WorldWideScience

Sample records for ca usa fine-scale

  1. Fine-Scale Bacterial Beta Diversity within a Complex Ecosystem (Zodletone Spring, OK, USA): The Role of the Rare Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H.; Couger, M. B.; Elshahed, Mostafa S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The adaptation of pyrosequencing technologies for use in culture-independent diversity surveys allowed for deeper sampling of ecosystems of interest. One extremely well suited area of interest for pyrosequencing-based diversity surveys that has received surprisingly little attention so far, is examining fine scale (e.g. micrometer to millimeter) beta diversity in complex microbial ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the patterns of fine scale Beta diversity in four adjacent sediment samples (1mm apart) from the source of an anaerobic sulfide and sulfur rich spring (Zodletone spring) in southwestern Oklahoma, USA. Using pyrosequencing, a total of 292,130 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained. The beta diversity patterns within the four datasets were examined using various qualitative and quantitative similarity indices. Low levels of Beta diversity (high similarity indices) were observed between the four samples at the phylum-level. However, at a putative species (OTU0.03) level, higher levels of beta diversity (lower similarity indices) were observed. Further examination of beta diversity patterns within dominant and rare members of the community indicated that at the putative species level, beta diversity is much higher within rare members of the community. Finally, sub-classification of rare members of Zodletone spring community based on patterns of novelty and uniqueness, and further examination of fine scale beta diversity of each of these subgroups indicated that members of the community that are unique, but non novel showed the highest beta diversity within these subgroups of the rare biosphere. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate the occurrence of high inter-sample diversity within seemingly identical samples from a complex habitat. We reason that such unexpected diversity should be taken into consideration when exploring gamma diversity of various ecosystems, as well as planning for sequencing-intensive metagenomic

  2. Fine scale population genetic structure and within tree distribution of mating types of Venturia effusa, cause of pecan scab in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern USA. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity. Four cv. Wichita trees (populations) were sampled hierarchically. Within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals...

  3. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, Roger D.; Blake, John I.; Crolly, William T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  4. SAETTA: fine-scale observation of the total lightning activity in the framework of the CORSiCA atmospheric observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquillat, Sylvain; Defer, Eric; Lambert, Dominique; Martin, Jean-Michel; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Véronique; Prieur, Serge

    2015-04-01

    Located in the West Mediterranean basin, Corsica is strategically positioned for atmospheric studies referred by MISTRALS/HyMeX and MISTRALS/CHARMEX programs. The implementation of the project of atmospheric observatory CORSiCA (supported by the Collectivité Territoriale de Corse via CPER/FEDER funds) was an opportunity to strengthen the potential observation of convective events causing heavy rainfall and flash floods, by acquiring a total lightning activity detection system adapted to storm tracking at a regional scale. This detection system called SAETTA (Suivi de l'Activité Electrique Tridimensionnelle Totale de l'Atmosphère) is a network of 12 LMA stations (Lightning Mapping Array). Developed by New Mexico Tech (USA), the instrument allows observing lightning flashes in 3D and real time, at high temporal and spatial resolutions. It detects the radiations emitted by cloud discharges in the 60-66 MHz band, in a radius of about 300 km from the centre of the network, in passive mode and standalone (solar panel and battery). Each LMA station samples the signal at high rate (80 microseconds), records data on internal hard disk, and transmits a decimated signal in real-time via the 3G phone network. The decimated data are received on a server that calculates the position of the detected sources by the time-of-arrival method and manages a quasi real-time display on a website. The non decimated data intended for research applications are recovered later on the field. Deployed in May and June 2014, SAETTA operated nominally from July 13 to October 20, 2014. It is to be definitively re-installed in spring 2015 after a hardware updating. The operation of SAETTA is contractually scheduled until the end of 2019, but it is planned to continue well beyond to obtain longer-term observations for addressing issues related to climatic trends. SAETTA has great scientific potential in a broad range of topics: physics of discharge; monitoring and simulation of storm systems

  5. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  6. Fine-scale spatial variability of heat-related mortality in Philadelphia County, USA, from 1983-2008: a case-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hondula David M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High temperature and humidity conditions are associated with short-term elevations in the mortality rate in many United States cities. Previous research has quantified this relationship in an aggregate manner over large metropolitan areas, but within these areas the response may differ based on local-scale variability in climate, population characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Methods We compared the mortality response for 48 Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs comprising Philadelphia County, PA to determine if certain areas are associated with elevated risk during high heat stress conditions. A randomization test was used to identify mortality exceedances for various apparent temperature thresholds at both the city and local scale. We then sought to identify the environmental, demographic, and social factors associated with high-risk areas via principal components regression. Results Citywide mortality increases by 9.3% on days following those with apparent temperatures over 34°C observed at 7:00 p.m. local time. During these conditions, elevated mortality rates were found for 10 of the 48 ZCTAs concentrated in the west-central portion of the County. Factors related to high heat mortality risk included proximity to locally high surface temperatures, low socioeconomic status, high density residential zoning, and age. Conclusions Within the larger Philadelphia metropolitan area, there exists statistically significant fine-scale spatial variability in the mortality response to high apparent temperatures. Future heat warning systems and mitigation and intervention measures could target these high risk areas to reduce the burden of extreme weather on summertime morbidity and mortality.

  7. Fine scale distributions of porosity and particulate excess 210Pb, organic carbon and CaCO3 in surface sediments of the deep equatorial Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, R.A.; Emerson, S.R.; Cochran, J.K.; Hirschberg, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sediment samples were recovered from the central equatorial Pacific Ocean, sectioned at 1-mm intervals, and analyzed for porosity, organic carbon, excess 210 Pb and CaCO 3 . Steep porosity gradients were measured in the upper 1 cm of the sediment column with extremely high values observed near the sediment surface. Similarly, particulate organic carbon contents are highest at the sediment surface, decrease sharply in the upper 1 cm, and are relatively constant between 1 and 5 cm. CaCO 3 values, on the other hand, are lowest at the sediment surface and increase to a constant value below 5-10 mm depth. At the carbonate ooze sites, excess 210 Pb is present throughout the upper 5 cm of the sediments suggesting relatively rapid particle mixing rates. However, extremely high excess 210 Pb activities (> 100 dpm/g) are observed at the sediment surface with sharp gradients present in the upper 1 cm which would suggest slow rates of mixing. This apparent contradiction along with the major features of the CaCO 3 and particulate organic carbon profiles can be explained by a particle-selective feeding mechanism in which organic carbon, excess 210 Pb-enriched particles are preferentially maintained at the sediment surface via ingestion and defecation by benthic organisms. (orig.)

  8. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical Solutions USA... Solutions USA, Inc. (Siemens), Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (subject firm). The...., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, California (TA-W-73,158) and Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc...

  9. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.L.; Strickland, B.K.; Demarais, S.; Webb, S.L.; Gee, K.L.; DeYoung, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS) technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt) from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363? 364) than postrut (6,156 m±260). Female daily movements were greatest during post parturition (3,357 91), followed by parturition (2,902 m±107), and pre parturition (2,682 m±121). We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  10. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Webb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363m±364 than postrut (6,156m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357m±91, followed by parturition (2,902m±107, and preparturition (2,682m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  11. Genome-Wide Fine-Scale Recombination Rate Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating fine-scale recombination maps of Drosophila from population genomic data is a challenging problem, in particular because of the high background recombination rate. In this paper, a new computational method is developed to address this challenge. Through an extensive simulation study, it is demonstrated that the method allows more accurate inference, and exhibits greater robustness to the effects of natural selection and noise, compared to a well-used previous method developed for studying fine-scale recombination rate variation in the human genome. As an application, a genome-wide analysis of genetic variation data is performed for two Drosophila melanogaster populations, one from North America (Raleigh, USA) and the other from Africa (Gikongoro, Rwanda). It is shown that fine-scale recombination rate variation is widespread throughout the D. melanogaster genome, across all chromosomes and in both populations. At the fine-scale, a conservative, systematic search for evidence of recombination hotspots suggests the existence of a handful of putative hotspots each with at least a tenfold increase in intensity over the background rate. A wavelet analysis is carried out to compare the estimated recombination maps in the two populations and to quantify the extent to which recombination rates are conserved. In general, similarity is observed at very broad scales, but substantial differences are seen at fine scales. The average recombination rate of the X chromosome appears to be higher than that of the autosomes in both populations, and this pattern is much more pronounced in the African population than the North American population. The correlation between various genomic features—including recombination rates, diversity, divergence, GC content, gene content, and sequence quality—is examined using the wavelet analysis, and it is shown that the most notable difference between D. melanogaster and humans is in the correlation between recombination and

  12. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum .... Materials and methods. The DNA ... the order and location of genes (as per the PlasmoDB data resources, available at ... There is currently an. Figure 5.

  13. Regional and interspecific variation in Sr, Ca, and Sr/Ca ratios in avian eggshells from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A; Brattin, Bryan; Baxter, Catherine; Rivers, James W

    2011-08-01

    To examine regional variation in strontium (Sr), which at high concentrations may reduce eggshell quality, increase egg breakage and reproductive failure, we analyzed Sr, and calcium (Ca) concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios in eggshells from 20 avian species from California, Texas, Idaho, Kansas, and Michigan. In addition, we included data previously reported from Arizona to expand the regional comparisons and to better establish patterns of Sr, and Sr/Ca ratios in bird species across the United States. We found Sr concentrations varied significantly among regions, among species, and among foraging guilds; this variability is strongly influenced by the Sr/Ca ratios in surface water from locations close to the region where the eggshells were collected. Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios were significantly higher in bird eggshells from the Volta wildlife region in the San Joaquin Valley, California and in various locales from Arizona. Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios in bird eggshells from other locations in the USA were lower than those detected in these two regions. Among foraging guilds, invertivores had the highest Sr concentrations and Sr/Ca ratios and carnivores had the lowest. In general, the Sr/Ca ratio increased strongly with increasing Sr concentrations (R(2) = 0.99, P eggshells suggesting that these values could be determined from Sr/Ca ratios in water. Eggshell thickness was poorly correlated with Sr (R(2) = 0.03) but had a significant and positive correlation with Ca and was more properly correlated by a quadratic equation (R(2) = 0.50, Thickness = 2.13 - 0.02Ca - 3.07 * 10(-5)Ca(2)). Our study provides further evidence that Sr accumulates significantly in the avian eggshell, in some regions at concentrations which could be of concern for potential negative effects on reproduction. We suggest that when assessing the effects of metals on avian reproduction in regions with high Sr deposits in rock and soil, Sr concentrations in the eggshell also should be

  14. A quantitative analysis of fine scale distribution of intertidal meiofauna in response to food resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Gauns, M.

    Fine scale vertical and spatial distribution of meiofauna in relation to food abundance was studied in the intertidal sediment at Dias Beach. The major abiotic factors showed significant changes and progressive fine scale decrease in vertical...

  15. Parallel integer sorting with medium and fine-scale parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagum, Leonardo

    1993-01-01

    Two new parallel integer sorting algorithms, queue-sort and barrel-sort, are presented and analyzed in detail. These algorithms do not have optimal parallel complexity, yet they show very good performance in practice. Queue-sort designed for fine-scale parallel architectures which allow the queueing of multiple messages to the same destination. Barrel-sort is designed for medium-scale parallel architectures with a high message passing overhead. The performance results from the implementation of queue-sort on a Connection Machine CM-2 and barrel-sort on a 128 processor iPSC/860 are given. The two implementations are found to be comparable in performance but not as good as a fully vectorized bucket sort on the Cray YMP.

  16. Electromagnetic characterization of fine-scale particulate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, P.; Konn, A.M.; Brosseau, C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of the composition and frequency-dependent complex permittivity and permeability of ZnO and γ-Fe 2 O 3 composites prepared by powder pressing. The electromagnetic properties of these materials exhibit a strong dependence on the powder size of the starting materials. In the microwave frequency range, the permittivity and permeability show nonlinear variations with volume fraction of Fe 2 O 3 . As the particle size decreases from a few micrometers to a few tens of nanometers, the data indicate that local mesostructural factors such as shape anisotropy, porosity and possible effect of the binder are likely to be intertwined in the understanding of electromagnetic properties of fine-scale particulate composite materials

  17. Sexual recombination in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Camargo, O A; Pinto, J M A

    2010-09-08

    Glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. This fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. RAPD markers of five populations of G. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two Brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. We identified 128 polymorphic bands, amplified by 28 random primers. The estimates of genetic similarity in this analysis ranged from 0.43 to 1.00, and the dendrogram generated from analysis of all genotypes displayed five principal groups, coinciding with the five populations. Genetic differentiation was observed between the populations (GST=0.6455); 69% of the overall observed genetic variation was between individual populations and 31% of the variance was within the sub-populations. We identified significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. However, the values of the disequilibrium ranged from low to moderate, indicating that this pathogen maintains a genetic structure consistent with sexual reproduction. The mean contribution of sexual reproduction was determined by comparison of the amplitudes of genetic similarity of isolates from sexual and asexual phases. These results support the hypothesis that recombination plays an important role in determining the amplitude of variability in this pathogen population and that this determination occurs on a fine scale.

  18. Determination of the piezoelectric properties of fine scale PZT fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L.J.; Bowen, C.R. [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Applied Science

    2002-07-01

    Finite element (FE) modelling is used to determine the effect of fibre volume fraction, aspect ratio and polymer matrix stiffness on the d{sub 33} coefficients of 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric fibre composites. The aim is to use these observations as a means of determining the d{sub 33} of fine scale lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibres. Results from a 1-D analytical model fit well with FE predictions for low aspect ratios. Two commercially available PZT-5A fibres, produced via the viscous suspension spinning process (VSSP) and an extrusion process, were fabricated into 1-3 composites with varying fibre volume fractions. The composite d{sub 33} measurements are compared to the model predictions and used to determine the d{sub 33} coefficients of the fibers. The d{sub 33} of the VSSP fibres and extruded fibres is measured as 365 pCN{sup -1} and 235 pCN{sup -1} respectively using this method. The large difference in the piezoelectric coefficients is possibly linked to the grain size and porosity, which is examined using scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  19. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  20. Image-Based Fine-Scale Infrastructure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, Ivan Denislavov

    Monitoring the physical health of civil infrastructure systems is an important task that must be performed frequently in order to ensure their serviceability and sustainability. Additionally, laboratory experiments where individual system components are tested on the fine-scale level provide essential information during the structural design process. This type of inspection, i.e., measurements of deflections and/or cracks, has traditionally been performed with instrumentation that requires access to, or contact with, the structural element being tested; performs deformation measurements in only one dimension or direction; and/or provides no permanent visual record. To avoid the downsides of such instrumentation, this dissertation proposes a remote sensing approach based on a photogrammetric system capable of three-dimensional reconstruction. The proposed system is low-cost, consists of off-the-shelf components, and is capable of reconstructing objects or surfaces with homogeneous texture. The scientific contributions of this research work address the drawbacks in currently existing literature. Methods for in-situ multi-camera system calibration and system stability analysis are proposed in addition to methods for deflection/displacement monitoring, and crack detection and characterization in three dimensions. The mathematical model for the system calibration is based on a single or multiple reference camera(s) and built-in relative orientation constraints where the interior orientation and the mounting parameters for all cameras are explicitly estimated. The methods for system stability analysis can be used to comprehensively check for the cumulative impact of any changes in the system parameters. They also provide a quantitative measure of this impact on the reconstruction process in terms of image space units. Deflection/displacement monitoring of dynamic surfaces in three dimensions is achieved with the system by performing an innovative sinusoidal fitting

  1. Virulence Strategies of the Dominant USA300 Lineage of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Lance R.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to worldwide health. Historically, MRSA clones have strictly been associated with hospital settings and most hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) disease resulted from a limited number of virulent clones. Recently, MRSA has spread into the community causing disease in otherwise healthy people with no discernible contact with healthcare environments. These community-associated (CA-MRSA) are phylogenetically distinct from traditional HA-MRSA clones and CA-MRSA strains seem to exhibit hyper virulence and more efficient host:host transmission. Consequently, CA-MRSA clones belonging to the USA300 lineage have become dominant sources of MRSA infections in North America. The rise of this successful USA300 lineage represents an important step in the evolution of emerging pathogens and a great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how these clones evolved. Here we review much of the recent literature aimed at illuminating the source of USA300 success and broadly categorize these findings into three main categories: newly acquired virulence genes, altered expression of common virulence determinants and alterations in protein sequence that increase fitness. We argue that none of these evolutionary events alone account for the success of USA300, but rather their combination may be responsible for the rise and spread of CA-MRSA. PMID:22309135

  2. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  3. Hourly mass and snow energy balance measurements from Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, 2011-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Edward H.; Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    The mass and energy balance of the snowpack govern its evolution. Direct measurement of these fluxes is essential for modeling the snowpack, yet there are few sites where all the relevant measurements are taken. Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, is home to the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory and University of California - Santa Barbara Energy Site (CUES), one of five energy balance monitoring sites in the western US. There is a ski patrol study site on Mammoth Mountain, called the Sesame Street Snow Study Plot, with automated snow and meteorological instruments where new snow is hand-weighed to measure its water content. There is also a site at Mammoth Pass with automated precipitation instruments. For this dataset, we present a clean and continuous hourly record of selected measurements from the three sites covering the 2011-2017 water years. Then, we model the snow mass balance at CUES and compare model runs to snow pillow measurements. The 2011-2017 period was marked by exceptional variability in precipitation, even for an area that has high year-to-year variability. The driest year on record, and one of the wettest years, occurred during this time period, making it ideal for studying climatic extremes. This dataset complements a previously published dataset from CUES containing a smaller subset of daily measurements. In addition to the hand-weighed SWE, novel measurements include hourly broadband snow albedo corrected for terrain and other measurement biases. This dataset is available with a digital object identifier: https://doi.org/10.21424/R4159Q.

  4. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll

    2010-01-01

    Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...

  5. Fine-scale topography in sensory systems: insights from Drosophila and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takuya; Ye, Bing

    2015-09-01

    To encode the positions of sensory stimuli, sensory circuits form topographic maps in the central nervous system through specific point-to-point connections between pre- and postsynaptic neurons. In vertebrate visual systems, the establishment of topographic maps involves the formation of a coarse topography followed by that of fine-scale topography that distinguishes the axon terminals of neighboring neurons. It is known that intrinsic differences in the form of broad gradients of guidance molecules instruct coarse topography while neuronal activity is required for fine-scale topography. On the other hand, studies in the Drosophila visual system have shown that intrinsic differences in cell adhesion among the axon terminals of neighboring neurons instruct the fine-scale topography. Recent studies on activity-dependent topography in the Drosophila somatosensory system have revealed a role of neuronal activity in creating molecular differences among sensory neurons for establishing fine-scale topography, implicating a conserved principle. Here we review the findings in both Drosophila and vertebrates and propose an integrated model for fine-scale topography.

  6. The utility of satellite observations for constraining fine-scale and transient methane sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D.; Benmergui, J. S.; Brandman, J.; White, L.; Randles, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Resolving differences between top-down and bottom-up emissions of methane from the oil and gas industry is difficult due, in part, to their fine-scale and often transient nature. There is considerable interest in using atmospheric observations to detect these sources. Satellite-based instruments are an attractive tool for this purpose and, more generally, for quantifying methane emissions on fine scales. A number of instruments are planned for launch in the coming years from both low earth and geostationary orbit, but the extent to which they can provide fine-scale information on sources has yet to be explored. Here we present an observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) exploring the tradeoffs between pixel resolution, measurement frequency, and instrument precision on the fine-scale information content of a space-borne instrument measuring methane. We use the WRF-STILT Lagrangian transport model to generate more than 200,000 column footprints at 1.3×1.3 km2 spatial resolution and hourly temporal resolution over the Barnett Shale in Texas. We sub-sample these footprints to match the observing characteristics of the planned TROPOMI and GeoCARB instruments as well as different hypothetical observing configurations. The information content of the various observing systems is evaluated using the Fisher information matrix and its singular values. We draw conclusions on the capabilities of the planned satellite instruments and how these capabilities could be improved for fine-scale source detection.

  7. Spatial Downscaling of TRMM Precipitation Using Geostatistics and Fine Scale Environmental Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No-Wook Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A geostatistical downscaling scheme is presented and can generate fine scale precipitation information from coarse scale Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. Within the geostatistical framework, the TRMM precipitation data are first decomposed into trend and residual components. Quantitative relationships between coarse scale TRMM data and environmental variables are then estimated via regression analysis and used to derive trend components at a fine scale. Next, the residual components, which are the differences between the trend components and the original TRMM data, are then downscaled at a target fine scale via area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components are finally added to generate fine scale precipitation estimates. Stochastic simulation is also applied to the residual components in order to generate multiple alternative realizations and to compute uncertainty measures. From an experiment using a digital elevation model (DEM and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, the geostatistical downscaling scheme generated the downscaling results that reflected detailed characteristics with better predictive performance, when compared with downscaling without the environmental variables. Multiple realizations and uncertainty measures from simulation also provided useful information for interpretations and further environmental modeling.

  8. Reservoir Changes Derived from Seismic Observations at The Geysers Geothermal Field, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, R.; Jarpre, S.

    2012-04-01

    Induced seismicity associated with the exploitation of geothermal fields is used as a tool to characterize and delineate changes associated with injection and production of fluids from the reservoir. At the same time public concern of felt seismicity has led to objections against the operation of geothermal reservoirs in close proximity to population centers. Production at the EGS sites in Basel (Switzerland) was stopped after renewed seismicity caused concern and objection from the public in the city. Operations in other geothermal reservoirs had to be scaled back or interrupted due to an unexpected increase in seismicity (Soultz-sous-forêt, France, Berlín, El Salvador). As a consequence of these concerns and in order to optimize the use of induced seismicity for reservoir engineering purposes, it becomes imperative to understand the relationship between seismic events and stress changes in the reservoir. We will address seismicity trends at The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir, CA USA, to understand the role of historical seismicity associated with past injection of water and/or production of steam. Our analysis makes use of a comprehensive database of earthquakes and associated phase arrivals from 2004 to 2011. A high-precision sub-set of the earthquake data was selected to analyze temporal changes in seismic velocities and Vp/Vs-ratio throughout the whole reservoir. We find relatively low Vp/Vs values in 2004 suggestive of a vapor dominated reservoir. With passing time, however, the observed temporal increase in Vp/Vs, coupled with a decrease in P- and S-wave velocities suggests the presence of fluid-filled fractured rock. Considering the start of a continuous water injection project in 2004, it can be concluded that the fluid saturation of the reservoir has successfully recovered. Preliminary results of 3-D velocity inversions of seismic data appear to corroborate earlier findings that the lowest Vp/Vs estimates are observed in the center of the reservoir

  9. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  10. Genetic and evolutionary correlates of fine-scale recombination rate variation in Drosophila persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2010-12-01

    Recombination is fundamental to meiosis in many species and generates variation on which natural selection can act, yet fine-scale linkage maps are cumbersome to construct. We generated a fine-scale map of recombination rates across two major chromosomes in Drosophila persimilis using 181 SNP markers spanning two of five major chromosome arms. Using this map, we report significant fine-scale heterogeneity of local recombination rates. However, we also observed "recombinational neighborhoods," where adjacent intervals had similar recombination rates after excluding regions near the centromere and telomere. We further found significant positive associations of fine-scale recombination rate with repetitive element abundance and a 13-bp sequence motif known to associate with human recombination rates. We noted strong crossover interference extending 5-7 Mb from the initial crossover event. Further, we observed that fine-scale recombination rates in D. persimilis are strongly correlated with those obtained from a comparable study of its sister species, D. pseudoobscura. We documented a significant relationship between recombination rates and intron nucleotide sequence diversity within species, but no relationship between recombination rate and intron divergence between species. These results are consistent with selection models (hitchhiking and background selection) rather than mutagenic recombination models for explaining the relationship of recombination with nucleotide diversity within species. Finally, we found significant correlations between recombination rate and GC content, supporting both GC-biased gene conversion (BGC) models and selection-driven codon bias models. Overall, this genome-enabled map of fine-scale recombination rates allowed us to confirm findings of broader-scale studies and identify multiple novel features that merit further investigation.

  11. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  12. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  13. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3. Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable.

  14. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen H. Roffler; Sandra L. Talbot; Gordon Luikart; George K. Sage; Kristy L. Pilgrim; Layne G. Adams; Michael K. Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale...

  15. GeneRecon—A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a tool for fine-scale association mapping using a coalescence model. GeneRecon takes as input case-control data from phased or unphased SNP and micro-satellite genotypes. The posterior distribution of disease locus position is obtained by Metropolis Hastings sampling in the state space...

  16. 75 FR 60407 - Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Permit Application Project Titled: Fine Scale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Permit Application Project Titled: Fine Scale, Long-Term Tracking of Adult White Sharks AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National...

  17. Coherent fine scale eddies in turbulence transition of spatially-developing mixing layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Tanahashi, M.; Miyauchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between characteristics of the coherent fine scale eddy and a laminar-turbulent transition, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially-developing turbulent mixing layer with Re ω,0 = 700 was conducted. On the onset of the transition, strong coherent fine scale eddies appears in the mixing layer. The most expected value of maximum azimuthal velocity of the eddy is 2.0 times Kolmogorov velocity (u k ), and decreases to 1.2u k , which is an asymptotic value in the fully-developed state, through the transition. The energy dissipation rate around the eddy is twice as high compared with that in the fully-developed state. However, the most expected diameter and eigenvalues ratio of strain rate acting on the coherent fine scale eddy are maintained to be 8 times Kolmogorov length (η) and α:β:γ = -5:1:4 in the transition process. In addition to Kelvin-Helmholtz rollers, rib structures do not disappear in the transition process and are composed of lots of coherent fine scale eddies in the fully-developed state instead of a single eddy observed in early stage of the transition or in laminar flow

  18. Fine scale heterogeneity in the Earth's upper mantle - observation and interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans

    2014-01-01

    can be correlated to main plate tectonic features, such as oceanic spreading centres, continental rift zones and subducting slabs. Much seismological mantle research is now concentrated on imaging fine scale heterogeneity, which may be detected and imaged with high-resolution seismic data with dense...

  19. Spatial variability of night temperatures at a fine scale over the Stellenbosch wine district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bonnardot

    2012-03-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In the context of climate change, it is crucial to improve knowledge of current climatic conditions at fine scale during periods of grapevine growth and berry ripening in order to have a baseline from which to work when discussing and considering future local adaptations to accommodate to a warmer environnement.

  20. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  1. GeneRecon Users' Manual — A coalescent based tool for fine-scale association mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    GeneRecon is a software package for linkage disequilibrium mapping using coalescent theory. It is based on Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. GeneRecon explicitly models the genealogy of a sample of th...

  2. Comparing three spaceborne optical sensors via fine scale pixel-based urban land cover classification products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breytenbach, Andre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility to higher resolution earth observation satellites suggests an improvement in the potential for fine scale image classification. In this comparative study, imagery from three optical satellites (WorldView-2, Pléiades and RapidEye) were...

  3. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kerstin B; O'Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of...

  4. Clonal growth and fine-scale genetic structure in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus: Fagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Wasima Mayer; Alejandro Nettel; Zara Afzal-Rafii

    2013-01-01

    The combination of sprouting and reproduction by seed can have important consequences on fine-scale spatial distribution of genetic structure (SGS). SGS is an important consideration for species’ restoration because it determines the minimum distance among seed trees to maximize genetic diversity while not prejudicing locally adapted genotypes. Local environmental...

  5. Data, data everywhere: detecting spatial patterns in fine-scale ecological information collected across a continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. Iannone

    2016-01-01

    Context Fine-scale ecological data collected across broad regions are becoming increasingly available. Appropriate geographic analyses of these data can help identify locations of ecological concern. Objectives We present one such approach, spatial association of scalable hexagons (SASH), whichidentifies locations where ecological phenomena occur at greater...

  6. Clonal diversity and fine-scale genetic structure in a high andean treeline population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peng, Y.; Macek, P.; Macková, Jana; Romoleroux, K.; Hensen, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-65 ISSN 0006-3606 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA601110702; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010009 Program:IA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AFLP * clonal diversity * clonal propagation * fine-scale genetic structure * Polylepis reticulata * treeline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.944, year: 2015

  7. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  8. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  9. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURES OF FLUX ROPES TRACKED BY ERUPTING MATERIAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ting; Zhang Jun, E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-20

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of two flux ropes tracked out by material from a surge and a failed filament eruption on 2012 July 29 and August 4, respectively. For the first event, the interaction between the erupting surge and a loop-shaped filament in the east seems to 'peel off' the filament and add bright mass into the flux rope body. The second event is associated with a C-class flare that occurs several minutes before the filament activation. The two flux ropes are, respectively, composed of 85 {+-} 12 and 102 {+-} 15 fine-scale structures, with an average width of about 1.''6. Our observations show that two extreme ends of the flux rope are rooted in opposite polarity fields and each end is composed of multiple footpoints (FPs) of fine-scale structures. The FPs of the fine-scale structures are located at network magnetic fields, with magnetic fluxes from 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} Mx to 8.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx. Moreover, almost half of the FPs show converging motion of smaller magnetic structures over 10 hr before the appearance of the flux rope. By calculating the magnetic fields of the FPs, we deduce that the two flux ropes occupy at least 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx and 7.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx magnetic fluxes, respectively.

  10. Radiocarbon constraints on fossil thinolite tufa formation in the Mono Basin, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, S. L.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hemming, S. R.; Stine, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    Mono Lake is a terminal lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin, and is famous for its tufa towers. Thinolite, which is thought to be a CaCO3 pseudomorph of ikaite, is found around the Mono Basin in many fossil tufa towers, particularly at elevations above 2000 meters. The subaqueous parent mineral ikaite forms at low temperatures (34 kyr) to as young as 15.5 14C kyr BP. In general there is a consistent stratigraphic trend of ages within the mound, but the thinolite ages are anomalously young and one thinolite sample shows a large age reversal. The best estimate of the age of the precipitation of this tufa mound is given by the non-thinolite textures. More work is needed to determine the best sampling and sample preparation strategies in order to get a reliable age model for this mound.

  11. Dispersal, mating events and fine-scale genetic structure in the lesser flat-headed bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panyu Hua

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure has important consequences in evolutionary processes and conservation genetics in animals. Fine-scale population genetic structure depends on the pattern of landscape, the permanent movement of individuals, and the dispersal of their genes during temporary mating events. The lesser flat-headed bat (Tylonycteris pachypus is a nonmigratory Asian bat species that roosts in small groups within the internodes of bamboo stems and the habitats are fragmented. Our previous parentage analyses revealed considerable extra-group mating in this species. To assess the spatial limits and sex-biased nature of gene flow in the same population, we used 20 microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequencing of the ND2 gene to quantify genetic structure among 54 groups of adult flat-headed bats, at nine localities in South China. AMOVA and F(ST estimates revealed significant genetic differentiation among localities. Alternatively, the pairwise F(ST values among roosting groups appeared to be related to the incidence of associated extra-group breeding, suggesting the impact of mating events on fine-scale genetic structure. Global spatial autocorrelation analyses showed positive genetic correlation for up to 3 km, indicating the role of fragmented habitat and the specialized social organization as a barrier in the movement of individuals among bamboo forests. The male-biased dispersal pattern resulted in weaker spatial genetic structure between localities among males than among females, and fine-scale analyses supported that relatedness levels within internodes were higher among females than among males. Finally, only females were more related to their same sex roost mates than to individuals from neighbouring roosts, suggestive of natal philopatry in females.

  12. Dispersal, mating events and fine-scale genetic structure in the lesser flat-headed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Panyu; Zhang, Libiao; Guo, Tingting; Flanders, Jon; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Population genetic structure has important consequences in evolutionary processes and conservation genetics in animals. Fine-scale population genetic structure depends on the pattern of landscape, the permanent movement of individuals, and the dispersal of their genes during temporary mating events. The lesser flat-headed bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) is a nonmigratory Asian bat species that roosts in small groups within the internodes of bamboo stems and the habitats are fragmented. Our previous parentage analyses revealed considerable extra-group mating in this species. To assess the spatial limits and sex-biased nature of gene flow in the same population, we used 20 microsatellite loci and mtDNA sequencing of the ND2 gene to quantify genetic structure among 54 groups of adult flat-headed bats, at nine localities in South China. AMOVA and F(ST) estimates revealed significant genetic differentiation among localities. Alternatively, the pairwise F(ST) values among roosting groups appeared to be related to the incidence of associated extra-group breeding, suggesting the impact of mating events on fine-scale genetic structure. Global spatial autocorrelation analyses showed positive genetic correlation for up to 3 km, indicating the role of fragmented habitat and the specialized social organization as a barrier in the movement of individuals among bamboo forests. The male-biased dispersal pattern resulted in weaker spatial genetic structure between localities among males than among females, and fine-scale analyses supported that relatedness levels within internodes were higher among females than among males. Finally, only females were more related to their same sex roost mates than to individuals from neighbouring roosts, suggestive of natal philopatry in females.

  13. Modelling Soil-Landscapes in Coastal California Hills Using Fine Scale Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, S.; Bookhagen, B.; Kyriakidis, P. C.; Chadwick, O.

    2013-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) are the dominant input to spatially explicit digital soil mapping (DSM) efforts due to their increasing availability and the tight coupling between topography and soil variability. Accurate characterization of this coupling is dependent on DEM spatial resolution and soil sampling density, both of which may limit analyses. For example, DEM resolution may be too coarse to accurately reflect scale-dependent soil properties yet downscaling introduces artifactual uncertainty unrelated to deterministic or stochastic soil processes. We tackle these limitations through a DSM effort that couples moderately high density soil sampling with a very fine scale terrestrial lidar dataset (20 cm) implemented in a semiarid rolling hillslope domain where terrain variables change rapidly but smoothly over short distances. Our guiding hypothesis is that in this diffusion-dominated landscape, soil thickness is readily predicted by continuous terrain attributes coupled with catenary hillslope segmentation. We choose soil thickness as our keystone dependent variable for its geomorphic and hydrologic significance, and its tendency to be a primary input to synthetic ecosystem models. In defining catenary hillslope position we adapt a logical rule-set approach that parses common terrain derivatives of curvature and specific catchment area into discrete landform elements (LE). Variograms and curvature-area plots are used to distill domain-scale terrain thresholds from short range order noise characteristic of very fine-scale spatial data. The revealed spatial thresholds are used to condition LE rule-set inputs, rendering a catenary LE map that leverages the robustness of fine-scale terrain data to create a generalized interpretation of soil geomorphic domains. Preliminary regressions show that continuous terrain variables alone (curvature, specific catchment area) only partially explain soil thickness, and only in a subset of soils. For example, at spatial

  14. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milano, I.; Babbucci, M.; Cariani, A.

    2014-01-01

    fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (FCT = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins...... even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess largeand fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European...

  15. Development of a remote sensing network for time-sensitive detection of fine scale damage to transportation infrastructure : [final report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-23

    This research project aimed to develop a remote sensing system capable of rapidly identifying fine-scale damage to critical transportation infrastructure following hazard events. Such a system must be pre-planned for rapid deployment, automate proces...

  16. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  17. Assessment of plant species diversity based on hyperspectral indices at a fine scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Fan, Min; Song, Jingyi; Cui, Tiantian; Li, Rui

    2018-03-19

    Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R 2  = 0.83), Pielou (R 2  = 0.87) and Shannon-Wiener index (R 2  = 0.88). Stepwise linear regression of FD (R 2  = 0.81, R 2  = 0.82) and spectral vegetation indices (R 2  = 0.51, R 2  = 0.58) significantly predicted the Margalef and Gleason index. It was proposed that the Simpson, Pielou and Shannon-Wiener indices, which are widely used as plant species diversity indicators, can be precisely estimated through hyperspectral indices at a fine scale. This research promotes the development of methods for assessment of plant diversity using hyperspectral data.

  18. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  19. Networks Depicting the Fine-Scale Co-Occurrences of Fungi in Soil Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Kishida, Osamu; Katayama, Noboru; Takagi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Fungi in soil play pivotal roles in nutrient cycling, pest controls, and plant community succession in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the ecosystem functions provided by soil fungi, our knowledge of the assembly processes of belowground fungi has been limited. In particular, we still have limited knowledge of how diverse functional groups of fungi interact with each other in facilitative and competitive ways in soil. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data of fungi in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan, we analyzed how taxonomically and functionally diverse fungi showed correlated fine-scale distributions in soil. By uncovering pairs of fungi that frequently co-occurred in the same soil samples, networks depicting fine-scale co-occurrences of fungi were inferred at the O (organic matter) and A (surface soil) horizons. The results then led to the working hypothesis that mycorrhizal, endophytic, saprotrophic, and pathogenic fungi could form compartmentalized (modular) networks of facilitative, antagonistic, and/or competitive interactions in belowground ecosystems. Overall, this study provides a research basis for further understanding how interspecific interactions, along with sharing of niches among fungi, drive the dynamics of poorly explored biospheres in soil.

  20. Fine-Scale Spatial Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Waterborne Protozoa in a Drinking Water Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Jean-Baptiste; Ogorzaly, Leslie; Penny, Christian; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2015-09-23

    The occurrence of faecal pathogens in drinking water resources constitutes a threat to the supply of safe drinking water, even in industrialized nations. To efficiently assess and monitor the risk posed by these pathogens, sampling deserves careful design, based on preliminary knowledge on their distribution dynamics in water. For the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia, only little is known about their spatial distribution within drinking water supplies, especially at fine scale. Two-dimensional distribution maps were generated by sampling cross-sections at meter resolution in two different zones of a drinking water reservoir. Samples were analysed for protozoan pathogens as well as for E. coli, turbidity and physico-chemical parameters. Parasites displayed heterogeneous distribution patterns, as reflected by significant (oo)cyst density gradients along reservoir depth. Spatial correlations between parasites and E. coli were observed near the reservoir inlet but were absent in the downstream lacustrine zone. Measurements of surface and subsurface flow velocities suggest a role of local hydrodynamics on these spatial patterns. This fine-scale spatial study emphasizes the importance of sampling design (site, depth and position on the reservoir) for the acquisition of representative parasite data and for optimization of microbial risk assessment and monitoring. Such spatial information should prove useful to the modelling of pathogen transport dynamics in drinking water supplies.

