Sample records for ca sr ba

  1. Magnetic comparison of BaCa and BaSr substituted hexaferrite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Angeles, A [Alvaro Gonzalez-Angeles, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, (UABC), Blvd. Benito Juarez s/n, Cp 21280 Mexicali, B. C. (Mexico); Lipka, J; Gruskova, A; Slama, J; Jancarik, V; Slugen, V, E-mail: [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, (FEEIT), Slovak University of Technology, (SUT), Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Results on magnetic studies of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12-2x}(ZnTi){sub x}O{sub 19} and Ba{sub 0.75}Ca{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 12-2x}(ZnTi){sub x}O{sub 19}, where x = 0.2 to 0.6, ferromagnetic powders prepared by mechanical alloying are discussed. The structural and magnetic properties of the resulting powders were analyzed by thermo-magnetic analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Curie temperature, T{sub c} decreased dramatically (drop {approx} 39%) for BaCa samples, whilst for BaSr samples remained almost without change (diminution {approx} 2%) at x {<=} 0.2. SEM studies showed that all the particles present nearly hexagonal platelet shape.

  2. Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variations in environmental and biological sources: A survey of marine and terrestrial systems (United States)

    Peek, Stephanie; Clementz, Mark T.


    The relative concentrations of strontium to calcium (Sr/Ca) and barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) in mammalian bioapatite are common biogeochemical indicators for trophic level and/or dietary preferences in terrestrial foodwebs; however, similar research in marine foodwebs is lacking. This study combined environmental and biological Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca data from both terrestrial and marine settings from 62 published books, reports, and studies along with original data collected from 149 marine mammals (30 species) and 83 prey items (18 species) and found that variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of biological and environmental samples are appreciably different in terrestrial and marine systems. In terrestrial systems, environmental sources account for most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. In contrast, environmental sources in marine systems (i.e., seawater) are comparatively invariant, meaning most of the variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios originate from biological processes. Marine consumers, particularly non-mammalian and mammalian vertebrates, show evidence of biopurification of Ca relative to Sr and Ba, similar to what is observed in terrestrial systems; however, unlike terrestrial systems, variations in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of environmental sources are overprinted by bioaccumulation of Sr and Ba at the base of marine foodwebs. This demonstrates that in marine systems, spatial or temporal differences may have little to no effect on Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of marine vertebrates, making Sr/Ca, and to a lesser extent Ba/Ca, potentially useful global proxies for trophic level and dietary preferences of marine vertebrates.

  3. Effect of local environment on crossluminescence kinetics in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhin, M.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskij Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Makhov, V.N., E-mail: [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskij Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A.I.; Sluchinskaya, I.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    Spectral and kinetic properties of extrinsic crossluminescence (CL) in SrF{sub 2}:Ba (1%) and CaF{sub 2}:Ba (1%) are compared with those of intrinsic CL in BaF{sub 2} and are analyzed taking into account EXAFS data obtained at the Ba L{sub III} edge and results of first-principles calculations. The CL decay time was revealed to be longer in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba compared to BaF{sub 2}. This fact contradicts the expected acceleration of luminescence decay which could result from an increased overlap of wave functions in solid solutions due to shortening of the Ba-F distance obtained in both EXAFS measurements and first-principles calculations. This discrepancy is explained by the effect of migration and subsequent non-radiative decay of the Ba (5p) core holes in BaF{sub 2} and by decreasing of the probability of optical transitions between Ba (5p) states and the valence band in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba predicted by first-principles calculations. - Highlights: • The crossluminescence kinetics in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba is slower than in BaF{sub 2}. • Ba{sup 2+} ions substitute for host Ca{sup 2+}(Sr{sup 2+}) ions in the on-center positions. • The nearest Ba-F distances in SrF{sub 2}:Ba and CaF{sub 2}:Ba are shorter than in BaF{sub 2}. • EXAFS data and first-principles calculations of the local structure agree well. • First-principles calculations explain slower luminescence decay in solid solutions.

  4. Ca, Sr and Ba stable isotopes reveal the fate of soil nutrients along a tropical climosequence (United States)

    Bullen, Thomas D.; Chadwick, Oliver A.


    Nutrient biolifting is an important pedogenic process in which plant roots obtain inorganic nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) from minerals at depth and concentrate those nutrients at the surface. Here we use soil chemistry and stable isotopes of the alkaline earth elements Ca, strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) to test the hypothesis that biolifting of P has been an important pedogenic process across a soil climosequence developed on volcanic deposits at Kohala Mountain, Hawaii. The geochemical linkage between these elements is revealed as generally positive site-specific relationships in soil mass gains and losses, particularly for P, Ba and Ca, using the ratio of immobile elements titanium and niobium (Ti/Nb) to link individual soil samples to a restricted compositional range of the chemically and isotopically diverse volcanic parent materials. At sites where P is enriched in surface soils relative to abundances in deeper soils, the isotope compositions of exchangeable Ca, Sr and Ba in the shallowest soil horizons (materials and trend toward those of plants growing on fresh volcanic deposits. In contrast the isotope composition of exchangeable Ba in deeper soil horizons (> 10 cm depth) at those sites is consistently heavier than the volcanic parent materials. The isotope compositions of exchangeable Ca and Sr trend toward heavier compositions with depth more gradually, reflecting increasing leakiness from these soils in the order Ba recycling flux returned to the surface as litterfall. This observation implicates an uptake flux from an additional source which we attribute to biolifting. We view the heavy exchangeable Ba relative to soil parent values in deeper soils at sites where P is enriched in surface soils, and indeed at all but the wettest site across the climosequence, to represent the complement of an isotopically light Ba fraction removed from these soils by plant roots consistent with the biolifting hypothesis. We further suggest that

  5. Migration behaviour of twaite shad Alosa fallax assessed by otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles. (United States)

    Magath, V; Marohn, L; Fietzke, J; Frische, M; Thiel, R; Dierking, J


    Individual migration behaviour during the juvenile and adult life phase of the anadromous twaite shad Alosa fallax in the Elbe estuary was examined using otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca profiles. Between hatching and the end of the first year of life, juveniles showed two migration patterns. Pattern one exhibited a single downstream migration from fresh water to the sea with no return into fresh water. In contrast, pattern two showed a first migration into the sea, then a return into fresh water and, finally, a second downstream migration into marine water. This first report of migration plasticity for A. fallax points to different exposure times to estuarine threats depending on the migration strategy. In adults, high Sr:Ca and low Ba:Ca in the majority of individuals confirmed prior reports of a primarily marine habitat use. Patterns reflecting spawning migrations were rarely observed on otoliths, possibly due to the short duration of visits to fresh water.

  6. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Avigliano

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela. The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method. Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State. A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area.

  7. Trigermanides AEGe{sub 3} (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba). Chemical bonding and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rodrigo; Schnelle, Walter; Baranov, Alexey I.; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Bobnar, Matej; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Schwarz, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik Fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany)


    The crystal structures of the trigermanides AEGe{sub 3}(tI32) (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba; space group I4/mmm, for SrGe{sub 3}: a = 7.7873(1), c = 12.0622(3) Aa) comprise Ge{sub 2} dumbbells forming layered Ge substructures which enclose embedded AE atoms. The chemical bonding analysis by application of the electron localizability approach reveals a substantial charge transfer from the AE atoms to the germanium substructure. The bonding within the dumbbells is of the covalent two-center type. A detailed analysis of SrGe{sub 3} reveals that the interaction on the bond-opposite side of the Ge{sub 2} groups is not lone pair-like - as it would be expected from the Zintl-like interpretation of the crystal structure with anionic Ge layers separated by alkaline-earth cations - but multi-center strongly polar between the Ge{sub 2} dumbbells and the adjacent metal atoms. Similar atomic interactions are present in CaGe{sub 3} and BaGe{sub 3}. The variation of the alkaline-earth metal has a merely insignificant influence on the superconducting transition temperatures in the s,p-electron compounds AEGe{sub 3}.

  8. Characterization of MeWO 4 (Me = Ba, Sr and Ca) nanocrystallines prepared by sonochemical method (United States)

    Thongtem, Titipun; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai


    Metal tungstates (MeWO 4, Me = Ba, Sr and Ca) were successfully prepared using the corresponding Me(NO 3) 2·2H 2O and Na 2WO 4·2H 2O in ethylene glycol by the 5 h sonochemical process. The tungstate phases with scheelite structure were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Their calculated lattice parameters are in accord with those of the JCPDS cards. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of nanoparticles composing the products. Their average sizes are 42.0 ± 10.4, 18.5 ± 5.1 and 13.1 ± 3.3 nm for Me = Ba, Sr and Ca, respectively. Interplanar spaces of the crystals were also characterized with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). Their crystallographic planes are aligned in systematic array. Six different vibration wavenumbers were detected using Raman spectrometer and are specified as ν1(A g), ν3(B g), ν3(E g), ν4(B g), ν2(A g) and free rotation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra provided the evidence of scheelite structure with W-O anti-symmetric stretching vibration of [WO 4] 2- tetrahedrons at 786-883 cm -1. Photoluminescence emission of the products was detected over the range of 384-416 nm.

  9. Separation of Sr from Ca, Ba and Ra by means of Ca(OH)2 and Ba(Ra)Cl2 or Ba(Ra)SO4 for the determination of radiostrontium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Q.J.; Hou, Xiaolin; Yu, Y.X.


    be completed. The new separation procedure has been successfully used for the determination of Sr-90 in samples with high Ca content, such as 451 of seawater and 2001 of drinking water. The analytical quality of the results is comparable to that of the traditional method using fuming nitric acid and BaCrO4....... A new procedure for the separation of Sr from Ba and Ra is also investigated, which is based on the difference in solubility of the chlorides of Sr, Ba and Ra in HCl media. In 9.5 mol 1(-1) HCl or 7.5 mol 1(-1) HCl-10% acetone media, >97% of Ba and Ra can be removed by Ba(Ra)Cl-2 precipitation, and >94......% of Sr was recovered. In the determination of Sr-90 by measuring Y-90, the separation of Ra and Ba can easily be carried out by precipitation of Ba and Ra as Ba(Ra)SO4, while Y can be quantitatively recovered in the solution. By this method, a further separation of Y-90 from radiostrontium can...

  10. Thermal Diffusivity of Ordered Double Perovskite A2FeMoO6 (A = Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Jun; HUANG Qiao-Jian; NIU Dong-Lin; XU Sheng; ZHANG Shu-Yi


    @@ Thermal diffusivity has been investigated in ordered double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 by means of transient surface grating technique in the temperature range of 300-450 K. The thermal diffusivity shows an appreciable decrease from 39mm2/s at 300 K to 37mm2/s at 360K in the ferromagnetic phase, and then steeply drops to 10mm2/s with further increasing temperature above the critical temperature Tc ~ 380 K. Such an abrupt decrease of the thermal diffusivity has been ascribed to the structural phase transition at Tc. We further investigate the lattice effect on the thermal diffusivity in A2FeMoO6 (A = Ca, Sr and Ba) by substitution of Ca2+ or Ba2+ ions for Sr2+ions at 300K. We find that the thermal diffusivity increases from 35mm2/s for A = Ca to 41 mm2/s for A = Ba.Considering the change of the Fe-O-Mo bond angle from 152.4° for A = Ca to 180° for A = Ba, the increased thermal diffusivity for Ba compound has been ascribed to the enhanced hybridization between transition-metal d and oxygen p states due to the larger Fe-O-Mo bond angle and hence the wider one-electron bandwidth W.

  11. Variation of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg in the otolith of mudskipper in west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Sarimin, A S; Ghaffar, M A; Mohamed, C A R


    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11 x 10(-4), Ba:Ca was 5.7 x 10(-3) and Mg:Ca was 0.2 x 10(-3). Strong correlation (R > 0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight ofmudskipper (p < 0.01) also found during this study.

  12. Study of chromites YbMIICr2O5,5 (MII - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba by X-ray diffraction

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    B. Kasenov


    Full Text Available Compounds of composition YbMeMnFeO5,5 (Me – Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba are synthesized from Yb2O3, , Cr2O3 and MgCO3, CaCO3, SrCO3, BaCO3 by solid phase method. X-ray powder diffraction showed that the compound YbMgCr2O5,5, YbCaCr2O5,5, YbSrCr2O5,5, YbBaCr2O5,5 crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system.

  13. Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of MMoO{sub 4} (M = Ca, Sr and Ba)

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    Maji, Binoy Kumar; Jena, Hrudananda, E-mail:; Asuvathraman, R.; Kutty, K.V. Govindan


    Highlights: • CaMoO{sub 4}, SrMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} are scheelite type oxides exhibit electrical conduction. • These are the interaction products of radio-nuclides in the nuclear fuel cycle. • Decrease in thermal expansion shows decrease in bond strength from CaMoO{sub 4} to BaMoO{sub 4}. • Decrease in σ from CaMoO{sub 4} to BaMoO{sub 4} is due to decrease in electropositive character. • Diffusion coefficient (D) of oxide ion conduction decreases from CaMoO{sub 4} to BaMoO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, Ba) molybdates were synthesized by solid state reaction route. The compounds were characterized by powder-XRD, TG–DTA techniques. The electrical conductivities of these compounds were measured by AC-impedance technique at 673–1073 K. The activation energies of electrical conduction of CaMoO{sub 4}, SrMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} were found to be 1.29 ± 0.01 eV, 1.33 ± 0.01 eV and 1.31 ± 0.01 eV respectively. The linear thermal expansion of these molybdates was measured by dilatometry. The mean coefficients (α{sub m}) of thermal expansion for these compounds were found to be in the range of 9.38 ± 0.18 × 10{sup −6}–12.96 ± 0.25 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} at 305–1005 K temperature range. The diffusion coefficient (D) values of oxide ion conduction for these molybdates were determined and found to be in the range of 9.48 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −14}–3.32 ± 0.01 × 10{sup −10} for CaMoO{sub 4}, 5.86 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −14}–2.50 ± 0.01 × 10{sup −10} for SrMoO{sub 4} and 3.46 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −14}–1.22 ± 0.01 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} for BaMoO{sub 4} at 673–1073 K range of temperature.

  14. Ultracold magnetically tunable interactions without radiative charge transfer losses between Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$, and Yb$^+$ ions and Cr atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Tomza, Michał


    The Ca$^+$, Sr$^+$, Ba$^+$, and Yb$^+$ ions immersed in an ultracold gas of the Cr atoms are proposed as experimentally feasible heteronuclear systems in which ion-atom interactions at ultralow temperatures can be controlled with magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances without charge transfer and radiative losses. \\textit{Ab initio} techniques are applied to investigate electronic-ground-state properties of the (CaCr)$^+$, (SrCr)$^+$, (BaCr)$^+$, and (YbCr)$^+$ molecular ions. The potential energy curves, permanent electric dipole moments, and static electric dipole polarizabilities are computed. The spin restricted open-shell coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative triple excitations, RCCSD(T), and the multireference configuration interaction method restricted to single and double excitations, MRCISD, are employed. The scalar relativistic effects are included within the small-core energy-consistent pseudopotentials. The leading long-range induction and dispersion interaction co...

  15. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

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    David Parker and David J Singh


    Full Text Available We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  16. Luminescence investigations of rare earth doped lead-free borate glasses modified by MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janek, Joanna, E-mail:; Sołtys, Marta; Żur, Lidia; Pietrasik, Ewa; Pisarska, Joanna; Pisarski, Wojciech A.


    Series of lead-free borate glasses with different oxide modifiers and lanthanide ions were prepared. The effect of oxide modifiers MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) on spectroscopic properties of trivalent Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Er, Pr) were systematically investigated. Especially, the luminescence spectra of Ln{sup 3+}-doped lead-free borate glasses are presented and discussed in relation to the impact of selective components (CaO, SrO and BaO). Several spectroscopic parameters, such as the fluorescence intensity ratio R/O (Eu{sup 3+}) and measured luminescence lifetimes for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}), {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} (Er{sup 3+}) and {sup 1}D{sub 2} (Pr{sup 3+}) excited states of lanthanide ions were analyzed in details. The research proved that spectroscopic properties of trivalent Ln{sup 3+} depend significantly on kind of presence oxide modifiers MO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) in glass host matrices. - Highlights: • Luminescence of Ln{sup 3+}-doped borate glasses was presented and discussed. • Effect of glass modifiers on spectroscopic properties of rare earths was studied. • Measured luminescence lifetimes of Ln{sup 3+} (Ln = Eu, Er, Pr) were analyzed. • Luminescence intensity ratios R/O (Eu{sup 3+}) were determined.

  17. Optical properties of A Fe2As2 (A =Ca , Sr, and Ba) single crystals (United States)

    Dai, Y. M.; Akrap, Ana; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Homes, C. C.


    The detailed optical properties have been determined for the iron-based materials A Fe2As2 , where A =Ca , Sr, and Ba, for light polarized in the iron-arsenic (a-b) planes over a wide frequency range, above and below the magnetic and structural transitions at TN=138 , 195, and 172 K, respectively. The real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity are fit simultaneously using two Drude terms in combination with a series of oscillators. Above TN, the free-carrier response consists of a weak, narrow Drude term, and a strong, broad Drude term, both of which show only a weak temperature dependence. Below TN there is a slight decrease of the plasma frequency but a dramatic drop in the scattering rate for the narrow Drude term, and for the broad Drude term there is a significant decrease in the plasma frequency, while the decrease in the scattering rate, albeit significant, is not as severe. The small values observed for the scattering rates for the narrow Drude term for T ≪TN may be related to the Dirac conelike dispersion of the electronic bands. Below TN new features emerge in the optical conductivity that are associated with the reconstruction Fermi surface and the gapping of bands at Δ1≃45 -80 meV, and Δ2≃110 -210 meV. The reduction in the spectral weight associated with the free carriers is captured by the gap structure; specifically, the spectral weight from the narrow Drude term appears to be transferred into the low-energy gap feature, while the missing weight from the broad term shifts to the high-energy gap.

  18. Microwave Dielectric Properties of A2P2O7 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; Mg, Zn, Mn) (United States)

    Bian, Jian-jiang; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun


    Microwave dielectric properties of A2P2O7 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Mg, Ba) ceramic materials were investigated by a network analyzer at the frequency of 10 GHz. It was found that A2P2O7 ceramics could be sintered at relatively lower temperature below 1150°C, although the thortveitite type series, Mn2P2O7, α-Mg2P2O7 and α-Zn2P2O7 with smaller ionic radii of A cations were hard to sinter to full density. The dielectric constant of A2P2O7 is lower than 10. The Q× f value increased according to the sequence of δ-Ba2P2O7, α-Sr2P2O7 and β-Ca2P2O7 in dichromatic type series, and the sequence of Mn2P2O7, α-Mg2P2O7 and α-Zn2P2O7 in thortveitite type series, respectively. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf for all samples exhibits negative value. Larger τf for α-Zn2P2O7, α-Mg2P2O7 and δ-Ba2P2O7 is mainly due to their reversible phase transformations. The microwave dielectric properties were discussed from the point view of bond valence.

  19. Tilting structures in inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). (United States)

    Nuss, Jürgen; Mühle, Claus; Hayama, Kyouhei; Abdolazimi, Vahideh; Takagi, Hidenori


    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were performed for a series of inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = tetrel element: Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) in the temperature range 500-50 K. For Tt = Sn, Pb, they crystallize as an 'ideal' perovskite-type structure (Pm3m, cP5); however, all of them show distinct anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids of the M atoms at room temperature. This behavior vanishes on cooling for M = Ca, Sr, Eu, and the structures can be regarded as `ideal' cubic perovskites at 50 K. The anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids are much more enhanced in the case of the Ba compounds. Finally, their structures undergo a phase transition at ∼ 150 K. They change from cubic to orthorhombic (Ibmm, oI20) upon cooling, with slightly tilted OBa6 octahedra, and bonding angles O-Ba-O ≃ 174° (100 K). For the larger Ba(2+) cations, the structural changes are in agreement with smaller tolerance factors (t) as defined by Goldschmidt. Similar structural behavior is observed for Ca3TtO. Smaller Tt(4-) anions (Si, Ge) introduce reduced tolerance factors. Both compounds Ca3SiO and Ca3GeO with cubic structures at 500 K, change into orthorhombic (Ibmm) at room temperature. Whereby, Ca3SiO is the only representative within the M3TtO family where three polymorphs can be found within the temperature range 500-50 K: Pm3m-Ibmm-Pbnm. They show tiny differences in the tilting of the OCa6 octahedra, expressed by O-Ca-O bond angles of 180° (500 K), ∼ 174° (295 K) and 170° (100 K). For larger M (Sr, Eu, Ba), together with smaller Tt (Si, Ge) atoms, pronounced tilting of the OM6 octahedra, and bonding angles of O-M-O ≃ 160° (295 K) are observed. They crystallize in the anti-GdFeO3 type of structure (Pbnm, oP20), and no phase transitions occur between 500 and 50 K. The observed phase transitions are all accompanied by multiple twinning, in terms of pseudo-merohedry or reticular pseudo-merohedry.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (CaA)SiO3 [A = Ba or Sr] phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Dhoble; N S Dhoble; R B Pode


    Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 have been prepared by sol–gel technique. Residual solvent and organic contents in the gel were removed by firing at 100°C for 3–4 h at 300 and 600°C for 2 h. Small exothermic shoulder around 850 to 875°C, as observed in DTA curve, corresponds to crystallization temperature of the doped calcium silicate. Influence of firing temperature on the luminescence of Eu3+ shows the maximum emission intensity in gel fired at 850°C. Photoluminescence emission peak is observed at 614 nm due to ${}^{5}D_{0} \\rightarrow {}^{7}F_{2}$ transition of Eu3+ ion in (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 phosphors, when excited by 254 nm. The (Ca, Ba) SiO3 material is proposed as an efficient red phosphor.

  1. Synthesis of Long Afterglow Phosphors MAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) by Microemulsion Method and Their Luminescent Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Guanming; Chen Yongjie; Geng Xiujuan; Xiao Linjiu; Tian Yiguang; Sun Yanbin


    Long afterglow phosphors MAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) were synthesized by microemulsion method, and their crystal structure and luminescent properties were compared and investigated. XRD patterns of samples indicate that phosphors CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ and SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ are with monoclinic crystal structure and phosphor BaAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ is with hexagonal crystal structure. The wide range of excitation spectrum of phosphors MAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ (M=Ca,Sr,Ba) indicates that the luminescent materials can be excited by light from ultraviolet ray to visible light and the maximum emission wavelength of phosphors MAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) is found mainly at λem of 440 nm (M=Ca), 520 nm (M=Sr) and 496 nm (M=Ba) respectively, the corresponding colors of emission light are blue, green and cyna-green respectively. The afterglow decay tendency of phosphors can be summarized as three processes: initial rapid decay, intermediate transitional decay and very long slow decay. Afterglow decay curves coincide with formula I=At-n, and the sequence of afterglow intensity and time is Sr>Ca>Ba.

  2. Luminescent Afterglow Behavior in the M2Si5N8: Eu Family (M = Ca, Sr, Ba

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    Koen Van den Eeckhout


    Full Text Available Persistent luminescent materials are able to emit light for hours after being excited. The majority of persistent phosphors emit in the blue or green region of the visible spectrum. Orange- or red-emitting phosphors, strongly desired for emergency signage and medical imaging, are scarce. We prepared the nitrido-silicates Ca2Si5N8:Eu (orange, Sr2Si5N8:Eu (reddish, Ba2Si5N8:Eu (yellowish orange, and their rare-earth codoped variants (R = Nd, Dy, Sm, Tm through a solid state reaction, and investigated their luminescence and afterglow properties. In this paper, we describe how the persistent luminescence is affected by the type of codopant and the choice and ratio of the starting products. All the materials exhibit some form of persistent luminescence, but for Sr2Si5N8:Eu,R this is very weak. In Ba2Si5N8:Eu the afterglow remains visible for about 400 s, and Ca2Si5N8:Eu,Tm shows the brightest and longest afterglow, lasting about 2,500 s. For optimal persistent luminescence, the dopant and codopant should be added in their fluoride form, in concentrations below 1 mol%. A Ca3N2 deficiency of about 5% triples the afterglow intensity. Our results show that Ba2Si5N8:Eu(,R and Ca2Si5N8:Eu(,R are promising persistent phosphors for applications requiring orange or red light.

  3. La-(Ca-Ba-Sr)-Mn-O锰氧化物高低温输运特性%Transport Property at Low and High Temperatures in La-(Ca-Ba-Sr)-Mn-O Manganite Perovskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志高; 陈水源; 黄志高; 赖恒; 都有为


    Polycrystalline samples La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO), La2/3(Ca0.5Ba0.5)1/3MnO3 (LCBMO), La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 (LBMO),La2/3(Sr0.5Ba0.5)1/3MnO3 (LSBMO) and La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) have been prepared by a solid state reaction method. We have observed the temperature dependences of the electric resistivity and magnetoresistance from 77 K up to 800 K. Experimental results indicate that the presence of grain boundaries in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials prepared by the mechanical alloyed method leads to a large magnetoresistance effect at low temperature, and there exists a pronounced metal-semiconductor transition around Tc. According to the models of spin-polarized electron tunneling and percolation, the magnetoresistance as a function of temperature has been explained well. The temperature dependence of resistivity at high temperature is well fit by nonadiabatic small polaron hopping model for LCBMO and LSBMO samples, and their activation energies are obtained. Also it has been found that annealing processing affects the resistivity significantly.%用固相反应烧结法制备了多晶体材料La2/3Ca1/3MnO3(LCMO),La2/3(Ca0.5Ba0.5)1/3MnO3(LCBMO)、La2/3Ba1/3MnO3(LBMO),La2/3(Sr0.5Ba0.5)1/3MnO3(LSBMO)和La2/3Sr1/3MnO3(LSMO),测量了它们在77 K~800 K的电阻和磁电阻特性.实验发现,通过一定的工艺技术制备出的CMR材料有强烈的相界效应,在低温下有大的磁电阻,且在Tc附近存在明显的从金属态向半导体态的转变;用自旋极化电子隧道效应和靠近居里点逾渗模型较好地解释了电阻和磁电阻行为;用非绝热小极化子跃迁模型对高温的电阻特性进行拟合处理,得到了激活能;同时发现退火处理对样品的电阻率有重要的影响.

  4. Luminescent nitridophosphates CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2.). (United States)

    Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang


    Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors.

  5. High Tc thin film superconductors: preparation, patterning and characterization. [Y-Ba-Cu-O; Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, J. (Center for Tech. Education, Holon (Israel) Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel))


    A conventional oil-pumped vacuum system equipped with resistively heated tungsten boat sources was used for evaporation of bismuth- or yttrium-based cuprates for high Tc thin films superconductors. A well-ground mixture with atomic proportions of bismuth, SrF{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and copper for bismuth-based material, and of YF{sub 3}, BaF{sub 2} and copper for yttrium-based material, was inserted into the boat and then resistively evaporated onto different substrates such as MgO, ZrO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} kept at room temperature. Yttrium-based thin films were found to have a better quality upon reduction of fluorine in the constituents. Thus, films prepared with an yttrium BaF{sub 2} and copper mixture show a metallic-like behaviour, sharper transition and higher zero-resistance temperature as compared with that of films obtained by using a YF{sub 2} constituent instead of yttrium. Bismuth-based thin films were found to lose bismuth during heat treatment unless the copper constituent ended the evaporation process and was subsequently fully oxidized at 400degC. Bismuth-based patterned films were easily obtained by using a lift-off photolithographic method. Typical thickness of the films was measured to be about 0.5 {mu}m after heat treatment. (orig.).

  6. Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of X3ZN (X = Ca, Sr, Ba; Z = As, Sb, Bi) Anti-Perovskite Compounds (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Mahmood, Asif; Muzzamil, M.; Amin, N.; Saleh, M.


    We employed first-principles calculations to predict the structural and optoelectronic properties of X3ZN (X = Ca, Sr, Ba; Z = As, Sb, Bi) anti-perovskite compounds using an all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Optimized structural parameters are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental measurements. The electronic band structure is calculated using different exchange-correlation potentials which reveal that the investigated compounds are narrow direct band gap semiconductors. A direct narrow band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone emphasises the optical activity of these compounds. Prediction of the optical properties, such as the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function and refractive index along with reflectivity and optical conductivity, reveals the importance of these compounds in the visible and near UV optoelectronic devices industry.

  7. In vitro synthesis of amorphous Mg-, Ca-, Sr- and Ba-carbonates: What do we learn about intracellular calcification by cyanobacteria? (United States)

    Cam, N.; Georgelin, T.; Jaber, M.; Lambert, J.-F.; Benzerara, K.


    Some cyanobacteria, including Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, which was isolated from Lake Alchichica (Mexico), can form intracellular carbonates. This contradicts the common paradigm that cyanobacterial calcification is always extracellular and suggests that calcification might be controlled by these cyanobacterial species. Intracellular carbonates have several peculiar characteristics: they are relatively small (between 60 and 500 nm), they are poorly crystalline, and they have Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios much higher than the solution in which the cells grow. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these unique features may indicate the involvement of specific biological processes. Here, in vitro abiotic syntheses were performed to synthesize Mg-, Ca-, Sr- and Ba-containing carbonates with compositions, crystallinities and sizes close to those observed in intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria. Precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The size and the poor crystallinity of cyanobacterial intracellular carbonates could be mimicked under these abiotic conditions. It was shown that similarly to Mg, elements such as Sr and Ba can favor stabilization of poorly crystalline carbonates. In contrast, the differential partitioning of Sr, Ba and Ca between the solution and the solids as observed in cyanobacteria could not be mimicked in vitro. This provides keys to a better understanding of biological processes involved in the formation of intracellular carbonates by some cyanobacteria, including the involvement of membrane transporters.

  8. Concentrations and ratios of Sr, Ba and Ca along an estuarine river to the Gulf of Mexico – implication for sea level rise effects on trace metal distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. He


    Full Text Available Strontium and barium to calcium ratios are often used as proxies for tracking animal movement across salinity gradients. As sea level rise continues, many estuarine rivers in the world face saltwater intrusion, which may cause changes in mobility and distribution of these metals upstream. Despite intensive research on metal adsorption and desorption in marine systems, knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of these elements along estuarine rivers is still limited. In this study, we conducted an intensive monitoring of Sr and Ba dynamics along an 88 km long estuary, the Calcasieu River in South Louisiana, USA, which has been strongly affected by saltwater intrusion. Over the period from May 2013 to August 2015, we collected monthly water samples and performed in-situ water quality measurements at six sites from the upstream to the river mouth, with a salinity range from 0.02 to 29.50 ppt. Water samples were analyzed for Sr, Ba, and Ca concentrations. In-situ measurements were made on salinity, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. We found that the Sr and Ca concentrations and the Sr / Ca ratio all increased significantly with increasing salinity. The average Sr concentration at the site closest to the Gulf of Mexico (site 6 was 46.21 μmol L−1, which was about 130 times higher than that of the site furthest upstream (site 1, 0.35 μmol L−1. The average Ca concentration at site 6 was 8.19 mmol L−1, which was about 60 times higher than that of site 1 (0.13 mmol L−1. The average Sr / Ca ratio at site 6 (8.41 mmol mol−1 was about 3 times the average Sr / Ca ratio at site 1 (2.89 mmol mol−1. However, the spatial variation in Ba concentration was marginal, varying from 0.36 μmol L−1 at site 6 to 0.47 at site 5. The average Ba / Ca ratio at site 1 (4.82 mmol mol−1 was about 54 times the average Ba / Ca ratio at site 6 (0.09 mmol mol−1, showing a clear negative relation between the Ba

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis, structure, and properties of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides: Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) (United States)

    Heise, M.; Scholz, G.; Düvel, A.; Heitjans, P.; Kemnitz, E.


    The capability of mechanochemical synthesis for the formation of solid solutions of alkaline earth metal fluorides Ma1-xMbxF2 (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) was tested by fluorination of metal acetates and metal hydroxides with ammonium fluoride directly at milling. Evidence was found for a mutual substitution of cations on their lattice positions in Ca1-xSrxF2 and Ba1-xSrxF2 samples. For the Ba/Ca-system this synthesis route is only partially successful. X-ray diffraction and 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize all samples concerning their crystal structure and local fluorine coordination. Calculations of 19F chemical shifts with the superposition model along with probability calculations for the intensity of the individual 19F lines, performed in dependence on the molar composition of the samples, perfectly agree with the experimental findings. The fluoride ion conductivity of as-prepared samples, determined by temperature dependent DC conductivity measurements, is significantly higher than those of crystalline binary fluorides. Moreover, a higher F- ion conductivity is observed for samples with higher mixing grade in the Ca/Sr-and the Ba/Sr-systems.

  10. Rapid and efficient visible light photocatalytic dye degradation using AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) complex oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, T. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Suriyaraj, S.P.; Selvakumar, R. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Venkateswaran, R. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Ashok, Anuradha, E-mail: [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India)


    Highlights: • Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Visible light photocatalytic activity of these ferrites were studied using congo red dye degradation. • BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under visible light (xenon lamp) irradiation; CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was the best photocatalyst under natural sun light irradiation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of spinel type complex oxides has been investigated in this study. Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca, Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. Structural characterizations reveal that the synthesized ferrites have orthorhombic crystal structures with different space groups and cell dimensions when they have different alkaline earth metals in their A site. All the synthesized ferrites exhibited their bandgap in the range 2.14–2.19 eV. Their photocatalytic activities were studied using congo red dye under sunlight and xenon lamp radiation. The substitution of Ba, Ca and Sr at A site of these ferrites had varying impact on dye degradation process. Under xenon lamp irradiation, BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the highest percentage of dye degradation (92% after 75 min). However, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the fastest degradation of the dye (70% within 15 min). In the absence of irradiation, SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the highest dye adsorption (44% after 75 min).

  11. Structural, elastic and electronic properties of C14-type Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) Laves phases (United States)

    Lishi, Ma; Yonghua, Duan; Runyue, Li


    The structural and mechanical properties, Debye temperatures and anisotropic sound velocities of the Laves phases Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) with C14-type structure were investigated using the first-principles corresponding calculations. The corresponding calculated structural parameters and formation enthalpies are in good agreement with the available theoretical values, and Al2Ca has the best phase stability. The mechanical properties, including elastic constants, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson ratio ν, were deduced within the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The brittleness and ductility were estimated by the values of Poisson ratio, B/G and Cauchy pressure. Moreover, the elastic anisotropy was investigated by calculating and discussing several anisotropy indexes. Finally, the electronic structures were used to illustrate the bonding characteristics of C14-Al2M (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) phases.

  12. Synthesis and Microwave Dielectric Properties of A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) Ceramics for LTCC Applications (United States)

    Suresh, E. K.; Prasad, K.; Arun, N. S.; Ratheesh, R.


    Low-temperature co-firable A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramics have been prepared through the solid state ceramic route. The structural features of these ceramics have been studied using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The existence of the A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramic phase was confirmed through laser Raman spectroscopic studies. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed a dense microstructure for the ceramics with closely packed polygonal grains. Among the samples studied, Ba16V18O61 ceramic was prepared in the ultralow sintering temperature of 620°C for 1 h, which can be co-firable with an aluminium electrode. XRD and electron dispersive spectroscopy analyses showed that the samples under study have excellent compatibility with metal electrodes. The microwave dielectric properties measured using a vector network analyzer revealed that A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramics have excellent unloaded quality factors.

  13. Strain Dependent Electronic Structure and Band Offset Tuning at Heterointerfaces of ASnO3 (A=Ca, Sr, and Ba) and SrTiO3 (United States)

    Baniecki, John D.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Ricinschi, Dan; Van Overmeere, Quentin; Aso, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Yusuke; Yamada, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Norifumi; Maran, Ronald; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Imanaka, Yoshihiko


    The valence band (VB) electronic structure and VB alignments at heterointerfaces of strained epitaxial stannate ASnO3 (A=Ca, Sr, and Ba) thin films are characterized using in situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies, with band gaps evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with geometric phase analysis is used to resolve strain at atomic resolution. The VB electronic structure is strain state dependent in a manner that correlated with a directional change in Sn-O bond lengths with strain. However, VB offsets are found not to vary significantly with strain, which resulted in ascribing most of the difference in band alignment, due to a change in the band gaps with strain, to the conduction band edge. Our results reveal significant strain tuning of conduction band offsets using epitaxial buffer layers, with strain-induced offset differences as large as 0.6 eV possible for SrSnO3. Such large conduction band offset tunability through elastic strain control may provide a pathway to minimize the loss of charge confinement in 2-dimensional electron gases and enhance the performance of photoelectrochemical stannate-based devices. PMID:28195149

  14. Structural and Dielectric Properties of Dy-doped( Ba, Sr, Ca) TiO3 Thick Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Preparation and electrocatalytic activities of Pt-TiO2 nanotubes (Ba0.57Sr0.33Ca0.10)TiO3 powders, prepared by the sol-gel method, were doped MnCO3 as acceptor and Dy2O3 as donor. This powder was mixed with an organic vehicle and BSCT thick films were fabricated by the screen-printing techniques on alumina substrate. The structural and dielectric properties of BSCT thick films were investigated with variation of Dy2O3 amount. As a result of the differential thermal analysis (DTA), exothermic peak was observed at around 670℃ due to the formation of the polycrystalline perovskite phase. All the BSCT thick films showed the XRD patterns of a typical polycrystalline perovskite structure. The average grain size of BSCT thick films decreased with increasing amount of Dy2O3. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the BSCT thick film doped Dy2O3 0. 1mol% were 4637.4 and 1.6% at 1kHz, respectively.

  15. Fabrication and microwave properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolewski, R.; Konopka, J.; Kula, W.; Gierlowski, P.; Konopka, A.; Lewandowski, S.J.


    The authors report their studies on the interaction of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O thin films with microwaves. The films were prepared on cubic zirconia and magnesium oxide substrates using a modified spray deposition technique. The tested films were about 1-3 /mu/m thick and exhibited good superconducting properties (e.g. for YBCO-on zirconia films the 10-90% transition width was 2 K, and the zero resistance was reached at 89 K). Several test structures have been designed by spraying a mixture of nitrate precursors on heated substrates through very thin stencil masks. The supercurrent dependence on millimeter wavelength microwave illumination was measured, and microwave detection and mixing experiments were performed. The films of both materials exhibited proper ties characteristic for granular superconductors, with Josephson-type coupling at the intergrain connections. The studies also demonstrated that these materials can be successfully used as very sensitive millimeter radiation detectors operational at liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  16. First principle calculations for improving desorption temperature in Mg16H32 doped with Ca, Sr and Ba elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Bhihi; M Lakhal; S Naji; H Labrim; A Belhaj; A Benyoussef; A Elkenz; M Loulidi; B Khalil; O Mounkachi; M Abdellaoui; E K Hlil


    Using ab initio calculations, we predict the improvement of the desorption temperature and the hydrogen storage properties of doped Mg-based hydrides such as,Mg15AMH32 (AM = Ca, Sr and Ba) as a super cell 2 × 2 × 2 of MgH2. In particular, the electronic structure has been obtained numerically using the all-electron full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis scheme FPLO9.00-34. Then, we discuss the formation energy calculations in terms of the material stabilities and the hydrogen storage thermodynamic properties improvements. Among others, we find that the stability and the temperature of desorption decrease without reducing significantly the high storage capacity of hydrogen. Moreover, it has been observed that such a doping procedure does not affect the electronic behavior as seen in MgH2, including the insulator state in contrast with the transition metal hydrides, which modify the electronic structure of pure MgH2.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purnendu Parhi; V Manivannan; Sandeep Kohli; Patrick Mccurdy


    A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for the synthesis of orthovanadates, M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetic property measurements and diffused reflectance spectra in the UV–VIS range. The direct bandgap of the synthesized materials was found to be 3.55 ± 0.2 eV, 3.75 ± 0.2 eV and 3.57 ± 0.2 eV for Ca3V2O8, Sr3V2O8 and Ba3V2O8, respectively.

  18. Band-gap tuning and magnetic properties of heterovalent ions (Ba, Sr and Ca) substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunil; Kumar, Manoj; Katyal, S. C.


    A Comparative study of heterovalent Ba, Sr and Ca ions substitution on the structural, vibrational, optical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles was carried out. The distorted rhombohedral structure was confirmed from both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy techniques in pure BiFeO3 and Bi0.85A0.15FeO3 (A= Ba, Sr and Ca) samples. UV-Visible spectroscopy results show that the band-gap of BiFeO3 nanoparticles can be tuned by heterovalent ions substitution from 2.12 eV for BiFeO3 to 2.10, 2.06 and 2.03 eV for Ca, Sr and Ba substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles respectively. The magnetic measurements indicate enhancement in magnetization for heterovalent A2+ substituted BiFeO3 samples and the magnetization increases with increase of ionic radius of the substituted ions.

  19. Theoretical characterization of quaternary iridium based hydrides NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouras, S. [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Ghebouli, B., E-mail: [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Benkerri, M. [Laboratory of Studies Surfaces and Interfaces of Solids Materials, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Ghebouli, M.A., E-mail: [Microelectronic Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bachir Ibrahimi, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Research Unit on Emerging Materials (RUEM), University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Choutri, H. [Microelectronic Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bachir Ibrahimi, Bordj-Bou-Arreridj 34000 (Algeria); Louail, L.; Chihi, T.; Fatmi, M. [Research Unit on Emerging Materials (RUEM), University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and Their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif 1, 19000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Khenata, R.; Khachai, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria)


    The quaternary iridium based hydrides NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) are promising candidates as hydrogen storage materials. We have studied the structural, elastic, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) within the generalized gradient approximation, the local density approximation (LDA) and mBj in the frame of density functional perturbation theory. These alloys have a large indirect Γ–X band gap. The thermodynamic functions were computed using the phonon density of states. The origin of the possible transitions from valence band to conduction band was illustrated. By using the complex dielectric function, the optical properties such as absorption, reflectivity, loss function, refractive index and optical conductivity have been obtained. - Graphical abstract: Real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, the absorption spectrum α(ω), reflectivity R(ω) and energy-loss spectrum L(ω). - Highlights: • NaAeIrH{sub 6} (Ae = Ca, Ba and Sr) alloys have been investigated. • The elastic moduli, energy gaps are predicted. • The optical and thermal properties were studied.

  20. Improvement in the microwave dielectric properties of SrCa4Nb4TiO17 ceramics by Ba substitution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Manan; Yaseen Iqbal


    Microwave dielectric ceramics in the Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) composition series were fabricated via a solid-state mixed oxide route. All the compositions formed single phase in Sr1–BaCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.75) solid solutions within the detection limit of in-house X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sintered microstructure of these ceramics comprised densely packed elongated and plate-like grains. The dielectric properties varied linearly with . Relative permittivity (r) increased from 47.2 to 54.5, unloaded quality factor multiplying the resonant frequency (u o) decreased from 11,984 to 9345 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (f) increased from –78.6 to 20 ppm/°C with an increase in x from 0 to 0.75. In the present study, r ≈ 51.6, u o ≈ 10,160 GHz (5.37 GHz) and f ≈ –13.5 ppm/°C were achieved for Sr0.5Ba0.5Ca4Nb4TiO17 ( = 0.5) ceramics.

  1. Spectroscopy of laser properties of Nd(3+)-doped CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A.; Caird, John A.; Chase, L. L.; Smith, L. K.; Nielsen, N. D.; Krupke, William F.


    The optical properties of Nd(3+) in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 were investigated in order to determine if these materials are useful as laser-pumped amplifier media. The CaF2:Nd crystal was found to not be useful because the impurities tend to cluster at very low concentration, leading to the formation of nonluminescent centers. On the other hand, the Nd(3+) centers in BaF2 exhibit unacceptably low transition strengths. SrF2:Nd appears to have adequate absorption strength, and, in addition, to have a remarkably long emission lifetime of 1280 microns. A maximum doping of 0.20 atomic percent Nd(3+) can be tolerated in SrF2 without the occurrence of detrimental clustering. The peak emission cross section of SrF2:Nd is 1.7 x 10(exp -20) sq cm at 1036.5 nm. Direct measurement of the gain spectrum of SrF2:Nd(3+) reveals the presence of the F-4(sub 3/2) yields G-2(sub 9/2) excited state absorption lines, although the impact on the emission cross section is minor.

  2. Eu(2+)-Activated Alkaline-Earth Halophosphates, M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) for NUV-LEDs: Site-Selective Crystal Field Effect. (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Kim, Sung-Chul; Bae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Sungyun; Kim, Seung-Joo; Park, Jung-Chul


    Eu(2+)-activated M5(PO4)3X (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) compounds providing different alkaline-earth metal and halide ions were successfully synthesized and characterized. The emission peak maxima of the M5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds were blue-shifted from Ca to Ba (454 nm for Ca, 444 nm for Sr, and 434 nm for Ba), and those of the Sr5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (X = F, Cl, Br) compounds were red-shifted along the series of halides, F → Cl → Br (437 nm for F, 444 nm for Cl, and 448 nm for Br). The site selectivity and occupancy of the activator ions (Eu(2+)) in the M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) crystal lattices were estimated based on theoretical calculation of the 5d → 4f transition energies of Eu(2+) using LCAO. In combination with the photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculation, it was elucidated that the Eu(2+) ions preferably enter the fully oxygen-coordinated sites in the M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) compounds. This trend can be well explained by "Pauling's rules". These compounds may provide a platform for modeling a new phosphor and application in the solid-state lighting field.

  3. Shrinking of anionic polyacrylate coils induced by Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+: a combined light scattering and ASAXS study. (United States)

    Schweins, R; Goerigk, G; Huber, K


    Anionic polyacrylate chains (NaPA) form precipitates if alkaline earth cations are added in stoichiometric amounts. Accordingly, precipitation thresholds were established for three different alkaline earth cations Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+). Close to the precipitation threshold, the NaPA chains significantly decrease in size. This shrinking process was followed by means of combined static and dynamic light scattering. Intermediates were generated by varying the ratio [MCl(2)]/[NaPA] with M denoting the respective alkaline earth cation. All experiments were performed at an inert salt level of 0.01M NaCl. Similar coil-to-sphere transitions could be observed with all three alkaline earth cations Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+). Based on these findings, supplementary conventional and anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering experiments using selected intermediates close to the precipitation threshold of SrPA were performed. The distribution of Sr counterions around the polyacrylate chains in aqueous solution provided the desired scattering contrast. Energy-dependent scattering experiments enabled successful separation of the pure-resonant terms, which solely stem from the counterions. The Sr(2+) scattering roughly reflects the monomer distribution of the polyacrylate chains. Different ratios of the concentrations of [ SrCl(2)]/[NaPA] revealed dramatic changes in the scattering curves. The scattering curve at the lowest ratio indicated an almost coil-like behaviour, while at the higher ratios the scattering curves supported the model of highly contracted polymer chains. Most of X-ray scattering experiments on intermediate states revealed compact structural elements which were significantly smaller than the respective overall size of the NaPA particles.

  4. Solid-Phase Equilibria for Metal-Silicon-Oxygen Ternary Systems I: Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba (United States)


    Sr AND Ba Accesstloi For NTIS ,r .&-I by I LTIC TAB UT I’r ~o’u-- d El SJUZt ificntion H. Yuan and R.S. Williams i y. (in preparation ) ByDJ . s t r...1latin Ref. 11 S󈧆 -910.94 (ac quartz) -909.48 (ac cristobalite ) -909.06 (ac tridymile) -903.5 (amo.) NA9J -601.70 -597.98 (micro) Mg 2Si -77.8 Mg2SiO4

  5. Electronic structure and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in A2FeReO6 (A =Ca ,Sr ,andBa ) oxides (United States)

    Antonov, V. N.; Bekenov, L. V.; Ernst, A.


    A systematic electronic structure study of A2FeReO6 (A =Ba ,Sr ,andCa ) has been performed by employing the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA +U methods using the fully relativistic spin-polarized Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital band-structure method. We investigated the effects of the subtle interplay between spin-orbit coupling, electron correlations, and lattice distortion on the electronic structure of double perovskites. Ca2FeReO6 has a large distortion in the Fe-O-Re bond, and the electronic structure is mainly determined by electron correlations and lattice distortion. In the Ba -Sr -Ca row, the correlation effects at the Fe site are increased. The correlations at the Re site are small in the Ba- and Sr-based compounds but significant in Ca2FeReO6 . Ca2FeReO6 behaves like an insulator only if considered with a relatively large value of Coulomb repulsion Ueff=2.3 eV at the Re site in addition to Ueff=3.1 eV at the Fe site. Ca2FeReO6 possesses a phase transition at 140 K where the metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs between metallic high-temperature and insulating low-temperature phases. The spin and orbital magnetic moments are linear functions of temperature before and after the MIT but change abruptly at the point of the phase transition. From theoretically calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE), we found that the easy axis of magnetization for the low-temperature phase is along the b direction, in agreement with experimental data. We found that the major contribution to the MAE is due to the orbital magnetic anisotropy at the Re site. X-ray-absorption spectra and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Re, Fe, and Ba L2 ,3 and Fe, Ca, and O K edges were investigated theoretically in the frame of the LSDA +U method. A qualitative explanation of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra shape is provided by an analysis of the corresponding selection rules, orbital character, and occupation numbers of individual orbitals

  6. Molecular dynamics and reverse Monte Carlo modeling of scheelite-type AWO4 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) W L 3-edge EXAFS spectra (United States)

    Kalinko, Aleksandr; Bauer, Matthias; Timoshenko, Janis; Kuzmin, Alexei


    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) and reverse Monte Carlo methods coupled with ab initio multiple-scattering extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) calculations were used for modeling of scheelite-type AWO4 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) W L 3-edge EXAFS spectra. The two theoretical approaches are complementary and allowed us to perform analysis of full EXAFS spectra. Both methods reproduce well the structure and dynamics of tungstates in the outer coordination shells, however the classical MD simulations underestimate the W-O bond MSRD due to a neglect of quantum zero-point-motion. The thermal vibration amplitudes, correlation effects and anisotropy of the tungstate structure were also estimated.

  7. Effect of local A-site strain on dipole stability in A6GaNb9O30 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) tetragonal tungsten bronze relaxor dielectrics. (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J; Rotaru, Andrei; Arnold, Donna C; Morrison, Finlay D


    A series of isovalently A-site substituted relaxor dielectric tetragonal tungsten bronzes of general formula Ba(6-x-y)Sr(x)Ca(y)GaNb(9)O(30) were investigated. The long-range (average) crystal structure as determined by conventional diffraction techniques varies monotonically according to Vegard's law. The dielectric properties, however, do not display a similar, simple "average size" dependence and instead show a dependence on the statistical size variance, i.e. size mismatch, of the A-cation. The difficulties in Vogel-Fulcher analysis of relative permittivity and the complementary approach of using dielectric loss data fitted to Jonscher's empirical universal dielectric relaxation model is discussed.

  8. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emission located at 615 nm was observed in all the samples. • The Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest PL properties. • The CIE chromaticity coordinate of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was (0.647,0.352). • The color purity of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was 92.8%. • Strong CL properties were observed in the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+}-activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as X-ray diffraction patterns were measured to characterize the fabricated samples. Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emissions located at ∼615 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+} ions were observed in all the samples. Compared with other Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Sr, Ba) phosphors, Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest red emission intensity with better Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinate and higher color purity. Furthermore, the CL results indicated that the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor had excellent luminescence properties.

  9. Analysis of (Ba,Ca,Sr){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} phosphors for application in solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, J.K. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Piqutte, A.; Hannah, M.E. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Central Research, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnolgía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Apdo, Ensenada MX CP 22860 (Mexico); Talbot, J.B. [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Nanoengineering, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Mishra, K.C. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Central Research, 71 Cherry Hill Drive Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); McKittrick, J., E-mail: [University of California, San Diego, Materials Science and Engineering Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-activated (Ba,Ca,Sr){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis were studied. Eu{sup 2+}-activated (Ba,Ca,Sr){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} has a broad blue emission band centered at 450–485 nm and Eu{sup 2+}–Mn{sup 2+}-activated (Ba,Ca,Sr){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} exhibits a red emission around 620–703 nm, depending on the relative concentrations of Ba, Ca and Sr. The particle size of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-activated (Ba,Ca){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} ranges from 300 nm to 1 μm depending on the metal ion and are agglomerated due to post-synthesis, high temperature annealing. The green emission of Ba{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} originates from secondary phases (Ba{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and BaMgSiO{sub 4}) confirmed by emission spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns. The secondary phases of Ba{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} are removed by the addition of Sr. The quantum efficiencies range from 45% to 70% under 400 nm excitation and the lifetime of red emission of Ba{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} decreases significantly with increasing temperature, which is 54% at 400 K of that at 80 K compared to that of blue emission (90% at 400 K of that at 80 K). -- highlights: • (Ba,Ca,Sr){sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} phosphors were prepared by a combustion synthesis method. • The emission spectra consist of broad blue-emission band and red-emission band. • The quantum efficiencies range between 45% and 70%, depending on the relative concentrations of Ba, Ca and Sr. • The secondary phases were eliminated by additions of Sr. • Lifetime of the red-emission decreases with increasing temperature, suggesting that these phosphors are not useful for solid state lighting applications.

  10. The first-principle study of the electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of XTiO3 (X = Ca, Sr and Ba) compounds (United States)

    Mubarak, A. A.


    The FP-LAPW method is utilized to investigate the elastic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of XTiO3 (X = Ca, Sr and Ba) within the GGA. The calculated lattice constants and bulk modulus are found in agreement with previous studies. The present oxide-perovskite compounds are characterized as elastically stable and anisotropic. CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 are categorized as ductile compounds, whereas the BaTiO3 compound is in the critical region between ductile and brittle. The DOS and the band structure calculations reveal indirect (M-Γ) energy bandgap for the present compounds. The hydrostatic pressure increases the energy bandgap and the width of the valence band. The character of the band structure does not change due to this pressure. The optical parameters are calculated in different radiation regions. Beneficial optics applications are predicted as revealed from the optical spectra. The transport properties are applied as a function of the variable temperatures or carrier concentration. It is found that the compounds under study are classified as a p-type semiconductor. The majority charge carriers responsible for conduction in these calculated compounds are holes rather than electrons.

  11. Dielectric relaxation and electrical conduction mechanism in A2HoSbO6 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca) Double Perovskite Ceramics: An impedance spectroscopic analysis (United States)

    Halder, Saswata; Dutta, Alo; Sinha, T. P.


