides an adequate replacement for oriented bulk single crystals. This procedure can be generalized towards a novel class of practical multimetallic thin film based electrocatalysts with tunable near-surface compositional profile and morphology. Annealing of atomically corrugated sputtered thin film Pt-alloy catalysts yields an atomically smooth structure with highly crystalline, (111-like ordered and Pt segregated surface that displays superior functional properties, bridging the gap between extended/bulk surfaces and nanoscale systems.

  18. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)


    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  19. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others


    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.


    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.