  1. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a demonstrator for technologies for the next generation of ocean color sensors, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO provides enhanced spatial and spectral resolution that is required to understand optically complex aquatic environments. In this study we apply HICO, along with satellite remote sensing and in situ observations, to studies of phytoplankton ecology in a dynamic coastal upwelling environment—Monterey Bay, CA, USA. From a spring 2011 study, we examine HICO-detected spatial patterns in phytoplankton optical properties along an environmental gradient defined by upwelling flow patterns and along a temporal gradient of upwelling intensification. From a fall 2011 study, we use HICO’s enhanced spatial and spectral resolution to distinguish a small-scale “red tide” bloom, and we examine bloom expansion and its supporting processes using other remote sensing and in situ data. From a spectacular HICO image of the Monterey Bay region acquired during fall of 2012, we present a suite of algorithm results for characterization of phytoplankton, and we examine the strengths, limitations, and distinctions of each algorithm in the context of the enhanced spatial and spectral resolution.

  2. Local topography shapes fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the Arkansas Valley evening primrose, Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew K; Fant, Jeremie B; Skogen, Krissa A

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors that shape the spatial distribution of genetic variation is crucial to understanding many population- and landscape-level processes. In this study, we explore fine-scale spatial genetic structure in Oenothera harringtonii (Onagraceae), an insect-pollinated, gravity-dispersed herb endemic to the grasslands of south-central and southeastern Colorado, USA. We genotyped 315 individuals with 11 microsatellite markers and utilized a combination of spatial autocorrelation analyses and landscape genetic models to relate life history traits and landscape features to dispersal processes. Spatial genetic structure was consistent with theoretical expectations of isolation by distance, but this pattern was weak (Sp = 0.00374). Anisotropic analyses indicated that spatial genetic structure was markedly directional, in this case consistent with increased dispersal along prominent slopes. Landscape genetic models subsequently confirmed that spatial genetic variation was significantly influenced by local topographic heterogeneity, specifically that geographic distance, elevation and aspect were important predictors of spatial genetic structure. Among these variables, geographic distance was ~68% more important than elevation in describing spatial genetic variation, and elevation was ~42% more important than aspect after removing the effect of geographic distance. From these results, we infer a mechanism of hydrochorous seed dispersal along major drainages aided by seasonal monsoon rains. Our findings suggest that landscape features may shape microevolutionary processes at much finer spatial scales than typically considered, and stress the importance of considering how particular dispersal vectors are influenced by their environmental context. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fine-scale features on bioreplicated decoys of the emerald ash borer provide necessary visual verisimilitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Michael J.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Narkhede, Mahesh S.; Engel, Leland G.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Kumar, Jayant; Baker, Thomas C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2014-03-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive tree-killing pest in North America. Like other buprestid beetles, it has an iridescent coloring, produced by a periodically layered cuticle whose reflectance peaks at 540 nm wavelength. The males perform a visually mediated ritualistic mating flight directly onto females poised on sunlit leaves. We attempted to evoke this behavior using artificial visual decoys of three types. To fabricate decoys of the first type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was loosely stamped by a bioreplicating die. For decoys of the second type, a polymer sheet coated with a Bragg-stack reflector was heavily stamped by the same die and then painted green. Every decoy of these two types had an underlying black absorber layer. Decoys of the third type were produced by a rapid prototyping machine and painted green. Fine-scale features were absent on the third type. Experiments were performed in an American ash forest infested with EAB, and a European oak forest home to a similar pest, the two-spotted oak borer (TSOB), Agrilus biguttatus. When pinned to leaves, dead EAB females, dead TSOB females, and bioreplicated decoys of both types often evoked the complete ritualized flight behavior. Males also initiated approaches to the rapidly prototyped decoy, but would divert elsewhere without making contact. The attraction of the bioreplicated decoys was also demonstrated by providing a high dc voltage across the decoys that stunned and killed approaching beetles. Thus, true bioreplication with fine-scale features is necessary to fully evoke ritualized visual responses in insects, and provides an opportunity for developing insecttrapping technologies.

  4. Lack of sex-biased dispersal promotes fine-scale genetic structure in alpine ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Luikart, Gordon; Sage, George K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Adams, Layne G.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying patterns of fine-scale genetic structure in natural populations can advance understanding of critical ecological processes such as dispersal and gene flow across heterogeneous landscapes. Alpine ungulates generally exhibit high levels of genetic structure due to female philopatry and patchy configuration of mountain habitats. We assessed the spatial scale of genetic structure and the amount of gene flow in 301 Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) at the landscape level using 15 nuclear microsatellites and 473 base pairs of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region. Dall’s sheep exhibited significant genetic structure within contiguous mountain ranges, but mtDNA structure occurred at a broader geographic scale than nuclear DNA within the study area, and mtDNA structure for other North American mountain sheep populations. No evidence of male-mediated gene flow or greater philopatry of females was observed; there was little difference between markers with different modes of inheritance (pairwise nuclear DNA F ST = 0.004–0.325; mtDNA F ST = 0.009–0.544), and males were no more likely than females to be recent immigrants. Historical patterns based on mtDNA indicate separate northern and southern lineages and a pattern of expansion following regional glacial retreat. Boundaries of genetic clusters aligned geographically with prominent mountain ranges, icefields, and major river valleys based on Bayesian and hierarchical modeling of microsatellite and mtDNA data. Our results suggest that fine-scale genetic structure in Dall’s sheep is influenced by limited dispersal, and structure may be weaker in populations occurring near ancestral levels of density and distribution in continuous habitats compared to other alpine ungulates that have experienced declines and marked habitat fragmentation.

  5. Fine-scale variability of isopycnal salinity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Sachihiko; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the fine-scale structure and seasonal fluctuations of the isopycnal salinity of the California Current System from 2007 to 2013 using temperature and salinity profiles obtained from a series of underwater glider surveys. The seasonal mean distributions of the spectral power of the isopycnal salinity gradient averaged over submesoscale (12-30 km) and mesoscale (30-60 km) ranges along three survey lines off Monterey Bay, Point Conception, and Dana Point were obtained from 298 transects. The mesoscale and submesoscale variance increased as coastal upwelling caused the isopycnal salinity gradient to steepen. Areas of elevated variance were clearly observed around the salinity front during the summer then spread offshore through the fall and winter. The high fine-scale variances were observed typically above 25.8 kg m-3 and decreased with depth to a minimum at around 26.3 kg m-3. The mean spectral slope of the isopycnal salinity gradient with respect to wavenumber was 0.19 ± 0.27 over the horizontal scale of 12-60 km, and 31%-35% of the spectra had significantly positive slopes. In contrast, the spectral slope over 12-30 km was mostly flat, with mean values of -0.025 ± 0.32. An increase in submesoscale variability accompanying the steepening of the spectral slope was often observed in inshore areas; e.g., off Monterey Bay in winter, where a sharp front developed between the California Current and the California Under Current, and the lower layers of the Southern California Bight, where vigorous interaction between a synoptic current and bottom topography is to be expected.

  6. Sacramento County, CA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. Correction: Ryan, J., et al. Application of the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean to Phytoplankton Ecology Studies in Monterey Bay, CA, USA. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 1007–1025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of phytoplankton ecology in Monterey Bay, CA, USA, using the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO and other satellite remote sensing and in-situ observations, were presented in [1]. [...

  8. Restricted gene flow and fine-scale population structuring in tool using New Caledonian crows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, C.; Ryder, T. B.; Fleischer, R. C.

    2012-04-01

    New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. It has been suggested that some aspects of their complex tool use behaviour are under the influence of cultural processes, involving the social transmission—and perhaps even progressive refinement—of tool designs. Using microsatellite and mt-haplotype profiling of crows from three distinct habitats (dry forest, farmland and beachside habitat), we show that New Caledonian crow populations can exhibit significant fine-scale genetic structuring. Our finding that some sites of cultural isolation of crow groups. Restricted movement of birds between local populations at such small spatial scales, especially across habitat boundaries, illustrates how specific tool designs could be preserved over time, and how tool technologies of different crow groups could diverge due to drift and local selection pressures. Young New Caledonian crows have an unusually long juvenile dependency period, during which they acquire complex tool-related foraging skills. We suggest that the resulting delayed natal dispersal drives population-divergence patterns in this species. Our work provides essential context for future studies that examine the genetic makeup of crow populations across larger geographic areas, including localities with suspected cultural differences in crow tool technologies.

  9. Fine-Scale Human Population Structure in Southern Africa Reflects Ecogeographic Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Caitlin; Kim, Minju; Martin, Alicia R; Bobo, Dean; Gignoux, Christopher R; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G; Henn, Brenna M

    2016-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have established that the KhoeSan populations of southern Africa are distinct from all other African populations and have remained largely isolated during human prehistory until ∼2000 years ago. Dozens of different KhoeSan groups exist, belonging to three different language families, but very little is known about their population history. We examine new genome-wide polymorphism data and whole mitochondrial genomes for >100 South Africans from the ≠Khomani San and Nama populations of the Northern Cape, analyzed in conjunction with 19 additional southern African populations. Our analyses reveal fine-scale population structure in and around the Kalahari Desert. Surprisingly, this structure does not always correspond to linguistic or subsistence categories as previously suggested, but rather reflects the role of geographic barriers and the ecology of the greater Kalahari Basin. Regardless of subsistence strategy, the indigenous Khoe-speaking Nama pastoralists and the N|u-speaking ≠Khomani (formerly hunter-gatherers) share ancestry with other Khoe-speaking forager populations that form a rim around the Kalahari Desert. We reconstruct earlier migration patterns and estimate that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago. We conclude that local adoption of pastoralism, at least by the Nama, appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Fine-scale population structure and the era of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Brenna M; Gravel, Simon; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2010-10-15

    Fine-scale population structure characterizes most continents and is especially pronounced in non-cosmopolitan populations. Roughly half of the world's population remains non-cosmopolitan and even populations within cities often assort along ethnic and linguistic categories. Barriers to random mating can be ecologically extreme, such as the Sahara Desert, or cultural, such as the Indian caste system. In either case, subpopulations accumulate genetic differences if the barrier is maintained over multiple generations. Genome-wide polymorphism data, initially with only a few hundred autosomal microsatellites, have clearly established differences in allele frequency not only among continental regions, but also within continents and within countries. We review recent evidence from the analysis of genome-wide polymorphism data for genetic boundaries delineating human population structure and the main demographic and genomic processes shaping variation, and discuss the implications of population structure for the distribution and discovery of disease-causing genetic variants, in the light of the imminent availability of sequencing data for a multitude of diverse human genomes.

  11. Reduced fine-scale spatial genetic structure in grazed populations of Dianthus carthusianorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Y; Wagner, H H

    2016-11-01

    Strong spatial genetic structure in plant populations can increase homozygosity, reducing genetic diversity and adaptive potential. The strength of spatial genetic structure largely depends on rates of seed dispersal and pollen flow. Seeds without dispersal adaptations are likely to be dispersed over short distances within the vicinity of the mother plant, resulting in spatial clustering of related genotypes (fine-scale spatial genetic structure, hereafter spatial genetic structure (SGS)). However, primary seed dispersal by zoochory can promote effective dispersal, increasing the mixing of seeds and influencing SGS within plant populations. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed dispersal by rotational sheep grazing on the strength of SGS and genetic diversity using 11 nuclear microsatellites for 49 populations of the calcareous grassland forb Dianthus carthusianorum. Populations connected by rotational sheep grazing showed significantly weaker SGS and higher genetic diversity than populations in ungrazed grasslands. Independent of grazing treatment, small populations showed significantly stronger SGS and lower genetic diversity than larger populations, likely due to genetic drift. A lack of significant differences in the strength of SGS and genetic diversity between populations that were recently colonized and pre-existing populations suggested that populations colonized after the reintroduction of rotational sheep grazing were likely founded by colonists from diverse source populations. We conclude that dispersal by rotational sheep grazing has the potential to considerably reduce SGS within D. carthusianorum populations. Our study highlights the effectiveness of landscape management by rotational sheep grazing to importantly reduce genetic structure at local scales within restored plant populations.

  12. Fine-scale patterns of population stratification confound rare variant association tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D O'Connor

    Full Text Available Advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled systematic exploration of the contribution of rare variation to Mendelian and complex diseases. Although it is well known that population stratification can generate spurious associations with common alleles, its impact on rare variant association methods remains poorly understood. Here, we performed exhaustive coalescent simulations with demographic parameters calibrated from exome sequence data to evaluate the performance of nine rare variant association methods in the presence of fine-scale population structure. We find that all methods have an inflated spurious association rate for parameter values that are consistent with levels of differentiation typical of European populations. For example, at a nominal significance level of 5%, some test statistics have a spurious association rate as high as 40%. Finally, we empirically assess the impact of population stratification in a large data set of 4,298 European American exomes. Our results have important implications for the design, analysis, and interpretation of rare variant genome-wide association studies.

  13. Simulating Fine-Scale Marine Pollution Plumes for Autonomous Robotic Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine plumes exhibit characteristics such as intermittency, sinuous structure, shape and flow field coherency, and a time varying concentration profile. Due to the lack of experimental quantification of these characteristics for marine plumes, existing work often assumes marine plumes exhibit behavior similar to aerial plumes and are commonly modeled by filament based Lagrangian models. Our previous field experiments with Rhodamine dye plumes at Makai Research Pier at Oahu, Hawaii revealed that marine plumes show similar characteristics to aerial plumes qualitatively, but quantitatively they are disparate. Based on the field data collected, this paper presents a calibrated Eulerian plume model that exhibits the qualitative and quantitative characteristics exhibited by experimentally generated marine plumes. We propose a modified model with an intermittent source, and implement it in a Robot Operating System (ROS based simulator. Concentration time series of stationary sampling points and dynamic sampling points across cross-sections and plume fronts are collected and analyzed for statistical parameters of the simulated plume. These parameters are then compared with statistical parameters from experimentally generated plumes. The comparison validates that the simulated plumes exhibit fine-scale qualitative and quantitative characteristics similar to experimental plumes. The ROS plume simulator facilitates future evaluations of environmental monitoring strategies by marine robots, and is made available for community use.

  14. Applications of random forest feature selection for fine-scale genetic population assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Emma V A; Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R; Clément, Marie; Pearce, Jon; Horne, John; Beiko, Robert G

    2018-02-01

    Genetic population assignment used to inform wildlife management and conservation efforts requires panels of highly informative genetic markers and sensitive assignment tests. We explored the utility of machine-learning algorithms (random forest, regularized random forest and guided regularized random forest) compared with F ST ranking for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-scale population assignment. We applied these methods to an unpublished SNP data set for Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and a published SNP data set for Alaskan Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ). In each species, we identified the minimum panel size required to obtain a self-assignment accuracy of at least 90% using each method to create panels of 50-700 markers Panels of SNPs identified using random forest-based methods performed up to 7.8 and 11.2 percentage points better than F ST -selected panels of similar size for the Atlantic salmon and Chinook salmon data, respectively. Self-assignment accuracy ≥90% was obtained with panels of 670 and 384 SNPs for each data set, respectively, a level of accuracy never reached for these species using F ST -selected panels. Our results demonstrate a role for machine-learning approaches in marker selection across large genomic data sets to improve assignment for management and conservation of exploited populations.

  15. Fine scale microstructure in cast and aged duplex stainless steels investigated by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, J.E.; Lin, J.S.; Spooner, S.

    1986-02-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows clustering phenomena to be studied in systems for which the constituent atoms do not differ greatly in atomic number. This investigation used SANS to characterize the fine scale microstructure in two cast and aged duplex stainless steels; aging times extended up to eight years. The steels differed in ferrite content by about a factor of two. The scattering at lowest q was dominated by magnetic scattering effects associated with the ferrite phase. In the range 0.025 less than or equal to q less than or equal to 0.2A -1 , additional scattering due to a precipitating phase rich in Ni and Si was observed. This scattering was rather intense and revealed a volume fraction of precipitate, in the ferrite, estimated to be 12 to 18% after long time aging. After about 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, there were about 10 18 precipitate particles per cm 3 some 50A in mean diameter, and they were distributed in a nonrandom manner, i.e., spatially, short-range-ordered. This investigation suggests that after aging some 70,000 hours at 400 0 C, the precipitate in the ferrite phase is undergoing Ostwald ripening. The present data are insufficient to indicate at what time this ripening process began

  16. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Curtis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results “of interest” (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional “of interest” positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the “of interest” water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens.

  17. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Bastide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  18. A genome-wide, fine-scale map of natural pigmentation variation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Héloïse; Betancourt, Andrea; Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stöbe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

  19. Introducing close-range photogrammetry for characterizing forest understory plant diversity and surface fuel structure at fine scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; E. Louise Loudermilk; Scott M. Pokswinski; Andrew T. Hudak; Joseph J. O' Brien

    2016-01-01

    Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant...

  20. Breed locally, disperse globally: Fine-scale genetic structure despite landscape-scale panmixia in a fire-specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Pierson; Fred W. Allendorf; Pierre Drapeau; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    An exciting advance in the understanding of metapopulation dynamics has been the investigation of how populations respond to ephemeral patches that go 'extinct' during the lifetime of an individual. Previous research has shown that this scenario leads to genetic homogenization across large spatial scales. However, little is known about fine-scale genetic...

  1. Cultural transmission of tool use combined with habitat specializations leads to fine-scale genetic structure in bottlenose dolphins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopps, Anna M.; Ackermann, Corinne Y.; Sherwin, William B.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Kruetzen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Socially learned behaviours leading to genetic population structure have rarely been described outside humans. Here, we provide evidence of fine-scale genetic structure that has probably arisen based on socially transmitted behaviours in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in western Shark Bay,

  2. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toju Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae, and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica. In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km. At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.

  3. Ultra-Fine Scale Spatially-Integrated Mapping of Habitat and Occupancy Using Structure-From-Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McDowall

    Full Text Available Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM, a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale three-dimensional (3D habitat models at low cost. These models can capture the abiotic conditions formed by terrain and simultaneously record the position of individual organisms within that terrain. While coloniality is common in seabird species, we have a poor understanding of the extent to which dense breeding aggregations are driven by fine-scale active aggregation or limited suitable habitat. We demonstrate the use of SfM for fine-scale habitat suitability by reconstructing the locations of nests in a gentoo penguin colony and fitting models that explicitly account for conspecific attraction. The resulting digital elevation models (DEMs are used as covariates in an inhomogeneous hybrid point process model. We find that gentoo penguin nest site selection is a function of the topography of the landscape, but that nests are far more aggregated than would be expected based on terrain alone, suggesting a strong role of behavioral aggregation in driving coloniality in this species. This integrated mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat will greatly improve our understanding of fine-scale habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the complex bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use.

  4. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  5. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  6. Alpine Ecohydrology Across Scales: Propagating Fine-scale Heterogeneity to the Catchment and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, T.; Pappas, C.; Molnar, P.; Burlando, P.; Hadjidoukas, P.; Fatichi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In mountainous ecosystems, complex topography and landscape heterogeneity govern ecohydrological states and fluxes. Here, we investigate topographic controls on water, energy and carbon fluxes across different climatic regimes and vegetation types representative of the European Alps. We use an ecohydrological model to perform fine-scale numerical experiments on a synthetic domain that comprises a symmetric mountain with eight catchments draining along the cardinal and intercardinal directions. Distributed meteorological model input variables are generated using observations from Switzerland. The model computes the incoming solar radiation based on the local topography. We implement a multivariate statistical framework to disentangle the impact of landscape heterogeneity (i.e., elevation, aspect, flow contributing area, vegetation type) on the simulated water, carbon, and energy dynamics. This allows us to identify the sensitivities of several ecohydrological variables (including leaf area index, evapotranspiration, snow-cover and net primary productivity) to topographic and meteorological inputs at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use an alpine catchment as a real case study to investigate how the natural variability of soil and land cover affects the idealized relationships that arise from the synthetic domain. In accordance with previous studies, our analysis shows a complex pattern of vegetation response to radiation. We find also different patterns of ecosystem sensitivity to topography-driven heterogeneity depending on the hydrological regime (i.e., wet vs. dry conditions). Our results suggest that topography-driven variability in ecohydrological variables (e.g. transpiration) at the fine spatial scale can exceed 50%, but it is substantially reduced ( 5%) when integrated at the catchment scale.

  7. Quantitative rainfall metrics for comparing volumetric rainfall retrievals to fine scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Scott; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Giangrande, Scott; Fridlind, Ann; Theisen, Adam; Jensen, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation processes play a significant role in the energy balance of convective systems for example, through latent heating and evaporative cooling. Heavy precipitation "cores" can also be a proxy for vigorous convection and vertical motions. However, comparisons between rainfall rate retrievals from volumetric remote sensors with forecast rain fields from high-resolution numerical weather prediction simulations are complicated by differences in the location and timing of storm morphological features. This presentation will outline a series of metrics for diagnosing the spatial variability and statistical properties of precipitation maps produced both from models and retrievals. We include existing metrics such as Contoured by Frequency Altitude Diagrams (Yuter and Houze 1995) and Statistical Coverage Products (May and Lane 2009) and propose new metrics based on morphology, cell and feature based statistics. Work presented focuses on observations from the ARM Southern Great Plains radar network consisting of three agile X-Band radar systems with a very dense coverage pattern and a C Band system providing site wide coverage. By combining multiple sensors resolutions of 250m2 can be achieved, allowing improved characterization of fine-scale features. Analyses compare data collected during the Midlattitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) with simulations of observed systems using the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model. May, P. T., and T. P. Lane, 2009: A method for using weather radar data to test cloud resolving models. Meteorological Applications, 16, 425-425, doi:10.1002/met.150, 10.1002/met.150. Yuter, S. E., and R. A. Houze, 1995: Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Microphysical Evolution of Florida Cumulonimbus. Part II: Frequency Distributions of Vertical Velocity, Reflectivity, and Differential Reflectivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1941-1963, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1995)1232.0.CO;2.

  8. Fine-scale movement decisions of tropical forest birds in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Beyer, Hawthorne L; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of forest-dependent species in fragmented landscapes is fundamentally linked to the movement of individuals among subpopulations. The paths taken by dispersing individuals can be considered a series of steps built from individual route choices. Despite the importance of these fine-scale movement decisions, it has proved difficult to collect such data that reveal how forest birds move in novel landscapes. We collected unprecedented route information about the movement of translocated forest birds from two species in the highly fragmented tropical dry forest of Costa Rica. In this pasture-dominated landscape, forest remains in patches or riparian corridors, with lesser amounts of living fencerows and individual trees or "stepping stones." We used step selection functions to quantify how route choice was influenced by these habitat elements. We found that the amount of risk these birds were willing to take by crossing open habitat was context dependent. The forest-specialist Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) exhibited stronger selection for forested routes when moving in novel landscapes distant from its territory relative to locations closer to its territory. It also selected forested routes when its step originated in forest habitat. It preferred steps ending in stepping stones when the available routes had little forest cover, but avoided them when routes had greater forest cover. The forest-generalist Rufous-naped Wren (Campylorhynchus rufinucha) preferred steps that contained more pasture, but only when starting from non-forest habitats. Our results showed that forested corridors (i.e., riparian corridors) best facilitated the movement of a sensitive forest specialist through this fragmented landscape. They also suggested that stepping stones can be important in highly fragmented forests with little remaining forest cover. We expect that naturally dispersing birds and species with greater forest dependence would exhibit even stronger

  9. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  10. The remarkable occurrence of large rainfall-induced debris flows at two different locations on July 12, 2008, Southern Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, J.V.; Wagner, D.L.; Gallegos, A.J.; DeRose, M.; Shannon, C.; Ellsworth, T.

    2011-01-01

    On July 12, 2008, two convective cells about 155 km apart produced a brief period of intense rainfall triggering large debris flows in the southern Sierra Nevada. The northernmost cell was centered over Oak Creek Canyon, an east-flowing drainage, and its tributaries near Independence, CA, USA. About 5:00 P.M., debris flows passed down the South Fork and North Fork of Oak Creek to merge into a large single feature whose passage affected the historic Mt. Whitney Fish hatchery and blocked California State Highway 395. At about the same time, the southernmost cell was largely centered over Erskine Creek, a main tributary of the west-flowing Kern River. Debris flows issued from several branches to coalesce into a large debris flow that passed along Erskine Creek, through the town of Lake Isabella, CA, USA and into the Kern River. It was observed reaching Lake Isabella about 6:30 P.M. Both debris flows caused significant disruption and damage to local communities. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Fine-scale responses of phytoplankton to freshwater influx in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04575, USA. 3Department of ... ing the premonsoon (PreM) in May, when circulation in the estuary was dominated by tidal activ- .... Figure 2. Variation in Chl a, salinity, total phytoplankton counts and tide in Mandovi estuary, where 143–147 is PreM,.

  12. Fine-scale crustal structure of the Azores Islands from teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, K.; Rondenay, S.; Ramalho, R. S.; Thomas, C.; Helffrich, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Azores plateau is located near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and consists of nine islands, most of which lie east of the MAR. Various methods including seismic reflection, gravity, and passive seismic imaging have been used to investigate the crustal thickness beneath the islands. They have yielded thickness estimates that range between roughly 10 km and 30 km, but until now models of the fine-scale crustal structure have been lacking. A comparison of the crustal structure beneath the islands that lie west and east of the MAR might give further constraints on the evolution of the islands. For example, geochemical studies carried out across the region predict the existence of volcanic interfaces that should be detected seismically within the shallow crust of some of the islands. In this study, we use data from ten seismic stations located on the Azores Islands to investigate the crustal structure with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. We query our resulting receiver functions for signals associated with the volcanic edifice, the crust-mantle boundary, and potential underplated layers beneath the various islands. The islands west of the MAR have a crustal structure comprising two discontinuities - an upper one at 1-2 km depth marking the base of the volcanic edifice, and a lower one at 10 km depth that we interpret as crust-mantle boundary. The islands east of the MAR can be subdivided into two groups. The central islands that are closer to the MAR exhibit a crustal structure similar to that of the western islands, with a volcanic edifice reaching a depth of 2 km and an average crust-mantle boundary at around 12 km depth. The easternmost islands, located on the oldest lithosphere, exhibit a more complex crustal structure with evidence for a mid-crustal interface and an underplated layer, yielding an effective crust-mantle boundary at >15 km depth. The difference in structure between proximal and distal islands might be related to the age of the plate at the

  13. Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicolani Bruno

    2011-04-01

    , consistent with their photonegative characteristics. The fine-scale differences in diel behavior among these three triclad species may not be sufficient to allow coexistence in the wild, with the nonnative D. tigrina eventually displacing D. polychroa and P. tenuis in many European waters. The link between planarian diel rhythms and ecological characteristics are worth of further, detailed investigation.

  14. Fine-scale structure of the mid-mantle characterised by global stacks of PP precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction zones are likely a major source of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle, which may preserve a record of the subduction history and mantle convection processes. The fine-scale structure associated with mantle heterogeneities can be studied using the scattered seismic wavefield that arrives as coda to or as energy preceding many body wave arrivals. In this study we analyse precursors to PP by creating stacks recorded at globally distributed stations. We create stacks aligned on the PP arrival in 5° distance bins (with range 70-120°) from 600 earthquakes recorded at 193 stations stacking a total of 7320 seismic records. As the energy trailing the direct P arrival, the P coda, interferes with the PP precursors, we suppress the P coda by subtracting a best fitting exponential curve to this energy. The resultant stacks show that PP precursors related to scattering from heterogeneities in the mantle are present for all distances. Lateral variations are explored by producing two regional stacks across the Atlantic and Pacific hemispheres, but we find only negligible differences in the precursory signature between these two regions. The similarity of these two regions suggests that well mixed subducted material can survive at upper and mid-mantle depth. To describe the scattered wavefield in the mantle, we compare the global stacks to synthetic seismograms generated using a Monte Carlo phonon scattering technique. We propose a best-fitting layered heterogeneity model, BRT2017, characterised by a three layer mantle with a background heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 0.8%) and a depth-interval of increased heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 1%) between 1000 km and 1800 km. The scalelength of heterogeneity is found to be 8 km throughout the mantle. Since mantle heterogeneity of 8 km scale may be linked to subducted oceanic crust, the detection of increased heterogeneity at mid-mantle depths could be associated with stalled slabs due to increases in viscosity

  15. Demonstrating the Uneven Importance of Fine-Scale Forest Structure on Snow Distributions using High Resolution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; van Leeuwen, W.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the amount of snow in forested mountainous environments, as well as how it may change due to warming and forest disturbance, is critical given its importance for water supply and ecosystem health. Forest canopies affect snow accumulation and ablation in ways that are difficult to observe and model. Furthermore, fine-scale forest structure can accentuate or diminish the effects of forest-snow interactions. Despite decades of research demonstrating the importance of fine-scale forest structure (e.g. canopy edges and gaps) on snow, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of where and when forest structure has the largest impact on snowpack mass and energy budgets. Here, we use a hyper-resolution (1 meter spatial resolution) mass and energy balance snow model called the Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model along with LIDAR-derived forest structure to determine where spatial variability of fine-scale forest structure has the largest influence on large scale mass and energy budgets. SnowPALM was set up and calibrated at sites representing diverse climates in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Then, we compared simulations at different model resolutions (i.e. 1, 10, and 100 m) to elucidate the effects of including versus not including information about fine scale canopy structure. These experiments were repeated for different prescribed topographies (i.e. flat, 30% slope north, and south-facing) at each site. Higher resolution simulations had more snow at lower canopy cover, with the opposite being true at high canopy cover. Furthermore, there is considerable scatter, indicating that different canopy arrangements can lead to different amounts of snow, even when the overall canopy coverage is the same. This modeling is contributing to the development of a high resolution machine learning algorithm called the Snow Water Artificial Network (SWANN) model to generate predictions of snow distributions over much larger domains, which has implications

  16. The impact of mating systems and dispersal on fine-scale genetic structure at maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robyn E; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod

    2018-01-01

    For decades, studies have focused on how dispersal and mating systems influence genetic structure across populations or social groups. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how these processes and their interaction shape spatial genetic patterns over a finer scale (tens-hundreds of metres). Using uniparentally inherited markers may help answer these questions, yet their potential has not been fully explored. Here, we use individual-level simulations to investigate the effects of dispersal and mating system on fine-scale genetic structure at autosomal, mitochondrial and Y chromosome markers. Using genetic spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that dispersal was the major driver of fine-scale genetic structure across maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited markers. However, when dispersal was restricted (mean distance = 100 m), variation in mating behaviour created strong differences in the comparative level of structure detected at maternally and paternally inherited markers. Promiscuity reduced spatial genetic structure at Y chromosome loci (relative to monogamy), whereas structure increased under polygyny. In contrast, mitochondrial and autosomal markers were robust to differences in the specific mating system, although genetic structure increased across all markers when reproductive success was skewed towards fewer individuals. Comparing males and females at Y chromosome vs. mitochondrial markers, respectively, revealed that some mating systems can generate similar patterns to those expected under sex-biased dispersal. This demonstrates the need for caution when inferring ecological and behavioural processes from genetic results. Comparing patterns between the sexes, across a range of marker types, may help us tease apart the processes shaping fine-scale genetic structure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests.

  18. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Williamson, Cara; Windsor, Shane P

    2016-09-26

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  20. Landscape management of fire and grazing regimes alters the fine-scale habitat utilisation by feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh W McGregor

    Full Text Available Intensification of fires and grazing by large herbivores has caused population declines in small vertebrates in many ecosystems worldwide. Impacts are rarely direct, and usually appear driven via indirect pathways, such as changes to predator-prey dynamics. Fire events and grazing may improve habitat and/or hunting success for the predators of small mammals, however, such impacts have not been documented. To test for such an interaction, we investigated fine-scale habitat selection by feral cats in relation to fire, grazing and small-mammal abundance. Our study was conducted in north-western Australia, where small mammal populations are sensitive to changes in fire and grazing management. We deployed GPS collars on 32 cats in landscapes with contrasting fire and grazing treatments. Fine-scale habitat selection was determined using discrete choice modelling of cat movements. We found that cats selected areas with open grass cover, including heavily-grazed areas. They strongly selected for areas recently burnt by intense fires, but only in habitats that typically support high abundance of small mammals. Intense fires and grazing by introduced herbivores created conditions that are favoured by cats, probably because their hunting success is improved. This mechanism could explain why, in northern Australia, impacts of feral cats on small mammals might have increased. Our results suggest the impact of feral cats could be reduced in most ecosystems by maximising grass cover, minimising the incidence of intense fires, and reducing grazing by large herbivores.

  1. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in predominantly selfing plants with limited seed dispersal: A rule or exception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow at a fine scale is still poorly understood despite its recognized importance for plant population demographic and genetic processes. We tested the hypothesis that intensity of gene flow will be lower and strength of spatial genetic structure (SGS will be higher in more peripheral populations because of lower population density. The study was performed on the predominantly selfing Avena sterilis and included: (1 direct measurement of dispersal in a controlled environment; and (2 analyses of SGS in three natural populations, sampled in linear transects at fixed increasing inter-plant distances. We found that in A. sterilis major seed dispersal is by gravity in close (less than 2 m vicinity of the mother plant, with a minor additional effect of wind. Analysis of SGS with six nuclear SSRs revealed a significant autocorrelation for the distance class of 1 m only in the most peripheral desert population, while in the two core populations with Mediterranean conditions, no genetic structure was found. Our results support the hypothesis that intensity of SGS increases from the species core to periphery as a result of decreased within-population gene flow related to low plant density. Our findings also show that predominant self-pollination and highly localized seed dispersal lead to SGS at a very fine scale, but only if plant density is not too high.

  2. Tracking fine-scale seasonal evolution of surface water extent in Central Alaska and the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, S. W.; Smith, L. C.; Pitcher, L. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Topp, S.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in surface water storage at high latitudes is critical for assessing environmental sensitivity to climate change. Traditionally the tradeoff between high spatial and high temporal resolution space-borne optical imagery has limited the ability to track fine-scale changes in surface water extent. However, the recent launch of hundreds of earth-imaging CubeSats by commercial satellite companies such as Planet opens up new possibilities for monitoring surface water from space. In this study we present a comparison of seasonal evolution of surface water extent in two study areas with differing geologic, hydrologic and permafrost regimes, namely, the Yukon Flats in Central Alaska and the Canadian Shield north of Yellowknife, N.W.T. Using near-daily 3m Planet CubeSat imagery, we track individual lake surface area from break-up to freeze-up during summer 2017 and quantify the spatial and temporal variability in inundation extent. We validate our water delineation method and inundation extent time series using WorldView imagery, coincident in situ lake shoreline mapping and pressure transducer data for 19 lakes in the Northwest Territories and Alaska collected during the NASA Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) 2017 field campaign. The results of this analysis demonstrate the value of CubeSat imagery for dynamic surface water research particularly at high latitudes and illuminate fine-scale drivers of cold regions surface water extent.

  3. Phylogeography of var gene repertoires reveals fine-scale geospatial clustering of Plasmodium falciparum populations in a highly endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Monk, Stephanie L; Schultz, Mark B; Tavul, Livingstone; Reeder, John C; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major global health problem that is being targeted for progressive elimination. Knowledge of local disease transmission patterns in endemic countries is critical to these elimination efforts. To investigate fine-scale patterns of malaria transmission, we have compared repertoires of rapidly evolving var genes in a highly endemic area. A total of 3680 high-quality DBLα-sequences were obtained from 68 P. falciparum isolates from ten villages spread over two distinct catchment areas on the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Modelling of the extent of var gene diversity in the two parasite populations predicts more than twice as many var gene alleles circulating within each catchment (Mugil = 906; Wosera = 1094) than previously recognized in PNG (Amele = 369). In addition, there were limited levels of var gene sharing between populations, consistent with local parasite population structure. Phylogeographic analyses demonstrate that while neutrally evolving microsatellite markers identified population structure only at the catchment level, var gene repertoires reveal further fine-scale geospatial clustering of parasite isolates. The clustering of parasite isolates by village in Mugil, but not in Wosera was consistent with the physical and cultural isolation of the human populations in the two catchments. The study highlights the microheterogeneity of P. falciparum transmission in highly endemic areas and demonstrates the potential of var genes as markers of local patterns of parasite population structure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  5. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  6. Identifying Where REDD+ Financially Out-Competes Oil Palm in Floodplain Landscapes Using a Fine-Scale Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nicola K; MacMillan, Douglas C; Xofis, Panteleimon; Ancrenaz, Marc; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Ong, Robert; Goossens, Benoit; Koh, Lian Pin; Del Valle, Christian; Peter, Lucy; Morel, Alexandra C; Lackman, Isabelle; Chung, Robin; Kler, Harjinder; Ambu, Laurentius; Baya, William; Knight, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling) to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha) in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC) in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD+ could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e) would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e) would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380-416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia). Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by: highlighting REDD

  7. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R. B.; De Boer, M. N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C. B.