    The AC electrical properties of polycrystalline double perovskite oxides A2HoSbO6 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; AHS) synthesized by solid state reaction technique has been explored by using impedance spectroscopic studies. The Rietveld refinement of the room temperature X-ray diffraction data show that Ba2HoSbO6 (BHS) has cubic phase and Sr2HoSbO6 (SHS) and Ca2HoSbO6 (CHS) crystallize in monoclinic phase. The samples show significant frequency dispersion in their dielectric properties. The polydispersive nature of the relaxation mechanism is explained by the modified Cole-Cole model. The scaling behavior of dielectric loss indicate the temperature independence of the relaxation mechanism. The magnitude of the activation energy indicates that the hopping mechanism is responsible for carrier transport in AHS. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra follow the double power law. Impedance spectroscopic data presented in the Nyquist plot (Z" versus Z‧) are used to identify an equivalent circuit along with to know the grain, grain boundary and interface contributions. The constant phase element (CPE) is used to analyze the experimental response of BHS, SHS and CHS comprehending the contribution of different microstructural features to the conduction process. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity shows a semiconducting behavior.

  12. Structural and transport properties of A{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} [A=Ba, Sr, and Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Alo, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Das, Dipankar [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)


    Double perovskite oxides A{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} [A=Ba, Sr, and Ca] are synthesized by a solid state reaction technique. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} crystalizes in cubic Fm3m symmetry whereas Sr{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} and Ca{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} adopt the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n symmetry. The field cooled and zero field cooled magnetic susceptibilities of the materials are measured in the temperature range from 5 K to 300 K. The temperature dependence of inverse magnetic susceptibility shows the antiferromagnetic behavior of these systems. The dielectric relaxation of the samples is investigated by the Cole–Cole model in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz and in the temperature range from 303 K to 673 K. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra follow the power law. The scaling behavior of the imaginary part of the impedance spectra suggests that the relaxation shows the same mechanism at various temperatures. - Highlights: • The Rietveld refinement indicates that B{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} has cubic Fm3m symmetry. • Sr{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} and Ca{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} adopt the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n crystal symmetry. • The temperature dependence of inverse magnetic susceptibilities follows the Curie–Wiess law. • The superexchange interaction between the Ho ions leads to antiferromagnetism in these systems. • Dielectric relaxation mechanism is explained using the Cole–Cole model.

  13. Alkaline Earth Metal Zirconate Perovskites MZrO3 (M=Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Ca(2+)) Derived from Molecular Precursors and Doped with Eu(3+) Ions. (United States)

    Drąg-Jarząbek, Anna; John, Łukasz; Petrus, Rafał; Kosińska-Klähn, Magdalena; Sobota, Piotr


    The effect of alkaline earth metal alkoxides on the protonation of zirconocene dichloride was investigated. This approach enabled the design of compounds with preset molecular structures for generating high-purity binary metal oxide perovskites MZrO3 (M=Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Ca(2+)). Single-source molecular precursors [Ba4 Zr2 (μ6 -O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2(η(2) -HOR)2 (HOR)2 Cl4], [Sr4 Zr2 (μ6 -O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 (HOR)4 Cl4], [Ca4 Zr2 (μ6-O)(μ3 ,η(2)-OR)8 (OR)2 Cl4], and [Ca6 Zr2 (μ2 ,η(2)-OR)12 (μ-Cl)2 (η(2) -HOR)4 Cl6 ]⋅8 CH2 Cl2 were prepared via elimination of the cyclopentadienyl ring from Cp2 ZrCl2 as CpH in the presence of M(OR)2 and alcohol ROH (ROH=CH3OCH2 CH2OH) as a source of protons. The resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds were then thermally decomposed to MCl2 /MZrO3 mixtures. Leaching of MCl2 from the raw powder with deionized water produced highly pure perovskite-like oxide particles of 40-80 nm in size. Luminescence studies on Eu(3+)-doped MZrO3 revealed that the perovskites are attractive host lattices for potential applications in display technology.

  14. Transport and magnetic properties of R sub 1 sub - sub x A sub x CoO sub 3. (R = La, Pr and Nd; A = Ba, Sr and Ca)

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, H; Miyashita, T; Soda, M; Yasui, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, M


    Transport and magnetic measurements have been carried out on perovskite Co-oxides R sub 1 sub - sub x A sub x CoO sub 3 (R = La, Pr, and Nd; A = Ba, Sr and Ca; 0 <= x <= 0.5: All sets of the R and A species except Nd sub 1 sub - sub x Ba sub x CoO sub 3 have been studied.). With increasing the Sr- or Ba-concentration x, the system becomes metallic ferromagnet with rather large magnetic moments. For R = Pr and Nd and A = Ca, the system approaches the metal-insulator phase boundary but does not become metallic. The magnetic moments of the Ca-doped systems measured with the magnetic field H = 0.1 T are much smaller than those of the Ba- and Sr-doped systems. The thermoelectric powers of the Ba- and Sr-doped systems decrease from large positive values of lightly doped samples to negative ones with increasing doping level, while those of Ca-doped systems remain positive. These results can be understood by considering the relationship between the average ionic radius of R sub 1 sub - sub x A sub x and the ene...

  15. Synthesis of photocatalytic La(1-x)AxTiO3.5-δ(A=Ba, Sr, Ca) nano perovskites and their application for photocatalytic oxidation of congo red dye in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Bradha; T Vijayaraghavan; SP Suriyaraj; R Selvakumar; Anuradha M Ashok


    A-site substituted La0.8A0.2TiO3.5–δ(A=Ba, Sr, Ca) nano perovskites were prepared by sol-gel method and characterized using thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectros-copy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis showed that the La0.8A0.2TiO3.5–δ(A=Ba, Sr, Ca) nano perovskites derived after calcination at 800 ºC were in single phase with orthorhombic structure. The particle size of all nano perovskites was found to be~20 nm. The synthesized nano perovskites were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of an azo dye, Congo red. The sequential behavior of La0.8A0.2TiO3.5–δ(A=Ba, Sr, Ca) nanoperovskites for photocatalytic decomposition of congo red in aque-ous solution by visible light at room temperature was studied at various time intervals and the efficiency of degradation of the nanop-erovskites was compared. Among all the A-site substituted La0.8A0.2TiO3.5–δ(A=Ba, Sr, Ca) nano perovskites, Ba substituted com-pound showed the highest dye degradation.

  16. Double perovskite oxides A{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6-{delta}} (A=Ca, Sr and Ba) as catalysts for methane combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, H. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquimica de Cordoba INFIQC, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Barbero, J.A.; Araujo, G.; Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casais, M.T.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Alonso, J.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Double perovskites of composition A{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6-{delta}} (A, alkali earths) have been prepared by soft-chemistry procedures, followed by annealing under reducing conditions (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flow). These materials are half metallic ferromagnets, well known for their colossal magnetoresistance properties. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction; temperature-programmed oxidation, specific surface measurements and XPS. The Sr compound, of tetragonal symmetry, exhibits a significant amount of oxygen vacancies, as assessed by TPO. The materials have been tested as catalysts for methane oxidation. At moderate temperatures, a significantly higher catalytic activity is observed for the Sr double perovskite, for which a 80% of conversion is reached at 800K; by contrast the Ca and Ba materials are found to display much poorer characteristics, hardly achieving 50% of conversion rate at 1000K. The much superior characteristics of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6-{delta}} are believed to be related to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the crystal structure.

  17. Investigation of Carbon ion-implanted waveguides in tungsten bronze (Ca0.28Ba0.72)0.25(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.75Nb2O6 single crystal (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang; Ren, Ying-Ying


    Planar optical waveguides were fabricated in (Ca0.28Ba0.72)0.25(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.75Nb2O6 (CSBN25) crystal by 6.0-MeV C+ ion implantation with fluences of 2, 4 and 6 × 1014 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The mode parameters, refractive indices profiles are measured and the refractive indices behavior in the waveguide region is discussed. The shape of nuclear energy loss distribution of the C+ implantation was similar to those of the waveguide refractive index profiles, which means an inherent relationship between the waveguide formation and the energetic energy deposition. The extraordinary refractive index has a small positive change in the surface region after the implantation.

  18. Photocatalytic properties of CoOx-loaded nano-crystalline perovskite oxynitrides ABO2N (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, La; B = Nb, Ta) (United States)

    Oehler, Florian; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.


    Highly crystalline niobium- and tantalum-based oxynitride perovskite nanoparticles were obtained from hydrothermally synthesized oxide precursors by thermal ammonolysis at different temperatures. The samples were studied with respect to their morphological, optical and thermal properties as well as their photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of methyl orange. Phase pure oxynitrides were obtained at rather low ammonolysis temperatures between 740 °C (CaNbO2N) and 1000 °C (BaTaO2N). Particle sizes were found to be in the range 27 nm-146 nm and large specific surface areas up to 37 m2 g-1 were observed. High photocatalytic activities were found for CaNbO2N and SrNbO2N prepared at low ammonolysis temperatures. CoOx as co-catalyst was loaded on the oxynitride particles resulting in a strong increase of the photocatalytic activities up to 30% methyl orange degradation within 3 h for SrNbO2N:CoOx.

  19. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductors (United States)

    Ren, Z. F.; Wang, C. A.; Wang, J. H.; Miller, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.


    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) ((Tl,Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO3 substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J(sub c)) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J(sub c) at 77 K and zero field was greater than 2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  20. A comparative study based on the first principles calculations of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) perovskite structure (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Helal, M. A.; Ara, I. E.; Farid Ul Islam, A. K. M.; Rahaman, M. M.


    Structural, electronic, elastic, thermodynamic, vibrational and optical properties of the cubic phase of ATiO3 ( A = Ba, Ca, Pb and Sr) crystals have been carried out based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters, band structures, elastic constants and the elastic moduli of ATiO3 are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. The ferroelectric phenomenon of the crystals has been analyzed based on the nature of their phonon spectra. The phonon frequencies and the Born effective charges have been calculated to elucidate the ferroelectric instability of the cubic phase of ATiO3 by calculating the interatomic forces for several small displacements consistent with the symmetry of modes.

  1. Sign Change of Thermopower at Low Temperatures in Nd0.7(Ca,Sr,Ba)0.3MnO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Sheng-Ming; DONG Qiu-Zhao; ZHOU Gui-En; ZHANG Yu-Heng


    The temperature dependence of thermopower and resistivity for the series of Nd0.7(Ca,Sr, Ba)0.3MnO3 with a fixed average A-site cation radius have been measured. Infrared spectra revealed that the size differences between various A-site ions cause large local distortions of MnO6 octahedra. The thermopower is enhanced above metal-insulator transition temperature Tm and is reduced below Tm by increasing amount of A-site cation disorder.The sign change of thermopower induced by A-site cation disorder has been observed at low temperatures. The observed thermopower behaviors have been explained by Mott's formula and the effect of the spin disorder scattering.

  2. Effect of Divalent Ions (A = Ca, Ba and Sr Substitution in La-A-Mn-O Manganite on Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Transport Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Lim


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Microstructure of the grain will influence the properties of a polycrystalline manganites when different dopant is introduced. In this work, an effort had been made to investigate the influence of Ca, Ba and Sr substitution in La site. Approach: Polycrystalline manganites compound of La0.67A0.33MnO3 where A = Ba, Sr and Ca had been prepared via conventional solid-state reaction method. The structure, microstructure, magnetic and electrical properties had been investigated using XRD, SEM, VSM and four-point probe techniques. Results: XRD spectrums showed that LBMO and LCMO were in single-phase orthorhombic structure whereas LSMO was rhombohedral structure. Scanning electron micrographs showed that LSMO had smaller average grain size as compared to LBMO. However, for LCMO, there was no clear grain boundary that can be observed and all the grains were well connected. The difference in the microstructure image might be due to the variance A-site cation that differs in grain growth. The Curie temperature, Tc of LBMO and LSMO was 343.0 and 363.5 K, respectively. But the Tc for LCMO was lower then 300 K. The Tp for LCMO was 215 K while it was near or above 300K for LBMO and LSMO. All samples showed extrinsic Magnetoresistance (MR effect. Higher MR was observed well below Tc or Tp where MR value increased monotonically with the decrease of temperature. This was associated with the different grain and grain boundary formation when different cation was substituted. LCMO displayed the highest low-field MR value (-15.82% at 0.2 T, 90 K and high-field MR (-25.60% at 1 T, 300 K. Conclusion: Hence, electrical and magnetic transition temperature (Tp and Tc were affected by the average A-site cation radius.

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of phonon spectra, and simulations of pressure-induced amorphization in tungstates A W O4 (A =Ba ,Sr ,Ca , and Pb ) (United States)

    Goel, Prabhatasree; Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Rols, S.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.; Chaplot, S. L.


    Lattice dynamics and high-pressure phase transitions in A W O4 (A =Ba ,Sr ,Ca , and Pb ) have been investigated using inelastic neutron scattering experiments, ab initio density functional theory calculations, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational modes that are internal to W O4 tetrahedra occur at the highest energies consistent with the relative stability of W O4 tetrahedra. The neutron data and the ab initio calculations are found to be in excellent agreement. The neutron and structural data are used to develop and validate an interatomic potential model. The model is used for classical molecular dynamics simulations to study their response to high pressure. We have calculated the enthalpies of the scheelite and fergusonite phases as a function of pressure, which confirms that the scheelite to fergusonite transition is second order in nature. With increase in pressure, there is a gradual change in the A O8 polyhedra, while there is no apparent change in the W O4 tetrahedra. We found that all the four tungstates amorphize at high pressure. This is in good agreement with available experimental observations which show amorphization at around 45 GPa in BaW O4 and 40 GPa in CaW O4 . Further molecular dynamics simulations at high pressure and high temperature indicate that application of pressure at higher temperature hastens the process of amorphization. On amorphization, there is an abrupt increase in the coordination of the W atom while the bisdisphenoids around the A atom are considerably distorted. The pair-correlation functions of the various atom pairs corroborate these observations. Our observations aid in predicting the pressure of amorphization in SrW O4 and PbW O4 .

  4. Transport properties and photo electrochemical characterization of oxygen-deficient ASnO 3- δ (A=Ca, Sr and Ba) (United States)

    Zidi, N.; Omeiri, S.; Hadjarab, B.; Bouguelia, A.; Akroun, A.; Trari, M.


    The deficient stannate BaSnO 3- δ, prepared at 980 °C in sealed tube, crystallizes in an ideal perovskite structure. The oxide exhibits a blue color, the bandgap is found to be 2.65 eV and the transition is directly allowed. The non-stoichiometry could not be measured, indicating no appreciable oxygen deficiency. Nevertheless, the transport properties were found to change markedly with the heat treatment. BaSnO 3- δ behaves as degenerate SC with a conductivity σ300 K (=1.63 Ω -1 cm -1) and where the level Ef drops above mobility edge to delocalized states. The electric balance leads to a simultaneous reduction of Sn 4+ inducing n-type behavior. The thermal variation of the thermopower indicates an electron mobility μ300 K (=0.013 cm 2 V -1 s -1) thermally activated. The metal-insulating transition is considered of Anderson type due to the random potential to oxygen vacancies. A predominant variable range hopping is predicted from the non-linearity of Ln σ versus T-1 plot. The capacitance measurement ( C-2- V), measured in KOH media, shows a linear behavior from which a flat band potential Vfb (=-0.67 VSCE) and a density ND (=7.59×10 20 cm -3) are determined. The deficient stannates CaSnO 3 and SrSnO 3 are reported for a comparative purpose. The decrease of Eg is ascribed to the increase of the conduction band width when going from Ba to Ca.

  5. Transport properties and photo electrochemical characterization of oxygen-deficient ASnO{sub 3-{delta} }(A=Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidi, N. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies (USTHB, Faculty of Chemistry) BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Omeiri, S. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies (USTHB, Faculty of Chemistry) BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Centre of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis (C.R.A.P.C.), BP 248, RP 16004 Algiers (Algeria); Hadjarab, B. [Laboratory of Solid Solutions (USTHB, Faculty of Physics), BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Bouguelia, A.; Akroun, A. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies (USTHB, Faculty of Chemistry) BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Trari, M., E-mail: [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies (USTHB, Faculty of Chemistry) BP 32, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)


    The deficient stannate BaSnO{sub 3-{delta},} prepared at 980 deg. C in sealed tube, crystallizes in an ideal perovskite structure. The oxide exhibits a blue color, the bandgap is found to be 2.65 eV and the transition is directly allowed. The non-stoichiometry could not be measured, indicating no appreciable oxygen deficiency. Nevertheless, the transport properties were found to change markedly with the heat treatment. BaSnO{sub 3-{delta} }behaves as degenerate SC with a conductivity {sigma}{sub 300K} (=1.63 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) and where the level E{sub f} drops above mobility edge to delocalized states. The electric balance leads to a simultaneous reduction of Sn{sup 4+} inducing n-type behavior. The thermal variation of the thermopower indicates an electron mobility {mu}{sub 300K} (=0.013 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}) thermally activated. The metal-insulating transition is considered of Anderson type due to the random potential to oxygen vacancies. A predominant variable range hopping is predicted from the non-linearity of Ln {sigma} versus T{sup -1} plot. The capacitance measurement (C{sup -2}-V), measured in KOH media, shows a linear behavior from which a flat band potential V{sub fb} (=-0.67V{sub SCE}) and a density N{sub D} (=7.59x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) are determined. The deficient stannates CaSnO{sub 3} and SrSnO{sub 3} are reported for a comparative purpose. The decrease of E{sub g} is ascribed to the increase of the conduction band width when going from Ba to Ca.

  6. Influence of surface symmetry breaking on the magnetism, collapsing, and three-dimensional dispersion of the Co pnictides A Co2As2 (A =Ba , Sr, Ca) (United States)

    Mansart, Joseph; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Forget, Anne; Colson, Dorothée; Brouet, Véronique


    We use angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) to study the three-dimensional (3D) electronic structure of Co pnictides A Co2As2 with A =Ba , Sr, Ca or a mixture of Sr and Ca. These compounds are isostructural to Fe based superconductors but have one more electron in the Co 3 d orbitals. Going from Ba to Ca, they become more and more 3D, eventually forming a "collapsed" tetragonal phase, where the distance between CoAs layers is markedly reduced. We observe with ARPES the periodicity of the electronic structure as a function of kz (i.e., perpendicularly to CoAs layers) and find that it matches in each case that expected from the distance between the planes in the bulk. However, the electronic structure is better fitted by a calculation corresponding to a slab with two CoAs layers than to the bulk structure. We attribute this to subtle modifications of the 2D electronic structure induced by the truncation of the 3D dispersion at the surface in the ARPES measurement. We further study how this affects the electronic properties. We show that, despite this distortion, the electronic structure of CaCo2As2 is essentially that expected for a collapsed phase. Electronic correlations produce a renormalization of the electronic structure by a factor 1.4, which is not affected by the transition to the collapsed state. On the other hand, a small shift of the Fermi level reduces the density of states in the eg bands and suppresses the magnetic transition expected in CaCo2As2 . Our study evidences that observing the 3D bulk periodicity is not sufficient to ensure bulk sensitivity. It further gives direct information on the role of 3D interactions, mostly governed by Co-As hybridization, among eg and t2 g orbitals. It is also useful to better understand the electronic structure of Fe superconductors and the range of validity of ARPES measurements.

  7. Effect of Ca, Sr and Ba on the structure, morphology and electrical properties of (Co,Sb)-doped SnO{sub 2} varistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Martínez, J.A., E-mail: [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Ingeniería Aeronáutica (CIIIA), Carretera a Salinas Victoria km. 2.3, C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Rodríguez, Edén [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); García-Villarreal, S.; Falcon-Franco, L. [Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Metalurgia, Carr. 57, Km 4.5, C.P. 25710 Monclova, Coah. (Mexico); Hernández, M.B. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)


    In this work, the effect of calcium (Ca), barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) additions on the microstructure and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} ceramic varistors was investigated. It was found that the calcium addition promotes densification and grain growth. Ceramics with calcium addition exhibit the lowest electric field at a fixed current density (10{sup −3} A cm{sup −2}). The addition of strontium shows a similar effect on microstructure and current-voltage characteristics. However, barium addition causes porosity increase, grain size reduction, changes in the grain morphology (from approximately equiaxed to elongated grains) and the electric field at a fixed current density showed almost no change. Consequently, Ba-containing SnO{sub 2}-based ceramics cannot be considered as attractive candidates for low-voltage varistors. - Highlights: • The calcium and Strontium addition promotes densification and grain growth. • Barium addition causes porosity increase, grain size reduction and changes in the grain morphology. • Ceramics with calcium addition exhibit the lowest electric field. • Ceramics with calcium addition can be considered as promising materials for low-voltage varistors.

  8. Interlayer states arising from anionic electrons in the honeycomb-lattice-based compounds A e AlSi (A e =Ca , Sr, Ba) (United States)

    Lu, Yangfan; Tada, Tomofumi; Toda, Yoshitake; Ueda, Shigenori; Wu, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Zhang, Yaoqing; Hosono, Hideo


    We report that the interlayer states common to the compounds A e AlSi (A e =Ca , Sr, Ba) arise from F-center-like electrons arrayed in periodic cavities. The SrPtSb-type intermetallic phases exhibit electrons localized to columns of the trigonal bipyramidal A e3A l2 cages running perpendicular to the honeycomb layers. Ab initio calculations in combination with hard/soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements reveal that these features correspond to the anionic electrons that hybridize with apical Al 3 pz orbitals from the honeycomb layers above and below. Extra bands with a significant dispersion along the kz direction therefore contribute to the Fermi level in contrast to the apparent two-dimensional connectivity of the bonding in the compounds, and completely account for the presence of interlayer states. Our study demonstrates how the cage centers may serve as electronically important crystallographic sites, and extend the anionic electron concept into honeycomb lattice compounds.

  9. Structure, bonding and energetics of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) stabilized low oxidation state group 2 (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) metal complexes: A theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashim Baishya; V Rao Mundlapati; Sharanappa Nembenna; Himansu S Biswal


    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized low oxidation state group 2 metal halide and hydrides with metal-metal bonds ([L(X) M-M(X) L]; L = NHC ((CHNH)2C:), M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and X = Cl or H) has been studied by computational methods. The main objective of this study is to predict whether it is possible to stabilize neutral ligated low oxidation state alkaline-earth metal complexes with metal-metal bonds. The homolytic metal-metal Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) calculation, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Energy Decomposition Analyses (EDA) on density functional theory (DFT) optimized [L(X)M-M(X)L] complexes revealed that they are as stable as their -diketiminate, guanidinate and -diimine counterparts. The optimized structures of the complexes are in trans-linear geometries. The bond order analyses such as Wiberg Bond Indices (WBI) and Fuzzi Bond Order (FBO) confirm the existence of single bond between two metal atoms, and it is covalent in nature.

  10. Magnetic couplings in the quasi-2D triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnets {alpha}-ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, V., E-mail: [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, UMR 6508 CNRS, 6 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Martin, C. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, ENSICAEN, UMR 6508 CNRS, 6 Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Damay, F.; Andre, G. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, UMR 12, CEA-Saclay, CEA-CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)


    We carried out a comparative study of the A=Ca, Sr, Ba compounds of the {alpha}-ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} series, a family of layered chromites, which can be classified as S=3/2 quasi-2D triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DTHAF). The sizeable distortion, with respect to the perfect triangle lattice, of the spin layer topology can be progressively decreased by increasing the size of A{sup 2+}, which leads to an increase of both the average distance between nearest-neighbouring Cr{sup 3+} and of the interplane spacing. The evolution with A{sup 2+} of the antiferromagnetic transition T{sub N}, the intraplane coupling J, and the interplane coupling J Prime has been determined on the basis of magnetization and heat capacity measurements and is discussed in the framework of the standard theoretical models describing quasi 2DTHAF. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the ionic radius of A{sup 2+} has a non-monotonous impact on T{sub N}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The small single-ion anisotropy can split the antiferromagnetic transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intraplane coupling is consistent with direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interplane coupling derived from standard 2DTHAF models is questionable.

  11. Mass distribution of cluster ions produced from laser ablation of metal-composite-oxides Y-M-Cu-O (M = Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhaoyang; Wang Chunru; Huang Rongbin; Zheng Lansun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chem.


    Laser ablation of YMCuO metal-composite-oxides (M = Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) in high vacuum produced cluster ions with various sizes and compositions. Mass spectra of the cluster ions were recorded by a home-built time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer and the mass distributions were analyzed by a statistical model. For YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) high-Tc superconducting samples, six series of cluster ions were observed. Replacement of barium in the metal-composite-oxide sample with other alkaline earth metal, such as strontium, calcium, or magnesium, not only removed the superconductivity, but also changed the compositions and distributions of the laser generated cluster ions. For instance, copper was only found in the compositions of cluster ions generated from YBCO sample. From comparison of the experimental results, interactions among components of the metal-composite-oxides and the function of alkaline earth metal in superconducting material were discussed. (orig.) 19 refs.

  12. Crystalline orientations of Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) grains on MgO, SrTiO3, and LaAlO3 substrates (United States)

    Liou, S. H.; Wu, C. Y.


    Crystalline orientations of Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) grains in magnetron sputtered films on MgO (001), SrTiO3 (001), and LaAlO3 (001) substrates were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. In contrast to the nearly single crystalline films on the lattice matched substrates SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, films on the MgO (001) substrate, being polycrystalline in nature, exhibit several preferred in-plane grain orientations. These orientations agree well with a simplified theory of near-coincidence site lattices between Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O(x) and MgO.

  13. On the photo-luminescence properties of sol–gel derived undoped and Dy{sup 3+} ion doped nanocrystalline Scheelite type AMoO{sub 4} (A = Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Paramananda [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Gupta, Santosh K., E-mail: [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Natarajan, V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Padmaraj, O. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R & D Amara Raja Batteries Ltd., Karakambadi 517501, AP (India)


    Nanocrystalline Scheelite type Dy doped AMoO{sub 4} [where A = Ba, Sr and Ca] samples were prepared by acrylamide assisted sol–gel process and characterized by XRD, FT-Raman, FTIR, SEM and photoluminescence (PL). PL of undoped sample shows blue/green emission in CaMoO{sub 4} and SrMoO{sub 4} but multicolour visible emission leading to near white light in BaMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles; the origin of which is explained. It was observed that on doping 0.5 mol% of Dy{sup 3+} in molybdate samples complete energy transfer takes place in case of SrMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4}, but host contributed substantially in Dy doped BaMoO{sub 4} sample, resulting in biexponential decay. It was also observed that symmetry around Dy{sup 3+} decreases as the size of alkaline earth ion increases. Due to combined blue, yellow and red colour emission in dysprosium doped sample; all samples showed near white light emission under UV and near UV excitation.

  14. Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Philippe F., E-mail: [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium); Van den Eeckhout, Koen [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Biophotonics (NB-Photonics), Ghent University (Belgium); Bos, Adrie J.J.; Kolk, Erik van der; Dorenbos, Pieter [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)


    The evaluation of persistent phosphors is often focused on the processes right after the excitation, namely on the shape of the afterglow decay curve and the duration of the afterglow, in combination with thermoluminescence glow curve analysis. In this paper we study in detail the trap filling process in europium-doped alkaline earth silicon nitrides (Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu, Sr{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu and Ba{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu), i.e., how the persistent luminescence can be induced. Both the temperature at which the phosphors are excited and the spectral distribution of the excitation light on the ability to store energy in the phosphors' lattices are investigated. We show that for these phosphors this storage process is thermally activated upon excitation in the lower 5d excited states of Eu{sup 2+}, with the lowest thermal barrier for europium doped Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}. Also, the influence of co-doping with thulium on the trap filling and afterglow behavior is studied. Finally there exists a clear relation between the luminescence quenching temperature and the trap filling efficiency. The latter relation can be utilized to select new efficient 5d-4f based afterglow phosphors. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orange afterglow in M{sub 2}Si{sub 5}N{sub 8}:Eu(Tm) studied with thermoluminescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong influences of excitation wavelength and temperature on trap filling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy level scheme is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relation between trap filling with visible light and thermal quenching behavior.

  15. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of new nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) (United States)

    Kasenov, B. K.; Kasenova, Sh. B.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Turtubaeva, M. O.; Kakenov, K. S.; Esenbaeva, G. A.


    The heat capacities of nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are measured via dynamic calorimetry in the temperature range of 298.15-673 K using an IT-S-400 instrument. It is established that the C°p f( T) function of LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) has λ-type effects, due probably to phase transitions of the second order. Considering the temperatures of the phase transitions, equations of the heat capacity of ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of temperature are derived on the basis of experimental data. Thermodynamic functions H°( T)- H°(298.15), S°( T), and V xx( T) are calculated in the temperature range of 298.15-675 K.

  16. Optical and scintillation properties of Ce:(Gd8AE2)(SiO4)6O2 (AE = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) crystals (United States)

    Igashira, Takuya; Mori, Masaki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki


    1% Ce-doped and non-doped (Gd8AE2)(SiO4)6O2 (AE = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) (denoted as GMS, GCS, GSrS and GBS, respectively) single crystals were grown by the Floating Zone (FZ) method to evaluate their optical and scintillation properties. The Ce:GCS and Ce:GSrS samples exhibited scintillation and photoluminescence (PL) around 400 nm due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+. On the other hand, Ce:GMS and Ce:GBS showed much weaker emissions in the wavelength range of 500-650 nm, in which the origin was associated with the host matrices. The PL decay curves were approximated by a double exponential decay function for all the Ce-doped samples. The decay times ranged around 10-30 and 40-90 ns, and faster components coincided with those of the non-doped samples. The scintillation decay curves of Ce-doped samples, on the other hand, were approximated by single exponential functions with slower decay constants than those of PL decay. These constants were very similar to those of non-doped samples. In the X-ray induced afterglow measurements, Ce:GCS exhibited the lowest afterglow level. The pulse height spectrum of these samples showed a full-energy peak under 241Am 5.5 MeV α-ray irradiation. Among these samples, Ce:GSrS exhibited the highest light yield which was around 600 ph/5.5 MeV-α.

  17. Mechanism of superconductivity in Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub O sub . sub 2) sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + subdelta

    CERN Document Server

    Anvekar, T S; Sarode, P R; Kamat-Dalal, V N; Narlikar, Anant V


    EXAFS, X-ray Rietveld refinement and infra-red absorption measurements have been made on Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 2) sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + subdelta in order to understand the effect of Ca doping on the local structure of planar Cu ion. The study indicates that restoration of superconductivity is due to oxidation of copper ions in the CuO sub 2 planes. (author)

  18. How does the spin-state of Co ions affect the insulator-metal transition in Bi2A2Co2O8 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba)? (United States)

    Huang, Xiaokun; Zhang, Weiyi


    The misfit layered Bi2A2Co2O8 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds experience an insulator to metal transition as A’s ionic radius increases. This feature is contradictory to the conventional wisdom that larger lattice constant favors insulating rather than metallic state, and is also difficult to be reconciled using the Anderson weak localization theory. In this paper, we show from the first-principles calculation that an insulator-metal transition takes place from a nonmagnetic low-spin state of Co3+ ions to a hexagonally arranged intermediate-spin low-spin mixed-state in CoO2 plane when ionic radius increases from Ca to Ba. The predicted low-spin state of Bi2Ca2Co2O8 and Bi2Sr2Co2O8 and intermediate-spin low-spin mixed-state of Bi2Ba2Co2O8 are consistent not only with their measured transport properties, but also with the magnetic-field suppressed specific-heat peak observed at the transition temperature. In agreement with experiments, strong electronic correlation is required to stabilize the low-spin insulator and intermediate-spin low-spin metal.

  19. Syntheses, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure Determination from X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data of Alkaline Earth Dicyanamides M[N(CN) 2] 2 with M=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba (United States)

    Jürgens, Barbara; Irran, Elisabeth; Schnick, Wolfgang


    The alkaline earth dicyanamides Mg[N(CN)2]2, Ca[N(CN)2]2, Sr[N(CN)2]2, and Ba[N(CN)2]2 were synthesized by ion exchange using Na[N(CN)2] and the respective nitrates or bromides as starting materials. The crystal structures were determined from X-ray powder diffractometry: Mg[N(CN)2]2, Pnnm, Z=2, a=617.14(3), b=716.97(3), and c=740.35(5) pm; Ca[N(CN)2]2 and Sr[N(CN)2]2, C2/c, Z=4; Ca[N(CN)2]2, a=1244.55(3), b=607.97(1), and c=789.81(1) pm, β=98.864(2)°; Sr[N(CN)2]2, a=1279.63(2), b=624.756(8), and c=817.56(1) pm, β=99.787(1)°; Ba[N(CN)2]2, Pnma, Z=4, a=1368.68(7), b=429.07(7), and c=1226.26(2) pm. The dicyanamides consist of the respective alkaline earth cations and bent planar [N(CN)2]- ions. The structural features were correlated with vibrational spectroscopic data. The thermal behavior was studied by thermoanalytical experiments.

  20. Effect of Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} alkaline earth ions on luminescence properties of BaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Abhay D., E-mail: [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 440020 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, VNIT, Nagpur 440011 (India); Valechha, Arti; Valechha, Dolly; Kumar, Animesh [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 440020 (India); Peshwe, D.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, VNIT, Nagpur 440011 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Kamla Nehru College, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur 440009 (India)


    Nanosized barium aluminate materials was doped by divalent cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}) and Eu{sup 2+} having nominal compositions Ba{sub 1-x}MxAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Eu (M=Ca and Sr) (x=0.1-0.5), were synthesized by the combustion method. These phosphors were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and photoluminescence measurement. The photoluminescence characterization showed the presence of Eu ion in divalent form which gave emission bands peaking at 444 nm for the 320 nm excitation (solid-state lighting excitation), while for 254 nm it gave the same emission wavelength of low intensity (1.5 times) compared to 320 nm excitation. It was also observed that alkaline earth metal (Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}) dopants increase the intensity of Eu{sup 2+} ion in BaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} lattice, thus this phosphor may be useful for solid-state lighting.

  1. Structure and luminescence properties of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} by Ba{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Wei [Research Center of Chemistry and Materials Science, Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Quan Jun [Research Center of Chemistry and Materials Science, Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Wu Haoyi [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shao Lexi, E-mail: [Research Center of Chemistry and Materials Science, Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China) and School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Zou Changwei; Zhang Jun [Research Center of Chemistry and Materials Science, Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); School of Physics Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Shi Xiaoyu [Research Center of Chemistry and Materials Science, Development Center for New Materials Engineering and Technology in Universities of Guangdong, Zhanjiang Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); Wang Yinhai [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)/2}Ba{sub (1-x)/2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high temperature phase of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was obtained at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emit colour of phosphors can be adjusting by the radio of x. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The monoclinic structure provide better lattice sites to generate trap level. - Abstract: The long afterglow phosphors with Ca and Ba co-doped equally in Sr{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)/2}Ba{sub (1-x)/2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+},Dy{sup 3+} (x = 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, 0) were synthesized using high temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the crystal phase structure of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} changes from monoclinic to hexagonal with the decrease of x from 1 to 0.6, and hexagonal BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and monoclinic CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} coexist when x is 0.2. Nevertheless, when x is reduced to 0, the main phase of sample changes to BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. A blue shift is observed in the emission spectra due to the change in nature of the Eu{sup 2+} surroundings when x changes from 0.6 to 0. The results given by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) show that phosphors with different structures have similar irregular morphology. The decay characteristics reflect that the phosphors with different structures have different afterglow time. Samples with monoclinic structure have longer afterglow time than samples with hexagonal structure. The measurement of thermoluminescence reveals that the monoclinic structure of the phosphors provides better sites than that of the hexagonal structure for Dy{sup 3+}ions to generate suitable trap level.

  2. Effects of M2+ (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba Addition on Crystallization and Microstructure of SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-K2O-F Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinmoy Garai


    Full Text Available In understanding the effect of K+ substitution by M2+ (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba on crystallization and microstructural properties of boroaluminosilicate glass system, the SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-MgF2-K2O-Li2O-AlPO4 glasses were prepared by single-step melt-quenching at 1500°C. Density of base glass (2.64 g·cm−3 is found to be decreased in presence of CaO and SrO. Tg is increased by 5–10°C and Td decreased by 13–20°C on addition of M2+. The variation of Tg, Td and decrease of thermal expansion (CTE from 7.55 to 6.67–6.97 (×10−6/K, at 50–500°C in substituting K+ by M2+ are attributed to the higher field-strength of Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. Opaque mica glass-ceramics were derived from the transparent boroaluminosilicate glasses by controlled heat treatment at 1050°C (duration = 4 h; and the predominant crystalline phase was identified as fluorophlogopite (KMg3AlSi3O10F2 by XRD and FTIR study. Glass-ceramic microstructure reveals that the platelike mica flake crystals predominate in presence of K2O and CaO but restructured to smaller droplet like spherical shaped mica on addition of SrO and BaO. Wide range of CTE values (9.54–13.38 × 10−6/K at 50–800°C are obtained for such glass-ceramics. Having higher CTE value after crystallization, the CaO containing SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-MgF2-K2O-Li2O-AlPO4 glass can be useful as SOFC sealing material.

  3. Defect chemistry and oxygen transport of (La0.6Sr0.4-xMx)(0.99)Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta, M = Ca (x=0.05, 0.1), Ba (x=0.1, 0.2), Sr Part I: Defect chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Søgaard, Martin; Bouwmeester, Henry J.M.;


    This paper is the first part of a two part series, where the effects of varying the A-site dopant on the defect chemistry, the diffusion coefficient and the surface catalytic properties of the materials (La0.6Sr0.4 − xMx)0.99Co0.2Fe0.8O3 − δ, M = Sr, Ca (x = 0.05, 0.1), Ba (x = 0.1, 0.2) (LSMFC...... composition while keeping the average valence of the cations constant. The Ba2+ containing materials show the largest oxygen loss at elevated temperatures, while the purely Sr2+ doped material showed the smallest oxygen loss. This was reflected in the partial oxidation entropy of the materials. The measured...

  4. Photoluminescence and phosphorescence properties of MAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} (M=Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphors prepared at an initiating combustion temperature of 500 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothudi, B.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, ZA 6031 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)


    Eu{sup 2+} and Dy{sup 3+} co-doped calcium aluminate, barium aluminate and strontium aluminate phosphors were synthesized at an initiating combustion temperature of 500 deg. C using urea as an organic fuel. The crystallinity of the phosphors was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphology was determined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The low temperature monoclinic structure for both CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and the hexagonal structure of BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were observed. The effect of the host materials on the photoluminescence (PL) and phosphorescence properties were investigated by using a He-Cd Laser and a Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The broad band emission spectra observed at 449 nm for CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+}, 450 nm (with a shoulder-peak at 500 nm) for BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} and 528 nm for SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+} are attributed to the 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} to 4f{sup 7} transition in the Eu{sup 2+} ion in the different hosts.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) diclofenac sodium complexes as anti-inflammatory drug and their protective effects on renal functions impairment and oxidative stress. (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S


    The main task of our present study is the preparation of newly complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac which succeeded to great extent in alleviating the side effects of diclofenac alone and ameliorating the kidney function parameters and antioxidant capacities with respect to diclofenac treated group alone. The Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with diclofenac have been synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and (1)H NMR spectral, thermogravimetric and conductivity measurements. The diclofenac ligand has been found to act as bidentate chelating agent. Diclofenac complexes coordinate through the oxygen's of the carboxyl group. The molar ratio chelation is 1:2 (M(2+)-dic) with general formula [M(dic)2(H2O)2]⋅nH2O. Antibacterial screening of the alkaline earth metal complexes against Escherichia coli (Gram-ve), Bacillus subtilis (Gram+ve) and anti-fungal (Asperagillus oryzae, Asperagillus niger, Asperagillus flavus) were investigated. The kidney functions in male albino rats were ameliorated upon treatment with metal complexes of dic, which are represented by decreasing the levels of urea and uric acid to be located within normal values. The other looks bright spot in this article is the assessment of antioxidant defense system including SOD, CAT and MDA with the help of Sr(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)-dic complexes. The hormones related to kidney functions and stresses have been greatly ameliorated in groups treated with dic complexes in comparable with dic treated group.

  6. Enhanced magnetic response in single-phase Bi0.80La0.15A0.05FeO3-δ (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) ceramics (United States)

    Sharma, Poorva; Kumar, Ashwini; Varshney, Dinesh


    Single phase Bi0.80La0.15A0.05FeO3-δ (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) dense ceramics were synthesized via solid state reaction method. Structural studies through X-ray diffraction shows that all prepared ceramics crystallized in a rhombohedrally (R 3 barC)distorted BiFeO3 structure with compressive lattice distortion induced by the rare earth (La3+) ion and divalent co-doping at the Bi-site for the Raman study. Scanning electron micrograph of the compounds showed the uniform distribution of grains on the sample surface with high density. A large ferromagnetic hysteresis loop is observed for La/Ba co-doped BiFeO3 as compared with BiFeO3 prepared under similar conditions, with saturation magnetization of 6.85 emu/g and remnant magnetization of 2.72 emu/ g at 300 K. Clear ferromagnetic ground state was observed in Bi0.80La0.15Ba0.05FeO3 and weak ferromagnetism in BLCFO and BLSFO samples. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease with increase in frequency for all the compounds. These improved properties of La/Ba co-doped BFO demonstrate the possibility of enhancing the magnetic applicability and makes very promising for industrial applications such as new devices in information storage.

  7. Chemical stabilization and high pressure synthesis of Ba-free Hg-based superconductors, (Hg,M)Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub y}(N=1{approximately}3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishio, K. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)]|[Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Shimoyama, J.; Hahakura, S. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others


    A homologous series of new Hg-based HTSC compounds, (Hg,M)Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub y} with n=1 to 3, have been synthesized. The stabilization of the pure phases have been accomplished by chemical doping of third elements such as M=Cr, Mo and Re. While the Hg1201(n=1) phase was readily obtained in this way, it was necessary to simultaneously dope Y into the Ca site to stabilize the Hg1212(n=2) phase. On the other hand, single-phase Y-free Hg1212(n=2) and Hg1223(n=3) samples were synthesized only under a high pressure of 6 GPa. In sharp contrast to the Ba-containing compounds, all the samples prepared in the present study have been quite stable during the synthesis and no deterioration in air has been observed after the preparation.

  8. Chemical stabilization and high pressure synthesis of Ba-free Hg-based superconductors, (Hg,M)Sr2Ca(n-1)Cu(n)O(y)(n=1 to approximately 3) (United States)

    Kishio, K.; Shimoyama, J.; Hahakura, S.; Kitazawa, K.; Yamaura, K.; Hiroi, Z.; Takano, M.


    A homologous series of new Hg-based HTSC compounds, (Hg,M)Sr2Ca(n - 1)Cu(n)P(y) with n = 1 to 3, have been synthesized. The stabilization of the pure phases have been accomplished by chemical doping of third elements such as M = Cr, Mo and Re. While the Hgl2O1(n = 1) phase was readily obtained in this way, it was necessary to simultaneously dope Y into the Ca site to stabilize the Hg1212(n = 2) phase. On the other hand, single-phase Y-free Hg1212(n = 2) and Hg1223 (n = 3) samples were synthesized only under a high pressure of 6 GPa. In sharp contrast to the Ba containing compounds, all the samples prepared in the present study have been quite stable during the synthesis and no deterioration in air has been observed after the preparation.

  9. Structural, Optical, and Dielectric Properties of A[(Mg0.32Co0.02 Nb0.66]O3 Semiconductor, Where (a = Ba, Sr or Ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar


    Full Text Available Structural optical and dielectric properties of single phase A[(Mg0.32Co0.02 Nb0.66]O3, where A = Ba, Sr, or Ca, compounds were studied in the temperature range from room temperature (293 K to 458 K. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Ba[(Mg0.32Co0.02Nb0.66]O3 [BMCN] compounds exhibit hexagonal symmetry whereas Sr[(Mg0.32Co0.02Nb0.66]O3 [SMCN] and Ca[(Mg0.32Co0.02Nb0.66]O3 [CMCN] compounds exhibit monoclinic symmetry. The replacement of Barium (r =1.61 Å by smaller ions like Strontium (r = 1.44 Å or Calcium (r = 1.34 Å in the polar dielectric Ba[(Mg0.32Co0.02 Nb0.66]O3 introduces the relaxation phenomenon and a gradual increase in the transition temperature maximum (Tm. The ac conductivity, as determined from the dielectric data, as a function of temperature and frequency, reveals the crossover from small polaron tunneling (SPT to correlated barrier hopping (CBH type conduction at ≈ 370 K. The activation energy of the non-Debye type process evaluated both from the electric modulus and the conductivity data are nearly identical suggesting similarity in the hopping mechanism. The band gap of these materials lies in the range of narrow to wide band semi conductors.

  10. Effects of Ca-dopant on the pyroelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of (Sr 0.6Ba 0.4) 4Na 2Nb 10O 30 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang


    Calcium-doped sodium strontium barium niobate (SBNN, (Sr 0.6Ba 0.4) 4-xCa xNa 2Nb 10O 30, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. SBNN showed \\'filled\\' tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure with fully occupied A-sites. The tetragonal structure, as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, was not affected by the Ca-dopant. Effects of Ca-doping concentration on the phase transitions as well as ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of the SBNN ceramics were investigated. From the dielectric studies, two anomalies were observed, namely, a sharp normal ferroelectric transition at 260 °C and a broad maximum at round -110 °C. The later was affected by the Ca-doping concentration and its origin was discussed. At x = 0.3, the sample exhibited the highest pyroelectric coefficient of 168 μC/m 2 K and the largest piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) of 63 pC/N at room temperature. On the basis of our results, the pyroelectric properties of the SBNN were improved by Ca-doping. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Luminescence characteristics of Eu2+ activated Ca2SiO4, Sr2SiO4 and Ba2SiO4 phosphors for white LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Jun; Yang Zhi-Ping; Guo Qing-Lin; Li Pan-Lai; Fu Guang-Sheng


    This paper investigates the luminescence characteristics of Eu2+ activated Ca2SiO4, Sr2SiO4 and Ba2SiO4 phos-phors. Two emission bands are assigned to the f-d transitions of Eu2+ ions doped into two different cation sites in host lattices, and show different emission colour variation caused by substituting M2+ cations for smaller cations. This be-haviour is discussed in terms of two competing factors of the crystal field strength and covalence. These phosphors with maximum excitation of around 370 nm can be applied as a colour-tunable phosphor for light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on ultraviolet chip/phosphor technology.

  12. Matrix-induced synthesis and photoluminescence of M{sub 2}RENbO{sub 6}: Eu{sup 3+} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; RE = Y, Gd, La) phosphors by hybrid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiu Zhen [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yan, Bing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail:


    Using rare earth coordination polymers with salicylic acid as precursors, composing with the polyethylene glycol (PEG) as dispersing media, the phosphor particles of M{sub 2}RENbO{sub 6}(M = Ca, Sr, Ba; RE = Y, Gd, La) were firstly synthesized via a novel modified in situ chemical co-precipitation technology. Their morphologies and particles have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), showing that these phosphors particles have the micrometer sizes. And the characteristic transitions of Eu{sup 3+} can be detected in all the host lattices corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0} {sup {yields}} {sup 7}F {sub J} (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions. Besides this, those transitions from higher energy levels of Eu{sup 3+} are detected with a weaker intensity.

  13. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Z.F.; Wang, C.A.; Wang, J.H. [State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, NY (United States)] [and others


    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr{sub 1.6}Ba{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Tl,Bi)-1223 thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO{sub 3} substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J{sub c}) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J{sub c} at 77 K and zero field was > 2 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  14. Development of Accurate Chemical Equilibrium Models for Oxalate Species to High Ionic Strength in the System: Na-Ba-Ca-Mn-Sr-Cl-NO3-PO4-SO4-H2O at 25°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.


    The development of an accurate aqueous thermodynamic model is described for oxalate species in the Na-Ba-Ca-Mn-Sr-Cl-NO3-PO4-SO4-H2O system at 25°C. The model is valid to high ionic strength (as high as 10m) and from very acid (10m H2SO4) to neutral and basic conditions. The model is based upon the equations of Pitzer and co-workers. The necessary ion-interaction parameters are determined by comparison with experimental data taken from the literature or determined in this study. The proposed aqueous activity and solubility model is valid for a range of applications from interpretation of studies on mineral dissolution at circumneutral pH to the dissolution of high-level waste tank sludges under acidic conditions.

  15. Spectroscopic properties of long-lifetime Tm3+ optical centers in Ca-Sr-Ba fluorides in the form of single crystals and ceramics at the 1G4-3H5 magnetic dipole allowed transition (United States)

    Doroshenko, M. E.; Papashvili, A. G.; Martynova, K. A.; Konyushkin, V. A.; Nakladov, A. N.; Osiko, V. V.


    The spectroscopic properties of new long-lifetime Tm3+ tetragonal optical centers at low (77 K) temperature were investigated using a site-selective time-resolved technique. The absorption and excitation spectra at the 3H6-1G4 transition and the fluorescence spectra at the 1G4-3H5 transition were measured in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 single crystals. The appearance of additional weak lines in the excitation and fluorescence spectra in hot-formed ceramics produced from the same crystals was observed. These lines were attributed to the recently observed long-lifetime tetragonal optical centers with a modified local environment formed in fluoride ceramics.

  16. Superconductivity in the Sn-Ba-Sr-Y-Cu-O system (United States)

    Aleksandrov, K. S.; Khrustalev, B. P.; Krivomazov, S. N.; Petrov, M. I.; Vasilyev, A. D.; Zwegintsev, S. A.


    After the discovery of high-T(sub c) superconductivity in the La-Ba-Cu-O compound, several families of superconducting oxides were synthesized. Here, researchers report the results of the search for superconductivity in the compounds based on tin which has a lone electron pair like Bi, Tl, and Pb. The following compounds were synthesized: Sn1Ba1Sr1Cu3O(sub x), Sn1Ba1Ca1Cu3O(sub x), Sn1Ba1Mg1Cu3O(sub x), Sn1Sr1Ca1Cu3O(sub x), Sn1Sr1Mg1Cu3O(sub x), and Sn1Ca1Mg1Cu3O(sub x). The initial components were oxides and carbonates of the appropriate elements. A standard firing-grinding procedure was used. Final heating was carried out at 960 C during 12 hours. Then the samples were cooled inside the furnace. All the synthesis cycles were carried out in air atmosphere. Among the synthesized compounds only Sn1Ba1Sr1Cu3O(sub x) showed remarkable conductivity. Other compounds were practically dielectrics. Presence of a possible superconductivity in Sn1Ba1Sr1Cu3O(sub x) was defined by using the Meissner effect. At low temperature a deviation from paramagnetic behavior is observed. The hysteresis loops obtained at lower temperature undoubtly testify to the presence of a superconductive phase in the sample. However, the part of the superconductive phase in the Sn1Ba1Sr1Cu3O(sub x) ceramic turned out to be small, less than 2 percent, which agrees with the estimation from magnetic data. In order to increase the content of the superconductive phase, two-valent cations Ba and Sr were partially substituted by univalent (K) and three-valent ones (Y).

  17. Investigations of metastable Ca2IrO4 epitaxial thin-films: systematic comparison with Sr2IrO4 and Ba2IrO4 (United States)

    Souri, M.; Gruenewald, J. H.; Terzic, J.; Brill, J. W.; Cao, G.; Seo, S. S. A.


    We have synthesized thermodynamically metastable Ca2IrO4 thin-films on YAlO3 (110) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The epitaxial Ca2IrO4 thin-films are of K2NiF4-type tetragonal structure. Transport and optical spectroscopy measurements indicate that the electronic structure of the Ca2IrO4 thin-films is similar to that of Jeff = 1/2 spin-orbit-coupled Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 and Ba2IrO4, with the exception of an increased gap energy. The gap increase is to be expected in Ca2IrO4 due to its increased octahedral rotation and tilting, which results in enhanced electron-correlation, U/W. Our results suggest that the epitaxial stabilization growth of metastable-phase thin-films can be used effectively for investigating layered iridates and various complex-oxide systems.

  18. Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca evolution (United States)

    Sosdian, Sindia M.; Lear, Caroline H.; Tao, Kai; Grossman, Ethan L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Rosenthal, Yair


    Records of seawater chemistry help constrain temporal variations in geochemical processes that impact the global carbon cycle and climate through Earth's history. Here we reconstruct Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca (Sr/Casw) using fossil Conus and turritellid gastropod Sr/Ca. Combined with an oxygen isotope paleotemperature record from the same samples, the gastropod record suggests that Sr/Caswwas slightly higher in the Eocene (˜11.4 ± 3 mmol/mol) than today (˜8.54 mmol/mol) and remained relatively stable from the mid- to late Cenozoic. We compare our gastropod Cenozoic Sr/Casw record with a published turritellid gastropod Sr/Casw record and other published biogenic (benthic foraminifera, fossil fish teeth) and inorganic precipitate (calcite veins) Sr/Caswrecords. Once the uncertainties with our gastropod-derived Sr/Casw are taken into account the Sr/Casw record agrees reasonably well with biogenic Sr/Caswrecords. Assuming a seawater [Ca] history derived from marine evaporite inclusions, all biogenic-based Sr/Casw reconstructions imply decreasing seawater [Sr] through the Cenozoic, whereas the calcite vein Sr/Casw reconstruction implies increasing [Sr] through the Cenozoic. We apply a simple geochemical model to examine the implications of divergence among these seawater [Sr] reconstructions and suggest that the interpretation and uncertainties associated with the gastropod and calcite vein proxies need to be revisited. Used in conjunction with records of carbonate depositional fluxes, our favored seawater Sr/Ca scenarios point to a significant increase in the proportion of aragonite versus calcite deposition in shelf sediments from the Middle Miocene, coincident with the proliferation of coral reefs. We propose that this occurred at least 10 million years after the seawater Mg/Ca threshold was passed, and was instead aided by declining levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  19. Separation Sr and Ba From Fission Products Using Sr-spec Resin Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-feng


    Sr and Ba are the IIA group elements,with the same outer electronic structure,and the very similar properties,so separation of the two elements becomes very difficult.The traditional separation method of Sr and Ba in fission products is repeated precipitation of BaCl2·H2O in hydrochloric acid-ether medium.Four times repeated precipitation steps are needed to ensure the decontamination factor of Sr to be better

  20. Effect of (Ba_(0.6)Sr_(0.4))TiO_3(BST) Doping on Dielectric Properties of CaCu_3Ti_4O_(12)(CCTO)%Effect of (Ba_(0.6)Sr_(0.4))TiO_3(BST) Doping on Dielectric Properties of CaCu_3Ti_4O_(12)(CCTO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. Norezan; A.K. Yahya; M.K. Talari


    The effect of (Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4))TiO3(BST) addition on dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O(12) (CCTO) ceramic was investigated. Ceramic samples with the chemical formula (1-x)CaCu3Ti4O(12) + x(Ba(0.6),Sr(0.4))TiO3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2) were synthesized from high purity oxide powders by the conventional solid-state synthesis method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the existence of BST as a secondary phase alongside CCTO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation showed a slight decrease in grain size of doped CCTO samples. Density measurements showed that porosity content increased with increasing BST addition indicating low densification due to high melting point secondary phase addition. Dielectric constant of undoped CCTO (x=0) showed lack of stability with frequency which dropped drastically between 104 and 105Hz and accompanied by high dielectric loss. Addition of BST into CCTO caused the dielectric constant to slightly decrease but improved stability with frequency compared to the undoped sample. The decrease in dielectric constant of doped CCTO samples was suggested to be partly due to the decrease in average grain size and increase in porosity with BST addition. Nevertheless, a high value of dielectric constant was still maintained around ~104 range for all doped samples. The dielectric loss (tanδ) of all BST-doped samples was lower than that of pure CCTO sample at the frequency range of 103 to 105 Hz probably due to the increase of grains boundary resistivity. The activation energy of grains boundary (E(gb)) showed higher values as compared to the activation energy of grains (Eg ) for all samples and conforms to the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) model.