    2014-11-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a multi-year land-based survey, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiling (ADCP), vertical profiling of water properties and high-resolution bathymetry; we investigate how interactions between tidal flow and topography drive the fine-scale porpoise spatio-temporal distribution at the site. Porpoise sightings were distributed non-uniformly within the survey area with highest sighting density recorded in areas with steep slopes and moderate depths. Greater numbers of sightings were recorded during strong westward (ebbing) tidal flows compared to strong eastward (flooding) flows and slack water periods. ADCP and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data identified fine-scale hydrodynamic features, associated with cross-reef tidal flows in the sections of the survey area with the highest recorded densities of porpoises. We observed layered, vertically sheared flows that were susceptible to the generation of turbulence by shear instability. Additionally, the intense, oscillatory near surface currents led to hydraulically controlled flow that transitioned from subcritical to supercritical conditions; indicating that highly turbulent and energetic hydraulic jumps were generated along the eastern and western slopes of the reef. The depression and release of isopycnals in the lee of the reef during cross-reef flows revealed that the flow released lee waves during upslope currents at specific phases of the tidal cycle when the highest sighting rates were recorded. The results of this unique, fine-scale field study provide new insights into specific hydrodynamic features, produced through tidal forcing, that may be important for creating predictable foraging opportunities for porpoises at a

  8. Identifying Where REDD+ Financially Out-Competes Oil Palm in Floodplain Landscapes Using a Fine-Scale Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Abram

    Full Text Available Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ aims to avoid forest conversion to alternative land-uses through financial incentives. Oil-palm has high opportunity costs, which according to current literature questions the financial competitiveness of REDD+ in tropical lowlands. To understand this more, we undertook regional fine-scale and coarse-scale analyses (through carbon mapping and economic modelling to assess the financial viability of REDD+ in safeguarding unprotected forest (30,173 ha in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Malaysian Borneo. Results estimate 4.7 million metric tons of carbon (MgC in unprotected forest, with 64% allocated for oil-palm cultivations. Through fine-scale mapping and carbon accounting, we demonstrated that REDD+ can outcompete oil-palm in regions with low suitability, with low carbon prices and low carbon stock. In areas with medium oil-palm suitability, REDD+ could outcompete oil palm in areas with: very high carbon and lower carbon price; medium carbon price and average carbon stock; or, low carbon stock and high carbon price. Areas with high oil palm suitability, REDD+ could only outcompete with higher carbon price and higher carbon stock. In the coarse-scale model, oil-palm outcompeted REDD+ in all cases. For the fine-scale models at the landscape level, low carbon offset prices (US $3 MgCO2e would enable REDD+ to outcompete oil-palm in 55% of the unprotected forests requiring US $27 million to secure these areas for 25 years. Higher carbon offset price (US $30 MgCO2e would increase the competitiveness of REDD+ within the landscape but would still only capture between 69%-74% of the unprotected forest, requiring US $380-416 million in carbon financing. REDD+ has been identified as a strategy to mitigate climate change by many countries (including Malaysia. Although REDD+ in certain scenarios cannot outcompete oil palm, this research contributes to the global REDD+ debate by

  9. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  10. Landscape-Level and Fine-Scale Genetic Structure of the Neo tropical Tree Protium spruceanum (Burseraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, F.D.A.; Fajardo, C.G.; De Souza, A.M.; Dulciniea De Carvalho, D.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic structure at different scales and correlation with the current landscape is fundamental for evaluating the importance of evolutionary processes and identifying conservation units. Here, we used allozyme loci to examine the spatial genetic structure (SGS) of 230 individuals of Protium spruceanum, a native canopy-emergent in five fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest (1 to 11.8 ha), and four ecological corridors (460 to 1000 m length). Wright's FST statistic and Mantel tests revealed little evidence of significant genetic structure at the landscape-scale (FST=0.027; rM=-0.051, P=.539). At fine-scale SGS, low levels of relatedness within fragments and corridors (Sp=0.008, P>.05) were observed. Differences in the levels and distribution of the SGS at both spatial scales are discussed in relation to biological and conservation strategies of corridors and forest fragments.

  11. Fine-scale patterns of vegetation assembly in the monitoring of changes in coastal sand-dune landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Honrado

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding dune ecosystem responses to multi-scale environmental changes can provide the framework for reliable forecasts and cost-efficient protocols for detecting shifts in prevailing coastal dynamics. Based on the hypothesis that stress and disturbance interact as primary community controls in coastal dunes, we studied the fine-scale floristic assembly of foredune vegetation, in its relation to topography, along regional and local environmental gradients in the 200 km long coastline of northern Portugal, encompassing a major biogeographic transition in western Europe. Thirty topographic profiles perpendicular to the shoreline were recorded at ten sites along the regional climate gradient, and vegetation was sampled by recording the frequency of plant species along those profiles. Quantitative topographic attributes of vegetated dune profiles (e.g. length or height exhibited wide variations relatable to differences in prevailing coastal dynamics. Metrics of taxonomic diversity (e.g. total species richness and its additive beta component and of the functional composition of vegetation were highly correlated to attributes of dune topography. Under transgressive dynamics, vegetation profiles have fewer species, increased dominance, lower turnover rates, and lower total vegetation cover. These changes may drive a decrease in structural and functional diversity, with important consequences for resistance, resilience and other ecosystem properties. Moreover, differences in both vegetation assembly (in meta-stable dunes and response to increased disturbance (in eroding dunes between distinct biogeographic contexts highlight a possible decline in facilitation efficiency under extreme physical stress (i.e. under Mediterranean climate and support the significance of functional approaches in the study of local ecosystem responses to disturbance along regional gradients. Our results strongly suggest that assessing fine-scale community assembly can

  12. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie G Schuttler

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and

  13. Fine-scale genetic structure and cryptic associations reveal evidence of kin-based sociality in the African forest elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuttler, Stephanie G; Philbrick, Jessica A; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of relatedness within animal populations are important in the evolution of mating and social systems, and have the potential to reveal information on species that are difficult to observe in the wild. This study examines the fine-scale genetic structure and connectivity of groups within African forest elephants, Loxodonta cyclotis, which are often difficult to observe due to forest habitat. We tested the hypothesis that genetic similarity will decline with increasing geographic distance, as we expect kin to be in closer proximity, using spatial autocorrelation analyses and Tau K(r) tests. Associations between individuals were investigated through a non-invasive genetic capture-recapture approach using network models, and were predicted to be more extensive than the small groups found in observational studies, similar to fission-fusion sociality found in African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) species. Dung samples were collected in Lopé National Park, Gabon in 2008 and 2010 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci, genetically sexed, and sequenced at the mitochondrial DNA control region. We conducted analyses on samples collected at three different temporal scales: a day, within six-day sampling sessions, and within each year. Spatial autocorrelation and Tau K(r) tests revealed genetic structure, but results were weak and inconsistent between sampling sessions. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found in distance classes of 0-5 km, and was strongest for the single day session. Despite weak genetic structure, individuals within groups were significantly more related to each other than to individuals between groups. Social networks revealed some components to have large, extensive groups of up to 22 individuals, and most groups were composed of individuals of the same matriline. Although fine-scale population genetic structure was weak, forest elephants are typically found in groups consisting of kin and based on matrilines

  14. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  15. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations.

  16. Identification of fine scale and landscape scale drivers of urban aboveground carbon stocks using high-resolution modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Johansen, Kasper; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive A; Wu, Dan; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2018-05-01

    Urban areas are sources of land use change and CO 2 emissions that contribute to global climate change. Despite this, assessments of urban vegetation carbon stocks often fail to identify important landscape-scale drivers of variation in urban carbon, especially the potential effects of landscape structure variables at different spatial scales. We combined field measurements with Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data to build high-resolution models of woody plant aboveground carbon across the urban portion of Brisbane, Australia, and then identified landscape scale drivers of these carbon stocks. First, we used LiDAR data to quantify the extent and vertical structure of vegetation across the city at high resolution (5×5m). Next, we paired this data with aboveground carbon measurements at 219 sites to create boosted regression tree models and map aboveground carbon across the city. We then used these maps to determine how spatial variation in land cover/land use and landscape structure affects these carbon stocks. Foliage densities above 5m height, tree canopy height, and the presence of ground openings had the strongest relationships with aboveground carbon. Using these fine-scale relationships, we estimate that 2.2±0.4 TgC are stored aboveground in the urban portion of Brisbane, with mean densities of 32.6±5.8MgCha -1 calculated across the entire urban land area, and 110.9±19.7MgCha -1 calculated within treed areas. Predicted carbon densities within treed areas showed strong positive relationships with the proportion of surrounding tree cover and how clumped that tree cover was at both 1km 2 and 1ha resolutions. Our models predict that even dense urban areas with low tree cover can have high carbon densities at fine scales. We conclude that actions and policies aimed at increasing urban carbon should focus on those areas where urban tree cover is most fragmented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State Univ. Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science; Daly, Chris [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2003-04-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km{sup 2} area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m{sup 2}, with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process

  18. Effects of land use and fine-scale environmental heterogeneity on net ecosystem production over a temperate coniferous forest landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, David P.; Guzy, Michael; Lefsky, Michael A.; Tuyl, Steve van; Sun, Osbert; Law, Beverly E.; Daly, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In temperate coniferous forests, spatial variation in net ecosystem production (NEP) is often associated with variation in stand age and heterogeneity in environmental factors such as soil depth. However, coarse spatial resolution analyses used to evaluate the terrestrial contribution to global NEP do not generally incorporate these effects. In this study, a fine-scale (25 m grid) analysis of NEP over a 164-km 2 area of productive coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States was made to evaluate the effects of including fine scale information in landscape-scale NEP assessments. The Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor resolved five cover classes in the study area and further differentiated between young, mature and old-growth conifer stands. ETM+ was also used to map current leaf area index (LAI) based on an empirical relationship of observed LAI to spectral vegetation indices. A daily time step climatology, based on 18 years of meteorological observations, was distributed (1 km resolution) over the mountainous terrain of the study area using the DAYMET model. Estimates of carbon pools and flux associated with soil, litter, coarse woody debris and live trees were then generated by running a carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC) to a state that reflected the current successional status and LAI of each grid cell, as indicated by the remote sensing observations. Estimated annual NEP for 1997 over the complete study area averaged 230 g C m 2 , with most of the area acting as a carbon sink. The area-wide NEP is strongly positive because of reduced harvesting in the last decade and the recovery of areas harvested between 1940 and 1990. The average value was greater than would be indicated if the entire area was assumed to be a mature conifer stand, as in a coarse-scale analysis. The mean NEP varied interannually by over a factor of two. This variation was 38% less than the interannual variation for a single point. The integration of process models

  19. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  20. Microsatellite variation suggests a recent fine-scale population structure of Drosophila sechellia, a species endemic of the Seychelles archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Delphine; Vautrin, Dominique; Lachaise, Daniel; Cariou, Marie-Louise

    2011-07-01

    Drosophila sechellia is closely related to the cosmopolitan and widespread model species, D. simulans. This species, endemic to the Seychelles archipelago, is specialized on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, and harbours the lowest overall genetic diversity compared to other species of Drosophila. This low diversity is associated with a small population size. In addition, no obvious population structure has been evidenced so far across islands of the Seychelles archipelago. Here, a microsatellite panel of 17 loci in ten populations from nine islands of the Seychelles was used to assess the effect of the D. sechellia's fragmented distribution on the fine-scale population genetic structure, the migration pattern, as well as on the demography of the species. Contrary to previous results, also based on microsatellites, no evidence for population contraction in D. sechellia was found. The results confirm previous studies based on gene sequence polymorphism that showed a long-term stable population size for this species. Interestingly, a pattern of Isolation By Distance which had not been described yet in D. sechellia was found, with evidence of first-generation migrants between some neighbouring islands. Bayesian structuring algorithm results were consistent with a split of D. sechellia into two main groups of populations: Silhouette/Mahé versus all the other islands. Thus, microsatellites suggest that variability in D. sechellia is most likely explained by local genetic exchanges between neighbouring islands that have recently resulted in slight differentiation of the two largest island populations from all the others.

  1. Fine-scale population structure of Malays in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore and implications for association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Boon-Peng; Deng, Lian; Julia-Ashazila, Mat Jusoh; Zuraihan, Zakaria; Nur-Hasnah, Ma'amor; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Endom, Ismail; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Khalid, Yusoff; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-07-22

    Fine scale population structure of Malays - the major population in Malaysia, has not been well studied. This may have important implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. Here, we investigated the population sub-structure of Malay involving 431 samples collected from all states from peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. We identified two major clusters of individuals corresponding to the north and south peninsular Malaysia. On an even finer scale, the genetic coordinates of the geographical Malay populations are in correlation with the latitudes (R(2) = 0.3925; P = 0.029). This finding is further supported by the pairwise FST of Malay sub-populations, of which the north and south regions showed the highest differentiation (FST [North-south] = 0.0011). The collective findings therefore suggest that population sub-structure of Malays are more heterogenous than previously expected even within a small geographical region, possibly due to factors like different genetic origins, geographical isolation, could result in spurious association as demonstrated in our analysis. We suggest that cautions should be taken during the stage of study design or interpreting the association signals in disease mapping studies which are expected to be conducted in Malay population in the near future.

  2. Intraspecific differences in lipid content of calanoid copepods across fine-scale depth ranges within the photic layer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zarubin

    Full Text Available Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12-15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea, Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea, and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic. We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy.

  3. Aviation Model: A Fine-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction System for Aviation Applications at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kin Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO is planning to implement a fine-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model for supporting the aviation weather applications at the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA. This new NWP model system, called Aviation Model (AVM, is configured at a horizontal grid spacing of 600 m and 200 m. It is based on the WRF-ARW (Advance Research WRF model that can have sufficient computation efficiency in order to produce hourly updated forecasts up to 9 hours ahead on a future high performance computer system with theoretical peak performance of around 10 TFLOPS. AVM will be nested inside the operational mesoscale NWP model of HKO with horizontal resolution of 2 km. In this paper, initial numerical experiment results in forecast of windshear events due to seabreeze and terrain effect are discussed. The simulation of sea-breeze-related windshear is quite successful, and the headwind change observed from flight data could be reproduced in the model forecast. Some impacts of physical processes on generating the fine-scale wind circulation and development of significant convection are illustrated. The paper also discusses the limitations in the current model setup and proposes methods for the future development of AVM.

  4. Fine-scale spatial distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of host-rich grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyron, Samuele; Ercole, Enrico; Ghignone, Stefano; Perotto, Silvia; Girlanda, Mariangela

    2017-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the survival of orchid seedlings under natural conditions. The distribution of these fungi in soil can constrain the establishment and resulting spatial arrangement of orchids at the local scale, but the actual extent of occurrence and spatial patterns of orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi in soil remain largely unknown. We addressed the fine-scale spatial distribution of OrM fungi in two orchid-rich Mediterranean grasslands by means of high-throughput sequencing of fungal ITS2 amplicons, obtained from soil samples collected either directly beneath or at a distance from adult Anacamptis morio and Ophrys sphegodes plants. Like ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycobionts, OrM fungi (tulasnelloid, ceratobasidioid, sebacinoid and pezizoid fungi) exhibited significant horizontal spatial autocorrelation in soil. However, OrM fungal read numbers did not correlate with distance from adult orchid plants, and several of these fungi were extremely sporadic or undetected even in the soil samples containing the orchid roots. Orchid mycorrhizal 'rhizoctonias' are commonly regarded as unspecialized saprotrophs. The sporadic occurrence of mycobionts of grassland orchids in host-rich stands questions the view of these mycorrhizal fungi as capable of sustained growth in soil. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Resource selection models are useful in predicting fine-scale distributions of black-footed ferrets in prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Jachowski, David S.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Matchett, Marc R.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife-habitat relationships are often conceptualized as resource selection functions (RSFs)—models increasingly used to estimate species distributions and prioritize habitat conservation. We evaluated the predictive capabilities of 2 black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) RSFs developed on a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. We used the RSFs to project the relative probability of occurrence of ferrets throughout an adjacent 227-ha colony. We evaluated performance of the RSFs using ferret space use data collected via postbreeding spotlight surveys June–October 2005–2006. In home ranges and core areas, ferrets selected the predicted "very high" and "high" occurrence categories of both RSFs. Count metrics also suggested selection of these categories; for each model in each year, approximately 81% of ferret locations occurred in areas of very high or high predicted occurrence. These results suggest usefulness of the RSFs in estimating the distribution of ferrets throughout a black-tailed prairie dog colony. The RSFs provide a fine-scale habitat assessment for ferrets that can be used to prioritize releases of ferrets and habitat restoration for prairie dogs and ferrets. A method to quickly inventory the distribution of prairie dog burrow openings would greatly facilitate application of the RSFs.

  6. Fine-scale habitat use of reintroduced black-footed ferrets on prairie dog colonies in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipault, Jennifer G.; Biggins, Dean E.; Detling, James K.; Long, Dustin H.; Reich, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are among the most endangered animals in North America. Reintroductions of captive-born ferrets onto prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are crucial to the conservation of the species. In September 2007, captive-born ferrets were released on a black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony at the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico. Ferret kits experimentally released in areas of comparatively low and high prairie dog burrow densities were located via spotlight surveys. Some maturing ferret kits were subsequently translocated to areas of low and high burrow densities on nearby prairie dog colonies. For 2 months, fine-scale habitat use was quantified by mapping all burrow openings within a 30-m radius of each ferret location. Spatial statistics accounted for autocorrelation in the burrow densities in areas used by ferrets. It was hypothesized that ferrets would select areas of high burrow densities within colonies; however, burrow densities in areas used by ferrets were generally similar to the available burrow densities. Because ferrets used areas with burrow densities similar to densities available at the colony level and because of the potential energetic benefits for ferrets using areas with high burrow densities, releasing ferrets on colonies with high burrow densities might increase reintroduction success.

  7. Fine-scale acoustic telemetry reveals unexpected lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, spawning habitats in northern Lake Huron, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Farha, Steve A.; Thompson, Henry T.; Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Riley, Stephen; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, spawning habitat in the Laurentian Great Lakes have used time- and labour-intensive survey methods and have focused on areas with historic observations of spawning aggregations and on habitats prejudged by researchers to be suitable for spawning. As an alternative, we used fine-scale acoustic telemetry to locate, describe and compare lake trout spawning habitats. Adult lake trout were implanted with acoustic transmitters and tracked during five consecutive spawning seasons in a 19–27 km2 region of the Drummond Island Refuge, Lake Huron, using the VEMCO Positioning System. Acoustic telemetry revealed discrete areas of aggregation on at least five reefs in the study area, subsequently confirmed by divers to contain deposited eggs. Notably, several identified spawning sites would likely not have been discovered using traditional methods because either they were too small and obscure to stand out on a bathymetric map or because they did not conform to the conceptual model of spawning habitat held by many biologists. Our most unique observation was egg deposition in gravel and rubble substrates located at the base of and beneath overhanging edges of large boulders. Spawning sites typically comprised <10% of the reef area and were used consistently over the 5-year study. Evaluation of habitat selection from the perspective of fish behaviour through use of acoustic transmitters offers potential to expand current conceptual models of critical spawning habitat.

  8. Activity patterns and fine-scale resource partitioning in the gregarious Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rija, Alfan A; Goboro, Ezekiel M; Mwamende, Kuruthumu A; Said, Abubakari; Kohi, Edward M; Hassan, Shombe N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of species threatened with extinction is important for conservation planning and for solving problems facing species in captivity and the wild. We examined diurnal activity budgets and habitat use of the extinct in the wild Kihansi spray toad to provide insights into ongoing conservation initiatives for this species. Observations on eight target behaviors were made each morning and evening for 14 days, in two subpopulations at Kihansi and University of Dar es Salaam captive breeding centers. There were significantly more bouts of resting than calling, amplexing, hunting, walking, climbing, or feeding. There was no difference in mean time spent in each activity between the two subpopulations. The use of habitat was variable between age classes, subpopulations and sampling time. Young toads spent significantly more time resting at the top of vegetation and on walls while adults rested more on logs. Further, adults foraged more on the walls and vegetation in the morning and on the ground in the evening. Contrastingly, young toads foraged more on the ground in the morning and switched to elevated patches during evening. The similarity of the toads' behavior suggests that important biological traits are still maintained in captivity and retained across toad generations. Furthermore, temporal and spatial variations in the use of habitat structures between age groups suggest fine-scale resource partitioning to reduce competition in this gregarious species. These results highlight the importance of maintaining diverse habitat structures in captivity and are useful for planning species reintroduction and future restocking programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Fine-scale distribution of zooplankton is linked to phytoplankton species composition and abundance in a North Norwegian fjord system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbin, F.; Priou, P. D.; Varela, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    We studied the influence of dense layers of phytoplankton and aggregates on shaping the vertical distribution of zooplankton in a North Norwegian fjord using a Video Plankton Recorder (VPR). This instrument provided fine-scale vertical distribution (cm-m scale) of planktonic organisms as well as aggregates of marine snow in relation to environmental conditions. At the height - later stage of the spring phytoplankton bloom in May, the outer part of the fjord was dominated by Phaeocystis pouchetii, while diatoms (Chaetoceros spp.) were dominating in the innermost basin. Small copepods species like Pseudocalanus spp., Microsetella norvegica, and Oithona spp. prevailed over larger copepod species in the inner part of the fjord whereas the outer part was dominated by large copepods like Calanus finmarchicus. While the zooplankton where spread out over the water column during the early stage of the bloom, in May they were linked to the phytoplankton vertical distribution and in the winter situation they were found in deeper waters. Herbivorous zooplankton species were affected by phytoplankton species composition; C. finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. avoided the dense layer of P. pouchetii while herbivorous zooplankton matched the distribution of the diatom-dominated bloom. Small, omnivorous copepod species like Microsetella sp., Oithona sp. and Pseudocalanus sp. were often associated with dense layers of snow aggregates. This distribution may provide a shelter from predators as well as a food source. Natural or anthropogenic-induced changes in phytoplankton composition and aggregate distribution may thus influence food-web interactions.

  10. Improving low-relief coastal LiDAR DEMs with hydro-conditioning of fine-scale and artificial drainages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richard Allen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology and spatial analysis of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs have advanced the accuracy and diversity of applications for coastal hazards and natural resources management. This article presents a concise synthesis of LiDAR analysis for coastal flooding and management applications in low-relief coastal plains and a case study demonstration of a new, efficient drainage mapping algorithm. The impetus for these LiDAR applications follows historic flooding from Hurricane Floyd in 1999, after which the State of North Carolina and the Federal Emergency Management Agency undertook extensive LiDAR data acquisition and technological developments for high-resolution floodplain mapping. An efficient algorithm is outlined for hydro-conditioning bare earth LiDAR DEMs using available US Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset canal and ditch vectors. The methodology is illustrated in Moyock, North Carolina, for refinement of hydro-conditioning by combines pre-existing bare earth DEMs with spatial analysis of LiDAR point clouds in segmented and buffered ditch and canal networks. The methodology produces improved maps of fine-scale drainage, reduced omission of areal flood inundation, and subwatershed delineations that typify heavily ditched and canalled drainage areas. These preliminary results illustrate the capability of the technique to improve the representation of ditches in DEMs as well as subsequent flow and inundation modeling that could spur further research on low-relief coastal LiDAR applications.

  11. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Zeng (Chenjie); Guo, X. (Xingyi); J. Long (Jirong); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); A. Droit (Arnaud); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); S. Kar (Siddhartha); Freeman, A. (Adam); J.L. Hopper (John); R.L. Milne (Roger); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Wang, Q. (Qin); J. Dennis (Joe); S. Agata (Simona); S. Ahmed (Shahana); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); Antonenkova, N.N. (Natalia N.); A. Arason (Adalgeir); Arndt, V. (Volker); B.K. Arun (Banu); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); F. Bacot (Francois); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); Baynes, C. (Caroline); A. Beeghly-Fadiel (Alicia); J. Benítez (Javier); M. Bermisheva (Marina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); W.J. Blot (William); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); P. Brennan (Paul); H. Brenner (Hermann); A. Broeks (Annegien); T. Brüning (Thomas); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); T. Caldes (Trinidad); I. Campbell (Ian); T.A. Carpenter (Adrian); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Choi, J.-Y. (Ji-Yeob); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); C. Clarke (Christine); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); K. Czene (Kamila); M.B. Daly (Mary B.); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); K. De Leeneer (Kim); P. Devilee (Peter); O. Díez (Orland); S.M. Domchek (Susan); M. Doody (Michele); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); T. Dörk (Thilo); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); M. Dumont (Martine); M. Dwek (Miriam); Dworniczak, B. (Bernd); K.M. Egan (Kathleen); U. Eilber (Ursula); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); S.D. Ellis (Steve); D. Frost (Debra); F. Lalloo (Fiona); P.A. Fasching (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); H. Flyger (Henrik); M. Friedlander (Michael); E. Friedman (Eitan); Gambino, G. (Gaetana); Gao, Y.-T. (Yu-Tang); J. Garber (Judy); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); F. Damiola (Francesca); F. Lesueur (Fabienne); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); A.K. Godwin (Andrew K.); D. Goldgar (David); A. González-Neira (Anna); M.H. Greene (Mark H.); P. Guénel (Pascal); L. Haeberle (Lothar); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); Hallberg, E. (Emily); U. Hamann (Ute); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); S. Hart (Stewart); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); J.M. Hartman (Joost); N. Hassan (Norhashimah); S. Healey (Sue); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; Hendricks, C.B. (Carolyn B.); P. Hillemanns (Peter); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); P.J. Hulick (Peter); D. Hunter (David); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); C. Isaacs (Claudine); H. Ito (Hidemi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); Jaworska-Bieniek, K. (Katarzyna); U.B. Jensen; E.M. John (Esther); Joly Beauparlant, C. (Charles); M. Jones (Michael); M. Kabisch (Maria); D. Kang (Daehee); Karlan, B.Y. (Beth Y.); S. Kauppila (Saila); M. Kerin (Michael); S. Khan (Sofia); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.A. Knight (Julia); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); P. Kraft (Peter); A. Kwong (Ava); Y. Laitman (Yael); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); C. Lazaro (Conxi); L. Le Marchand (Loic); C.N. Lee (Chuen); M.H. Lee (Min Hyuk); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); J. Li (Jingmei); A. Liljegren (Annelie); A. Lindblom (Annika); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); J. Lubinski (Jan); P.L. Mai (Phuong); A. Mannermaa (Arto); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); S. Margolin (Sara); Marme, F. (Frederik); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A. Meindl (Alfons); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Montagna (Marco); K.R. Muir (K.); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P. Newcomb (Polly); S. Nord (Silje); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); K. Offit (Kenneth); E. Olah; O.I. Olopade (Olufunmilayo I.); C. Olswold (Curtis); A. Osorio (Ana); L. Papi (Laura); T.-W. Park-Simon; Paulsson-Karlsson, Y. (Ylva); S.T.H. Peeters (Stephanie); B. Peissel (Bernard); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); J. Peto (Julian); G. Pfeiler (Georg); C. Phelan (Catherine); Presneau, N. (Nadege); P. Radice (Paolo); N. Rahman (Nazneen); S.J. Ramus (Susan); M.U. Rashid (Muhammad); G. Rennert (Gad); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); Rudolph, A. (Anja); R. Salani (Ritu); Sangrajrang, S. (Suleeporn); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); P. Schürmann (Peter); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); M. Shrubsole (Martha); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); A.J. Sigurdson (Alice); C.F. Singer (Christian); S. Slager (Susan); Soucy, P. (Penny); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Steinemann (Doris); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); C. Szabo (Csilla); Tchatchou, S. (Sandrine); P.J. Teixeira; S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); A. Teulé (A.); M. Thomassen (Mads); L. Tihomirova (Laima); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); A.E. Toland (Amanda); N. Tung (Nadine); C. Turnbull (Clare); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); ven den Berg, D. (David); J. Vijai (Joseph); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); R. Winqvist (Robert); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); A.H. Wu (Anna); Yannoukakos, D. (Drakoulis); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); P. Hall (Per); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Simard (Jacques); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); W. Zheng (Wei)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. Method: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more

  12. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigorito, E.; Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Beesley, J.; Adlard, J.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Andrulis, I.L.; Arun, B.K.; Barjhoux, L.; Belotti, M.; Benitez, J.; Berger, A.; Bojesen, A.; Bonanni, B.; Brewer, C.; Caldes, T.; Caligo, M.A.; Campbell, I.; Chan, S.B.; Claes, K.B.; Cohn, D.E.; Cook, J.; Daly, M.B.; Damiola, F.; Davidson, R.; Pauw, A. de; Delnatte, C.; Diez, O.; Domchek, S.M.; Dumont, M.; Durda, K.; Dworniczak, B.; Easton, D.F.; Eccles, D.; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, C.; Eeles, R.; Ejlertsen, B.; Ellis, S.; Evans, D.G.; Feliubadalo, L.; Fostira, F.; Foulkes, W.D.; Friedman, E.; Frost, D.; Gaddam, P.; Ganz, P.A.; Garber, J.; Garcia-Barberan, V.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Gehrig, A.; Gerdes, A.M.; Giraud, S.; Godwin, A.K.; Goldgar, D.E.; Hake, C.R.; Hansen, T.V.; Healey, S.; Hodgson, S.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Houdayer, C.; Hulick, P.J.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Isaacs, C.; Izatt, L.; Izquierdo, A.; Jacobs, L; Jakubowska, A.; Janavicius, R.; Jaworska-Bieniek, K.; Jensen, U.B.; John, E.M.; Vijai, J.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kast, K.; Khan, S.; Kwong, A.; Laitman, Y.; Lester, J.; Lesueur, F.; Liljegren, A.; Lubinski, J.; Mai, P.L.; Manoukian, S.; Mazoyer, S.; Meindl, A.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Montagna, M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Nevanlinna, H.; Niederacher, D.; Olah, E.; Olopade, O.I.; Ong, K.R.; Osorio, A.; Park, S.K.; Paulsson-Karlsson, Y.; Pedersen, I.S.; Peissel, B.; Peterlongo, P.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2

  13. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  14. Coarse- and fine-scale patterns of distribution and habitat selection places an Amazonian floodplain curassow in double jeopardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Leite

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of habitat selection are influenced by local productivity, resource availability, and predation risk. Species have taken millions of years to hone the macro- and micro-habitats they occupy, but these may now overlap with contemporary human threats within natural species ranges. Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa, an endemic galliform species of the western Amazon, is threatened by both hunting and habitat loss, and is restricted to white-water floodplain forests of major Amazonian rivers. In this study conducted along the Juruá River, Amazonas, Brazil, we quantified the ranging ecology and fine-scale patterns of habitat selection of the species. We estimated the home range size of C. globulosa using conventional VHF telemetry. To estimate patterns of habitat selection, we used geo-locations of day ranges to examine the extent and intensity of use across the floodplain, which were then compared to a high-resolution flood map of the study area. We captured two females and one male, which we monitored for 13 months between September 2014 and September 2015. Average home range size was 283 ha, based on the 95% aLoCoH estimator. Wattled Curassows selected areas of prolonged flood pulses (six to eight months/year and had a consistent tendency to be near open water, usually in close proximity to river banks and lakes, especially during the dry season. Amazonian floodplains are densely settled, and the small portions of floodplain habitat used by Wattled Curassows are both the most accessible to hunters and most vulnerable to deforestation. As a result, the geographic and ecological distribution of Wattled Curassows places them at much higher extinction risk at multiple spatial scales, highlighting the need to consider habitat preferences within their conservation strategy.

  15. High genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial structure in the marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae uncovered by microsatellite loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris D Lowe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free-living marine protists are often assumed to be broadly distributed and genetically homogeneous on large spatial scales. However, an increasing application of highly polymorphic genetic markers (e.g., microsatellites has provided evidence for high genetic diversity and population structuring on small spatial scales in many free-living protists. Here we characterise a panel of new microsatellite markers for the common marine flagellate Oxyrrhis marina. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess genotypic diversity at two spatial scales by genotyping 200 isolates of O. marina from 6 broad geographic regions around Great Britain and Ireland; in one region, a single 2 km shore line was sampled intensively to assess fine-scale genetic diversity. Microsatellite loci resolved between 1-6 and 7-23 distinct alleles per region in the least and most variable loci respectively, with corresponding variation in expected heterozygosities (H(e of 0.00-0.30 and 0.81-0.93. Across the dataset, genotypic diversity was high with 183 genotypes detected from 200 isolates. Bayesian analysis of population structure supported two model populations. One population was distributed across all sampled regions; the other was confined to the intensively sampled shore, and thus two distinct populations co-occurred at this site. Whilst model-based analysis inferred a single UK-wide population, pairwise regional F(ST values indicated weak to moderate population sub-division (0.01-0.12, but no clear correlation between spatial and genetic distance was evident. Data presented in this study highlight extensive genetic diversity for O. marina; however, it remains a substantial challenge to uncover the mechanisms that drive genetic diversity in free-living microorganisms.

  16. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Holon

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m. It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures

  17. Fine-scale community structure analysis of ANME in Nyegga sediments with high and low methane flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eRoalkvam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain knowledge on how regional variations in methane seepage rates influence the stratification, abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME we analyzed the vertical microbial stratification in a gravity core from a methane micro-seeping area at Nyegga by using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene tagged amplicons and quantitative PCR. The results were compared with previously obtained data from the more active G11 pockmark, characterized by higher methane flux. A downcore stratification and high relative abundance of ANME was observed in both cores, with transition from an ANME-2a/b dominated community in low-sulfide and low-methane horizons to ANME-1 dominance in horizons near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ. The stratification was over a wider spatial region and at greater depth in the core with lower methane flux, and the total 16S rRNA copy numbers were two orders of magnitude lower than in the sediments at G11 pockmark. A fine-scale view into the ANME communities at each location was achieved through OTU clustering of ANME-affiliated sequences. The majority of ANME-1 sequences from both sampling sites clustered within one OTU, while ANME-2a/b sequences were represented in unique OTUs. We suggest that free living ANME-1 is the most abundant taxon in Nyegga cold seeps, and also the main consumer of methane. The specific ANME-2a/b ecotypes could reflect adaptations to the geochemical composition at each location, with different affinities to methane. Given that the ANME-2a/b population could be sustained in less active seepage areas, this subgroup could be potential seed populations in newly developed methane-enriched environments.

  18. Exploiting fine-scale genetic and physiological variation of closely related microbes to reveal unknown enzyme functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Ahmet H; Plutz, Matthew J; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Schweder, Thomas; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Polz, Martin F; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rao, Christopher V

    2017-08-04

    Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity; varying numbers of enzymes, due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer, among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knock-out strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes. Inspired by this natural fine-scale microbial diversity, we show here that it can be used to develop hypotheses guiding biochemical experiments for establishing the role of these enzymes in nature. In this work, we investigated alginate degradation among closely related strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus One strain, V. splendidus 13B01, exhibited high extracellular alginate lyase activity compared with other V. splendidus strains. To identify the enzymes responsible for this high extracellular activity, we compared V. splendidus 13B01 with the previously characterized V. splendidus 12B01, which has low extracellular activity and lacks two alginate lyase genes present in V. splendidus 13B01. Using a combination of genomics, proteomics, biochemical, and functional screening, we identified a polysaccharide lyase family 7 enzyme that is unique to V. splendidus 13B01, secreted, and responsible for the rapid digestion of extracellular alginate. These results demonstrate the value of querying the enzymatic repertoires of closely related microbes to rapidly pinpoint key proteins with beneficial functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Fine-scale tracking and diet information of a marine predator reveals the origin and contrasting spatial distribution of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hany; Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Catry, Teresa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of many marine organisms is still poorly understood, particularly in oceanic regions. Seabirds, as aerial predators which cover extensive areas across the oceans, can potentially be used to enhance our knowledge on the distribution and abundance of their prey. In this study, we combined tracking data and dietary data from individual Cory's shearwaters Calonectris borealis (n = 68) breeding in Selvagens archipelago, Madeira, Portugal, during the chick-rearing periods of 2011 and 2016, in order to infer prey origin within shearwaters' main foraging areas. The digestion state of each prey item in the diet was assessed and classified; and compared to digestion states from known prey items fed to captive birds. In a novel approach, we combined tracking data with information on the prey digestion duration and data on the transit times from foraging grounds to the colony to estimate the location of prey capture. We found a consistent heterogeneity in prey distribution across four different marine domains: Selvagens, deep-sea, seamounts, and continental shelf. In oceanic areas, the chub mackerel Scomber colias, the main prey of Cory's shearwaters, was strongly associated with seamounts and insular shelves, whereas oceanic species like pilot-fish, flying-squid, flying-fish were clearly associated with deep-sea waters. Sardines Sardina pilchardus, anchovies Engraulis encrasicolus and other coastal species were associated with the African shelf. Prey origin assignment was robust across three different sets of assumptions, and was also supported by information on the digestion state of prey collected over a large independent sampling period (671 samples, collected in 2008-2010). The integration of fine-scale dietary and foraging trip data from marine predators provides a new framework to gain insights into the distribution and abundance of prey species in poorly known oceanic areas.

  20. Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holon, Florian; Mouquet, Nicolas; Boissery, Pierre; Bouchoucha, Marc; Delaruelle, Gwenaelle; Tribot, Anne-Sophie; Deter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant

  1. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  2. Pollen-mediated gene flow and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghè, D; Piotti, A; Satovic, Z; de la Rosa, R; Belaj, A

    2017-03-01

    Wild olive ( Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris ) is important from an economic and ecological point of view. The effects of anthropogenic activities may lead to the genetic erosion of its genetic patrimony, which has high value for breeding programmes. In particular, the consequences of the introgression from cultivated stands are strongly dependent on the extent of gene flow and therefore this work aims at quantitatively describing contemporary gene flow patterns in wild olive natural populations. The studied wild population is located in an undisturbed forest, in southern Spain, considered one of the few extant hotspots of true oleaster diversity. A total of 225 potential father trees and seeds issued from five mother trees were genotyped by eight microsatellite markers. Levels of contemporary pollen flow, in terms of both pollen immigration rates and within-population dynamics, were measured through paternity analyses. Moreover, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) was studied to assess the relative importance of seed and pollen dispersal in shaping the spatial distribution of genetic variation. The results showed that the population under study is characterized by a high genetic diversity, a relatively high pollen immigration rate (0·57), an average within-population pollen dispersal of about 107 m and weak but significant SGS up to 40 m. The population is a mosaic of several intermingled genetic clusters that is likely to be generated by spatially restricted seed dispersal. Moreover, wild oleasters were found to be self-incompatible and preferential mating between some genotypes was revealed. Knowledge of the within-population genetic structure and gene flow dynamics will lead to identifying possible strategies aimed at limiting the effect of anthropogenic activities and improving breeding programmes for the conservation of olive tree forest genetic resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Spatially explicit multi-threat assessment of food tree species in Burkina Faso: A fine-scale approach.