  1. Defect chemistry and oxygen transport of (La0.6Sr0.4 − xMx)0.99Co0.2Fe0.8O3 − δ, M = Ca (x = 0.05, 0.1), Ba (x = 0.1, 0.2), Sr: Part II: Oxygen transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    radius). The size difference induces different strains into the crystal structure in each composition. The possibility of simple relationships between various crystal strain parameters and the transport properties were analyzed. Oxygen pump controlled permeation experiments and a surface sensitive......, the findings on the defect chemistry were reported, while the oxygen transport properties are reported here in part II. In the investigated material series, the amount of divalent dopant has been kept constant, while Sr ions have been substituted with Ca ions (smaller ionic radius) or Ba ions (larger ionic...

  2. Structure, solvation, and dynamics of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Ba{sup 2+} complexes with 3-hydroxyflavone and perchlorate anion in acetonitrile medium: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agieienko, Vira N.; Kolesnik, Yaroslav V.; Kalugin, Oleg N., E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv 61022 (Ukraine)


    Molecular dynamics simulations of complexes of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Ba{sup 2+} with 3-hydroxyflavone (flavonol, 3HF) and ClO {sub 4}{sup −} in acetonitrile were performed. The united atoms force field model was proposed for the 3HF molecule using the results of DFT quantum chemical calculations. 3HF was interpreted as a rigid molecule with two internal degrees of freedom, i.e., rotation of the phenyl ring and of the OH group with respect to the chromone moiety. The interatomic radial distribution functions showed that interaction of the cations with flavonol occurs via the carbonyl group of 3HF and it is accompanied with substitution of one of the acetonitrile molecules in the cations’ first solvation shells. Formation of the cation–3HF complexes does not have significant impact on the rotation of the phenyl ring with respect to the chromone moiety. However, the orientation of the flavonol's OH-group is more sensitive to the interaction with doubly charged cations. When complex with Mg{sup 2+} is formed, the OH-group turns out of the plane of the chromone moiety that leads to rupture of intramolecular H-bond in the ligand molecule. Complexation of Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and BaClO {sub 4}{sup +} with 3HF produces two structures with different OH-positions, as in the free flavonol with the intramolecular H-bond and as in the complex with Mg{sup 2+} with disrupted H-bonding. It was shown that additional stabilization of the [MgClO{sub 4}(3HF)]{sup +} and [BaClO{sub 4}(3HF)]{sup +} complexes is determined by strong affinity of perchlorate anion to interact with flavonol via intracomplex hydrogen bond between an oxygen atom of the anion and the hydrogen atom of the 3-hydroxyl group. Noticeable difference in the values of the self-diffusion coefficients for Kt{sup 2+} from one side and ClO {sub 4}{sup −}, 3HF, and AN in the cations’ coordination shell from another side implies quite weak interaction between cation, anion, and ligands in

  3. Synthesis of bimetallic trifluoroacetates through a crystallochemical investigation of their monometallic counterparts: the case of (A, A')(CF3COO)2·nH2O (A, A' = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn). (United States)

    Dulani Dhanapala, B; Mannino, Natalie A; Mendoza, Laura M; Tauni Dissanayake, K; Martin, Philip D; Suescun, Leopoldo; Rabuffetti, Federico A


    Owing to their potential as single-source precursors for compositionally complex materials, there is growing interest in the rational design of multimetallic compounds containing fluorinated ligands. In this work, we show that chemical and structural principles for a materials-by-design approach to bimetallic trifluoroacetates can be established through a systematic investigation of the crystal-chemistry of their monometallic counterparts. A(CF3COO)2·nH2O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn) monometallic trifluoroacetates were employed to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The crystal-chemistry of monometallic trifluoroacetates was mapped using variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermal analysis. The evolution with temperature of the previously unknown crystal structure of Mg(CF3COO)2·4H2O was found to be identical to that of Mn(CF3COO)2·4H2O. More important, the flexibility of Mnx(CF3COO)2x·4H2O (x = 1, 3) to adopt two structures, one isostructural to Mg(CF3COO)2·4H2O, the other isostructural to Ca3(CF3COO)6·4H2O, enabled the synthesis of Mg-Mn and Ca-Mn bimetallic trifluoroacetates. Mg0.45Mn0.55(CF3COO)2·4H2O was found to be isostructural to Mg(CF3COO)2·4H2O and exhibited isolated metal-oxygen octahedra with Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) nearly equally distributed over the metal sites (Mg/Mn: 45/55). Ca1.72Mn1.28(CF3COO)6·4H2O was isostructural to Ca3(CF3COO)6·4H2O and displayed trimers of metal-oxygen corner-sharing octahedra; Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) were unequally distributed over the central (Ca/Mn: 96/4) and terminal (Ca/Mn: 38/62) octahedral sites.

  4. Low-temperature flux growth of sulfates, molybdates, and tungstates of Ca, Sr, and Ba and investigation of doping with $Mn^{6+}$

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanyuk, Y.E.; Ehrentraut, D.; Pollnau, M.; Garcia-Revilla, S.; Valiente, R.


    The growth of undoped and $Mn^{6+}$-doped molybdates and tungstates of alkali-earth metals and BaSO4 has been investigated. Single crystals were grown by the flux method within the temperature range of 600–475 °C, using the ternary NaCl–KCl–CsCl solvent. Sizes of undoped crystals increase within the

  5. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming


    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching.

  6. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.


    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  7. Elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} (A = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) and PbBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Zr, and Hf): First principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandech, Narasak; Limpijumnong, Sukit, E-mail: [School of Physics and NANOTEC-SUT Center of Excellence on Advanced Functional Nanomaterials, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP Center), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarasamak, Kanoknan [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)


    The mechanical properties of perovskite oxides depend on two metal oxide lattices that are intercalated. This provides an opportunity for separate tuning of hardness, Poisson's ratio (transverse expansion in response to the compression), and shear strength. The elastic constants of series of perovskite oxides were studied by first principles approach. Both A-site and B-site cations were systematically varied in order to see their effects on the elastic parameters. To study the effects of A-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of perovskite ATiO{sub 3} for A being Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, or Ba, one at a time. Similarly, for B-site cations, we studied the elastic properties of PbBO{sub 3} for B being Ti, Zr, or Hf, one at a time. The density functional first principles calculations with local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were employed. It is found that the maximum C{sub 11} elastic constant is achieved when the atomic size of the cations at A-site and B-site are comparable. We also found that C{sub 12} elastic constant is sensitive to B-site cations while C{sub 44} elastic constant is more sensitive to A-site cations. Details and explanations for such dependencies are discussed.

  8. Perovskite oxides MRuO3 (M = Sr, Ca and Ba: Structural distortion, electronic and magnetic properties with GGA and GGA-modified Becke–Johnson approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labdelli Abbes


    Full Text Available Electronic and magnetic properties of transition-metal oxides are a continuing research theme due to the variety of ground states and their technological applications. In the present paper, we present first-principles calculations using the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave methods (FP-LAPW on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tree cubic (Pm–3m space group perovskite oxides SrRuO3, BaRuO3, and CaRuO3 in comparison with other phases ((4H four-layered hexagonal (P63/mmc space group, (2H two-layered hexagonal (P63/mmc space group and orthorhombic (Pnma space group. The current study is given within the density-functional theory basis DFT. The exchange-correlation potential is introduced by different approaches. We computed the equilibrium lattices, bulk modulus and its pressure derivatives and equilibrium volume. Our obtained results agree successfully with the theoretical and experimental data. The spin magnetic moments of these oxides have been obtained to investigate the magnetic properties. We report a detailed analysis of the different ground states properties for considerable oxides using GGA and GGA-modified Becke–Johnson computational approaches.

  9. Ab initio study on vibrational dipole moments of XH{sup +} molecular ions: X = {sup 24}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 114}Cd, {sup 138}Ba, {sup 174}Yb and {sup 202}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Minori; Hada, Masahiko [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kajita, Masatoshi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Moriwaki, Yoshiki, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, Gofuku, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan)


    The vibrational matrix elements of electric dipole moments were theoretically estimated for the electronic ground state of XH{sup +} molecular ions (X = {sup 24}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 114}Cd, {sup 138}Ba, {sup 174}Yb and {sup 202}Hg) using the complete active space second-order perturbation theory method. Because of the large rotational constant and zero X-nuclear spin, these molecules are advantageous to be localized to a single (v, J, F) state, where v, J, F are quantum numbers of the vibrational, rotational and hyperfine states, respectively. The information of the dipole moments is very useful to discuss the period to localize the molecular ion to the (v, J, F) = (0, 0, 1/2) state and also the period to remain in this state, which is limited by the interaction with the black body radiation. The agreement of experimental and our theoretical spectroscopic constants ensures the accuracy of our results. Vibrational permanent and transition dipole moments were obtained with special care of accuracy in numerical integration. Spontaneous emission rates were calculated from the vibrational dipole moments and transition energies.

  10. Effects of cation-size disorder in (La0.67Ca0.15Sr0.18)1-x(Gd0.67Ba0.33)xCoO3 perovskites (United States)

    Sun, J. R.; Wong, H. K.


    Effects of the A-cation disorder on the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the ABO3-type (La0.67Ca0.15Sr0.18)1-x(Gd0.67Ba0.33)xCoO3 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) are studied. Based on x-ray diffraction, two crystallographic phases coexist in the compounds, and a progressive transition from rhombohedral structure to orthorhombic structure takes place with increasing x, with which the cation disorder increases. Two resistive transitions, a metal-to-metal and a metal-to-semiconductor, occur subsequently with decreasing temperature, with the upper resistive transition coinciding with a magnetic one. Both resistive transitions vary against x, with the upper one from ~223 to ~190 K and the lower one from ~95 to ~160 K corresponding to a change of x from 0.0-0.3. The presence of cation-size disorder drives the system from the cluster-glass state into the spin-glass state, accompanied by an enhancement of the semiconducting character of the compounds. The weak Jahn-Teller effects and the spin state transition could be responsible for the special cation disorder effects in the Co-based perovskites.

  11. Electronic structure of the gold/Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 and gold/EuBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. interfaces as studied by photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessau, D.S.; Shen, Z.; Wells, B.O.; Spicer, W.E. (Stanford Electronics Laboratories, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA)); List, R.S.; Arko, A.J.; Bartlett, R.J.; Fisk, Z.; Cheong, S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA)); Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A. (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (USA)); Schirber, J.E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Sandia, New Mexico 87185 (USA))


    High-resolution photoemission has been used to probe the electronic structure of the gold/Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and gold/EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} interface formed by a low-temperature (20 K) gold evaporation on cleaved high quality single crystals. We find that the metallicity of the EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} substrate in the near surface region ({similar to}5 A) is essentially destroyed by the gold deposition, while the near surface region of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} remains metallic. This has potentially wide ranging consequences for the applicability of the different types of superconductors in real devices.

  12. Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) and their substitution variants:a class of potential thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 操齐高; 赵景泰


    Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) is a new class of promising thermoelectrics owing to their intrinsic features in electronic and crystal structure, such as a small or even disappeared band-gap, large density-of-states at the Fermi level, covalently bonded network of M-Sb, as well as the layered stacking by cations A2+and anionic slabs (M2Sb2)2-. In addi-tion, the rich solid-state chemistry of Zintl phase allows structural modification and chemical substitution to adjust the fundamental transport parameters (carrier concentration, mobility, effective mass, electronic and lattice thermal conductivity) for improving the thermoelectric performance. In the present review, the recent advances in synthesis and thermoelectric characterization of title com-pounds AM2Sb2 were presented, and the effects of alloying or substitution for sites A, M and Sb on the electrical and thermal trans-port were emphasized. The structural disorder yielded by the incorporation of multiple ions significantly increased the thermoelectric figure of merit mainly resulted from the reduction of thermal conductivity without disrupting the carrier transport region in substance. Therefore, alloying or substitution has been a feasible and common route utilized to enhance thermoelectric properties in these Zintl phase compounds, especially for YbZn0.4Cd1.6Sb2 (ZT700 K=1.26), EuZn1.8Cd0.2Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.06), and YbCd1.85Mn0.15Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.14).

  13. Investigation of Carbon ion-implanted waveguides in tungsten bronze (Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}){sub 0.25}(Sr{sub 0.6}Ba{sub 0.4}){sub 0.75}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yang, E-mail:; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang; Ren, Ying-Ying


    Highlights: •Fabrication of planar waveguides in CSBN25 crystal by MeV C ion implantation at low fluence. •The extraordinary index has a small positive change in the surface region after the implantation. •The relation between index profile parameters and C{sup +} ion energy loss were considered. -- Abstract: Planar optical waveguides were fabricated in (Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}){sub 0.25}(Sr{sub 0.6}Ba{sub 0.4}){sub 0.75}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CSBN25) crystal by 6.0-MeV C{sup +} ion implantation with fluences of 2, 4 and 6 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. The mode parameters, refractive indices profiles are measured and the refractive indices behavior in the waveguide region is discussed. The shape of nuclear energy loss distribution of the C{sup +} implantation was similar to those of the waveguide refractive index profiles, which means an inherent relationship between the waveguide formation and the energetic energy deposition. The extraordinary refractive index has a small positive change in the surface region after the implantation.

  14. Iso electronic traps and thermoluminescence characteristics in M SO4:Eu2+ (M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)%M SO4:Eu2+(M =Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba)的等电子陷阱与热释光特性∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达玲; 唐强; 郭竞渊; 张纯祥


    A series of alkaline earth sulphate phosphors M SO4:Eu2+(M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) is obtained in doping experiments. It is discovered that these phosphors doped with Eu2+ ions have the thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics which are quite different from those in the alkaline earth sulphate phosphors doped with trivalent rare earth ions RE3+ (RE =Dy, Tm, Eu). It is also observed that there is only one glow peak in the three-dimensional emission spectrum and the radiation dose response of the glow peak is linear-sublinear in the series of phosphors M SO4:Eu2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). However, quite a lot of experimental results show that there are several glow peaks in the three-dimensional emission spectrum, and the TL radiation dose responses are linear-supralinear in the series of phosphors MSO4:RE3+(M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and RE=Dy, Tm, Eu). The reason lies in the structures of defect complexes which are formed in the course of preparation of these phosphors and include intrinsic imperfects and dopants. These defect complexes can be regarded as basic elements in the TL multi-stage process. In the series of phosphors M SO4:Eu2+ (M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), the isoelectronic traps produced by doping Eu2+ ions which have the same valences as superseded alkaline earth ions are very localized traps to form the defect complexes (Eu2+ isoelectronic trap-SO2−4 ) that are basic elements in the TL multi-stage process, in which there are one-hit TL events basically. However, in the MSO4:RE3+ (M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors, the defect complexes (RE3+-SO2−4 -cation vacancy VM ) are basic elements in the TL multi-stage process, in which there are two-hit TL events basically. It is clear that the Eu2+ isoelectronic trap phosphors play key roles in TL Characteristics in M SO4:Eu2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). In addition, it has been observed that the wave length at the single TL peak in each of the three-dimensional emission spectra of the series of phosphors M SO4:Eu2+ (M =Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) is related

  15. The impedance spectroscopic study and dielectric relaxation in A(Ni{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} [A=Ba, Ca and Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md M. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Dutta, A. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Kumar, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1, A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)


    We present the results of impedance spectroscopic study with its analytical interpretations in the framework of electric modulus formalism for Barium Nickel Tantalate Ba(Ni{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (BNT), Calcium Nickel Tantalate Ca(Ni{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (CNT) and Strontium Nickel Tantalate Sr(Ni{sub 1/3}Ta{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} (SNT) synthesized by the solid-state reaction technique. The results of powder X-ray diffraction study reveal that BNT and SNT crystallize in cubic structure with lattice parameter a=4.07 A and 3.98 A respectively, whereas CNT crystallizes in monoclinic structure having lattice parameters, a=5.71 A, b=13.45 A and c=5.47 A with {beta}=118.3 Degree-Sign . The logarithmic angular frequency dependence of the real part of complex dielectric permittivity and loss tangent as a function of temperature indicate significant dielectric relaxation in the samples, which have been explained by the Debye theory. The frequency dependence of the loss peak and the imaginary part of electrical modulus are found to obey the Arrhenius law. The relaxation mechanism of these samples is modeled by the Cole-Cole equation. This confirms that the polarization mechanism in BNT, CNT and SNT is due to the bulk effect arising in semiconductive grains. The scaling behavior of imaginary part of electric modulus M Double-Prime suggests that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures but relaxation frequency is strongly temperature dependent. The normalized peak positions of tan {delta}/tan {delta}{sub m} and M Double-Prime /M Double-Prime {sub m} versus log {omega} for BNT, CNT and SNT do not overlap completely and are very close to each other. These indicate the presence of both long-range and localized relaxation. Due to their high dielectric constant and low loss tangent, these materials may find several technological applications such as in capacitors, resonators, filters and integrated circuits.

  16. Induction of CaSR expression circumvents the molecular features of malignant CaSR null colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Chakrabarty, Subhas


    We recently reported on the isolation and characterization of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) null human colon cancer cells (Singh et al., Int J Cancer 2013; 132: 1996-2005). CaSR null cells possess a myriad of molecular features that are linked to a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer. The CaSR null phenotype can be maintained in defined human embryonic stem cell culture medium. We now show that the CaSR null cells can be induced to differentiate in conventional culture medium, regained the expression of CaSR with a concurrent reversal of the cellular and molecular features associated with the null phenotype. These features include cellular morphology, expression of colon cancer stem cell markers, expression of survivin and thymidylate synthase and sensitivity to fluorouracil. Other features include the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition linked molecules and transcription factors, oncogenic miRNAs and tumor suppressive molecule and miRNA. With the exception of cancer stem cell markers, the reversal of molecular features, upon the induction of CaSR expression, is directly linked to the expression and function of CaSR because blocking CaSR induction by shRNA circumvented such reversal. We further report that methylation and demethylation of the CaSR gene promoter underlie CaSR expression. Due to the malignant nature of the CaSR null cells, inclusion of the CaSR null phenotype in disease management may improve on the mortality of this disease. Because CaSR is a robust promoter of differentiation and mediates its action through diverse mechanisms and pathways, inactivation of CaSR may serve as a new paradigm in colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Anomalous Ba/Ca signals associated with low temperature stresses in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianran Chen; Kefu Yu; Shu Li; Tegu Chen; Qi Shi


    Barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) ratio in corals has been considered as a useful geochemical proxy for upwelling,river flood and other oceanic processes.However,recent studies indicated that additional environmental or biological factors can influence the incorporation of Ba into coral skeletons.In this study,Ba/Ca ratios of two Porites corals collected from Daya Bay,northern South China Sea were analyzed.Ba/Ca signals in the two corals were 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviors seen in other near-shore corals influenced by upwelling or riverine runoff.Our Ba/Ca profiles displayed similar and remarkable patterns characterized by low and randomly fluctuating background signals periodically interrupted by sharp and large synchronous peaks,clearly indicating an environmental forcing.Further analysis indicated that the Ba/Ca profiles were not correlated with previously claimed environmental factors such as precipitation,coastal upwelling,anthropogenic activities or phytoplankton blooms in other areas.The maxima of Ba/Ca appeared to occur in the period of Sr/Ca maxima,coinciding with the winter minimum temperatures,which suggests that the anomalous high Ba/Ca signals were related to winter-time low sea surface temperature.We speculated that the Ba/Ca peaks in corals of the Daya Bay were most likely the results of enrichment of Ba-rich particles in their skeletons when coral polyps retracted under the stresses of anomalous winter low temperatures.In this case,Ba/Ca ratio in relatively high-latitude corals can be a potential proxy for tracing the low temperature stress.

  18. MAl2O4:Eu3+红色荧光粉的制备及其发光性质研究%Synthesis and luminescent properties of MAl2 O4:Eu3+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) red phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 王玮; 周立亚


    MAl2O4:Eu3+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) red phosphors were synthesized by sol-gel method re-spectively.The optimum calcinations temperature for CaAl2 O4:Eu3+ phosphor is 900 ℃, the size of the particles are about 1 ~2 μm, and the luminous intensity reaches the maximum when the mol concentration of activator Eu3+ions increased to 4%;the optimum calcinations temperature for SrAl2 O4:Eu3+ red phosphor is 1 100 ℃, the size of the particles are about 3~4 μm, and the luminous intensity reaches the maximum when the mol concentration of activator Eu3+ ions increased to 4%;the optimum calcinations temperature for BaAl2 O4:Eu3+ Red Phosphor is 1 100 ℃, the size of the particles are about 4 ~5 μm, and the luminous intensity reaches the maximum when the mol concentration of activator Eu3+ ions increased to 2%.Upon excitation with 392 nm light, all the MAl2O4:Eu3+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) powders show bright red emission due to the 4f-4f transitions of Eu3+ ions.The excitation and emission spectra showed that the phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet light(392 nm) , nicely fitting in with the widely applied emission wavelengths of ultravio-let light-emitter diodes (LED) chips.The MAl2O4:Eu3+(M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors may be good candidate phosphor for LED application.%采用溶胶-凝胶法分别制备MAl2 O4:Eu3+( M=Ca, Sr, Ba)系列红色荧光粉,并对所制备的样品进行了XRD、SEM以及荧光光谱等表征,结果表明:CaAl2 O4:Eu3+红色荧光粉的适宜焙烧温度为900℃,其粒径大小约1~2μm,当激活剂Eu3+的摩尔浓度增加到4%时,其发光强度达到最大;SrAl2 O4:Eu3+红色荧光粉的适宜焙烧温度为1100℃,其粒径大小约3~4μm,当激活剂Eu3+的摩尔浓度增加到4%时,其发光强度达到最大;BaAl2 O4:Eu3+红色荧光粉的适宜焙烧温度为1100℃,其粒径大小约4~5μm,当激活剂Eu3+的摩尔浓度增加到2%时,其发光强度达到最大。以392 nm 的近紫外光激发样品,MAl2 O4:Eu3+( M=Ca, Sr, Ba)

  19. Effect of dopants ionic radii on dielectric properties of Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2-x}ME{sub x}O{sub 11-δ} (where x = 0.0 and 0.15; ME = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sakshi; Singh, K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala, Punjab (India)


    Different alkaline earth metals doped Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2-x}ME{sub x}O{sub 11-δ} (where x = 0.0 and 0.15; ME = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) samples are synthesized by melt quench technique followed by heat treatment. The γ-phase is stabilized at room temperature in all the doped samples, whereas undoped sample (x = 0.0) exhibits the α-phase at room temperature. These samples are investigated for their dielectric properties with respect to temperature and frequencies. From the scanning electron micrographs, it is clear that liquid-phase sintering has taken place in all the doped samples. The highest dielectric constant is observed in Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}O{sub 11-δ} sample ∝10{sup 5}. The minimum loss is observed in Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.85}Ba{sub 0.15}O{sub 11-δ} sample, i.e., ∝2.58. The highest optical band gap ∝2.42 eV is observed for Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}O{sub 11-δ} sample. The obtained results are discussed in the light of ionic radii, oxygen vacancies and disordering in the samples. (orig.)

  20. Clathrate formation in the systems Sr-Cu-Ge and {Ba,Sr}-Cu-Ge (United States)

    Zeiringer, I.; Moser, R.; Kneidinger, F.; Podloucky, R.; Royanian, E.; Grytsiv, A.; Bauer, E.; Giester, G.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.


    In the ternary system Sr-Cu-Ge, a novel clathrate type-I phase was detected, Sr8CuxGe46-x (5.2≤xtemperature interval. Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 decomposes eutectoidally on cooling at 730±3 °C into (Ge), SrGe2 and τ1-SrCu2-xGe2+x. Phase equilibria at 700 °C have been established for the Ge rich part and are characterized by the appearance of only one ternary compound, τ1-SrCu2-xGe2+x, which crystallizes with the ThCr2Si2 structure type and forms a homogeneity range up to x=0.4 (a=0.42850(4), c=1.0370(1) nm). Additionally, the extent of the clathrate type-I solid solution Ba8-ySryCuxGe46-x (0≤y≤~5.6; 5.2≤x≤5.4, from as cast alloys) has been studied at various temperatures. The clathrate type-I crystal structure (space group Pm3barn) has been proven by X-ray single crystal diffraction on two single crystals with the composition (from refinement): Sr8Cu5.36Ge40.64 (a=1.06368(2) nm at 300 K) and Ba4.86Sr3.14Cu5.36Ge40.64 (a=1.06748(2) nm at 300 K) measured at 300, 200 and 100 K. From the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters and the atomic displacement parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, Debye- and Einstein-temperatures and the speed of sound have been determined. From heat capacity measurements of Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 at low temperatures the Sommerfeld coefficient (γ=24 mJ/mol K2) and the Debye temperature (ΘDLT=273 K) have been extracted. From a detailed analysis of these data at higher temperatures, Einstein branches of the phonon dispersion relation have been derived and compared to those obtained from the atomic displacement parameters. Electrical resistivity measurements of Sr8Cu5.3Ge40.7 reveal a rather metallic behavior in the low temperature range (<300 K). Density function theory calculations provide densities of states, electronic resistivity and Seebeck coefficient as well as the vibrational spectrum and specific heat.

  1. Single crystal growth and physical properties of SrCu2As2, SrCu2Sb2 and BaCu2Sb2 (United States)

    Anand, V. K.; Perera, P. K.; Pandey, A.; Goetsch, R. J.; Kreyssig, A.; Johnston, D. C.


    We present the physical properties of self-flux-grown single crystals of SrCu2As2, SrCu2Sb2, SrCu2(As0.84Sb0.16)2 and BaCu2Sb2 investigated by magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat Cp and electrical resistivity ρ vs. temperature T measurements. Contrasting structures occur for SrCu2As2 (ThCr2Si2-type), SrCu2Sb2 (CaBe2Ge2-type) and BaCu2Sb2 (a distorted intergrowth of ThCr2Si2-type and CaBe2Ge2-type unit cells). The χ(T) data for all these compounds exhibit weakly anisotropic diamagnetic behaviors. For 1.8 Debye lattice contributions. From the low-T Cp(T) data, we infer Sommerfeld coefficients γ = 2.2--3.9 mJ/mol,^2 and Debye temperatures θD = 204--246 K@. The electronic properties indicate that these compounds are sp metals containing Cu in a nonmagnetic 3d^10 electronic configuration.ootnotetextD. J. Singh, Phys. Rev. B 79, 153102 (2009).

  2. The Structural Disorder and Lattice Stability of (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 Complex Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The structural disorder and lattice stability of complex perovskite (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3, a promising cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes, is explored by means of first principles DFT calculations. It is predicted that Ba and Sr ions easily exchange their lattice positions (A-cation disorder) similarly to Co and Fe ions (B-cation disorder). The cation antisite defects (exchange of A- and B-type cations) have a relatively high formation energy. The BSCF is predicted to exist in an equilibrium mixture of several phases and can decompose exothermically into the Ba- and Co-rich hexagonal (Ba,Sr)CoO3 and Sr- and Fe-rich cubic (Ba,Sr)FeO3 perovskites.

  3. SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition improves SR Ca2+ handling, but accelerates cardiac remodeling in mice overexpressing CaMKIIδC


    Huke, Sabine; DeSantiago, Jaime; Kaetzel, Marcia A.; Mishra, Shikha; Brown, Joan H.; Dedman, John R.; Bers, Donald M.


    Cardiac myocyte overexpression of CaMKIIδC leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) possibly caused by altered myocyte Ca2+ handling. A central defect might be the marked CaMKII-induced increase in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak which decreases SR Ca2+ load and Ca2+ transient amplitude. We hypothesized that inhibition of CaMKII near the SR membrane would decrease the leak, improve Ca2+ handling and prevent the development of contractile dysfunction and HF. To test ...

  4. Matrix-induced synthesis and photoluminescence of M{sub 3}Ln(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}:RE (M Ca, Sr, Ba; Ln = Y, Gd; RE = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) phosphors by hybrid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Xueqing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yan, Bing [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail:


    Using rare earth coordination polymers with salicylic acid as precursors, composing with the polyethylene glycol (PEG) as dispersing media, the phosphor particles of M{sub 3}Ln(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}:RE (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; Ln = Y, Gd; RE Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}) were firstly synthesized via a novel modified in situ chemical co-precipitation technology. Their micromorphology and particles have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), which indicate that these materials have the micrometer size. And all the characteristic transitions of the doped rare earth ions can be detected in all the host lattices.

  5. Electroluminescence of SrS, BaS and SrSe Phosphors Activated by Cu and Er (United States)

    Kulkarni, V. W.; Patwardhan, S. S.; Ghanbahadur, R. Y.


    Results of the investigations of the spectral characteristics of electroluminescence of SrS:Cu, Er, BaS:Cu, Er and SrSe:Cu, Er phosphors are presented. Some new features of the voltage and frequency dependence of EL-emission are reported.

  6. Superconductivity in novel Ge-based skutterudites: {Sr,Ba}pt4Ge12. (United States)

    Bauer, E; Grytsiv, A; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, N; Hilscher, G; Kaldarar, H; Michor, H; Royanian, E; Giester, G; Rotter, M; Podloucky, R; Rogl, P


    Combining experiments and ab initio models we report on SrPt4Ge12 and BaPt4Ge12 as members of a novel class of superconducting skutterudites, where Sr or Ba atoms stabilize a framework entirely formed by Ge atoms. Below T(c)=5.35 and 5.10 K for BaPt4Ge12 and SrPt4Ge12, respectively, electron-phonon coupled superconductivity emerges, ascribed to intrinsic features of the Pt-Ge framework, where Ge-p states dominate the electronic structure at the Fermi energy.

  7. Adsorption removal of Sr by Barium impregnated 4A Zeolite(BaA) from high radioactive seawater waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lee, Keun Young; Kim, Kwang Wook; Kim, Ik Soo; Chung, Dong Yong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigated the removal of Sr, which was one of the high radioactive nuclides, by adsorption with Barium (Ba) impregnated 4A zeolite (BaA) from high-radioactive seawater waste (HSW). Adsorption of Sr by BaA (BaA-Sr), in the impregnated Ba concentration of above 20.2wt%, was decreased by increasing the impregnated Ba concentration, and the impregnated Ba concentration was suitable at 20.2wt%. The BaA-Sr adsorption was added to the co-precipitation of Sr with BaSO4 precipitation in the adsorption of Sr by 4A (4A-Sr) within BaA. Thus, it was possible to remove Sr more than 99% at m/V (adsorbent weight/solution volume)=5 g/L for BaA and m/V >20 g/L for 4A, respectively, in the Sr concentration of less than 0.2 mg/L (actual concentration level of Sr in HSW). It shows that BaA-Sr adsorption is better than 4A-Sr adsorption in for the removal capacity of Sr per unit gram of adsorbent, and the reduction of the secondary solid waste generation (spent adsorbent etc.). Also, BaA-Sr adsorption was more excellent removal capacity of Sr in the seawater waste than distilled water. Therefore, it seems to be effective for the direct removal of Sr from HSW. On the other hand, the adsorption of Cs by BaA (BaA-Cs) was mainly performed by 4A within BaA. Accordingly, it seems to be little effect of impregnated Ba into BaA. Meanwhile, BaA-Sr adsorption kinetics could be expressed the pseudosecond order rate equation. By increasing the initial Sr concentrations and the ratios of V/m, the adsorption rate constants (k2) were decreased, but the equilibrium adsorption capacities (qe) were increasing. However, with increasing the temperature of solution, k2 was conversely increased, and qe was decreased. The activation energy of BaA-Sr adsorption was 38 kJ/mol. Thus, the chemical adsorption seems to be dominant rather than physical adsorption, although it is not a chemisorption with strong bonding form.

  8. Dynamical plasma study during CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} and Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} pulsed laser deposition by local thermodynamic equilibrium modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, J F; Wolfman, J; Motret, O [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances (LEMA), UMR 6157 CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Faculte des Sciences and Techniques, Parc Grandmont - bat. E-37200 Tours (France); Hermann, J [Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procedes Photoniques (LP3), UMR 6182 CNRS, Universite Aix-Marseille II, 163 Avenue de luminy, C. 917-13288 Marseille (France)


    We performed space- and time-resolved plasma diagnostics during pulsed laser deposition of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO) and Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BSTO) thin films. A KrF excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm with 25 ns pulse duration irradiates targets with a fluence varying from 1 to 2 J cm{sup -2} under an oxygen pressure varying from 5 to 30 Pa. The plasma is shown to be optically thick and strongly non-uniform during the early expansion stage and the resonance lines Ca II 393 and 396 nm are strongly self-reversed during this time. Plasma temperature, electron density and relative elemental concentrations were obtained by comparing the experimental emission spectra with the spectral radiance computed for a non-uniform plasma in local thermal equilibrium. In this way, it was possible to evaluate very low concentrations of pollutants present in irradiated samples.

  9. 固相法制备钇掺杂的钛酸钡锶钙陶瓷的介电和热释电性能%Dielectric and Pyroelectric Properties of Y-doped Ba0.6Sr0.3Ca0.1TiO3 Ceramics by Solid-state Reaction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹盛; 毛朝梁; 姚春华; 曹菲; 王根水; 董显林


    (Ba0.6Sr0.3Ca0.1)1-xYxTi0.999Mn0.001O3(0≤x≤0.007) ceramics were prepared by the solid-state reaction technique.The effects of Y doping on the microstructure,dielectric properties and pyroelectric properties were investigated.The average grain size decreases with the increase of Y concentration.The dielectric and pyroelectric properties measurement results show that the dielectric constant,dielectric loss,Tc and pyroelectric coefficient all initially increase and then decrease with Y concentration.And the pyroelectric figure of merit Fd can be improved by the Y doping.The specimen doped with 0.7mol%Y shows a higher maximum Fd value of 8.22×10-5 Pa-1/2 under 700 V/mm near 30℃ with the smallest average grain size of 3.1 μm,indicating its promising application in infrared thermal imaging arrays devices.%采用固相反应法制备了Y掺杂(Ba0.6Sr0.3Ca0.1) 1-xYxTi0.999Mn0.001O3(0≤x≤0.007)陶瓷,重点研究了Y含量对BSCT基陶瓷的显微结构、介电性能和热释电性能的影响.结果表明:随着Y含量的增加,BSCYxTM陶瓷的平均晶粒尺寸逐渐减小,介电常数、介电损耗、居里温度和热释电系数均呈现先增加后减小的趋势.当Y掺杂量为0.7mol%时,BSCYxTM陶瓷的平均晶粒尺寸最小为3.1 μm,且探测优值Fd较大,最大值可达8.22×10-5 pa-1/2(700 V/mm,30℃),高于采用溶胶-凝胶法制备的同组分陶瓷的探测优值5.91×10-5 pa-1/2.

  10. The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates: Thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction path analysis (United States)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.


    The solubility of (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates, varying in SrSO 4 mole fraction from 0.05-0.90, was investigated at room temperature with an equilibration period extending to almost three years. The data show that on or before 315 days of equilibration the precipitates reach a reversible equilibrium with the aqueous solution. The reversibility of this equilibrium was verified both by the attainment of steady-state concentrations with time and by heating the samples to perturb the equilibrium and then observing the slow return to the initial equilibrium state. The dissolution of the (Ba,Sr)SO 4 precipitates does not, in general, follow limiting reaction paths as defined by the Lippmann solutus or stoichiometric dissolution curves. In addition, activity coefficient calculations for the BaSO 4 and SrSO 4 components of the solid phase, using either total bulk analysis or near-surface analysis of the component mole fractions, do not satisfy the Gibbs-Duhem equation, demonstrating that a single solid-solution phase does not control both the aqueous Ba and Sr concentrations. Instead, our long-term equilibration data can be explained by the unavoidable formation of small amounts of barite and substitution of Sr into a solid-solution phase with the BaSO 4 component of the solid-solution phase never reaching thermodynamic equilibrium with the aqueous phase.

  11. Role of Ba2+ Ion in the Crystal Growth of Sr(NO3)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Jun; LI Chao-Rong; CHEN Wan-Chun; LIANG Jing-Kui


    A series of crystals of BaxSr1-x(NO3)2 (x=0-0.98) were grown from aqueous solutions by the evaporation method and characterized by x-ray powder diffraction and high resolution x-ray diffraction. All diffraction data are well indexed according to simple cubic structure. The variation of lattice constants with the concentrations of Ba2+ in the crystals accorded quite well to the Vegard's Law. The results of high-resolution x-ray diffraction show that the crystalline quality of BaxSr1-x(NO3)2 decreases with x increasing. The distribution of Ba2+ between the solution and solid phase indicated that Ba2+ is enriched in the solid phase. It could be attributed to the solubility of Ba(NO3)2 in water being less than that of Sr(NOs)2.

  12. Separation of Red(Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+)),Blue(Sr,Ca,Ba)_(10)(PO_4)_6Cl_2:Eu~(2+)and Green(LaPO_4:Tb~(3+),Ce~(3+))Rare Earth Phosphors by Liquid/Liquid Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Guangjun; RAO Peng; MITSUAKI Matsuda; TOYOHISA Fujita


    A novel process for separation of red(Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+)),blue(Sr,Ca,Ba)_(10)(PO_4)_6Cl_2:Eu~(2+) and green(LaPO_4:Tb~(3+),Ce~(3+) )fine tricolor phosphor powders was established.First,the green phosphor was extracted and separated from three phosphor mixtures in heptane/DMF(N,N-Dimethylformamide)system using stearylamine or laurylamine(DDA)as the cationic surfactant.Then,after being treated with 99.5%ethanol,the blue and red phosphors could be separated in Heptane/DMF system in presence of 1-octanesulfonic acid sodium salt as the anionic surfactant.Satisfactory separation results have been achieved through two steps extractions with their artificial mixtures.The grades and recovery of separated products reached respectively as follows:red product was 95.3%and 90.9%,blue product was 90.0%and 95.2%,and green product was 92.2%and 91.8%.

  13. Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox Bicrystal Junction DC-SQUID Magnetometers Operating in Unshielded Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing; CHEN Geng-Hua; CHEN Geng-Hua; ZHAO Shi-Ping; YANG Qian-Sheng; YAN Sha-Lin; LU Rong-Tao


    We fabricated direct-current superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers with single layer epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2Ox films on 36.8°SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates. The white flux noise and the field-flux transformation coeficient of the devices are 1.5×10-5 φ0(/Hz) and 40 nT/φ0, respectively. The magnetometers can work in unshielded environment.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Melting Temperatures of SrF2and BaF2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yu Huang; Xin-lu Cheng; Chao-lei Fan; Qiong Chen; Xiao-li Yuan


    The shell-model molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate the melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2 at elevated temperatures and high pressures. The same method was used to calculate the equations of state for SrF2 and BaF2 over the pressure range of 0.1 MPa-3 GPa and 0.1 MPa-7 GPa. Compared with previous results for equations of state, the maximum errors are 0.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Considering the pre-melting in the fluorite-type crystals, we made the necessary corrections for the simulated melting temper-atures of SrF2 and BaF2. Consequently, the melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 were obtained for high pressures. The melting temperatures of SrF2 and BaF2 that were obtained by the simulation are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. The low Sr/Ba ratio on some extremely metal-poor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; François, P; Sbordone, L


    It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-pro...

  16. Anisotropic electrical and thermal conductivity in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} [AE = Ca, Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x} (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0)] single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Song-Tao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Tao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xiong, Ye [College of Physical Science and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Yao, Shu-Hua, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Chen, Y. B., E-mail:, E-mail: [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Yan-Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (AE represents alkaline earth), constructed by stacking of rock-salt Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} and triangle CoO{sub 2} layers alternatively along c-axis, is one of promising thermoelectric oxides. The most impressive feature of Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}, as reported previously, is their electrical conductivity mainly lying along CoO{sub 2} plane, adjusting Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer simultaneously manipulates both thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. It in turn optimizes thermoelectric performance of these materials. In this work, we characterize the anisotropic thermal and electrical conductivity along both ab-plane and c-direction of Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} (AE = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}) single crystals. The results substantiate that isovalence replacement in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} remarkably modifies their electrical property along ab-plane; while their thermal conductivity along ab-plane only has a slightly difference. At the same time, both the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity along c-axis of these materials also have dramatic changes. Certainly, the electrical resistance along c-axis is too high to be used as thermoelectric applications. These results suggest that adjusting nano-block Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}O{sub 4} layer in Bi{sub 2}AE{sub 2}Co{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} cannot modify the thermal conductivity along high electrical conductivity plane (ab-plane here). The evolution of electrical property is discussed by Anderson localization and electron-electron interaction U. And the modification of thermal conductivity along c-axis is attributed to the microstructure difference. This work sheds more light on the manipulation of the thermal and electrical conductivity in the layered thermoelectric materials.

  17. Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor (United States)

    Hults, William L.; Kubat-Martin, Kimberly A.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Phillips, David S.; Peterson, Dean E.


    A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi.sub.a Pb.sub.b Sr.sub.c Ca.sub.d Cu.sub.e O.sub.f wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10.+-.z by reacting a mixture of Bi.sub.4 Sr.sub.3 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.16.+-.z, an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr.sub.9 Ca.sub.5 Cu.sub.24 O.sub.41, and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca.sub.2-x Sr.sub.x PbO.sub.4 wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

  18. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Maynooth University, National University of Ireland—Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland)


    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  19. Investigation of Ba2–SrTiO4: Structural aspects and dielectric properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishnu Shanker; Tokeer Ahmad; Ashok K Ganguli


    Investigation of solid solution of barium–strontium orthotitanates of the type, Ba2–SrTiO4 (0 ≤ ≤ 2), show that pure phases exist only for the end members, Ba2TiO4 and Sr2TiO4, crystallizing in the -K2SO4 and K2NiF4 structures, respectively. The intermediate compositions (till ≤ 1) lead to a biphasic mixture of two Ba2TiO4-type phases (probably through a spinodal decomposition) with decreasing lattice parameters, indicating Sr-substitution in both the phases. For > 1, Sr2TiO4 along with a secondary phase is obtained. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease with Sr substitution till the nominal composition of = 1. However, pure Sr2TiO4 shows higher dielectric constant compared to the solid solution composition. Sr2TiO4 shows very high temperature stability of the dielectric constant.

  20. Temperature-Dependent Structure of Epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Grown on SrRuO3-Covered SrTiO3 Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jia-Qing; E. VASCO; R. DITTMANN; WANG Ren-Hui


    @@ Growth dynamics of epitaxial (Ba, Sr)TiO3 thin films deposited at different temperatures on SrRuOa/SrTiO3substrates by pulsed laser deposition is investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The films exhibit a layered structure comprising sublayers with distinctive features in regard to the remaining strain, density of misfit dislocations and/or lattice defects, and growth habit. We correlate these temperature-dependent features with the predominant misfit-strain relaxation mechanisms for each one of the detected growth regimes. The thickness dependence of the film structure is discussed within the framework of the predictions for a kinetically modified Stranski-Krastanov growth mode.

  1. Determination of Sr and Ba partition coefficients between apatite and water from 5°C to 60°C: a potential new thermometer for aquatic paleoenvironments 1 (United States)

    Balter, V.; Lécuyer, C.


    Apparent partition coefficients of Sr and Ba between calcium phosphate and water were measured experimentally for temperature ranging from 5°C to 60°C. Calcium phosphates were precipitated from an aqueous mixture of Na 2HPO 4 · 2H 2O (10 -2 M) and CaCl 2 · 2H 2O (10 -2 M). Spiked solutions of Sr or Ba were introduced into the CaCl 2 · 2H 2O solution at Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios of 0.1. The experiment consisted in sampling the liquid and solid phases after 1, 6, 48, and 96 h of interaction. The amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precipitated early in the experiment was progressively replaced by hydroxylapatite (HAP), except at 5°C where brushite (di-calcium phosphate di-hydrate or DCPD) was formed. We observed that the crystallinity of the solid phase increased with time for a given temperature and increased with temperature for a given time of reaction. With the exception of the experiment at 5°C, yield (R%) and apparent partition coefficients (K a-wSr/Ca and K a-wBa/Ca) both decreased with increasing reaction time. After 96 h, R%, K a-wSr/Ca and K a-wBa/Ca were observed to be constant, suggesting that the solid phases were at steady-state with respect to the aqueous solutions. The thermodependence of Sr and Ba partitioning between apatite and water at low temperature could therefore be calculated: Log( Ka-wSr/Ca)=0.42±0.04(10 3T-1)-1.87±0.12( r2=0.94) Log( Ka-wBa/Ca)=1.96±0.06(10 3T-1)-7.19±0.20( r2=0.99) We also performed competition experiments between Sr and Ba. The thermodependence of the Sr/Ba partitioning between apatite and water was calculated after 96 h of reaction: Log( Ka-wSr/Ba)=-0.75±0.04(10 3T-1)+2.39±0.14( r2=0.97) This relationship reveals a discrimination of Ba in favor of Sr during their incorporation into HAP. Temperature trends deduced from the Ba/Ca of fish teeth recovered from the K/T boundary mimic those estimated from δ 18O(PO 4) measurements carried out on the same sample. Unless Sr, Ba and Ca contents of biogenic apatites are

  2. Improvement of electron mobility in La:BaSnO3 thin films by insertion of an atomically flat insulating (Sr,BaSnO3 buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Shiogai


    Full Text Available One perovskite oxide, ASnO3 (A = Sr, Ba, is a candidate for use as a transparent conductive oxide with high electron mobility in single crystalline form. However, the electron mobility of films grown on SrTiO3 substrates does not reach the bulk value, probably because of dislocation scattering that originates from the large lattice mismatch. This study investigates the effect of insertion of bilayer BaSnO3 / (Sr,BaSnO3 for buffering this large lattice mismatch between La:BaSnO3 and SrTiO3 substrate. The insertion of 200-nm-thick BaSnO3 on (Sr,BaSnO3 bilayer buffer structures reduces the number of dislocations and improves surface smoothness of the films after annealing as proved respectively by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A systematic investigation of BaSnO3 buffer layer thickness dependence on Hall mobility of the electron transport in La:BaSnO3 shows that the highest obtained value of mobility is 78 cm2V−1s−1 because of its fewer dislocations. High electron mobility films based on perovskite BaSnO3 can provide a good platform for transparent-conducting-oxide electronic devices and for creation of fascinating perovskite heterostructures.

  3. Punta Pitt, Galapagos Ba/Ca Data for 1963-1982 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File contains Ba/Ca data (in mmol/mol) presented by Lea et al. (1989). Samples were measured at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by D. Lea. Ba...

  4. Flexibility of EF-hand motifs: structural and thermodynamic studies of Calcium Binding Protein-1 from Entamoeba histolytica with Pb2+, Ba2+, and Sr2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shivesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background EF-hand proteins can be activated by the binding of various heavy metals other than calcium, and such complexes can disturb the calcium-signaling pathway and cause toxicity and disease causing state. So far, no comprehensive study has been done to understand different heavy metals binding to calcium signaling proteins. Results In this work, the flexibility of the EF-hand motifs are examined by crystallographic and thermodynamic studies of binding of Pb2+, Ba2+ and Sr2+ to Calcium Binding Protein-1 from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP1. The structures of the EhCaBP1- heavy metal complexes are found to be overall similar, nevertheless specific differences in metal coordination, and small differences in the coordination distances between the metal and the ligands in the metal binding loop. The largest such distances occur for the Ba2+- EhCaBP1 complex, where two bariums are bound with partial occupancy at the EF2 motif. Thermodynamic studies confirm that EhCaBP1 has five binding sites for Ba2+ compared to four binding sites for the other metals. These structures and thermodynamic studies reveal that the EF-hand motifs can accommodate several heavy atoms with similar binding affinities. The binding of Ca2+ to the 1st, 2nd and 4th sites and the binding of Ba2+ to the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th sites are both enthalpically and entropically driven, whereas the binding of Sr2+ to the 1st, 2nd and 4th sites are simply enthalpy driven, interestingly in agreement with ITC data, Sr2+ do not coordinate with water in this structure. For all the metals, binding to the 3rd site is only entropy driven. Conclusion Energetically, Ca2+ is preferred in three sites, while in one site Ba2+ has better binding energy. The Sr2+-coordination in the EF hand motifs is similar to that of the native Ca2+ bound structure, except for the lack of water coordination. Sr2+ coordination seems to be a pre-formed in nature since all seven coordinating atoms are from the

  5. Structure-microwave dielectric property relations in Sr and Ca titanates

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, P L


    induces a structural phase transition involving rotations of the O-octahedra. The behaviour of TC epsilon and therefore TCF as a function of tolerance factor was similar in the (Sr sub x Ca sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 3 Ti sub 2 O sub 7 series to that observed for Ba and Sr based complex perovskites. It was therefore concluded that tilting of the octahedra dominated tuning of TCF. The domain variance associated with structural phase transitions in the solid (Sr sub x Ca sub 1 sub - sub x)TiO sub 3 solid solution series has been investigated using electron diffraction. Only electron diffraction patterns from end member compositions conformed to those simulated using other workers' X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction refinement data. For compositions where x=0.8, a tetragonal (I4/mcm) antiphase tilt system (a deg a deg c sup -) is predicted. However, comparisons of simulated with experimental single domain patterns suggested that this composition has more than one axis tilted in antiphase. Tuning the temperatu...

  6. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil. (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael


    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates.

  7. Growth and interface engineering in thin-film Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 /SrMoO3 heterostructures (United States)

    Radetinac, Aldin; Ziegler, Jürgen; Vafaee, Mehran; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp


    Epitaxial heterostructures of ferroelectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 and highly conducting SrMoO3 were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (0 0 1) substrates. Surface oxidation of the SrMoO3 film is suppressed using a thin cap interlayer of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-δ grown in reduced atmosphere. As shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Mo4+ valence state of the SrMoO3 films is stable upon annealing of the sample in oxygen up to 600 °C. The described oxygen interface engineering enables utilization of the highly conducting material SrMoO3 in multilayer oxide ferroelectric varactors.

  8. Thermodynamic Study on BaO-CaO-CaF2 Slags for Dephosphorization of Molten Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhi-hong; CAI Kai-ke; WANG Xin-hua; ZHU Li-xin; WANG Tao; SHI Hong-zhi; YIN Xiao-dong


    The molten steel was dephosphorized by high basic BaO-based slags (BaO-CaO-CaF2) to achieve ultra low phosphorus level. The dephosphorization ability of the BaO-CaO-CaF2 slags was tested. The phosphate capacity of this slag system at 1 620 C varied from 1018.03 to 1019.11 with an activity coefficient of P2O5 ranging from 10-19.47 to 10-18.09. The effect of BaO content, initial phosphorus content and oxygen potential of molten steel on dephosphorization was discussed. The phosphorus pick-up by the BaO-based slags was studied.

  9. Analysis of coupled Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr variations in enamel using laser-ablation tandem quadrupole-multicollector ICPMS (United States)

    Balter, Vincent; Telouk, Philippe; Reynard, Bruno; Braga, José; Thackeray, Francis; Albarède, Francis


    We present in this study results obtained with a laser-ablation coupled with both a quadrupole and a multi-collector ICPMS. The simultaneous in situ Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr measurements along growth profiles in enamel allows the concomitant diet and migration patterns in mammals to be reconstructed. Aliquots of the powdered international standard NIST "SRM1400 Bone Ash" with certified Sr and Ca contents, was sintered at high pressure and temperature and was adopted as the reference material for external reproducibility and calibration of the results. A total of 145 coupled elemental and isotopic measurements of herbivores enamel from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, gives intra-tooth Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr variations that are well larger than external reproducibility. Sr/Ca profiles systematically decrease from the dentine-enamel junction to the outer enamel whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr profiles exhibit variable patterns. Using a simple geometric model of hypsodont teeth growth, we demonstrate that a continuous recording of the 87Sr/ 86Sr variations can be reconstructed in the tooth length axis. This suggests that the mobility of a mammal can be reconstructed over a period of more than a year with a resolution of a ten of days, by sampling enamel along growth profiles. Our geometric model of hypsodont teeth growth predicts that an optimal distance between two successive profiles is equal to the enamel thickness. However, this model does not apply to the Sr/Ca signal which is likely to be altered during the enamel maturation stage due to differential maturation processes along enamel thickness. Here, the observed constant decreases of the Sr/Ca ratios in the ungulates of Kruger National Park suggests that they did not changed of diet, while some of them were migrating.

  10. Variations in seawater Sr/Ca recorded in deep-sea bamboo corals (United States)

    Hill, T. M.; Lavigne, M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T.; Gaylord, B.; Clague, D.


    A depth transect of deep-sea bamboo corals along the California margin provides evidence that coral strontium to calcium ratios (Sr/Cacoral) record seawater Sr/Ca ratios (Sr/Casw). A calibration was constructed utilizing Sr/Cacoral ratios and previously published Pacific Sr/Casw data (R2 = 0.53, n = 12, p < 0.01): Sr/Cacoral (mmol/mol) = 4.62*Sr/Casw (mmol/mol) - 36.64. Sr/Casw is ultimately governed by the remineralization of Sr-containing shells of surface water-derived marine organisms (e.g., Acantharia) at intermediate water depths. California margin Sr/Cacoral records from 792 and 1295 m document fluctuations in Sr/Casw that appear decadal-scale. These results suggest that Sr/Casw may not be as stable as previously assumed and may be influenced by surface productivity on short timescales.