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    Hannes Gaisberger

    Full Text Available Over the last decades agroforestry parklands in Burkina Faso have come under increasing demographic as well as climatic pressures, which are threatening indigenous tree species that contribute substantially to income generation and nutrition in rural households. Analyzing the threats as well as the species vulnerability to them is fundamental for priority setting in conservation planning. Guided by literature and local experts we selected 16 important food tree species (Acacia macrostachya, Acacia senegal, Adansonia digitata, Annona senegalensis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Bombax costatum, Boscia senegalensis, Detarium microcarpum, Lannea microcarpa, Parkia biglobosa, Sclerocarya birrea, Strychnos spinosa, Tamarindus indica, Vitellaria paradoxa, Ximenia americana, Ziziphus mauritiana and six key threats to them (overexploitation, overgrazing, fire, cotton production, mining and climate change. We developed a species-specific and spatially explicit approach combining freely accessible datasets, species distribution models (SDMs, climate models and expert survey results to predict, at fine scale, where these threats are likely to have the greatest impact. We find that all species face serious threats throughout much of their distribution in Burkina Faso and that climate change is predicted to be the most prevalent threat in the long term, whereas overexploitation and cotton production are the most important short-term threats. Tree populations growing in areas designated as 'highly threatened' due to climate change should be used as seed sources for ex situ conservation and planting in areas where future climate is predicting suitable habitats. Assisted regeneration is suggested for populations in areas where suitable habitat under future climate conditions coincides with high threat levels due to short-term threats. In the case of Vitellaria paradoxa, we suggest collecting seed along the northern margins of its distribution and considering assisted

  4. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris population in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals’ ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris, which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. Methods We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly’s selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D2 method and the Boyce index. Results There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory

  5. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris) population in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mriganka Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Johnson, Jeyaraj A; Sen, Subharanjan; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger ( Panthera tigris ), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly's selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D 2 method and the Boyce index. There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory and settled periods. Based on threshold limits

  6. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  7. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  8. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Droit, Arnaud; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Kar, Siddhartha; Freeman, Adam; Hopper, John L.; Milne, Roger L.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Agata, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. Method: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast C...

  9. Fine-scale heat flow, shallow heat sources, and decoupled circulation systems at two sea-floor hydrothermal sites, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Langseth, M.; Jin, W.; Iturrino, G.; Davis, E.

    1998-12-01

    Fine-scale heat-flow patterns at two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented rift on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, provide thermal evidence of shallow hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the vent fields. The extreme variability of heat flow is explained by conductive heating immediately adjacent to vents and shallow circulation within sediments above the reservoir. This secondary circulation is hydrologically separated from the deeper system feeding the vents by a shallow conductive lid within the sediments. A similar separation of shallow and deep circulation may also occur at sediment-free ridge-crest hydrothermal environments.

  10. Temporal changes in vegetation of a virgin beech woodland remnant: stand-scale stability with intensive fine-scale dynamics governed by stand dynamic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Standovár

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this resurvey study is to check if herbaceous vegetation on the forest floor exhibits overall stability at the stand-scale in spite of intensive dynamics at the scale of individual plots and stand dynamic events (driven by natural fine scale canopy gap dynamics. In 1996, we sampled a 1.5 ha patch using 0.25 m² plots placed along a 5 m × 5 m grid in the best remnant of central European montane beech woods in Hungary. All species in the herbaceous layer and their cover estimates were recorded. Five patches representing different stand developmental situations (SDS were selected for resurvey. In 2013, 306 plots were resurveyed by using blocks of four 0.25 m² plots to test the effects of imperfect relocation. We found very intensive fine-scale dynamics in the herbaceous layer with high species turnover and sharp changes in ground layer cover at the local-scale (< 1 m2. A decrease in species richness and herbaceous layer cover, as well as high species turnover, characterized the closing gaps. Colonization events and increasing species richness and herbaceous layer cover prevailed in the two newly created gaps. A pronounced decrease in the total cover, but low species turnover and survival of the majority of the closed forest specialists was detected by the resurvey at the stand-scale. The test aiming at assessing the effect of relocation showed a higher time effect than the effect of imprecise relocation. The very intensive fine-scale dynamics of the studied beech forest are profoundly determined by natural stand dynamics. Extinction and colonisation episodes even out at the stand-scale, implying an overall compositional stability of the herbaceous vegetation at the given spatial and temporal scale. We argue that fine-scale gap dynamics, driven by natural processes or applied as a management method, can warrant the survival of many closed forest specialist species in the long-run. Nomenclature: Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 2010 for

  11. Elements of the geological structure of the Western Siberian platform determined from a review of fine-scale satellite photographs in oil and gas prospecting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovskii, V V; Klopov, A L; Peskovskii, I D; Podsosova, L L

    1980-01-01

    Dislocations with breaks in continuity and annular objects are identified on fine-scale satellite photographs within the region of the Western Siberian platform. Based on an integrated interpretation of the geological and geophysical data, it is predicted that there exists a relation between the annular objects and the geological structure of deep portions of the earth's crust, the pre-Jurassic basement, and certain levels of the platform mantle. Procedural techniques for the use of magnetic and gravitional data for the purpose of obtaining information about the geological nature of the identified objects are considered.

  12. Internal variability of fine-scale components of meteorological fields in extended-range limited-area model simulations with atmospheric and surface nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Internal variability (IV) in dynamical downscaling with limited-area models (LAMs) represents a source of error inherent to the downscaled fields, which originates from the sensitive dependence of the models to arbitrarily small modifications. If IV is large it may impose the need for probabilistic verification of the downscaled information. Atmospheric spectral nudging (ASN) can reduce IV in LAMs as it constrains the large-scale components of LAM fields in the interior of the computational domain and thus prevents any considerable penetration of sensitively dependent deviations into the range of large scales. Using initial condition ensembles, the present study quantifies the impact of ASN on IV in LAM simulations in the range of fine scales that are not controlled by spectral nudging. Four simulation configurations that all include strong ASN but differ in the nudging settings are considered. In the fifth configuration, grid nudging of land surface variables toward high-resolution surface analyses is applied. The results show that the IV at scales larger than 300 km can be suppressed by selecting an appropriate ASN setup. At scales between 300 and 30 km, however, in all configurations, the hourly near-surface temperature, humidity, and winds are only partly reproducible. Nudging the land surface variables is found to have the potential to significantly reduce IV, particularly for fine-scale temperature and humidity. On the other hand, hourly precipitation accumulations at these scales are generally irreproducible in all configurations, and probabilistic approach to downscaling is therefore recommended.

  13. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Zanarivero Gardiner

    Full Text Available Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  14. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  15. Genome-wide survey of single-nucleotide polymorphisms reveals fine-scale population structure and signs of selection in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghann K. Devlin-Durante

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of next-generation sequencing tools has made it possible to conduct fine-scale surveys of population differentiation and genome-wide scans for signatures of selection in non-model organisms. Such surveys are of particular importance in sharply declining coral species, since knowledge of population boundaries and signs of local adaptation can inform restoration and conservation efforts. Here, we use genome-wide surveys of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, to reveal fine-scale population structure and infer the major barrier to gene flow that separates the eastern and western Caribbean populations between the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The exact location of this break had been subject to discussion because two previous studies based on microsatellite data had come to differing conclusions. We investigate this contradiction by analyzing an extended set of 11 microsatellite markers including the five previously employed and discovered that one of the original microsatellite loci is apparently under selection. Exclusion of this locus reconciles the results from the SNP and the microsatellite datasets. Scans for outlier loci in the SNP data detected 13 candidate loci under positive selection, however there was no correlation between available environmental parameters and genetic distance. Together, these results suggest that reef restoration efforts should use local sources and utilize existing functional variation among geographic regions in ex situ crossing experiments to improve stress resistance of this species.

  16. Genome-wide survey of single-nucleotide polymorphisms reveals fine-scale population structure and signs of selection in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin-Durante, Meghann K; Baums, Iliana B

    2017-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing tools has made it possible to conduct fine-scale surveys of population differentiation and genome-wide scans for signatures of selection in non-model organisms. Such surveys are of particular importance in sharply declining coral species, since knowledge of population boundaries and signs of local adaptation can inform restoration and conservation efforts. Here, we use genome-wide surveys of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata , to reveal fine-scale population structure and infer the major barrier to gene flow that separates the eastern and western Caribbean populations between the Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The exact location of this break had been subject to discussion because two previous studies based on microsatellite data had come to differing conclusions. We investigate this contradiction by analyzing an extended set of 11 microsatellite markers including the five previously employed and discovered that one of the original microsatellite loci is apparently under selection. Exclusion of this locus reconciles the results from the SNP and the microsatellite datasets. Scans for outlier loci in the SNP data detected 13 candidate loci under positive selection, however there was no correlation between available environmental parameters and genetic distance. Together, these results suggest that reef restoration efforts should use local sources and utilize existing functional variation among geographic regions in ex situ crossing experiments to improve stress resistance of this species.

  17. Multiscale modeling and nested simulations of three-dimensional ionospheric plasmas: Rayleigh–Taylor turbulence and nonequilibrium layer dynamics at fine scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalov, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale modeling and high resolution three-dimensional simulations of nonequilibrium ionospheric dynamics are major frontiers in the field of space sciences. The latest developments in fast computational algorithms and novel numerical methods have advanced reliable forecasting of ionospheric environments at fine scales. These new capabilities include improved physics-based predictive modeling, nesting and implicit relaxation techniques that are designed to integrate models of disparate scales. A range of scales, from mesoscale to ionospheric microscale, are included in a 3D modeling framework. Analyses and simulations of primary and secondary Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities in the equatorial spread F (ESF), the response of the plasma density to the neutral turbulent dynamics, and wave breaking in the lower region of the ionosphere and nonequilibrium layer dynamics at fine scales are presented for coupled systems (ions, electrons and neutral winds), thus enabling studies of mesoscale/microscale dynamics for a range of altitudes that encompass the ionospheric E and F layers. We examine the organizing mixing patterns for plasma flows, which occur due to polarized gravity wave excitations in the neutral field, using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). LCS objectively depict the flow topology and the extracted scintillation-producing irregularities that indicate a generation of ionospheric density gradients, due to the accumulation of plasma. The scintillation effects in propagation, through strongly inhomogeneous ionospheric media, are induced by trapping electromagnetic (EM) waves in parabolic cavities, which are created by the refractive index gradients along the propagation paths. (paper)

  18. Investigating the Relationships between Canopy Characteristics and Snow Depth Distribution at Fine Scales: Preliminary Results from the SnowEX TLS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Uhlmann, Z.; Spaete, L.; Tennant, C.; Hiemstra, C. A.; McNamara, J.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting changes in forested seasonal snowpacks under altered climate scenarios is one of the most pressing hydrologic challenges facing today's society. Airborne- and satellite-based remote sensing methods hold the potential to transform measurements of terrestrial water stores in snowpack, improve process representations of snowpack accumulation and ablation, and to generate high quality predictions that inform potential strategies to better manage water resources. While the effects of forest on snowpack are well documented, many of the fine-scale processes influenced by the forest-canopy are not directly accounted for because most snow models don't explicitly represent canopy structure and canopy heterogeneity. This study investigates the influence of forest canopy on snowpack distribution at fine scales and quantifies the influence of canopy heterogeneity on snowpack accumulation and ablation processes. We use terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data collected during the SnowEX campaign to discover how the relationships between canopy and snow distributions change across scales. Our sample scales range from individual trees to patches of trees across the Grand Mesa, CO, SnowEx site.

  19. Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigot, T; Drubbel, M Vercauteren; Delécolle, J-C; Gilbert, M

    2013-03-01

    The spatial epidemiology of Bluetongue virus (BTV) at the landscape level relates to the fine-scale distribution and dispersal capacities of its vectors, midges belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although many previous researches have carried out Culicoides sampling on farms, little is known of the fine-scale distribution of Culicoides in the landscape immediately surrounding farms. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of Culicoides populations at increasing distances from typical dairy farms in north-west Europe, through the use of eight Onderstepoort-type black-light traps positioned along linear transects departing from farms, going through pastures and entering woodlands. A total of 16 902 Culicoides were collected in autumn 2008 and spring 2009. The majority were females, of which more than 97% were recognized as potential vectors. In pastures, we found decreasing numbers of female Culicoides as a function of the distance to the farm. This pattern was modelled by leptokurtic models, with parameters depending on season and species. By contrast, the low number of male Culicoides caught were homogeneously distributed along the transects. When transects entered woodlands, we found a higher abundance of Culicoides than expected considering the distance of the sampling sites to the farm, although this varied according to species. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. PREFACE: Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011) Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.

    2012-03-01

    This special issue contains selected contributions from invited speakers to the 'Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé', held as part of the 2011 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, that took place on February 27-March 3, 2011 in San Diego, CA, USA. This symposium honored the remarkable contributions of Dr Carlos N Tomé to the field of mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Throughout his career, Dr Tomé has pioneered the theoretical and numerical development of models of polycrystal mechanical behavior, with emphasis on the role played by texture and microstructure on the anisotropic behavior of engineering materials. His many contributions have been critical in establishing a strong connection between models and experiments, and in bridging different scales in the pursuit of robust multiscale models with experimental integration. Among his achievements, the numerical codes that Dr Tomé and co-workers have developed are extensively used in the materials science and engineering community as predictive tools for parameter identification, interpretation of experiments, and multiscale calculations in academia, national laboratories and industry. The symposium brought together materials scientists and engineers to address current theoretical, computational and experimental issues related to microstructure-property relationships in polycrystalline materials deforming in different regimes, including the effects of single crystal anisotropy, texture and microstructure evolution. Synergetic studies, involving different crystal plasticity-based models, including multiscale implementations of the latter, and measurements of global and local textures, internal strains, dislocation structures, twinning, phase distribution, etc, were discussed in more than 90 presentations. The papers in this issue are representative of the different length-scales, materials, and experimental and

  1. Fine-scale mapping of a locus for severe bipolar mood disorder on chromosome 18p11.3 in the Costa Rican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, L. Alison; Service, Susan K.; Reus, Victor I.; Barnes, Glenn; Charlat, Olga; Jawahar, Satya; Lewitzky, Steve; Yang, Qing; Duong, Quyen; Spesny, Mitzi; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Gallegos, Alvaro; Meza, Luis; Molina, Julio; Ramirez, Rolando; Mendez, Roxana; Silva, Sandra; Fournier, Eduardo; Batki, Steven L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Neylan, Thomas; Glatt, Charles E.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Luo, David; Gajiwala, Paresh; Song, Terry; Crook, Stephen; Nguyen, Jasmine B.; Roche, Erin; Meyer, Joanne M.; Leon, Pedro; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Chen, Hong

    2001-01-01

    We have searched for genes predisposing to bipolar disorder (BP) by studying individuals with the most extreme form of the affected phenotype, BP-I, ascertained from the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). The results of a previous linkage analysis on two extended CVCR BP-I pedigrees, CR001 and CR004, and of linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of a CVCR population sample of BP-I patients implicated a candidate region on 18p11.3. We further investigated this region by creating a physical map and developing 4 new microsatellite and 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers for typing in the pedigree and population samples. We report the results of fine-scale association analyses in the population sample, as well as evaluation of haplotypes in pedigree CR001. Our results suggest a candidate region containing six genes but also highlight the complexities of LD mapping of common disorders. PMID:11572994

  2. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300...... Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants...... with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P 

  3. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fine-scale effects of environmental variables associated with habitat distribution for 4 size groups of Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, using generalized additive models (GAMs) with a negative binominal error distribution. This study took place during the Namibian...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...

  4. Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Holland

    Full Text Available Knowledge of black vulture (Coragyps atratus and turkey vulture (Cathartes aura spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. Fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. Objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turkey vultures with consideration to sex, as well as elucidate differences in monthly, seasonal, and annual activity patterns based on fine-scale movement data analyses. We collected 2.8-million locations for 9 black and 9 turkey vultures from June 2013 -August 2015 using solar-powered GSM/GPS transmitters. We quantified home ranges and core areas using the dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and evaluated differences as a function of species, sex, and month. Mean monthly home ranges for turkey vultures were ~50% larger than those of black vultures, although mean core area sizes did not differ between species. Turkey vulture home ranges varied little across months, with exception to a notable reduction in space-use in May, which corresponds with timing of chick-rearing activities. Black vulture home ranges and core areas as well as turkey vulture core areas were larger in breeding season months (January-April. Comparison of space use between male and female vultures was only possible for black vultures, and space use was only slightly larger for females during breeding months (February-May. Analysis of activity patterns revealed turkey vultures spend more time in flight and switch motion states (between flight and stationary more frequently than black vultures across temporal scales. This study reveals substantive variability in space use and activity rates between sympatric black and turkey vultures, providing insights into potential behavioral mechanisms

  5. Modelling Deep Water Habitats to Develop a Spatially Explicit, Fine Scale Understanding of the Distribution of the Western Rock Lobster, Panulirus cygnus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Pember, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Methods and Findings Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Conclusions Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats. PMID

  6. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C S McIntosh

    Full Text Available Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR of the forest floor microbial community environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide

  7. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  8. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae K Hovey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae within a 40 km(2 area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2 of 64 and an 80% correct classification. CONCLUSIONS: Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical

  9. Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Mugal, Carina F; Suh, Alexander; Nater, Alexander; Burri, Reto; Smeds, Linnéa; Ellegren, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of the recombination landscape between these species at the scale of 200 kb, but we also identified differences in the local rate of recombination despite their recent divergence (recombination rate in a lineage-specific manner, indicating differences in the extent of linked selection between species. We detected 400-3,085 recombination hotspots per population. Location of hotspots was conserved between species, but the intensity of hotspot activity varied between species. Recombination hotspots were primarily associated with CpG islands (CGIs), regardless of whether CGIs were at promoter regions or away from genes. Recombination hotspots were also associated with specific transposable elements (TEs), but this association appears indirect due to shared preferences of the transposition machinery and the recombination machinery for accessible open chromatin regions. Our results suggest that CGIs are a major determinant of the localization of recombination hotspots, and we propose that both the distribution of TEs and fine-scale variation in recombination rate may be associated with the evolution of the epigenetic landscape. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Anne C. S.; Macdonald, S. Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A.

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  11. Modelling deep water habitats to develop a spatially explicit, fine scale understanding of the distribution of the western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Renae K; Van Niel, Kimberly P; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Pember, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is endemic to Western Australia and supports substantial commercial and recreational fisheries. Due to and its wide distribution and the commercial and recreational importance of the species a key component of managing western rock lobster is understanding the ecological processes and interactions that may influence lobster abundance and distribution. Using terrain analyses and distribution models of substrate and benthic biota, we assess the physical drivers that influence the distribution of lobsters at a key fishery site. Using data collected from hydroacoustic and towed video surveys, 20 variables (including geophysical, substrate and biota variables) were developed to predict the distributions of substrate type (three classes of reef, rhodoliths and sand) and dominant biota (kelp, sessile invertebrates and macroalgae) within a 40 km(2) area about 30 km off the west Australian coast. Lobster presence/absence data were collected within this area using georeferenced pots. These datasets were used to develop a classification tree model for predicting the distribution of the western rock lobster. Interestingly, kelp and reef were not selected as predictors. Instead, the model selected geophysical and geomorphic scalar variables, which emphasise a mix of terrain within limited distances. The model of lobster presence had an adjusted D(2) of 64 and an 80% correct classification. Species distribution models indicate that juxtaposition in fine scale terrain is most important to the western rock lobster. While key features like kelp and reef may be important to lobster distribution at a broad scale, it is the fine scale features in terrain that are likely to define its ecological niche. Determining the most appropriate landscape configuration and scale will be essential to refining niche habitats and will aid in selecting appropriate sites for protecting critical lobster habitats.

  12. Stratigraphy, distribution, and evidence for mafic triggering of the ca. 8.5 ka Driftwood Pumice eruption, Makushin Volcano, Alaska, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Allan H.; Crowley, Peter D.; Nicolaysen, Kirsten P.; Hazlett, Richard W.

    2018-05-01

    Makushin Volcano on Unalaska Island, Alaska, threatens the Aleutian's largest population centers (Unalaska and Dutch Harbor), yet its eruption mechanisms are poorly known. This study presents a detailed stratigraphic and geochemical investigation of Makushin's most recent highly explosive event: the ca. 8.5 ka Driftwood Pumice eruption. The Driftwood Pumice has measured thicknesses of over 2.5 m, and isopach reconstructions estimate a total deposit volume of 0.3 to 1.6 km3, indicating a VEI 4-5 eruption. Proximal deposits consist of normally-graded, tan, dacitic to andesitic pumice, capped by a thinner dark layer of lower-silica andesitic scoria mixed with abundant lithic fragments. This stratigraphy is interpreted as an initial vent-clearing eruption that strengthened into a climactic ejection of pumice and ash and concluded with vent destabilization and the eruption of somewhat more mafic, gas-poor magma. Within the pumice, geochemical trends, disequilibrium mineral populations, and mineral zonation patterns show evidence of magma mixing between a bulk silicic magma and a mafic melt. Euhedral high-Ca plagioclase (An68-91) and high-Mg olivine (Fo69-77) phenocrysts are in disequilibrium with trachydacitic glass (65-68 wt% SiO2) and more abundant sodic plagioclase (An34-55), indicating the former originally crystallized in a more mafic melt. Tephra whole rock compositions become more mafic upwards through the deposit, ranging from a basal low-silica dacite to an andesite (total range: 60.8-63.3 wt% SiO2). Collectively, these compositional variations suggest magma mixing in the Driftwood Pumice (DWP) magma reservoir, with a systematic increase in the amount of a mafic component (up to 25%) upward through the deposit. Olivine-liquid and liquid-only thermometry indicate the mafic magma intruded at temperatures 140-200 °C hotter than the silicic magma. Diffusion rates calculated for 5-7 μm thick, lower-Mg rims on the olivine phenocrysts (Fo60 rim vs Fo76 bulk) suggest

  13. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; George Hilley,; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  14. Longitudinal heterogeneity of flow and heat fluxes in a large lowland river: A study of the San Joaquin River, CA, USA during a large-scale flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.; Dozier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Systematic downstream variation of channel characteristics, scaled by flow affects the transport and distribution of heat throughout a large river. As water moves through a river channel, streamflow and velocity may fluctuate by orders of magnitude primarily due to channel geometry, slope and resistance to flow, and the time scales of those fluctuations range from days to decades (Constantz et al., 1994; Lundquist and Cayan, 2002; McKerchar and Henderson, 2003). It is well understood that the heat budget of a river is primarily governed by surface exchanges, with the most significant surface flux coming from net shortwave radiation. The absorption of radiation at a given point in a river is determined by the wavelength-dependent index of refraction, expressed by the angle of refraction and the optical depth as a function of physical depth and the absorption coefficient (Dozier, 1980). Few studies consider the influence of hydrologic alteration to the optical properties governing net radiative heat transfer in a large lowland river, yet it is the most significant component of the heat budget and definitive to a river's thermal regime. We seek a physically based model without calibration to incorporate scale-dependent physical processes governing heat and flow dynamics in large rivers, how they change across the longitudinal profile, and how they change under different flow regimes. Longitudinal flow and heat flux analyses require synoptic flow time series from multiple sites along rivers, and few hydrometric networks meet this requirement (Larned et al, 2011). We model the energy budget in a regulated 240-km mainstem reach of the San Joaquin River California, USA equipped with multiple gaging stations from Friant Dam to its confluence with the Merced River during a large-scale flow experiment. We use detailed hydroclimatic observations distributed across the longitudinal gradient creating a non-replicable field experiment of heat fluxes across a range of flow regime

  15. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Deas

    Full Text Available Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific, we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss considering i total catches, ii target fish families, iii local marine tenure, and iv gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data.

  16. Fine-scale spatio-temporal variation in tiger Panthera tigris diet: Effect of study duration and extent on estimates of tiger diet in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Paul M.; Streby, Henry M.; Gurung, B.; Simcharoen, A.; McDougal, C.C.; Smith, J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to conserve declining tiger Panthera tigris populations and distributions have experienced limited success. The poaching of tiger prey is a key threat to tiger persistence; a clear understanding of tiger diet is a prerequisite to conserve dwindling populations. We used unpublished data on tiger diet in combination with two previously published studies to examine fine-scale spatio-temporal changes in tiger diet relative to prey abundance in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and aggregated data from the three studies to examine the effect that study duration and the size of the study area have on estimates of tiger diet. Our results correspond with those of previous studies: in all three studies, tiger diet was dominated by members of Cervidae; small to medium-sized prey was important in one study. Tiger diet was unrelated to prey abundance, and the aggregation of studies indicates that increasing study duration and study area size both result in increased dietary diversity in terms of prey categories consumed, and increasing study duration changed which prey species contributed most to tiger diet. Based on our results, we suggest that managers focus their efforts on minimizing the poaching of all tiger prey, and that future studies of tiger diet be of long duration and large spatial extent to improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in estimates of tiger diet. ?? 2011 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  17. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  18. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Toward an operational framework for fine-scale urban land-cover mapping in Wallonia using submeter remote sensing and ancillary vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Grippa, Tais; Lennert, Moritz; Vanhuysse, Sabine; Stephenne, Nathalie; Wolff, Eléonore

    2017-07-01

    Encouraged by the EU INSPIRE directive requirements and recommendations, the Walloon authorities, similar to other EU regional or national authorities, want to develop operational land-cover (LC) and land-use (LU) mapping methods using existing geodata. Urban planners and environmental monitoring stakeholders of Wallonia have to rely on outdated, mixed, and incomplete LC and LU information. The current reference map is 10-years old. The two object-based classification methods, i.e., a rule- and a classifier-based method, for detailed regional urban LC mapping are compared. The added value of using the different existing geospatial datasets in the process is assessed. This includes the comparison between satellite and aerial optical data in terms of mapping accuracies, visual quality of the map, costs, processing, data availability, and property rights. The combination of spectral, tridimensional, and vector data provides accuracy values close to 0.90 for mapping the LC into nine categories with a minimum mapping unit of 15 m2. Such a detailed LC map offers opportunities for fine-scale environmental and spatial planning activities. Still, the regional application poses challenges regarding automation, big data handling, and processing time, which are discussed.

  20. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2...... mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively...... of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest...

  1. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Courtney C; Evans, Michelle V; McClanahan, Taylor D; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Tesla, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC). We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  2. Nest suitability, fine-scale population structure and male-mediated dispersal of a solitary ground nesting bee in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Uribe, Margarita M; Morreale, Stephen J; Santiago, Christine K; Danforth, Bryan N

    2015-01-01

    Bees are the primary pollinators of flowering plants in almost all ecosystems. Worldwide declines in bee populations have raised awareness about the importance of their ecological role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. The naturally strong philopatric behavior that some bee species show can be detrimental to population viability through increased probability of inbreeding. Furthermore, bee populations found in human-altered landscapes, such as urban areas, can experience lower levels of gene flow and effective population sizes, increasing potential for inbreeding depression in wild bee populations. In this study, we investigated the fine-scale population structure of the solitary bee Colletes inaequalis in an urbanized landscape. First, we developed a predictive spatial model to detect suitable nesting habitat for this ground nesting bee and to inform our field search for nests. We genotyped 18 microsatellites in 548 female individuals collected from nest aggregations throughout the study area. Genetic relatedness estimates revealed that genetic similarity among individuals was slightly greater within nest aggregations than among randomly chosen individuals. However, genetic structure among nest aggregations was low (Nei's GST = 0.011). Reconstruction of parental genotypes revealed greater genetic relatedness among females than among males within nest aggregations, suggesting male-mediated dispersal as a potentially important mechanism of population connectivity and inbreeding avoidance. Size of nesting patch was positively correlated with effective population size, but not with other estimators of genetic diversity. We detected a positive trend between geographic distance and genetic differentiation between nest aggregations. Our landscape genetic models suggest that increased urbanization is likely associated with higher levels of inbreeding. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of density and distribution of suitable nesting patches for enhancing

  3. Fine-scale variation in microclimate across an urban landscape shapes variation in mosquito population dynamics and the potential of Aedes albopictus to transmit arboviral disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney C Murdock

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most statistical and mechanistic models used to predict mosquito-borne disease transmission incorporate climate drivers of disease transmission by utilizing environmental data collected at geographic scales that are potentially coarser than what mosquito populations may actually experience. Temperature and relative humidity can vary greatly between indoor and outdoor environments, and can be influenced strongly by variation in landscape features. In the Aedes albopictus system, we conducted a proof-of-concept study in the vicinity of the University of Georgia to explore the effects of fine-scale microclimate variation on mosquito life history and vectorial capacity (VC. We placed Ae. albopictus larvae in artificial pots distributed across three replicate sites within three different land uses-urban, suburban, and rural, which were characterized by high, intermediate, and low proportions of impervious surfaces. Data loggers were placed into each larval environment and in nearby vegetation to record daily variation in water and ambient temperature and relative humidity. The number of adults emerging from each pot and their body size and sex were recorded daily. We found mosquito microclimate to significantly vary across the season as well as with land use. Urban sites were in general warmer and less humid than suburban and rural sites, translating into decreased larval survival, smaller body sizes, and lower per capita growth rates of mosquitoes on urban sites. Dengue transmission potential was predicted to be higher in the summer than the fall. Additionally, the effects of land use on dengue transmission potential varied by season. Warm summers resulted in a higher predicted VC on the cooler, rural sites, while warmer, urban sites had a higher predicted VC during the cooler fall season.

  4. Imaging the Fine-Scale Structure of the San Andreas Fault in the Northern Gabilan Range with Explosion and Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of geophysical studies have been carried out along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in the Northern Gabilan Range (NGR) with the purpose of characterizing in detail the fault zone structure. Previous seismic research has revealed the complex structure of the crustal volume in the NGR region in two-dimensions (Thurber et al., 1996, 1997), and there has been some work on the three-dimensional (3D) structure at a coarser scale (Lin and Roecker, 1997). In our study we use earthquake body-wave arrival times and differential times (P and S) and explosion arrival times (only P) to image the 3D P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust along the SAF in the NGR using double-difference (DD) tomography. The earthquake and explosion data types have complementary strengths - the earthquake data have good resolution at depth and resolve both Vp and Vs structure, although only where there are sufficient seismic rays between hypocenter and stations, whereas the explosions contribute very good near-surface resolution but for P waves only. The original dataset analyzed by Thurber et al. (1996, 1997) included data from 77 local earthquakes and 8 explosions. We enlarge the dataset with 114 more earthquakes that occurred in the study area, obtain improved S-wave picks using an automated picker, and include absolute and cross-correlation differential times. The inversion code we use is the algorithm tomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). We assess how the P and S velocity models and earthquake locations vary as we alter the inversion parameters and the inversion grid. The new inversion results show clearly the fine-scale structure of the SAF at depth in 3D, sharpening the image of the velocity contrast from the southwest side to the northeast side.

  5. Fine-scale population genetic structure of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in a human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Aspi, Jouni; Kvist, Laura; Sharma, Reeta; Pandey, Puneet; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Singh, Randeep; Agrawal, Manoj; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals. We document, for the first time, the genetic characteristics of this tiger population by genotyping 71 tiger samples using 13 microsatellite markers from the western region of TAL (WTAL) of 1800 km2. Specifically, we aimed to estimate the genetic variability, population structure, and gene flow. The microsatellite markers indicated that the levels of allelic diversity (MNA = 6.6) and genetic variation (Ho = 0.50, HE = 0.64) were slightly lower than those reported previously in other Bengal tiger populations. We observed moderate gene flow and significant genetic differentiation (FST= 0.060) and identified the presence of cryptic genetic structure using Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches. There was low and significantly asymmetric migration between the two main subpopulations of the Rajaji Tiger Reserve and the Corbett Tiger Reserve in WTAL. Sibship relationships indicated that the functionality of the corridor between these subpopulations may be retained if the quality of the habitat does not deteriorate. However, we found that gene flow is not adequate in view of changing land use matrices. We discuss the need to maintain connectivity by implementing the measures that have been suggested previously to minimize the level of human disturbance, including relocation of villages and industries, prevention of

  6. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vigorito

    Full Text Available Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16. These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6. The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  7. Fine-scale population genetic structure of the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris in a human-dominated western Terai Arc Landscape, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Despite massive global conservation strategies, tiger populations continued to decline until recently, mainly due to habitat loss, human-animal conflicts, and poaching. These factors are known to affect the genetic characteristics of tiger populations and decrease local effective population sizes. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL at the foothills of the Himalaya is one of the 42 source sites of tigers around the globe. Therefore, information on how landscape features and anthropogenic factors affect the fine-scale spatial genetic structure and variation of tigers in TAL is needed to develop proper management strategies for achieving long-term conservation goals. We document, for the first time, the genetic characteristics of this tiger population by genotyping 71 tiger samples using 13 microsatellite markers from the western region of TAL (WTAL of 1800 km2. Specifically, we aimed to estimate the genetic variability, population structure, and gene flow. The microsatellite markers indicated that the levels of allelic diversity (MNA = 6.6 and genetic variation (Ho = 0.50, HE = 0.64 were slightly lower than those reported previously in other Bengal tiger populations. We observed moderate gene flow and significant genetic differentiation (FST= 0.060 and identified the presence of cryptic genetic structure using Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches. There was low and significantly asymmetric migration between the two main subpopulations of the Rajaji Tiger Reserve and the Corbett Tiger Reserve in WTAL. Sibship relationships indicated that the functionality of the corridor between these subpopulations may be retained if the quality of the habitat does not deteriorate. However, we found that gene flow is not adequate in view of changing land use matrices. We discuss the need to maintain connectivity by implementing the measures that have been suggested previously to minimize the level of human disturbance, including relocation of villages and industries

  8. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  9. An Efficient Upscaling Process Based on a Unified Fine-scale Multi-Physics Model for Flow Simulation in Naturally Fracture Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Linfeng

    2009-01-01

    The main challenges in modeling fluid flow through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are how to address various flow physics in complex geological architectures due to the presence of vugs and caves which are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. In this paper, we present a unified multi-physics model that adapts to the complex flow regime through naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs. This approach generalizes Stokes-Brinkman model (Popov et al. 2007). The fracture networks provide the essential connection between the caves in carbonate karst reservoirs. It is thus very important to resolve the flow in fracture network and the interaction between fractures and caves to better understand the complex flow behavior. The idea is to use Stokes-Brinkman model to represent flow through rock matrix, void caves as well as intermediate flows in very high permeability regions and to use an idea similar to discrete fracture network model to represent flow in fracture network. Consequently, various numerical solution strategies can be efficiently applied to greatly improve the computational efficiency in flow simulations. We have applied this unified multi-physics model as a fine-scale flow solver in scale-up computations. Both local and global scale-up are considered. It is found that global scale-up has much more accurate than local scale-up. Global scale-up requires the solution of global flow problems on fine grid, which generally is computationally expensive. The proposed model has the ability to deal with large number of fractures and caves, which facilitate the application of Stokes-Brinkman model in global scale-up computation. The proposed model flexibly adapts to the different flow physics in naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs in a simple and effective way. It certainly extends modeling and predicting capability in efficient development of this important type of reservoir.

  10. Nest suitability, fine-scale population structure and male-mediated dispersal of a solitary ground nesting bee in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita M López-Uribe

    Full Text Available Bees are the primary pollinators of flowering plants in almost all ecosystems. Worldwide declines in bee populations have raised awareness about the importance of their ecological role in maintaining ecosystem functioning. The naturally strong philopatric behavior that some bee species show can be detrimental to population viability through increased probability of inbreeding. Furthermore, bee populations found in human-altered landscapes, such as urban areas, can experience lower levels of gene flow and effective population sizes, increasing potential for inbreeding depression in wild bee populations. In this study, we investigated the fine-scale population structure of the solitary bee Colletes inaequalis in an urbanized landscape. First, we developed a predictive spatial model to detect suitable nesting habitat for this ground nesting bee and to inform our field search for nests. We genotyped 18 microsatellites in 548 female individuals collected from nest aggregations throughout the study area. Genetic relatedness estimates revealed that genetic similarity among individuals was slightly greater within nest aggregations than among randomly chosen individuals. However, genetic structure among nest aggregations was low (Nei's GST = 0.011. Reconstruction of parental genotypes revealed greater genetic relatedness among females than among males within nest aggregations, suggesting male-mediated dispersal as a potentially important mechanism of population connectivity and inbreeding avoidance. Size of nesting patch was positively correlated with effective population size, but not with other estimators of genetic diversity. We detected a positive trend between geographic distance and genetic differentiation between nest aggregations. Our landscape genetic models suggest that increased urbanization is likely associated with higher levels of inbreeding. Overall, these findings emphasize the importance of density and distribution of suitable nesting

  11. New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) Scheme for Fine-Scale Monitoring and Microevolution-Related Study of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Phylotype I Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinard, Jérémy; Latreille, Anne; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is considered one of the most harmful plant diseases in the world. Special attention should be paid to R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I due to its large host range, its worldwide distribution, and its high evolutionary potential. So far, the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this bacterium are poorly understood. Until now, the genetic structure of the RSSC has been analyzed on the worldwide and regional scales. Emerging questions regarding evolutionary forces in RSSC adaptation to hosts now require genetic markers that are able to monitor RSSC field populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) approach for its ability to discriminate genetically close phylotype I strains and for population genetics studies. We developed a new MLVA scheme (MLVA-7) allowing us to genotype 580 R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I strains extracted from susceptible and resistant hosts and from different habitats (stem, soil, and rhizosphere). Based on specificity, polymorphism, and the amplification success rate, we selected seven fast-evolving variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers. The newly developed MLVA-7 scheme showed higher discriminatory power than the previously published MLVA-13 scheme when applied to collections sampled from the same location on different dates and to collections from different locations on very small scales. Our study provides a valuable tool for fine-scale monitoring and microevolution-related study of R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation of plant pathogens to new hosts or ecological niches has become a key point for the development of innovative disease management strategies, including durable resistance. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence or pathogenicity changes have been studied thoroughly, the

  12. Evaluation of seabed mapping methods for fine-scale classification of extremely shallow benthic habitats - Application to the Venice Lagoon, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montereale Gavazzi, G.; Madricardo, F.; Janowski, L.; Kruss, A.; Blondel, P.; Sigovini, M.; Foglini, F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological developments of multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) allow mapping of benthic habitats with unprecedented detail. MBES can now be employed in extremely shallow waters, challenging data acquisition (as these instruments were often designed for deeper waters) and data interpretation (honed on datasets with resolution sometimes orders of magnitude lower). With extremely high-resolution bathymetry and co-located backscatter data, it is now possible to map the spatial distribution of fine scale benthic habitats, even identifying the acoustic signatures of single sponges. In this context, it is necessary to understand which of the commonly used segmentation methods is best suited to account for such level of detail. At the same time, new sampling protocols for precisely geo-referenced ground truth data need to be developed to validate the benthic environmental classification. This study focuses on a dataset collected in a shallow (2-10 m deep) tidal channel of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Using 0.05-m and 0.2-m raster grids, we compared a range of classifications, both pixel-based and object-based approaches, including manual, Maximum Likelihood Classifier, Jenks Optimization clustering, textural analysis and Object Based Image Analysis. Through a comprehensive and accurately geo-referenced ground truth dataset, we were able to identify five different classes of the substrate composition, including sponges, mixed submerged aquatic vegetation, mixed detritic bottom (fine and coarse) and unconsolidated bare sediment. We computed estimates of accuracy (namely Overall, User, Producer Accuracies and the Kappa statistic) by cross tabulating predicted and reference instances. Overall, pixel based segmentations produced the highest accuracies and the accuracy assessment is strongly dependent on the number of classes chosen for the thematic output. Tidal channels in the Venice Lagoon are extremely important in terms of habitats and sediment distribution

  13. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Droit, Arnaud; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Kar, Siddhartha; Freeman, Adam; Hopper, John L; Milne, Roger L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Agata, Simona; Ahmed, Shahana; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arason, Adalgeir; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Bacot, Francois; Barrowdale, Daniel; Baynes, Caroline; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B M; Clarke, Christine; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; de la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Doody, Michele; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dwek, Miriam; Dworniczak, Bernd; Egan, Kathleen; Eilber, Ursula; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Lalloo, Fiona; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; Friedlander, Michael; Friedman, Eitan; Gambino, Gaetana; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gehrig, Andrea; Damiola, Francesca; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Verhoef, Senno; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Hillemanns, Peter; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hulick, Peter J; Hunter, David J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Karlan, Beth Y; Kauppila, Saila; Kerin, Michael J; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kraft, Peter; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lester, Jenny; Li, Jingmei; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Menegaux, Florence; Montagna, Marco; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Newcomb, Polly A; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olswold, Curtis; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Peeters, Stephanie; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Presneau, Nadege; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Ramus, Susan J; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhiem, Kerstin; Rudolph, Anja; Salani, Ritu; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schürmann, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sigurdson, Alice; Singer, Christian F; Slager, Susan; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C; Teulé, Alex; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Toland, Amanda E; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Ven den Berg, David; Vijai, Joseph; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Wong, Tien Y; Wu, Anna H; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-06-21

    Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P association signals at

  14. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  15. Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:136-146.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  16. Modeling fine-scale coral larval dispersal and interisland connectivity to help designate mutually-supporting coral reef marine protected areas: Insights from Maui Nui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chen, Yi-Leng; Elias, Edwin P. L.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivity among individual marine protected areas (MPAs) is one of the most important considerations in the design of integrated MPA networks. To provide such information for managers in Hawaii, USA, a numerical circulation model was developed to determine the role of ocean currents in transporting coral larvae from natal reefs throughout the high volcanic islands of the Maui Nui island complex in the southeastern Hawaiian Archipelago. Spatially- and temporally-varying wind, wave, and circulation model outputs were used to drive a km-scale, 3-dimensional, physics-based circulation model for Maui Nui. The model was calibrated and validated using satellite-tracked ocean surface current drifters deployed during coral-spawning conditions, then used to simulate the movement of the larvae of the dominant reef-building coral, Porites compressa, from 17 reefs during eight spawning events in 2010–2013. These simulations make it possible to investigate not only the general dispersal patterns from individual coral reefs, but also how anomalous conditions during individual spawning events can result in large deviations from those general patterns. These data also help identify those reefs that are dominated by self-seeding and those where self-seeding is limited to determine their relative susceptibility to stressors and potential roadblocks to recovery. Overall, the numerical model results indicate that many of the coral reefs in Maui Nui seed reefs on adjacent islands, demonstrating the interconnected nature of the coral reefs in Maui Nui and providing a key component of the scientific underpinning essential for the design of a mutually supportive network of MPAs to enhance conservation of coral reefs.

  17. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi Sridevi; Rakesh Minocha; Swathi A. Turlapati; Katherine C. Goldfarb; Eoin L. Brodie; Louis S. Tisa; Subhash C. Minocha

    2012-01-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-...

  18. Genomic and transcriptomic differences in community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and USA400 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marcus B; Montgomery, Christopher P; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Maybank, Rosslyn; Frank, Bryan C; Peterson, Scott N; Daum, Robert S

    2014-12-19

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality through its ability to cause a number of human infections including bacteremia, pneumonia and soft tissue infections. Of great concern is the emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) that are resistant to nearly all β-lactams. The emergence of the USA300 MRSA genetic background among community associated S. aureus infections (CA-MRSA) in the USA was followed by the disappearance of USA400 CA-MRSA isolates. To gain a greater understanding of the potential fitness advantages and virulence capacity of S. aureus USA300 clones, we performed whole genome sequencing of 15 USA300 and 4 USA400 clinical isolates. A comparison of representative genomes of the USA300 and USA400 pulsotypes indicates a number of differences in mobile genome elements. We examined the in vitro gene expression profiles by microarray hybridization and the in vivo transcriptomes during lung infection in mice of a USA300 and a USA400 MRSA strain by performing complete genome qRT-PCR analysis. The unique presence and increased expression of 6 exotoxins in USA300 (12- to 600-fold) compared to USA400 may contribute to the increased virulence of USA300 clones. Importantly, we also observed the up-regulation of prophage genes in USA300 (compared with USA400) during mouse lung infection (including genes encoded by both prophages ΦSa2usa and ΦSa3usa), suggesting that these prophages may play an important role in vivo by contributing to the elevated virulence characteristic of the USA300 clone. We observed differences in the genetic content of USA300 and USA400 strains, as well as significant differences of in vitro and in vivo gene expression of mobile elements in a lung pneumonia model. This is the first study to document the global transcription differences between USA300 and USA400 strains during both in vitro and in vivo growth.

  19. Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons follow different connectivity rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Feng, Linqing; Druckmann, Shaul; Kim, Jinhyun

    2018-05-04

    Neural circuits, governed by a complex interplay between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, are the substrate for information processing, and the organization of synaptic connectivity in neural network is an important determinant of circuit function. Here, we analyzed the fine structure of connectivity in hippocampal CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neurons innervated by Schaffer collaterals (SCs) using mGRASP in male mice. Our previous study revealed spatially structured synaptic connectivity between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Surprisingly, parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) showed a significantly more random pattern spatial structure. Notably, application of Peters' Rule for synapse prediction by random overlap between axons and dendrites enhanced structured connectivity in PCs, but, by contrast, made the connectivity pattern in PVs more random. In addition, PCs in a deep sublayer of striatum pyramidale appeared more highly structured than PCs in superficial layers, and little or no sublayer specificity was found in PVs. Our results show that CA1 excitatory PCs and inhibitory PVs innervated by the same SC inputs follow different connectivity rules. The different organizations of fine scale structured connectivity in hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide important insights into the development and functions of neural networks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding how neural circuits generate behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience. An important component of this endeavor is the mapping of fine-scale connection patterns that underlie, and help us infer, signal processing in the brain. Here, using our recently developed synapse detection technology (mGRASP and neuTube), we provide detailed profiles of synaptic connectivity in excitatory (CA1 pyramidal) and inhibitory (CA1 parvalbumin-positive) neurons innervated by the same presynaptic inputs (CA3 Schaffer collaterals). Our results reveal that these two types of CA1 neurons follow

  20. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kerminen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling dense genotype data with new computational methods offers unprecedented opportunities for individual-level ancestry estimation once geographically precisely defined reference data sets become available. We study such a reference data set for Finland containing 2376 such individuals from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997 both of whose parents were born close to each other. This sampling strategy focuses on the population structure present in Finland before the 1950s. By using the recent haplotype-based methods ChromoPainter (CP and FineSTRUCTURE (FS we reveal a highly geographically clustered genetic structure in Finland and report its connections to the settlement history as well as to the current dialectal regions of the Finnish language. The main genetic division within Finland shows striking concordance with the 1323 borderline of the treaty of Nöteborg. In general, we detect genetic substructure throughout the country, which reflects stronger regional genetic differences in Finland compared to, for example, the UK, which in a similar analysis was dominated by a single unstructured population. We expect that similar population genetic reference data sets will become available for many more populations in the near future with important applications, for example, in forensic genetics and in genetic association studies. With this in mind, we report those extensions of the CP + FS approach that we found most useful in our analyses of the Finnish data.

  1. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: a new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Blanchard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although proximity to cover has been routinely considered as an explanatory variable in studies investigating prey behavioral adjustments to predation pressure, the way it shapes risk perception still remains equivocal. This paradox arises from both the ambivalent nature of cover as potentially both obstructive and protective, making its impact on risk perception complex and context-dependent, and from the choice of the proxy used to measure proximity to cover in the field, which leads to an incomplete picture of the landscape of fear experienced by the prey. Here, we study a simple predator-prey-habitat system, i.e., rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus facing feral cat Felis catus predation on Kerguelen archipelago. We assess how cover shapes risk perception in prey and develop an easily implementable field method to improve the estimation of proximity to cover. In contrast to protocols considering the “distance to nearest cover”, we focus on the overall “area to cover”. We show that fine-scale habitat use by rabbits is clearly related to our measure, in accordance with our hypothesis of higher risk in patches with smaller area to cover in this predator-prey-habitat system. In contrast, classical measures of proximity to cover are not retained in the best predictive models of habitat use. The use of this new approach, together with a more in-depth consideration of contrasting properties of cover, could help to better understand the role of this complex yet decisive parameter for predator-prey ecology.

  2. A Full Vector Study of a Terrestrial Geomagnetic Record of the Porcupine Excursion (ca. 2737 ka) Recovered From a Long Volcanic Sequence at Makapuu Point, Koolau Volcano, Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jicha, B.

    2017-12-01

    , suggesting that the excursion corresponds to the Porcupine excursion (ca. 2737 ka) reported by Channell et al., (2016). This is the first terrestrial record of the Porcupine excursion and the age is 2-3% younger than in the reported timescale. The obtained VGPs are located over the northeastern part of Asia, close to the artic Circle and as far south as the East China Sea.

  3. Fine scale monitoring of ice ablation following convective heat transfer: case study based on ice-wedge thermo-erosion on Bylot Island (Canadian High Arctic) and laboratory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, E.; Fortier, D.

    2011-12-01

    Thermo-erosion gullies often develop in ice-wedge polygons terrace and contribute to the dynamic evolution of the periglacial landscape. When snowmelt surface run-off concentrated into streams and water tracks infiltrate frost cracks, advective heat flow and convective thermal transfer from water to the ice-wedge ice enable the rapid development of tunnels and gullies in the permafrost (Fortier et al. 2007). Fine scale monitoring of the physical interaction between flowing water and ice rich permafrost had already been studied in a context of thermal erosion of a large river banks in Russia (Costard et al. 2003). Ice wedge polygons thermo-erosion process leading to gullying remains to be physically modelled and quantified. The present paper focus on the fine scale monitoring of thermo-erosion physical parameters both in the field and in laboratory. The physical model in laboratory was elaborated using a fixed block of ice monitored by a linear voltage differential transducer (LVDT) and temperature sensors connected to a logger. A water container with controlled discharge and temperature provided the fluid which flowed over the ice through a hose. Water discharge (Q), water temperature (Tw), ice melting temperature (Ti) and ice ablation rate (Ar) were measured. In laboratory, water at 281 Kelvin (K) flowing on the ice (Ti 273 K) made the ice melt at a rate Ar of 0.002 m min-1, under a continuous discharge of ≈ 8 x 10-7 m3 s-1. In the field, a small channel was dug between a stream and an exposed ice-wedge in a pre-existing active gully, where in 2010 large quantities of near zero snowmelt run-off water contributed to several meters of ice wedge ablation and gully development. Screws were fastened into the ice and a ruler was used to measure the ablation rate every minute. The surface temperature of the ice wedge was monitored with thermocouples connected to a logger to obtain the condition of the ice boundary layer. Discharge and water temperature were measured in

  4. USA toetus Eestile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice kinnitas 3. mail 2007 telefonikõnes president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele USA toetust Eestile ning tõsist muret Venemaa käitumise üle oma naaberriigi suhtes. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 9. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: USA riigisekretär Vabariigi Presidendile: Ühendriigid toetavad Eestit

  5. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  6. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach-A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-06-15

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study-simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan.

  7. Urban Ecological Security Simulation and Prediction Using an Improved Cellular Automata (CA) Approach—A Case Study for the City of Wuhan in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chuanrong; He, Qingsong; Liu, Yaolin

    2017-01-01

    Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale. To fill-in the literature gap, in this study we simulated and predicted urban ecological security at a fine scale (district level) using an improved Cellular Automata (CA) approach. First we used the pressure-state-response (PSR) method based on grid-scale data to evaluate urban ecological security. Then, based on the evaluation results, we imported the geographically weighted regression (GWR) concept into the CA model to simulate and predict urban ecological security. We applied the improved CA approach in a case study—simulating and predicting urban ecological security for the city of Wuhan in Central China. By comparing the simulated ecological security values from 2010 using the improved CA model to the actual ecological security values of 2010, we got a relatively high value of the kappa coefficient, which indicates that this CA model can simulate or predict well future development of ecological security in Wuhan. Based on the prediction results for 2020, we made some policy recommendations for each district in Wuhan. PMID:28617348

  8. Fine-Scale Evaluation of Giant Panda Habitats and Countermeasures against the Future Impacts of Climate Change and Human Disturbance (2015–2050: A Case Study in Ya’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating impact of climate change on giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca habitats have become an international research topic. Recently, many studies have also focused on medium-sized mountain ranges or entire giant panda habitats to predict how habitats will change as the climate warms, but few say in detail what to do or where to focus efforts. To fill this gap, this paper presents a new method to take comprehensive, fine-scale evaluations incorporating climate change, human disturbance, and current conservation networks and translate them into practical countermeasures in order to help decision-makers set priority regions for conservation. This study looked at the core area of the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO World Natural Heritage site, namely Ya’an Prefecture, as a case study. The research employs the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modeling algorithm to analyze how climate change will affect the habitats by 2050 under two scenarios: only considering the influence of climate change, and thinking about the coupled influence of climate change and human disturbance together. The results showed the following: (1 only considering climate change, the overall habitat that can be used by giant pandas in this region will increase, which differs from most of the previous results showing a decrease; (2 the new suitable habitat will shift westward, northward and eastward in this region; (3 conversely, the suitable habitat will be significantly reduced (about 58.56% and fragmentized when taking into account human disturbance factors; (4 at present, the three small nature reserves are far from each other and cannot cover the present habitat well nor protect the potentially suitable habitats. Based on the comprehensive analysis of habitat shifts and our two field investigations, we suggest two regions that can be expanded into the conservation network to contain more potentially

  9. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  10. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  11. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  12. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  13. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  14. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. crdi.ca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et des enfants d'Afrique. INITIATIVE CONCERTÉE. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique. Centre de recherches pour le développement international. CP Box 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Téléphone : +1 613 236 6163 • Télécopieur : +1 613 657 7749 ismea@crdi.ca | www.crdi.ca/ismea crdi.ca.

  17. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  18. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  19. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  20. Strontium-90 migration in Hanford sediments, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; Zachara, J.M.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Strontium-90 is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford site in eastern Washington, USA. Disposal operations at the Hanford 100-N area released millions of liters of reactor cooling water containing high concentrations of strontium-90 into the vadose zone immediately adjacent to the Columbia River. The effectiveness of pump-and-treat methods for remediation have been questioned, largely because the strontium is strongly sorbed on subsurface sediments via ion exchange reactions and co-precipitation in carbonates. In addition, groundwater monitoring wells show a fluctuating seasonal behavior in which high strontium-90 concentrations correlate with high Columbia River stage, even while average concentrations remain approximately constant. A series of fully saturated reactive transport column experiments have been conducted to investigate the important controls on strontium migration in Hanford groundwater [1]. The experiments were designed to investigate the multicomponent cation exchange behavior of strontium in competition with the cations Na + , Ca +2 , and Mg +2 , the concentration of which differs between river water and groundwater. Reactive transport modeling of the experiments indicates that the Sr +2 selectivity coefficient becomes larger with increasing NaNO 3 concentration, a behavior also shown by the divalent cations Ca +2 and Mg +2 . A new set of column experiments investigates the effect of wetting and drying cycles on strontium- 90 sorption and migration by considering episodic flow in Hanford sediments. In addition, the effect of fluctuating aquifer chemistry as a result of changes in the Columbia River stage on Sr +2 sorption is addressed. Modeling of multicomponent reactive transport under variably saturated conditions is used to interpret the results of the episodic flow/chemistry experiments. [1] Experimental and modeling studies of the migration behavior of strontium in Hanford sediments, USA. C

  1. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  2. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  3. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  4. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  5. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  6. Delineating groundwater/surface water interaction in a karst watershed: Lower Flint River Basin, southwestern Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rugel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Karst watershed in Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB, southwestern Georgia, USA. Study focus: Baseflow discharges in the LFRB have declined for three decades as regional irrigation has increased; yet, the location and nature of connectivity between groundwater and surface water in this karstic region are poorly understood. Because growing water demands will likely be met by further development of regional aquifers, an important management concern is the nature of interactions between groundwater and surface water components under natural and anthropogenic perturbations. We conducted coarse and fine-scale stream sampling on a major tributary of the Lower Flint River (Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Georgia, USA, to identify locations and patterns of enhanced hydrologic connectivity between this stream and the Upper Floridan Aquifer. New hydrological insights for the region: Prior water resource studies in the LFRB were based on regional modeling that neglected local heterogeneities in groundwater/surface water connectivity. Our results demonstrated groundwater inputs were concentrated around five of fifty sampled reaches, evidenced by increases in multiple groundwater indicators at these sites. These five reaches contributed up to 42% of the groundwater detected along the entire 50-km sampling section, with ∼24% entering through one groundwater-dominated tributary, Chickasawhatchee Creek. Intermittent flows occurred in two of these upstream reaches during extreme drought and heavy groundwater pumping, suggesting reach-scale behaviors should be considered in resource management and policy. Keywords: Karst hydrogeology, Hydrologic connectivity, Groundwater/surface water interaction, Upper Floridan Aquifer, Groundwater Irrigation

  7. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  8. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  9. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  10. 77 FR 18848 - Accreditation and Approval of Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Intertek Caleb Brett, 6050 Egret Court, Benicia, CA 94510, has been approved to gauge and...

  11. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc in southeastern USA harvested flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a winter crop in the Southeast USA that has potential in double cropping systems. This research was conducted to provide estimates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) removal in the harvested portions of the cro...

  12. Social-Ecological Scale Mismatches and the Collapse of the Sea Urchin Fishery in Maine, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Johnson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale mismatches result in incomplete or ambiguous feedback that impairs the ability to learn and adapt and, ultimately, to sustain natural resources. Our aim is to examine the sea urchin fishery in Maine, USA to better understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that are important for the design of institutions that might be able to sustain the resource. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Maine sea urchin fishery was a classic gold rush fishery. In the beginning, the fishery was characterized by an abundant resource with little to no harvesting activity, followed by a period of rapid increase in landings and effort that led to a subsequent and persistent decline in the sea urchin population and a significant reduction in effort. We conducted semistructured interviews with scientists and experienced fishermen to understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that influence fishermen's harvesting strategies, and the implications of this for the design of institutions for successful resource management. The current co-management system includes an advisory body made up of industry members and scientists it also includes limited entry, and additional input control mechanisms. Many of these measures are implemented at a very broad scale; however, we find that the ecological conditions relevant to the sustainable processes occur at the scale of individual fishing sites or ledges, which is a much finer scale than current management. Therefore, the co-management system maintains an open access system and leaves few incentives for the development of sustainable harvesting strategies among fishermen. The clear suggestion is that the appropriate management system would be one that directly addresses the fine scale ecological and social dynamics within this fishery and gives fishermen property rights over individual ledges (for example, leases. After having briefly reviewed experiences in Canada and Chile, we found that

  13. Comparing three spaceborne optical sensors via fine scale pixel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User @

    spectral bands within the visible to NIR spectrum as illustrated in Figure 2. .... African town planning history, with distinctly segregated residential and ..... approach, Cambridge, UK; New York, Cambridge University Press. .... Richards, JA 1999, Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, p 240 ...

  14. Fine-scale foraging ecology of leatherback turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote tracking of migratory species and statistical modeling of behaviors have enabled identification of areas that are of high ecological value to these widely distributed taxa. However, direct observations at fine spatio-temporal scales are often needed to correctly interpret behaviors. In this study, we combined GPS-derived locations and archival dive records (1 sec sampling rate with animal-borne video footage from foraging leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in Nova Scotia, Canada (Northwest Atlantic Ocean to generate the most highly detailed description of natural leatherback behavior presented to date. Turtles traveled shorter distances at slower rates and increased diving rates in areas of high prey abundance, which resulted in higher prey capture rates. Increased foraging effort (e.g., dive rate, dive duration, prey handling time, number of bites was not associated with increased time at the surface breathing to replenish oxygen stores. Instead, leatherbacks generally performed short, shallow dives in the photic zone to or above the thermocline, where they disproportionately captured prey at bottoms of dives and during ascents. This foraging strategy supports visual prey detection, allows leatherbacks to exploit physically structured prey at relatively shallow depths (typically <30m, and increases time turtles spend in warmer water temperatures, thus optimizing net energy acquisition. Our results demonstrate that leatherbacks appear to be continuously foraging during daylight hours while in continental shelf waters of Nova Scotia, and that leatherback foraging behavior is driven by prey availability, not by whether or not a turtle is in a resource patch characterized by a particular size or prey density. Our study demonstrates the fundamental importance of obtaining field-based, direct observations of true behaviors at fine spatial and temporal scales to enhance our efforts to both study and manage migratory species.

  15. Censored rainfall modelling for estimation of fine-scale extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, David; Onof, Christian; Winter, Hugo; Bernardara, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Reliable estimation of rainfall extremes is essential for drainage system design, flood mitigation, and risk quantification. However, traditional techniques lack physical realism and extrapolation can be highly uncertain. In this study, we improve the physical basis for short-duration extreme rainfall estimation by simulating the heavy portion of the rainfall record mechanistically using the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse (BLRP) model. Mechanistic rainfall models have had a tendency to underestimate rainfall extremes at fine temporal scales. Despite this, the simple process representation of rectangular pulse models is appealing in the context of extreme rainfall estimation because it emulates the known phenomenology of rainfall generation. A censored approach to Bartlett-Lewis model calibration is proposed and performed for single-site rainfall from two gauges in the UK and Germany. Extreme rainfall estimation is performed for each gauge at the 5, 15, and 60 min resolutions, and considerations for censor selection discussed.

  16. Fine-scaled human genetic structure revealed by SNP microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Zhang, Yuhua; Guthery, Stephen L; Thara, Rangaswamy; Mowry, Bryan J; Bulayeva, Kazima; Weiss, Robert B; Jorde, Lynn B

    2009-05-01

    We report an analysis of more than 240,000 loci genotyped using the Affymetrix SNP microarray in 554 individuals from 27 worldwide populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe. To provide a more extensive and complete sampling of human genetic variation, we have included caste and tribal samples from two states in South India, Daghestanis from eastern Europe, and the Iban from Malaysia. Consistent with observations made by Charles Darwin, our results highlight shared variation among human populations and demonstrate that much genetic variation is geographically continuous. At the same time, principal components analyses reveal discernible genetic differentiation among almost all identified populations in our sample, and in most cases, individuals can be clearly assigned to defined populations on the basis of SNP genotypes. All individuals are accurately classified into continental groups using a model-based clustering algorithm, but between closely related populations, genetic and self-classifications conflict for some individuals. The 250K data permitted high-level resolution of genetic variation among Indian caste and tribal populations and between highland and lowland Daghestani populations. In particular, upper-caste individuals from Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh form one defined group, lower-caste individuals from these two states form another, and the tribal Irula samples form a third. Our results emphasize the correlation of genetic and geographic distances and highlight other elements, including social factors that have contributed to population structure.

  17. 2005 Program of Study: Fast Times and Fine Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    effect of the O(E) mean flow is simply a phase shift determined by the angular procession of rays around the cylinder . 173 Shadow boundary GTD...for the Magnus force due to flow past a cylinder . 177 7.2 Force calculation by eigenfunction solution We can also calculate the force using the...However, the only 0(c) contribution to the force turns out to be a Magnus force due to the mean Eulerian flow 719T-I2 past the cylinder . To solve the 0

  18. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  19. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have initiated such a study and presented herewith the results from the in silico understanding of a seventh chromosomal region of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum encompassing the antigenic var genes (coding pfemp1) and the drug-resistant gene pfcrt located at a specified region of the chromosome 7.

  20. Fishermen Follow Fine-Scale Physical Ocean Features for Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Watson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The seascapes on which many millions of people make their living and secure food have complex and dynamic spatial features—the figurative hills and valleys—that influence where and how people work at sea. Here, we quantify the physical mosaic of the surface ocean by identifying Lagrangian Coherent Structures for a whole seascape—the U.S. California Current Large Marine Ecosystem—and assess their impact on the spatial distribution of fishing. We observe that there is a mixed response: some fisheries track these physical features, and others avoid them. These spatial behaviors map to economic impacts, in particular we find that tuna fishermen can expect to make three times more revenue per trip if fishing occurs on strong Lagrangian Coherent Structures. However, we find no relationship for salmon and pink shrimp fishing trips. These results highlight a connection between the biophysical state of the oceans, the spatial patterns of human activity, and ultimately the economic welfare of coastal communities.

  1. Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), USA300 Sequence Type 8 Lineage in Latin-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Contreras, Germán A.; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Rizzi, Adele; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier; Chowdhury, Shahreen; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated (CA) pathogen. Recently, a variant of the MRSA USA300 clone emerged and disseminated in South-America causing important clinical problems. Methods S. aureus isolates were prospectively collected (2006 to 2008) from 32 tertiary hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. MRSA isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and categorized as healthcare-associated (HA)-like or CA-like clones based on genotypic characteristics and detection of genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) IV. Additionally, MLST of representative isolates of each major CA-MRSA pulsotype, and detection of USA300-associated toxins and the arcA gene were performed in all isolates categorized as CA-MRSA. Results A total of 1570 S. aureus were included; 651 were MRSA (41%), with the highest rates of MRSA isolation in Peru (62%), and lowest in Venezuela (26%) and 71%, 27%, and 2% were classified as HA-like, CA-like, and non-CA/HA-like clones, respectively. Only 9 MRSA isolates were confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (GISA phenotype). The most common pulsotype (designated ComA) amongst the CA-like MRSA strains was found in 96% of isolates with the majority (81%) having ≤6 bands difference with the USA300-0114 strain. Representative isolates of this clone were ST8 but, unlike the USA300-0114 strain, they harbored a different SCCmec IV subtype and lacked arcA (an indicator of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)). Conclusion A variant CA-MRSA USA300 clone has now become established in South America and, in some countries, is endemic in hospital settings. PMID:19911971

  2. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  3. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  4. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  5. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  6. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  7. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  8. Solubility of calcium in CaO-CaCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, G.S.; Shaw, S.J.

    1991-06-01

    The Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process is well established as a process to produce plutonium metal from plutonium dioxide by reaction with calcium. Calcium chloride is added to dissolve the calcium oxide produced, allowing the metal to coalesce into a button. Since calcium metal melts at 840 0 C and DOR can take place successfully below this temperature, it is likely calcium dissolved in calcium chloride reacts with the plutonium dioxide. The solubility of calcium in calcium chloride is reasonably well established but the effect of the CaO formed during the DOR process on the solubility of calcium has not been previously determined. For this reason the solubility of calcium in CaCl 2 -CaO melts at 800 o C has been studied. The solubility decreases from 2.7 mol % in CaCl 2 to 0.4 mol % in 9 mol % CaO-CaCl 2 . (author)

  9. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  10. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  11. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  12. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  13. Cyberinfrastructure for remote environmental observatories: a model homogeneous sensor network in the Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Scotty; Slater, David; Fritzinger, Eric; Lyles, Bradley; Kent, Graham; Smith, Kenneth; Dascalu, Sergiu; Harris, Frederick

    2017-04-01

    Sensor-based data collection has changed the potential scale and resolution of in-situ environmental studies by orders of magnitude, increasing expertise and management requirements accordingly. Cost-effective management of these observing systems is possible by leveraging cyberinfrastructure resources. Presented is a case study environmental observation network in the Great Basin region, USA, the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN). NevCAN stretches hundreds of kilometers across several mountain ranges and monitors climate and ecohydrological conditions from low desert (900 m ASL) to high subalpine treeline (3360 m ASL) down to 1-minute timescales. The network has been operating continuously since 2010, collecting billions of sensor data points and millions of camera images that record hourly conditions at each site, despite requiring relatively low annual maintenance expenditure. These data have provided unique insight into fine-scale processes across mountain gradients, which is crucial scientific information for a water-scarce region. The key to maintaining data continuity for these remotely-located study sites has been use of uniform data transport and management systems, coupled with high-reliability power system designs. Enabling non-proprietary digital communication paths to all study sites and sensors allows the research team to acquire data in near-real-time, troubleshoot problems, and diversify sensor hardware. A wide-area network design based on common Internet Protocols (IP) has been extended into each study site, providing production bandwidth of between 2 Mbps and 60 Mbps, depending on local conditions. The network architecture and site-level support systems (such as power generation) have been implemented with the core objectives of capacity, redundancy, and modularity. NevCAN demonstrates that by following simple but uniform "best practices", the next generation of regionally-specific environmental observatories can evolve to

  14. Recognizing loss of open forest ecosystems by tree densification and land use intensification in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Marc D. Abrams

    2018-01-01

    Forests and grasslands have changed during the past 200 years in the eastern USA, and it is now possible to quantify loss and conversion of vegetation cover at regional scales. We quantified historical (ca. 1786-1908) and current land cover and determined long-term ecosystem change to either land use or closed forests in eight states of the Great Lakes and Midwest....

  15. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p calcareum Ca was greater (p calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  16. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  17. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  18. The energy situation in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analyses discusses the energy supplying security, the natural gas demand increase and its consequences, the climatic change in the long-dated, the long dated perspectives of the Usa energy policy, the law on the energy and the consequences for the nuclear activity, the financial incentives in favor of the construction of new nuclear power plants in the Usa and the good nuclear energy industry situation in the Usa. (A.L.B.)

  19. Rates for some reactions involving 42Ca and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.; King, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-state reaction rates have been deduced from recent cross section measurements for the 42 CA(α, n) 45 Ti, 42 Ca(p, γ) 43 Sc, and 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reactions. Comparison of these rates with those calculated from a statistical model of nuclear reactions. (Woosley et al) shows good agreement for the first two, but the 44 Ca(p, n) rate is more than a factor of 2 less than the theoretical prediction. Stellar reaction rates have been derived from the ground-state rates by multiplying the ground-state rates by the ratio of stellar to ground-state rates given by the statistical model. Both ground-state and stellar rates have been represented by analytic functions of the temperature. The role of these reactions in the approach to quasi-equilibrium during explosive silicon burning is discussed

  20. USA NCAP - a glance at harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.M.; Park, B.T.; Beuse, N.M.; Lowrie, J.C. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Swanson, J.L.; Rockwell, T.E. [ACE Systems Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is separated roughly into four parts. First, the authors discuss the frontal tests of the USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and then consider similarities and differences in the two different types of frontal tests worldwide. Second, the focus is placed on the side crash of the USA NCAP and comparisons are made between the results of the two different types of lateral tests worldwide. Third, the paper explains the Congressional requirements to establish a child safety rating system (in the USA) by model year 2003 and looks at the approach taken by NCAPs worldwide. Finally, the growth in requests for consumer information (in the USA) is measured. (orig.)

  1. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  2. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,089; TA-W-75,089A] Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2011, applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc...

  3. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  4. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  5. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  6. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  7. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  8. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  9. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  10. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  11. Structural phase transition at the percolation threshold in epitaxial (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3)1-x:(MgO)x nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshnyaga, V; Damaschke, B; Shapoval, O; Belenchuk, A; Faupel, J; Lebedev, O I; Verbeeck, J; van Tendeloo, G; Mücksch, M; Tsurkan, V; Tidecks, R; Samwer, K

    2003-04-01

    'Colossal magnetoresistance' in perovskite manganites such as La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO), is caused by the interplay of ferro-paramagnetic, metal-insulator and structural phase transitions. Moreover, different electronic phases can coexist on a very fine scale resulting in percolative electron transport. Here we report on (LCMO)1-x:(MgO)x (0 strain. The largest colossal magnetoresistance of 10(5)% was observed at the percolation threshold in the conductivity at xc 0.3, which is coupled to a structural phase transition from orthorhombic (0 < x < or 0.1) to rhombohedral R3c structure (0.33 < or = x < or = 0.8). An increase of the Curie temperature for the Rc phase was observed. These results may provide a general method for controlling the magnetotransport properties of manganite-based composite films by appropriate choice of the second phase.

  12. Mercury cycling in surface water, pore water and sediments of Mugu Lagoon, CA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com; Ambrose, Richard F. [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Box 951772, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1772 (United States)], E-mail: rambrose@ucla.edu; Jay, Jennifer A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 951593, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1593 (United States)], E-mail: jjay@seas.ucla.edu

    2008-07-15

    Mugu Lagoon is an estuary in southern California, listed as impaired for mercury. In 2005, we examined mercury cycling at ten sites within at most four habitats. In surface water (unfiltered and filtered) and pore water, the concentration of total mercury was correlated with methylmercury levels (R{sup 2} = 0.29, 0.26, 0.27, respectively, p < 0.05), in contrast to sediments, where organic matter and reduced iron levels were most correlated with methylmercury content (R{sup 2} = 0.37, 0.26, respectively, p < 0.05). Interestingly, levels for percent methylmercury of total mercury in sediments were higher than typical values for estuarine sediments (average 5.4%, range 0.024-38%, n = 59), while pore water methylmercury K{sub d} values were also high (average 3.1, range 2.0-4.2 l kg{sup -1}, n = 39), and the estimated methylmercury flux from sediments was low (average 1.7, range 0.14-5.3 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, n = 19). Mercury levels in predatory fish tissue at Mugu are >0.3 ppm, suggesting biogeochemical controls on methylmercury mobility do not completely mitigate methylmercury uptake through the food web. - Trends in mercury cycling differed between habitats and within matrices at Mugu Lagoon.

  13. Microbial ecology of soda lakes: investigating sulfur and nitrogen cycling at Mono Lake, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D.; Phillips, A. A.; Wells, M.; Bao, R.; Fullerton, K. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Speth, D. R.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soda lakes represent unique ecosystems characterized by extremes of pH, salinity and distinct geochemical cycling. Despite these extreme conditions, soda lakes are important repositories of biological adaptation and have a highly functional microbial system. We investigated the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Mono Lake, California, located east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Mono lake is characterized by hyperalkaline, hypersaline and high sulfate concentrations and can enter prolonged periods of meromixis due to freshwater inflow. Typically, the microbial sulfur cycle is highly active in soda lakes with both oxidation and reduction of sulfur compounds. However, the biological sulfur cycle is connected to many other main elemental cycles such as carbon, nitrogen and metals. Here we investigated the interaction between sulfur and nitrogen cycling in Mono lake using a combination of molecular, isotopic, and geochemical observations to explore the links between microbial phylogenetic composition and functionality. Metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were determined at two locations and five depths in May 2017. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis revealed organisms capable of both sulfur and nitrogen cycling. The relative abundance and distribution of functional genes (dsrA, soxAB, nifH, etc) were also determined. These genetic markers indicate the potential in situ relevance of specific carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pathways in the water column prior to the transition to meromictic stratification. However, genes for sulfide oxidation, denitrification, and ammonification were present. Genome binning guided by the most abundant dsrA sequences, GC content, and abundance with depth identified a Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus bin containing genes capable of sulfur oxidation, denitrification, and nitrate reduction. The presence of a large number of sulfur and nitrogen cycling genes associated with Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus suggests thiosulfate oxidation may be coupled to nitrate reduction despite the extremely low level of nitrate in Mono Lake. Our results illustrate the centrality of living organisms in both shaping and responding to geochemical cycles, as well as future directions for exploring coupled biogeochemical cycles in Mono Lake.