  11. 习水地区不同类型水主要离子及Sr2+、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg)组成特征%Composition Characteristics of Major Ions and ρ (Sr2 +) ,ρ (Sr)/ρ (Ca),ρ (Sr)/ρ (Mg) Value in Different Types of Water in Xishui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奇波; 覃小群; 唐建生; 苏春田


    After sampling and analyzing major ions concentration and ρ(Sr2 + ) ,ρ(Sr)/ρ(Ca) ,ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg) value in different types of water from Xishui basin, low major ions concentration is found in bedrock fracture water. But TDS content and pH value are higher than in the karst water. The concentration of Ca2 +, HCO3-, TDS and the value of ρ( Sr)/ρ( Ca) and ρ( Sr)/ρ( Mg) in outlet water of under ground river are as the value in limestone water ture dolomite water, bedrock fracture water, and rainwater, reflecting that the underground river water is the mixtave of these four types of water. The underground water flowing over different rock formation has different value of ρ(Sr2 + ) , ρ(Sr)/ρ(Ca) , ρ( Sr)/ρ( Mg). Generally speaking, the bedrock fracture water flowing over sandstone formation contains low ρ( Sr2 + ) but high ρ( Sr ) /ρ(Ca ) ,ρ( Sr) /ρ( Mg ). Recharged by the water from limestone or coal measure formation, the fracture water of sandstone has high ρ(Sr2+ ) ,ρ(Sr)/ ρ(Ca) and ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg). The value of ρ(Sr)/ρ(Ca) ,ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg) is low in recharge area of karst water, but high in runoff and discharge area, yet highest in slow runoff area, not affected by environmental pollution, ref-leciting the formation environment of karst water.%通过对习水地区不同类型水的主要阴阳离子及Sr2+、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg)组成分析,发现水中各种主要离子及TDS含量基岩裂隙水小于岩溶水,ρH则相反.地下河出口水的Ca2+、HCO3-、TDS浓度及ρ(Sr)/ρ (Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ (Mg)值均位于灰岩水、白云岩水、基岩裂隙水、雨水之间,反映出地下河水是由这4种水混合而成.流经不同岩层的地下水具有不同的Sr2+、ρ(Sr)/ρ (Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg)值.一般来说,流经砂岩层的基岩裂隙水Sr2+含量低,而ρ(Sr)/ρ (Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ (Mg)值较高,当砂岩中的基岩裂隙水受到灰岩水或煤系地层水补给时,其Sr2+、ρ(sr)/ρ (Ca)、ρ(Sr)/ρ(Mg)值均较高;岩溶

  12. Magnetoresistance in Parent Pnictide AFe_2As_2(A=Sr, Ba)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ping; CHEN Gen-Fu; LI Zheng; HU Wan-Zheng; DONG Jing; LI Gang; WANG Nan-Lin; LUO Jian-Lin


    Magnetoresistances of SrFe_2 As_2 and BaFe_2 As_2 in the magnetic ordered state are studied.Positive magnetoresis-tance is observed in the magnetic fields H applied in the azimuthes foθ = 0°and 30°with respect to the c-axis.The magnetoresistance can reach 20% for SrFe_2 As_2 and 12% for BaFe_2As_2 at H = 9 T with θ= 0°(H||c).Above the magnetic transition temperature, the magnetoresistance becomes negligible.The data in the magnetic ordered state could be described by a modified two-band galvanomagnetic model including the enhancement effect of the applied magnetic field on the spin-density-wave gap.The field enhanced spin-density-wave gaps for different types of carriers are different.Temperature dependencies of the fitting parameters are discussed.

  13. Dielectric Properties of Dy2O3 -Doped ( Ba, Sr) TiO3 Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xinyou; Gao Chunhua; Chen Xiangchong; Zheng Xialian; Huang Guojun; Liu Huiping


    The effects of Dy2O3 doping on the dielectric properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 series capacitor ceramics prepared using solid-state reaction method were studied. With the increasing of Dy2O3 additive , the dielectric constant (ε) of materials increases to a maximum when w(Dy2O3 ) is about 0.5% ,while the dielectric loss(tanδ) decreases. The BST ceramics with highε ( = 5245 ), low tanδ ( = 0. 0026 ) and high DC breakdown voltage ( = 5.5 mV ·m-1 ) were obtained. The influencing mechanism of Dy2O3 on the dielectric properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 ceramics was studied, thus providing the basis for preparation of capacitor ceramics.

  14. Effect of (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio on dielectric and tunable properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-cheng; PENG Dong-wen; CHENG Jin-rong; MENG Zhong-yan


    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were fabricated on Pt coated Si (100) substrates by sol-gel techniques with molar ratio of (Ba+Sr) to Ti changing from 0.76 to 1.33. The effect of (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio deviating from the stoichiometry on microstructure,grain growth,dielectric and tunable properties of BST thin films were investigated. TiO2 and (Ba,Sr)2TiO4 were found as a second phase at the ratios of 0.76 and 1.33,respectively. The variation of the ratio reveals more significant effect on the grain size in B-site rich samples than that in A-site rich samples. The dissipation factor decreases rapidly from 0.1 to 0.01 at 1 MHz with decreasing (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio. The tunability increases with decreasing ratio from 1.33 to 1.05,and then decreases with decreasing ratio from 1.05 to 0.76. The film with (Ba+Sr)/Ti ratio of 1.05 has a maximum tunability of 32% and a dissipation factor of 0.03 at 1 MHz.

  15. Structural and electronic properties of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chao; Wang Chun-Lei; Li Ji-Chao; Yang Kun


    We have performed first principles calculations of Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. Dopant formation energy, structure distortion, band structure and density of states have been computed. The dopant formation energy is found to be 6.8 eV and 6.5 eV for Fe-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 respectively. The distances between Fe impurity and its nearest O atoms and between Fe atom and Ba or Sr atoms are smaller than those of the corresponding undoped bulk systems. The Fe defect energy band is obtained, which mainly originates from Fe 3d electrons. The band gap is still an indirect one after Fe doping for both BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, but the gap changes from Г-R point to Г-X point.

  16. Thermal properties of perovskite RCeO{sub 3} (R = Ba, Sr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Aarti, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Parey, Vanshree; Thakur, Rasna [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Srivastava, Archana [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai College for women, Bhopal 462024 (India); Gaur, N.K. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India)


    Highlights: • (Ba,Sr)CeO{sub 3} are high temperature protonic conductor materials. • This makes their thermal properties very interesting. • MRIM has successfully predicted the thermodynamic properties. • The computed results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. • Present results will serve as guide to experimental workers in future. - Abstract: We have investigated the bulk modulus and thermal properties of proton conducting perovskite RCeO{sub 3} (R = Ba, Sr) for the first time by incorporating the effect of lattice distortion in modified rigid ion models (MRIM). The computed bulk modulus, specific heat, thermal expansion coefficient and other thermal properties of BaCeO{sub 3} and SrCeO{sub 3} reproduce well with the available experimental data. In addition the cohesive energy (ϕ), molecular force constant (f), reststrahlen frequency (ν), Debye temperature (θ{sub D}) and Gruneisen parameter (γ) are also reported and discussed. The specific heat results can further be improved by taking into account the spin and the orbital ordering contribution in the specific heat formulae.

  17. Positron annihilation investigation of BaSrFBr:Eu by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. Y. [Hannam University, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The mechanical property of the BaSrFBr:Eu phosphor layer of X-ray image plates was investigated by using resolution (LP/mm) and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) positron annihilation as well as positron annihilation lifetime (PAL). The image plate samples of BaSrFBr:Eu phosphors in this experiment were irradiated by using hospital X-rays. The LP/mm values of the irradiated BaSrFBr:Eu image plates varied from 3.35 to 1.25 for up to 20,000 exposures. CDB positron annihilation and lifetime spectroscopy were used to analyze defect structures in the phosphor layer. Even when the LP/mm values were greatly decreased due to exposures, the S parameter and the lifetime (τ{sub 1}, τ{sub 2}) values were almost constant with increasing number of exposures. A positive relationship existed between the SEM images and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). According to the SEM images and the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) results, measurements of the defects with PAS indicate that the image-plate phosphor can be safely used for hospital X-rays in the course of diagnostic radiography at an average rate of 20,000 times for one year.

  18. Orthorhombic strontium titanate in BaTiO sub 3 -SrTiO sub 3 superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, S; Jiang, A Q; Scott, J F; Lü, H; Chen, Z


    It has been suggested by several authors that SrTiO sub 3 layers in SrTiO sub 3 -BaTiO sub 3 superlattices should be tetragonal and ferroelectric at ambient temperatures, like the BaTiO sub 3 layers, rather than cubic, as in bulk SrTiO sub 3 , and that free-energy minimization requires continuity of the polarization direction. A recent ab initio calculation constrained solutions to this structure. Surprisingly, our x-ray study shows that the SrTiO sub 3 layers are orthorhombic with 0.03% in-plane strain, with the BaTiO sub 3 c-axis matching the SrTiO sub 3 a- and b-axis better than the c-axis; strain energy overcomes the cost in electrostatic energy. (letter to the editor)

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Chemically Disordered Ferroelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO3 with a Semi-Empirical Effective Hamiltonian (United States)

    Nishimatsu, Takeshi; Grünebohm, Anna; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Kubo, Momoji


    We present a semi-empirical effective Hamiltonian to capture effects of disorder associated with Ba and Sr cations occupying A sites in (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 on its ferroelectric phase transition. Averaging between the parameters of first-principles effective Hamiltonians of end members BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, we include a term with an empirical parameter to capture the local polarization and strains arising from the difference between ionic radii of Ba and Sr. Using mixed-space molecular dynamics of the effective Hamiltonian, we determine T-dependent ferroelectric phase transitions in (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 which are in good agreement with experiment. Our scheme of determination of semi-empirical parameters in effective Hamiltonian should be applicable to other perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions.

  20. Improvement of dielectric tunability and loss tangent of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films with K doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei-Jie; Dai Jian-Ming; Zhu Xue-Bin; Chang Qing; Liu Qiang-Chun; Sun Yu-Ping


    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films doped with K were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by the chemical solution deposition method.The structure,surface morphology and the dielectric and tunable properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films have been studied in detail. The K content in Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films has a strong influence on the material's properties including surface morphology and the dielectric and tunable properties.It was found that the Curie temperature of K-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films shifts to a higher value compared with that of undoped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,which leads to a dielectric enhancement of K-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 films at room temperature.At the optimized content of 0.02 mol,the dielectric loss tangent is reduced significantly from 0.057 to 0.020.Meanwhile,the tunability is enhanced obviously from 26% to 48% at the measured frequency of 1 MHz and the maximum value of the figure of merit is 23.8.This suggests that such films have potential applications for tunable devices.

  1. Compositional dependence of the crystal symmetry of Eu3+-doped (SrxBa1-x)2CaWyMo1-yO6 phosphors (United States)

    Sletnes, M.; Valmalette, J. C.; Grande, T.; Einarsrud, M.-A.


    Two series of A-site and B-site Eu3+ doped (SrxBa1-x)2CaWyMo1-yO6 double perovskite phosphor materials were prepared via a modified Pechini sol-gel route; (SrxBa1-x)1.96Eu0.02K0.02CaWyMo1-yO6 and (SrxBa1-x)2Ca0.96Eu0.02Li0.02WyMo1-yO6 (x and y=0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1). The Sr/Ba ratio was the main determinant for the crystal symmetry of the series, while variation in the W/Mo ratio did influence the crystal symmetry significantly. The crystal structure evolved with Sr/Ba ratio from cubic Fm 3 bar m for x=0, via tetragonal I 4 / m for x=0.25, to monoclinic P 21 / n for x≥0.5, as verified by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffractograms as well as by Raman spectroscopy. The reported boundaries for the compositionally induced phase transitions are in very good agreement with reported optical properties.

  2. Determination of Sr and Ca sources in small tropical catchments (La Selva, Costa Rica) - A comparison of Sr and Ca isotopes (United States)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Schwendenmann, L.


    SummaryA comparative study of Sr and Ca isotopes was conducted to assess solute sources and effects of biogeochemical processes on surface water and groundwater in four small tropical catchments located at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Variable concentrations of dissolved Sr2+ and Ca2+ in the catchments are related to mixing of waters from different origin. Three catchments are influenced by high-solute bedrock groundwater, while another catchment is primarily supplied by local recharge. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were employed to discriminate contributions from mineral weathering and atmospheric sources. Solutes in bedrock groundwater have a predominant geogenic origin, whereas local recharge is characterized by low-solute inputs from rainwater and minor in situ weathering releases from nutrient-depleted soils. Bedrock groundwater contributes more than 60% of dissolved Sr2+ to surface discharge in the Salto, Saltito, and Arboleda catchments, whereas the Taconazo catchment receives more than 95% of dissolved Sr2+ from rainwater. δ44/40Ca values of dissolved Ca2+ vary greatly in the catchments, mainly as a result of heterogeneous Ca isotope compositions of the contributing sources. Based on differences in δ44/40Ca values, two distinct bedrock groundwaters discharging at the Salto and the Arboleda catchments are suggested. Effects of biological processes in the plant-soil system on solute generation in the catchments are indicated by variable Ca/Sr ratios. However, these effects cannot clearly be assessed by Ca isotopes due to the strong heterogeneity of δ44/40Ca values of Ca2+ sources and high Ca2+ concentrations in bedrock groundwater.

  3. Testing coral paleothermometers (B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca andδ18O) under impacts of large riverine runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tianran; YU Kefu; ZHAO Jianxin; YAN Hongqiang; SONG Yinxian; FENG Yuexing; CHEN Tegu


    Sea surface temperature (SST) proxies including B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, U/Ca andδ18O were analyzed in the skeleton of aPorites coral collected from the Zhujiang River (Pearl River) Estuary (ZRE). These geochemical proxies are influenced by river runoff and this area of the northern South China Sea is strongly affected by seasonal freshwater floods. We assessed the robustness of each SST proxy through comparison with the local instrumental SST. Coral Sr/Ca shows the highest correlation with SST variations (r2=0.59), suggesting Sr/Ca is the most robust SST proxy. In contrast, coralδ18O (r2=0.46), B/Ca (r2=0.43) and U/Ca (r2=0.41) ratios were only moderately correlated with SST variations, suggesting that they are disturbed by some other factors in addition to SST. The poor correlation (r2=0.27) between SST and Mg/Ca indicates that Mg/Ca in coral skeletons is not a simple function of SST variations. This may ultimately limit the use of Mg/Ca as a coral paleothermometer.

  4. Very high or close to zero thermal expansion by the variation of the Sr/Ba ratio in Ba(1-x)Sr(x)Zn2Si2O7- solid solutions. (United States)

    Thieme, Christian; Rüssel, Christian


    The compound BaZn2Si2O7 shows a highly positive coefficient of thermal expansion. At a temperature of 280 °C, it transforms to a high temperature phase, which exhibits a coefficient of thermal expansion near zero. The partial replacement of Ba(2+) against Sr(2+) leads to a decrease of the phase transition temperature. If more than 10% of Ba(2+) are replaced by Sr(2+), the high-temperature phase is completely stable at room temperature and consequently, the thermal expansion is near zero or negative. The effect of the Sr(2+)/Ba(2+)-ratio on the phase transition temperature and the thermal expansion behavior is measured using high-temperature X-ray diffraction up to 1000 °C. The Sr(2+)/Ba(2+)-ratio strongly affects the overall thermal expansion as well as the anisotropy. The latter increases with decreasing Sr-concentration. The strong differences in the thermal expansion behavior between phases with the structure of the low-temperature phase and the high-temperature phase of BaZn2Si2O7 can be explained by a comparison of the ZnO4-chains inside these two crystal structures.

  5. Toughening PVC with VC-BA/nano-CaCO3 masterbatch%VC-BA/纳米CaCO3复合母粒增韧PVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士财; 李宝霞; 楼涛; 张晓东


    采用氯乙烯-丙烯酸丁酯共聚弹性体(VC-BA)和经表面处理的纳米碳酸钙(nano-CaCO3)制备VC-BA/nano-CaCO3复合母粒,再用该复合母粒与聚氯乙烯(PVC)共混,制备了VC-BA/nano-CaCO3复合母粒增韧的PVC复合材料.复合母粒中m(VC-BA)/m(nano-CaCO3)为2 : 3时,增韧效果最佳.nano-CaCO3与VC-BA有协同增韧作用,且nano-CaCO3能够补强.当PVC和复合母粒质量比为100:20时,材料的冲击强度达到49.5 kJ/m2,是纯PVC的10 倍,拉伸强度为51.0 MPa.

  6. Ab initio calculations of the atomic and electronic structure of layered Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Kotomin, E.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail:; Fuks, D. [Materials Engineering Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Dorfman, S. [Department of Physics, Technion- Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    Understanding of the atomic and electronic structure of Ba{sub c}Sr{sub 1-c}TiO{sub 3} (BST) solid solutions is important for several applications including the non-volatile ferroelectric memories (dynamic random access memory, DRAM). We present results of ab initio calculations of several spatial arrangements of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} solid solutions based on DFT-HF B3PW hybrid method. We calculate the atomic and electronic structure, the effective charges, interatomic bond populations, the electronic density distribution, and densities of states for three layered structures with the same composition. The suggested method reproduces experimental lattice parameters of both pure BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. The calculated optical band gaps for the pure SrTiO{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3} are in a good agreement with experimental data, much better than those from the standard LDA or HF calculations. In the studied BST structures with the equiatomic composition (c = 0.5) the gap is reduced by ca. 0.2 eV. The electron density maps demonstrate the covalency effects in the Ti-O bonding. The electron density near the Sr atoms is stronger localized, as compared with the Ba ions.

  7. Climate proxies from Sr/Ca of coccolith calcite: calibrations from continuous culture of Emiliania huxleyi (United States)

    Stoll, Heather M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Falkowski, Paul


    Continuous culture of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi reveals that coccolith Sr/Ca ratios depend on temperature and growth rate. At a constant temperature of 18°C, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios increased nearly 15% as growth rate increased from 0.1 to 1.5 divisions per day and calcification rate increased from 1.5 to 50 pg calcite per cell per day. When temperature increased from 7 to 26°C, Sr/Ca ratios increased by more than 25% (i.e., 1%/1°C), although the range in growth and calcification rates was the same as for experiments at constant temperature. The temperature dependence of Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths is consistent with that observed in planktonic foraminifera and abiogenic calcites, suggesting that it is controlled by thermodynamic processes. However, the positive correlation of coccolith Sr/Ca with temperature contrasts with field studies in the equatorial Pacific, where Sr/Ca ratios are highest at the locus of maximum upwelling and productivity despite depressed temperatures. This paradox may reflect different calcification rate effects between E. huxleyi and the other species dominating assemblages in the equatorial Pacific sediments, which may be resolved by new techniques for separation of monospecific coccolith samples from sediments. Models of crystal growth indicate that kinetic effects on Sr partitioning in calcite due to surface enrichment could explain the Sr/Ca variations observed in constant temperature experiments but not the larger amplitude calcification rate effects observed in equatorial Pacific sediments. Despite the dual influence of temperature and growth rate on coccolith Sr/Ca, coccolith Sr/Ca correlates with "b," the slope of the dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in biomarkers (ɛ p) on CO 2(aq) at a range of growth rates and temperatures. Consequently, using coccolith Sr/Ca in combination with alkenone ɛ p may improve paleo-CO 2 determinations.

  8. The effect of Yttrium on the Ca and Sr planes of Y-doped Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.


    Photoemission spectromicroscopy experiments on a series of Y-doped Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 single crystals show that the doping changes the valence of copper as required for the observed modification of the critical temperature. The doping, however, affects with substitutional reactions not only the CaO planes, but also the SrO planes. Des expériences de photoémission sur une série de monocristaux de Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 dopés avec de l'yttrium montrent que le dopage change la valence du cuivre, comme on dopage, pourtant, ne modifie pas seulement les plans CaO par des réactions de substitution, mais également les plans SrO. Esperimenti di fotoemissione condotti su una serie di monocristalli di Bi 2Sr 2Ca 2O 8 con impurezze di Y mostrano che tali impurezze modificano la valenza del rame, com'é indipendentemente reso necessario dal fatto che si osservano dei cambiamenti della temperature di transizione. Si nota peraltro che le impurezze non modificano solamente i piani CaO mediante reazioni di sostituzione, ma anche i piani SrO.

  9. Thermoelectric Hexagonal A-Mg-Si with A = Sr and Ba Zintl Phases (United States)

    Kajitani, T.; Takahashi, K.; Saito, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kikuchi, S.; Kubouchi, M.; Hayashi, K.


    Hexagonal A-Mg-Si with A = Sr and Ba Zintl phases are promising candidates for p-type magnesium silicides usable with n-Mg2Si under 900 K. We synthesized p-type A-Mg-Si Zintl phases by the spark plasma synthesis procedure. Mg2Si and Mg2A powders were mixed at the ratio of 1- x/ x with x = 0.3-0.4. Two-step synthesis was performed at 850 K for 20 min and 1100 K for 20 min under uniaxial pressure at 30 MPa. Sintered pellets exhibited a stable p-type thermoelectric property. These pellets consisted of several unknown phases. We found two semiconductor phases, namely A2Mg4Si3 and A2Mg12Si7. The crystal structures of the 2/4/3- and 2/12/7-phases were Pbar{6}2m (No. 189)- and P63 /m (No. 176)-types, respectively. Sr0.70Mg2Si, Ba3Mg10Si7 and Sr3Mg10Si7 phases are newly found and characterized by a single crystal diffraction study. Previously found Sr2Mg4Si3 single phase polycrystalline 30φ × 10 mm pellets were successfully synthesized. The thermoelectric performance of the Sr2Mg4Si3 single phase sample was tested. The pellets exhibit p-type behavior from room temperature to 700 K. The thermal conductivity, κ, was almost constant at 1.1 W/mK from 350 K to 700 K.

  10. Low temperature synthesis of Ba1–SrSnO3 ( = 0–1) from molten alkali hydroxide flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ramdas; R Vijayaraghavan


    Perovskite structured stannates (Ba1–SrSnO3, = 0.0–1.0) powders have been synthesized for the first time by molten salt synthesis (MSS) method using KOH as the flux at lower temperature (400°C) compared to other methods. The phase formation was confirmed by FT–IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy. XRD patterns reveal the formation of single phasic products for parent and substituted products with good crystallinity throughout the range ( = 0.0–1.0). The morphology of the particles of BaSnO3 and SrSnO3 is spherical and rod shaped, respectively. Effect of soaking periods on the grain growth is observed clearly in SrSnO3. Ba0.5Sr0.5SnO3 (BSS5) crystallizes in flake like morphology.

  11. Effect of composition and interface intermixing on polarization behaviors of BaTiO{sub 3}/(Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Khian-Hooi; Lim, Kok-Geng [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ong, Lye-Hock [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Iwata, Makoto [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Aichi, 4668555 (Japan)


    We have developed a thermodynamic model based on the Landau-Ginzburg theory to study the effect of composition and interface intermixing on ferroelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (BT/BST) superlattices. Dependence of the lattice parameter and the substrate-induced misfit strain of BST layer in BT/BST superlattices on Ba/Sr content are obtained. Effect of composition and interface intermixing on ferroelectricity of superlattices are examined by investigating the modulated profiles of polarization and the mismatch in polarization at interface. Our study reveals that the polarization behaviors of BT/BST superlattices can be manipulated by varying the Ba/Sr content in BST layer without changing the period thickness of superlattices. The effect of Ba/Sr content on polarization behavior of BT/BST superlattices is stronger than the effect of interface intermixing on polarization of the superlattices. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Temperature stability of ultra-thin mixed BaSr-oxide layers and their transformation. (United States)

    Müller-Sajak, D; Islam, S; Pfnür, H; Hofmann, K R


    In the context of investigations of physical, chemical and electrical properties of ultra-thin layers of epitaxial and monocrystalline Sr(0.3)Ba(0.7)O on Si(100), we also investigated their thermal stability with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). At temperatures above 400 °C, transformation into silicate layers sets in. The stoichiometry after complete transformation was determined to be close to (Ba(0.8)Sr(0.2))(2)SiO(4) except for layers of only a few monolayers, where the silicate is not stoichiometric. There are strong indications that this silicate is stable until it desorbs at temperatures above 750 °C. Crystallinity, as seen with LEED, is lost during this transformation. Although transformation into silicate is coupled with metal desorption and compactification of the layers, they seem to remain closed. In addition, traces of Ba silicide at the Si interface were detected after layer desorption. This silicide cannot be desorbed thermally. The silicate layer has a bandgap of 5.9 ± 0.2 eV already for 3 ML thickness. Upon exposure to air, carbon and oxygen containing species, but no hydroxide, are formed irreversibly.

  13. Bulk superconductivity in Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 and TlBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 9 phases (United States)

    Sulpice, A.; Giordanengo, B.; Tournier, R.; Hervieu, M.; Maignan, A.; Martin, C.; Michel, C.; Provost, J.


    Well-crystallized Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 phases have been observed superconducting or normal below 108 K depending on their stoichiometry. This observation is an evidence that a (Cu IL&.zbnd;O -) mixed valence induced by vacancies or substitution on different sites gives rise to superconductivity in this phase. The new phase TlBa 2Ca 2CuO 9 which intrinsically contains a mixed valence has been observed as having a sharp transition to bulk superconductivity in the Meissner effect at a critical temperature of 120 K. This temperature is much higher than the recently observed one.

  14. Compensatory up-regulation of cardiac SR Ca2+-pump by heat-shock counteracts SR Ca2+-channel activation by ischemia/reperfusion. (United States)

    O'Brien, P J; Li, G O; Locke, M; Klabunde, R E; Ianuzzo, C D


    We tested the hypothesis that heat-shock protected myocardial Ca2+-cycling by sarcoplasmic reticulum from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Twenty-four hours after increasing body temperature to 42 degrees C for 15 min, rat hearts were isolated, Langendorff-perfused, and subjected to 30 min ischemia then 30 min reperfusion. Left ventricles were homogenized and their ionized Ca2+ concentration monitored with indo- during Ca2+-uptake in the presence and absence of the Ca2+-release channel (CRC) modulator ryanodine. Tissue content of heat-shock protein 72 (HSP 72) was analyzed. Exposure to I/R resulted in a 37% enhancement of CRC activity but no effect on Ca2+-pumping activity, resulting in 25% decreased net Ca2+-uptake activity. Pre-exposure to heat-shock resulted in a 10-fold increase in HSP 72, and a 25% enhancement of maximal Ca2+-pumping activity which counteracted the effect of I/R on CRC and net Ca2+-uptake activities. This protection of SR Ca2+-cycling was associated with partial protection of myocardial physiological performance. Net Ca2+-uptake activity was correlated with the left ventricular developed pressure and its rate of change. We conclude that one of the mechanisms by which heat-shock protects myocardium from I/R injury is to upregulate SR Ca2+-pumping activity to counteract the enhanced SR Ca2+-release produced by I/R.

  15. Sr/Ca and {delta} {sup 18}O ratios measured from Acropora nobilis and Porites lutea: Is Sr/Ca paleo-thermometry always reliable?; Mesures conjointes des rapports Sr/Ca et {delta} {sup 18}O effectuees sur Acropora nobilis et Porites lutea: le paleothermometre Sr/Ca est-il toujours fiable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiseau, M.; Trupin, L.; Juillet-Leclerc, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre des Faibles Radioactivites; Cornu, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. d' oceanographie dynamique et de climatologie, Unite mixte CNRS-ORSTOM-UPCM, 75 - Paris (France)


    We measured the Sr/Ca and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios in Acropora nobilis and Porites lutea, from the Mayotte lagoon. As the variations of {delta}{sup 18}O{sub seawater} are negligible, coral {delta}{sup 18}O{sub aragonite} reflects only seasonal temperature variations. While there is a good agreement between the Sr/Ca ratio and {delta}{sup 18}O for Acropora nobilis, it is not the case for Porites lutea. Coral biological and environmental parameters cannot explain the discrepancies between Sr/Ca ratios and isotopic measurements. However transport mechanisms of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} and the presence of two mineralogical structures of strontium may affect the Sr/Ca ratio.

  16. Progress of (Sr, Ba) TiO3 ferroelectric thin film and tunability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fu Xinghua; Shan Lianwei; Ding Biyan; Hou Wenping; Fang Zhou; Fu Zhengyi


    The fabrication method, technology route and structure performances of (Sr, Ba) TiO3 (SBT) ferroelectric thin film have been summarized in this paper. The tunability of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and leakage current are the basic parameters of tunable microwave devices. The thin films of SBT with high properties could be fabricated by means of RF magnetron sputtering and sol–gel processing. The electrical performances of thin film material can be improved largely by dopants. Some problems are put forward to pay attention to this material research process.

  17. Bamboo coral Ba/Ca: Calibration of a new deep ocean refractory nutrient proxy (United States)

    LaVigne, Michèle; Hill, Tessa M.; Spero, Howard J.; Guilderson, Thomas P.


    It is poorly understood how intermediate water masses are affected by decadal scale climate via biogeochemical cycling, export production, and changes in circulation/ventilation. To this end, a geochemical nutrient proxy from deep-sea bamboo corals would provide decadal to centennial scale records of deep and intermediate-water nutrient dynamics. Seawater barium (Ba SW) has a nutrient-like distribution in the water-column (similar to silicate), so Ba/Ca records in foraminifera, shallow water surface corals, and other deep-sea corals have been used to trace refractory nutrients. Here we present the first calibration of a nutrient proxy from skeletal barium preserved in the calcitic internodes of deep-sea bamboo corals, collected from intermediate water depths. A calibration was calculated from a broadly distributed suite of Isidella and Keratoisis corals spanning a silicate and Ba SW gradient (n = 33 corals; 300-2800 m): Ba/Caμmol/mol=0.079±0.008∗Banmol/kg+4.205±0.870r=0.77;n=33 The strong linear correlation between Ba/Ca bamboo coral and Ba SW suggests that coral Ba/Ca is a reliable recorder of seawater barium (and, therefore, silicate). We find a distribution coefficient (D Ba) for Ba/Ca bamboo coral of 1.3 ± 0.2, similar to that of other corals (surface and deep-sea dwelling) and inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation experiments (D Ba = 1.2-1.5). This suggests that Ba incorporation is primarily driven by cationic substitution in bamboo corals and holds promise as a globally applicable refractory nutrient proxy. We find interannual-decadal scale variability in a Ba/Ca bamboo coral timeseries from a California Margin coral (San Juan Seamount; 1295 m). These data suggest that additional high-resolution Ba/Ca bamboo coral records may reveal a connection between regional-scale intermediate water biogeochemistry and low-latitude surface ocean/atmospheric climate.

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ba and Ti co-doped SrRuO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Babusona; Dalal, Biswajit; Dev Ashok, Vishal; De, S. K., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    Temperature evolution of magnetic properties in Ba and Ti doped SrRuO{sub 3} has been investigated to observe the effects of larger ionic radius Ba at Sr site and isovalent nonmagnetic impurity Ti at Ru site. Ionic radius mismatch and different electronic configuration in comparison with Ru modify Sr(Ba)-O and Ru(Ti)-O bond lengths and Ru-O-Ru bond angle. The apical and basal Ru-O-Ru bond angles vary significantly with Ti doping. Ferromagnetic Curie temperature decreases from 161 K to 149 K monotonically with Ba (10%) and Ti (10%) substitutions at Sr and Ru sites. The zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization reveals a prominent peak which shifts towards lower temperature with application of magnetic field. The substitution of tetravalent Ti with localized 3d{sup 0} orbitals for Ru with more delocalized 4d{sup 4} orbitals leads to a broad peak in ZFC magnetization. A spontaneous ZFC magnetization becomes negative below 160 K for all the compositions. The occurrence of both normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in Ba and Ti co-doped SrRuO{sub 3} makes the system more interesting.

  19. Terahertz dielectric response of ferroelectric Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 thin films. (United States)

    Kang, Seung Beom; Kwak, Min Hwan; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Sungil; Kim, Taeyong; Cha, Eun Jong; Kang, Kwang Yong


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been used to investigate the dielectric and optical properties of ferroelectric Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3) thin films for nominal x-values of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 in the frequency range of 0.3 to 2.5 THz. The ferroelectric thin films were deposited at approximately 700 nm thickness on [001] MgO substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The measured complex dielectric and optical constants were compared with the Cole-Cole relaxation model. The results show that the Cole-Cole relaxation model fits well with the data throughout the frequency range and the dielectric relaxation behavior of ferroelectric Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3) thin films varies with the films compositions. Among the compositions of Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3) films with different Ba/Sr ratios, Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO(3) has the highest dielectric constants and the shortest dielectric relaxation time.

  20. Equiatomic AEAuX (AE=Ca-Ba, X=Al-In) Intermetallics: A Systematic Study of their Electronic Structure and Spectroscopic Properties. (United States)

    Benndorf, Christopher; Stegemann, Frank; Seidel, Stefan; Schubert, Lea; Bartsch, Manfred; Zacharias, Helmut; Mausolf, Bernhard; Haarmann, Frank; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer; Janka, Oliver


    The three intermetallic compounds SrAuGa, BaAuAl and BaAuGa were synthesised from the elements in niobium ampoules. The Sr compound crystallises in the orthorhombic KHg2 -type structure (Imma, a=465.6(1), b=771.8(2), c=792.6(2) pm, wR2 =0.0740, 324 F(2) values, 13 variables), whereas the Ba compounds were both found to crystallise in the cubic non-centrosymmetric LaIrSi-type structure (P21 3, BaAuAl: a=696.5(1) pm; wR2 =0.0427, 446 F(2) values, 12 variables; BaAuGa: a=693.49(4) pm, wR2 =0.0717, 447 F(2) values, 12 variables). The samples were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and their structures refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The title compounds, along with references from the literature (CaAuAl, CaAuGa, CaAuIn, and SrAuIn), were characterised further by susceptibility measurements and (27) Al and (71) Ga solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations of the density of states (DOS) and the NMR parameters were used for the interpretation of the spectroscopic data. The electron transfer from the alkaline-earth metals and the group 13 elements onto the gold atoms was investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), classifying these intermetallics as aurides.

  1. Ba/Ca Ratios in North Pacific Bamboo Corals Record Changes in Intermediate Water Biogeochemistry (United States)

    Serrato Marks, G.; LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sauthoff, W.; Guilderson, T. P.; Roark, E. B.; Dunbar, R. B.


    Trace elemental ratios preserved in the skeleton of bamboo corals, which live for hundreds of years at >500m depth, have been utilized as archives of deep-ocean conditions. However, it was previously unclear whether trace element data from these corals were internally reproducible and could therefore be used as reliable climate proxies. This study tests the internal reproducibility of Ba/Ca in the calcite of nine bamboo corals to further develop a new proxy for dissolved Ba in seawater (BaSW). Trace element LA-ICP-MS data were collected along three replicate radii of varying lengths of the calcitic internodes of well-dated corals collected live from the Gulf of Alaska (720m and 643m) and the California Margin (870m, 1012m, 1295m, 1500m, 1521m, 1954m, and 2054m; samples from 1295-1521m are not yet dated). Data were aligned using visible bands measured with a petrographic microscope to account for irregular growth. Ba/Ca data filtered with a 50μm (1.5-2 year) moving average were reproducible within each coral to 2.9 ± 2.1% (n=3 radii/coral, 9 corals), suggesting that regional geochemical signals are recorded as reproducible Ba/Ca signals on >annual timescales. Coral Ba/Ca presents an excellent proxy for BaSW, which has been found to be correlated with refractory nutrients (e.g. silicate) and oxygen minima. Increasing BaSW with depth and increased variability near 1000m suggests that BaSW is not constant with depth or with time. Several factors, including barite saturation state, particulate organic carbon (POC) remineralization rate, and particle sinking time, may be involved in the observed changes in BaSW. Further examination of such mechanisms could provide new insights into modern changes in deep-sea biogeochemistry.

  2. Cenozoic Seawater Sr/Ca ratios: Implications for coral reef development through ocean de-acidification (United States)

    Sosdian, S. M.; Grossman, E. L.; Lear, C. H.; Tao, K.; Rosenthal, Y.


    Records of seawater chemistry help constrain the temporal variation in geochemical processes that impact the global carbon cycle and global climate across Earth’s history. To date, various attempts to reconstruct Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca ratios have produced markedly different results, with estimated Paleogene seawater Sr/Ca ranging from ~50% higher than today to 70% lower. We reconstruct seawater Sr/Ca using Eocene to Pliocene fossil mollusks collected from US Gulf Coast (Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida). We use Conus spp. and Turritella, taxa for which the Sr/Ca distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of temperature in modern specimens [1, 2]. Specimens were serially sampled perpendicular to growth to produce seasonal records of Sr/Ca. Fossil Conus shells show pronounced seasonal Sr/Ca cycles with a strong inverse correlation between Sr/Ca and δ18O, similar to those observed in modern specimens [1]. The fossil Turritella also show similar Sr/Ca cyclicity as modern specimens [2]. We calculate seawater Sr/Ca ratios using our Sr/Ca record, modern Sr/Ca-temperature calibrations for Conus and Turritella [1, 2], and a paleotemperature record based on oxygen isotopes from the same samples [3]. Seawater Sr/Ca increased from ~11.5 to 13.9 mmol/mol between the mid-Eocene (42 Ma) and early Oligocene (33 Ma) and decreased substantially from the mid-Miocene (11 mmol/mol) to the Pliocene (9 mmol/mol) and modern (8.5 mmol/mol). A mass balance model of variations in seawater Sr concentrations suggests a long-term decrease through the Neogene, which we attribute to a significant increase in the proportion of aragonite versus calcite deposition in shallow waters. The largest change is coincident with the proliferation of coral reefs, which occurred after the calcite-aragonite sea transition, and was likely ultimately driven by ocean de-acidification. [1] Sosdian et al. (2006) Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G3) 7, Q11023, doi:10.1029/2005GC001233; [2

  3. MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) as novel photocatalysts: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei, E-mail:; Wang, Shuobo; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail:; Han, Xu


    Novel quaternary photocatalysts MBiO{sub 2}Cl (M=Sr, Ba) have been successfully developed for efficient photodecomposition of RhB. Their photocatalytic mechanism was also investigated. - Highlights: • Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were explored as photocatalysts. • They were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction. • RhB can be effectively photodecomposed by SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl under UV light. • ·OH radicals serving as active species play important roles in degradation process. - Abstract: Two Bi-based compounds SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction and investigated as new photocatalysts for the first time. Their microstructures and optical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM and DRS. The band gaps of SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl were separately determined to be 3.52 and 3.71 eV, and their E{sub CB} and E{sub VB} were also estimated. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution. The results revealed that both SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl can be used as effective photocatalysts under UV irradiation, and SrBiO{sub 2}Cl exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than BaBiO{sub 2}Cl, which was also verified by the PL spectra. Terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing technique (TA-PL) demonstrated that ·OH radicals serving as active species play an important role in photooxidative degradation of RhB over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl and BaBiO{sub 2}Cl. Moreover, a larger amount of ·OH radicals generation was observed over SrBiO{sub 2}Cl, which is in agreement with its higher photocatalytic activity.

  4. Climate, productivity, and intermediate water nutrients: new records from bamboo coral Ba/Ca (United States)

    Lavigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T. P.


    A geochemical nutrient proxy from deep-sea corals would provide decadal to centennial scale records of intermediate-water nutrient dynamics. Such records could be used to determine how intermediate water masses (300-2000m) are affected by decadal scale climate change (e.g. Pacific Decadal Oscillation) via carbon cycling, export production, and intermediate water-mass circulation/ventilation. Because seawater barium (BaSW ) has a nutrient-like distribution in the water-column (similar to silicate), Ba/Ca records have been used to trace upwelled nutrient supply in shallow water surface corals isolated from terrestrial barium sources. Here we show the first calibration of a nutrient proxy from skeletal barium preserved in the calcitic internodes of bamboo corals. Our calibration was calculated from a depth transect (500-2000m) of Isidella and Keratoisis corals spanning a silicate and (BaSW ) gradient on the California Margin (Ba/Ca coral (µmol/mol) = 0.117 BaSW (nmol/kg ) + 0.835; R2 = 0.88; n = 29). The strong linear correlation between Ba/Ca coral and BaSW suggests that coral Ba/Ca is a reliable recorder of seawater barium (and, therefore, silicate). We find a distribution coefficient (DBa) for bamboo coral Ba/Ca of 1.3±0.1, similar to that of other corals (surface and deep-sea dwelling) and inorganic calcium carbonate precipitation experiments (DBa = 1.2-1.5). This implies that, as true for other carbonates, Ba incorporation is primarily driven by ionic substitution and holds promise as a globally applicable nutrient proxy in bamboo corals. High-resolution Ba/Ca timeseries records sampled via LA-ICP-MS in two co-located California Margin corals (Pioneer Seamount; 830m; 37°22’27”N) co-vary with ~decadal-scale variations in silicate and nitrate measured at 500m depth (CalCOFI line 80 sta. 60; 34°8’60”N). This suggests that high-resolution records of bamboo coral Ba/Ca can be used to reconstruct broad changes in intermediate water nutrients driven by

  5. Crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film capacitors on (Ba,Sr)TiO3-buffered substrates (United States)

    Maki, Hisashi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kutsuna, Kazutoshi; Matsuo, Hiroki; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Miyayama, Masaru


    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) thin-film capacitors with a buffer layer of (Ba1- x Sr x )TiO3 (BST) have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) single-crystal substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method, and the crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping shows that the BST buffer effectively reduces the misfit strain relaxation of the BT films on SrRuO3 (SRO) electrodes. The BT capacitor with the SRO electrodes on the BST (x = 0.3) buffer exhibits a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a remanent polarization of 29 µC/cm2. The hysteresis loop displays a shift toward a specific field direction, which is suggested to stem from the flexoelectric coupling between the out-of-plane polarization and the strain gradient adjacent to the bottom interface.

  6. Genesis of the Khaluta alkaline-basic Ba-Sr carbonatite complex (West Transbaikala, Russia) (United States)

    Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Ripp, German S.; Moore, Kathryn R.


    The Khaluta carbonatite complex comprizes fenites, alkaline syenites and shonkinites, and calcite and dolomite carbonatites. Textural and compositional criteria, melt inclusions, geochemical and isotopic data, and comparisons with relevant experimental systems show that the complex formed by liquid immiscibility of a carbonate-saturated parental silicate melt. Mineral and stable isotope geothermometers and melt inclusion measurements for the silicate rocks and carbonatite all give temperatures of crystallization of 915-1,000°C and 890-470°C, respectively. Melt inclusions containing sulphate minerals, and sulphate-rich minerals, most notably apatite and monazite, occur in all of the lithologies in the Khaluta complex. All lithologies, from fenites through shonkinites and syenites to calcite and dolomite carbonatites, and to hydrothermal mineralisation are further characterized by high Ba and Sr activity, as well as that of SO3 with formation of the sulphate minerals baryte, celestine and baryte-celestine. Thus, the characteristic features of the Khaluta parental melt were elevated concentrations of SO3, Ba and Sr. In addition to the presence of SO3, calculated fO2 for magnetites indicate a high oxygen fugacity and that Fe+3>Fe+2 in the Khaluta parental melt. Our findings suggest that the mantle source for Khaluta carbonatite and associated rocks, as well as for other carbonatites of the West Transbaikalia carbonatite province, were SO3-rich and characterized by high oxygen fugacity.

  7. Impedance spectroscopy of Ba3Sr2DyTi3V7O30 ceramic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P S Sahoo; A Panigrahi; S K Patri; R N P Choudhary


    Polycrystalline sample of Ba3Sr2DyTi3V7O30 was prepared at 950°C using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray structural analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters: = 12.2719 (39) Å, = 8.9715(39) Å and = 19.7812(39) Å. Microstructural study showed densely packed uniform distribution of grains over the surface of the sample. The a.c. impedance plots were used as tools to analyse the electrical response of the sample as a function of frequency at different temperatures (30–500°C). These plots revealed the presence of grain boundary effect, from 200°C onwards. Complex impedance analysis showed non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation. The Nyquist plots showed the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character of Ba3Sr2DyTi3V7O30. A hopping mechanism of electrical transport processes in the system is evident from the modulus analysis. The activation energy of the compound (calculated both from loss and modulus spectrum) is the same, and hence the relaxation process may be attributed to the same type of charge carrier.

  8. Dependence of the Sr-to-Ba and Sr-to-Eu Ratio on the Nuclear Equation of State in Metal Poor Halo Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Famiano, M A; Aoki, W; Suda, T


    A model is proposed in which the light r-process element enrichment in metal-poor stars is explained via enrichment from a truncated r-process, or "tr-process." The truncation of the r-process from a generic core-collapse event followed by a collapse into an accretion-induced black hole is examined in the framework of a galactic chemical evolution model. The constraints on this model imposed by observations of extremely metal-poor stars are explained, and the upper limits in the [Sr/Ba] distributions are found to be related to the nuclear equation of state in a collapse scenario. The scatter in [Sr/Ba] and [Sr/Eu] as a function of metallicity has been found to be consistent with turbulent ejection in core collapse supernovae. Adaptations of this model are evaluated to account for the scatter in isotopic observables. This is done by assuming mixing in ejecta in a supernova event.

  9. BaMnO3 and Ba1/2Sr1/2MnO3 Nanoparticles Synthesized by CHM Method%CHM法合成BaMnO3、Ba1/2Sr1/2MnO3纳米晶体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏川茴; 胡陈果; 韩向宇; 王娜; 张祖伟


    采用复合碱媒介法(CHM),以BaCl和MnO2为原料在200 ℃、24 h的生长条件下合成了纳米BaMnO3单晶颗粒.采用同样方法,以Sr(NO3)2、BaCO3以及MnO2为原料,在200 ℃、24 h的生长条件下,用50%的Sr替代50%的Ba,成功合成了Ba1/2Sr1/2MnO3.用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)及能量散射X射线谱(EDS)对产物的晶相、形貌和成分进行了分析,并且解释了BaMnO3及Ba1/2Sr1/2MnO3的生长机理.

  10. The isotypic family of the diarsenates MM'As{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M = Sr, Ba; M' = Cd, Hg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Matthias [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. for Chemical Technologies and Analytics


    The diarsenates MM'As{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M = Sr, Ba; M' = Cd, Hg) were prepared under hydrothermal conditions (∝200 C, autogenous pressure), starting from As{sub 2}O{sub 5} and the corresponding metal oxides or precursor compounds thereof in aqueous solutions. Structure analyses on the basis of single crystal X-ray data revealed the four structures to be isotypic. They are the first diarsenates to crystallize in the triclinic BaZnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure type (space group P anti 1, Z = 2, a ∼ 5.8 Aa, b ∼ 7.3 Aa, c ∼ 7.6 Aa, α ∼ 101 , β ∼ 91 , γ ∼ 98 ). All related MM'As{sub 2}O{sub 7} diarsenates reported so far (M = Sr, Ba, Pb; M' = Mg, Co, Cu, Zn) crystallize in the monoclinic α-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure type (P2{sub 1}/n, Z = 4). Hence, the size of the divalent M' cation determines which of the two structure types is adopted.

  11. Adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} by Ca-exchange clinoptilolite tuff and montmorillonite clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, M.L., E-mail: [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Pablo, L. de, E-mail: [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Garcia, T.A., E-mail: [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    The adsorption of barium by Ca-exchanged clinoptilolite and montmorillonite is presented. The kinetics of adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} were evaluated contacting 1 g portion of each adsorber with 100 mL 0.1N BaCl{sub 2} for 200 h. Adsorption by Ca-clinoptilolite is defined by second-order kinetics of rate constant K{sub v} 8.232 x 10{sup -2} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1} and maximum removal of 71.885 mg g{sup -1}. It is a two-stage process initiated by a rapid uptake of Ba{sup 2+} followed by more moderate kinetics. The adsorption isotherms were determined contacting 0.2 g of each adsorber with 10 mL 0.1-0.005N BaCl{sub 2} + CaCl{sub 2} solution, Ba{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratio 1, for periods of 7 days for the tuff and 2 days for the clay. The equilibrium adsorption is described by the Langmuir model, of equilibrium constant K 0.0151 L mg{sup -1} and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g{sup -1}. The adsorption of Ba{sup 2+} by Ca-exchanged montmorillonite also follows a second-order reaction of rate constant K{sub v} 3.179 x 10{sup -2} g mg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and calculated separation of 36.74 mg g{sup -1}; the Langmuir isotherm is defined by the constant K 0.034 L mg{sup -1} and maximum adsorption of 15.29 mg g{sup -1}. X-ray diffraction shows that the exchange of Ba{sup 2+} modifies the d{sub 001} of Ca-montmorillonite from 15.4 to 12.4 A.

  12. Thin films of the Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductor (United States)

    Mei, YU; Luo, H. L.; Hu, Roger


    Using RF sputtering technique, thin films of near single phase Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x) were successfully prepared on SrTiO3(100), MgO(100), and LaAlO3(012) substrates. Zero resistance of these films occurred in the range of 90-105 K.

  13. Rarotonga Sr/Ca and SST Reconstruction Data for 1726 to 1997 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 271 year record of Sr/Ca variability in a coral from Rarotonga in the South Pacific gyre. Calibration with monthly sea surface temperature (SST) from satellite and...

  14. Elastic and anelastic anomalies in (Ca,Sr)TiO perovskites: Analogue behaviour for silicate perovskites


    Walsh, J.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Buckley, A.; Darling, T.W.; Schreuer, J.; Carpenter, M.A.


    Elastic and anelastic anomalies in (Ca,Sr)TiO3 perovskites: Analogue behaviour for silicate perovskites UNITED KINGDOM (Walsh, J.W.) UNITED KINGDOM Received: 2007-10-30 Revised: 2008-02-18 Accepted: 2008-02-27

  15. Dielectric tunable properties of BaTi4Og-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 microwave composite ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JingJi; ZHAI JiWei; JIANG HaiTao; YAO Xi


    BaTi4O9-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) composite ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction and their structure, dielectric nonlinear characteristics and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The secondary phase of the orthorhombic structure Ba4Ti13O30 is formed among BST composite ceramics with the increase of BaTi4O9. At the same time, a duplex or bimodal grains size distribution shows fine grains in a coarse grain matrix. The degree of frequency dispersion of dielectric permittivity below Tm is increased initially and then decreased with respect to BaTi4O9. As the BaTi4O9 content increases, the tunability of composite ceramics decreases, while the Q value increases. Inter-estingly, 70 wt% BaTi4O9-doped BST has a tunability -4.0% (under 30 kV/cm biasing) versus a permit-tivity ~68 and quality factor ~134.1 (at ~3.2 GHz).

  16. Dielectric tunable properties of BaTi4O9-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 microwave composite ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BaTi4O9-doped Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) composite ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction and their structure, dielectric nonlinear characteristics and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The secondary phase of the orthorhombic structure Ba4Ti13O30 is formed among BST composite ceramics with the increase of BaTi4O9. At the same time, a duplex or bimodal grains size distribution shows fine grains in a coarse grain matrix. The degree of frequency dispersion of dielectric permittivity below Tm is increased initially and then decreased with respect to BaTi4O9. As the BaTi4O9 content increases, the tunability of composite ceramics decreases, while the Q value increases. Inter-estingly, 70 wt% BaTi4O9-doped BST has a tunability ~4.0% (under 30 kV/cm biasing) versus a permit- tivity ~68 and quality factor ~134.1 (at ~3.2 GHz).

  17. Bamboo coral skeletal Sr/Ca: An indicator of growth rate or other vital effects? (United States)

    Hill, T. M.; Lavigne, M.; Spero, H. J.; Guilderson, T. P.


    Research has demonstrated that intermediate waters (300-2000m) may play an important role in forcing and responding to perturbations to the climate system, via circulation (ventilation), temperature, carbon cycling, and nutrients. Here we investigate the geochemistry of deep-sea bamboo corals, collected on a transect across intermediate water depths (250-2500m) on the California margin. Radiocarbon dating of the calcite skeleton of coral specimens indicates that bamboo corals live for centuries, with growth rates of ~50-100 microns/year, consistent with previous bamboo coral investigations (Roark et al., 2005). Although skeletal Sr/Ca is typically interpreted as a temperature proxy in aragonitic surface corals, it is less clear what factors influence the incorporation of Sr/Ca in calcitic deep sea corals. Recent results indicate that while a strong vital effect is present in bamboo coral stable isotopes (d18O, d13C), Sr/Ca ratios do not covary with isotopic values, indicating different biological or growth factors must control these tracers. Laser ablation ICPMS results from California margin bamboo corals show reproducible Sr/Ca variations in agreement with the timing of PDO shifts for corals collected from different California margin locations. Synchronous coral Sr/Ca and PDO index variability suggest that bamboo coral Sr/Ca trends are related to PDO phase, and may be dictated by surface-driven processes such as food source, quality, or quantity. These results suggest that intermediate waters are impacted by surface water environmental shifts such as changes in productivity and carbon export. Additional work is required to determine whether such shifts in Sr/Ca are apparent through multiple PDO cycles, and to understand the origin of Sr/Ca shifts.

  18. Investigation of Adsorption Behavior of Ba and Other Fission Products on the Sr·spc Chromatographic Column by Static Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Lei; MA; Peng; YANG; Su-liang; LIANG; Xiao-hu


    <正>Adsorption behavior of Ba, Cs and some other fission products on the Sr·spc resin has been investigated for the purpose of extracting 141Ba from the fission product. Sr·spc resin with the main functional group of 18-crown-6 ether was purchased from US. Eichrom Company. Tracers of Ba, Cs and some other fission products were acquired from an irradiated U target.

  19. Thermoluminescence studies of bismuth doped Ba xCa 1- xS nanostructures (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Nafa


    Bismuth doped Ba 1- xCa xS:Bi ( x=0-1) nanocrystallities have been prepared by the solid state reaction method and characterized by XRD and TEM. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the formation of the compounds in cubic structure at room temperature. Only partial replacement of Ba is possible and we found that Ba 0.5Ca 0.5S:Bi could not be prepared due to the difference between ionic radii of barium and calcium. Thermoluminescence studies of these samples after exposure to UV radiation have been carried out. The TL glow curve of Ba xCa 1 -xS:Bi has been found to be a simple structure with a single peak at 405, 428 and 503 K for x=1, 0.8 and 0, respectively. The kinetic parameters at various heating rates namely activation energy ( E), order of kinetics ( b) and frequency factor ( s) of the Ba 1- xCa xS:Bi ( x=0.2) (0.4 mol%) sample have been determined using Chen’s method. The deconvolution of curve was done using the GCD function suggested by Kitis. The effect of different heating rates and different amount of dose has also been discussed.

  20. Hydrostatic pressure effect on the superconducting properties of BaBi3 and SrBi3 single crystals (United States)

    Jha, Rajveer; Avila, Marcos A.; Ribeiro, Raquel A.


    We demonstrate the superconducting properties of, and hydrostatic pressure effect on, BaBi3 and SrBi3 superconductors. We measure the dc magnetic susceptibility under hydrostatic pressure for both compounds, which shows a positive pressure coefficient of dT c/dP = 1.22 K GPa-1 for BaBi3 and a negative pressure coefficient of dT c/dP = -0.43 K GPa-1 for SrBi3. The normal state electrical resistivity shows that both compounds are highly metallic in nature. The upper critical fields H c2 evaluated by resistivity under magnetic fields ρ(T,H) are 22 kOe for BaBi3 and 2.9 kOe for SrBi3. A specific heat jump of ΔC e/γT c = 1.05 suggests weak coupling superconductivity in BaBi3, whereas ΔC e/γT c = 2.08 for SrBi3 is higher than the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory value of 1.43, indicating a strong coupling superconductor.

  1. Dy$^{3+}$-activated M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr)-type phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The alkaline orthosilicates of M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr) activated with Dy$^{3+}$ and co-doped with Ho$^{3+}$ are prepared through conventional solid-state method, i.e., mixing and grinding of solid form precursors followedby high-temperature heat treatments of several hours in furnaces, generally under open atmosphere and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to get phase properties and photoluminescence (PL) analysis to get luminescenceproperties. The thermal behaviours of well-mixed samples were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetry (TG). The PL spectra show that the 478 and 572nm maximum emission bands are attributed, respectively, to ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{15/2}$ and ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{13/2}$ transitions of Dy$^{3+}$ ions.