  14. Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development: March 9-12, 2009, Coronado, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Janice M; Jacob, Nitya M; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2009-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Accelerating Biopharmaceutical Development was held in Coronado, California. The meeting was organized by the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE) and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE); SBE is a technological community of the AIChE. Bob Adamson (Wyeth) and Chuck Goochee (Centocor) were co-chairs of the event, which had the theme "Delivering cost-effective, robust processes and methods quickly and efficiently." The first day focused on emerging disruptive technologies and cutting-edge analytical techniques. Day two featured presentations on accelerated cell culture process development, critical quality attributes, specifications and comparability, and high throughput protein formulation development. The final day was dedicated to discussion of technology options and new analysis methods provided by emerging disruptive technologies; functional interaction, integration and synergy in platform development; and rapid and economic purification process development.

  15. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  16. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  17. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. CaWingz user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Ben-chin.

    1994-01-01

    This document assumes that you have read and understood the Wingz user's manuals. CaWingz is an external Wingz program which, when combined with a set of script files, provides easy-to-use EPICS channel access interface functions for Wingz users. The external function run allows Wingz user to invoke any Unix processor within caWingz. Few additional functions for accessing static database field and monitoring of value change event is available for EPICS users after release 3.11. The functions, script files, and usage are briefly described in this document. The script files supplied here serve as examples only. Users are responsible for generating their own spreadsheet and script files. CaWingz communicates with IOC through channel access function calls

  19. Atomic power development in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggin, E.

    1976-01-01

    Many problems concerning the atomic power development in USA are investigated and discussed. (Introduction of fast breeder reactors is not considered in this paper). The first problem is the raising of capital for plant construction. The second problem is the supply of uranium. Estimated amount of yellow cake and its price are presented and compared with estimated demands. It is concluded that 3.5x10 6 tons of yellow coke is sufficient for generating 7x10 8 KW of electric power up to about 2000. The third problem is the enrichment service. Balance of supply and demand is discussed together with the projected extension of existing plants and the construction of new plants. The completion of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed as the fourth problem. According to the author's opinion, technological problems of reprocessing, storing, waste disposal, and the utilization of mixed oxide fuel are not difficult to solve. Definite judgement of NRC and ERDA is strongly required. The last problem discussed in this paper is the public acceptance. The movements of anti-nuclear groups and the opinion of general public are analyzed and the role of AIF in presenting paper informations is discussed. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Obchodní politika USA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculíková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá nástroji a cíli obchodní politiky USA - aktivitami, které liberalizují celosvětový obchod. V první části je popsáno postavení Spojených států amerických v mnohostranném obchodním systému a vývoj zahraničního obchodu v posledních letech. Druhá kapitola je zaměřena na autonomní a smluvní nástroje obchodní politiky ovlivňující import, export a domácí výrobu. O obchodních dohodách uzavřených na mnohostranné, regionální a dvoustranné úrovni pojednává třetí kapitola....

  1. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  2. Weak transitions in 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt

  3. Control of ciliary motility by Ca2+: Integration of Ca2+-dependent functions and targets for Ca2+ action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca 2+ -induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca 2+ current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca 2+ current from Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca 2+ -dependent K + and Ca 2+ -dependent Na + currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca 2+ action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a 125 I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed

  4. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  5. Skandaal USAs : Obamat kujutati islamiterroristina / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    The New Yorkeri esiküljel ilmus karikatuur, kus USA demokraatide presidendikandidaati Barack Obamat ja tema abikaasat Michelle'i kujutati islamiterroristidena, karikaturisti väitel joonistas ta selle Obama laimajate naeruvääristamiseks

  6. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  7. Ca isotopic fractionation patterns in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are an emerging tracer of the biogeochemical cycle of Ca that are just beginning to see significant application to forest ecosystems. The primary source of isotopic fractionation in these systems is discrimination against light Ca during uptake by plant roots. Cycling of vegetation-fractionated Ca establishes isotopically distinct Ca pools within a forest ecosystem. In some systems, the shallow soil exchangeable Ca pool is isotopically heavy relative to Ca inputs. This has been explained by preferential removal of light Ca from the soil. In other systems, the soil exchange pool is isotopically light relative to inputs, which is explained by recycling of plant-fractionated light Ca back into soil. Thus vegetation uptake of light Ca has been called on to account for both isotopically heavy and light Ca in the shallow soil exchange pools. We interpret patterns in ecosystem δ44Ca with the aid of a simple box model of the forest Ca cycle. We suggest that the δ44Ca of exchangeable Ca in the shallow soil pool primarily reflects the relative magnitude of three key fluxes in a forest Ca cycle, 1) the flux of external Ca into the system via weathering or atmospheric deposition, 2) the uptake flux of Ca from soils into the vegetation pool, and 3) the return flux of Ca to shallow soils via remineralization of leaf litter. Two observations that emerge from our model may aid in the application of Ca isotopes to provide insight into the forest Ca cycle. First, regardless of the magnitude of both vegetation Ca uptake and isotopic fractionation, the δ44Ca of the soil exchange pool will equal the input δ44Ca unless the plant uptake and remineralization fluxes are out of balance. A second observation is that the degree to which the shallow soil exchange pool δ44Ca can differ from the input ratio is controlled by the relative rates of biological uptake and external Ca input. Significant differences between soil exchange and input δ44Ca are seen only

  8. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  9. Contrasting chemical response to artificial acidification of three acid-sensitive streams in Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goss, Heather V.; Norton, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally acidified three low alkalinity first-order streams in forested catchments in Maine, USA. We evaluated water samples from a reference site above the point of hydrochloric acid addition and from two or three sites located 16 to 94 m downstream. Neutralization included protonation of weak acids, adsorption of sulfate, and ion exchange of base cations and aluminum (Al) for protons (H + ). Protonation of bicarbonate was significant in the relatively high pH Hadlock Brook. Protonation of weak organic acids dominated in the high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Mud Pond Inlet. The response in low DOC, low pH East Bear Brook was dominated by stream substrate release of cations. East Bear Brook had the strongest acid neutralization response per unit catchment area. In all streams, exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were mobilized, with Ca > Mg. Al was also mobilized. During initial stages of acidification, Ca desorbed preferentially, whereas Al mobilization dominated later. Early in the recovery, adsorption of Ca to the streambed sediments was kinetically favored over adsorption of Al. Though pH increased downstream of acid addition, the streams remained undersaturated with respect to amorphous Al(OH) 3 , so Al did not precipitate. In East Bear Brook, however, Al left solution further downstream through adsorption. This process was likely kinetically controlled, because it occurred in East Bear Brook (3-4 L/s) but did not occur in Hadlock Brook (ca. 40 L/s) or Mud Pond Inlet (ca. 60 L/s). During experimental acidification, the initial Al:Ca ratio of a stream's response may indicate the acidification status of the catchment. Short-term stream acidification experiments illuminate processes characteristic of episodic stream acidification and of long-term catchment acidification. East Bear Brook and Hadlock Brook catchments are in early to intermediate stages of acidification. The Mud Pond Inlet catchment (high Al:Ca ratio) is in a later stage of

  10. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  11. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  12. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  13. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  14. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  15. Effects of Climate Variability and Accelerated Forest Thinning on Watershed-Scale Runoff in Southwestern USA Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D.; Marshall, Robert M.; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.; Gori, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0–3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide. PMID

  16. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D Robles

    Full Text Available The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%. Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  17. Effects of climate variability and accelerated forest thinning on watershed-scale runoff in southwestern USA ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Marcos D; Marshall, Robert M; O'Donnell, Frances; Smith, Edward B; Haney, Jeanmarie A; Gori, David F

    2014-01-01

    The recent mortality of up to 20% of forests and woodlands in the southwestern United States, along with declining stream flows and projected future water shortages, heightens the need to understand how management practices can enhance forest resilience and functioning under unprecedented scales of drought and wildfire. To address this challenge, a combination of mechanical thinning and fire treatments are planned for 238,000 hectares (588,000 acres) of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests across central Arizona, USA. Mechanical thinning can increase runoff at fine scales, as well as reduce fire risk and tree water stress during drought, but the effects of this practice have not been studied at scales commensurate with recent forest disturbances or under a highly variable climate. Modifying a historical runoff model, we constructed scenarios to estimate increases in runoff from thinning ponderosa pine at the landscape and watershed scales based on driving variables: pace, extent and intensity of forest treatments and variability in winter precipitation. We found that runoff on thinned forests was about 20% greater than unthinned forests, regardless of whether treatments occurred in a drought or pluvial period. The magnitude of this increase is similar to observed declines in snowpack for the region, suggesting that accelerated thinning may lessen runoff losses due to warming effects. Gains in runoff were temporary (six years after treatment) and modest when compared to mean annual runoff from the study watersheds (0-3%). Nonetheless gains observed during drought periods could play a role in augmenting river flows on a seasonal basis, improving conditions for water-dependent natural resources, as well as benefit water supplies for downstream communities. Results of this study and others suggest that accelerated forest thinning at large scales could improve the water balance and resilience of forests and sustain the ecosystem services they provide.

  18. A population-based study examining the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwar Monica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is a serious pathogen in several regions in the United States. It is unclear which populations are at high risk for the emergence of these strains. Methods All unique patient isolates of S. aureus were collected from hospitals in Brooklyn, NY over a three-month period. Isolates of MRSA that were susceptible to clindamycin underwent SCCmec typing. Isolates with the SCCmec type IV (characteristic of CA-MRSA strains underwent ribotyping. Demographic information involving the neighborhoods of Brooklyn was also gathered and correlated with the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains. Results Of 1316 isolates collected during the surveillance, 217 were MRSA susceptible to clindamycin. A total of 125 isolates possessed SCCmec type IV; 72 belonged to the USA300 strain and five belonged to the USA400 strain. Hospitals in the eastern part of the city had the highest prevalence of USA300 strain. Individuals in the eastern region, when compared to the western region, were more likely to be Black, Hispanic, female, and Conclusion The USA300 strain of CA-MRSA is emerging in New York City. In this population-based study, urban regions of lower socioeconomic status and with evidence of overcrowding appear to be at higher risk for the emergence of this pathogen.

  19. A Devil in the Details: Matrix-Dependent 40Ca42Ca++/42Ca+ and Its Effects on Estimates of the Initial 41Ca/40Ca in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Liu, M.-C.

    2015-07-01

    Ian Hutcheon established that the molecular ion interference 40Ca42Ca++/42Ca+ on 41K+ is strongly dependent on the mineral analyzed. Correction for this "matrix effect" led to a downward revision of the initial 41Ca/40Ca of the solar system.

  20. Asia prostate cancer study (A-CaP Study launch symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Akaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP Study is an Asia-wide initiative that has been developed over the course of 2 years. The A-CaP Study is scheduled to begin in 2016, when each participating country or region will begin registration of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and conduct prognosis investigations. From the data gathered, common research themes will be identified, such as comparisons among Asian countries of background factors in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. This is the first Asia-wide study of prostate cancer and has developed from single country research efforts in this field, including in Japan and Korea. The inaugural Board Meeting of A-CaP was held on December 11, 2015 at the Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, attended by representatives of all participating countries and regions, who signed a memorandum of understanding concerning registration for A-CaP. Following the Board Meeting an A-CaP Launch Symposium was held. The symposium was attended by representatives of countries and regions participating in A-CaP, who gave presentations. Presentations and a keynote address were also delivered by representatives of the University of California San Francisco, USA, and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Australia, who provided insight and experience on similar databases compiled in their respective countries.

  1. Lattice Dynamics of fcc Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;

    1983-01-01

    A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion...... bear a striking resemblance to those of FCC Yb, which is also a divalent metal with an electronic band structure similar to that of Ca. In particular, the shear moduli c44 and (c11-c 12)/2 differ by a factor of 3.4, which implies that FCC Ca (like FCC Yb) is very anisotropic with regard...

  2. The strategic interests of the USA, Russia and Сhina in the central Asia at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to develop and analyze the strategic concerns of key geopolitical actors in the Central Asian region. The author comes to the conclusion that the specialty of the Central Asia is a beneficial geopolitical location and great amount of nature resources that makes the region an object of world powers’ geopolitical interests. The main actors in the CA are the USA, China and Russia, which have influence on political processes inside the region, realizing their own strategies.

  3. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  4. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  5. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  6. Multiple C-terminal tail Ca(2+)/CaMs regulate Ca(V)1.2 function but do not mediate channel dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Rumpf, Christine H; Van Petegem, Filip; Arant, Ryan J; Findeisen, Felix; Cooley, Elizabeth S; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Minor, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    Interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) and calmodulin (CaM) modulate Ca(V) function. In this study, we report the structure of a Ca(2+)/CaM Ca(V)1.2 C-terminal tail complex that contains two PreIQ helices bridged by two Ca(2+)/CaMs and two Ca(2+)/CaM-IQ domain complexes. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments establish that the complex has a 2:1 Ca(2+)/CaM:C-terminal tail stoichiometry and does not form higher order assemblies. Moreover, subunit-counting experiments demonstrate that in live cell membranes Ca(V)1.2s are monomers. Thus, contrary to previous proposals, the crystallographic dimer lacks physiological relevance. Isothermal titration calorimetry and biochemical experiments show that the two Ca(2+)/CaMs in the complex have different properties. Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the PreIQ C-region is labile, whereas Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the IQ domain is not. Furthermore, neither of lobes of apo-CaM interacts strongly with the PreIQ domain. Electrophysiological studies indicate that the PreIQ C-region has a role in calcium-dependent facilitation. Together, the data show that two Ca(2+)/CaMs can bind the Ca(V)1.2 tail simultaneously and indicate a functional role for Ca(2+)/CaM at the C-region site.

  7. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...

  8. An inhibitory effect of extracellular Ca2+ on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    Full Text Available AIM: Neurotransmitter release is elicited by an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i. The action potential triggers Ca(2+ influx through Ca(2+ channels which causes local changes of [Ca(2+](i for vesicle release. However, any direct role of extracellular Ca(2+ (besides Ca(2+ influx on Ca(2+-dependent exocytosis remains elusive. Here we set out to investigate this possibility on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and chromaffin cells, widely used models for studying vesicle exocytosis. RESULTS: Using photolysis of caged Ca(2+ and caffeine-induced release of stored Ca(2+, we found that extracellular Ca(2+ inhibited exocytosis following moderate [Ca(2+](i rises (2-3 µM. The IC(50 for extracellular Ca(2+ inhibition of exocytosis (ECIE was 1.38 mM and a physiological reduction (∼30% of extracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](o significantly increased the evoked exocytosis. At the single vesicle level, quantal size and release frequency were also altered by physiological [Ca(2+](o. The calcimimetics Mg(2+, Cd(2+, G418, and neomycin all inhibited exocytosis. The extracellular Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR was not involved because specific drugs and knockdown of CaSR in DRG neurons did not affect ECIE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As an extension of the classic Ca(2+ hypothesis of synaptic release, physiological levels of extracellular Ca(2+ play dual roles in evoked exocytosis by providing a source of Ca(2+ influx, and by directly regulating quantal size and release probability in neuronal cells.

  9. Collective flow in central Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    Questions related to the entropy, equation of state and collective flow of nuclear matter are important to the authors understanding of high energy nuclear collisions. Completion of the analysis of exclusive measurements on central Ca + Ca and Nb + Nb collisions triggered renewed interest in these problems. In order to address the results of exclusive measurements, however, the complex multifragment final states of high energy nuclear collisions need to be incorporated in a theoretical description. The microcanonical event generator model provides statistically generated complete events that can be compared to the exclusive data on an event-by-event basis. To describe the disassembly of hot nuclear matter the model uses an approximate scheme in which the available final states are populated according to their microcanonical weight in phase space. This statistical description is front-ended with simple geometric ideas to divide the collision system into subsystems and with a prescription to share energy and momentum among the subsystems. Any physical quantity of interest is in principle calculable in the model if sufficient statistics is accumulated

  10. Hvad SKER der med drikkevandet i USA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren Mark

    2017-01-01

    Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år.......Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år....

  11. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  12. Hydrolysis of molten CaCl2-CaF2 with additions of CaO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Olsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium halide based molten salts have recently attracted interest for a number of applications such as direct reduction of oxides for metal production and as liquefying agent in cyclic sorption processes for CO2 by CaO from dilute flue gases (Ca-looping. A fundamental aspect of these melts is the possible hydrolysis reaction upon exposure to gaseous H2O forming corrosive and poisonous hydrogen halides. In this work experiments have been performed investigating the formation of HCl and HF from a molten salt consisting of a 13.8 wt% CaF2 in CaCl2 eutectic exposed to a flowing gas consisting of 10 vol% H2O in N2. Hydrolysis has been investigated as function of content of CaO and temperature. HCl and HF are shown to be formed at elevated temperatures; HCl forms to a substantially larger extent than HF. Addition of CaO has a marked, limiting effect on the hydrolysis. Thermodynamic modeling of the reaction indicates activity coefficients for CaO above unity in the system. For cyclic CO2-capture based on thermal swing, it is advisable to keep the temperature in the carbonation (absorption reactor well below 850 ℃ while maintaining a high CaO content if molten CaCl2 is employed. Similar conclusions can be drawn with regards to CaF2.

  13. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  14. Photoemission study of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Iwai, Keisuke; Noami, Kengo; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Hirai, Masaaki; Tomioka, Fumiaki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Asami; Toyoda, Masahiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have performed resonant photoemission studies of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC 6 . Using photon energy of the Ca 2p-3d threshold, the photoemission intensity of the peak at Fermi energy (E F ) is resonantly enhanced. This result provides spectroscopic evidence for the existence of Ca 3d states at E F , and strongly supports that Ca 3d state plays a crucial role for the superconductivity of this material with relatively high T c .

  15. Professional Training of Economists in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitska, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the peculiarities of American professional undergraduate and graduate training in economics. The analysis of documents, scientific and educational literature demonstrates the diversity of the US training courses and combinations of disciplines in economics. It has been defined that leading position of the USA in the world…

  16. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  18. USA abandons K1 - or does it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over the USA's Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) policy to distribute potassium iodide to emergency workers and institutionalised individuals in the event of a nuclear reactor accident but not to recommend the predistribution or stockpiling of potassium iodide for the general public is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  20. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  1. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  2. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  3. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  4. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  5. Measurements of natural 41Ca concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic mass spectroscopic examinations on 41 Ca were carried out in the UNILAC accelerator. A sensitivity of about 10 -15 was achieved. This would allow the measurement of present natural 41 Ca concentrations as soon as the problem of the transmission determination is solved. In this respect suggestions were worked out and their feasibility discussed. The detection of 41 Ca-ions is especially free of background when high UNILAC-energies are applied. An estimation showed a background level corresponding with a 41 Ca concentration of less then 10 -17 referred to 40 Ca. Besides an independent concept for the electromagnetic concentration of 41 Ca with variable concentration factors was developed. After being concentrated up to 50 respectively 25 times the initial concentration in the GSI mass separator, the 41 Ca concentration of three recent deer bones found in the Odenwald was measured by atomic mass spectroscopy in the 14UD-Pelletron Tandem in Rehovot (Israel). The measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged between 10 -14 to 10 -13 with consideration of the concentration factor. A theoretical study of the 41 Ca production in the earth's surface based on cosmic radiation illustrates the influence of trace elements on the neutron flux and thus on the 41 Ca production. This influence might be a possible explanation for the observed amplitude of variation of the 41 Ca concentration in recent bones which are of decisive importance for the feasibility of 41 Ca-related dating. In this work a method is suggested that does not depend on the amplitude of variation mentioned above and which would allow the determination of the erosion rate of rocks by its 41 Ca concentrations. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Bax regulates neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsi, Beatrice; Kilbride, Seán M; Chen, Gang; Perez Alvarez, Sergio; Bonner, Helena P; Pfeiffer, Shona; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Engel, Tobias; Henshall, David C; Düssmann, Heiko; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2015-01-28

    Excessive Ca(2+) entry during glutamate receptor overactivation ("excitotoxicity") induces acute or delayed neuronal death. We report here that deficiency in bax exerted broad neuroprotection against excitotoxic injury and oxygen/glucose deprivation in mouse neocortical neuron cultures and reduced infarct size, necrotic injury, and cerebral edema formation after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Neuronal Ca(2+) and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) analysis during excitotoxic injury revealed that bax-deficient neurons showed significantly reduced Ca(2+) transients during the NMDA excitation period and did not exhibit the deregulation of Δψm that was observed in their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Reintroduction of bax or a bax mutant incapable of proapoptotic oligomerization equally restored neuronal Ca(2+) dynamics during NMDA excitation, suggesting that Bax controlled Ca(2+) signaling independently of its role in apoptosis execution. Quantitative confocal imaging of intracellular ATP or mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels using FRET-based sensors indicated that the effects of bax deficiency on Ca(2+) handling were not due to enhanced cellular bioenergetics or increased Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria. We also observed that mitochondria isolated from WT or bax-deficient cells similarly underwent Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition. However, when Ca(2+) uptake into the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum was blocked with the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, bax-deficient neurons showed strongly elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) levels during NMDA excitation, suggesting that the ability of Bax to support dynamic ER Ca(2+) handling is critical for cell death signaling during periods of neuronal overexcitation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351706-17$15.00/0.

  7. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  8. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused

  9. Comparative study of anisotropic superconductivity in CaAlSi and CaGaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Uozato, K.; Kasahara, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Tokunaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to get some insight into the origin of the anomalous angular dependence of H c2 in a layered intermetallic compound CaAlSi, electronic, superconducting, and structural properties are compared between CaAlSi and CaGaSi. The angular dependence of H c2 in CaGaSi is well described by the anisotropic GL model. Parallel to this finding, the pronounced lattice modulation accompanying the superstructure along the c-axis in CaAlSi is absent in CaGaSi. A relatively large specific heat jump at the superconducting transition in CaAlSi compared with CaGaSi indicates the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling in CaAlSi, which may cause the superstructure and the anomalous angular dependence of H c2

  10. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  11. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  12. USA tunnistab valge fosfori relvana kasutamist Iraagis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kui varem USA eitas valge fosfori kasutamist Iraagis Falluja linnas, siis nüüd on ta eitamisest loobunud. USA välisministeeriumi pressiteate kohaselt ei kasutatud fosforit keemiarelvana. Sütitavate relvade kasutamine tsiviilisikute vastu on keelatud. Vt. samas: Ahto Lobjakas. Europarlamendis USA hukkamõist

  13. Tšehhid protestisid USA raketikilbi vastu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    USA soovib rajada oma ballistiliste rakettide eest kaitsva süsteemi rajatisi Poola ja Tšehhi territooriumile, mille vastu on protestinud ka Venemaa. Tšehhi Trokaveci küla elanike korraldatud referendumist ja Prahas toimunud meeleavaldustest USA raketikilbi radarijaama vastu. Lisa: USA raketikilp

  14. 76 FR 35715 - Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Establishment of the SelectUSA Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the... unnecessary obstacles to investment. Sec. 2. SelectUSA Initiative. (a) Establishment. There is established the SelectUSA Initiative (Initiative), a Government-wide initiative to attract and retain investment in the...

  15. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  16. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R.; Reid, C.; Snell, V.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  17. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation, San Fransisco, California (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  18. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  19. USA asepresident vihastas Venemaad / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 9. Läänemere ja Musta mere piirkonna riikide tippkohtumisel Vilniuses esinenud USA asepresident Dick Cheney märkis, et Ameerikal ja Euroopal on raske näha Venemaad demokraatlike riikide seas, kuna reformivastased püüavad Venemaal hävitada möödunud kümnendi edusamme. Vt. samas: Eesti pakub abiks oma kogemusi

  20. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.; Nikazmerad, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  1. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  2. Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint EPA and Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board NPDES Permit and Waiver from Secondary Treatment for the West Basin Municipal Water District Edward C. Little Water Recycling Plant, El Segundo, CA: CA0063401

  3. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  4. Signatures of cytoplasmic proteins in the exoproteome distinguish community- and hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Solomon A.; Palma Medina, Laura M.; Glasner, Corinna

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the common name for a heterogeneous group of highly drug-resistant staphylococci. Two major MRSA classes are distinguished based on epidemiology, namely community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) MRSA. Notably, the distinction of CA......- and HA-MRSA based on molecular traits remains difficult due to the high genomic plasticity of S. aureus. Here we sought to pinpoint global distinguishing features of CA- and HA-MRSA through a comparative genome and proteome analysis of the notorious MRSA lineage USA300. We show for the first time that CA......- and HA-MRSA isolates can be distinguished by 2 distinct extracellular protein abundance clusters that are predictive not only for epidemiologic behavior, but also for their growth and survival within epithelial cells. This ‘exoproteome profiling’ also groups more distantly related HA-MRSA isolates...

  5. Cuento: Sangre de caña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Benjamín Corredor

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available El viento se convertía en murmullo contra las hojas de los cañaverales y contra los techos semipelados del rancho. También menguaba el calor que maduraba los plantíos de caña y que hacía más efusiva la sangre de los moradores.

  6. Impact of seawater [Ca2+] on the calcification and calcite Mg / Ca of Amphistegina lessonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G. J.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  7. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  8. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  9. Comparative kinetics of 47Ca, 85Sr and 226Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of 47 Ca, 85 Sr and 226 Ra were compared in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the southeastern USA. The absorption and elimination processes were examined as a function of stable dietary Ca, season, age and sex of the animals. Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and serial whole-body analyses were performed on the live animals for up to 480 days. Only in the juvenile age class did reduced dietary Ca cause a significant increase in 85 Sr absorption. The absorption of 85 Sr and 226 Ra in the adult male, adult female and hatchling groups was unaffected by dietary Ca. Mean absorption was greater than that which has been reported for other organisms and significantly differed among isotopes. The high absorption values were not restricted to immatures, but continued into maturity. Elimination rates were not affected by the dietary treatment, nor were isotopic differences in elimination observed. Annual mean elimination rate constants pooled among animal groups, were 0.22 ± 0.07 for 85 Sr and 0.26 ± 0.18 for 226 Ra. Retention was strongly affected by season with the greatest elimination occurring in the summer and declining to levels that were not distinguishable from zero in the winter. Elimination rate constants for hatchlings were greater than for the other age groups. (author)

  10. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  11. Juvenile Hippocampal CA2 Region Expresses Aggrecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Noguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are distributed primarily around inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found that a main component of PNNs, aggrecan, existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by the CA2 marker protein regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14. We also found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was more evident in the anterior sections of the CA2 area than the posterior sections, which suggests that the function of CA2 PNNs varies along the anterior-posterior axis.

  12. PGC-1α accelerates cytosolic Ca2+ clearance without disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-01-01

    Energy metabolism and Ca 2+ handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1α in cardiac Ca 2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1α via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1α improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca 2+ transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca 2+ increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca 2+ transients and Ca 2+ waves accelerated in PGC-1α-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca 2+ transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1α-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1α induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1α did not disturb cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, because SR Ca 2+ load and the propensity for Ca 2+ waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1α can ameliorate cardiac Ca 2+ cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1α-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1α in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  13. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haramis Linn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid and temporal (weekly patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model. Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito

  14. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  15. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  16. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Greg B; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor

  17. USA erisaadik : USA investorid Eestis rahul / J. Frank Mermoud ; interv. Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mermoud, J. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide välisministri nõunik ja erisaadik majandusküsimustes kiidab Eesti edu, räägib USA investorite rahuolust Eesti majanduskeskkonnaga ja väljendab muret Euroopa Liidu kavade pärast maksude ühtlustamiseks

  18. The birth and growth of neuroradiology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.; Goettingen Univ. Germany, F.R. Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie)

    1981-01-01

    Neuroradiology in the USA was started by the neurosurgeons Harvey Cushing, who personally made the first X-rays used to treat a patient with a neurological disability, and Walter Dandy, who first performed air ventriculography, ventriculoscopy, air encephalography and air myelography. The father of neuroradiology in the USA was Merrill Sosman, Cushing's associate. Modern neuroradiology was introduced into the USA from Europe by Mannie Schechter who was one of the original team of three Chief Editors of Neuroradiology. (orig.)

  19. USA relvastab araabia maid miljardite dollaritega / Kunnar Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Kunnar

    2007-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice ja kaitseminister Robert Gates tegid visiidi Saudi-Araabiasse. Arvatakse, et nad on pehmendamas katastroofi, mis järgneks USA vägede järk-järgulisele taandumisele Iraagist. USA kavatseb anda Pärsia riikidele sõjalist abi, et tuua Iraan kolmepoolsetele läbirääkimistele. Lisa: Kodusõda võib olla vältimatu

  20. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  1. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  2. Extremely Elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 in Endometrioma; A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugar Bayramov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is a benign condition, increased levels of the tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9 may be seen. However, these tumor markers reach to very high levels, rarely. In this report, 4 patients between 20 and 43 year-old with extremely elevated CA 125, CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 levels are discussed. In endometriosis extremely increased tumor markers are determined in the case of ruptured endometrioma cyst. There are two mechanisms to clarify extremely elevated levels of CA 125 in endometriosis. First, the peritoneal irritation of CA 125 molecule after the rupture of endometioma cyst and CA 125 secretion from the periton. And the second is penetration of the CA 125 moecule easily to the circulation through the peritoneal endothelial surface after the cyst rupture. In conclusion, the diagnosis of ruptured endometrioma cyst should be kept in mind especially in young patients with extremely elevated serum CA 125 levels with regard to the history and ultrasonographical signs and invasive procedures should be avoided.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  4. Ischemic damage in hippocampal CA1 is dependent on glutamate release and intact innervation from CA3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, H; Jørgensen, M B; Sandberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The removal of glutamatergic afferents to CA1 by destruction of the CA3 region is known to protect CA1 pyramidal cells against 10 min of transient global ischemia. To investigate further the pathogenetic significance of glutamate, we measured the release of glutamate in intact and CA3-lesioned CA...

  5. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  6. BiCaSrCuO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvi, V.M.; Niemi, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    BiCaSrCuO and BiPbCaSrCuO powders have been synthesized. Different research methods (SEM,EDS,XRF,SRD,DTA) have been used to characterize the bulk specimen and wires. Resistance and current density measured as a function of temperature are reported. The ceramic products contained several phases. Lead containing specimen gave the best results and the synthesis was easily reproducible

  7. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.

    2011-01-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  8. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2011-05-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of the USA inertial fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahalas, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The next step in the USA inertial fusion program is to begin planning for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility or LMF. The LMF would have an output energy of between 200 and 1000 MJ, the latter energy being equivalent to a quarter ton of high explosive, with an input driver energy of 5-10 MJ. This implies a high target gain, 100-200 or more, with either a laser or particle beam driver. The LMF would cost a half billion to a billion dollars and would require a serious commitment by the country and the Department of Energy. The Department is in the stage of preliminary planning for an LMF and beginning a process by which a driver selection can be made in the fiscal year 1991-1992 timeframe. Construction initiation will require that a departmental decision be made as well as appropriation of funds within the Congressional funding cycle. In this paper, we review recent progress leading to the new USA program planning for the next facility and describe the status of this preliminary planning as well as characteristics of the LMF. (orig.)

  10. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.K., E-mail: hkhuang@aol.com [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-05-15

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  11. Study on the isospin equilibration phenomenon in nuclear reactions 40Ca + 40Ca , 40Ca + 46Ti , 40Ca + 48Ca , 48Ca + 48Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon by using the CHIMERA multidetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, N. S.; Auditore, L.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; Chatterjee, M. B.; De Luca, S.; De Filippo, E.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Gnoffo, B.; Lanzalone, G.; Lombardo, I.; Maiolino, C.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Verde, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the results obtained by studying nuclear reactions between isotopes of Ca and Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon. We used the multidetector CHIMERA to detect charged reaction products. In particular, we studied two main effects: the isospin diffusion and the isospin drift. In order to study these processes we performed a moving-source analysis on kinetic energy spectra of the isobar nuclei ^{3H} and ^{3He} . This method allows to isolate the emission from the typical sources produced in reactions at Fermi energy: projectile like fragment (PLF), target like fragment (TLF), and mid-velocity (MV) emission. The obtained results are compared to previous experimental investigations and to simulations obtained with CoMD-II model.

  12. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Babich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  13. Influence of ER leak on resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ and receptor-mediated Ca2+ signalling in human macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhadi, Janice A; Fountain, Samuel J

    2017-06-03

    Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyto ) and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca 2+ leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca 2+ leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca 2+ ] cyto revealing a Ca 2+ leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin. IP 3 receptors (Xestospongin C, 2-APB), ryanodine receptors (dantrolene), and translocon (anisomycin) inhibition facilitated ER Ca 2+ leak in model macrophage, with translocon inhibition also reducing resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . In primary macrophage, translocon inhibition blocks Ca 2+ leak but does not influence resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . We identify a role for translocon-mediated ER Ca 2+ leak in receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in both model and primary human macrophage, whereby the Ca 2+ response to ADP (P2Y receptor agonist) is augmented following anisomycin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate a role of ER Ca 2+ leak via the translocon in controlling resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in model macrophage and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in model macrophage and primary macrophage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Läbikatsumine USA lennujaamades riivab siin tehtavast vähem / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi privaatsuse ja andmekaitse juht Mary Ellen Callahan kinnitab, et USA-sse reisivate inimeste krediitkaardiandmeid kasutatakse vaid elektroonilise reisi autoriseerimise süsteemi jaoks ning andmeid säilitab USA rahandusministeerium. Ta on arvamusel, et USA-s on kehaskannerite kasutamisel reisija privaatsuse kaitse parem kui Euroopas

  15. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P tumor size (P tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  16. Electronic structures and magnetism of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangtao; Shi Xianbiao; Liu Haipeng; Liu Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the electronic structures, magnetism, and Fermi surface (FS) nesting of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF by first-principles calculations. In the nonmagnetic (NM) states, we found strong FS nesting, which induces magnetic instability and a spin density wave (SDW). Our calculations indicate that the ground state of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF is the stripe antiferromagnetic state. The calculated bare susceptibility χ 0 (q) peaked at the M-point and was clearly suppressed and became slightly incommensurate with both electron doping and hole doping for both materials. (author)

  17. Study of 40Ca-40Ca elastic scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross sections for 40 Ca- 40 Ca elastic scattering have been calculated at laboratory incident energy of 240 MeV using a sharp cut off of the partial waves below a critical angular momentum, 1sub(c)' to account for absorption. The effective 40 Ca- 40 Ca potential is taken to be the sum of a real nuclear potential and the Coulomb potential. The calculated differential cross sections which are in fair agreement with the experimental data are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Impact parameter determination for 40Ca + 40Ca reactions using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, F.; Hagel, K.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Wada, R.; Xiao, B.; David, C.; Freslier, M.; Aichelin, J.

    1995-01-01

    A neural network is used for the impact parameter determination in 40 Ca + 40 Ca reactions at energies between 35 and 70 AMeV. A special attention is devoted to the effect of experimental constraints such as the detection efficiency. An overall improvement of the impact parameter determination of 25% is obtained with the neural network. The neural network technique is then used in the analysis of the Ca+Ca data at 35 AMeV and allows separation of three different class of events among the selected 'complete' events. (authors). 8 refs., 5 figs

  19. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  20. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  1. Absolute Ca Isotopic Measurement Using an Improved Double Spike Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jiun-San Shen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of the 42Ca-48Ca double spike. This is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and natural Ca data. Be cause the natural sample (two mixtures and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to con strain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. Once the isotopic composition of the Ca double spike is established, we are able to obtain the true Ca isotopic composition of the NIST Ca standard SRM915a, 40Ca/44Ca = 46.537 ± 2 (2sm, n = 55, 42Ca/44Ca = 0.31031 ± 1, 43Ca/44Ca = 0.06474 ± 1, and 48Ca/44Ca = 0.08956 ± 1. De spite an off set of 1.3% in 40Ca/44Ca between our result and the previously re ported value (Russell et al. 1978, our data indicate an off set of 1.89__in 40Ca/44Ca between SRM915a and seawater, entirely consistent with the published results.

  2. Characterization of chemosynthetic microbial mats associated with intertidal hydrothermal sulfur vents in White Point, San Pedro, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla J Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP in Palos Verdes (PV on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH microscopy and sulfate-reduction rate (SRR measurements. Sequence analysis revealed a diverse group of bacteria, dominated by sulfur cycling gamma-, epsilon- and deltaproteobacterial lineages such as Marithrix, Sulfurovum and Desulfuromusa. FISH microscopy suggests a close physical association between sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing genotypes, while radiotracer studies showed low, but detectable, SRR. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate the WP sulfur vent microbial mat community is similar, but distinct from other hydrothermal vent communities representing a range of biotopes and lithologic settings. These findings suggest a complete biological sulfur cycle is operating in the WP mat ecosystem mediated by diverse bacterial lineages, with some similarity with deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities.