  2. (Ba,Sr)TiO3 tunable capacitors with RF commutation quality factors exceeding 6000 (United States)

    Meyers, Cedric J. G.; Freeze, Christopher R.; Stemmer, Susanne; York, Robert A.


    The fabrication, measurement, and modeling of radio-frequency (RF), tunable interdigital capacitors (IDCs) are described. High quality factors of 200 in the S/L-bands combined with a 47% tunability are achieved by utilizing epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy on LaAlO3 substrates. The fabricated devices consisted of one-port and two-port IDCs embedded in ground-signal-ground, coplanar waveguide transmission lines to enable RF probing. Wideband RF scattering parameters under bias were measured from 100 MHz to 40 GHz. A commutation quality factor averaging 6000 across the L band is achieved. These are the highest reported values in this band.

  3. Room temperature epitaxial stabilization of a tetragonal phase in ARuO3 (A = Ca and Sr) thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vailionis, Arturas; Siemons, Wolter; Koster, Gertjan


    We demonstrate that SrRuO3 and CaRuO3 thin films undergo a room temperature structural phase transition driven by the substrate imposed epitaxial biaxial strain. As tensile strain increases, ARuO3 (A = Ca and Sr) films transform from the orthorhombic phase which is usually observed in bulk SrRuO3 an

  4. Solid state (47,49)Ti, (87)Sr and (137)Ba NMR characterisation of mixed barium/strontium titanate perovskites. (United States)

    Gervais, Christel; Veautier, Delphine; Smith, Mark E; Babonneau, Florence; Belleville, Philippe; Sanchez, Clément


    Solid state (47,49)Ti, (137)Ba, (87)Sr NMR spectra have been recorded on BaxSrl-xTiO3 (0 strontium) in the coordination second sphere of the probed titanium site: substitution of strontium by barium induces the broadening of the peaks, due to quadrupolar effects, while the isotropic chemical shift increases. (137)Ba NMR spectra exhibit a distribution of the quadrupolar interaction, that could be tentatively quantified, CQ increasing with the amount of strontium. Preliminary results were also obtained on (87)Sr NMR showing behaviour comparable to (137)Ba NMR, i.e. a broadening of the peaks due to an increasing quadrupolar interaction with the amount of barium distorting the environment of the strontium sites.

  5. Emission color variation of (Ba,Sr)3BP3O12:Eu2+ phosphors for white light LEDs. (United States)

    Kuo, Te-Wen; Liu, Wei-Ren; Chen, Teng-Ming


    A series of alkaline earth borophosphate phosphors, (Ba,Sr)(3)BP(3)O(12) doped with Eu(2+) ions, were synthesized by a solid state reaction. Two emission bands at 465 nm and 520 nm were attributed to the f-d transitions of doped Eu(2+) ions occupying in two different cation sites in host lattices and emission color variation was observed by substituting the M(2+) sites, which was rationalized in terms of two competing factors of the crystal field strength and bond covalence. Green and bluish-white pc-LEDs were fabricated by combination of a 370 nm near-UV chip and composition-optimized Ba(3)BP(3)O(12):Eu(2+) and (Ba,Sr)(3)BP(3)O(12):Eu(2+) phosphors, respectively. The series of phosphors may serve as a promising green and bluish-white luminescent materials used in fabrication of near UV-based white pc-LEDs.

  6. Crystal-chemical controls on the partitioning of Sr and Ba between plagioclase feldspar, silicate melts, and hydrothermal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundy, J.D.; Wood, B.J. (Bristol Univ. (England))


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the factors which control the partitioning of alkaline earth elements (Ba and Sr) between plagioclase feldspar and silicate melts, specifically the respective role of crystal chemistry, melt chemistry, and temperature. We have selected plagioclase because of the wealth of volcanic and experimental data, the compositional simplicity of plagioclase, and its relevance to many petrological problems. We begin our study by examining experimental data on Sr partitioning between plagioclase and hydrothermal solutions in an attempt to constrain the role of crystal chemistry. We establish a simple thermodynamic model for trace element partitioning between plagioclase and hydrothermal solutions. This treatment is then extended to the plagioclase-melt system using available data from both experimental and volcanic systems in order to derive a general equation for Sr and Ba partitioning. Finally we consider the geochemical applications and implications of our findings.

  7. Structural and crystallization behavior of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 borosilicate glasses (United States)

    Yadav, Avadhesh Kumar; Gautam, C. R.; Gautam, Arvind; Mishra, Vijay Kumar


    Various glass samples were prepared by melt quench technique in the glass system [(Ba1- x Sr x ) TiO3]-[2SiO2-B2O3]-[K2O] doped with 1 mole% of La2O3. Infrared spectra show the number of absorption peaks with different spliting in the wave number range from 450 to 4000 cm-1. Absorption peaks occurs due to asymetric vibrational streching of borate by relaxation of the bond B-O of trigonal BO3. Raman spectra show the Raman bands due to ring-type metaborate anions, symmetric breathing vibrations BO3 triangles replaced by BO4 tetrahedra, and symmetric breathing vibrations of six-member rings. The differential thermal analysis of a glass sample corresponding to composition x = 0.0 shows crystallization temperature at 847°C and glass transition temperature at 688°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of glass ceramic samples shows the major crystalline phase of BaTiO3 whereas pyrochlore phases of barium titanium silicate. Scanning electron micrographs confirm the results of XRD as barium titanate is major crystalline phase along with pyrochlore phase of barium titanium silicate.

  8. Transmission Electron Study of Heteroepitaxial Growth in the BiSrCaCuO System


    Chaiken, A.; Wall, M. A.; Howell, R. H.; Bozovic, I.; Eckstein, J.N.; Virshup, G. F.


    Films of Bi$\\rm _2$Sr$\\rm _2$CaCu$\\rm _2$O$\\rm _8$ and Bi$\\rm _2$Sr$\\rm _2$CuO$\\rm _6$ have been grown using Atomic-Layer-by-Layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy (ALL-MBE) on lattice-matched substrates. These materials have been combined with layers of closely-related metastable compounds like Bi$\\rm _2$Sr$\\rm _2$Ca$\\rm _7$Cu$\\rm _8$O$\\rm _{20}$ (2278) and rare-earth-doped compounds like Bi$\\rm _2$Sr$\\rm _2$Dy$\\rm _x$Ca$\\rm _{1-x}$Cu$\\rm _2$O$\\rm _8$ (Dy:2212) to form heterostructures with unique sup...

  9. A Preliminary study of Sr/Ca thermometry in Chang Islands, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wararat Sirianansakul


    Full Text Available Variations in ratios of strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca for two Porites sp. coral specimens collected from Wai (PW and Loa Ya (PLY islands, part of Chang islands, Gulf of Thailand, were determined. Inductively coupled plasma optimal emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to analyze this ratio, which demonstrates annual cycles and the data is assumed to reflect the sea surface temperature (SST. Comparing the ratios with SST data, following Sr/Ca–SST relationships were determined PW: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol = 11.56–0.070×SST, PLY: Sr/Ca (mmol/mol = 11.89–0.081×SST. Our correlations are different from those previously reported; a discrepancy that may involve differences in analytical methods employed and abnormally low sea surface salinity (SSS (<30 psu in the Gulf of Thailand.

  10. ABO3 (A = La, Ba, Sr, K; B = Co, Mn, Fe) perovskites for thermochemical energy storage (United States)

    Babiniec, Sean M.; Coker, Eric N.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Miller, James E.


    The use of perovskite oxides as a medium for thermochemical energy storage (TCES) in concentrating solar power systems is reported. The known reduction/oxidation (redox) active perovskites LaxSr1-xCoyMn1-yO3 (LSCM) and LaxSr1-xCoyFe1-yO3 (LSCF) were chosen as a starting point for such research. Materials of the LSCM and LSCF family were previously synthesized, their structure characterized, and thermodynamics reported for TCES operation. Building on this foundation, the reduction onset temperatures are examined for LSCM and LSCF compositions. The reduction extents and onset temperatures are tied to the crystallographic phase and reaction enthalpies. The effect of doping with Ba and K is discussed, and the potential shortcomings of this subset of materials families for TCES are described. The potential for long-term stability of the most promising material is examined through thermogravimetric cycling, scanning electron microscopy, and dilatometry. The stability over 100 cycles (450-1050 °C) of an LSCM composition is demonstrated.

  11. Complex permittivity and complex permeability of Sr ions substituted Ba ferrite at X-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Charanjeet [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab (India); Bindra Narang, S. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab (India)], E-mail:; Hudiara, I.S. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab (India); Sudheendran, K.; James Raju, K.C. [School of Physics, Central University Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)


    M-type hexagonal ferrite composition, Ba{sub (1-x)}Sr{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0), was prepared by a two route ceramic method. Complex permittivity ({epsilon}'-j{epsilon}'') and complex permeability ({mu}'-j{mu}'') have been measured using a network analyzer from 8.2 to 12.4 GHz X-ray diffraction confirmed the M-type hexagonal structure and a scanned electron micrograph was used to analyze the grain size distribution of ferrite. Substitution of Sr{sup 2+} ions causes an increase in porosity that deteriorates the electromagnetic and microstructural properties in the doped samples. Both dielectric constant and dielectric loss are enhanced in comparison to the permeability and magnetic loss over the entire frequency region. This is due to a resistivity variation and the formation of Fe{sup 2+} ions, which increases the hopping mechanism between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  12. Abundances of C, N, Sr and Ba on the red giant branch of omega Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, Laura M; Norris, John E


    Abundances relative to iron for carbon, nitrogen, strontium and barium are presented for 33 stars on the red giant branch of the globular cluster omega Centauri. They are based on intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data covering the blue spectral region analyzed using spectrum synthesis techniques. The data reveal the existence of a broad range in the abundances of these elements, and a comparison with similar data for main sequence stars enables insight into the evolutionary history of the cluster. The majority of the red giant branch stars were found to be depleted in carbon, i.e. [C/Fe]<0, while [N/Fe] for the same stars shows a range of ~1 dex, from [N/Fe]~0.7 to 1.7 dex. The strontium-to-iron abundance ratios varied from solar to mildly enhanced (0.0<=[Sr/Fe]<=0.8), with [Ba/Fe] generally equal to or greater than [Sr/Fe]. The carbon and nitrogen abundance ratios for the one known CH star in the sample, ROA 279, are [C/Fe]=0.6 and [N/Fe]=0.5 dex. Evidence for evolutionary mixing on the red gia...

  13. Amounts of Sr and Ca eluted from deciduous enamel to artificial saliva related to dental caries. (United States)

    Enomoto, Ayaka; Tanaka, Toshiko; Kawagishi, Shigenori; Nakashima, Hideaki; Watanabe, Koji; Maki, Kenshi


    This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between dental caries and the levels of Sr and Ca eluted from enamel, and to examine whether these elements are useful as factors to assess caries risk. The available 103 (Sr) and 108 (Ca) samples were obtained among 111 collected deciduous teeth. The healthy regions of enamel were decalcified in artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 5.5. The eluted levels of these elements from enamel were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sr and Ca levels were not affected by the sex nor tooth type. Sr levels of the caries-experienced tooth (CE) group were 2.6-fold (pH 6.2) and 2.2-fold (pH 5.5) higher than those of the sound tooth (ST) group, respectively. Furthermore, the Sr levels were significantly higher in the teeth with treated than in those with untreated caries. Only at pH 6.2 was a significant difference found in Ca levels between the ST and CE groups. In the ST group, at pH 5.5, both the Sr and Ca levels significantly increased when the children had six or more carious teeth. The Sr and Ca elution levels were significantly inhibited in the teeth receiving fluoride application every 3 or 4 months compared to those that were not. These findings indicate that Sr can be an indicator of the acid resistance of teeth, and a useful factor to assess future caries risk.

  14. Tectonic forcing of early to middle jurassic seawater Sr/Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph


    The Jurassic Period (ca. 201–145 Ma) is marked by fundamental reorganizations of paleogeography, paleoceanography, ecosystems, and the progressive shift from aragonite to calcite as the favored marine biogenic carbonate polymorph. Sr/Ca ratios of well-preserved Jurassic oysters and belemnites from...

  15. Effects of Ba doping on physical properties of La-Ca-Mn-O thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, N H; Sakai, J; Iwasaki, H


    Transport and magnetic properties of La-Ba-Ca-Mn-O thin films fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique had been investigated systematically to see the effects of substitution of the small atom Ca by Ba which is much bigger. The induced insulator-to-metal (IM) transition was obtained not only in compositions near 0.5 and 0.18 which are boundaries between metallic and insulating phases but also in the heavily doped region. In the region of x > 0.5, the Ba doping causes an anomalous response of the system to the magnetic field and a positive magnetoresistance was observed. Besides, our results concerning the vicinity of 0.5 imply the existence of phase separation. As for x < 0.5, the doping enhances remarkably the paramagnetism-ferromagnetism transition and the IM transition temperatures.

  16. Tracing thermal aquifers of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system (México) with 87Sr/ 86Sr, Ca/Sr and REE (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y. A.; Lounejeva, E.; Solís-Pichardo, G.; Rouwet, D.; Bernard-Romero, R. A.


    The volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, is characterized by numerous thermal manifestations including an acid lake, steam vents and boiling springs in the crater and acid and neutral hot springs and steaming ground on the flanks. Previous research on major element chemistry reveals that thermal waters of El Chichón can be divided in two groups: (1) neutral waters discharging in the crater and southern slopes of the volcano with chloride content ranging from 1500 to 2200 mg/l and (2) acid-to-neutral waters with Cl up to 12,000 mg/l discharging at the western slopes. Our work supports the concept that each group of waters is derived from a separate aquifer (Aq. 1 and Aq. 2). In this study we apply Sr isotopes, Ca/Sr ratios and REE abundances along with the major and trace element water chemistry in order to discriminate and characterize these two aquifers. Waters derived from Aq. 1 are characterized by 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70407 to 0.70419, while Sr concentrations range from 0.1 to 4 mg/l and Ca/Sr weight ratios from 90 to 180, close to average values for the erupted rocks. Waters derived from Aq. 2 have 87Sr/ 86Sr between 0.70531 and 0.70542, high Sr concentrations up to 80 mg/l, and Ca/Sr ratio of 17-28. Aquifer 1 is most probably shallow, composed of volcanic rocks and situated beneath the crater, within the volcano edifice. Aquifer 2 may be situated at greater depth in sedimentary rocks and by some way connected to the regional oil-gas field brines. The relative water output (l/s) from both aquifers can be estimated as Aq. 1/Aq. 2-30. Both aquifers are not distinguishable by their REE patterns. The total concentration of REE, however, strongly depends on the acidity. All neutral waters including high-salinity waters from Aq. 2 have very low total REE concentrations (hydrothermal vapors, REE distribution in thermal waters reflects the dissolution of volcanic rocks close to the surface or lake sediments as is the case

  17. Solubility of BaS in BaO-BaF2 slag and the Influence of FeOx, SiO2, Cr2O3, BaCI2, CaO, and MgO on the sulfide capacity of this system (United States)

    Rachev, Ivan P.; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo


    The influence of SiO2, FeOx, Cr2O3, BaCl2, CaO, and MgO on the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system was measured at 1473 K, using a gas-slag-metal equilibration technique. It was found that the substitution of BaF2 by SiO2, FeOx, Cr2O3, and BaCl2 decreases the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system. Similar results were obtained for the carbonate capacity. The CaO-saturated BaO-BaF2 flux, however, was found to have slightly higher sulfide and carbonate capacities than the pure BaO-BaF2 flux. The solubility of CaO increased with increasing BaF2 content and was 18 mol pet in BaF2 at 1473 K. The solubility of MgO in the BaO-BaF2 system at the same temperature is very low, and it has no effect on the sulfide and carbonate capacities. The solubility of BaS in the BaO-BaF2 system was also measured at 1473 K and had its maximum for the slag containing 40 mass pet BaO. The activity of BaO in the system was calculated from those data.

  18. Sr, Ca, and C isotope systematic in small tropical catchments, La Selva, Costa Rica (United States)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Schwendenmann, L.


    Sr, Ca, and C isotopes were analyzed to assess sources and biogeochemical processes affecting surface and groundwater composition of four small catchments located at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were employed to quantify inputs from mineral weathering and atmospheric sources. δ13C values of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and δ44Ca values provide information on biological processes that affect water chemistry. Sr2+ and Ca2+ concentrations of surface and groundwater show large variations due to intermixture of bedrock groundwater with local groundwater [1]. Low 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggest weathering of volcanic rocks as the primary solute source in bedrock groundwater, while atmospheric and in situ weathering contributions are predominant in local groundwater. Contributions of bedrock groundwater constitute > 60 % in the Salto, Saltito and Arboleda catchments, whereas the Taconazo catchment receives atmospheric inputs of > 95 % in addition to local weathering contributions. Surface water and groundwater wells show δ13C-DOC values between -24 ‰ and -30 ‰ due to transfer of organic carbon from the soil zone. δ44Ca values of dissolved Ca2+ in surface and groundwater are considerably fractionated from the input sources rainwater and bedrock groundwater. Light δ44Ca values are preferentially distributed in stream water and shallow groundwater horizons and contrast with heavy Ca isotopes in deeper groundwater wells. Biological processes including plant uptake and decomposition in combination with cation exchange processes in the soils may explain the fractionation of Ca isotopes. [1]Genereux et al., 2009. Water Resour. Res, 45, W08413, doi:10.1029/2008WR007630

  19. Halide Free M(BH4)2 (M = Sr, Ba, and Eu) Synthesis, Structure, and Decomposition. (United States)

    Sharma, Manish; Didelot, Emilie; Spyratou, Alexandra; Lawson Daku, Latévi Max; Černý, Radovan; Hagemann, Hans


    Borohydrides have attained high interest in the past few years due to their high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen content. Synthesis of di/trimetallic borohydride is a way to alter the thermodynamics of hydrogen release from borohydrides. Previously reported preparations of M(BH4)2 involved chloride containing species such as SrCl2. The presence of residual chloride (or other halide) ions in borohydrides may change their thermodynamic behavior and their decomposition pathway. Pure monometallic borohydrides are needed to study decomposition products without interference from halide impurities. They can also be used as precursors for synthesizing di/trimetallic borohydrides. In this paper we present a way to synthesize halide free alkaline earth metal (Sr, Ba) and europium borohydrides starting with the respective hydrides as precursors. Two novel high temperature polymorphs of Sr and Eu borohydrides and four polymorphs of Ba borohydride have been characterized by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, thermal analysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy and supported by periodic DFT calculations. The decomposition routes of these borohydrides have also been investigated. In the case of the decomposition of strontium and europium borohydrides, the metal borohydride hydride (M(BH4)H3, M = Sr, Eu) is observed and characterized. Periodic DFT calculations performed on room temperature Ba(BH4)2 revealed the presence of bidentate and tridentate borohydrides.

  20. XANES at Eu-L3 edge and valence of europium in SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Hong- Bin(梁宏斌); HU, Tian-Dou(胡天斗); WANG, Shu-Bin(王淑彬); ZENG, Qing-Hua(曾庆华); PEI, Zhi-Wu(裴治武); SU, Qiang(苏锵)


    The luminescent materials SrB4O7: Eu and BaB8O13: Eu were synthesized, and the valence states of europium in the materials were measured by means of XANES at Eu-L3 edge. It is found that the Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions are all present in the materials, and more Eu3+ ions can be reduced in SrB4O7:Eu than in BaB8O13:Eu. The excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+in SrB4O7:Eu and BaB8O13:Eu were determined.

  1. Elemental intermixing within an ultrathin SrRuO3 electrode layer in epitaxial heterostructure BaTiO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Zhang


    Full Text Available Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to directly observe atom columns in an epitaxial BaTiO3 thin film deposited on a 3.6 nm-thick SrRuO3 electrode layer above an SrTiO3 (001 substrate. Compositional gradients across the heterointerfaces were examined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy techniques. It was found that a small amount of Ba and Ti had diffused into the SrRuO3 layer, and that this layer contained a non-negligible concentration of oxygen vacancies. Such point defects are expected to degrade the electrode’s electronic conductivity drastically, resulting in a much longer screening length. This may explain the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretical estimates of the ferroelectric critical thickness of a BaTiO3 ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between metallic SrRuO3 electrodes, since theoretical calculations generally assume ideal (stoichiometric perovskite SrRuO3.

  2. Elemental intermixing within an ultrathin SrRuO{sub 3} electrode layer in epitaxial heterostructure BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H. B.; Qi, R. J.; Ding, N. F.; Sun, L. [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Huang, R., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Duan, C. G., E-mail:; Chu, J. H. [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Fisher, Craig A. J. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Ikuhara, Y. [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to directly observe atom columns in an epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin film deposited on a 3.6 nm-thick SrRuO{sub 3} electrode layer above an SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate. Compositional gradients across the heterointerfaces were examined using electron energy-loss spectroscopy techniques. It was found that a small amount of Ba and Ti had diffused into the SrRuO{sub 3} layer, and that this layer contained a non-negligible concentration of oxygen vacancies. Such point defects are expected to degrade the electrode’s electronic conductivity drastically, resulting in a much longer screening length. This may explain the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretical estimates of the ferroelectric critical thickness of a BaTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric barrier sandwiched between metallic SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes, since theoretical calculations generally assume ideal (stoichiometric) perovskite SrRuO{sub 3}.

  3. Effect of low level substitution of Sr–Ba on transport and magnetic behaviour of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Munirathinam; M Krishnaiah; M Manivel Raja; S Arumugam; K Porsezian


    In this paper we report the investigation of transition metal oxide compound, La0.67Ca0.25Sr0.04Ba0.04MnO3 (LCSBMO), along with La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO), synthesized by sol–gel route under identical conditions. The effect of simultaneous low level substitution of large size ions such as Sr2+ and Ba2+ for Ca2+ ions on the electronic transport and magnetic susceptibility properties are analysed and compared apart from microstructure and lattice parameters. The temperature dependent electrical transport of the polycrystalline pellets of LCSBMO and LCMO when obeying the well studied law, ρ = ρ0 + ρ2 2 for < MI, is observed to differ by more than 50% from the values of ρ0 and ρ2, with the former compound showing enhanced electrical conductivity than the latter. Similarly in fitting the adiabatic small polaron model for resistivity data of both the samples for > MI, the polaron activation energy is found to differ by about 11%. In addition, the temperature dependent a.c. magnetic susceptibility study of the compounds shows a shift of about 6% in the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature (285 K for LCSBMO and 270 K for LCMO).

  4. Processing Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from amorphous state (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Freiman, S. W.; Wong-Ng, W.; Hwang, N. M.; Shapiro, A. J.; Hill, M. D.; Cook, L. P.; Shull, R. D.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Bennett, L. H.


    Researchers produced superconducting ceramics of the Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system started from a glass. To form the glass, the mixed oxide powder was melted at 1200 C in air. The liquid was quenched rapidly by pouring it onto an aluminum plate and rapidly pressing with another plate. The quenched compound was in the form of black amorphous solid, whose x-ray powder pattern has no crystalline peaks. After heat treatment at high temperatures, the glass crystallized into a superconductor. The crystalline phases in the superconductor identified using x-ray diffraction patterns. These phases were that associated with the superconducting phases of T(sub c) = 80 K (Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2Ox) and of T(sub c) = 110 K (Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3Ox). The dc resistivity and the ac susceptibility of these superconductors were studied.

  5. K-Ca and Rb-Sr Dating of Lunar Granite 14321 Revisited (United States)

    Simon, Justin I.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.


    K-Ca and Rb-Sr age determinations were made for a bulk feldspar-rich portion of an Apollo rock fragment of the pristine lunar granite clast (14321,1062), an acid-leached split of the sample, and the leachate. K-Ca and Rb-Sr data were also obtained for a whole rock sample of Apollo ferroan anorthosite (FAN, 15415). The recent detection [1] of widespread intermediate composition plagioclase indicates that the generation of a diversity of evolved lunar magmas maybe more common and therefore more important to our understanding of crust formation than previously believed. Our new data strengthen the K-Ca and Rb-Sr internal isochrons of the well-studied Apollo sample 14321 [2], which along with a renewed effort to study evolved lunar magmas will provide an improved understanding of the petrogenetic history of evolved rocks on the Moon.

  6. Neutron diffraction studies on Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 solid solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Achary; O D Jayakumar; S J Patwe; A B Shinde; P S R Krishna; S K Kulshreshtha; A K Tyagi


    Herein we report the results of detailed crystallographic studies of Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 compositions from combined Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. All the studied compositions crystallize in rhombohedral lattice (space group R-3 No. 148). A continuous solid solution is concluded from the systematic variation of unit cell parameters. The variation of unit cell parameters with the composition indicates decreasing trend in parameter with increasing Ba2+ concentration contrast to an increasing trend in parameter.

  7. The first-principles study of ferroelectric behaviours of PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhen-Ye; Wang Biao; Wang Hai; Zheng Yue; Li Qing-Kun


    We have performed the first-principles calculation to investigate the origins of ferroelectricities and different polarization behaviours of superlattices BaTiO3/SrTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3- The density of state (DOS) and electronic charge profiles show that there are strong hybridizations between atoms Ti and O and between atoms Pb and O which play very important roles in producing the ferroelectricities of superlattices BaTiO3/rTiO3 and PbTiO3/SrTiO3. Owing to the decline of internal electric field in SrTiO3 (ST) layer, the tetragonality and polarizations of superlattices decrease with increasing the fraction of SrTiO3 in the superlattices. We find that the polarization of PbTiO3/SrTiO3 is largerthan that of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 at the same ratio of components, because the polarization mismatch between PbTiO3 and SrTiO3 is larger than that between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. The polarization and tetragonality are enhanced with respect to those of bulk tetragonal BaTiO3 in the superlattices BaTiO3/SrTiO3, while the polarization and tetragonality are reduced with respect to those of bulk tetragonal PbTiO3 in superlattices PbTiO3/SrTiO3.

  8. Structure Refinement of (Sr,BaNb2O6 Ceramic Powder from Neutron and X-Rays Diffraction Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Carrio


    Full Text Available The structure of polycrystalline strontium barium niobate at room temperature was refined by the Rietveld method. Sintered ceramic samples were used to collect powder neutron and X-ray diffraction data. The ratio Sr/Ba ~ 64/36 was found from the initial batch composition Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6, corroborating with the quantitative X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS measurements. The structure is tetragonal with cell parameters a, b = 12.4504(3 Å and c = 3.9325(1 Å and space group P4bm. It was not necessary to introduce any positional disorder for the oxygen atoms. Cation Nb+5 displacements not parallel to the c direction are presented, which can influence the behavior of the ferroelectric properties.

  9. Magnetoelectric memory effect in the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22 (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Shen, Shi-Peng; Sun, Young


    We report on the magnetic and magnetoelectric properties of the Y-type hexaferrite BaSrZnMgFe12O22, which undergoes transitions from a collinear ferrimagnetic phase to a proper screw phase at 310 K and to a longitudinal conical phase at 45 K. Magnetic and electric measurements revealed that the magnetic structure with spiral spin order can be modified by applying a magnetic field, resulting in magnetically controllable electric polarization.It was observed that BaSrZnMgFe12O22 exhibits an anomalous magnetoelectric memory effect: the ferroelectric state can be partially recovered from the paraelectric phase with collinear spin structure by reducing magnetic field at 20 K. We ascribe this memory effect to the pinning of multiferroic domain walls, where spin chirality and structure are preserved even in the nonpolar collinear spin state. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11534015 and 51371193).

  10. Memristive behaviors in Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zheng [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Di, E-mail:; Li, Aidong [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We demonstrate memristive behaviors in Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor ferroelectric tunnel junctions, in which the semiconductor electrode can be switched between the accumulated and the depleted states by polarization reversal in the BaTiO{sub 3} barrier via the ferroelectric field effect. An extra barrier, against electron tunneling, forms in the depleted region of the Nb:SrTiO{sub 3} electrode surface, which together with the ferroelectric barrier itself modulate the tunneling resistance with the change of effective polarization. Continuous resistance modulation over four orders of magnitude is hence achieved by application of programmed voltage pulses with different polarity, amplitude, and repetition numbers, as a result of the development of the extra barrier.

  11. A coprecipitation technique to prepare Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Vadivel Murugan; A B Gaikwad; V Samuel; V Ravi


    An aqueous mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium hydroxide was used to coprecipitate barium and strontium ions as oxalates and niobium ions as hydroxide under basic conditions. This precursor on calcining at 750°C yielded Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 phase. This is a much lower temperature than that prepared by traditional solid state method (1000°C) as reported for the formation of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 (SBN). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations revealed that the average particle size was 80 nm for the calcined powders. The room temperature dielectric constant at 1 kHz was found to be 1100. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop parameters of these samples were also studied.

  12. NMR study of filled skutterudite superconductors MPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}(M=Sr,Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magishi, K., E-mail: [Inst. of Socio-Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Sugawara, H.; Ohta, N.; Saito, T.; Koyama, K. [Inst. of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The Univ. of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan)


    We report on the results of the {sup 195}Pt NMR measurements for MPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}(M=Sr,Ba) to clarify the microscopic electronic states at low temperatures. In SrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12} and BaPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}, the isotropic component of the Knight shift, that is, the contribution from the Pt 5s states is smaller than that in LaPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}. In the superconducting state, 1/T{sub 1} shows a small coherence peak just below T{sub C}, followed by an exponential decrease at low temperatures revealing on energy gap {Delta}/k{sub B}T{sub C}=1.6, which suggests a conventional BCS superconductor.

  13. Structural studies and c dependence in La2-DyCaBa2Cu4+O type mixed oxide superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rayaprol; Krushna Mavani; C M Thaker; D S Rana; Keka Chakravorty; S K Paranjape; M Ramanadham; Nilesh A Kulkarni; D G Kuberkar


    A new series of mixed oxide superconductors with the stoichiometric composition La2-DyCaBa2Cu4+O ( = 0.0 - 0.5, = 2) has been studied for structural and superconductiong properties. Our earlier studies on La2-(Y/Er)CaBa2Cu4+O series, show a strong dependence of c on hole concentration (sh). In the present work, the results of the analysis of the neutron diffraction measurements at room temprerature on = 0.3 and 0.5 samples are reported. It is interesting to know that Ca substitutes for both La and Ba site with concomitant displacement of La onto Ba site. Superconductivity studies show that maximum c is obtained for = 0.5, = 1.0 sample (c ∼ 75 K), for La1.5Dy0.5Ca1Ba2Cu5O (La-2125).

  14. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Prorok, Barton C.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Maroni, Victor A.


    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  15. Vacancy induced metallicity at the CaHfO3/SrTiO3 interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar


    Density functional theory is used to study the electronic properties of the oxide heterointerfaceCaHfO3/SrTiO3. Structural relaxation is carried out with and without O vacancies. As compared to related interfaces, strongly reduced octahedral distortions are found. Stoichiometric interfaces between the wide band gap insulatorsCaHfO3 and SrTiO3 turn out to exhibit an insulating state. However, interface metallicity is introduced by O vacancies, in agreement with experiment. The reduced octahedral distortions and necessity of O deficiency indicate a less complicated mechanism for the creation of the interfacial electron gas.

  16. Investigation of thermoluminescence characteristics of CaSrS: Ce nanophosphors (United States)

    Sharma, Geeta; Lochab, S. P.; Singh, Nafa


    Thermoluminescence characteristics of Ca 0.75Sr 0.25S: Ce nanophosphors exposed to UV radiations have been investigated. Solid state diffusion method was employed to synthesize the nanophosphors. The confirmation for the formation of the mixed lattice was done by XRD. The particles formed were found to have 45 nm size as calculated by the Debye Scherrer formula. TEM results were in close agreement with the XRD as the nanoparticles formed possess capsule like structure with an average diameter of 50 nm. TL glow curves for the low doses (110-1680 mJ/cm 2) of UV show a main peak around 381 K and another peak of very low intensity around 570 K. The TL intensity increases up to 450 mJ/cm 2 of UV exposure. At higher doses (3.5-80 J/cm 2) the peak position varies slightly but the high temperature peak becomes more intense. Thermoluminescence characteristics of UV irradiated Ca 1- xSr xS: Ce as a function of x (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) have also been investigated. TL glow curves of Ca 1- xSr xS: Ce (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) recorded after 450 mJ/cm 2 of exposure of UV radiations show almost similar structure except slight variation in the peak position. Ca 0.25Sr 0.75S: Ce and Ca 0.50Sr 0.50S: Ce have single peak at 373 and 367 K, respectively, while Ca 0.75Sr 0.25S: Ce has a main peak at 381 K and a less intense peak at 570 K. Ca 0.75Sr 0.25S: Ce shows the most intense TL peak. The trap parameters namely, activation energy ( E), order of kinetics ( b), and frequency factor ( s) of Ca 0.75Sr 0.25S: Ce have been determined using Chen’s peak shape method and GCD function suggested by Kitis for second order kinetics.

  17. Superconductivity in the high-Tc Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O system - Phase identification (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Prewitt, C. T.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N. L.; Finger, L. W.


    Four phases are observed in superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O samples. The superconducting phase, with onset temperature near 120 K, is a 15.4-A-layered compound with composition near Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2O9 and an A-centered orthorhombic unit subcell 5.41 x 5.44 x 30.78 A. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data are consistent with a structure of alternating perovskite and Bi2O2 layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal a b-axis superstructure of 27.2 A, numerous (001) stacking faults, and other defects.

  18. Study of non-stoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 oxide dedicated to semiconductor gas sensors (United States)

    Fasquelle, D.; Verbrugghe, N.; Deputier, S.


    Developing instrumentation systems compatible with the European RoHS directive (restriction of hazardous substances) to monitor our environment is of great interest for our society. Our research therefore aims at developing innovating integrated systems of detection dedicated to the characterization of various environmental exposures. These systems, which integrate new gas sensors containing lead-free oxides, are dedicated to the detection of flammable and toxic gases. We have firstly chosen to study semiconductor gas sensors implemented with lead-free oxides in view to develop RoHS devices. Therefore thick films deposited by spin-coating and screen-printing have been chosen for their robustness, ease to realize and ease to finally obtain cost-effective sensors. As crystalline defects and ionic vacancies are of great interest for gas detection, we have decided to study a non-stoichiometric composition of the BaSrTiFeO3 sensible oxide. Nonstoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 lead-free oxide thick films were deposited by screen-printing on polycrystalline AFO3 substrates covered by a layer of Ag-Pd acting as bottom electrode. The physical characterizations have revealed a crystalline structure mainly composed of BaTiO3 pseudo-cubic phase and Ba4Ti12O27 monoclinic phase for the powder, and a porous microstructure for the thick films. When compared to a BSTF thick film with a stoichiometric composition, a notable increase in the BSTF dielectric constant value was observed when taking into account of a similar microstructure and grain size. The loss tangent mean value varies more softly for the non-stoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 films than for the perovskite BSTF film as tanδ decreases from 0.45 to 0.04 when the frequency increases from 100 Hz to 1 MHz.

  19. Seawater nutrient and carbonate ion concentrations recorded as P/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca in the deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus (United States)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; Sherrell, Robert M.; Gagnon, Alex; LaVigne, Michele; Field, M. Paul; McDonough, William F.


    As paleoceanographic archives, deep sea coral skeletons offer the potential for high temporal resolution and precise absolute dating, but have not been fully investigated for geochemical reconstructions of past ocean conditions. Here we assess the utility of skeletal P/Ca, Ba/Ca and U/Ca in the deep sea coral D. dianthus as proxies of dissolved phosphate (remineralized at shallow depths), dissolved barium (trace element with silicate-type distribution) and carbonate ion concentrations, respectively. Measurements of these proxies in globally distributed D. dianthus specimens show clear dependence on corresponding seawater properties. Linear regression fits of mean coral Element/Ca ratios against seawater properties yield the equations: P/Ca coral (μmol/mol) = (0.6 ± 0.1) P/Ca sw(μmol/mol) - (23 ± 18), R2 = 0.6, n = 16 and Ba/Ca coral(μmol/mol) = (1.4 ± 0.3) Ba/Ca sw(μmol/mol) + (0 ± 2), R2 = 0.6, n = 17; no significant relationship is observed between the residuals of each regression and seawater temperature, salinity, pressure, pH or carbonate ion concentrations, suggesting that these variables were not significant secondary dependencies of these proxies. Four D. dianthus specimens growing at locations with Ωarag ⩽ 0.6 displayed markedly depleted P/Ca compared to the regression based on the remaining samples, a behavior attributed to an undersaturation effect. These corals were excluded from the calibration. Coral U/Ca correlates with seawater carbonate ion: U/Ca coral(μmol/mol) = (-0.016 ± 0.003) [CO32-] (μmol/kg) + (3.2 ± 0.3), R2 = 0.6, n = 17. The residuals of the U/Ca calibration are not significantly related to temperature, salinity, or pressure. Scatter about the linear calibration lines is attributed to imperfect spatial-temporal matches between the selected globally distributed specimens and available water column chemical data, and potentially to unresolved additional effects. The uncertainties of these initial proxy calibration regressions

  20. Luminescence, Concentration Quenching and Thermal Stability of White Emitting Phosphor Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huiling; ZHOU Fen; CAO Heying; GUO Mingchao; ZHAO Jiawei; WANG Zhijun; LIU Haiyan; GAO Shaojie; LI Panlai


    A white emitting phosphor Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ was synthesizedvia a high temperature solid state reaction at 1000℃ for 5 h. The luminescence, mole fraction quenching and thermal stability of Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ were investi-gated. According to the phase composition analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, there is no crystalline phase except Ba2Ca(BO3)2 in the sample. Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ can produce white emission under 348 nm excitation. The emission in-tensities of Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ are affected by Dy3+ concentration. The concentration quenching effect was analyzed, and the concentration quenching mechanism was verified as dipole-dipole interaction. The critical distance (Rc) obtained based on the crystal structure data is 2.911 nm. At 150℃, the emission intensity of Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ is 68.0% of the initial value at room temperature. The activation energy for the thermal quenching calculated is 0.202 eV. Moreover, the CIE chromaticity coordinates of Ba2Ca(BO3)2:Dy3+ locate in the white region of (0.319, 0.356).

  1. Microwave Absorbing Properties of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 (z = 0 – 3 Materials in XBand Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Edi Gunanto


    Full Text Available Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 (z = 0,1,2, and 3 were successfully synthesized by solid state reaction through a mechanical milling method. Stoichiometric quantities of analytical-grade MnCO3, BaCO3, Fe2O3, and SrCO3 precursors with purity greater than 99% were mixed. It was found that the best phase composition, having an absorber with high performance, was Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19. Refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 was single-phase and had a hexagonal structure (P63/mmc. Mechanical milling of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 powders produced particles with a mean size of ~850 nm. SEM images revealed the morphology of the particles as being aggregates of fine grains. The magnetic properties of the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 particles showed a low coercivity and a high remanent magnetization. The Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11MnO19 has certain microwave absorber properties in the frequency range of 8-14 GHz, with an absorbing peak value of ‑8 dB and -10 dB at frequencies of 8.5 and 12.5 GHz, respectively. The study concludes that the Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe12-zMnzO19 that was successfully synthesized is a good candidate for use as an electromagnetic absorber material.

  2. Stabilisation of the tetragonal structure in (Ba,Sr)CuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puphal, Pascal; Well, Natalija van; Ritter, Franz; Assmus, Wolf; Krellner, Cornelius [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Uni. Frankfurt (Germany); Sheptyakov, Denis V. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, PSI (Switzerland); Rueegg, Christian [Lab. for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, PSI (Switzerland); Dept. of Quantum Matter Physics, Uni. of Geneva (Switzerland)


    BaCuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is a spin dimer system presenting a 2D Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. BaCuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} undergoes a structural phase transition below 100 K into an orthorhombic structure with two different dimer layers, leading to a complex Hamiltonian. Presently, the role of frustration in the orthorhombic structure is under debate. We present results for strontium substitution on the barium side and investigate the structural transition with low temperature x-ray and neutron powder diffraction. In addition the results of magnetic and specific-heat measurements are discussed. Surprisingly, we found that already small amounts of Sr (x = 0.05) lead to a suppression of the structural phase transition and the higher symmetric tetragonal crystal structure with only one sort of Cu-dimers is stable down to lowest temperatures. With increasing Sr-content the unit cell volume decreases and the intra-dimer spacing increases. Therefore, (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x})CuSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is a spin dimer system in a well-defined tetragonal crystal structure with the possibility to control the exchange interactions. Further manipulation is possible in substituting silicon by germanium (especially considering co-substitution) resulting in an increased cell volume and intra-dimer spacing.

  3. Impedance spectroscopy and structural properties of the perovskite-like Sn(Ba,Sr)O{sub 3} stagnate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuervo Farfan, J. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997, Bogota DC (Colombia); Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Manuela Beltran, Bogota DC (Colombia); Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Mecatronica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota DC (Colombia); Vera Lopez, E. [Grupo de Superficies, Electroquimica y Corrosion, Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Tunja (Colombia); Landinez Tellez, D.A. [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997, Bogota DC (Colombia); Roa-Rojas, J., E-mail: [Grupo de Fisica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 5997, Bogota DC (Colombia)


    An exhaustive study of structural, electrical and transport properties on the perovskite stagnate Sn(Ba,Sr)O{sub 3} was performed. Samples of SnBa{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}O{sub 3} with 0{<=}x{<=}1.00 were prepared by the solid state reaction method. The crystallographic structure was studied by X-ray diffraction experiments and Rietveld refinement using the GSAS code. Results reveal the material synthesized in a cubic structure (space group Pm3-bar m, no. 221) for 0{<=}x{<=}0.50 and in an orthorhombic (space group Pnma, no. 62) for x>0.50. The approximate grain size was found from experiments' Scanning Electron Microscopy. The electric response was studied by the Impedance Spectroscopy technique from 10.0 mHz up to 0,10 MHz. Electric polarization measurements for SnSrO{sub 3} and SnBaO{sub 3} were determined through curves of polarization as a function of applied electric field, which reveal the ferroelectric character of the material. From the saturation polarization the dielectric constants of materials were calculated.

  4. Superconductivity in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O System:. Synthesis, Characterization and Mechanism (United States)

    Ganguli, A. K.; Swamy, K. S. Nanjunda; Subbanna, G. N.; Rajumon, M. K.; Sarma, D. D.; Rao, C. N. R.

    Synthesis and characterization of some of the members of the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O system are presented. Tc in both the TlCan-1Ba2CunO2n+3 and Tl2Can-1Ba2CunO2n+4 series increase with the number of Cu-O layers, n; Tc in the latter series with two Tl-O layers are generally higher than in the former with a single Tl-O layer. Tl in the cuprates is in the 3+ state while Cu is in the 1+ and 2+ states, showing the importance of oxygen holes. The concentration of these holes seems to increase with the number of Tl-O layers.

  5. Emergence of the sub-THz central peak at phase transitions in artificial BaTiO{sub 3}/(Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Yu.A.; Razumnaya, A.G.; Torgashev, V.I.; Zakharchenko, I.N.; Yuzyuk, Yu.I. [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); El Marssi, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France); Ortega, N.; Kumar, A.; Katiyar, R.S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR (United States)


    A prominent central peak in the sub-THz frequency range was observed in the Raman spectra of BaTiO{sub 3}/(Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BT/BST) superlattice grown on (001)MgO substrate. Both soft and central mode show an anomaly around 200 K and 280 K, which can be correlated with orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition of BST and BT, respectively. The observed temperature dependence of the central mode enabled us to explain rather broad temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity previously observed in BT/BST superlattices. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Epitaxial Stabilization of the Perovskite Phase in (Sr(1-x)Ba(x))MnO3 Thin Films. (United States)

    Langenberg, Eric; Guzmán, Roger; Maurel, Laura; Martínez de Baños, Lourdes; Morellón, Luis; Ibarra, M Ricardo; Herrero-Martín, Javier; Blasco, Javier; Magén, César; Algarabel, Pedro A; Pardo, José A


    A novel mechanism of ferroelectricity driven by off-centering magnetic Mn(4+) ions was proposed in (Sr1-xBax)MnO3, in its ideal perovskite phase, which yields enormous expectations in the search for strong magnetoelectric materials. Still, the desired perovskite phase has never been stabilized in thin films due to its extremely metastable character. Here, we report on a thorough study of the perovskite phase stabilization of (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 thin films, 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 0.5, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001)-oriented perovskite substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy reveal that, under appropriate deposition conditions, the perovskite phase is fully stabilized over the nonferroelectric hexagonal phase, despite the latter being increasingly favored on increasing Ba-content. Moreover, we have managed to grow epitaxial coherent cube-on-cube (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 films upon strains ranging from 0% to 4%. Our results become a milestone in further studying perovskite (Sr1-xBax)MnO3 thin films and pave the way for tailoring ferroic and magnetoelectric properties either by strain engineering or Ba-doping.

  7. Comparative ab initio calculations of SrTiO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} and SrZrO{sub 3}/PbZrO{sub 3} (0 0 1) heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, Sergei, E-mail:; Eglitis, Roberts I., E-mail:


    Using a B3PW hybrid exchange–correlation functional within the density functional theory (DFT) we calculated from the first principles the electronic structure of BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3}/SrZrO{sub 3} (0 0 1) interfaces. The optical band gap of both BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3}/SrZrO{sub 3} (0 0 1) interfaces depends mostly from BaO or TiO{sub 2} and SrO or ZrO{sub 2} termination of the upper layer, respectively. Based on the results of our calculations we predict increase of the Ti–O and Zr–O chemical bond covalency near the SrTiO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} and SrZrO{sub 3}/PbZrO{sub 3} (0 0 1) interfaces as compared to the BaTiO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} bulk.

  8. Phase controlled synthesis of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles with high uniformity (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Li, Q.; Zu, X. T.; Xiang, X.; Liu, W.; Li, S.


    (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through modifying the atomic ratio of polysaccharide and chelating agent at an optimal sintering temperature. In the process, the polysaccharide plays an important role in drastically shrinking the precursor during the gel drying process. In the metal-complex structure, M2+ ion active sites were coordinated by -OH of the water molecules except for EDTA anions. The MFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles exhibited enhanced magnetic properties when compared with nano-MFe2O4 of similar particle size synthesized by other synthesis route reported in the literature. In particular, the sintering temperature improves the crystallinity and increases the hysteresis loop squareness ratio of (Mg, Ca, Ba)-ferrite nanoparticles significantly.

  9. Thermal expansion behaviour and phase stability of AFe$_2$As$_2$ (A=Ca, Sr and Eu) using powder diffraction technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The thermal expansibilities and phase stabilities of AFe$_2$As$_2$ (A = Ca, Sr and Eu) have been investigated by powder diffraction techniques in the temperature range 5–600 K.We found the anisotropic thermal expansivities with temperature for all the compounds. The lattice parameter in the tetragonal phase (AT) of CaFe$_2$As$_2$ contracts with increasing temperature, whereas CT expands. The rate of contraction in AT is lower than the rate of expansion in CT. Other compounds show normal thermal expansion behaviour along both a- and c-axes. In-plane expansion (i.e., along the a-axis) is found to be the smallest for EuFe$_2$As$_2$ and the highest for BaFe$_2$As$_2$. However, therate of change of thermal expansivities along out-of-plane (i.e., along the c-axis) is higher as we go from Ba, Sr, Eu and Ca, respectively. Above 600 K, we notice the appearance/disappearance of certain reflections which suggest that tetragonal phase is not stable above this temperature for these compounds.

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of Sr(AsO{sub 3}OH) and Ba(AsO{sub 3}OH): crystal chemistry of related MHXO{sub 4} (X = As, P, S) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihajlovic, T.; Effenberger, H. [Inst. fuer Mineralogie und Kristallographie, Univ. Wien (Austria)


    Crystals of M(AsO{sub 3}OH) (M = Sr and Ba) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions; single-crystal X-ray structure investigations were performed. The average structure of Sr(AsO{sub 3}OH) exhibits three crystallographically different hydrogen bonds; two of them are related by anti 1 symmetry [space group P anti 1, a = 7.349(2) A, b = 7.057(2) A, c = 7.460(2) A, {alpha} = 95.20(3) , {beta} = 104.78(3) , {gamma} = 88.11(3) , Z = 4]. Weak superstructure reflections were detected which are responsible for a larger cell volume [space group P anti 1, a = 9.038(2) A, b = 11.732(2) A, c = 15.356(3) A, {alpha} = 71.66(3) , {beta} = 75.16(3) , {gamma} = 89.11(3) , Z = 16]. All inversion centres restricting the hydrogen bonds are avoided in the super cell. As a result, a completely ordered atomic arrangement is obtained. The arsenate tetrahedra are linked by hydrogen bonds to polar chains with branches in [110] and [ anti 1 anti 10], respectively; they are linked by the Sr atoms. The compounds CaHPO{sub 4} (monetite), CaHAsO{sub 4} (weilite), {alpha}-SrHPO{sub 4} {alpha}-NaHSO{sub 4}, and HgHPO{sub 4} have roughly the same arrangements of the M(= Ca, Sr, Na, Hg) and X(= P, As, S) atoms; however their hydrogen-bonding schemas are principally different. For the detailed comparison, the non-standard unit cell was chosen for Sr(AsO{sub 3}OH) [space group F anti 1, a = 14.697(3), b = 28.230(5), c = 14.920(3) A, {alpha} = 95.20(3) , {beta} = 104.78(3) , {gamma} = 88.11(3) , Z = 64]. The structural refinement of Ba(AsO{sub 3}OH) confirmed isotypy with {gamma}-Sr(PO{sub 3}OH), K(SO{sub 3}OH), and K(SeO{sub 3}OH) [space group Pbca a = 8.581(2), b = 9.896(2), c = 19.417(4) A, Z = 16]. Sr(AsO{sub 3}OH) and Ba(AsO{sub 3}OH) are characterized by short (strong) hydrogen bonds. (orig.)

  11. New superconducting oxides in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 system: magnetic measurements and structural determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, B.; Godinho, M.; Lejay, P.; De Rango, P.; Sulpice, A.; Tholence, J.L.; Tournier, R. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble (FR) Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, Grenoble, (FR)); Hewat, A.W. (Institut Max Von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (FR)); Hewat, E.A. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble 38 (FR). Inst. de Recherche Technologique et de Developpement Industriel (IRDI)); Marezio, M. (AT and T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ (US)); Bordet, P.; Capponi, J.J.; Chaillout, C.; Chenavas, J.J.; Hodeau, J.L.; Spieser, A.M.; Tranqui, D. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble (FR) Lab. de Cristallographie (FR))


    Detailed neutron diffraction structure analysis of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} is reported. The effects of Pb-substitution on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} are discussed, and magnetization measurement results on the 110 K phase in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system are given.

  12. Mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-1.5Mn-1Ca-xSr alloys (United States)

    Sun, X.; Sun, S. Y.; Ning, Y. H.; Ning, Y. T.


    The mechanical properties and corrosion mechanism of both as-cast and solution-naturally age (T4) treated Mg-1.5Mn-1Ca-xSr alloys were investigated. The results showed that Sr is helpful to decrease grain size and increase the strength. The corrosion process of alloys was mainly determined by the quantity and distribution of second phases. Mg17Sr2, α-Mn and Ca-Sr phases acted as cathodes accelerated the corrosion of Mg2Ca anodic phase and α-Mg matrix. However, continuous distributed Mg17Sr2 was beneficial to resist the happening of localized corrosion because of its barrier effect. T4 treatment could significantly improve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Mg alloys because of the dissolution of Mg2Ca phase and the dispersive distribution of Mg17Sr2 and α-Mn phases.

  13. Superconducting properties of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films on silver substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, R.C.; Arendt, P.N.; Martin, J.A.; Hubbard, K.M.; Elliott, N.; Reeves, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))


    Films of Ba-Ca-Cu-O have been rf magnetron sputtered onto Consil 995 substrates. A post deposition anneal in an over pressure of Tl produces the superconducting 1212 and 2212 phases. Varying the annealing procedures changes the electrical properties of the final films dramatically. Dynamic impedance, an approach to the electrical characterization of these films on a conductive substrate is discussed and compared in this paper, with SEM, XRD and RBS measurements as a function of differing annealing protocols.

  14. Superconducting properties of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films on silver substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, R.C.; Arendt, P.N.; Martin, J.A.; Hubbard, K.M.; Elliott, N.; Reeves, G.


    Films of Ba-Ca-Cu-O have been rf magnetron sputtered onto Consil 995 substrates. A post deposition anneal in an over pressure of Tl produces the superconducting 1212 and 2212 phases. Varying the annealing procedures changes the electrical properties of the final films dramatically. Dynamic impedance, a novel approach to the electrical characterization of these films on a conductive substrate is discussed and compared with SEM, XRD and RBS measurements as a function of differing annealing protocols. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Dielectric Enhancement and Maxwell-Wagner Effect in Polycrystalline BaTiO3/Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 Multilayered Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛水兵; 沈明荣; 宁兆元


    Polycrystalline BaTiO3/Ba0.2Sr0.sTiO3 multilayer thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates with various stacking periodicities. The dielectric constant of the films was obviously enhanced with the decrease of the individual layer thickness, while the dielectric loss was kept at a low level comparable to that of the pure Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films. The Maxwell-Wagner model is used to explain the experimental data.

  16. Superconducting glass-ceramics in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kim, Cheol J.; Bausal, Narottam P.


    Differential thermal analysis, XRD, SEM, and resistivity measurements, have been used to study the recrystallization during various heat treatments of a Bi1.5SrCaCu2O(z) glass obtained by rapid quenching from the melt. Heating at 450 C formed the Bi(2+x)Sr(2-x)-CuO(z) solid solution designated 'R'. Between 765 and 845 C, R reacts slowly with the glass to form the 80 K superconductor Bi2(Sr,Ca)3Cu2O(z), together with CuO. Heating for 7 days at the higher temperature, followed by slow cooling, raised the temperature of zero resistance to 77 K.

  17. Properties of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system remelted under higher gravity conditions (United States)

    Volkov, M. P.; Melekh, B. T.; Parfeniev, R. V.; Kartenko, N. F.; Regel, L. L.; Turchaninov, A. M.


    The structure and magnetic properties of high Tc superconductor Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples remelted under 1 g0, 8 g0 and 12 g0 gravity levels have been investigated. Superconducting properties make a change along the ingots. The dependence of structural and superconducting properties on the gravity level and their time degradation have been observed.

  18. Stratification of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system melted under high gravity conditions (United States)

    Volkov, M. P.; Melekh, B. T.; Parfen'ev, R. V.; Kartenko, N. F.; Turchaninov, A. M.; Regel, L. L.


    The structure and magnetic properties of high Tc superconductor Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples remelted under gravity levels have been investigated. Superconducting properties make a change along the ingots. The dependence of structural and superconducting properties on the gravity level and their time degradation have been observed.

  19. Sr/Ca Sensitivity to Aragonite Saturation in Cultured Coral Measured by NanoSIMS (Invited) (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; Adkins, J. F.; Erez, J.


    NanoSIMS was used to identify and com¬positionally characterize the micron scale region of skeletal growth resulting from a short coral culture experiment. Using this technique we quantify the sensitivity of Sr/Ca, a proxy for temperature, to aragonite saturation (Ω), a parameter that varied in the past ocean and is predicted to change with continued ocean acidification. Five adult branches of the surface coral Stylophora sp. were all grown at 25 °C but at different and near constant carbonate ion concentrations, from 180 to 400 µM (pH of 7.9 to 8.5), yielding a two-fold range in calcification rate. Despite the range of Ωs and calcification rates, the average Sr/Ca of nanoSIMS spot measurements corresponding to each condition are within 1.2% (2σ std. dev. of the 5 means). Furthermore, the average Sr/Ca measured in this study agrees with two previous coral culture experiments conducted at the same temperature but where Ω was not controlled. These results suggest carbonate ion concentration is not a complicating factor to Sr/Ca paleothermometry over this range of Ω. Within the framework of a closed system (Rayleigh) model for biomineralization, similar Sr/Ca ratios suggest similar amounts of Rayleigh fractionation. Combined with existing data for low Ω conditions, the extent of Rayleigh fractionation is used to test alternative biomineralization models governing the acid-base chemistry of the calcifying fluid. Assuming that coral use alkalinity pumping to increase local calcifying fluid carbonate ion concentration, we try to understand what controls this pumping. Under most conditions, Sr/Ca ratios are consistent with a scenario where calcifying fluid alkalinity increases until reaching a target pH. However, under conditions of very low seawater Ω, coral cannot pump enough alkalinity to reach the target pH. Below this threshold value, between approximately 1<Ω<2.4, coral pump a maximal and finite amount of alkalinity. The interaction between these rules

  20. Structural phase transition in early growth of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x films on SrTiO3 substrates (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Onellion, M.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.


    We used pulsed laser deposition, with a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x target, to grow films ranging from (1/4) to 10 unit cells thick. We studied these films, and reference Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x single crystal samples, using angle-integrated photoemission, core level photoemission, and x-ray diffraction. The data indicate that all films exhibit a metallic-like Fermi edge in the photoemission data. More strikingly, a structural phase transition occurs at a nominal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x thickness of approximately one unit cell, converting the precursor Bi2O2.33 highly coherent thin film into a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x structure.

  1. The Pr and Ca Substitution in GdBa2Cu3O7- & delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. H.


    Full Text Available   The granular Gd1-x-zPrxCazBa2Cu3O7-δ high-temperature cuprate samples with 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 and 0.0≤ x ≤ 0.35 are prepared by standard solid state reaction and characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The BaCuO2 and impurity phases are less than 1% in the samples having high levels of pr and Ca concentrations. The electrical resistivity measurements show a nonlinear reduction in Tc(x,z=etc versus x. Moreover, the Tc(z curve with x=0 is nonlinear and aplateau appears at z≈ 0.05-0.015. For Pr-Ca-doped samples with a constant concentration of Pr, Tc increases with the increase of Ca up to an optimum value of Ca doping and then in decreases. Based on these observations, we suggest that hole filling and hole localization the main effects of Pr ion substiution. The magnetic measurements indicate that the value of Hc1 is in the order of 10 mT. The mangetoresistance measurements have been measured and analyzed. The superconducting transition region is broadened by the application of magnetic field. The experimental data near the onsen of superconductivity are fitted with the Ambegakor and Halperin (AH phase-slip model. We observe that the AH parameter,γ (H, depends not only on the temperature and the magnetic field, but also on the Pr and Ca ions concentrations. It is observed that the critical current density increases with Ca substitution and decreases with Pr substitution in Gd-123 system. We suggest that the Pr ion substitution probably enhances the weak link, but the Ca ion acts as flux pinning center in the GdPrCa-123 system.

  2. Sr/Ca Ratios of Vaceletia: Implication for Biocalcification Mechanisms of Sclerosponges (United States)

    Haase-Schramm, A.; Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.; Reitner, J.; Woerheide, G.


    Sclerosponges have been established as reliable proxy recorders for several environmental parameters like the radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopic composition, lead concentration, temperature and salinity of ambient water. Specifically, Sr/Ca ratios in skeletons of the Caribbean species Ceratoporella nicholsoni have been shown to record water temperatures with a very high precision. In order to study the variability of strontium incorporation and its temperature dependence in the skeletons of different sclerosponge species, we investigated the Sr/Ca ratios of various specimens of Vaceletia crypta and Vaceletia sp. from different sites and water depths in the Pacific. We determined Sr/Ca ratios and their temperature dependence in Vaceletia skeletons and compared them with published data of Ceratoporella and Astrosclera, inorganic aragonite and ooids. The Sr/Ca-temperature relation in Vaceletia and Ceratoporella is identical within errors (-0.1mmol/mol/K) and stronger than in inorganic aragonites and corals. The distribution coefficient of Sr/Ca in aragonite relative to sea water is similar in Ceratoporella and inorganic aragonite, however it is higher in Vaceletia, Astrosclera and ooids. The sclerosponges Ceratoporella, Vaceletia and Astrosclera precipitate the bulk of skeletal aragonite extracellularly as synvivo-diagenetic, epitactic overgrowth, in carbon and oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient sea water. Thus sea water derived carbonate ions are incorporated into the skeleton without biologic modifications. In contrast, the observed interspecific differences of skeletal cation ratios indicate an incorporation process, which involves the biologically controlled modification of the sea water ion composition. I. e. sclerosponges use a calcification mechanism that does not affect carbonate anions, but selectively incorporates certain cations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑兰; 王伟; 王川华; 张丽君


    采用循环伏安方法研究了1173 K时CaCl2-0.5%CaO(摩尔分数)和等摩尔CaCl2-X-0.5%CaO(X=NaCl,BaCl2,LiCl)熔盐中CaO在Mo电极上的阴极行为.研究结果表明,CaCl2与CaO电离的Ca计具有不同的离子结构和还原电势,在1173 K时其还原峰电势分别为-2.15和-1.51 V.等摩尔混合熔盐CaCl2-x-0.5%CaO(x=NaCl,BaCl2)中,CaO诱发电解质产生低电位沉积,降低了混合熔盐的电化学稳定性.通过阴极扫描电流峰密度与扫描速率的关系,计算出1173 K时CaO电离的Ca2+在CaCl2-0.5%CaO,等摩尔的CaCl2-NaCl-0.5%CaO,CaCl2-BaCl2-0.5%CaO和CaCl2-LiCl-0.5%CaO熔盐中的扩散系数,分别为6.42×10-5,1.56×10-5,1.20×10-5和6.79×10-5 cm2/s.

  4. Thermally stable white-emitting single composition Na(Sr,Ba)PO4:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphor for near-ultraviolet-pumped light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Choi, Sungho; Yun, Young Jun; Kim, Sue Jin; Jung, Ha-Kyun


    Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) codoped, white-emitting Na(Sr,Ba)PO(4) phosphors are prepared, and their emission properties, especially for thermal stability, are thoroughly investigated. The thermal quenching and Eu(2+)/Mn(2+) energy transfer efficiency are totally different in the ratio of alkaline earth metals in host composition, NaBaPO(4), Na(Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5))PO(4), and NaSrPO(4), respectively. Furthermore, by using near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the corresponding Na(Sr(0.5)Ba(0.5))PO(4):Eu(2+), Mn(2+) phosphor as light converters, we demonstrate a bright and thermally stable white-emitting LED. The resultant LED exhibits a warm white light [~4900 K, CIE coordinates of (0.33, 0.31)] with excellent thermal and hydrolytic stabilities comparable to those of commercially available ones, Y(3)Al(5)O(12):Ce(3+) and BaMg(2)Al(16)O(27):Eu(2+). The proposed composition, with its efficient energy transfer, could enable Eu(2+) and Mn(2+) codoped Na(Sr,Ba)PO(4) to be a promising single component phosphor for cost-effective white-emitting LEDs.

  5. Stable isotopes, Sr/Ca, and Mg/Ca in biogenic carbonates from Petaluma Marsh, northern California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, B.L.; De Deckker, P.; Chivas, A.R.; Conrad, M.E.; Byrne, A.R.


    Stable isotope ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and minor-element compositions (Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios) of ostracodes and gastropods separated from marsh sediments from San Francisco Bay, Northern California, were used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental changes in Petaluma Marsh over the past 700 yr. The value of {delta}{sup 18}O in the marsh carbonates reflects changes in freshwater inflow, evaporation, and temperature. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca in ostracode calcite reflect changes in both freshwater inflow and temperature, although primarily reflect temperature changes in the salinity range of about 10-35 {per_thousand}. Ostracode {delta}{sup 18}O values show a gradual increase by 5 {per_thousand} between 500 yr BR and the present, probably reflecting rising sea level and increased evaporation in the marsh. Superimposed on this trend are higher frequency Mg/Ca and {delta}{sup 18}O variations (3-4 {per_thousand}), probably reflecting changes in freshwater inflow and evaporation. A period of low Mg/Ca occurred between about 100-300 cal yr BP, suggesting wetter and cooler conditions during the Little Ice Age. Higher Mg/Ca ratios occurred 600-700 cal yr BP, indicating drier and warmer conditions during the end of the Medieval Warm Period. Both ostracode and gastropod {delta}{sup 13}C values decrease up-core, reflecting decomposition of marsh vegetation, which changes from C{sub 4} ({delta}{sup 13}C {approx} -12{per_thousand}) to CAM ({delta}{sup 13}C = -26 {per_thousand})-type vegetation over time.

  6. Experimental and computational investigation of the group 11-group 2 diatomic molecules: First determination of the AuSr and AuBa bond energies and thermodynamic stability of the copper- and silver-alkaline earth species (United States)

    Ciccioli, A.; Gigli, G.; Lauricella, M.


    The dissociation energies of the intermetallic molecules AuSr and AuBa were for the first time determined by the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry method. The two species were produced in the vapor phase equilibrated with apt mixtures of the constituent elements, and the dissociation equilibria were monitored mass-spectrometrically in the temperature range 1406-1971 K (AuSr) and 1505-1971 K (AuBa). The third-law analysis of the equilibrium data gives the following dissociation energies (D_0°, in kJ/mol): 244.4 ± 4.8 (AuSr) and 273.3 ± 6.3 (AuBa), so completing the series of D_0°s for the AuAE (AE = group 2 element) diatomics. The AuAE species were also studied computationally at the coupled cluster including single, double and perturbative triple excitation [CCSD(T)] level with basis sets of increasing zeta quality, and various complete basis set limit extrapolations were performed to calculate the dissociation energies. Furthermore, the entire series of the heteronuclear diatomic species formed from one group 11 (Cu, Ag) and one group 2 (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) metal was studied by DFT with the hybrid meta-GGA TPSSh functional and the def2-QZVPP basis set, selected after screening a number of functional-basis set combinations using the AuAE species as benchmark. Dissociation energies, internuclear distances, vibrational frequencies, and anharmonic constants were determined for the CuAE and AgAE species and their thermal functions evaluated therefrom. On this basis, a thermodynamic evaluation of the formation of these species was carried out under various conditions.

  7. Provenancing fish in freshwaters of the Alpine Foreland using Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in otoliths and otolith shape parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Oehm


    Although the studied freshwaters were located only in a 50 km range around lake Chiemsee on a similar geological background, differences in water chemistry, fish otolith chemistry and shape were identified. Species specific differences in reflection of the Sr/Ca ratio of a specific water body were detected. Microchemical and morphological otoliths analyses complemented each other and allowed assigning fish to specific groups of waters of origin. This information provides an important basis for the further application of otolith chemistry and shape analysis in the Alpine foreland for a diverse range of ecological questions.

  8. Hysteresis and relaxation in TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} superconducting polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista-Leyva, A J [Physics Department, Engineering Faculty, University of Holguin, Holguin 80100 (Cuba); Cobas, R [Superconductivity Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Orlando, M T D [Physics Department, Universidade Federal do Espiritu Santo, Vitoria ES 29060-900 (Brazil); Altshuler, E [Superconductivity Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba)


    We study the hysteresis and relaxation of both intragranular and intergranular properties of TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Tl-1223) superconducting polycrystals between 80 and 120 K. The samples have been prepared using a technique involving the mixing of grains of different sizes before the final sintering. The grains show a sizeable reversible magnetization, while vortices inside the grain behave as three-dimensional objects. The transport critical current is strongly hysteretic, with features that distinguish our Tl-1223 samples from 'standard' YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO), (Hg, Re)Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+{delta}} (HBCCO) and (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10-{delta}} (BSCCO) polycrystals. The preparation method improves the transport properties of the samples. The relaxation of the transport critical current density, in the presence of trapped fields, is reported here for the first time in this system, as far as we know. A phenomenological model can qualitatively describe the transport properties, where the intragrain magnetization affects the intergranular junctions, but a precise quantitative description is not achieved. The differences in the shape of the transport measurements, for different polycrystalline systems, are also well described by the model.

  9. Synthesis and dielectric properties of MXTi7O16 (M = Ba and Sr;X = Mg and Zn) hollandite ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V M Manisha; K P Murali; S N Potty; V Priyadarsini; R Ratheesh


    MXTi7O16 (M = Ba and Sr; X = Mg and Zn) ceramics have been synthesized by the conventional solid state ceramic route. The dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (r), loss tangent (tan ) and temperature variation of dielectric constant ($\\tau_{\\varepsilon r}$) of the sintered ceramic compacts are studied using an impedance analyser up to 13 MHz region. The strontium compounds have relatively high dielectric constant and low loss tangent compared to the barium analogue. The phase purity of these materials has been examined using X-ray diffraction studies and microstructure using SEM method.

  10. Surface morphology analysis of nanostructured (Ba sub x , Sr sub 1 sub - sub x)TiO sub 3 thin films using fractal method

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, K J; Choi, W K; Cho, J C


    Based on the fractal theory, this paper uses scanning electron microscopy images to investigate the roughness characteristics of nanostructured (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films by sol-gel methods. The percentage grain area, surface fractal dimensions and 3D image are evaluated using image analysis methods. The thickness of the (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films was 260-280 nm. The surface fractal dimensions were increased with strontium doping, and grain area, were decreased with it. The fractal dimension and the grain areas of the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films were 1.81 and 81%. Based on the image analysis, the roughness height of 3D images as 256 levels was about 3 nm and its distribution was about 35-40% for the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 2)TiO sub 3 and (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films. The roughness height of the BST thin films was distributed from 35% to 40% ranging from 3 nm to 4 nm. By increasing the strontium doping, the roughness hei...

  11. BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu solid-solution nanowires with tunable red light emission. (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Huang, Yang; Mi, Jiao; Zhang, Xinghua; Lu, Zunming; Xu, Xuewen; Fan, Ying; Zou, Jin; Tang, Chengchun


    We report on the controlled growth of novel BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu nanowires via a solid-liquid-solid process. The Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S solid solution forms as one-dimensional nanowires and has been coated with homogeneous protective BN nanolayers. The structure and luminescence properties of this new nanocomposite have been systematically investigated. High-spatial-resolution cathodoluminescence investigations reveal that effective red color tuning has been achieved by tailoring the composition of the Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S nanowires. Moreover, codoping of Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) in the CaS nanowire can induce energy transfer in the matrix and make it possible to obtain enhanced orange color in the nanowires. The BN-coated Ca(1-x)Sr(x)S:Eu solid-solution nanowires are envisaged to be valuable red-emitting nanophosphors and useful in advanced nanodevices and white LEDs.

  12. Properties and Structure of the F-doped (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高孝恢; 王小刚; 蒋淑芬; 李洁; 高赛; 郑国栋


    By using TEM, XPS, IR, position annihilation and differential specific heat measurements, the properties and structure of the F-doped (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor have been studied. The results show that the fluorine atoms are homogeneously distributed in superconducting phase and substituted for the oxygen atoms at O(2) crystallographic sites; the Pb-F and Cu-F bonds are formed. F-doping results in the variance of the incommensurate modulation structure, the increase of the point defects and chemical pressure, the enhancement of flux pinning effect and the change of the electronic structure and chemical bond, and greatly improves superconductive properties of the 2223 phase (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O.

  13. Solid Electrolyte Based on Perovskite-type BaCeO3 and SrCeO3%BaCeO3和SrCeO3基钙钛矿型固体电解质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊英; 张中太


    综述了BaCeO3基和SrCeO3基钙钛矿型固体电解质.从结构、不同气氛中导电性方面进行了介绍,对其应用方面进行了较为详细的分析.在燃料电池、电解池、薄膜反应器、气体传感器等方面的应用分析表明这2类固体电解质有广泛的应用前景.%Solid electrolyte based on perovskite-type BaCeO3 and SrCeO3 was reviewed .Microstructure and conductivity in different atmosphere were introduced while application was analyzed in detail. Applications in fuel cell, steam electrolysis cell, membrane reactor, gas sensor indicate that these kinds of solid electrolytes may be prospective materials that can be used in many fields.

  14. Effect of doping in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor (United States)

    Akbar, S. A.; Wong, M. S.; Botelho, M. J.; Sung, Y. M.; Alauddin, M.; Drummer, C. E.; Fair, M. J.


    The results of the effect of doping on the superconducting transition in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system are reported. Samples were prepared under identical conditions with varying types (Pb, Sb, Sn, Nb) and amounts of dopants. All samples consisted of multiple phases, and showed stable and reproducible superconducting transitions. Stabilization of the well known 110 K phase depends on both the type and amount of dopant. No trace of superconducting phase of 150 K and above was observed.

  15. Percolation metal-insullator transition in BiSrCaCuO films (United States)

    Okunev, V. D.; Pafomov, N. N.; Svistunov, V. M.; Lewandowski, S. J.; Gierlowski, P.; Kula, W.


    An experimental investigation of the metal-insulator trnasition in BiSrCaCuO (BSCCO) films is reported. We performed resistivity, optical-absorption and critical-temperature measurements on several samples obtained by different technological methods. The results agree well with the percolation mechanism of the metal-insulator transition and show interesting correlations between room-temperature conductivity and superconducting properties of the investigated films.

  16. Effect of doping Ca on polaron hopping in LaSr2Mn2O7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Bhatia; Osama A Yassin


    From the transport studies in the bilayer manganites LaSr2-CaMn2O7, we have found the variable-range hopping model proposed by Viret et al to be inadequate to describe the transport of charge in these materials. The polarons appear to hop to their nearest neighbors with an activation energy, which in part is dependent on the magnetic interactions in the lattice.

  17. Properties of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system remelted under higher gravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, M.P.; Melekh, B.T.; Parfeniev, R.V.; Kartenko, N.F. (A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)); Regel, L.L.; Turchaninov, A.M. (Space Research Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))


    The structure and magnetic properties of high Tc superconductor Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples remelted under 1g{sub 0}, 8g{sub 0} and 12g{sub 0} gravity levels have been investigated. Superconducting properties make a change along the ingots. The dependence of structural and superconducting properties on the gravity level and their time degradation have been observed. (orig.).

  18. A novel CaSR mutation presenting as a severe case of neonatal familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonyushkina Ksenia N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH is a generally benign disorder caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR gene resulting in altered calcium metabolism. Objective We report a case of unusually severe neonatal FHH due to a novel CaSR gene mutation that presented with perinatal fractures and moderate hypercalcemia. Case overview A female infant was admitted at 2 weeks of age for suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT. Laboratory testing revealed hypercalcemia (3.08 mmol/L, elevated iPTH (20.4 pmol/L and low urinary calcium clearance (0.0004. Radiographs demonstrated multiple healing metaphyseal and rib fractures and bilateral femoral bowing. The femoral deformity and stage of healing were consistent with prenatal injuries rather than non-accidental trauma (NAT. Treatment was initiated with cholecalciferol, 400 IU/day, and by 6 weeks of age, iPTH levels had decreased into the high-normal range. Follow up radiographs demonstrated marked improvement of bone lesions by 3 months. A CaSR gene mutation study showed heterozygosity for a T>C nucleotide substitution at c.1664 in exon 6, resulting in amino acid change I555T in the extracellular domain consistent with a missense mutation. Her mother does not carry the mutation and the father is unknown. At 18 months of age, the child continues to have relative hyperparathyroidism and moderate hypercalcemia but is otherwise normal. Conclusion This neonate with intrauterine fractures and demineralization, moderate hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism was found to have a novel inactivating missense mutation of the CaSR not detected in her mother. Resolution of bone lesions and reduction of hyperparathyroidism was likely attributable to the natural evolution of the disorder in infancy as well as the mitigating effect of cholecalciferol treatment.

  19. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca vital effects correlated with skeletal architecture in a scleractinian deep-sea coral and the role of Rayleigh fractionation (United States)

    Gagnon, Alexander C.; Adkins, Jess F.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Robinson, Laura F.


    Deep-sea corals are a new tool in paleoceanography with the potential to provide century long records of deep ocean change at sub-decadal resolution. Complicating the reconstruction of past deep-sea temperatures, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca paleothermometers in corals are also influenced by non-environmental factors, termed vital effects. To determine the magnitude, pattern and mechanism of vital effects we measure detailed collocated Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios, using a combination of micromilling and isotope-dilution ICP-MS across skeletal features in recent samples of Desmophyllum dianthus, a scleractinian coral that grows in the near constant environment of the deep-sea. Sr/Ca variability across skeletal features is less than 5% (2σ relative standard deviation) and variability of Sr/Ca within the optically dense central band, composed of small and irregular aragonite crystals, is significantly less than the surrounding skeleton. The mean Sr/Ca of the central band, 10.6 ± 0.1 mmol/mol (2σ standard error), and that of the surrounding skeleton, 10.58±0.09 mmol/mol, are statistically similar, and agree well with the inorganic aragonite Sr/Ca-temperature relationship at the temperature of coral growth. In the central band, Mg/Ca is greater than 3 mmol/mol, more than twice that of the surrounding skeleton, a general result observed in the relative Mg/Ca ratios of D. dianthus collected from separate oceanographic locations. This large vital effect corresponds to a ˜ 10 °C signal, when calibrated via surface coral Mg/Ca-temperature relationships, and has the potential to complicate paleoreconstructions. Outside the central band, Mg/Ca ratios increase with decreasing Sr/Ca. We explain the correlated behavior of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca outside the central band by Rayleigh fractionation from a closed pool, an explanation that has been proposed elsewhere, but which is tested in this study by a simple and general relationship. We constrain the initial solution and effective partition

  20. Unique antitumor property of the Mg-Ca-Sr alloys with addition of Zn. (United States)

    Wu, Yuanhao; He, Guanping; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Li, Mei; Wang, Xiaolan; Li, Nan; Li, Kang; Zheng, Guan; Zheng, Yufeng; Yin, Qingshui


    In clinical practice, tumor recurrence and metastasis after orthopedic prosthesis implantation is an intensely troublesome matter. Therefore, to develop implant materials with antitumor property is extremely necessary and meaningful. Magnesium (Mg) alloys possess superb biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, whether they possess antitumor property had seldom been reported. In recent years, it showed that zinc (Zn) not only promote the osteogenic activity but also exhibit good antitumor property. In our present study, Zn was selected as an alloying element for the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr alloy to develop a multifunctional material with antitumor property. We investigated the influence of the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 wt%) alloys extracts on the proliferation rate, cell apoptosis, migration and invasion of the U2OS cell line. Our results show that Zn containing Mg alloys extracts inhibit the cell proliferation by alteration the cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis via the activation of the mitochondria pathway. The cell migration and invasion property were also suppressed by the activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. Our work suggests that the Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy is expected to be a promising orthopedic implant in osteosarcoma limb-salvage surgery for avoiding tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  1. Preliminary results of Sr:Ca ratios of Coilia nasus in otoliths by micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, H. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Shen, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail:; Li, X. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tang, W. [Institute of Life Science, Shanghai Fisheries University, Shanghai 200090 (China); Liu, J. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Jin, J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Mi, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Coilia nasus, distributed in Changjiang River as well as northwest Pacific, has a high economic value owing to its delicacy and nutritional value. Recently, the fishing yields in Changjiang River have decreased dramatically due to excessive fishing and changes in the aquatic ecology. In order to prevent excessive fishing effectively, the life history pattern of C. nasus should be known in detail. Ootoliths contain much information about a fish's life history, because elemental concentrations remain unaltered after deposition, and can be analysed. C. nasus collected from Jing Jiang (lower reaches of the Changjiang River) and Jiu Duan Sha (the estuary of the Changjiang River) were studied by measuring Sr:Ca ratios in their otoliths using micro-PIXE. On average, the Sr:Ca ratios of estuarine C. nasus were found to be higher. The Sr:Ca ratios were higher in the core regions and lower in the outermost marginal regions, and shows fluctuations in certain regions. Possible corresponding life history patterns are discussed.

  2. Kinetics on Demand Is a Simple Mathematical Solution that Fits Recorded Caffeine-Induced Luminal SR Ca2+ Changes in Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C Perez-Rosas

    Full Text Available The process of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR comprises 4 phases in smooth muscle cells. Phase 1 is characterized by a large increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i with a minimal reduction of the free luminal SR [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]FSR. Importantly, active SR Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA pumps are necessary for phase 1 to occur. This situation cannot be explained by the standard kinetics that involves a fixed amount of luminal Ca2+ binding sites. A new mathematical model was developed that assumes an increasing SR Ca2+ buffering capacity in response to an increase of the luminal SR [Ca2+] that is called Kinetics-on-Demand (KonD model. This approach can explain both phase 1 and the refractory period associated with a recovered [Ca2+]FSR. Additionally, our data suggest that active SERCA pumps are a requisite for KonD to be functional; otherwise luminal SR Ca2+ binding proteins switch to standard kinetics. The importance of KonD Ca2+ binding properties is twofold: a more efficient Ca2+ release process and that [Ca2+]FSR and Ca2+-bound to SR proteins ([Ca2+]BSR can be regulated separately allowing for Ca2+ release to occur (provided by Ca2+-bound to luminal Ca2+ binding proteins without an initial reduction of the [Ca2+]FSR.

  3. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect (United States)

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.


    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 - 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 -CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase.

  4. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect (United States)

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.


    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 − 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 −CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase. PMID:27555563

  5. Effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong Wei; Chang, Chun Rui [College of Science, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Li, Yuan Liang [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China); Yan, Chun Liang [Analysis and Testing Center, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei Province (China)


    Using BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}, et al as crude materials, La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dopant, Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BST) Ceramics of perovskite structure were prepared by solid state reaction method. We investigated the effects of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} -doping and sintering temperature on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} ceramics. The experiment results show that: The amount of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can increase the dielectric constant of the sample, with the doping amount increasing, the dielectric constant increases. The sintering temperature has also significant impact on the dielectric properties. The dielectric constant of the sample reaches its highest point at 1280 °C. (author)

  6. Role of film stoichiometry and interface quality in the performance of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 tunable capacitors with high figures of merit (United States)

    Freeze, Christopher R.; Stemmer, Susanne


    Parallel plate capacitors with quality factors exceeding 1000 were fabricated using Ba0.3Sr0.7TiO3 (BST) thin films grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy on epitaxial Pt bottom electrodes. The influence of film stoichiometry was investigated by varying the (Ba + Sr)/Ti ratio around the stoichiometric composition. The quality factor is highest for stoichiometric films, but (Ba + Sr)-rich films can be biased to higher fields. Furthermore, two different processes were used to deposit the top electrodes of the parallel plate capacitors. While the quality of the top contact/BST interface did not strongly affect the device quality factor, an enhancement in the dielectric tunability was seen for capacitors with top electrodes deposited at high temperatures, which effectively removes interfacial contamination layers.

  7. The influences of mole composition of strontium (x) on properties of barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) prepared by solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandi, Dianisa Khoirum; Supriyanto, Agus; Iriani, Yofentina, E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia); Jamaluddin, Anif [Physics Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University (Indonesia)


    Barium Strontium Titanate (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) or BST was prepared by solid state reaction method. Raw materials are BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}. Those materials are mixed for 8 h, pressed, and sintered at temperature 1200°C for 2 h. Mole composition of Sr (x) was varied to study its influences on structural, morphological, and electrical properties of BST. Variation of (x) are x = 0; x = 0.1; and x = 0.5. XRD patterns showed a single phase of BST, which mean that mixture of raw materials was homogenous. Crystal structure was influenced by x. BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} have tetragonal crystal structure, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is cubic. The diffraction angle shifted to right side (angle larger) as the increases of x. Crystalline size of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3}, and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} are 38.13 nm; 38.62 nm; and 37.13 nm, respectively. SEM images showed that there are still of pores which were influenced by x. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface (pores are few and small in size). Sawyer Tower circuit showed that BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1} TiO{sub 3} is ferroelectric, while Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} is paraelectric. The dielectric constants of BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} at frequency of 1 KHz are 156; 196; and 83, respectively. Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has relatively highest dielectric constant. It is considered that Ba{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}TiO{sub 3} has densest surface.

  8. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films under an initial mechanical stress (United States)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Donner, Wolfgang; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi


    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional "sin2 ψ" method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba0.65Sr0.35TiO3 films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  9. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Donner, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse.2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)


    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2} ψ” method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  10. Growth and superconducting properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} {sub +} {sub δ} thin films incorporated with iridate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vero, Jeffrey C.; Hwang, Inwoong; Shin, Hyeonseop; Song, Jong Hyun [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Santiago, Alvin Carl; Sarmago, Roland V. [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, 1101 (Philippines); Lee, Doopyo [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jungwon [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong Campus, Sejong, 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Science and Standards, Daejeon, 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinhee [Korea Research Institute of Science and Standards, Daejeon, 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)


    Iridate nanoparticle AIrO{sub 3} (A = Sr, Ba) incorporated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} {sub +} {sub δ} (Bi-2212) thin films were successfully grown using pulsed laser deposition with post-growth ex situ heat treatment. Nanosized particles of SrIrO{sub 3} (Sr-iridate) and BaIrO{sub 3} (Ba-iridate) were deposited on top of MgO (100) substrate, followed by Bi-2212 layers to investigate their effects on the physical and superconducting properties of Bi-2212 thin films. The number of laser pulses was changed from 450 to 1800 to control the density of iridates in the Bi-2212 matrix. The composite film is then partial-melted at 890 C for 15 min and annealed at 850 C for 5 h in ambient air. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the surfaces of thin films with iridates are more compact with minimal voids and porosity than those of pure Bi-2212 thin films. Both types of iridate incorporation suppress T{sub c-zero} of Bi-2212 thin films. Incorporating Sr-iridate in the Bi-2212 strongly affects T{sub c-zero} than those with Ba-iridate at low density. However, both iridate incorporations result in the expansion of the c-axis lattice constant and variation of Bi/Sr ratio of Bi-2212 films. On the other hand, we observed improvement of the activation energy, U{sub 0}, as well as the self-field critical current density, J{sub c}(0), of Bi-2212 films with incorporated iridates even with suppressed T{sub c-zero}. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Ba0.8Sr0.2Ti0.5Mn0.5O3纳米晶体的合成及气敏性质研究%Study on Synthesis and Gas Sensitivity Property of Ba0.8Sr0.2Ti0.5Mn0.5O3 nanorods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏川茴; 韩向宇; 殷鹏飞


    Ba0.8Sr0.2 Ti0.5 Mn0.5 O3 nanorods started from Sr(NO3)2 ,BaCO3 , MnO2 and TiQ2 were successfully synthesized by a composite-hydroxide-mediated(CHM) method at 200℃ for 24h. Morphology, composition and crys-talline phase were investigated by XRD,SEM and EDS. Gas sensitivity was investigated on the Ba0.8Sr0.2Ti0.5Mn0.5O3 nanorods for O2. The results show that the nanorods may be adopted for development of gas sensors with performa-nces suitable for practical applications.%采用复合碱媒介法(CHM),在合成BaMnO3和Ba0.5Sr0.5 MnO3的基础上,以Sr(NO3)2、BaCO以及MnO2和TiO2为原料,在200℃、24h的生长条件下,用20%的Sr离子替代20%的Ba离子,用50%的Ti离子替代50%的Mn离子成功合成了Ba0.8Sr0.2Ti0.5Mn0.5O3纳米晶体.采用XRD、SEM及EDS对产物的晶相、形貌和成分进行了分析,对Ba0.8 Sr0.2 Ti0.5 Mn0.5 O3制作的电极进行了气敏性质的测定.

  12. An assessment of the Sr/Ca ratio in shallow water hermatypic corals as a proxy for sea surface temperature (United States)

    Marshall, John F.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.


    The high precision measurement of the Sr/Ca ratio in corals has the potential for measuring past sea surface temperatures at very high accuracy. However, the veracity of the technique has been questioned on the basis that there is both a spatial and temporal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater, and that kinetic effects, such as the calcification rate, can affect the Sr/Ca ratio of corals, and produce inaccuracies of the order of 2-4 °C. In the present study, a number of cores of the massive hermatypic scleractinian coral Porites, from the central Great Barrier Reef, have been analyzed for Sr/Ca at weekly to monthly resolution. Results from a 24 year record from Myrmidon Reef show an overall variation from 22.7 °C to 30.4 °C. The record shows a warming/cooling trend with maximum warming centred on the 1986-1987 summer. While some bleaching was reported to have occurred at Myrmidon Reef in 1982, the Sr/Ca record indicates that subsequent summer temperatures were much higher. The 4.5 year record from Stanley Reef shows a maximum SST of 30 °C during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. The calibrations from Myrmidon and Stanley Reefs are in excellent agreement with previously published calibrations from nearby reefs. While corals do not calcify in equilibrium with seawater due to physiological control on the uptake of Sr and Ca into the lattice of coralline aragonite, it can be argued that, provided only a single genus such as Porites sp. is used, and that the coral is sampled along a major vertical growth axis, then the Sr/Ca ratio should vary uniformly with temperature. Similarly, objections based on the spatial and temporal variability of the Sr/Ca activity ratio of seawater can be countered on the basis that in most areas where coral reefs grow there is a uniformity in the Sr/Ca activity ratio, and there does not appear to be a change in this ratio over the growth period of the coral. Evidence from several corals in this study suggest that stress can be a major

  13. Crystalline phases during the melting of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ming; Polonka, J.; Goldman, A.I.; Finnemore, D.K.; Li, Qiang; Laabs, F.C.


    The melting of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} material has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in order to study the phases that formed in the high temperature regions. Two distinct phases of (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x})CuO{sub 2} and (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}){sub 2}CuO{sub 3} have been observed in the Bi-rich matrix depending upon quenching temperatures. Crystallization from the melt by fast cooling usually produce the co-existence of Bi (2201) and these Sr-Ca-Cu-O phases. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Competing exchange interactions in multiferroic and ferrimagnetic CaBaCo4O7 (United States)

    Fishman, R. S.; Bordács, S.; Kocsis, V.; Kézsmárki, I.; Viirok, J.; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Puri, A.; Zeitler, U.; Tokunaga, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.


    Competing exchange interactions can produce complex magnetic states together with spin-induced electric polarizations. With competing interactions on alternating triangular and kagome layers, the swedenborgite CaBaCo4O7 may have one of the largest measured spin-induced polarizations of ˜1700 nC/cm2 below its ferrimagnetic transition temperature at 70 K. Upon rotating our sample about c =[0 ,0 ,1 ] while the magnetic field is fixed along [1 ,0 ,0 ] , the threefold splitting of the spin-wave frequencies indicates that our sample is hexagonally twinned. Magnetization measurements then suggest that roughly 20% of the sample is in a domain with the a axis along [1 ,0 ,0 ] and that 80% of the sample is in one of two other domains with the a axis along either [-1 /2 ,√{3 }/2 ,0 ] or [-1 /2 ,-√{3 }/2 ,0 ] . Powder neutron-diffraction data, magnetization measurements, and terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy reveal that the complex spin order in each domain can be described as a triangular array of bitetrahedral c -axis chains ferrimagnetically coupled to each other in the a b plane. The electric-field dependence of bonds coupling those chains produces the large spin-induced polarization of CaBaCo4O7 .

  15. Enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics in Ca-modified BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Na Zhu


    Full Text Available Synergic modification of BaTiO3 ceramics was investigated by Ca-substitution, and the superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties were determined together with the structure evolution. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis demonstrated a large solubility limit above x = 0.25 in Ba1−xCaxTiO3 solid solution where the fine grain structure was observed with increasing x. Room temperature dielectric constant as high as 1655 was achieved in the present ceramics together with the significantly reduced dielectric loss of 0.013 (x = 0.20 at 100 kHz, where the Curie temperature kept almost a constant while other two transition temperatures decreased continuously with increasing x. More importantly, the remanent polarization Pr and dielectric strength Eb were significantly enhanced by Ca-substitution, and the best Pr (11.34 μC/cm2 and the highest dielectric strength Eb (75 kV/cm were acquired at x = 0.25. The present ceramics should be very desirable for the applications such as high density energy storage devices.

  16. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records (United States)

    Wong, C.I.; Banner, J.L.; Musgrove, M.


    A 4-year study in a central Texas cave quantifies multiple mechanisms that control dripwater composition and how these mechanisms vary at different drip sites. We monitored cave-air compositions, in situ calcite growth, dripwater composition and drip rate every 4-6weeks. Three groups of drip sites are delineated (Groups 1-3) based on geochemical variations in dripwater composition. Quantitative modeling of mineral-solution reactions within the host carbonate rock and cave environments is used to identify mechanisms that can account for variations in dripwater compositions. The covariation of Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations are dictated by water-rock interaction (i.e., calcite or dolomite recrystallization) or prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 1 dripwater compositions reflects a narrow range of the extent of water-rock interaction followed by varying amounts of prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 2 dripwater compositions are controlled by varying amounts of water-rock interaction with little to no PCP influence. Group 3 dripwater compositions are dictated by variable extents of both water-rock interaction and PCP. Group 1 drip sites show seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast to the findings of most previous dripwater Mg/Ca-Sr/Ca studies, these seasonal variations (at Group 1 drip sites) are independent of changes in water flux (i.e., rainfall and/or drip rate), and instead significantly correlate with changes in cave-air CO2 concentrations. These results are consistent with lower cave-air CO2, related to cool season ventilation of the cave atmosphere, enhancing calcite precipitation and leading to dripwater geochemical evolution via PCP. Group 1 dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca seasonality and evidence for PCP as a mechanism that can account for that seasonality, have two implications for many other regions where seasonal ventilation of caves

  17. Structure-property relations in Sr, Nb, Ba doped lead zirconate titanate

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, H


    rhombohedral or tetragonal forms or as mixture of the two (MPB), depending on Zi:Ti ratio. Zr:Ti ratio strongly affected d sub 3 sub 3 , which was maximised in the tetragonal phase close to, but not at, the MPB. Sr sup 2 sup + substitution on the A-site promoted tetragonality in PZT, greatly reducing T sub C , and broadening the dielectric maximum. As the Sr sup 2 sup + content was increased, Zr:Ti ratio was adjusted to maximise d sub 3 sub 3 and the optimised d sub 3 sub 3 values increased from 410 pC/N (Sr sup 2 sup + = 0) to 640 pC/N (Sr sup 2 sup + = 0.12), commensurate with a decrease in the T sub C. However, for ceramics where Sr sup 2 sup + > 0.12, optimised d sub 3 sub 3 decreased with respect to the values for ceramics where Sr sup 2 sup + = 0.12 even though T sub C was lowered. Electron diffraction patterns revealed superlattice reflections occurring at 1/2 left brace hkl right brace positions associated with rotations of oxygen octahedra in anti-phase. It was suggested that Sr sup 2 sup + substitut...

  18. B-site ordered double perovskite LaBa1-xSrxZnSbO6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1): Sr(2+)-doping-induced symmetry evolution and structure-luminescence correlations. (United States)

    Jiang, Pengfei; Zhou, Zhengyang; Gao, Wenliang; Cong, Rihong; Yang, Tao


    The study of perovskites has been active for a long time. Here, we rationally designed and prepared a double perovskite, LaBaZnSbO6, by selecting Zn(2+) and Sb(5+) with large size and charge differences, and, indeed, complete B-site ordering can be achieved. Careful study using powder X-ray diffraction data pinpointed its space group to be I2/m, which has rarely been seen in double perovskites. Thereafter, an interesting observation of Sr(2+)-doping-induced symmetry evolution from I2/m to P21/n was confirmed in the complete solid solutions LaBa1-xSrxZnSbO6, where the tilting system also transferred from a(-)a(-)c(0) to a(-)a(-)c(+). The transition boundary is around x = 0.4. It can also be visualized by the variation of θ (defined as c/[(a + b)/2]), which is associated with the anisotropic shrinkage of the unit cell lattice and indeed shows a minimum at x = 0.4. Such a successive modulation of both the structural symmetry and the average La/Ba/Sr-O bond distances (revealed by Rietveld refinements) motivated us to study the Eu(3+) luminescence in La0.95Eu0.05Ba1-xSrxZnSbO6. Interestingly, the maximum of charge transfer absorption of Eu(3+) shows a precise changing tendency with the A-O bond distances along with the Sr(2+) doping, clearly revealing the structure-luminescence correlations.

  19. An apparent "vital effect" of calcification rate on the Sr/Ca temperature proxy in the reef coral Montipora capitata (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Kuulei; Andersson, Andreas; Mackenzie, Fred T.


    Measuring the strontium to calcium ratio in coral skeletons reveals information on seawater temperatures during skeletal deposition, but studies have shown additional variables may affect the ratio. Here we measured Sr/Ca in the reef coral, Montipora capitata, grown in six mesocosms continuously supplied with seawater from the adjacent reef flat. Three mesocosms were ambient controls, and three had seawater chemistry simulating "ocean acidification" (OA). We found that Sr/Ca was not affected by the OA treatment, and neither was coral calcification for these small colonies (larger colonies did show an OA effect). The lack of OA effects allowed us to test the hypothesis that coral growth rate can affect Sr/Ca using the natural range in calcification rates of the corals grown at the same temperature. We found that Sr/Ca was inversely related to calcification rate (Sr/Ca = 9.39 - 0.00404 mmol/mol * mg day-1 cm-2, R2 = 0.32). Using a previously published calibration curve for this species, a 22 mg day-1 colony-1 increase in calcification rate introduced a 1°C warmer temperature estimate, with the 27 corals reporting "temperatures" ranging from 24.9 to 28.9, with mean 26.6 ± 0.9°C SD. Our results lend support to hypotheses invoking kinetic processes and growth rate to explain vital effects on Sr/Ca. However, uncertainty in the slope of the regression of Sr/Ca on calcification and a low R-squared value lead us to conclude that Sr/Ca could still be a useful proxy in this species given sufficient replication or by including growth rate in the calibration.

  20. Photoluminescence properties of X5SiO4Cl6:Tb3+ (X = Sr, Ba) green phosphor prepared via modified solid state method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A N Yerpude; S J Dhoble


    Luminescence property of a new halo silicate phosphor, X5SiO4Cl6:Tb3+ (X = Sr, Ba) prepared by modified solid state method is reported here. It is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and studied by photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. In the emission spectra of X5SiO4Cl6:Tb3+ (X = Sr, Ba) phosphor, characteristic blue and green emission peaks are present corresponding to Tb3+ intra 4 transition. Emission spectrum shows a dominant peak at 544 nm due to the ${}^{5}D_{4} \\rightarrow {}^{7}F_{5}$ transition of Tb3+.

  1. Preparation and characterization of composites from Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q. [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); Hong, R.Y., E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Key Laboratory of Organic Synthesis of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, SIP, Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Feng, W.G. [Suzhou Nanocomp Inc., Suzhou New District, Suzhou 215011 (China)


    Highlights: • Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} was synthesized through the method of co-precipitation. • Inexpensive TiOSO{sub 4} was used as raw material. • The molten salt contributes to better crystal morphology. • Composites with modified particles showed good thermal and dielectric properties. - Abstract: Pure perovskite phase Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powders were synthesized by facile co-precipitation using inexpensive TiOSO{sub 4} as the raw material. The post-calcining treatment was at the low temperature of 950 °C, which was about 200 °C lower than that of the conventional solid-state method. The effects of two types of precipitation agents on the properties of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powders were investigated, and cubic Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} particles were obtained at the optimal conditions. Afterwards, the obtained Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were ground into fine ceramic powders, and modified with oleic acid to improve the compatibility with the polystyrene (PS) matrix. The modified ceramic powders were dispersed in PS via solution co-blending to obtain Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}/PS composites. The structure and morphology of the Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}/PS composites were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images showed that the modified ceramic powders had good dispersion in the PS resin. Moreover, the dielectric and thermal properties of the Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}/PS composites were investigated, and the results showed that the modified ceramic powders could enhance the dielectric constants and thermal stability of ceramic–polymer composites.

  2. Metamaterials: A New Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -Silicon Hybrid Metamaterial Device in Terahertz Regime (Small 19/2016). (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Du, Ting; Xu, Ningning; Ding, Chunfeng; Li, Hui; Sheng, Quan; Liu, Ming; Yao, Jianquan; Wang, Zhiyong; Lou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Weili


    A giant terahertz modulation based on a Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 -silicon hybrid metamaterial is reported by L. Wu, W. Zhang, and co-workers on page 2610. The proposed nanoscale Ba0.6 Sr0.4 TiO3 (BST) hybrid metamaterial, delivering a transmission contrast of up to ≈79% due to electrically enabled carrier transport between the ferroelectric thin film and silicon substrate, is promising in developing high-performance real world photonic devices for terahertz technology.

  3. Hardness of CaF2 and BaF2 solid lubricants at 25 to 670 deg C (United States)

    Deadmore, Daniel L.; Sliney, Harold E.


    Plastic deformation is a prominent factor in determining the lubricating value of solid lubricants. Little information is available and its direct measurement is difficult so hardness, which is an indirect measure of this property was determined for fluoride solid lubricant compositions. The Vickers hardness of BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals was measured up to 670 C in a vacuum. The orientation of the BaF2 was near the (013) plane and the CaF2 was about 16 degrees from the degrees from the (1'11) plane. The BaF2 has a hardness of 83 kg/sq mm at the 25 C and 9 at the 600 C. The CaF2 is 170 at 25 C and 13 at 670 C. The decrease in hardness in the temperature range of 25 to 100 C is very rapid and amounts to 40% for both materials. Melts of BaF2 and CaF2 were made in a platinum crucible in ambient air with compositions of 50 to 100 wt% BaF2. The Vickers hardness of these polycrystalline binary compositions at 25 C increased with increasing CaF2 reaching a maximum of 150 kn/sq mm near the eutectic. The polycrystalline CaF2 was 14% softer than that of the single crystal surface and BsF2 was 30% harder than the single crystal surface. It is estimated that the brittle to ductile transition temperature for CaF2 and BaF2 is less than 100 C for the conditions present in the hardness tester.

  4. Structure determination at room temperature and phase transition studies above $T_c$ in ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Nalini; T N Guru Row


    The room temperature structure of three compounds belonging to the Aurivillius family ( = 4), ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb) has been analysed. BaBi4Ti4O15 crystallizes in a tetragonal 4/ space group whereas SrBi4Ti4O15 and PbBi4Ti4O15 crystallize in the orthorhombic space group $A2_1am$. The starting model for the Sr and Pb analogues was derived from ab initio methods and refined using the Rietveld method. The cations Ba and Sr are disordered over the Bi sites while the Pb cation is found exclusively in the [Bi2O2]2+ layers. The TiO6 octahedra are tilted with the Ti–O bonds forming zigzag chains along the `’ axis. The displacement of Bi atoms along the `’ axis might be responsible for ferroelectricity in these compounds. The high temperature X-ray data above $T_c$ indicate no structural transition for A = Ba and Pb while A = Sr transforms to the tetragonal structure.

  5. Interplay of Dirac electrons and magnetism in CaMnBi2 and SrMnBi2 (United States)

    Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Changle; Yi, Changjiang; Zhao, Guihua; Xia, Tian-Long; Ji, Jianting; Shi, Youguo; Yu, Rong; Wang, Xiaoqun; Chen, Changfeng; Zhang, Qingming


    Dirac materials exhibit intriguing low-energy carrier dynamics that offer a fertile ground for novel physics discovery. Of particular interest is the interplay of Dirac carriers with other quantum phenomena such as magnetism. Here we report on a two-magnon Raman scattering study of AMnBi2 (A=Ca, Sr), a prototypical magnetic Dirac system comprising alternating Dirac carrier and magnetic layers. We present the first accurate determination of the exchange energies in these compounds and, by comparison with the reference compound BaMn2Bi2, we show that the Dirac carrier layers in AMnBi2 significantly enhance the exchange coupling between the magnetic layers, which in turn drives a charge-gap opening along the Dirac locus. Our findings break new grounds in unveiling the fundamental physics of magnetic Dirac materials, which offer a novel platform for probing a distinct type of spin-Fermion interaction. The results also hold great promise for applications in magnetic Dirac devices.

  6. Thermally assisted interlayer magnetic coupling through Ba0.05Sr0.95TiO3 barriers (United States)

    Carreira, Santiago J.; Avilés Félix, Luis; Sirena, Martín; Alejandro, Gabriela; Steren, Laura B.


    We report on the interlayer exchange coupling across insulating barriers observed on Ni80Fe20/Ba0.05Sr0.95TiO3/La0.66Sr0.33MnO3 (Py/BST0.05/LSMO) trilayers. The coupling mechanism has been analyzed in terms of the barrier thickness, samples' substrate, and temperature. We examined the effect of MgO (MGO) and SrTiO3 (STO) (001) single-crystalline substrates on the magnetic coupling and also on the magnetic anisotropies of the samples in order to get a deeper understanding of the magnetism of the structures. We measured a weak coupling mediated by spin-dependent tunneling phenomena whose sign and strength depend on barrier thickness and substrate. An antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange prevails for most of the samples and smoothly increases with the barrier thicknesses as a consequence of the screening effects of the BST0.05. The coupling monotonically increases with temperature in all the samples and this behavior is attributed to thermally assisted mechanisms. The magnetic anisotropy of both magnetic components has a cubic symmetry that in the case of permalloy is added to a small uniaxial component.

  7. Blue-shift of Eu²⁺ emission in (Ba,Sr)₃Lu(PO₄)₃:Eu²⁺ eulytite solid-solution phosphors resulting from release of neighbouring-cation-induced stress. (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Xia, Zhiguo; Molokeev, Maxim S; Atuchin, Victor V; Liu, QuanLin


    A series of iso-structural eulytite-type (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu(2+) solid-solution phosphors with different Sr/Ba ratios were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. Crystal structures of (Ba,Sr)3Lu(PO4)3:Eu(2+) were resolved by the Rietveld method, which shows an eulytite-type cubic Bi4(SiO4)3 structure with cations disordered in a single C3 site while the oxygen atoms were distributed over two partially occupied sites. The emission peaks of Ba((3-x))Sr(x)Lu(PO4)3:Eu(2+) (0 ≤ x ≤ 3) phosphors were blue-shifted, from 506 to 479 nm, with increasing Sr/Ba ratio upon the same excitation wavelength of 365 nm, and such interesting luminescence behaviours can also be found in other eulytite-type (Ba,Sr)3Ln(PO4)3:Eu(2+) (Ln = Y, Gd) solid-solution phosphors. The blue-shift of the Eu(2+) emission with increasing Sr/Ba ratio was ascribed to the variation of the crystal field strength that the 5d orbital of Eu(2+) ion experiences, and a new model based on the Eu-O bond length and released neighboring-cation stress in disordered Ba(2+)/Sr(2+)/Ln(3+) sites is proposed.

  8. Effect of Sr{sup 2+} addition on electrical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} PTCR ceramics; Efeito da adicao de Sr{sup 2+} nas propriedades eletricas de ceramicas do tipo PTC a base de BaTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredini, J.P.; Paulin Filho, P.I.; Gheno, S.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    Semiconducting PTCR (Positive Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity) ceramics based in BaTiO{sub 3}, Ba{sub 0,8}Sr{sub 0,2}TiO{sub 3} e Ba{sub 0,6}Sr{sub 0,4}TiO{sub 3} compositions with 0.3at% La-doped have been investigated. The substitution of Ba{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+} in the lattice resulted in a decrease of tetragonal to cubic transition temperature (T{sub c}) observed by X-ray diffraction. The results have shown a strong dependence of structure with the resistivity measured in d.c. mode. Using impedance spectroscopy technique was possible to attribute the PTC effect entirely to grain boundary region resistance. AFM and EFM images have shown potential barriers on the grain boundaries of evaluated samples below and above T{sub c}.(author)

  9. Millimeter wave inducing subharmonic steps in the Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 thin film bicrystal Josephson junction (United States)

    Liu, X.; Hu, L.; Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Ma, L. J.; Zhao, X. J.; He, M.; Zhang, X.; Ji, L.


    The bicrystal Josephson junction (BJJ) was fabricated by patterning microbridge into Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (Tl-2212) thin film grown epitaxially on the bicrystal SrTiO3 (STO) substrate. The millimeter wave responses of BJJ were researched by experiment and numerical simulation. Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were both observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve at the liquid nitrogen temperature. In the resistive-capacitive-inductive shunted junction (RCLSJ) model, both of the Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were reproduced with varying capacitances and inductances. The result of simulation has a good agreement with the experiment. The relative large capacitance and inductance correspond to distinct subharmonic steps.

  10. Green-emitting (La,M,Tb)OCl (M = Mg, Ca, and Sr) phosphors (United States)

    Kim, Sun Woog; Jyoko, Kazuya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito


    Green-emitting (La1-x-yMxTby)OCl (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.13, 0.03 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.15, M = Mg, Ca, and Sr) single phase phosphors were synthesized using a liquid-phase method and their photoluminescence properties were characterized. The excitation spectrum consisted of a strong broad band from 220 to 290 nm, which corresponds to the 4f-5d transition of Tb3+. The oxychloride phosphors exhibit typical emission peaks assigned to the transition from 5D4 to 7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, and 3) of Tb3+, and the luminescence emission intensity was successfully enhanced by doping divalent alkaline earth metal ions (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+) into La3+ sites of the host LaOCl lattice. The highest green emission intensity was obtained for (La0.88Ca0.05Tb0.07)OCl, of which the relative emission intensity was 75% of that for a commercial green-emitting (La0.52Ce0.31Tb0.17)PO4 phosphor.

  11. NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7: novel single crystal pyrochlore antiferromagnets (United States)

    Sanders, M. B.; Krizan, J. W.; Plumb, K. W.; McQueen, T. M.; Cava, R. J.