  3. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  4. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  5. Tilted lake shorelines record the onset of motion along the Hilton Creek fault adjacent to Long Valley caldera, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    Prominent normal faults occur within and around Long Valley caldera, in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California. However, their relationship to both the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the caldera since the 760 ka eruption of the Bishop Tuff remains poorly understood. In particular, in the Mono-Inyo Craters north of Long Valley, extensional faulting appears to be replaced by dike intrusion where magma is available in the crust. However, it is unclear whether extensional faults in Long Valley caldera have been active since the eruption of the Bishop Tuff (when the current topography was established) or are a relatively young phenomenon owing to the cooling and crystallization of the Long Valley magma reservoir. Here we use GPS geodesy and geomorphology to investigate the evolution of the Hilton Creek fault, the primary range-front fault bounding Long Valley caldera to the southwest. Our primary goals are to determine how long the Hilton Creek fault has been active and whether slip rates have been constant over that time interval. To characterize the modern deformation field, we capitalize on recently (July, 2010) reoccupied GPS benchmarks first established in 1999-2000. These fixed-array GPS data show no discernible evidence for recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault, which further highlights the need for longer-term constraints on fault motion. To establish a fault slip history, we rely on a suite of five prominent shorelines from Pleistocene Long Valley Lake whose ages are well constrained based on field relationships to dated lavas, and that are tilted southward toward the Hilton Creek fault. A preliminary analysis of shoreline orientations using GPS surveys and a 5-m-resolution Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) digital elevation model shows that lake shorelines tilt towards the Hilton Creek fault at roughly parallel gradients (~ 0.6%). The measured shorelines range in inferred age from 100 ka to 500 ka, which constrain recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault to the last 100 kyr and imply a late Pleistocene slip rate of ~0.8 mm/yr, consistent with shorter (~ 25 kyr) timescale estimates of ~1 mm/yr from displacement of LGM moraines and terraces along the active fault scarp. These data show that tilting in Long Valley caldera related to slip on the Hilton Creek fault commenced after 100 ka, and that slip rates are seemingly uniform over that time period. The 22 km-long trace of the Hilton Creek fault, with at least 1070 m of offset at McGee Mountain to the south, must have experienced significant pre-caldera slip. A lack of apparent tilting within Long Valley caldera from 500 ka to 100 ka may therefore be interpreted in one of two ways. Either extension ceased here for at least~ 400 kyr, or more likely, accommodation of Hilton Creek extension occurred either elsewhere (outside of the Caldera) or via a different physical mechanism, such as dike intrusion.

  6. Minor and Trace Element Chemistry of Urban NS-Soot from the Central Valley of CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleich, S. J.; Hooper, R.

    2017-12-01

    During a recent study of metal transport in the Central Valley of California, it was noted that ns-soot (soot) occurred as complex clusters of graphene-like spheres admixed with other aerosols and were usually the dominant component of PM2.5 air particulates. These soot clusters contained a wide variety of metals of environmental concern such as As,Pb,Cr, and Ni. This study reports semi-quantitative results for 20 minor and trace elements (calibrated with Smithsonian microbeam standards) using a 200kV Transmission Electron Microscope, EDS, and SAED. This study also examined the mineralogy and crystallinity of admixed aerosols within composite soot clusters. Samples selected represent three contrasting urban settings in the Central Valley: Woodland, on the western side of the valley (Interstate highway to the east); Stockton, an inland sea-port and land transportation corridor in the center of the valley; and Roseville, a major rail-transport hub to the east. The wet/dry Mediterranean climate of California resulted in pronounced seasonal variations in total metal content. Soot cluster chemistry is highly variable however certain patterns emerged. Soot collected during the wet season is generally more aciniform, less structurally complex, and had lower sulfur (sulfate) concentrations but still had significant levels of transition metals (V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Zn and Pb) . Dry season soot was predominantly admixed with sulfate aerosols, and enriched in alkalis and alkaline earth metals. Stockton (wet-season) soot had up to 6000ppm of Pb. There is appreciable Pb (210ppm-2600ppm) in 38% of samples from Roseville but no Pb greater than 200ppm in Woodland. The highest overall total metals were found in Roseville soot with appreciable As(670ppm), V(100ppm), Pb(2600ppm), Zn(4000 ppm), Cr(90ppm), and Ni(300ppm). Heavy transport (road/rail/port) correlates with higher metal contents regardless of climate.

  7. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mars Exploration Study Workshop II. Report of a workshop, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA), 24 - 25 May 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, M. B.; Budden, N. A.

    1993-11-01

    This report, which summarizes the Mars Exploration Study Workshop II, provides an overview of the status of the Mars Exploration Study, material presented at the workshop, and discussions of open items being addressed by the study team. The workshop assembled three teams of experts to discuss cost, dual-use technology, and international involvement, and to generate a working group white paper addressing these issues.

  9. USA üritab leida Teherani agente Iraagist / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA süüdistab Iraani, et see abistab Iraagis mahdiste, mida juhib Muqtada al-Sadri. Autori sõnul on Iraani eliitüksuse Qudsi korpuse koostööd al-Sadriga aga sama vähe tõestatud kui omal ajal USA väidet Saddam Husseini ja al-Qaida vahel

  10. Ruslands betændte forhold til USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'.......Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'....

  11. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  12. USA kliimamuutuse vastu: Kopenhaagenis ja edaspidi / Michael C. Polt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polt, Michael C., 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Käsitledes Kopenhaageni kliimakonverentsi, märgib USA Eesti-suursaadik, et USA on valmis paika panema eesmärgi vähendada kohalike seadustega kooskõlas 2020. aastaks kasvuhoonegaaside heitmete emissiooni tasemeni, mis oleks 17% väiksem 2005. aasta tasemest

  13. Valitsus vaeb USA viisavabadusenõudeid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    USA viisavabaduse aluseks oleva vastastikuse mõistmise memorandumi projekt on täna valitsuse istungi päevakorras. Tšehhi ja USA on juba sõlminud kahepoolse memorandumi, mõnedel hinnangutel on Tšehhi järele andnud kogu ameeriklaste nõudmiste paketile. Lisa: Andmekaitsjad pole viimase seisuga kursis

  14. USA toetab Lähis-Ida konfliktides Iisraeli / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA kasutas ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogus vetoõigust resolutsiooni suhtes, milles nõuti Iisraelilt Gaza sektoris toimuvate rünnakute kohest lõpetamist, USA ÜRO suursaadiku John Boltoni sõnul oleks dokumendi vastuvõtmine õõnestanud Julgeolekunõukogu usaldusväärsust

  15. Distribution, hosts and identification of Meloidogyne partityla in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan, Carya illinoensis, is an economically important nut crop and member of the Juglandaceae native to the southern USA. Discovered in South Africa in 1986, Meloidogyne partityla was first found infecting pecan in USA in 1996 and currently occurs in Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Arizona, Oklahoma a...

  16. 77 FR 38039 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity for... Corporation for Travel Promotion (Board) (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation...

  17. 78 FR 53728 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  18. 78 FR 44531 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  19. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  20. Tropical Trametes lactinea is widely distributed in the eastern USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Kout, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2011), s. 271-279 ISSN 0093-4666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Basidiomycota, USA new record, taxonomy * USA new record * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.709, year: 2011

  1. Nuclear reactor safety in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety in the USA has emphasized a defense-in-depth approach to protecting the public from reactor accidents. This approach was severely tested by the Three Mile Island accident and was found to be effective in safeguarding the public health and safety. However, the economic impact of the TMI accident was very large. Consequently, more attention is now being given to plant protection as well as public-health protection in reactor-safety studies. Sophisticated computer simulations at Los Alamos are making major contributions in this area. In terms of public risk, nuclear power plants compare favorably with other large-scale alternatives to electricity generation. Unfortunately, there is a large gulf between the real risks of nuclear power and the present public perception of these risks

  2. SAT for NPP personnel training in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinney, R.

    1995-01-01

    This discussion addressed the experience with the application of SAT at USA NPPs. In particular, the transition of NPP training processes, staff composition, and reporting structure from the TMI accident to present. As well, oversight and guidance activities of the INPO and more intensive inspection by the NRC began during this period. The average NPP training staff grew to 30-40 per unit, along with a change in reporting line from plant to corporate management. With the reduction of resources occurring in the late 1980s, overall training staff size decreased, the composition changed, and reporting line reverted to plant management. The overall lessons-learned for application of the SAT consisted of the need for simplification, management involvement, and exploitation of the technology

  3. Report of a mission to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, A.

    1959-01-01

    As the personnel working with radioactive products is facing hazards due to irradiation and to contamination by absorption, glove boxes provide a sufficient protection against pure alpha and low beta or gamma emitters, but beta and gamma emitters such as irradiated uranium alloys require the protection by thick lead or concrete walls and handling alpha and gamma emitters (such as polonium, plutonium and uranium 233) requires alpha-tight and gamma-protective enclosures. In some cases, inert or semi-inert atmosphere are required. In this report, the author present and describe how these protections are provided or projected in installations visited in the USA (in Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Brookhaven, and Argonne laboratories). They distinguish the conventional design of beta-gamma cells, the transformation of gamma cells into alpha-gamma cell, and different types of alpha-gamma cells (glove boxes in gamma enclosure, tight enclosure with possible staff entrance, tight enclosure with forbidden entrance)

  4. The destiny of Ca(2+) released by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) is known to regulate diverse cellular functions, for example energy production and cell death, by modulating mitochondrial dehydrogenases, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, and opening mitochondrial permeability transition pores. In addition to the action of Ca(2+) within mitochondria, Ca(2+) released from mitochondria is also important in a variety of cellular functions. In the last 5 years, the molecules responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics have been identified: a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), a mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), and a candidate for a mitochondrial H(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (Letm1). In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system, and discuss its physiological and pathophysiological significance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system is not only crucial in maintaining mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis but also participates in the Ca(2+) crosstalk between mitochondria and the plasma membrane and between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  5. Snus use and rejection in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Roman, Anthony M; Mc Inerney, Scott A; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Hatsukami, Dororthy K; Loukas, Alexandra; O'Connor, Richard J; Romito, Laura

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether snus might become a strategy for reducing the harm associated with cigarette smoking in the USA as appears to be the case in Sweden, we examined receptivity to snus use in two cities with the greatest exposure to the major brands. A dual frame, telephone survey and a brief mail survey were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Indianapolis, Indiana and Dallas/Fort Worth Texas. Over 5000 adults completed surveys. Trial, ever use, current use and reasons for using or quitting snus after trial were measured. Among male smokers, 29.9% had ever tried snus (CI 22.7 to 38.1) and 4.2% were current users (CI 1.6 to 10.7). Among female smokers, 8.5% ever tried snus (CI 4.4 to 15.7) and current use was unknown. Current use was virtually absent among former smokers and never smokers. A major predictor of any level of snus use was current use of conventional smokeless tobacco. Those who tried and gave up snus cited curiosity (41.3%) and the fact that it was available at low or no cost (30%) as reasons for trial; reasons for not continuing included preferring another form of tobacco (75.1%) and disliking the mouth feel (34.6%). Almost all current snus users indicated that they were trying to cut down on cigarettes, but few (3.9%) were using it to quit smoking entirely. The low rate of adoption of snus suggests that neither the hopes nor the fears surrounding this new product are likely to be realised in the USA with the current marketing patterns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. A geostatical model for USA uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence exists which suggests that the frequency distributions of both grade and size of metal deposits may be well approximated by lognormal distribution functions. Using data on presently viable deposits and a simplified function which links production cost to deposit grade and size, a bivariate lognormal deposit grade/size distribution may be calibrated for a given geological environment. Exploration is introduced by assuming that the proportion discovered of the potential uranium reserve available at or below a given production can be represented by a fraction of the average deposit size and the limit exploration expenditure. As output, the model derives estimates of total reserves linked to maximum production costs and to exploration expenditure where the latter may be expressed either as expenditure per lb of mineral discovered or as a given percentage of operating profit. Reserve/price functions have been derived for the USA based on USAEC data. Tentative conclusions which may be drawn from the results are: (1) Assuming that a similar proportion of profits continues to be allocated to exploration in the future, then the USA should be able to meet its own national demand for uranium up to the end of the century (say 2 M tons U) at prices up to US$35/lb U 3 O 8 (1.1.75$ values). (2) If instead of all exploration being funded from a fixed maximum proportion of mining company profits, consumers were to fund additional exploration separately, then it is possible that the total unit cost of uranium to the consumers would thereby be reduced. It should be stressed that these conclusions are tentative and are only as reliable as the input data and assumptions of the model. In particular no account is taken of commercial or political forces which could artificially restrict supplies or raise prices. The model should be regarded as a first attempt and is offered as a basis for discussion leading to further development. (author)

  7. EPICS controlled sample mounting robots at the GM/CA CAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, O.A. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Bldg. 436D, Argonne, IL 60439-4861 (United States)], E-mail: makarov@anl.gov; Benn, R.; Corcoran, S.; Devarapalli, S.; Fischetti, R.; Hilgart, M.; Smith, W.W.; Stepanov, S.; Xu, S. [GM/CA-CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Bldg. 436D, Argonne, IL 60439-4861 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    GM/CA CAT at Sector 23 of the advanced photon source (APS) is an NIH funded facility for crystallographic structure determination of biological macromolecules by X-ray diffraction [R.F. Fischetti, et al., GM/CA canted undulator beamlines for protein crystallography, Acta Crystallogr. A 61 (2005) C139]. The facility consists of three beamlines; two based on canted undulators and one on a bending magnet. The scientific and technical goals of the CAT emphasize streamlined, efficient throughput for a variety of sample types, sizes and qualities, representing the cutting edge of structural biology research. For this purpose all three beamlines are equipped with the ALS-style robots [C.W.Cork, et al. Status of the BCSB automated sample mounting and alignment system for macromolecular crystallography at the Advanced Light Source, SRI-2003, San-Francisco, CA, USA, August 25-29, 2003] for an automated mounting of cryo-protected macromolecular crystals. This report summarizes software and technical solutions implemented with the first of the three operational robots at beamline 23-ID-B. The automounter's Dewar can hold up to 72 or 96 samples residing in six Rigaku ACTOR magazines or ALS-style pucks, respectively. Mounting of a crystal takes approximately 2 s, during which time the temperature of the crystal is maintained near that of liquid nitrogen.

  8. Changes in the expression of serum markers CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TNF-α and TSGF after cryosurgery in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Niu, Lizhi; Chiu, David; He, Lihua; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of serum tumor markers, carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor-supplied group of factors (TSGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is closely associated with invasion and metastasis of many malignancies. The expression of these markers were measured in serum taken from 37 pancreatic cancer patients prior to treatment. Levels of CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA and TNF-α expression correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph node and liver metastasis (P markers were significantly reduced compared with levels prior to cryosurgery (P 0.05). Thus, cryosurgery is more effective than chemotherapy for decreasing CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TSGF and TNF-α serum levels in these patients.

  9. Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Sam B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellick, Jacqui; Godley, Brendan J.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the reproductive success of ectothermic animals is currently a subject of major conservation concern. However, for many threatened species, we still know surprisingly little about the extent of naturally occurring adaptive variation in heat-tolerance. Here, we show

  10. Fine-Scale Fluctuations in the Corona Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager(HiC) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region11520.We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11s (twoHiC frames)and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the average background intensity in a pixel and the photon and electronic noise. We find fluctuations occurring down to the smallest timescale(11s).Typical intensity fluctuations are 20% background intensity, while some events peaka t100%the background intensity.Generally the fluctuations are clustered in solar structures, particularly the moss.We interpret the fluctuations in the moss as indicative of heating events. We use the observed events to model the active region core.

  11. Fine-scale spatial climate variation and drought mediate the likelihood of reburning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Marc‐Andre Parisien; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Larry Scott Baggett

    2018-01-01

    In many forested ecosystems, it is increasingly recognized that the probability of burning is substantially reduced within the footprint of previously burned areas. This self‐limiting effect of wildland fire is considered a fundamental emergent property of ecosystems and is partly responsible for structuring landscape heterogeneity (i.e., mosaics of different age...

  12. Evidence of novel fine-scale structural variation at autism spectrum disorder candidate loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedges Dale J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD represent a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a core set of social-communicative and behavioral impairments. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, acting primarily via the GABA receptors (GABR. Multiple lines of evidence, including altered GABA and GABA receptor expression in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system may be involved in the etiology of autism. Methods As copy number variations (CNVs, particularly rare and de novo CNVs, have now been implicated in ASD risk, we examined the GABA receptors and genes in related pathways for structural variation that may be associated with autism. We further extended our candidate gene set to include 19 genes and regions that had either been directly implicated in the autism literature or were directly related (via function or ancestry to these primary candidates. For the high resolution CNV screen we employed custom-designed 244 k comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays. Collectively, our probes spanned a total of 11 Mb of GABA-related and additional candidate regions with a density of approximately one probe every 200 nucleotides, allowing a theoretical resolution for detection of CNVs of approximately 1 kb or greater on average. One hundred and sixty-eight autism cases and 149 control individuals were screened for structural variants. Prioritized CNV events were confirmed using quantitative PCR, and confirmed loci were evaluated on an additional set of 170 cases and 170 control individuals that were not included in the original discovery set. Loci that remained interesting were subsequently screened via quantitative PCR on an additional set of 755 cases and 1,809 unaffected family members. Results Results include rare deletions in autistic individuals at JAKMIP1, NRXN1, Neuroligin4Y, OXTR, and ABAT. Common insertion/deletion polymorphisms were detected at several loci, including GABBR2 and NRXN3. Overall, statistically significant enrichment in affected vs. unaffected individuals was observed for NRXN1 deletions. Conclusions These results provide additional support for the role of rare structural variation in ASD.

  13. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady S. Hardiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL and ground penetrating radar (GPR along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure.

  14. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Urban landscape genomics identifies fine-scale gene flow patterns in an avian invasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, G W; Chattopadhyay, B; Garg, K M; Irestedt, M; Ericson, Pgp; Yap, G; Tang, Q; Wu, S; Rheindt, F E

    2018-01-01

    Invasive species exert a serious impact on native fauna and flora and have been the target of many eradication and management efforts worldwide. However, a lack of data on population structure and history, exacerbated by the recency of many species introductions, limits the efficiency with which such species can be kept at bay. In this study we generated a novel genome of high assembly quality and genotyped 4735 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from 78 individuals of an invasive population of the Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus across the island of Singapore. We inferred limited population subdivision at a micro-geographic level, a genetic patch size (~13-14 km) indicative of a pronounced dispersal ability, and barely an increase in effective population size since introduction despite an increase of four to five orders of magnitude in actual population size, suggesting that low population-genetic diversity following a bottleneck has not impeded establishment success. Landscape genomic analyses identified urban features, such as low-rise neighborhoods, that constitute pronounced barriers to gene flow. Based on our data, we consider an approach targeting the complete eradication of Javan Mynas across Singapore to be unfeasible. Instead, a mixed approach of localized mitigation measures taking into account urban geographic features and planning policy may be the most promising avenue to reducing the adverse impacts of this urban pest. Our study demonstrates how genomic methods can directly inform the management and control of invasive species, even in geographically limited datasets with high gene flow rates.

  16. Downscaling Surface Water Inundation from Coarse Data to Fine-Scale Resolution: Methodology and Accuracy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.

  17. Landscape capability models as a tool to predict fine-scale forest bird occupancy and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Zachary G.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Rolek, Brian W.; Wood, Petra B.

    2018-01-01

    ContextSpecies-specific models of landscape capability (LC) can inform landscape conservation design. Landscape capability is “the ability of the landscape to provide the environment […] and the local resources […] needed for survival and reproduction […] in sufficient quantity, quality and accessibility to meet the life history requirements of individuals and local populations.” Landscape capability incorporates species’ life histories, ecologies, and distributions to model habitat for current and future landscapes and climates as a proactive strategy for conservation planning.ObjectivesWe tested the ability of a set of LC models to explain variation in point occupancy and abundance for seven bird species representative of spruce-fir, mixed conifer-hardwood, and riparian and wooded wetland macrohabitats.MethodsWe compiled point count data sets used for biological inventory, species monitoring, and field studies across the northeastern United States to create an independent validation data set. Our validation explicitly accounted for underestimation in validation data using joint distance and time removal sampling.ResultsBlackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata), wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and Louisiana (Parkesia motacilla) and northern waterthrush (P. noveboracensis) models were validated as predicting variation in abundance, although this varied from not biologically meaningful (1%) to strongly meaningful (59%). We verified all seven species models [including ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), blackburnian (Setophaga fusca) and cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)], as all were positively related to occupancy data.ConclusionsLC models represent a useful tool for conservation planning owing to their predictive ability over a regional extent. As improved remote-sensed data become available, LC layers are updated, which will improve predictions.

  18. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Gino J. D' Angelo; Travis C. Glenn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial...

  19. Niche divergence facilitated by fine-scale ecological partitioning in a recent cichlid fish adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Antonia G P; Rüber, Lukas; Newton, Jason; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Balarin, John D; Bruun, Kristoffer; Day, Julia J

    2016-12-01

    Ecomorphological differentiation is a key feature of adaptive radiations, with a general trend for specialization and niche expansion following divergence. Ecological opportunity afforded by invasion of a new habitat is thought to act as an ecological release, facilitating divergence, and speciation. Here, we investigate trophic adaptive morphology and ecology of an endemic clade of oreochromine cichlid fishes (Alcolapia) that radiated along a herbivorous trophic axis following colonization of an isolated lacustrine environment, and demonstrate phenotype-environment correlation. Ecological and morphological divergence of the Alcolapia species flock are examined in a phylogenomic context, to infer ecological niche occupation within the radiation. Species divergence is observed in both ecology and morphology, supporting the importance of ecological speciation within the radiation. Comparison with an outgroup taxon reveals large-scale ecomorphological divergence but shallow genomic differentiation within the Alcolapia adaptive radiation. Ancestral morphological reconstruction suggests lake colonization by a generalist oreochromine phenotype that diverged in Lake Natron to varied herbivorous morphologies akin to specialist herbivores in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    land cover information such as developing countries. In this study, we look at GlobeLand30 of 2010 for Iran in order to find out the accuracy of this dataset as well as its implications. By having looked at 6 selected study sites around larger cities representing dissimilar eco-regions covering rural...

  1. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve LaCon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1 quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2 determine overlap between clusters, (3 quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4 quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels.Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [p<0.05] high mosquito abundance were calculated for each of the 9 entomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study.Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than targeting Ae. aegypti hotspots.

  2. Fine-scale variation and genetic determinants of alternative splicing across individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thanks to the increasing throughput of new technologies, we have begun to explore the full extent of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in the human transcriptome. This is unveiling a vast layer of complexity in isoform-level expression differences between individuals. We used previously published splicing sensitive microarray data from lymphoblastoid cell lines to conduct an in-depth analysis on splicing efficiency of known and predicted exons. By combining publicly available AS annotation with a novel algorithm designed to search for AS, we show that many real AS events can be detected within the usually unexploited, speculative majority of the array and at significance levels much below standard multiple-testing thresholds, demonstrating that the extent of cis-regulated differential splicing between individuals is potentially far greater than previously reported. Specifically, many genes show subtle but significant genetically controlled differences in splice-site usage. PCR validation shows that 42 out of 58 (72% candidate gene regions undergo detectable AS, amounting to the largest scale validation of isoform eQTLs to date. Targeted sequencing revealed a likely causative SNP in most validated cases. In all 17 incidences where a SNP affected a splice-site region, in silico splice-site strength modeling correctly predicted the direction of the micro-array and PCR results. In 13 other cases, we identified likely causative SNPs disrupting predicted splicing enhancers. Using Fst and REHH analysis, we uncovered significant evidence that 2 putative causative SNPs have undergone recent positive selection. We verified the effect of five SNPs using in vivo minigene assays. This study shows that splicing differences between individuals, including quantitative differences in isoform ratios, are frequent in human populations and that causative SNPs can be identified using in silico predictions. Several cases affected disease-relevant genes and it is likely some of these differences are involved in phenotypic diversity and susceptibility to complex diseases.

  3. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  4. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex N Tidd

    Full Text Available The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future seascape planning.

  5. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Min Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  6. Fine scale remobilisation of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd in contaminated marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankere-Muller, Sophie; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2007-01-01

    to less than 0.3 μM. With both DET and DGT measurements, there were sharply defined maxima of Cu and Cd within 2 mm of the sediment water interface, consistent with their release from organic material as it is oxidised. There was a Co maximum about 5–8 mm lower than the Cu and Cd maxima, apparently...... coincidental with Mn mobilisation. While there were clear Ni maxima, their location appeared to vary from being coincident with Co to a few mm above the Co maxima. The remobilisation of metals could not be explained by the pH gradients in the near-surface sediments. As sulphate reduction rates were appreciable...

  7. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eDechesne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays nonrandom spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage, while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modelling and experimental systems that do not include soil’s full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil.

  8. Shifting patterns of Aedes aegypti fine scale spatial clustering in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCon, Genevieve; Morrison, Amy C; Astete, Helvio; Stoddard, Steven T; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Elder, John P; Halsey, Eric S; Scott, Thomas W; Kitron, Uriel; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-08-01

    Empiric evidence shows that Aedes aegypti abundance is spatially heterogeneous and that some areas and larval habitats produce more mosquitoes than others. There is a knowledge gap, however, with regards to the temporal persistence of such Ae. aegypti abundance hotspots. In this study, we used a longitudinal entomologic dataset from the city of Iquitos, Peru, to (1) quantify the spatial clustering patterns of adult Ae. aegypti and pupae counts per house, (2) determine overlap between clusters, (3) quantify the temporal stability of clusters over nine entomologic surveys spaced four months apart, and (4) quantify the extent of clustering at the household and neighborhood levels. Data from 13,662 household entomological visits performed in two Iquitos neighborhoods differing in Ae. aegypti abundance and dengue virus transmission was analyzed using global and local spatial statistics. The location and extent of Ae. aegypti pupae and adult hotspots (i.e., small groups of houses with significantly [pentomologic surveys. The extent of clustering was used to quantify the probability of finding spatially correlated populations. Our analyses indicate that Ae. aegypti distribution was highly focal (most clusters do not extend beyond 30 meters) and that hotspots of high vector abundance were common on every survey date, but they were temporally unstable over the period of study. Our findings have implications for understanding Ae. aegypti distribution and for the design of surveillance and control activities relying on household-level data. In settings like Iquitos, where there is a relatively low percentage of Ae. aegypti in permanent water-holding containers, identifying and targeting key premises will be significantly challenged by shifting hotspots of Ae. aegypti infestation. Focusing efforts in large geographic areas with historically high levels of transmission may be more effective than targeting Ae. aegypti hotspots.

  9. Incorporating fine-scale drought information into an eastern US wildfire hazard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Peters; Louis R. Iverson

    2017-01-01

    Wildfires in the eastern United States are generally caused by humans in locations where human development and natural vegetation intermingle, e.g. the wildland–urban interface (WUI). Knowing where wildfire hazards are elevated across the forested landscape may help land managers and property owners plan or allocate resources for potential wildfire threats. In an...

  10. Fine scale analyses of a coralline bank mapped using multi-beam backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, A.A.A.; Naik, M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Haris, K.; Chakraborty, B.; Estiberio, S.; Lohani, R.B.

    In this work, we have developed a classification technique to characterize the seafloor of the Gaveshani (coralline) bank area using multi-beam backscatter data. Softcomputational techniques like the artificial neural networks (ANNs) based...

  11. Fine-scale analysis of shelf -slope physiography across the western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Jauhari, P.; Mahale, V.; Shashikumar, K.; Rajesh, M.

    for analyzing the roughness of the seafloor. Rev Geophys 23:1-48 Goff KA, JW Jennings Jr (1999) Improvement of Fourier-based unconditional and conditional simulations for band limited fractal (von Karman) statistical models. Math Geol 31:627-649 Kumar A...

  12. DNA fingerprinting and new tools for fine-scale discrimination of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthieu; Simon, Adeline; Martins, Fréderic; Botran, Lucy; Tisné, Sébastien; Granier, Fabienne; Loudet, Olivier; Camilleri, Christine

    2012-03-01

    One of the main strengths of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species is the impressive number of public resources available to the scientific community. Exploring species genetic diversity--and therefore adaptation--relies on collections of individuals from natural populations taken from diverse environments. Nevertheless, due to a few mislabeling events or genotype mixtures, some variants available in stock centers have been misidentified, causing inconsistencies and limiting the potential of genetic analyses. To improve the identification of natural accessions, we genotyped 1311 seed stocks from our Versailles Arabidopsis Stock Center and from other collections to determine their molecular profiles at 341 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. These profiles were used to compare genotypes at both the intra- and inter-accession levels. We confirmed previously described inconsistencies and revealed new ones, and suggest likely identities for accessions whose lineage had been lost. We also developed two new tools: a minimal fingerprint computation to quickly verify the identity of an accession, and an optimized marker set to assist in the identification of unknown or mixed accessions. These tools are available on a dedicated web interface called ANATool (https://www.versailles.inra.fr/ijpb/crb/anatool) that provides a simple and efficient means to verify or determine the identity of A. thaliana accessions in any laboratory, without the need for any specific or expensive technology. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Modeling Framework for Improved Characterization of Near-Road Exposure at Fine Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffic-related air pollutants could cause adverse health impact to communities near roadways. To estimate the population risk and locate "hotspots" in the near-road environment, quantifying the exposure at a fine spatial resolution is essential. A new state-of-the-art ...

  14. Human-modified landscapes: patterns of fine-scale woody vegetation structure in communal savannah rangelands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available structure in five communal rangelands around 12 settlements in Bushbuckridge, a municipality in the Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve (South Africa). The importance of underlying abiotic factors was evaluated by measuring size class distributions across...

  15. Improving Shade Modelling in a Regional River Temperature Model Using Fine-Scale LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Loicq, P.; Moatar, F.; Beaufort, A.; Melin, E.; Jullian, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Air temperature is often considered as a proxy of the stream temperature to model the distribution areas of aquatic species water temperature is not available at a regional scale. To simulate the water temperature at a regional scale (105 km²), a physically-based model using the equilibrium temperature concept and including upstream-downstream propagation of the thermal signal was developed and applied to the entire Loire basin (Beaufort et al., submitted). This model, called T-NET (Temperature-NETwork) is based on a hydrographical network topology. Computations are made hourly on 52,000 reaches which average 1.7 km long in the Loire drainage basin. The model gives a median Root Mean Square Error of 1.8°C at hourly time step on the basis of 128 water temperature stations (2008-2012). In that version of the model, tree shadings is modelled by a constant factor proportional to the vegetation cover on 10 meters sides the river reaches. According to sensitivity analysis, improving the shade representation would enhance T-NET accuracy, especially for the maximum daily temperatures, which are currently not very well modelized. This study evaluates the most efficient way (accuracy/computing time) to improve the shade model thanks to 1-m resolution LIDAR data available on tributary of the LoireRiver (317 km long and an area of 8280 km²). Two methods are tested and compared: the first one is a spatially explicit computation of the cast shadow for every LIDAR pixel. The second is based on averaged vegetation cover characteristics of buffers and reaches of variable size. Validation of the water temperature model is made against 4 temperature sensors well spread along the stream, as well as two airborne thermal infrared imageries acquired in summer 2014 and winter 2015 over a 80 km reach. The poster will present the optimal length- and crosswise scale to characterize the vegetation from LIDAR data.

  16. Fine-scale spatial response of CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Van Scyoc, J.M.; Hilton, N.R.; Lund, J.C.; James, R.B.; Schlesinger, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the uniformity of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors play an important role in their performance when operated as gamma-ray spectrometers. However the detailed gamma response of simple planar detectors as a function of position over the device area is largely unknown. To address this issue the authors have built a system capable of measuring the detector response with a resolution of ∼250 (micro)m. The system consists of a highly collimated (∼200 (micro)m) photon source (<150 kev) scanned over the detector using a computer controlled two-axis translation stage. Fifteen samples configured as planar detectors were examined with the new apparatus. The material grade of the detectors examined varied from counter to select discriminator. Two classes of spatial response variation were observed and are presented here. Infrared (IR) transmission images were also acquired for each sample and correlation between features in the pulse height spectrum and crystalline defects were observed

  17. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  18. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  19. Modeling fine-scale geological heterogeneity-examples of sand lenses in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Comunian, Alessandro; Oriani, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    that hamper subsequent simulation. Transition probability (TP) and multiple-point statistics (MPS) were employed to simulate sand lens heterogeneity. We used one cross-section to parameterize the spatial correlation and a second, parallel section as a reference: it allowed testing the quality......Sand lenses at various spatial scales are recognized to add heterogeneity to glacial sediments. They have high hydraulic conductivities relative to the surrounding till matrix and may affect the advective transport of water and contaminants in clayey till settings. Sand lenses were investigated...... on till outcrops producing binary images of geological cross-sections capturing the size, shape and distribution of individual features. Sand lenses occur as elongated, anisotropic geobodies that vary in size and extent. Besides, sand lenses show strong non-stationary patterns on section images...

  20. Fine-scale population genetic structure of arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Quiles, Adrien; Lambourdière, Josie; Berteaux, Dominique; Lalis, Aude

    2017-12-01

    The arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a circumpolar species inhabiting all accessible Arctic tundra habitats. The species forms a panmictic population over areas connected by sea ice, but recently, kin clustering and population differentiation were detected even in regions where sea ice was present. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic structure of a population in the High Arctic using a robust panel of highly polymorphic microsatellites. We analyzed the genotypes of 210 individuals from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, using 15 microsatellite loci. No pattern of isolation-by-distance was detected, but a spatial principal component analysis (sPCA) revealed the presence of genetic subdivisions. Overall, the sPCA revealed two spatially distinct genetic clusters corresponding to the northern and southern parts of the study area, plus another subdivision within each of these two clusters. The north-south genetic differentiation partly matched the distribution of a snow goose colony, which could reflect a preference for settling into familiar ecological environments. Secondary clusters may result from higher-order social structures (neighbourhoods) that use landscape features to delimit their borders. The cryptic genetic subdivisions found in our population may highlight ecological processes deserving further investigations in arctic foxes at larger, regional spatial scales.

  1. Fine-scale maps of recombination rates and hotspots in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Hadassa; Levi, Liat; Ben-David, Eyal; Williams, Robert W; Yakir, Benjamin; Shifman, Sagiv

    2012-07-01

    Recombination events are not uniformly distributed and often cluster in narrow regions known as recombination hotspots. Several studies using different approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of recombination hotspot regulation. Population genetic data have been used to map and quantify hotspots in the human genome. Genetic variation in recombination rates and hotspots usage have been explored in human pedigrees, mouse intercrosses, and by sperm typing. These studies pointed to the central role of the PRDM9 gene in hotspot modulation. In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome resequencing and genotyping studies of mouse inbred strains to estimate recombination rates across the mouse genome and identified 47,068 historical hotspots--an average of over 2477 per chromosome. We show by simulation that inbred mouse strains can be used to identify positions of historical hotspots. Recombination hotspots were found to be enriched for the predicted binding sequences for different alleles of the PRDM9 protein. Recombination rates were on average lower near transcription start sites (TSS). Comparing the inferred historical recombination hotspots with the recent genome-wide mapping of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mouse sperm revealed a significant overlap, especially toward the telomeres. Our results suggest that inbred strains can be used to characterize and study the dynamics of historical recombination hotspots. They also strengthen previous findings on mouse recombination hotspots, and specifically the impact of sequence variants in Prdm9.

  2. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2018-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. Copyright © 2018 Stukenbrock and Dutheil.

  3. Estimating fine-scale land use change dynamics using an expedient photointerpretation-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya Lister; Andrew Lister; Eunice Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Population growth and urban expansion have resulted in the loss of forest land. With growing concerns about this loss and its implications for global processes and carbon budgets, there is a great need for detailed and reliable land use change data. Currently, the Northern Research Station uses an Annual Inventory design whereby all plots are revisited every 5 years...

  4. Evaluating β Diversity as a Surrogate for Species Representation at Fine Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Beier

    Full Text Available Species turnover or β diversity is a conceptually attractive surrogate for conservation planning. However, there has been only 1 attempt to determine how well sites selected to maximize β diversity represent species, and that test was done at a scale too coarse (2,500 km2 sites to inform most conservation decisions. We used 8 plant datasets, 3 bird datasets, and 1 mammal dataset to evaluate whether sites selected to span β diversity will efficiently represent species at finer scale (sites sizes < 1 ha to 625 km2. We used ordinations to characterize dissimilarity in species assemblages (β diversity among plots (inventory data or among grid cells (atlas data. We then selected sites to maximize β diversity and used the Species Accumulation Index, SAI, to evaluate how efficiently the surrogate (selecting sites for maximum β diversity represented species in the same taxon. Across all 12 datasets, sites selected for maximum β diversity represented species with a median efficiency of 24% (i.e., the surrogate was 24% more effective than random selection of sites, and an interquartile range of 4% to 41% efficiency. β diversity was a better surrogate for bird datasets than for plant datasets, and for atlas datasets with 10-km to 14-km grid cells than for atlas datasets with 25-km grid cells. We conclude that β diversity is more than a mere descriptor of how species are distributed on the landscape; in particular β diversity might be useful to maximize the complementarity of a set of sites. Because we tested only within-taxon surrogacy, our results do not prove that β diversity is useful for conservation planning. But our results do justify further investigation to identify the circumstances in which β diversity performs well, and to evaluate it as a cross-taxon surrogate.

  5. A UAV-Based Fog Collector Design for Fine-Scale Aerobiological Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Guarro, Marcello; Demachkie, Isabella Siham; Stumfall, Isabel; Dahlgren, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Airborne microbes are found throughout the troposphere and into the stratosphere. Knowing how the activity of airborne microorganisms can alter water, carbon, and other geochemical cycles is vital to a full understanding of local and global ecosystems. Just as on the land or in the ocean, atmospheric regions vary in habitability; the underlying geochemical, climatic, and ecological dynamics must be characterized at different scales to be effectively modeled. Most aerobiological studies have focused on a high level: 'How high are airborne microbes found?' and 'How far can they travel?' Most fog and cloud water studies collect from stationary ground stations (point) or along flight transects (1D). To complement and provide context for this data, we have designed a UAV-based modified fog and cloud water collector to retrieve 4D-resolved samples for biological and chemical analysis.Our design uses a passive impacting collector hanging from a rigid rod suspended between two multi-rotor UAVs. The suspension design reduces the effect of turbulence and potential for contamination from the UAV downwash. The UAVs are currently modeled in a leader-follower configuration, taking advantage of recent advances in modular UAVs, UAV swarming, and flight planning.The collector itself is a hydrophobic mesh. Materials including Tyvek, PTFE, nylon, and polypropylene monofilament fabricated via laser cutting, CNC knife, or 3D printing were characterized for droplet collection efficiency using a benchtop atomizer and particle counter. Because the meshes can be easily and inexpensively fabricated, a set can be pre-sterilized and brought to the field for 'hot swapping' to decrease cross-contamination between flight sessions or use as negative controls.An onboard sensor and logging system records the time and location of each sample; when combined with flight tracking data, the samples can be resolved into a 4D volumetric map of the fog bank. Collected samples can be returned to the lab for a variety of analyses. Based on a review of existing flight studies, we have identified ion chromatography, metagenomic sequencing, cell staining and quantification, and ATP quantification as high-priority assays for implementation. Support for specific toxicology assays, such as methylmercury quantification, is also planned.

  6. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the Azores Cattle Dog descended maternally from Northern European dogs rather than Portuguese mainland dogs. A review of published mtDNA haplotypes identified thirteen non-Portuguese breeds with sufficient data for comparison. Comparisons between these thirteen breeds, and the four Portuguese breeds, demonstrated widespread haplotype sharing, with the greatest diversity among Asian dogs, in accordance with the central role of Asia in canine domestication.

  7. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, Alex N; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future seascape planning.

  8. Contrasting patterns of fine-scale herb layer species composition in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chudomelová, Markéta; Zelený, D.; Li, C.-F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, APR 2017 (2017), s. 24-31 ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : spatial structures * environmental heterogenity * oak forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  9. Fine-Scale Environmental Indicators of Public Health and Well-Being for Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban ecosystem services contribute to public health and well-being by buffering natural and man-made hazards, and by promoting healthful lifestyles that include physical activity, social interaction, and engagement with nature. As part of the EnviroAtlas online mapping tool, EP...

  10. Linking Fine-Scale Observations and Model Output with Imagery at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J.; Walthall, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The development and implementation of a system for seasonal worldwide agricultural yield estimates is underway with the international Group on Earth Observations GeoGLAM project. GeoGLAM includes a research component to continually improve and validate its algorithms. There is a history of field measurement campaigns going back decades to draw upon for ways of linking surface measurements and model results with satellite observations. Ground-based, in-situ measurements collected by interdisciplinary teams include yields, model inputs and factors affecting scene radiation. Data that is comparable across space and time with careful attention to calibration is essential for the development and validation of agricultural applications of remote sensing. Data management to ensure stewardship, availability and accessibility of the data are best accomplished when considered an integral part of the research. The expense and logistical challenges of field measurement campaigns can be cost-prohibitive and because of short funding cycles for research, access to consistent, stable study sites can be lost. The use of a dedicated staff for baseline data needed by multiple investigators, and conducting measurement campaigns using existing measurement networks such as the USDA Long Term Agroecosystem Research network can fulfill these needs and ensure long-term access to study sites.

  11. Fine scale gene flow and individual movements among subpopulations of Centrolene prosoblepon (Anura: Centrolenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M Robertson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispersal capabilities determine and maintain local gene flow, and this has implications for population persistence and/or recolonization following environmental perturbations (natural or anthropogenic, disease outbreaks, or other demographic collapses. To predict recolonization and understand dispersal capacity in a stream-breeding frog, we examined individual movement patterns and gene flow among four subpopulations of the Neotropical glassfrog, Centrolene prosoblepon, at a mid-elevation cloud forest site at El Copé, Panama. We measured male movement directly during a two year mark-recapture study, and indirectly with gene flow estimates from mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA. Individuals of this species showed strong site fidelity: over two years, male frogs in all four headwater streams moved very little (mean = 2.33 m; mode = 0 m. Nine individuals changed streams within one or two years, moving 675-1 108 m. For those males moving more than 10 m, movement was biased upstream (p ST = 0.007, p = 0.325 but gene flow was more limited across greater distances (CT = 0.322, p = 0.065, even within the same drainage network. Lowland populations of C. prosoblepon potentially act as an important source of colonists for upland populations in this watershed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 13-26. Epub 2008 March 31.La capacidad de dispersión determina y mantiene el flujo genético local, y esto tiene implicaciones para la persistencia poblacional y/o la recolonización que sigue a perturbaciones ambientales. Examinamos patrones individuales de movimiento y flujo genético entre subpoblaciones de Centrolene prosoblepon (Anura: Centrolenidae en un sitio de elevación media en El Copé, Panamá. Medimos directamente el movimiento de los machos durante un estudio de marcado-recaptura, e indirectamente con estimaciones de flujo genético a partir de secuencias de ADN mitocondrial (mtDNA. Los individuos mostraron fuerte fidelidad a su lugar: por más de dos años, las ranas macho de los cuatro arroyos al inicio del río se movieron muy poco (promedio = 2.33 m; moda = 0 m. Nueve individuos cambiaron de corriente de agua en uno o dos años, moviéndose 675-1108 m. Usando la secuencia genética ND1 del ADN mitocondrial, medimos el flujo genético en dos escalas espaciales: entre arroyos que originan el río (2.5 km² y entre arroyos con un gradiente longitudinal en 5.0 km². Encontramos un flujo genético alto entre los arroyos al inicio del río (f = 0.007, p = 0.325 y otro más limitado en distancias mayores (f = 0.322, p = 0.065.

  12. Observations of fine scale structure in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrane, E.V.; Grandal, B.

    1981-01-01

    An electrostatic probe designed to measure ion density with high time resolution and accuracy was flown on a NIKE-APACHE rocket from Andoya Rocket Range on 1 March 1978. From the measurements, spectra of the spatial density fluctuations were derived in one kilometer height intervals from 65 to 127 km. Below 95 km the power spectra had a slope of about -5/3, as expected for isotropic turbulence. The relation between the observed fluctuations in ion density and the corresponding fluctuations in neutral gas density is discussed. Above 95 km the fluctuations were stronger and showed a 'white noise' power spectrum. These fluctuations are most likely due to plasma instabilities. (author)

  13. Fine-scale substrate use by a small sit-and-wait predator

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass H. Morse

    2006-01-01

    Substrate choice is one of the most important decisions that sit-and-wait predators must make. Not only may it dictate the prey available but also the cover for the predator which may conceal it from prey or its own predators. However, while on a particular substrate the behavior and use of that substrate may vary widely. When naïve, newly emerged crab spiderlings Misumena vatia (Thomisidae) occupied flowering goldenrod Solidago canadensis, their behavior differed markedly on inflorescences w...

  14. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-10-10

    Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  15. Towards assessing fine-scale indicators for the spatial transmission risk of Fasciola hepatica in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Charlier

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the spatial resolution of current risk maps for fasciolosis in cattle, more knowledge is needed with respect to farm-level factors that determine infection risk. In this study, we visited 39 dairy farms within a predefined low- and high-risk area for fasciolosis in Belgium and assessed their infection status by an indirect bulk tank milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Management factors were collected and all pastured lands of the farms were visited to identify and georeference potential snail habitats. The habitats were visually characterised, investigated for the presence of the intermediate host snails of Fasciola hepatica (i.e.Galba truncatula and Radix spp. and used in a geographical information system (GIS to construct overlays including information on soil and hydrology. A linear regression model was used to evaluate associations between bulk tank milk ELISA results and farm level management and habitat factors. A logistic, mixed model was used to identify possible risk factors for the presence of intermediate host snails on a potential habitat. Potential snail habitats were found in 35 out of 39 farms. A total of 87 potential habitats were identified and on 29% of these, intermediate host snails were found. The number of potential habitats, the presence of snails, drainage of pastures, month of turnout of the cows, stocking rate, type of watering place and risk area were significantly associated with the bulk tank milk ELISA result and explained 85% of the observed variation. Intermediate host snails were more likely to be present with increasing surface of the potential habitat and on loamy soils. This study confirms the importance of farm management factors in the infection risk for F. hepatica in cattle and highlights that the combination of management factors with characterization of snail habitats is a powerful means to predict the infection risk with F. hepatica at the individual farm level. Further research is needed to investigate how this knowledge can be incorporated in nation-wide spatial distribution models of the parasite.

  16. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Poli

    Full Text Available During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra, in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level, the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird sensing of the environment and serve as a baseline for anthropogenic based threats such as development, pollution, and commercial fisheries.

  17. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Caroline L.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m—35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird sensing of the environment and serve as a baseline for anthropogenic based threats such as development, pollution, and commercial fisheries.

  18. Environmental gradients and micro-heterogeneity shape fine-scale plant community assembly on coastal dunes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conti, L.; de Bello, Francesco; Lepš, Jan; Acosta, A. T. R.; Carboni, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2017), s. 762-773 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Competition * Convergence * Divergence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Ecology; Ecology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.924, year: 2016

  19. Fine-Scale Distributions of Zooplankton in the Northern San Francisco Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss3art2 We studied zooplankton distributions in the upper San Francisco Estuary at nested scales of tens to thousands of meters. The purposes of the study were to assess how well the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP zooplankton monitoring represents abundance, and to investigate the variability of plankton on scales similar to those of foraging by fish. Samples were taken at three sites in the western Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We took 18 sets of six samples each with a plankton net along transects from near shore to center channel, and six sets of ten samples in the vicinity of a drifter either in mid-channel or near shore. Sampling took place in June–July 2014 during neap and spring tides, ebb and flood, day and night (transects only. Analysis focused on three common copepod species. Transect samples showed little consistent variation along transects, except that Pseudodiaptomus forbesi was less abundant nearshore than offshore by day at Big Break, the most landward site. The ratio of adults to adults + copepodites was strongly and positively related to turbidity by day but not by night, indicating demersal behavior. Drifter samples showed a minimum standard deviation of log10 sample counts of about 0.1, indicating that about two-thirds of replicate abundance values were within 80 % to 125% of the mean. A measure of difference between plankton samples at pairs of sample points was unrelated to distance between sample points for drifter samples, weakly related along transects for Limnoithona spp. stages, and strongly related for P. forbesi mainly because of the along-transect gradients at Big Break. The IEP sampling program is representative of plankton abundance except for demersal organisms, which can be ten-fold more abundant by night than by day. Small planktivorous fish could forage in patches of up to ~25% higher abundance than the mean.

  20. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    system to do a comparison between the two. While at Wildlife Computers, I also asked for and they kindly provided a small change in how their MK10...cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging ...efficiency have called for the need to measure daily activity budgets to quantify how much of each day an individual devotes to foraging , resting

  1. Fine-scale genetic structure of natural Tuber aestivum sites in southern Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molinier, V.; Murat, C.; Baltensweiler, A.; Büntgen, Ulf; Martin, F.; Meier, B.; Moser, B.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.; Peter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2016), s. 895-907 ISSN 0940-6360 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mating-type distribution * vegetative incompatibility * ectomycorrhizal communities * truffle cultivation * population-genetics * genus tuber * Burgundy truffle * Mating-type genes * Population genetics * Propagation strategy * SSR markers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2016

  2. Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, N.; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance......Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we...... critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates...

  3. Fine scale vegetation classification and fuel load mapping for prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler

    2007-01-01

    Fire managers in the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States use prescribed burning as a tool to reduce fuel loads in a variety of vegetation types, many of which have elevated fuel loads due to a history of fire suppression. While standardized fuel models are useful in prescribed burn planning, those models do not quantify site-specific fuel loads that reflect...

  4. Fine-scale variation in meiotic recombination in Mimulus inferred from population shotgun sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Wright, Kevin M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Jenkins, Jerry [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Shu, Shengqiang [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Yuan, Yao-Wu [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wessler, Susan R. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Inst. of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL (United States); Willis, John H. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Rokhsar, Daniel S. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    Meiotic recombination rates can vary widely across genomes, with hotspots of intense activity interspersed among cold regions. In yeast, hotspots tend to occur in promoter regions of genes, whereas in humans and mice hotspots are largely defined by binding sites of the PRDM9 protein. To investigate the detailed recombination pattern in a flowering plant we use shotgun resequencing of a wild population of the monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus to precisely locate over 400,000 boundaries of historic crossovers or gene conversion tracts. Their distribution defines some 13,000 hotspots of varying strengths, interspersed with cold regions of undetectably low recombination. Average recombination rates peak near starts of genes and fall off sharply, exhibiting polarity. Within genes, recombination tracts are more likely to terminate in exons than in introns. The general pattern is similar to that observed in yeast, as well as in PRDM9-knockout mice, suggesting that recombination initiation described here in Mimulus may reflect ancient and conserved eukaryotic mechanisms

  5. Fine-scale genetic analysis of species-specific female preference in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturney, M; Moehring, A J

    2012-09-01

    Behavioural differences are thought to be the first components to contribute to species isolation, yet the precise genetic basis of behavioural isolation remains poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of behaviour assays and genetic mapping to provide the first refined map locating candidate genes for interspecific female preference isolating Drosophila simulans from D. melanogaster. First, we tested whether two genes identified as affecting D. melanogaster female intraspecific mate choice also affect interspecific mate choice; neither of these genes was found to contribute to species-specific female preference. Next, we used deficiency mapping to locate genes on the right arm of the third chromosome for species-specific female preference and identified five small significant regions that contain candidate genes contributing to behavioural isolation. All five regions were located in areas that would have low interspecific recombination, which mirrors the results of other behavioural isolation studies that used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, but without the potential concern of bias towards regions of low recombination that QTL mapping may have. As this model system may be refined to the individual gene level using the same methodology, this initial map we provide may potentially serve as a ready template for the identification and characterization of the first behavioural isolation genes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Fine scale mapping of genomic introgressions within the Drosophila yakuba clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turissini, David A; Matute, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    The process of speciation involves populations diverging over time until they are genetically and reproductively isolated. Hybridization between nascent species was long thought to directly oppose speciation. However, the amount of interspecific genetic exchange (introgression) mediated by hybridization remains largely unknown, although recent progress in genome sequencing has made measuring introgression more tractable. A natural place to look for individuals with admixed ancestry (indicative of introgression) is in regions where species co-occur. In west Africa, D. santomea and D. yakuba hybridize on the island of São Tomé, while D. yakuba and D. teissieri hybridize on the nearby island of Bioko. In this report, we quantify the genomic extent of introgression between the three species of the Drosophila yakuba clade (D. yakuba, D. santomea), D. teissieri). We sequenced the genomes of 86 individuals from all three species. We also developed and applied a new statistical framework, using a hidden Markov approach, to identify introgression. We found that introgression has occurred between both species pairs but most introgressed segments are small (on the order of a few kilobases). After ruling out the retention of ancestral polymorphism as an explanation for these similar regions, we find that the sizes of introgressed haplotypes indicate that genetic exchange is not recent (>1,000 generations ago). We additionally show that in both cases, introgression was rarer on X chromosomes than on autosomes which is consistent with sex chromosomes playing a large role in reproductive isolation. Even though the two species pairs have stable contemporary hybrid zones, providing the opportunity for ongoing gene flow, our results indicate that genetic exchange between these species is currently rare.

  7. Fine-scale tribological performance of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8 based polymer nanocomposite membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Win Khun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We combined zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoparticles (ZIF-8: ˜150 nm diameter with Matrimid® 5218 polymer to form permeable mixed matrix membranes, featuring different weight fractions of nanoparticles (up to 30 wt. % loading. We used ball-on-disc micro-tribological method to measure the frictional coefficient of the nanocomposite membranes, as a function of nanoparticle loading and annealing heat treatment. The tribological results reveal that the friction and wear of the unannealed samples rise steadily with greater nanoparticle loading because ZIF-8 is relatively harder than the matrix, thus promoting abrasive wear mechanism. After annealing, however, we discover that the nanocomposites display an appreciably lower friction and wear damage compared with the unannealed counterparts. Evidence shows that the major improvement in tribological performance is associated with the greater amounts of wear debris derived from the annealed nanocomposite membranes. We propose that detached Matrimid-encapsulated ZIF-8 nanoparticles could function as “spacers,” which are capable of not only reducing direct contact between two rubbing surfaces but also enhancing free-rolling under the action of lateral forces.

  8. Time Resolved Scanning PIV measurements at fine scales in a turbulent jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Torregrosa, M.M.; Villegas, A.; Diez, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The temporal and spatial complexity of turbulent flows at intermediate and small scales has prevented the acquisition of full three-dimensional experimental data sets for validating classical turbulent theory and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Experimental techniques like Particle Velocimetry, PIV, allow non-intrusive planar measurements of turbulent flows. The present work applied a Time Resolved Scanning PIV system, TRS-PIV, capable of obtaining three-dimensional two-component velocities to measure the small scales of a turbulent jet. When probing the small scales of these flows with PIV, the uncertainty of the measured turbulent properties are determined by the characteristics of the PIV system and specially the thickness of the laser sheet. A measurement of the particle distribution across the thickness of the laser sheet is proposed as a more detailed description of the PIV sheet thickness. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the TRS-PIV system allowed obtaining quasi-instantaneous volumetric vector fields at the far field of a round turbulent jet in water, albeit for a low Reynolds number of 1478 due to the speed limitations of the present camera and scanning system. Six of the nine components of the velocity gradient tensor were calculated from the velocity measurements. This allowed the visualization with near Kolmogorov-scale resolution of the velocity gradient structures in three-dimensional space. In general, these structures had a complex geometry corresponding to elongated shapes in the form of sheets and tubes. An analysis of the probability density function, pdf, of the velocity gradients calculated showed that the on-diagonal (off-diagonal) velocity gradient components were very similar to each other even for events at the tails of the pdfs, as required for homogeneous isotropy. The root mean square of the components of the velocity gradients is also calculated and their ratio of off-diagonal components to on-diagonal components satisfied the 2 factor required for homogeneous isotropic flows. The ratio of the longitudinal Taylor scale to the transverse Taylor scale was also calculated agreeing with the homogeneous isotropic turbulence requirements within 1%.

  9. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palpurina, S.; Chytrý, M.; Tzonev, R.; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, I.; Merunková, K.; Duchoň, M.; Karakiev, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, February (2015), s. 36-46 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alpha diversity * soil chemistry * steppe Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2015

  10. Fine-scale pathways used by adult sea lampreys during riverine spawning migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions from acoustic transmitters at 3-s intervals; depth-encoded radio tag detections provided depths. Upstream movements occurred at dusk or during the night (2015–0318 hours). Sea Lampreys were closely associated with the river bottom and showed some preference to move near banks in shallow glide habitats, suggesting that bottom-oriented gears could selectively target adult Sea Lampreys in some habitats. However, Sea Lampreys were broadly distributed across the river channel, suggesting that the capture efficiency of nets and traps in open channels would depend heavily on the proportion of the channel width covered. Lack of vertical movements into the water column may have reflected lamprey preference for low water velocities, suggesting that energy conservation was more beneficial for lampreys than was vertical searching in rivers. Improved understanding of Sea Lamprey movement will assist in the development of improved capture strategies for their assessment and control in the Great Lakes.

  11. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. President Meri näitas USA-le vabaduse ilu / Daniel Fried ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Daniel Fried USA välispoliitika ühest eesmärgist - demokraatia levitamisest maailmas, demokraatia olukorrast Venemaal ning USA ja Venemaa vahelistest suhetest. Lisa: Daniel Fried

  13. Riskiäri USA kõrbes / Tarmo Vahter, Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahter, Tarmo, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia ostis USA kõrbes mahajäetud kaevanduse koos põlevkivivaruga, millest Brasiilia naftagigant Petrobras ja Jaapani suurfirma Mitsui ja Co loobusid. Eesti Energia põlevkiviprojektist USA-s

  14. Vaiksed professionaalid USA erivägedes on tulevased liidrid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA eriüksuste juhid kinnitavad esiterrorist Osama bin Ladeni peatset tabamist. Floridas Tampas asuvast USA Lähis-Ida operatsioonide peastaabist. Lisa: USA erioperatsioonide keskused. Vt. samas: Ameerika pikk ja väsitav sõda

  15. Ameerikat sõtta õhutanud Iraagi prominent kaotas USA soosingu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Iraaklase Ahmed Chalabi tegevusest ja lubadustest USA Iraagi-vastase sõja alustamiseks. USA toetuse kahanemisest Chalabile ja süüdistustest, et ta andis salajast infot Iraanile USA vägede tegevuse kohta Iraagis

  16. USA ja EL vähendavad kaubandustõkkeid / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Tippkohtumisel Washingtonis arutasid Euroopa Komisjoni president Jose Manuel Barroso ja USA president George W. Bush, kuidas EL-i ja USA majandussuhteid vabamaks muuta. Diagramm: EL-i kaubavahetus USA-ga

  17. USA politoloogid : Obama võit oleks ka Eesti oma / Laura Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Laura

    2008-01-01

    USA politoloogide sõnul oleks pingestunud Venemaa ja USA suhete taustal Eestile kasulikum, kui 56. USA presidendivalimised võidaks demokraat Barack Obama. Erinevate politoloogide hinnanguid. Vt. samas: Obama ja McCain loovad kabinette

  18. Synaptotagmin-7 is a principal Ca2+ sensor for Ca2+ -induced glucagon exocytosis in pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wei, Shun-Hui; Hoang, Dong Nhut

    2009-01-01

    Hormones such as glucagon are secreted by Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles, but the mechanisms involved have only been partially elucidated. Studies of pancreatic beta-cells secreting insulin revealed that synaptotagmin-7 alone is not sufficient to mediate Ca(2+)-dependent i...

  19. Capture reactions of 40Ca and 48Ca with targets of 197Au and 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.; Chan, Y.; Chavez, E.

    1988-03-01

    The reactions of 40 Ca and 48 Ca with targets of 197 Au and 208 Pb have been measured in the region from below the interaction barrier to about twice the barrier energy. The fission-like fragments were detected in a pair of position-sensitive, multi-wire proportional counters and were identified from measurements of position and time using two-body kinematics. In the region above the barrier the cross sections for capture are less than those given by the touching condition, indicating that an /open quotes/extra push/close quotes/ is required to induce capture. The observations for 40 Ca and 48 Ca show different fissilities for the onset of the extra push and indicate that charge equilibration may be an important factor governing capture reactions. Below the barrier the cross sections show an enhancement relative to the prediction for a one dimensional barrier. The enhancements are larger for 40 Ca than for 48 Ca (for both targets) and this is in qualitative agreement with predictions based on the coupling of the relative motion to low-lying collective states. Both above and below the barrier, we find that the change in the light partner, from 48 Ca to 40 Ca, has a larger effect on the cross sections than the change from 208 Pb to 197 Au, after correction for the change in the Coulomb barrier. 16 refs., 7 figs

  20. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  1. Fusion dynamics in 40Ca induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, E.; Hinde, D.J.; Williams, E.

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of superheavy elements (SHEs) and investigation of their properties are among the most challenging research topics in modern science. A non-compound nuclear process called quasi fission is partly responsible for the very low production cross sections of SHEs. The formation and survival probabilities of the compound nucleus (CN) strongly depend on the competition between fusion and quasi fission. A clear understanding of these processes and their dynamics is required to make reliable predictions of the best reactions to synthesise new SHEs. All elements beyond Nh are produced using hot fusion reactions and beams of 48 Ca were used in most of these experiments. In this context a series of fission measurements have been carried out at the Australian National University (ANU) using 40;48 Ca beams on various targets ranging from 142 Nd to 249 Cf. Some of the 40 Ca reactions will be discussed in this symposium

  2. Multi-species coral Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature reconstruction using Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea from the Florida Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Richey, Julie N.; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Poore, Richard Z.; DeLong, Kristine L.

    2017-01-01

    We present new, monthly-resolved Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature (SST) records from two species of massive coral, Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea, from the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA (DTNP). We combine these new records with published data from three additional S. siderea coral colonies to generate a 278-year long multi-species stacked Sr/Ca-SST record from DTNP. The composite record of mean annual Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP shows pronounced decadal-scale variability with a range of 1 to 2°C. Notable cool intervals in the Sr/Ca-derived SST lasting about a decade centered at ~1845, ~1935, and ~1965 are associated with reduced summer Sr/Ca-SST (monthly maxima < 29°C), and imply a reduction in the spatial extent of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP). There is significant coherence between the composite DTNP Sr/Ca-SST record and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, with the AMO lagging Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP by 9 years. Low frequency variability in the Gulf Stream surface transport, which originates near DTNP, may provide a link for the lagged relationship between multidecadal variability at DTNP and the AMO.

  3. Applicative Value of Serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Lei; Lan, Chao; Pei, Hui; Yang, Shuang-Ning; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xiao, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the application value of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases treated with concurrent chemotherapy. 52 patients with pancreatic cancer, 40 with benign pancreatic diseases and 40 healthy people were selected. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method was used for detecting levels of CA19-9, CEA and CA125, and a CanAg CA242 enzyme linked immunoassay kit for assessing the level of CA242. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for analyzing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) for survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. The levels of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign pancreatic diseases and healthy people (PCEA. The specificity of CA242 is the highest, followed by CA125, CEA and CA19-9. The sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125and CA242 were 90.4% and 93.8%, obviously higher than single detection of those markers in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The median survival time of 52 patients with pancreatic cancer was 10 months (95% CI7.389~12.611).. Patients with the increasing level of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125, CA242 had shorter survival times (P=0.047. 0.043, 0.0041, 0.029). COX regression analysis showed that CA19-9 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer (P=0.001, 95%CI 2.591~38.243). The detection of serum tumor markers (CA19.9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and joint detection of tumor markers helps improve the diagnostic efficiency. Moreover, CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  4. Study on Ca2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs using 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Qiu Mingfeng; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2002-01-01

    The Ca 2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs are studied by using 45 Ca. The results indicate that potential-dependent Ca 2+ channel (PDC) and receptor-operated Ca 2+ channel (ROC) in cell membranes of smooth muscle can be blocked by several Chinese herbal drugs, including as Crocus sativus L., Carthamus L., Di-ao-xin-xue-kang (DAXXG) and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Among them Crocus sativus L. has the strongest antagonistic effect on Ca 2+ channel, while Ginkgo biloba L. leaves has no obvious effect. The whole prescription and the other functional drugs have significant effect on ROC and PDC. The compositions extracted by hexane have the strongest antagonistic. The wrinkled giant hyssop have five active compositions and Pei-lan have two active compositions

  5. Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK channel: Activation by Ca2+ and voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMÓN LATORRE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK channels belong to the S4 superfamily of K+ channels that include voltage-dependent K+ (Kv channels characterized by having six (S1-S6 transmembrane domains and a positively charged S4 domain. As Kv channels, BK channels contain a S4 domain, but they have an extra (S0 transmembrane domain that leads to an external NH2-terminus. The BK channel is activated by internal Ca2+, and using chimeric channels and mutagenesis, three distinct Ca2+-dependent regulatory mechanisms with different divalent cation selectivity have been identified in its large COOH-terminus. Two of these putative Ca2+-binding domains activate the BK channel when cytoplasmic Ca2+ reaches micromolar concentrations, and a low Ca2+ affinity mechanism may be involved in the physiological regulation by Mg2+. The presence in the BK channel of multiple Ca2+-binding sites explains the huge Ca2+ concentration range (0.1 μM-100 μM in which the divalent cation influences channel gating. BK channels are also voltage-dependent, and all the experimental evidence points toward the S4 domain as the domain in charge of sensing the voltage. Calcium can open BK channels when all the voltage sensors are in their resting configuration, and voltage is able to activate channels in the complete absence of Ca2+. Therefore, Ca2+ and voltage act independently to enhance channel opening, and this behavior can be explained using a two-tiered allosteric gating mechanism.

  6. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells express a functional Ca+ -sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Laforenza, Umberto; Scaffino, Manuela Federica; Moccia, Francesco; Avelino-Cruz, Josè Everardo; Oldani, Amanda; Coltrini, Daniela; Milesi, Veronica; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism whereby extracellular Ca(2+) exerts the endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone is still unclear. In this study, we assessed whether cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) express a functional extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) using a variety of techniques. CaSR mRNA was detected using RT-PCR, and CaSR protein was identified by immunocytochemical analysis. In order to assess the functionality of the receptor, CMEC were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorochrome, Fura-2/AM. A number of CaSR agonists, such as spermine, Gd(3+), La(3+) and neomycin, elicited a heterogeneous intracellular Ca(2+) signal, which was abolished by disruption of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) signaling and by depletion of intracellular stores with cyclopiazonic acid. The inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger upon substitution of extracellular Na(+) unmasked the Ca(2+) signal triggered by an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) levels. Finally, aromatic amino acids, which function as allosteric activators of CaSR, potentiated the Ca(2+) response to the CaSR agonist La(3+). These data provide evidence that CMEC express CaSR, which is able to respond to physiological agonists by mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular InsP(3)-sensitive stores. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The hippocampal CA2 ensemble is sensitive to contextual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Marie E; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; McHugh, Thomas J

    2014-02-19

    Contextual learning involves associating cues with an environment and relating them to past experience. Previous data indicate functional specialization within the hippocampal circuit: the dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for discriminating similar contexts, whereas CA3 is required for associative encoding and recall. Here, we used Arc/H1a catFISH imaging to address the contribution of the largely overlooked CA2 region to contextual learning by comparing ensemble codes across CA3, CA2, and CA1 in mice exposed to familiar, altered, and novel contexts. Further, to manipulate the quality of information arriving in CA2 we used two hippocampal mutant mouse lines, CA3-NR1 KOs and DG-NR1 KOs, that result in hippocampal CA3 neuronal activity that is uncoupled from the animal's sensory environment. Our data reveal largely coherent responses across the CA axis in control mice in purely novel or familiar contexts; however, in the mutant mice subject to these protocols the CA2 response becomes uncoupled from CA1 and CA3. Moreover, we show in wild-type mice that the CA2 ensemble is more sensitive than CA1 and CA3 to small changes in overall context. Our data suggest that CA2 may be tuned to remap in response to any conflict between stored and current experience.

  8. Neoglacial fluctuations of Deming Glacier, Mt. Baker, Washington USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Menounos, B.; Scott, K.; Clague, J. J.; Tucker, D.; Riedel, J.; Davis, P.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Glacier flows from the upper west slopes of Mt. Baker, a stratovolcano in the Cascade Range of Washington, USA. The north and south lateral moraines of Deming Glacier are composed of at least four tills separated by layers of detrital wood and sheared stumps in growth position. The stratigraphy records fluctuations of the glacier during the Holocene. The outer ten rings of an in situ stump from the middle wood layer, which is about 40 m below the north lateral moraine crest and 1.2 km downvalley from the present glacier terminus, yielded an age of 1750 ± 50~~ 14C yr BP [1810-1550 cal yr BP]. The stump revealed at least 300 rings and thus records a period of landscape stability and relatively restricted glaciation for several hundred years prior to ca. 1750 14C yr BP . Samples from the lowest wood layer also have been submitted for radiocarbon dating. Outer rings of detrital wood samples collected from two wood mats exposed in the south lateral moraine, 2.3 km downvalley of the glacier terminus, returned radiocarbon ages of 1600 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [1550- 1410 cal yr BP] and 430 ± 30~~ 14C yr BP [AD 1420-1620]. These data indicate that Deming Glacier advanced over a vegetated moraine sometime after 1810 cal yr BP to a position less extensive that it achieved at the peak of the Little Ice Age. The glacier then receded before it began its final and most extensive Holocene advance after AD 1420. The older advance is correlative with the 'First Millennium AD' advance, recently recognized throughout western North America. The younger advance coincides with an advance of Mt. Baker's Easton Glacier [AD 1430-1630], and advances of many alpine glaciers elsewhere in western North America. Our data suggest that glaciers on Mt. Baker fluctuated in a similar manner to alpine glaciers in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and in other mountain ranges of northwest North America during Neoglaciation.

  9. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Chambers, J.L.; Allen, J.A.; Soileau, D.M.; DeBosier, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico is one important factor in the destruction of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) swamps along the Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA. Recent restoration efforts have focused on identification of baldcypress genotypes with greater tolerance to saline conditions than previously reported. To date, salt tolerance investigations have not been conducted under saline field conditions. In 1996, therefore, three plantations were established with 10 half-sib genotype collections of baldcypress in mesohaline wetlands. Tree survival and growth were measured at the end of two growing seasons, and foliar ion concentrations of Na, Cl, K, and Ca and available soil nutrients were measured during the 1996 growing season. In general, soil nutrient concentrations exceeded averages found in other baldcypress stands in the southeastern United States. Seedlings differed among sites in all parameters measured, with height, diameter, foliar biomass, and survival decreasing as site salinity increased. Average seedling height at the end of two years, for example, was 196.4 cm on the lowest salinity site and 121.6 cm on the highest. Several half-sib families maintained greater height growth increments (ranging from 25.5 to 54.5 cm on the highest salinity site), as well as lower foliar ion concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca. Results indicate that genotypic screening of baldcypress may improve growth and vigor of seedlings planted within wetlands impacted by saltwater intrusion.

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  11. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  12. Value of Combined Detection of Serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5 in the Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Chen, Qiuyuan; Zhao, Qiangyuan; Liu, Min; Guo, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether the combined detection of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5) improves the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). An automatic chemiluminescence immune analyzer with matched kits was used to determine the levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3, and CA12-5 in 87 patients with gastric cancer (GC group), 60 patients with gastric benign diseases (GBD group) who were hospitalized during the same period, and 40 healthy subjects undergoing a physical examination. The values of these 5 tumor markers in the diagnosis of gastric cancer were analyzed. The levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 were higher in the GC group than in the GBD group and healthy subjects, and these differences were significant ( P 0.05). The combined detection of CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 had a higher diagnostic value for gastric cancer than did single detection, and the positive detection rate of the combined detection of the four tumor markers was 60.9%. The diagnostic power when using the combined detection of CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9, and CA12-5 was the best. The combined detection of serum CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9 and CA12-5 increases the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of GC and can thus be considered an important tool for early diagnosis. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Numerical model of Ca(OH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, T.; Peelen, W.; Larbi, J.; Rooij, M. de; Polder, R.

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model is being developed to describe a repair method in concrete, called cathodic protection (CP). The model is in principle also useful to describe electrodeposition in concrete, e.g. the process of re-precipitation of Ca(OH)2 invoked by an electrical current. In CP, the

  14. Gene of the month: PIK3CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K; Killingsworth, M C; Lee, C S

    2015-04-01

    PIK3CA encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) which through its role in the PI3K/Akt pathway is important for the regulation of important cellular functions such as proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Mutations in PIK3CA are known to be involved in a wide range of human cancers and mutant PIK3CA is thought to act as an oncogene. The specific PIK3CA inhibitor, NVP-BYL719, has displayed promising results in cancer therapy and is currently under clinical trials. Furthermore, PI3K regulates autophagy, a cellular process that recycles proteins and organelles through lysosomal degradation and has recently been recognised as an attractive therapeutic target due to its pro- and anti-cancer properties. Several studies have attempted to investigate the effects of combining the inhibition of both PI3K and autophagy in cancer therapy, and an in vivo model has demonstrated that the combined use of a concomitant PI3K and autophagy inhibitor induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Exchange stiffness of Ca-doped YIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-05-01

    An effective medium theory for the zero-temperature exchange stiffness of uncompensated Ca-doped YIG is presented. The theory is based on the assumption that the effect of the Ca impurities is to produce strong, random ferromagnetic interactions between spins on the a and d sublattices. In the simplest version of the theory, a fraction, x, of the ad exchange integrals are large and positive, x being related to the Ca concentration. The stiffness is calculated as function of x for arbitrary perturbed ad exchange integral, Jxad. For Jxad≳(1/5)‖8Jaa+3Jdd‖, with Jaa and Jdd denoting the aa and dd exchange integrals, respectively, there is a critical concentration, Xc, such that when x≳Xc, the stiffness is complex. It is suggested that Xc delineates the region where there are significant departures from colinearity in the ground state of the Fe spins. Extension of the theory to a model where the Ca doping is assumed to generate Fe4+ ions on the tetrahedral sites is discussed. Possible experimental tests of the theory are mentioned.

  16. Ca teos report in register N 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, S; Arrighetti, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about a report about ca teos carried out in register N 13377 in the department of Canelones to know the depth of the field. The drilling done allowed to identify granite and clay. This granite outcrops are developed in the east of the middle course of the stream Pando

  17. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  18. The study of skeletal calcium metabolism with 41Ca and 45Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Beck, Belinda; Bierman, June M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Heaney, Robert P.; Holloway, Leah; Marcus, Robert; Southon, John R.; Vogel, John S.

    2000-10-01

    The living skeleton can be labeled for life by the administration of radiologically trivial amounts of 41Ca tracer. After initial elimination of tracer from the readily exchangeable calcium pools subsequent skeletal calcium turnover maintains and modulates the urine 41Ca content. Uniquely, bone calcium metabolism may then be studied with tracer in near equilibrium with the body's calcium and resorbing calcium directly measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of excreta. Our experiments with 25 41Ca labeled subjects demonstrate excellent diurnal stability and remarkable response to intervention of the urine signal. Thus the tracer method may prove a competitive means of measuring the effects of antiresorptive osteoporosis treatments, for therapy development or even clinical monitoring. Novel studies of long-term skeletal evolution are also possible. We realize that routinely administered short-lived calcium radiotracers contain 41Ca impurities and that thousands of experimental participants have been historically inadvertently 41Ca labeled. The 41Ca urine index might now rapidly further be characterized by contemporary measurements of these one-time subjects, and with their by now thoroughly skeleton-equilibrated tracer they might be ideal participants in other new experiments. We are also investigating 45Ca AMS. It may prove preferable to label the skeleton with this radiotracer already familiar to bioscientists, but new to AMS.

  19. Role of Ca ++ Influx via Epidermal TRP Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    the North Carolina Biotechnology Center (NCBC), and by the Harrington Discovery Institute of University Hospitals in Cleveland OH. 7   The...widely read forum on Pain Medicine in the US and in English-speaking countries. http://www.painmedicinenews.com/Science-Technology/Article/08-16/Study...University, Durham NC USA. 2Dept of Medicine , Duke University, Durham NC USA. 3Dept of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC USA. 4Dept of Neurobiology

  20. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.