    The crystal structures and magnetic properties of three previously unreported A2B2F7 pyrochlore materials, NaSrMn2F7, NaCaFe2F7, and NaSrFe2F7 are presented. In these compounds, either S  =  2Fe2+ or S  =  5/2Mn2+ is on the B site, while nonmagnetic Na and Ca (Na and Sr) are disordered on the A site. The materials, which were grown as crystals via the floating zone method, display high effective magnetic moments and large Curie-Weiss thetas. Despite these characteristics, no ordering transition is detected. However, freezing of the magnetic spins, characterized by peaks in the susceptibility or specific heat, is observed at very low temperatures. The empirical frustration index, f  =  -θ CW/T f, for the materials are 36 (NaSrMn2F7), 27 (NaSrFe2F7), and 19 (NaCaFe2F7). AC susceptibility, DC susceptibility, and heat capacity measurements are used to characterize the observed spin glass behavior. The results suggest that the compounds are frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnets with weak bond disorder. The magnetic phenomena that these fluoride pyrochlores exhibit, in addition to their availability as relatively large single crystals, make them promising candidates for the study of geometric magnetic frustration.

  12. Multiple caloric effects in geometrically frustrated "114" CaBaCo4O7 Cobaltite (United States)

    Dhanasekhar, C.; Das, A. K.; Venimadhav, A.


    We have investigated the magnetocaloric and electrocaloric effects in "114" CaBaCo4O7 (CBCO) sample prepared by solid state method. Magnetization study has revealed the ferrimagnetic transition (TC) at 60 K and another transition at 66 K. Observation of irreversibility and first order nature of magnetic transition above TC has suggested a complicated magnetic nature of the system. A maximum magnetic entropy change of ~6.8 J/Kg-K has been found at TC and further a broadening of the entropy peak with the increase of magnetic field indicates the field induced transition above TC. From temperature dependent pyrocurrent measurements, we have measured the electric polarization under different electric fields and the change in isothermal electrocaloric entropy is found to be ~0.50 J-m-3 K-1 (for 150 kV/m) just above magnetic transition temperature.

  13. Liquid Be, Ca and Ba. An orbital-free ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, B. G. del; González, L. E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    Several static and dynamic properties of liquid beryllium (l-Be), liquid calcium (l-Ca) and liquid barium (l-Ba) near their triple point have been evaluated by the orbital-free ab initio molecular dynamics method (OF-AIMD), where the interaction between valence electrons and ions is described by means of local pseudopotentials. These local pseudopotentials used were constructed through a force-matching process with those obtained from a Kohn-Sham ab initio molecular dynamics study (KS-AIMD) of a reduced system with non-local pseudopotentials. The calculated static structures show good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which has been linked to the existence of a marked icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. As for the dynamic properties, we obtain collective density excitations whose associated dispersion relations exhibit a positive dispersion.

  14. White-light-emitting diodes based on Ba2+ co-doped Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphor (United States)

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Ke; Yang, Yi


    A yellow-orange-emitting Ba2+ codoped Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ phosphor was prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. Through transitions of 5d-->4f in Ce3+, the phosphor showed a very broad and strong yellow emission under near ultraviolet (UV) or blue light excitation. The shifts of the emission band to longer wavelength (yellow-orange) of the Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ yellow phosphor under the 450-470 nm excitation range have been achieved by adding the element Ba2+ in the Sr3SiO5 host. White light could be obtained by combining this phosphor with 460nm light-emitting diodes. As the concentrations of the Ba2+, Ce3+ and Li+ ions in the phosphor were 0.35mol, 0.024mol and 0.024mol respectively, the InGaN-based Ba2+ codoped Sr3SiO5: Ce3+, Li+ LED presented intense white emitting and good color rendering of 88.

  15. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of double perovskites SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6 (United States)

    Feng, Hai L.; Schnelle, Walter; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Jansen, Martin


    New double perovskite oxides SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6 were synthesized by solid state reactions from the respective binary metal oxides, and their crystal structures and magnetic properties were characterized. At room temperature SrLaNiOsO6 and BaLaNiOsO6 crystallize in ordered double perovskite structures with space groups of P21/n (monoclinic) and I4/m (tetragonal), respectively. They are electrically semiconducting with an activation energy of ≈0.35 eV. Specific heat and magnetic measurements indicate that SrLaNiOsO6 shows predominantly antiferromagnetic correlations and displays antiferromagnetic transition around 60 K. However, for the isoelectronic BaLaNiOsO6 ferromagnetic correlations are predominant and there is no clear feature of a magnetic transition detectable. The remarkable change in magnetic properties of ALaNiOsO6 (A = Sr and Ba) can be related to the degree of structure distortions, i.e. the bending of the O-B-O (B = Ni,Os) links.

  16. Laser molecular-beam epitaxy and second-order optical nonlinearity of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of c-axis oriented BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with the atomic-scale precision were epitaxially grown on single-crystal SrTiO3 (100) substrates using laser molecular-beam epitaxy (LMBE). A periodic modulation of the intensity of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) in BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers was observed and attributed to the lattice-misfit-induced periodic variation of the terrace density in film surface. The relationship between the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities and the superlattice structure was systematically studied. The experimental and theoretical fitting results indicate that the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices were greatly enhanced with the maximum value being more than one order of magnitude larger than that of bulk BaTiO3 crystal. The mechanism of the enhancement of the second-order optical nonlinearity was discussed by taking into account the stress-induced lattice distortion and polarization enhancement.

  17. Influence of Ba{sup 2+}-doping on structural and luminescence properties of Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Zhengwei [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); He Hong [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Fu Renli, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Agathopoulos, Simeon [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Ioannina, GR-451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Song Xiufeng [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)


    Ba{sup 2+}-doped Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were synthesized with the high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. The experimental results, summarized in the successful production of a single-phase powder with fine microstructure of spherical particles with smooth surface, suggest that Ba{sup 2+}-doping favors the stabilization of alpha'-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffractograms suggests that Ba{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 2+} ions occupy the sites of Sr{sup 2+} in the lattice of alpha'-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. The produced phosphors show two intense emission bands at green and yellow regions of spectrum, originated from Eu{sup 2+} ions accommodated at two different sites in the host crystal, whose peaks depend on the concentrations of Ba{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 2+}. Intense and broad excitation spectra extend from ultraviolet to the blue region.

  18. Structure and conductivity of layered oxides (Ba,Sr){sub n+1}(Sn,Sb){sub n}O{sub 3n+1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A. [Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (United Kingdom); Prassides, K. [Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (United Kingdom)]|[School of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom); Day, P. [Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (United Kingdom); Stalick, J.K. [Research Radiation Div., National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)


    Structures of various members of the Ruddlesdon-Popper homologous series, (Ba,Sr){sub n+1}(Sn,Sb){sub n}O{sub 3n+1}, solved by Rietveld refinement of powder neutron diffraction data are summarised. Predictions of band gaps are made on the basis of extended Hueckel calculations. (orig.)

  19. Growth of large-domain YBa 2Cu 3O x with new seeding crystals of CaNdAlO 4 and SrLaGaO 4 (United States)

    Shi, Donglu; Lahiri, K.; Hull, J. R.; LeBlanc, D.; LeBlanc, M. A. R.; Dabkowski, Antoni; Chang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Fan, H.


    Single crystals of CaNdAlO 4 and SrLaGaO 4 were used as seeds to grow large domains of YBa 2Cu 3O x for levitation applications. These crystals have high melting temperatures (> 1500°C) and similar lattice structures to that of YBa 2Cu 3O x. In a seeded melt-texturing method developed previously, the single crystals of CaNdAlO 4, SrLaGaO 4, and NdBa 2Cu 3O x were used as seeds for comparison. After melt processing, scanning electron microscopy analysis did not reveal any major differences in all these seeded melt-textured samples. However, the levitation forces in the samples seeded with single crystals of CaNdAlO 4 and SrLaGaO 4 increased considerably compared to that of the sample seeded with NdBa 2Cu 3O x. A model is proposed to describe the domain growth mechanism during seeded melt processing.

  20. Gamma-ray shielding properties of CaO–SrO–B2O3 glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K; Singh, H; Sharma, G


    Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities have been determined experimentally for the glass system xCaO . (0.3-x)SrO . 0.7B(2)O(3) at photon energies 511, 662, 1173, and 1332KeV. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. In addition......, the molar volume of the glasses has been derived from density measurements, and the excess volume has been determined as a function of composition. The reported data should be useful for potential applications of these glasses in radiation shielding. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Preparation of Bulky Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductor by Magnetized Twin-Roll (United States)

    Kawahara, Nobuaki; Kawabata, Sanemasa; Enami, Hiroyoshi; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Hoshizaki, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Masashi; Asai, Shigeo; Imura, Toru


    A highly oriented (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox bulk superconductor has been prepared by magnetized twin-roll processing. In these bulks, plate-like crystal grains were highly oriented by a magnetic and mechanical force. The grain c-axes were parallel to the magnetic field and pressing directions. In fact, both critical current density (Jc) and orientation degree of the sample rolled under 2 T were higher than those of the sample rolled with no magnetic field. The magnetized twin-roll processing is effective not only in enhancing grain-orientation but also in packing to improve Jc.

  2. Superconductivity of Bi1.6Pbo.4Sr2Ca3Cu4O12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atilla Coskun; Ahmet Ekicibil; Bekir Ozgelik


    The superconducting ceramics Bi1.6Pbo.4Sr2Ca3Cu4O12 have been prepared by the melt-casting method. A zero resistance temperature at 60 K has been observed. It has been found that the superconducting phase temperature Tc increases with increasing sintering temperature. The effect of Pb content on the superconductivity of the ceramic has been studied. The microstructure of the samplehas been investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Phase analysis has been carried out by x-ray diffraction patterns and energy dispersive analysis through x-ray spectroscopy.

  3. Ca2+_, Sr2+_force relationships and kinetic properties of fast-twitch rat leg muscle fibre subtypes. (United States)

    Galler, S


    Force generation of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres exhibits large differences in its sensitivity to Ca2+ and Sr2+ (e.g. Fink et al. 1986). Little is known about fast-twitch fibre subtypes. Thus, a variety of mechanical measurements on segments of rehydrated freeze-dried fast-twitch rat leg muscle fibres were executed in this study. Among these, the Ca2+- and Sr2+-force relationship and the unloaded shortening velocity were determined. The fibres were classified into subtypes according to their kinetics of stretch activation (Galler et al. 1994). In all fibres, the maximal force under Sr2+ activation was about 0.9 of that under Ca2+ activation. The Ca2+- and Sr2+-force relationship exhibited a biphasic shape with a steeper part (Hill coefficient, n1) below 50% and a flatter part (Hill coefficient, n2) above 50% of maximal force. The difference between the Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -sensitivity was independent of the fibre subtypes. The Hill coefficients were only partially correlated with kinetic properties. The correlation was more pronounced for the unloaded shortening velocity than for the kinetics of stretch activation. The data are consistent with the idea that the Ca2+ and Sr2+ sensitivities of fast-twitch fibres are mainly determined by a single isoform of troponin C. Among several protein isoforms, the isoforms of the myosin light chains seem to be involved for determining the slope of the Ca2+- and Sr2+-force relationship of fast-twitch muscle fibres.

  4. Unconventional Electronic Reconstruction in Undoped (Ba,Sr)Fe2As2 Across the Spin Density Wave Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, M.


    Through a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study of the iron pnictide compounds (Ba,Sr)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, we show that the electronic structures of these compounds are significantly reconstructed across the spin density wave transition, which cannot be described by a simple folding scenario of conventional density wave ordering. Moreover, we find that LDA calculations with an incorporated suppressed magnetic moment of 0.5{mu}{sub B} can match well the details in the reconstructed electronic structure, suggesting that the nature of magnetism in the pnictides is more itinerant than local, while the origin of suppressed magnetic moment remains an important issue for future investigations.

  5. Frequency Dependent Electrical Properties of Ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala’eddin A. SAIF


    Full Text Available The frequency dependent electrical parameters, such as impedance, electric modulus, dielectric constant and AC conductivity for ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin film have been investigated within the range of 1 Hz and 106 Hz at room temperature. Z* plane shows two regions corresponding to the bulk mechanism and the distribution of the grain boundaries-electrodes process. M" versus frequency plot reveals a relaxation peak, which is not observed in the ε″ plot and it has been found that this peak is a non-Debye-type. The frequency dependent conductivity plot shows three regions of conduction processes, i. e., a low-frequency region due to DC conduction, a mid-frequency region due to translational hopping motions and a high-frequency region due to localized hopping and/or reorientational motion.

  6. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi₃ (A = Sr and Ba). (United States)

    Shao, D F; Luo, X; Lu, W J; Hu, L; Zhu, X D; Song, W H; Zhu, X B; Sun, Y P


    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  7. Optical and spectral studies on pure and europium doped olgite type Na(Sr,Ba)PO4 ceramics. (United States)

    Jawaher, K Rackesh; Jagannathan, R; Das, S Jerome; Krishnan, S


    Europium ion doped olgite type Na(Sr,Ba)PO4 ceramics, a new generation of light emitting bulb, was prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction method. The synthesized materials were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectra measurements. The EPR spectrum of the sample exhibits a well-resolved hyperfine structure of 151Eu2+ and 153Eu2+ isotopes and the g value has been calculated. Fluorescence spectra revealed that europium ions were present in divalent as well as in the trivalent oxidation states. The critical distance for energy transfer between Eu2+ and Eu2+ ion is calculated as 20Å, which is in good agreement with that of experimental data. The FTIR analysis reveals all the vibrations of PO4(3-) ions.

  8. Ba(1-x)Sr(x)Zn2Si2O7--A new family of materials with negative and very high thermal expansion. (United States)

    Thieme, Christian; Görls, Helmar; Rüssel, Christian


    The compound BaZn2Si2O7 shows a high coefficient of thermal expansion up to a temperature of 280 °C, then a transition to a high temperature phase is observed. This high temperature phase exhibits negative thermal expansion. If Ba(2+) is successively replaced by Sr(2+), a new phase with a structure, similar to that of the high temperature phase of BaZn2Si2O7, forms. At the composition Ba0.8Sr0.2Zn2Si2O7, this new phase is completely stabilized. The crystal structure was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction using the composition Ba0.6Sr0.4Zn2Si2O7, which crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm. The negative thermal expansion is a result of motions and distortions inside the crystal lattice, especially inside the chains of ZnO4 tetrahedra. Dilatometry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction were used to verify the negative thermal expansion. Coefficients of thermal expansion partially smaller than -10·10(-6) K(-1) were measured.

  9. Late Caledonian microdiorites and felsic porphyrites from Northern Scotland: implications for the petrogenesis of high Ba-Sr granites (United States)

    Fowler, Mike; Jacklin, Holly


    A suite of sharply cross-cutting microdiorite - felsic porphyrite dykes, emplaced into the southern part of the Northern Highlands Terrane, is thought to be coeval with the local Caledonian high Ba-Sr granites. On occasion they can be seen to pillow into, and mix with the granites (e.g. Strontian) in the manner of synplutonic dykes. In the least-deformed examples small-scale mixing and mingling textures are preserved between basic and acid variants, and the felsic porphyrites (rarely) have mafic marginal facies. Microdiorites also grade into rocks of the appinite suite. Thus, the compositional range of the suite is considerable, linking mafic magmas to more evolved compositions via many intermediate stages. These therefore offer a window into the processes of Caledonian magma evolution. A selection of some 50 dykes has ben collected and analysed for major and trace elements, mostly from the environs of Strontian, but also as far north as Loch Quoich and west to Arisaig. They show a continuous chemical range from 47% to 74% SiO2, 18% to high-Mg andesite of sanukite affinity. Petrogenetically-informative trace elements bear the hallmarks of a subduction-related source, with general enrichment in LILEs and relative depletion in HFSEs (in particular Nb-Ta). The chemistry of the felsic porphyrites is closely comparable with the local Strontian and Cluanie granites, and cumulus-enriched mafic microdiorites are chemically similar to local discrete appinites. Such data can therefore be used to test alternative petrogenetic hypotheses: that the high Ba-Sr granites evolved by crystal fractionation (± crustal contamination) from mantle-derived appinitic parents, or that they are crustal melts associated with genetically unrelated but contemporaneous mafic magmas.

  10. Theoretical study of the new zintl phases compounds K{sub 2}ACdSb{sub 2} (A=(Sr, Ba))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Sikander [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Reshak, A.H., E-mail: [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology, School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)


    The electronic structure and optical properties of K{sub 2}SrCdSb{sub 2} and K{sub 2}BaCdSb{sub 2} compounds are computed using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in WIEN2k code. In this perspective, the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Engel and Vosko approximation (EV-GGA) were used for the exchange correlation potential. The calculated band structure shows a direct band gap of about 0.344/0.20 eV (LDA), 0.463/0.285 eV (GGA) and 0.904/0.707 eV (EV-GGA) for K{sub 2}SrCdSb{sub 2}/K{sub 2}BaCdSb{sub 2} compounds. The part of different bands was scrutinized from total and partial density of states curves. There is strong hybridization between Sr-s and Sr-p states and also between Cd-d and Sb-s states in the valence band. The electronic charge density has also been studied in the (200) crystallographic plane. The K, Sr/Ba, Cd and Sb atoms shows ionic bonding. Besides this, the optical properties, including the dielectric function are obtained and analyzed in details.

  11. A study of the pseudogap state in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy HTSC materials (United States)

    Aliev, V. M.; Mamedova, A. N.; Raqimov, S. S.; Selim-zade, R. I.; Tairov, B. A.


    We examine the effect of replacing calcium by zinc has on the transport properties of the BiSrCaCuO-2221 system. It is shown that the critical temperatures Tc of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox(B1) and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2) samples are close (81 K and 80.72 K). However, the resistivity ρ of the Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy sample increases considerably, and the ratio ρB2/ρB1 ≈ 10 at 100 K. We use the local pair model to analyze the mechanism behind the formation of excess conductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2), with consideration of the Aslamazov-Larkin theory near Tc. We determined the temperature T0 of the transition from the 2D fluctuation area to the 3D region (i.e., the 2D-3D crossover temperature). We calculated the coherence length of the fluctuation Cooper pairs along the c axis, ξc(0). It is shown that substituting Zn for Ca reduces ξc(0) by almost 1.5 times (4.8 Å and 3.3 Å, respectively), and also leads to a narrowing of both the pseudogap region and the superconducting fluctuation area near Tc. We determined the temperature dependence of the pseudogap Δ * T and Δ * (Tc). The increase of ρ, its specific temperature dependence and the significant decrease of T * in sample B2, all point to the destruction of local pairs at all high temperatures, i.e., to the suppression of the pseudogap by Zn doping.

  12. Sr/Ca ratios in cold-water corals - a 'low-resolution' temperature archive? (United States)

    Rüggeberg, Andres; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer; Raddatz, Jacek; López Correa, Matthias; Montagna, Paolo; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Freiwald, André


    One of the basic data to understand global change and past global changes is the measurement and the reconstruction of temperature of marine water masses. E.g. seawater temperature controls the density of seawater and in combination with salinity is the major driving force for the oceans circulation system. Geochemical investigations on cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Desmophyllum cristagalli indicated the potential of these organisms as high-resolution archives of environmental parameters from intermediate and deeper water masses (Adkins and Boyle 1997). Some studies tried to use cold-water corals as a high-resolution archive of temperature and salinity (Smith et al. 2000, 2002; Blamart et al. 2005; Lutringer et al. 2005). However, the fractionation of stable isotopes (delta18O and delta13C) and element ratios (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca) are strongly influenced by vital effects (Shirai et al. 2005; Cohen et al. 2006), and difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, ongoing studies indicate the potential of a predominant temperature dependent fractionation of distinct isotopes and elements (e.g. Li/Ca, Montagna et al. 2008; U/Ca, Mg/Ca, delta18O, Lòpez Correa et al. 2008; delta88/86Sr, Rüggeberg et al. 2008). Within the frame of DFG-Project TRISTAN and Paläo-TRISTAN (Du 129/37-2 and 37-3) we investigated live-collected specimens of cold-water coral L. pertusa from all along the European continental margin (Northern and mid Norwegian shelves, Skagerrak, Rockall and Porcupine Bank, Galicia Bank, Gulf of Cadiz, Mediterranean Sea). These coral samples grew in waters characterized by temperatures between 6°C and 14°C. Electron Microprobe investigations along the growth direction of individual coral polyps were applied to determine the relationship between the incorporation of distinct elements (Sr, Ca, Mg, S). Cohen et al. (2006) showed for L. pertusa from the Kosterfjord, Skagerrak, that ~25% of the coral's Sr/Ca ratio is related to temperature, while 75% are influenced

  13. Coupled magnetic and elastic properties in LaPr(CaSr)MnO manganites (United States)

    Eslava, G. G.; Parisi, F.; Bernardo, P. L.; Quintero, M.; Leyva, G.; Cohen, L. F.; Ghivelder, L.


    We investigate a series of manganese oxides, the La0.225Pr0.4(Ca1-xSrx)0.375MnO3 system. The x = 0 sample is a prototype compound for the study of phase separation in manganites, where ferromagnetic and charge ordered antiferromagnetic phases coexist. Replacing Ca2+ by Sr2+ gradually turns the system into a homogeneous ferromagnet. Our results show that the material structure plays a major role in the observed magnetic properties. On cooling, at temperatures below ∼ 100 K, a strong contraction of the lattice is followed by an increase in the magnetization. This is observed both through thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements, providing distinct evidence of magneto-elastic coupling in these phase separated compounds.

  14. Testing the Itinerancy of Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8C+δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Gu, G.D.; Hücker, M.; Fauqué, B.; Perring, T.G.; Regnault, L.P.; Tranquada, J.M.


    Much of what we know about the electronic states of high-temperature superconductors is due to photoemission and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy studies of the compound Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. The demonstration of well-defined quasiparticles in the superconducting state has encouraged many theorists to apply the conventional theory of metals, Fermi-liquid theory, to the cuprates. In particular, the spin excitations observed by neutron scattering at energies below twice the superconducting gap energy are commonly believed to correspond to an excitonic state involving itinerant electrons. Here, we present the first measurements of the magnetic spectral weight of optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in absolute units. The lack of temperature dependence of the local spin susceptibility across the superconducting transition temperature, T{sub c}, is incompatible with the itinerant calculations. Alternatively, the magnetic excitations could be due to local moments, as the magnetic spectrum is similar to that in La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4}, where quasiparticles and local moments coexist.

  15. Structure and electrical properties of (1-x)BaTiO3+(x)La2/3-Sr1/3MnO3 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyou ZHOU; Yu LEI


    Liquid-phase sintering method was used to prepare BaTiO3 powders and the structure and electrical properties of (1-x)BaTiO3+(x)La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) composites were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the prepared BaTiO3 powders were pure and fine,indicating that sintering temperature was effectively lowered when the NaCl sintering aid was added.X-ray diffraction patterns of (1-x)BaTiO3+(x)La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) composites showed that LSMO and BaTiO3 phases were coexistent and no other phases were detected.The impedance spectra showed that the resistance of grain boundaries for LSMO-doped samples was suppressed. The resistivity-temperature measurements showed that roomtemperature resistivity of the composites was lowered from insulator for pure BaTiO3 ceramic to 103 Ω·m for the x=0.3 sample.The sample of x≤0.2 showed the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect whereas the x=0.3 sample exhibited PTC effect at temperatures below 68 ℃ and then negative temperature coefficient (NTC) effect at temperatures above 68 ℃.The related mechanism has been elucidated.

  16. Ferroelectric substrate effects on the magnetism, magnetotransport, and electroresistance of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thin films on BaTiO3 (United States)

    Alberca, A.; Munuera, C.; Tornos, J.; Mompean, F. J.; Biskup, N.; Ruiz, A.; Nemes, N. M.; de Andres, A.; León, C.; Santamaría, J.; García-Hernández, M.


    La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 optimally doped epitaxial films were grown on ferroelectric BaTiO3 substrates. Electronic transport (magnetoresistance and electroresistance) and magnetic properties showed important anomalies in the temperature interval between 60 and 150 K, below the metal-insulator transition. Scanning probe microscopy revealed changes in BaTiO3 surface morphology at those temperatures. La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thickness is a critical factor: 120-Å-thick films showed large anomalies sensitive to electric poling of the BaTiO3, whereas the behavior of 150-Å-thick films is closer to that of the reference La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 samples grown on SrTiO3. We propose that, through inhomogenous strain and electric polarization effects, the ferroelectric substrate induces an inhomogenous spin distribution in the magnetic layer. This would imply the coexistence of in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic patches in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, possibly interspersed with antiferromagnetic regions, as it has recently been theoretically predicted. Substrate poling effects are investigated, and a magnetoelectric coupling is demonstrated.

  17. Magnetic and microstructural properties of Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites (United States)

    Yang, Yujie; Wang, Fanhou; Liu, Xiansong; Shao, Juxiang; Huang, Duohui


    In the current study, Al substituted M-type Ca-Sr hexaferrites, with composition Ca0.6Sr0.1La0.3Fe12-xAlxO19 (0≤x≤1.4), have been prepared using the conventional ceramic techniques. The phase composition of the magnetic powders was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data show that the magnetic powders with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.8 show α-Fe2O3 as a second phase, while the magnetic powders with x from 1.0 to 1.4 consist of pure magnetoplumbite without any other impurity phases. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to observe the morphologies of the magnetic powders. FE-SEM images of the magnetic powders show the hexagonal platelet-like shape. The magnetic properties of the magnetic powders were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The saturation magnetization (Ms) linearly decreases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4. While the remanent magnetization (Mr) first increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 0.2 and then decreases when Al content (x)≥0.2. However, the coercivity (Hc) increases with Al content (x) from 0 to 1.4.

  18. Acropora interbranch skeleton Sr/Ca ratios: Evaluation of a potential new high-resolution paleothermometer (United States)

    Sadler, James; Nguyen, Ai D.; Leonard, Nicole D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nothdurft, Luke D.


    The majority of coral geochemistry-based paleoclimate reconstructions in the Indo-Pacific are conducted on selectively cored colonies of massive Porites. This restriction to a single genus may make it difficult to amass the required paleoclimate data for studies that require deep reef coring techniques. Acropora, however, is a highly abundant coral genus in both modern and fossil reef systems and displays potential as a novel climate archive. Here we present a calibration study for Sr/Ca ratios recovered from interbranch skeleton in corymbose Acropora colonies from Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef. Significant intercolony differences in absolute Sr/Ca ratios were normalized by producing anomaly plots of both coral geochemistry and instrumental water temperature records. Weighted linear regression of these anomalies from the lagoon and fore-reef slope provide a sensitivity of -0.05 mmol/mol °C-1, with a correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.65) comparable to those of genera currently used in paleoclimate reconstructions. Reconstructions of lagoon and reef slope mean seasonality in water temperature accurately identify the greater seasonal amplitude observed in the lagoon of Heron Reef. A longer calibration period is, however, required for reliable reconstructions of annual mean water temperatures.

  19. Electron energy loss spectroscopy in ACrO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr and Pb) perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo-Lopez, Angel M; Castillo-MartInez, Elizabeth; Alario-Franco, Miguel A [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Facultad CC. Quimicas, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    We present the experimental ELNES spectra of the Cr-L{sub 2,3} and O-K edges in three high pressure synthesized perovskites, ACrO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr and Pb). A comparison of the experimental spectra against the theoretical calculations shows the influence of the A cation in the features of the spectrum. The Cr-L{sub 2,3} multiplet structure of these perovskites shows similar integrated intensity ratio ({integral} I{sub L3}/{integral} I{sub L2}) between them and with the CrO{sub 2}, implying that all of them are indeed composed by Cr{sup 4+}. But the O-K pre-edge observed in CrO{sub 2}, typical of its d{sup 3}L character (L-ligand hole), is not present in these perovskites. The effect of the A cation manifests itself in the O-K edge. The different features in the peak edges are caused by the change in the interaction between oxygen and the A cation from being via p orbitals (with Pb) to being via d orbitals (with Ca, Sr). The experimental spectra of the samples are reproduced well by the presented DFT calculations.

  20. Biogeochemistry of stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes in a larch-covered permafrost-dominated watershed of Central Siberia (United States)

    Bagard, Marie-Laure; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Chabaux, François; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Viers, Jérôme; Stille, Peter; Labolle, François; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.


    Stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotope compositions were measured in different compartments (stream water, soil solutions, rocks, soils and soil leachates and vegetation) of a small permafrost-dominated watershed in the Central Siberian Plateau. The Sr and Ca in the area are supplied by basalt weathering and atmospheric depositions, which significantly impact the Sr isotopic compositions. Only vegetation significantly fractionates the calcium isotopes within the watershed. These fractionations occur during Ca uptake by roots and along the transpiration stream within the larch trees and are hypothesised to be the result of chromatographic processes and Ca oxalate crystallisations during Ca circulation or storage within plant organs. Biomass degradation significantly influences the Ca isotopic compositions of soil solutions and soil leachates via the release of light Ca, and organic and organo-mineral colloids are thought to affect the Ca isotopic compositions of soil solutions by preferential scavenging of 40Ca. The imprint of organic matter degradation on the δ44/40Ca of soil solutions is much more significant for the warmer south-facing slope of the watershed than for the shallow and cold soil active layer of the north-facing slope. As a result, the available stock of biomass and the decomposition rates appear to be critical parameters that regulate the impact of vegetation on the soil-water system in permafrost areas. Finally, the obtained δ44/40Ca patterns contrast with those described for permafrost-free environments with a much lower δ44/40Ca fractionation factor between soils and plants, suggesting specific features of organic matter decomposition in permafrost environments. The biologically induced Ca isotopic fractionation observed at the soil profile scale is not pronounced at the scale of the streams and large rivers in which the δ44/40Ca signature may be controlled by the heterogeneity of lithological sources.

  1. Magnetic behavior of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 / BaTiO3 bilayers (United States)

    Ordonez, John E.; Gomez, Maria E.; Lopera, Wilson; Marin, Lorena; Pardo, Jose A.; Morellon, Luis; Algarabel, Pedro; Prieto, Pedro


    We have grown ferroelectric BaTiO3(BTO) and ferromagnetic La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) onto (001) SrTiO3 and Nb:SrTiO3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at pure oxygen atmosphere, and a substrate temperature of 820° C, seeking for a multiferroic behavior in this structure. From x-ray diffraction (XRD) we found lattice parameter aBTO=4.068 Å, and aLCMO=3.804 Å, for each individual layer. In the BTO/LCMO bilayer, (002)-Bragg peak for BTO maintain its position whereas (002) LCMO peak shift to lower Bragg angle indicating a strained LCMO film. Magnetization measurements reveal an increase in the Curie temperature from 170 K to 220 K for the bilayer when LCMO (t = 47 nm) is deposited on BTO (t=52 nm) film, while depositing the BTO (50 nm) above LCMO (48 nm) the Curie temperature remains at values close to that obtained for a LCMO single layer (~175 K), deposited under identical growth parameters This work has been supported by Instituto de Nanociencias de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain, ``El Patrimonio Autónomo Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento para CT&I FJC'' COLCIENCIAS-CENM Contract RC 275-2011 and Research Project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE.

  2. CaSR function in the intestine: Hormone secretion, electrolyte absorption and secretion, paracrine non-canonical Wnt signaling and colonic crypt cell proliferation. (United States)

    Macleod, R John


    Expression and function of the CaSR have been shown in some mammalian taste buds and basal cells of the esophagus. Signaling cascades responsible for CaSR-mediated stimulation of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase on human parietal cells have been defined. Transgenic mice and reductionistic cell culture models have shown that the CaSR promotes gastrin secretion from G cells, cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion from duodenal I cells and BMP-2 secretion from sub-epithelial myofibroblasts. In addition, the CaSR mediates a novel paracrine relationship between myofibroblasts and overlying epithelial cells in the colon. Thus, CaSR activators stimulate secretion of Wnt5a from myofibroblasts and expression of the Wnt5a receptor Ror2 in epithelial cells. CaSR-mediated Wnt5a/Ror2 engagement stimulates epithelial differentiation and reduces expression of the receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1). CaSR activators also modulate intestinal motility, inhibit Cl(-) secretion and stimulate Na(+) absorption in both the small intestine and colon. Colonic epithelia from conditional and global CaSR knockout mice exhibit increased proliferation with increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, demonstrating that the CaSR negatively modulates colonic epithelial growth.

  3. Effect of Ca doping on thermally activated flux flow in the Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mustafa Akyol; Ali Osman Ayaş; Gönül Akça; Selda Kiliç Çeti̇n; Ahmet Eki̇ci̇bi̇l


    Y3Ba5Cu8O18 (Y-358) and Y3Ba5Ca2Cu8O18 (YCa-358) compounds were prepared by the so-called sol–gel method. The effect of doping Ca atoms into the Y3Ba5Cu8O18 superconductor is studied by employing the electrical resistivity measurements at various magnetic fields. The possible degradation in microstructural and superconducting properties due to the addition of Ca was discussed. The resistivity as a function of temperature measurements shows that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for both samples. A systematic analysis of the magnetoresistivity of the Y-358 and YCa-358 compounds has been carried out by using the thermally activated flux flow (TAFF) model. The TAFF activation energy, , is field dependent and obeys the power law = –, where increases while decreases with the addition of Ca. Furthermore, and the calculated upper critical field, 2, decrease with the addition of Ca.

  4. New T1-based superconductor T1PbSrRCuO without Ca with Tc above 100 K (United States)

    Sheng, Z. Z.; Xin, Y.; Meason, J. M.


    Ca-free T1PbSrRCuO samples (R=rare earths) with Tc up to above 100 K were prepared, and studied by resistance and ac susceptibility measurements and by powder x-ray diffraction analyses. A 1212-type phase (Tl1-xPbx)Sr2(Sr1-yRy)Cu2Oz is responsible for the observed supercondcutivity. A rare-earth is required for the formation of the 1212 phase. Pb-dopping is necessary to increase the Tc of the 1212 phase from 90 K to above 100 K.

  5. Hydrogen adsorption on Be, Mg, Ca and Sr doped graphenes: The role of the dopant in the IIA main group (United States)

    Luo, Huijuan; Li, Hejun; Fu, Qiangang


    Hydrogen (H2) adsorption on the IIA elements doped double-vacancy graphenes (BeG, MgG, CaG and SrG) was studied by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations. Through investigation of different numbers of hydrogen dockings from two directions, it is found that 1H2/BeG, 1H2/MgG, 8H2/CaG and 8H2/SrG are the most stable adsorption configurations for Be, Mg, Ca and Sr doped graphenes, respectively. Atomic radius, electronegativity and ionization potential of the IIA dopant contribute to the dominating adsorption mechanism under specific H2 concentration. The study would facilitate exploration of high performance graphene-related supports for hydrogen storage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Widiarti


    Full Text Available Minyak jelantah merupakan salah satu jenis minyak nabati yang dapat digunakan sebagai sumber produksi biodiesel yang murah. Biodiesel dapat diperoleh melalui proses esterifikasi dengan katalis asam maupun transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan katalis homogen basa kuat. Pengolahan minyak jelantah menjadi biodiesel merupakan langkah yang tepat dan efektif untuk menurunkan harga biodiesel karena bahan baku yang murah dan memanfaatkan limbah minyak goreng yang dapat mengatasi masalah pembuangan minyak dan kesehatan masyarakat. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan reaksi transesterifikasi dari minyak jelantah menjadi biodiesel menggunakan katalis CaO dan SrO. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik katalis dan aktivitas katalitiknya pada reaksi transesterifikasi minyak jelantah. Modifikasi katalis dilakukan dengan metode impregnasi SrNO3 pada katalis CaO. Katalis digunakan pada reaksi transesterifikasi minyak jelantah dengan variasi energi  (input daya 80 dan 100 watt, variasi waktu (30, 60, 90, 120 dan 150 detik dan variasi jumlah SrO/CaO (1%, 2%, 4%, 8% dan 16% b/b sebagai katalis. Karakterisasi katalis dilakukan dengan XRD dan FTIR. Hasil analisis XRD menunjukkan bahwa katalis SrO/CaO bersifat kristalin dan mempunyai karakteristik pola difraksi gabungan CaO dan SrO. Reaksi transesterifikasi optimal terjadi dengan aktivitas katalis terbaik pada energi  100 watt, waktu reaksi 120 detik dan jumlah katalis SrO/CaO sebesar 4% b/b dengan produk reaksi metil ester sebesar 92,86%. Wasted cooking oil is one type of vegetable oil that can be used as an inexpensive source of biodiesel production. Biodiesel can be obtained through esterification process with acid catalyst or transesterification using homogeneous catalyst of strong bases. Processing of wasted cooking oil into biodiesel is an appropriate and effective measures to reduce the high price of biodiesel because of cheap raw materials and it can overcome the problem of oil disposal and

  7. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite (United States)

    Zougrou, I. M.; Katsikini, M.; Brzhezinskaya, M.; Pinakidou, F.; Papadopoulou, L.; Tsoukala, E.; Paloura, E. C.


    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  8. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite. (United States)

    Zougrou, I M; Katsikini, M; Brzhezinskaya, M; Pinakidou, F; Papadopoulou, L; Tsoukala, E; Paloura, E C


    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of Ba sub x Sr sub 1 sub - sub x TiO sub 3 /YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x /SrTiO sub 3 structure

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, J; Park, S Y; Lee Jae Sik; No, K; Sung, T H; Park, Y


    Ba sub x Sr sub 1 sub - sub x TiO sub 3 (BST)/YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x (YBCO)/SrTiO sub 3 (STO) structures were deposited, and the microstructure, orientation and electrical characteristics were investigated. (00l) oriented YBCO thin films were deposited on STO substrates using pulsed laser deposition, and (h00) oriented BST thin films were deposited on YBCO/STO substrates using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A new phase was formed at the interface between YBCO and BST films and was speculated to be (Ba sub x Y sub 1 sub - sub x)(Ti sub y Y sub 1 sub - sub y)O sub 3. Ba-rich BST films showed a higher dielectric loss than Sr-rich BST films did, which indicates that Sr-rich BST films are more suited for application to microwave devices. The dielectric loss of the films was reduced as temperature decreased, which may be due to the conductivity change of YBCO film and the formation of a conduction path rather than a dielectric property change ...

  10. Electrical properties of SrBa1−Fe0.6Sn0.4O3− NTC thermistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Yuan; X Y Liu; J W Xu; X W Zhang; C R Zhou


    Polycrystalline thermistor ceramics with the stoichiometric formula, SrBa1−Fe0.6Sn0.4O3− (0.2 ≤ ≤ 0.8), had been prepared by a standard solid state reaction route. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the ceramic system remains cubic perovskite structure with a very small lattice change. The electrical properties of SrBa1−Fe0.6Sn0.4O3− thermistors were studied using a digital thermometer over a wide range of 298–400 K. The thermistors showed an excellent negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor behaviour. The values of resistivity at 298 K (ρ982), thermistor constant (298/358) and activation energy (a) of the SrBa1−Fe0.6Sn0.4O3− thermistors, decreasing with the increase of Sr content, were in the range of 0.37–11.0, 2466–3703 K and 0.212–0.319 eV, respectively. For the thermistors with the compositions = 0.2 and 0.4, the fitting equivalent circuit was composed of three RCPE elements corresponding to grain, grain boundary and ceramic–electrode interface, respectively. From the impedance plots, it was found that the fitting data showed good agreement with the experimental data. The extracted grain boundary resistance exhibited a NTC thermistor behaviour.

  11. Effect of Sr doping on the electrochemical properties of bi-functional oxygen electrode PrBa1-xSrxCo2O5+δ (United States)

    Wu, Zhouling; Sun, Li-Ping; Xia, Tian; Huo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Hui; Rougier, Aline; Grenier, Jean-Claude


    Sr-doped double perovskite oxides PrBa1-xSrxCo2O5+δ (x = 0.0-1.0) are prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra, cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry, respectively. Sr2+ doping is found to promote the electrocatalytic activity towards both oxygen evolution reduction and oxygen reduction reaction, due to the concentration enhancement of Co4+ (eg = 1) on the oxide surface. The PrBa0.25Sr0.75Co2O5.95 catalyst, with the highest concentration of Co4+, exhibits the superior electrocatalytic activity. The onset potential, Tafel slope and the overpotential at given current density of 10.0 mA·cmgeom-2 for the OER are 1.52 V, 75.8 mV·dec-1 and 0.42 V, respectively, comparable to the currently reported high performance OER catalysts. At the same time, the onset potential, Tafel slope, limiting current density and electron transfer number of PrBa0.25Sr0.75Co2O5.95 for ORR are 0.753 V, 58.3 mV·dec-1, 4.081 mA·cmgeom-2 and n = 3.92, respectively, implying much improved ORR activity.

  12. Stimulatory effects of the degradation products from Mg-Ca-Sr alloy on the osteogenesis through regulating ERK signaling pathway (United States)

    Li, Mei; He, Peng; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Hong; Zheng, Yufeng; Han, Yong


    The influence of Mg-1Ca-xwt.% Sr (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0) alloys on the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 were studied through typical differentiation markers, such as intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular collagen secretion and calcium nodule formation. It was shown that Mg-1Ca alloys with different content of Sr promoted cell viability and enhanced the differentiation and mineralization levels of osteoblasts, and Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had the most remarkable and significant effect among all. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, RT-PCR and Western Blotting assays were taken to analyze the mRNA expression level of osteogenesis-related genes and intracellular signaling pathways involved in osteogenesis, respectively. RT-PCR results showed that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy significantly up-regulated the expressions of the transcription factors of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Osterix (OSX), Integrin subunits, as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone sialoprotein (BSP), Collagen I (COL I), Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN). Western Blotting results suggested that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation but showed no obvious effects on c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase of MAPK. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Mg-1Ca-2.0Sr alloy had excellent biocompatibility and osteogenesis via the ERK pathway and is expected to be promising as orthopedic implants and bone repair materials.

  13. The records and implications of Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active speleothems in Jiguan Cave,western Henan Province%豫西鸡冠洞洞穴水及现代沉积物Mg,Sr和Ba记录及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小凤; 张志钦; 杨琰; 彭涛; 赵景耀; 张银环; 聂旭东; 刘肖; 李建仓; 凌新有


    Speleothems contain a number of suitable proxies reconstructing climate environmental changes, which is a top topic in current research.Due to the variety of sources and complex factors,trace elements are less frequently used than the oxygen isotopes in climate studies.However,they are used to reveal the groundwater runoff in the epikarst overlying the cave with the process and the surface environment.Induc-tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spec-trometry(ICP-OES)have been used to analyse the trace elements of Ca、Mg、Sr and Ba in cave water and ac-tive formations in Jiguan Cave during December,2009 and August,2013.Jiguan Cave (33°46′N,111°34′E) is located in Luanchuan county,western Henan Province,which is north of the Qinling ranges-Huaihe River and southeast of Loess Plateau,while at the foot of the northern watershed of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.It main exposed rocks are Sinian chlorite marbles.Located in the typical east Asian monsoonal zone,the Jiguan Cave area is typically has cold/dry winters and warm/wet summers.More than 50 % of the total annual precipitation occurs in summer.The mean annual temperature and precipitation recorded at a nearby meteorological station are 12.1±0.9 ℃ and 846±181 mm (1957-2009)respectively.In the paper, trace elements such as Ca,Mg,Sr and Ba in cave water and active formations collected in Jiguan Cave were analyzed with ICP-MS and ICP-OES.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca of cave water varied between 0.2-0.8, (1.2-6.0)×10-3 and (0.3-2.0)×10-3 respectively.Mg/Ca can respond to the environment outside the cave faithfully.The wet-dry condition of the karst system is suggested as the dominant controller of Mg/Ca ratios in cave pool water and underground rivers,whereas the Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca may have nothing to do with precipitation and temperature.The Mg/Ca,Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios in active speleothems varied between (9-50)×10-3 ,(0.1-1.2)×10-3 and (0

  14. Isotopic evidence for the retention of Sr-90 inferred from excess Zr-90 in the Oklo natural fission reactors: Implication for geochemical behaviour of fissiogenic Rb, Sr, Cs and Ba (United States)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takeshi; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Holliger, Philippe


    In order to investigate the mobility of fissiogenic Sr-90 in the geological environment, the Zr isotopic compositions of seven samples from one of the newly formed Oklo natural reactor zones (i.e., reactor core and adjacent rocks (10, SF84)) in the Republic of Gabon were determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Zr isotopes in uraninite grains from different reactor zones were also measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Fissiogenic Zr isotopic abundances of three samples from the reactor core have excess Zr-90, which has never before been formed in previous Oklo samples. In this paper, the geochemical behaviour of Zr-90 is discussed by making use of the relative retentivity inferred from the isotopic abundance of Sr. The excess in Zr-90 suggests dependence on the degree of retention/migration of Sr-90, the precursor of Zr-90 in the fission chain. In the aqueous phase, chemical fractionation between Sr and Zr could have occurred before radioactive Sr-90 decayed. Considering the halflife of Sr-90 (t(sub 1/2) = 29.1 y), considerable amounts of the latter have been produced during criticality. Sr and Zr (including Zr-90) could have been redistributed between the reactor core and its vicinity. The retentivity of fissiogenic Zr-90 in reactor core 10 is not homogeneous. In addition, the distributions of Rb, Cs and Ba is also heterogeneous.

  15. The crystal structure of bøgvadite (Nasub>2sub>SrBa>2sub>Al>4sub>F>20sub>)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci


    in the same direction. Na is coordinated by nine F atoms if its full surrounding is taken in consideration, but makes significant chemical bonds only to closest five. The chains of AlF6 and NaF9 coordination polyhedra form double layers. In the centre of layers, relatively large voids in the form...... of pentagonal antiprisms are occupied by Sr atoms which make chemical bonds with the closest six F atoms. Between the SrF10 coordinations in the centre of layers run empty channels. The double layers are interconnected by Ba atoms which are coordinated by eight F atoms and fill the spaces between the layers...

  16. Eu(2+) luminescence in SrCaP2 O7 pyrophosphate phosphor. (United States)

    Kohale, R L; Dhoble, S J


    A series of Eu(2+) activated SrCaP2 O7 pyrophosphate phosphors were synthesized by the modified solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) properties of these phosphors were investigated at room temperature. The excitation spectra indicate that these phosphors can be effectively excited by Hg-free excitation. The emission spectra exhibit strong blue performance, which is due to the 4f(6) 5d(1) →4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) . The Fourier transform infrared spectrum at room temperature was investigated and surface morphology has been studied by scanning electron microscope. The prepared phosphor exhibited intense blue emission at the 427 nm owing to Eu(2+) ion by Hg-free excitation at 330 nm, that is, solid-state lighting excitation. Hence, the availability of such a phosphor will significantly help in the growth of blue-emitting solid-state lighting applications.

  17. Relation between oxygen content and superconductivity in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Deshimaru, Y.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Yamazoe, N. (Dept. of Materials Science and Tech., Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))


    Oxygen sorption-desorption behaviors as well as superconducting properties were examined for a series of 2212-isostructural oxides, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}Ca{sub 1+x}Cu{sub 2}O{sub y} (x=0-1.0). It was found that oxygen sorption and desorption at temperatures below 600deg C brought about reversible shifts of Tc in a manner dependent on x. Quantitative determination of oxygen content (y) revealed that, as y decreased with oxygen desorption from the as-prepared levels, Tc increased montonically for x=0 and 0.25, while it went through a maximum at y=8.15 for x=0.8. (orig.).

  18. Magnetic impurity induced states in superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCuO8+δ (United States)

    Choubey, Peayush; Kreisel, Andreas; Berlijn, Tom; Andersen, Brian; Hirschfeld, Peter


    We revisit the Ni impurity problem in superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (BSCCO-2212) using the Bogoliubov- de Gennes (BdG)-Wannier approach. We solve the self-consistent BdG equations on a square lattice and use first principle-based Wannier function to compute the local density of states (LDOS) with sub-atomic resolution in the vicinity of a magnetic impurity. We find two spin-resolved virtual bound states localized around the impurity position. The spatial LDOS patterns at the resonance energies are found to be in excellent agreement with STM experiment, and can be understood by accounting for the tails of Cu Wannier function.

  19. Quantitative procedure for evaluation of microstructure of cast Mg-Al-Ca-Sr magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rzychoń


    Full Text Available In this paper the microstructural characterization of ingot MRI-230D magnesium alloy and quantitative procedure for evaluation of microstructure are presented. The optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology of microstructural compounds in this alloy. The X-ray diffraction was used to determination of phase composition. The as-cast microstructure of MRI-230D magnesium alloy containing aluminum, calcium and strontium consists of the dendritic α-Mg and such intermetallic compounds as: Al2Ca, Al4Sr and AlxMny. In the purpose quantitative description of microstructure semi-automatic procedures using Met-Ilo image analysis were developed. Prepared semi-automatic procedures allow a fast determination of phase content in MRI-230D alloy using light microscopy and will be useful in the quality control of MRI-230D ingots.

  20. Pharmacological evidence that potentiation of plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-extrusion is functionally coupled to inhibition of SR Ca(2+)-ATPases in vascular smooth muscle cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Kwan, Chiu-Yin


    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a specific inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPases, causes slowly developing and subsequently diminishing characteristic contractions in vascular smooth muscle, and the second application of CPA has incompletely repeatable effects, depending on the vessel type. The objective of the present study was to examine the mechanisms underlying the significant decrease of CPA-induced contractions upon the second application. A pharmacological intervention of Ca(2+) extrusion process as a strategy was performed to modulate vasoconstrictor effects of CPA in rat aortic ring preparations. CPA-induced contractions, expressed as percentages of the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), were significantly decreased from 44.1 ± 5.7 to 7.6 ± 1.8 % (P Ca(2+) exchangers, but not of KBR7943, an inhibitor of the reverse mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers. Our findings indicate that CPA by inducing a transient rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) level causes a long-lasting upregulation of plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) extruders and thus leads to a diminished contraction upon its second application in blood vessels. This suggests that there is a functional coupling between PM Ca(2+) extruders and SR Ca(2+)-ATPases in rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

  1. (Ba,Sr)TiO3纳米棒的反相微乳法制备与表征%Preparation and Characterization of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Nanorods by Reverse Microemulsion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱启安; 陈万平; 宋方平; 王树峰


    在氢氧化钡和氢氧化锶水溶液/Triton X-100/环己烷/正己醇四元W/O型反相微乳液中制备了钛酸锶钡纳米棒,研究了ω0值(水与表面活性剂TritonX-100的物质的量之比)、反应物浓度、陈化时间对产品形貌和尺寸的影响,用TEM,SAED,SEM,EDS和XRD等技术对产品进行了表征.结果表明,所得Ba0 7Sr0 3TiO3纳米棒长约500~1200nm、直径约为50~120 nm;具有立方相单晶结构.产品中钡、锶、钛的物质的量之比约为0.7∶0.3∶1.

  2. Dosimetry characterization of the commercial CaF{sub 2} for beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de CaF{sub 2} comercial para radiacao beta de {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:, e-mail:


    This work studies the dosimetric characteristics of the CaF{sub 2} commercial dosimetry for detection of {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y beta radiation for using in the calibration of flat and concave appliers. Were determined the repetitiousness and linearity of answers of the samples, and their calibration curves.

  3. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4. (United States)

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena


    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer.

  4. Abnormal thermal conductivity in tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba{sub 6−x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T., E-mail:; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4M1 (Canada)


    Ba{sub 6−x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30} solid solution with 0 ≤ x ≤ 6 crystallizes in centrosymmetric tetragonal “tungsten bronze” structure (space group P4/mbm). We report on the x dependence of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline samples measured in the 2–400 K temperature interval. Substitution of Sr for Ba brings about a significant decrease in thermal conductivity at x ≥ 3 accompanied by development of a low-temperature (T ≈ 10–30 K) “plateau” region reminiscent of a glass-like compounds. We explain this behaviour based on a size-driven site occupancy and atomic displacement parameters associated with an alkaline earth atomic positions in the title compounds.

  5. High temperature phase equilibria studies in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O-Ag system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulies, Lawrence


    A variety of experimental techniques were utilized to examine the high temperature phase equilibria in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O-Ag system. Quenching studies were used to determine the liquid solubility of Ag in the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Bi2212) melt and the details of the peritectic decomposition pathway of Bi2212 as a function on Ag content and oxygen partial pressure (PO{sub 2}). A liquid immiscibility region between oxide and Ag liquids in the 8--98 at% range was found above 900 C. Two eutectics were found in the Bi2212-Ag pseudobinary. On the oxide rich side, a eutectic exists at approximately 4 at% Ag. On the Ag rich side, a eutectic exists at approximately 98 at% Ag at a temperature of 15 C below the melting point of pure Ag. Six distinct solid phases were found to be in equilibrium with the partial melt within the Ag content and PO{sub 2} range studied. The stability of these solid phases were found to be highly sensitive to PO{sub 2}, and to a much lesser extent Ag content. High temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies of this system are in conflict with these results. It is suggested that these discrepancies are due to experimental artifacts caused by the significant thermal gradients and lack of full bulk sampling which is inherent in conventional HTXRD designs. In part 2, a new furnace design compatible with synchrotron radiation sources is introduced to address these problems. This design allows for full bulk sampling in a low thermal gradient environment using Debye-Scherrer transmission geometry. Sample spinning is also introduced in the design to eliminate preferred orientation and incomplete powder averaging and allow for quantitative phase analysis and structural refinement. Studies on model systems are presented to demonstrate the capabilities for high resolution structural studies (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and time resolved phase transformation studies (SrCO{sub 3}). Finally, the Bi2212 system is examined to confirm the quenching results

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured CaZrO{sub 3} and BaZrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibiapino, Amanda Laura; Figueiredo, Laysa Pires de [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, MT (Brazil); Lascalea, Gustavo E. [LISAMEN/CONICET, Ciudad de Mendoza (Argentina); Prado, Rogerio Junqueira, E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil)


    In this work, nanostructured samples of barium zirconate (BaZrO{sub 3}) and calcium zirconate (CaZrO{sub 3}) were synthesized by the gel-combustion method, using glycine as fuel. The ceramic powders were calcined at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h and subsequently heat treated at 1350 Degree-Sign C for 10 min (fast-firing). The X-ray diffraction technique was employed to identify and characterize the crystalline phases present in the synthesized powders, using the Rietveld method. Monophasic nanostructured samples of BaZrO{sub 3} and CaZrO{sub 3} presenting average crystallite sizes of around 8.5 and 10.3 nm, respectively, were found after fast-firing. (author)

  7. Chemistry of the M (M=Fe, Ca, Ba-Se-H2O Systems at 25 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Hasegawa


    Full Text Available The chemistry of the M (M=Fe, Ca, Ba-Se-H2O systems at 25 °C is reviewed based on our previous papers. In this paper, the phase equilibria in the Fe(III-Se(IV-H2O, Ca-Se(IV,VI-H2O and Ba-Se(IV,VI-H2O systems at 25 °C are discussed. Then, the three-stage process for removal of selenium from industrial waste water [Se(IV,VI < 1,500 mg/L] containing sulfuric acid was introduced. This seems to be a promising process for selenium removal from acidic sulfate waste water containing high concentration levels of selenium to below 0.1 mg/L.

  8. AES and EELS analysis of TlBaCaCuOx thin films at 300 K and at 100 K (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Swartzlander, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Kang, J. H.; Kampwirth, R. T.; Gray, K. E.


    Auger electron spectroscopy line-shape analysis of the Tl(NOO), Ba(MNN), Ca(LMM), Cu(LMM) and O(KLL) peaks has been performed in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) on magnetron sputter deposited TlBaCaCuOx thin films a superconducting onset at 110 K with zero resistance at 96 K. AES and EELS analyses were performed at 300 K and at 100 K. Changes in the Auger line shapes and in the EELS spectra as the temperature is lowered below the critical point are related to changes in the electronic structure of states in the valence band (VB). Bulk and surface plasmon peaks are identified in the EELS spectra along with features due to core level transitions. Electron beam and ion beam induced effects are also addressed.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}SnO{sub 3} from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Henriques, J.M. [Centro de Educacao e Saude, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus Cuite, 58175-000 Cuite-PB (Brazil); Azevedo, D.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, 65085-580 Sao Luis-MA (Brazil); Caetano, E.W.S., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara, 60040-531 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Freire, V.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Centro de Ciencias, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Albuquerque, E.L. [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)


    Neutron diffraction data for Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}SnO{sub 3} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) solid solutions were used as inputs to obtain optimized geometries and electronic properties using the density functional theory (DFT) formalism considering both the local density and generalized gradient approximations, LDA and GGA, respectively. The crystal structures and SnO{sub 6} octahedra tilting angles found after total energy minimization agree well with experiment, specially for the GGA data. Elastic constants were also obtained and compared with theoretical and experimental results for cubic BaSnO{sub 3}. While the alloys with cubic unit cell have an indirect band gap, tetragonal and orthorhombic alloys exhibit direct band gaps (exception made to x=1.0). The Kohn-Sham minimum electronic band gap oscillates from 1.52 eV (cubic x=0.0, LDA) to 2.61 eV (orthorhombic x=1.0, LDA), and from 0.74 eV (cubic BaSnO{sub 3}, GGA) to 1.97 eV (orthorhombic SrSnO{sub 3}, GGA). Parabolic interpolation of bands has allowed us to estimate the effective masses for charge carriers, which are shown to be anisotropic and larger for holes. - Graphical Abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations were performed on Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}SnO{sub 3} solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculated crystal structures agree well with experiment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloys have direct or indirect gaps depending on the Sr molar fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Kohn-Sham gap variation from x=0.0 to x=1.0 is close to the experimental value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carrier effective masses are very anisotropic, specially for holes.

  10. Performance Enhancement of the Dielectric Properties of Sn-Doped Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 Perovskite (United States)

    Brahem, R.; Farhat, N.; Graça, M. P. F.; Costa, L. C.


    The aim of this paper is to study performance enhancement of the dielectric properties of polycrystalline {Ba}_{0.8} {Sr}_{0.2} {Ti}_{(1 - x)} {Sn}x {O}3, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy technique. The results have been analyzed by studying the effects of substituting Sn4+ for Ti4+. The observed diffraction peaks have been indexed to a cubic structure with space group Pm3m. The calculated lattice parameters increase from 3.9834 Å to 4.0091 Å with increasing Sn concentration. The SEM micrographs show that with increasing Sn an increase of the grain size from x = 0 up to x = 0.15 was observed. The dielectric measurements confirm the relaxor behavior of all the concentrations of {Ba}_{0.8} {Sr}_{0.2} {Ti}_{(1 - x)} {Sn}x {O}3 compounds. The {Ba}_{0.8} {Sr}_{0.2} {Ti}_{0.95} {Sn}_{0.05} {O}3 compound presents the most interesting properties, namely high dielectric constant value (ɛ^'(T_{{m}} ) = 5017) and a Curie temperature slightly above room temperature (T_{{c}} = 317 K). An important dielectric constant value persists for a wide range of temperatures around room temperature. This is considered as an advantage of the {Ba}_{0.8} {Sr}_{0.2} {Ti}_{0.95} {Sn}_{0.05} {O}3 relaxor ferroelectrics.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of the nitridosilicates SrYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} and BaYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}; Synthese, Kristallstruktur und Eigenschaften der Nitridosilicate SrYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} und BaYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, H. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I; Schnick, W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I


    Pure SrYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} and BaYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} were obtained by reaction of silicon diimide with metallic strontium/barium and ytterbium. The reactions have been carried out under nitrogen atmosphere in a high-frequency furnace at 1650 C, SrYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (P6{sub 3}mc, a = 598.80(3), c = 974.99(9) pm, Z = 2, R1 = 0.023, wR2 = 0.038) and BaYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (P6{sub 3}mc, a = 603.07(2), c = 981.98(4) pm, Z = 2, R1 = 0.021, wR2 = 0.048) are isotypic and contain M{sup 2+} ions (M = Sr, Ba), Yb{sup 3+} ions, as well as a three-dimensional covalent network structure of corner-sharing SiN{sub 4} tetrahedra. SrYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} and BaYbSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} are the first compounds with one central nitrogen connecting four silicon. These N{sup [4]} bridges significantly extend the spectrum of possible linkages in Si-N network structures. (orig.)

  12. Sea Surface Temperature Records Using Sr/Ca Ratios in a Siderastrea siderea Coral from SE Cuba (United States)

    Fargher, H. A.; Hughen, K. A.; Ossolinski, J. E.; Bretos, F.; Siciliano, D.; Gonzalez, P.


    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability from Cuba remains relatively unknown compared to the rest of the Caribbean. Cuba sits near an inflection point in the spatial pattern of SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and long SST records from the region could reveal changes in the influence of this climate system through time. A Siderastrea siderea coral from the Jardínes de la Reina in southern Cuba was drilled to obtain a 220 year long archive of environmental change. The genus Siderastrea has not been extensively studied as an SST archive, yet Sr/Ca ratios in the Cuban core show a clear seasonal signal and strong correlation to instrumental SST data (r2 = 0.86 and 0.36 for monthly and interannual (winter season) timescales, respectively). Annual growth rates (linear extension) of the coral are observed to have a minor influence on Sr/Ca variability, but do not show a direct correlation to SST on timescales from annual to multidecadal. Sr/Ca measurements from the Cuban coral are used to reconstruct monthly and seasonal (winter, summer) SST extending back more than two centuries. Wintertime SST in southern Cuba is compared to other coral Sr/Ca records of winter-season SST from locations sensitive to the NAO in order to investigate the stationarity of the NAO SST 'fingerprint' through time.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A detailed study of the doping dependence of valence- and core-level spectra of Bi2Sr2Ca1-xYxCu2O8+delta leads to the conclusion that the chemical potential shifts in a manner consistent with that of a simple doped semiconductor. The spectroscopically observed filling in of the gap upon doping of th

  14. Penta-substituted benzimidazoles as potent antagonists of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR-antagonists). (United States)

    Gerspacher, Marc; Altmann, Eva; Beerli, René; Buhl, Thomas; Endres, Ralf; Gamse, Rainer; Kameni-Tcheudji, Jacques; Kneissel, Michaela; Krawinkler, Karl Heinz; Missbach, Martin; Schmidt, Alfred; Seuwen, Klaus; Weiler, Sven; Widler, Leo


    A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives has been designed via a scaffold morphing approach based on known calcilytics chemotypes. Subsequent lead optimisation led to the discovery of penta-substituted benzimidazoles that exhibit attractive in vitro and in vivo calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) inhibitory profiles. In addition, synthesis and structure-activity relationship data are provided.

  15. Long-range interactions of excited He atoms with the alkaline earth atoms Mg, Ca, and Sr

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.


    Dispersion coefficients for the long-range interactions of the first four excited states of He, i.e., He(2 1, 3 S) and He(2 1, 3 P), with the low-lying states of the alkaline earth atoms Mg, Ca, and Sr are calculated by summing over the reduced matrix elements of multipole transition operators.

  16. Aerosol deposition of Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Zorica


    Full Text Available In this work we optimized conditions for aerosol deposition of homogeneous, nanograined, smooth Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films. Investigation involved optimization of deposition parameters, namely deposition time and temperature for different substrates. Solutions were prepared from titanium isopropoxide, strontium acetate and barium acetate. Films were deposited on Si (1 0 0 or Si covered by platinum (Pt (1 1 1 /Ti/SiO2/Si. Investigation showed that the best films were obtained at substrate temperature of 85ºC. After deposition films were slowly heated up to 650ºC, annealed for 30 min, and slowly cooled. Grain size of BST films deposited on Si substrate were in the range 40-70 nm, depending on deposition conditions, while the same films deposited on Pt substrates showed mean grain size in the range 35-50 nm. Films deposited under optimal conditions were very homogeneous, crackfree, and smooth with rms roughness lower than 4 nm for both substrates.

  17. Influence of Composition on Properties of Medium Temperature Sintering (Ba, Sr)TiO3 Series Capacitor Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of the composition (Yb2O3, MgO, CeO2, Li2CO3) on the dielectric properties of medium temperature sintering (Ba,Sr)TiO3(BST) series capacitor ceramics was investigated by means of conventional technology process and orthogonal design experiments. The major secondary influencing factors and the influencing tendency of various factor′s levels for the dielectric properties of BST ceramics were obtained. The optimum formula for maximum dielectric constant (ε) and for minimum dielectric loss (tanδ) was obtained under the experimental conditions. The BST ceramics with optimum comprehensive properties was obtained by means of orthogonal design experiments, with the sintering temperature at 1200 ℃, the dielectric constant 5239, the dielectric loss 0.0097, withstand electric voltage over 6 MV·m-1, capacitance temperature changing rate (ΔC/C) -75.67%, and suited for Y5V character. The mechanism of the influence of various components on the dielectric properties of medium temperature sintering BST ceramics was studied, thus providing the basis for preparation of multilayer capacitor ceramics and single-chip capacitor ceramics.

  18. Effect of ion irradiation on optoelectronic properties of Ba0.12Sr0.88SO4: Eu phosphor (United States)

    Choubey, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Lochab, S. P.; Shripathi, T.


    Nanocrystalline Ba0.12Sr0.88SO4 phosphor doped with Eu at 0.1 mol% optimum concentration was prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction study of the prepared sample suggests the orthorhombic structure with an average grain size of 62 nm. The band gap was found to be 4.3 eV. The samples were irradiated with 1.2 MeV argon ions at fluences varying between 1011 and 1015 ions/cm2, i.e. in the dose range of 59 kGy to 590 MGy. A prominent photoluminescence (PL) emission peak is seen around 376 nm due to transition from an excited state 4f65d to 8S7/2 state of Eu2+ ions. The broadening of bands in FTIR spectrum at 1110, 990, 643 and 617 cm-1 is an evidence of the generation of SO4-, SO3-, SO2-, O-, etc. radicals after ion irradiation. The effect of ion irradiation on luminescence properties was studied.

  19. Electrochemical properties of mixed conducting (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L. [and others


    Electrical properties and oxygen permeation properties of solid mixed-conducting electrolytes (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba) have been characterized. These materials are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as the cathode in a fuel cell. Dilatometric linear expansion measurements were performed as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure to evaluate the stability.

  20. Study of gel grown mixed crystals of BaCa(1–)(IO3)4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S L Garud; N K Mahajan; K B Saraf


    The growth of mixed crystals of BaCa1–(IO3)4 were carried out with simple gel method. The effect of various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactants on the growth was studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by XRD, FT–IR, EDAX, TGA, DTA and DSC.

  1. Effects of B2 O3-SiO2 doping on electrical properties of Ba0.65 Sr0.35 TiO3 ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-jin; JIANG Juan; ZHANG Bai-shun; GU Hao-shuang; LIU Jiang-hua


    Ba0.65 Sr0.35 TiO3 ceramics doped with B2 O3-SiO2 glass composition were prepared by using conventional solid-state reaction method. The effects of glass dopant on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were investigated. The results show that the dielectric constant decreases while the dielectric loss increases after doping. And as the glass content increases the dielectric constant decreases while the dielectric loss changes slightly. From the complex impedance analysis the resistance and the relaxation time of the grain and the grain boundary can be calculated.Comparing the P-E hysteresis loop of undoped Ba0.65 Sr0.35 TiO3 ceramics with that of B2 O3-SiO2 doped Ba0.65Sr0.35 TiO3 ceramics, it can be seen that the remanent polarization decreases when the B2 O3-SiO2 content is lower than 8 % (molar fraction), and the coercive field increases with the increase of B2O3-SiO2 content.

  2. Self-consistent (DFT + U) study of electronic, structural and magnetic properties in A2NiMoO6 (A = Ba, Sr) compounds (United States)

    Aharbil, Y.; Labrim, H.; Benmokhtar, S.; Ait Haddouch, M.; Bahmad, L.; Laanab, L.


    This work aims to study the double perovskites A2NiMoO6 (A = Ba, Sr) by using the first principle calculation, within the framework of the self-consistent Hubbard correction. The value of this correction, for Ni and Mo depends strongly on the type of the studied compounds. Such values are determinate as 7.35 eV for Ni and 5.42 eV for Mo in the compound Ba2NiMoO6, whereas in the case of Sr2NiMoO6 the calculated values are 8.71 eV and 5.48 eV for Ni and Mo compound respectively. Based on the densities of state calculation we show that both the compounds are semiconductors with gap energies of 2.20 eV and 2.10 eV for Ba2NiMoO6 for Sr2NiMoO6, respectively. The total energies comparison shows clearly that the ground state is G-type anti-ferromagnetic order in agreement with experimental results, the magnetic interactions are due to the super-exchange mechanism acting in long range via hybridization throw Ni-O-Mo-O-Ni path.

  3. Surface characterization, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca for temporary cardiovascular implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornapour, M., E-mail: [Light Metals and Advanced Magnesium Materials, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Qc, H3A 0C5 (Canada); Biointerface Lab, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Qc H3A 0C5 (Canada); Mahjoubi, H. [Biointerface Lab, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Qc H3A 0C5 (Canada); Vali, H. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Qc, H3A 0C7 (Canada); Shum-Tim, D. [Department of Cardiac Surgery and Surgical Research, McGill University, Montreal, Qc H3G 1A1 (Canada); Cerruti, M. [Biointerface Lab, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Qc H3A 0C5 (Canada); Pekguleryuz, M. [Light Metals and Advanced Magnesium Materials, Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Qc, H3A 0C5 (Canada)


    Magnesium-based alloys are attractive candidate materials for medical applications. Our earlier work showed that the ternary Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca alloy exhibits slower degradation rates than both binary Mg-Sr and Mg-Ca alloys. The ternary alloy immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) forms a compact surface layer of corrosion products that we hypothesized to be a Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA). The main objectives of the current work are to understand the bio-degradation mechanism of Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca, to identify the exact nature of its protective layer and to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the alloy for cardiovascular applications. To better simulate the physiological environment, the alloy was immersed in SBF which was daily refreshed. Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the formation of a thin, Sr-substituted HA layer at the interface between the alloy and the corrosion products. In vitro biocompatibility evaluated via indirect cytotoxicity assays using HUVECs showed no toxicity effect and ions extracted from Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca in fact increased the viability of HUVECs after one week. In vivo tests were performed by implanting a tubular Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca stent along with a WE43 control stent into the right and left femoral artery of a dog. Post implantation and histological analyses showed no thrombosis in the artery with Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca stent after 5 weeks of implantation while the artery implanted with WE43 stent was extensively occluded and thrombosed. Microscopic observation of the Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca implant-tissue interface confirmed the in situ formation of Sr-substituted HA on the surface during in vivo test. These results show that the interfacial layer protects the surface of the Mg-0.3Sr-0.3Ca alloy both in vitro and in vivo, and is the key factor in the bio-corrosion resistance of the alloy. - Highlights: • The surface active elements of Sr and Ca alter the corrosion of Mg alloy in SBF • Sr

  4. Millimeter wave inducing subharmonic steps in the Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} thin film bicrystal Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Hu, L.; Xie, W. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Institute of Radio Measurement, Beijing 100854 (China); Ma, L.J.; Zhao, X.J.; He, M. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, X., E-mail: [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ji, L. [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    Highlights: • We observed the subharmonic steps based on Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Tl-2212) film which epitaxial grown on bicrystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate. • The simulation of the RCLSJ model matched up well with the experimental results. • The dI/dV–V curves highlight the subharmonic steps. - Abstract: The bicrystal Josephson junction (BJJ) was fabricated by patterning microbridge into Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Tl-2212) thin film grown epitaxially on the bicrystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrate. The millimeter wave responses of BJJ were researched by experiment and numerical simulation. Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were both observed in the current–voltage (I–V) curve at the liquid nitrogen temperature. In the resistive–capacitive–inductive shunted junction (RCLSJ) model, both of the Shapiro steps and subharmonic steps were reproduced with varying capacitances and inductances. The result of simulation has a good agreement with the experiment. The relative large capacitance and inductance correspond to distinct subharmonic steps.

  5. The “irreversibility line” of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal: Evidence for a phase transition (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Genicon, J. L.; Sulpice, A.; Chaussy, J.; Tournier, R.; Frison, J. C.; Chaminade, J. P.; Pouchard, M.; Etourneau, J.


    The irreversibility line H *(T) of a Tl 2Ba 2CaCu 2O 8 single crystal varies as {ie1147-1} and diverges below 20 K. These phenomena could be related to a breakdown field of a weak superconductivity induced in BaO-TlO-TIO-BaO layer blocks by superconducting CuO layer blocks. The magnetization at the transition can be calculated assuming the existence of a second order phase transition.

  6. Structural dependence of the photocatalytic properties of double perovskite compounds A2InTaO6 (A = Sr or Ba) doped with nickel. (United States)

    Lv, Meilin; Wang, Yawei; Lu, Lingwei; Wang, Ruinan; Ni, Shuang; Liu, Gang; Xu, Xiaoxiang


    The crystal structure of photocatalysts generally plays a pivotal role in controlling their electronic structure as well as catalytic performance. In this work, a series of double perovskite compounds A2InTaO6 (A = Sr or Ba) and their Ni doped counterparts were investigated with the aim of understanding how doping and structural modification will affect their photocatalytic activity. Our results show that Ni doping is effective in improving the optical absorption of these wide band gap semiconductors and accommodating the Sr cation in the A sites leads to severe structural distortion, i.e. the In(Ni)-O-Ta bond angle deviates largely from 180°. A better photocatalytic performance was observed for samples with Ni doping and Ba in the A sites. The best photocatalytic hydrogen production rate recorded was ∼293.6 μmol h(-1) for Ba2In0.9Ni0.1TaO6 under full range irradiation, corresponding to an apparent quantum efficiency of 2.75%. DFT calculations reveal the role of Ni doping by forming additional spin-polarized bands inside the intrinsic band gap of the native perovskite. The better photocatalytic activity of Ba2In0.9Ni0.1TaO6 can then be understood as a result of a reduced band gap as well as a linear In(Ni)-O-Ta bond arrangement that is favorable for the strong metal-oxygen-metal interactions.

  7. Preparation of PVC/ (VC/BA)/nano-CaCO3 Composite and Its Mechanical Properties%PVC/(VC/BA)/纳米CaCO3复合材料的研制及其力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士财; 李宝霞; 楼涛; 张晓东



  8. Hysteresis Behavior of Capacitance-Voltage Curve in (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 Thick Films Caused by Strained Heterostructure (United States)

    Kawae, Takeshi; Fukuda, Yuji; Morito, Kentaro; Munetomo, Kenshiro; Morimoto, Akiharu


    (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) films with 300-1700 nm thicknesses were deposited on SrTiO3 (STO), 0.5 wt % Nb-doped STO and (La0.5Sr0.5)CoO3-coated STO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis results indicate that the deposited BST thick films were epitaxially grown on the substrates and c-lattice parameter of BST was increased compared with that of the bulk material owing to stress in the film. The fabricated film capacitors showed a hysteresis curve in the capacitance-voltage curve at room temperature. Hysteresis width linearly increased with increasing BST c-lattice parameter.

  9. Ruthenate-ferrites AMRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (A = Sr, Ba; M = Ni, Zn). Distortion of kagome nets via metal-metal bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyk, Larysa; Strobel, Sabine; Niewa, Rainer [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Schleid, Thomas


    Crystals of the three novel oxorhutenates SrNiRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7374(2) Aa, c = 13.2088(4) Aa), SrZnRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7271(2) Aa, c = 13.4246(4) Aa), and Sr{sub 0.63(1)}Ba{sub 0.37}ZnRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7245(4) Aa, 13.5268(4)) were obtained applying a flux-growth technique. A superstructure of the R-type ferrite crystal structure with doubled hexagonal a-axis (space group P6{sub 3}/m, Z = 8) originates from Ru-Ru pair formation within the kagome nets extending in (001). No indication for an intermixing of 3d metals at the Ru sites was observed. (orig.)

  10. Anisotropic s-wave superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds: CaC{sub 6} and SrC{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Sung; Boeri, Lilia; Kremer, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Razavi, Feridoon [Department of Physics, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, L2S 3A1 (Canada)


    We have investigated the anisotropy of the superconducting properties for newly-discovered superconducting graphite intercalation compounds, CaC{sub 6} and SrC{sub 6} using specific heat (C{sub p}). The electronic C{sub p} for CaC{sub 6} shows an exponential temperature dependence at low temperatures, consistent with a fully gapped s-wave superconducting order parameter. However, the detailed comparison with an isotropic superconducting gap model shows significant deviation between experiment and theory. From the magnetic field dependence of C{sub p}, the anisotropy of upper critical fields (H{sub c2}) for CaC{sub 6} is {proportional_to}5, consistent with that obtained from the magnetic field dependence of Sommerfeld coefficient, but much larger than that of SrC{sub 6}. In comparison with electronic structure calculations, we found that the isotropic gap model cannot explain observed superconducting properties, suggesting significant anisotropy in the superconducting gap for both CaC{sub 6} and SrC{sub 6}. Recent investigations on a directional point-contact spectroscopy on CaC{sub 6} along the c-axis and ab-plane are also discussed.

  11. New perovskite-related oxides having high dielectric constant: Ln2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14 (Ln = La and Pr)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pika Jha; Ashok K Ganguli


    Two new oxides, La2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14 and Pr2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14, have been synthesized by the ceramic route at 1100°C. These oxides crystallize in the disordered cubic structure with an `a’ lattice parameter of 3.9728 (2) and 3.9448 (5) respectively. These oxides show high dielectric constant (70 and 57) and low loss (0.003 and 0.013 at 100 kHz) for La2Ba2CaZn2Ti)3O14 and Pr2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14 respectively. The dielectric constant is highly stable with frequency and temperature.

  12. Structure and Luminescence Properties of Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Dy3+ by Ba2+ Substitution%Ba2+替代对Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+,Dy3+结构和发光性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟; 王银海; 胡义华; 吴浩怡; 邓柳咏


    采用高温固相反应按化学式Sr4-xBaxAl14O25:Eu2+,Dy3+(x=0,0.8,1.6,2.4,3.2,4)配比原料,合成长余辉发光材料.X射线衍射分析表明,当x=0.8时,产物物相为单斜结构SrAl2O+和磁铅矿结构SrAl12O19共存;当x>1.6时,产物主相转变为BaAl2O+六角结构.对所得样品采用360nm光照,发射光谱表明,样品发光是以Eu2+为发光中心,由Eu2+电子4f65d-4f7跃迁所致,并且随着Ba掺入量的增加,样品发射光谱峰位产生移动,这是由于Sr2+取代产物中Ba2+位置后,导致晶格收缩,影响Eu2+的5d能级劈裂,从而影响电子4f65d-4f7跃迁.余辉光谱显示x>1.6时,产物的余辉发光是以BaAl2O+基质中Eu2+为发光中心.余辉衰减检测和热释光谱分析发现不同掺Ba量的样品余辉衰减快慢不同,是由于其中存在的陷阱能级深度不同,且陷阱能级越深,其余辉时间越长.%The rare-earth doped strontium aluminate phosphors Sr4-xBaxAll4O25:Eu2+,Dy3+ (x=0, 0.8, 1 .6. 2.4, 3.2, 4) were synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction method.The phase structures of the phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction.The results show that the monoclinic SrAl2O4 and hexagonal SrAl12o19 co-exist in the sample with x=0.8.The major phase of phosphors is hexagonal BaAl2O4 when x>1.6.It is indicated that the phase structure of the samples changes from Sr4Al14O21 to BaA1204 when the value of x changes from O to 4.The emission spectra of 360 nm irradiation reveal that Eu2+ is the luminescence center of the samples due to 4f65d-4f7 transition of Eu2+ electron.With the Ba doping content increasing, the shift of emission spectra peak occurs, because the lattice shrinkage caused by Sr2+ substitution for Ba2- affects the Sd level cleavage of Eu2+ and thus influences the 4f55d-4f7 transition.The afterglow spectra show that Eu2+ of BaAl2O4 is the luminescence center for the products when x>1.6.The decay characteristics show that the phosphor samples with different Ba2+ content

  13. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF2/Alq3 (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Seung Mi; Kim, Jeong Won


    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF2/Alq3 are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF2 interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq3 and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF2 by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq3. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF2 buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq3 generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq3, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  14. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won, E-mail: [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 206 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyunbok [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, 1 Gangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yeonjin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Mi [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), 267 Gajeong-ro, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)


    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq{sub 3} [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3} are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF{sub 2} interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq{sub 3} and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF{sub 2} by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq{sub 3}. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF{sub 2} buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq{sub 3} generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq{sub 3}, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  15. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kennedy


    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves P. maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as shell Mg content influencing Sr and Mn heterogeneity, the influence of shell organic content and/or conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. Invariant Mg/Ca ratios observed in the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell suggests a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy.

  16. Preparation and characterizations of Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} by complex polymerization method (CPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, F.V. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, CMDMC, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Marques, A.P.A. [Laboratorio de Analise Termica e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Escote, M.T. [CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Melo, D.M.A. [Laboratorio de Analise Termica e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Ferreira, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E. [CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, CMDMC, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Varela, J.A. [CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (BCT) was prepared by the complex polymerization method (CPM) using Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}CO{sub 3} and [Ti[OCH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 4} as starting materials. The powders were crystallized at several temperatures from 400 to 1200 deg. C using different times (from 1 to 8 h). The phase evolution and the physical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. Such results indicate that the precursor Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}CO{sub 3} used in the synthesis of Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} promotes an effective complexation of the ions Ca{sup 2+} in the matrix of BaTiO{sub 3}. After heat treatment for 2 h at 600 deg. C the phase BCT was obtained with absence of the CaTiO{sub 3} or BaCO{sub 3} phases. The CPM is an efficient method in the synthesis of the BCT, using small reaction time and low temperature and cost for the preparation of these powders.

  17. Physical Characterization of Pure and Substituted Tetragonal LaBaCaCu3O7-δ Superconductor (United States)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Narlikar, A. V.

    The high Tc superconductor, forming the focus of the present review, presents an interesting situation where, despite its oxygen content close to 7.0, the system prefers to crystallize in tetragonal structure, as distinct from exhaustively studied orthorhombic RE:123 (REBa2Cu3O7, RE = rare earth) compounds. Its optimum Tc is decided by the cation intermixing at various sites, unlike that in case of normal RE:123, where all cationic sites are fully occupied and fixed, leaving the anionic sites free for oxygen filling. In this, we review the rich crystal chemistry of this compound and discuss it in conjunction with its unusual superconducting properties. The article is divided in five parts: (1) first we discuss variously reported interesting finer structural details and superconductivity of pristine LaBaCaCu3O7-δ (La:1113) superconductor. The La, Ba and Ca sites are found to be intermixed with respect to their nominal sites of the standard RE:123 structure. (2) We examine the structural aspects and superconductivity of La1-xRExBaCaCu3O7 (RE = Nd, Dy, Sm and Pr). Unlike RE:123 and 124 compounds, the RE:1113 compounds form only with light rare earths such as La, Pr and Nd. Pr:1113 compound is found to be an insulator with Pr moments ordering magnetically at around 8 K, unlike at 17 K for Pr:123. (3) Studies of Pr substitution reveal that relative Tc depression due to Pr in the (La,Nd)1-xPrxBaCaCu3O7 system is less in comparison to that found for La or Nd site Pr substituted (La,Nd)1- xPrxBa2Cu3O7. (4) The results of superconductivity and structural details are reviewed for LaBaCaCu3-xMxO7 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ga and Zn) and finally (5) we summarize our conclusions. The results in terms of Tc depression due to these impurities in the parent La:1113 system are seen as similar to those observed for RE:124 (REBa2Cu4O8) and Nd:214 (Nd2-xCexCuO4), but are different from RE:123 and La:214. The results of structural details, superconductivity and magnetic ordering presented in

  18. Dual ferroic properties of hexagonal ferrite ceramics BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 (United States)

    Kostishyn, V. G.; Panina, L. V.; Timofeev, A. V.; Kozhitov, L. V.; Kovalev, A. N.; Zyuzin, A. K.


    Dual ferroic properties of a strong magnetism and large ferroelectricity have been observed in barium BaFe12O19 and strontium SrFe12O19 hexaferrite ceramics. The samples were fabricated by a modified ceramic technique from highly purified raw materials with addition of boron oxide allowing the control of grain size and enhancement of bulk resistivity. Whereas the samples of PbFe12O19 fabricated by the same technological method did not have sufficient electric resistivity to support an electric field and did not exhibit the ferroelectric properties. The structure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction is consistent with a single hexagonal phase. The grains are randomly oriented with the average grain size of 300-400 nm coated with boron oxide. The magnetic properties are characterised by standard ferrimagnetic behavior with the Neel temperature of about 450 °C. Large spontaneous polarization was observed with the maximal values of 45-50 μC/cm2 under an applied electric field of 100-300 kV/m. A strong coupling between magnetic and electric ordering was confirmed by measuring the magnetoelectric (ME) parameter and magnetodielectric ratio. These ME characteristics are more advanced than those for well-known room temperature multiferroic BiFeO3. Furthermore, by applying an electric field, the manipulation of magnetization in the range of up to 9% was observed, which is even greater than in some substituted hexaferrites with a non-collinear magnetic structure. The obtained results on electrical polarization are similar to the values reported for the corresponding hexaferrites sintered by polymer precursor technique. This suggests a promising potential of M-type hexaferrite ceramics in devices utilizing magnetoelectric coupling.

  19. Effect of manganese doping of BaSrTiO{sub 3} on diffusion and domain wall pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, Kevin, E-mail:; Borderon, Caroline, E-mail:; Renoud, Raphaël; Gundel, Hartmut W. [IETR, UMR CNRS 6164, University of Nantes, Nantes (France)


    In the present paper, the influence of manganese doping on the dielectric properties of BaSrTiO{sub 3} thin films is presented. The real and imaginary parts of the material's permittivity have been measured in a large frequency range (100 Hz–1 MHz) and as a function of the electric field. The tunability and the figure of merit of the material have been obtained from the measurement of the permittivity under an applied DC bias electric field. For the undoped material, the dielectric losses become important for a large DC bias which leads to breakdown. At a suitable dopant rate, this effect disappears. In order to better understand the origin of the related phenomena, we measure the permittivity as a function of the AC excitation amplitude and we decompose the obtained permittivity with the hyperbolic law. This enables to extract the different contributions of the bulk (low frequency diffusion and high frequency lattice relaxation) and of the domain wall motions (vibration and pinning/unpinning) to the material's dielectric permittivity and to understand the effect of manganese doping on each contribution. Knowledge of the related mechanisms allows us to establish the optimum dopant rate (mainly conditioned by the lattice contribution) and to reduce the domain wall motion, which finally is beneficial for the desired properties of the ferroelectric thin film. A particular attention is paid to low frequency diffusion, an especially harmful effect when a DC biasing is mandatory (tunable electronic component in mobile telecommunication devices for example)

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable CaMgZnSrYb high-entropy bulk metallic glass. (United States)

    Li, H F; Xie, X H; Zhao, K; Wang, Y B; Zheng, Y F; Wang, W H; Qin, L


    In order to enhance the corrosion resistance of the Ca65Mg15Zn20 bulk metallic glass, which has too fast a degradation rate for biomedical applications, we fabricated the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass because of the unique properties of high-entropy alloys. Our results showed that the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior were enhanced. The in vitro tests showed that the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass could stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of cultured osteoblasts. The in vivo animal tests showed that the Ca20Mg20Zn20Sr20Yb20 high-entropy bulk metallic glass did not show any obvious degradation after 4 weeks of implantation, and they can promote osteogenesis and new bone formation after 2 weeks of implantation. The improved mechanical properties and corrosion behavior can be attributed to the different chemical composition as well as the formation of a unique high-entropy atomic structure with a maximum degree of disorder.

  1. Multi-species coral Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature reconstruction using Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea from the Florida Straits (United States)

    Flannery, Jennifer A.; Richey, Julie N.; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Poore, Richard Z.; DeLong, Kristine L.


    We present new, monthly-resolved Sr/Ca-based sea-surface temperature (SST) records from two species of massive coral, Orbicella faveolata and Siderastrea siderea, from the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA (DTNP). We combine these new records with published data from three additional S. siderea coral colonies to generate a 278-year long multi-species stacked Sr/Ca-SST record from DTNP. The composite record of mean annual Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP shows pronounced decadal-scale variability with a range of 1 to 2°C. Notable cool intervals in the Sr/Ca-derived SST lasting about a decade centered at ~1845, ~1935, and ~1965 are associated with reduced summer Sr/Ca-SST (monthly maxima < 29°C), and imply a reduction in the spatial extent of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP). There is significant coherence between the composite DTNP Sr/Ca-SST record and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, with the AMO lagging Sr/Ca-SST at DTNP by 9 years. Low frequency variability in the Gulf Stream surface transport, which originates near DTNP, may provide a link for the lagged relationship between multidecadal variability at DTNP and the AMO.

  2. In-field {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer study of multiferroic Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} Y-type hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, N.; Shravan Kumar Reddy, S.; Gopal Reddy, Ch. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Yadagiri Reddy, P., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Rama Reddy, K. [Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India)


    The structural, magnetic, and in-field {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer studies of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} polycrystalline multiferroic, which belongs to Y-type hexaferrite class, are presented in this paper. Sr{sup 2+} substitution at Ba{sup 2+} site effects the redistribution of Zn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions at tetrahedral sites in the crystal. The magnetization data reveals the magnetic field induced transitions in the M–H curve. The in-field Mössbauer study reveals that the occupancy of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the tetrahedral sites is more than that in the octahedral sites because of doping of Sr{sup 2+} at Ba{sup 2+} site, which plays an important role in field induced multiferroic property at low temperature. - Highlights: • The structural, magnetic, and in-field {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer studies of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 1.5}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} are reported. • Doping of Sr at Ba site yielded the field induced transitions in the material. • The Fe{sup +3} ions at tetrahedral sites are more than the octahedral sites by Sr doping.

  3. RBS study of in situ grown BiSrCaCuO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranno, L.; Perriere, J.; Enard, J.P.; Kerherve, F.; Laurent, A.; Casero, R.P. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides)


    BiSrCaCuO thin films have been grown in situ on MgO single crystals by pulsed laser deposition under 0.1 mbar oxygen pressure, the substrate temperature being around 700{sup o}C. These films are nearly pure 2212 phase, highly textured with a full c-axis orientation, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in channeling geometry has been used to obtain precise information on their crystallinity. Although the X{sub min} values were found higher (about 35%) than those measured on bulk single crystals, they show partial epitaxy of the films, which was not observed with post annealed films. The comparison of backscattering yield in random and aligned orientations evidences the fact that all the cationic elements behave in a similar way in the channeling experiments, while differences are observed for the oxygen species according to their precise location in the network. These in situ grown films were found very sensitive to the ion irradiation, and showed a large dechanneling effect with increasing ion doses. (author).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yinghong; LEI Liping; ZENG Pan


    An equivalent continuum method and a deformable discrete method to describe the mechanical behaviors of superconducting powder BSCCO (BiSrCaCuO) aggregate are studied systematically. The equivalent continuum model idealizes the aggregation of the powder as an equivalent continuum material. The powder aggregate yielding is caused by not only the deviatoric stress but also the hydrostatic stress and the modified Drucker-Prager/Cap model is adopted to describe the mechanical behaviors of BSCCO powder aggregate in continuum method. The deformable discrete model is known as a direct model, which considers the discrete nature of the powder particles. Its framework encompasses the local behaviors between the particles, such as particles contact, sliding and rolling. Based on commercial finite element software ABAQUS, the equivalent continuum model and the deformable discrete model are used to simulate the confined compression of superconducting powder BSCCO, and the numerical results show agreement with experimental results, which verify the correctness of these built models. Compared with the equivalent continuum model based on macroscopic statistics method, the deformable discrete model can present the microscopic information during processing and can describe the nature of mechanical behaviors of superconducting powder BSCCO. But from an industrial viewpoint, the equivalent continuum model has a definitive edge over the microscopic models in that the gross behavior of the powder mass can be modeled and simulated on an industrial scale.

  5. Studies of Magnetic Impurities in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (United States)

    Calleja, Eduardo; Dai, Jixia; Gu, Genda; McElroy, Kyle


    Impurities in high temperatures superconductors, studied with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling spectroscopy (SI-STS) have served as a valuable tool to investigate the electronic structure of these materials (E.W. Hudson et al., Nature 411, 920 (2001), S.H.Pan et al., Nature 403,746 (2000)). These experiments revealed the appearance of a quasi-localized bound state near the impurity site whose structure is sensitive to the superconducting gap symmetry and the band structure and originates from the charge scattering nature of these impurities. We studied the effects of Fe impurities in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and discovered that the impurities have a different behavior than those previously observed. In particular the quasi bound state near the impurity seems to be behaving as that predicted for a magnetic impurity. The superconducting gap and local electronic density of states was studied in the vicinity of the impurities using SI-STS and will be presented.

  6. Exploring the impact of temperature and fluid chemistry on Ca and Sr isotope composition of Arctica islandica shells via experimental alteration (United States)

    Goos, Manuela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Liebetrau, Volker; Böhm, Florian; Fietzke, Jan; Nehrke, Gernot; Buhl, Dieter; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin


    Carbonate shells of marine organisms record by their chemical and isotopic composition environmental conditions like temperature, salinity and pH during their formation. However, primary signals can be overprinted by diagenesis, which has to be considered for the interpretation of environmental proxy data and on the other side may provide additional information about distinct reaction pathways throughout diagenesis (e.g. Allison et al, 2007). Aragonitic Arctica islandica shells widely used as proxy archives (e.g. Schöne et al, 2005) were chosen for hydrothermal alteration experiments in order to get a more detailed insight into diagenetic effects. Here we present results of experiments in which Arctica islandica shell fragments were exposed to North Sea seawater at temperatures of 100r{ }C and 175r{ }C at distinct reaction times. Strontium isotope composition of the experimental medium was adjusted from an original composition of δ 88/86SrSRM987= 0.391(1)‰ and 87Sr/86Sr= 0.70921(1) to δ 88/86SrSRM987= 0.179(1)‰ and 87Sr/86Sr= 0.70789(1) by sulfate extraction and Sr replacement procedures. The artificially altered shell material (six sub-samples of six shell fragments) and the corresponding solutions were prepared and analyzed. Results show that at 100r{ }C aragonite is still the predominant phase, but show lower peak intensities with Raman and XRD near the surface of the shell fragments. At 175r{ }C the aragonitic shell material recrystallized almost completely to calcite. In addition a rim of weakly ordered dolomite (10μ m) was found around these samples. Analysis of element concentrations of initial and final solutions show that at 175r{ }C Sr and Ca concentrations increase (Sr: 79 to 183 μ mol/l; Ca: 8 to 30 mmol/l), while Mg concentration decreases (Mg: 42 to 22 mmol/l). A corresponding Sr and Ca depletion along with an increase of Mg occurred in the samples, especially in the dolomite rim. At 100r{ }C only minor increase of Sr, Ca and Mg


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金进生; 常勇; 等


    PbSe films were grown on Si(111) by incorporation of BaF2/CaF2 buffers using molecular beam epitaxy. The measurements of both scanning electronic microscopy and high-resolution X-ray diffraction showed high crystalline quality of the PbSe films. The surface of PbSe was mirror-like and no cracks were observed. The full width at half-maximum of PbSe diffraction peak was only 153 arcsec. The epitaxial PbSe films were used to fabricate photodiodes. For the first time, metallic aluminum was used to form Al-PbSe Schottky diodes, which demonstrated better and more stable current-voltage characteristics than that obtained from Pb-PbSe Schottky diodes.%采用分子束外延方法在Si(111)衬底上生长了PbSe/BaF2/CaF2薄膜,扫描电镜和X-光衍射分析显示,通过生长BaF2/CaF2缓冲层的方法,在Si(111)衬底上外延的PbSe薄膜晶体质量高,PbSe表面光亮,无开裂现象发生,X-光衍射峰峰宽窄(153arcs).外延生长的PbSe薄膜被应用于制作光电二极管,首次采用热蒸发金属铝膜在PbSe表面形成Al-PbSe肖特基结光电二极管,获得了比Pb-PbSe肖特基结更为稳定和理想的电流-电压特性曲线.

  8. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P., E-mail:; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Université Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Shimamura, K. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)


    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  9. Fabrication and characterization of high-quality (Hg,Re)Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub y thin films on LSAT substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, A; Sugano, T; Adachi, S; Suzuki, K; Nakagaki, N; Enomoto, Y; Tanabe, K


    We have succeeded in fabricating high-quality (Hg,Re)Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub y ((Hg,Re)-1212) thin films with a thickness of 300 nm on (LaAlO sub 3) sub 0 sub . sub 3 -(SrAl sub 0 sub . sub 5 Ta sub 0 sub . sub 5 O sub 3) sub 0 sub . sub 7 (LSAT) substrates. The films were fabricated by repeating the two-step process, which consists of the preparation of a precursor film and the heat treatment in Hg-vapour atmosphere. For the purpose of improving their crystal quality, the heat treatment in the final process was carried out in a lower Hg-vapour pressure for a longer time. The obtained films had a flat surface and no appreciable outgrowth. The films exhibited a T sub c value of 120 K and a J sub c value of 4.4 x 10 sup 6 A cm sup - sup 2 at 77 K in a self-field, which are substantially higher than those for the films fabricated in higher Hg-vapour atmosphere. Their electrical transport properties in magnetic fields up to 7 T were investigated. Their lower irreversibility fields at 77 K as well as the higher ...

  10. Photophysical electronic structure of double-perovskites A{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} (A = Ba and Sr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Binita, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Dutta, Alo [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Shannigrahi, Santiranjan [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Sinha, T.P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)


    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements of double perovskite oxides, Ba{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} and Sr{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} are performed in the energy window of 0–1300 eV. Density functional theory calculations are initiated with the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package to understand the electronic structure of the systems. The calculated DOS has been compared with the experimental valence band XPS spectra. It has been observed that the Ta-5d and O-2p states are hybridized in the valence band. The chemical shifts of these compounds suggest a mixed ionic and covalent character of the bonds, which has been used to explain the electrical conduction mechanism of the systems. The calculated ratio of the spin-orbit interaction energy for Ba 3d and 4d states matches well with the observed experimental results. - Highlights: • DFT calculations of Ba{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} and Sr{sub 2}GdTaO{sub 6} have been performed with VASP. • XPS measurements are performed in the energy window of 0–1300 eV. • The calculated DOS has been compared with the valence band XPS spectra. • Chemical shifts from XPS spectra have been used to explain the conduction mechanism.

  11. Synthesis of high intensity green emitting (Ba,Sr)SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors through cellulose assisted liquid phase precursor process (United States)

    Humayoun, Usama Bin; Song, Young-Hyun; Lee, MinJi; Masato, Kakihana; Abe, Hiroshi; Toda, Kenji; Sato, Yasushi; Masaki, Takaki; Yoon, Dae-Ho


    Green emitting phosphor (Ba1-x,Sr1-x)SiO4:2xEu2+, x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 were synthesized through a Liquid Phase Precursor Process (LPP). Liquid phase precursor method is reported to result in phosphors with markedly increased emission intensities compared to other synthesis methods. Here microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) templates were studied to achieve high efficiency green phosphors. The phase formation was investigated by XRD analysis which showed the conformation of the Ba2SiO4 (JCPDS card number 761631) phase. The obtained samples exhibited broad excitation spectra with maximum at 430 nm and a green emission centered around 520 nm. An optimized dopant concentration was selected and the effect of two different types of cellulose, i.e. MCC and HPC templates on the emission properties was considered. It was found that the samples synthesized using HPC and fired at 1050 °C under a reducing atmosphere, showed a high intensity of almost 2 times that of the MCC sample. Further experiments were conducted by varying viscosity, particle weight, and molecular weight of the HPC template. It was found that the green emission from the (Ba,Sr)SiO4:Eu2+ increased with the increase in viscosity and molecular weight of the template.

  12. Structural and dielectric behavior of pulsed laser ablated Sr 0.6Ca 0.4TiO 3 thin film and asymmetric multilayer of SrTiO 3 and CaTiO 3 (United States)

    Chakraborty, Pradip; Choudhury, Palash Roy; Krupanidhi, S. B.


    Homogeneous thin films of Sr 0.6Ca 0.4TiO 3 (SCT40) and asymmetric multilayer of SrTiO 3 (STO) and CaTiO 3 (CTO) were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si substrates by using pulsed laser deposition technique. The electrical behavior of films was observed within a temperature range of 153 K-373 K. A feeble dielectric peak of SCT40 thin film at 273 K is justified as paraelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition. Moreover, the Curie-Weiss temperature, determined from the ɛ'( T) data above the transition temperature is found to be negative. Using Landau theory, the negative Curie-Weiss temperature is interpreted in terms of an antiferroelectric transition. The asymmetric multilayer exhibits a broad dielectric peak at 273 K, and is attributed to interdiffusion at several interfaces of multilayer. The average dielectric constants for homogeneous Sr 0.6Ca 0.4TiO 3 films (˜650) and asymmetric multilayered films (˜350) at room temperature are recognized as a consequence of grain size effect. Small frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constants and relatively low dielectric losses for both cases ensure high quality of the films applicable for next generation integrated devices.

  13. Ca, Sr, O and D isotope approach to defining the chemical evolution of hydrothermal fluids: Example from Long Valley, CA, USA (United States)

    Brown, Shaun T.; Kennedy, B. Mack; DePaolo, Donald J.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William C.


    We present chemical and isotopic data for fluids, minerals and rocks from the Long Valley meteoric-hydrothermal system. The samples encompass the presumed hydrothermal upwelling zone in the west moat of the caldera, the Casa Diablo geothermal field, and a series of wells defining a nearly linear, ∼16 km long, west-to-east trend along the likely fluid flow path. Fluid samples were analyzed for the isotopes of water, Sr, and Ca, the concentrations of major cations and anions, alkalinity, and total CO2. Water isotope data conform to trends documented in earlier studies, interpreted as indicating a single hydrothermal fluid mixing with local groundwater. Sr isotopes show subtle changes along the flow path, which requires rapid fluid flow and minimal reaction between the channelized fluids and the wallrocks. Sr and O isotopes are used to calculate fracture spacing using a dual porosity model. Calculated fracture spacing and temperature data for hydrothermal fluids indicate the system is (approximately) at steady-state. Correlated variations among total CO2, and the concentration and isotopic composition of Ca suggest progressive fluid degassing (loss of CO2), which drives calcite precipitation as the fluid flows west-to-east and cools. The shifts in Ca isotopes require that calcite precipitated at temperatures of 150-180 °C is fractionated by ca. -0.3‰ to -0.5‰ relative to aqueous species. Our data are the first evidence that Ca isotopes undergo kinetic fractionation at high temperatures (>100 °C) and can be used to trace calcite precipitation along hydrothermal fluid flow paths.

  14. Sr{sup 2+} doping effects on the transport and magnetic properties of GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaki, J. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, India. (India)], E-mail:; Bharathi, A.; Gayathri, N.; Yasodha, P.; Premila, M.; Sastry, V.S.; Hariharan, Y. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, India. (India)


    Studies on some new members of the cobalt perovskite Gd{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}BaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} with low strontium concentrations (0BaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} system by hole doping. Low temperature electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and thermopower of the above system have been studied. The pristine compound with x=0 and {delta}{approx}0.5 exhibits a semiconductor-like behavior and two magnetic transitions below room temperature. Upon Sr{sup 2+} substitution, there is a fall in resistivity by 2-3 orders of magnitude at low temperature and also a dramatic reduction in the ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition temperature. These changes can be explained on the basis of hole doping (and increase in the Co{sup 4+}content). Evidence for an increase in Co{sup 4+} with Sr{sup 2+} substitution is provided by iodometric analysis.

  15. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of NaNbO3 and Sr0.70Ca0.30TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Mishra; R Mittal; N Choudhury; S L Chaplot; D Pandey


    NaNbO3 and (Sr,Ca)TiO3 exhibit an unusual complex sequence of temperature- and pressure-driven structural phase transitions. We have carried out lattice dynamical studies to understand the phonon modes responsible for these phase transitions. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements using powder samples were carried out at the Dhruva reactor, which provide the phonon density of states. Lattice dynamical models have been developed for SrTiO3 and CaTiO3 which have been fruitfully employed to study the phonon spectra and vibrational properties of the solid solution (Sr,Ca)TiO3.

  16. Triadin/Junctin double null mouse reveals a differential role for Triadin and Junctin in anchoring CASQ to the jSR and regulating Ca(2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Boncompagni

    Full Text Available Triadin (Tdn and Junctin (Jct are structurally related transmembrane proteins thought to be key mediators of structural and functional interactions between calsequestrin (CASQ and ryanodine receptor (RyRs at the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR. However, the specific contribution of each protein to the jSR architecture and to excitation-contraction (e-c coupling has not been fully established. Here, using mouse models lacking either Tdn (Tdn-null, Jct (Jct-null or both (Tdn/Jct-null, we identify Tdn as the main component of periodically located anchors connecting CASQ to the RyR-bearing jSR membrane. Both proteins proved to be important for the structural organization of jSR cisternae and retention of CASQ within them, but with different degrees of impact. Our results also suggest that the presence of CASQ is responsible for the wide lumen of the jSR cisternae. Using Ca(2+ imaging and Ca(2+ selective microelectrodes we found that changes in e-c coupling, SR Ca(2+content and resting [Ca(2+] in Jct, Tdn and Tdn/Jct-null muscles are directly correlated to the effect of each deletion on CASQ content and its organization within the jSR. These data suggest that in skeletal muscle the disruption of Tdn/CASQ link has a more profound effect on jSR architecture and myoplasmic Ca(2+ regulation than Jct/CASQ association.

  17. Tren kenaikan suhu permukaan laut pada abad ke-14 berdasarkan data geokimia Sr/Ca dari fosil koral Mentawai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Y. Cahyarini


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i2.96Sr/Ca content ratio in coral is a promising tool for a sea surface temperature reconstruction. In this study, Sr/Ca was analyzed from the top core of fossil coral from Central Mentawai, Indonesia (BLS. The dating of U/Th is used for the age determination of the fossil coral. Based on the U/Th dating, the fossil coral used in this study was deposited in 14th century which approximately has a time range 11 years. The result of this study shows that in the 14th century, the sea surface temperature increased by 3.20 C during 11 years period.

  18. Morphological, thermal and optical studies of jute-reinforced PbSrCaCuO-polypropylene composite (United States)

    Jacob, Reenu; Isac, Jayakumari


    New research with modern technologies has always grabbed substantial attention. Conservation of raw materials like natural fibers has helped composite world to explore eco-friendly components. The aim of this paper is to study the potential of jute fiber-reinforced ceramic polymers. Alkali-treated jute fiber has been incorporated in a polypropylene ceramic matrix at different volume fractions. The morphological, thermal and optical studies of jute-reinforced ceramic Pb2Sr2CaCu2O9 (PbSrCaCuO) are studied. Morphological results evidently demonstrate that when the polypropylene ceramic matrix is reinforced with jute fiber, interfacial interaction between the varying proportions of the jute fiber and ceramic composite takes place. TGA and DSC results confirm the enhancement in the thermal stability of ceramic composites reinforced with jute fiber. The UV analysis of the composite gives a good quality measure on the optical properties of the new composite prepared.

  19. Temperature and wavevector dependence of overdoped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+x single crystal samples (United States)

    Rast, S.; Klohs, A.; Frazer, B. H.; Hirai, Y.; Schmauder, T.; Gatt, R.; Abrecht, M.; Pavuna, D.; Margaritondo, G.; Onellion, M.


    We report on measuring the temperature and wavevector change of angle-resolved photoemission spectra for overdoped Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8+x single crystal samples. Spectra taken from close to to close to were analyzed. The changes of spectral lineshape with temperature and wave vector indicate qualitatively different behavior in different parts of the Brillouin zone and will be analyzed and presented.

  20. Temperature-dependent photoemission features for overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x cuprates (United States)

    Rast, S.; Frazer, B. H.; Onellion, M.; Schmauder, T.; Abrecht, M.; Touzelet, O.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G.; Pavuna, D.


    We report temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectra for overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 + x single-crystal samples. The data indicate that there is a special temperature (T+) where the spectral function changes intensity, and where the energy difference between the peak and dip features changes. The data also demonstrate that immediately above the superconducting transition temperature, the system exhibits a non-Lorentzian lineshape. We discuss implications of the data.

  1. Superconducting gap in Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.G.; Liu, R.; Yang, A.B.; Lynch, D.W. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (USA)); Arko, A.J.; List, R.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Veal, B.W.; Chang, Y.C.; Jiang, P.Z.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    Detailed studies indicate a superconducting gap in the high-temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Photoemission measurements with high energy and angle resolution isolate the behavior of a single band as it crosses the Fermi level in both the normal and superconducting states, giving support to the Fermi liquid picture. The magnitude of the gap is 24 millielectron volts. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  2. sup 119 Sn-Moessbauer spectroscopic study of the single phase of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu(Sn)-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Y. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)); Nishida, T. (Dept. of Chemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Katada, M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)); Deshimaru, Y.; Miura, N.; Yamazoe, N. (Dept. of Materials Science and Tech., Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))


    Tin-doped samples of the high-Tc (2223) phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor have been prepared by a conventional sintering method. Sintering conditions were carefully selected to obtain the single high-Tc phase. {sup 119}Sn-Moessbauer spectra have been measured in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K. The temperature dependence of the recoilless fraction (f) is well understood by the temperature dependence of the normal phonon. (orig.).

  3. A Study on the Effect of Ni Dopping on Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System


    ABUKAY, Mustafa TEPE and Doğan


    The effect of Ni doping on superconductivity properties of the Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2(Cu1-xNix)3Oy system has been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, ac electrical resistance, ac magnetic susceptibility and critical current measurements. The volume fraction of the 2223 phase decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The zero-resistance temperature and the critical current density are suppressed with Ni substitution.

  4. A Study on the Effect of Ni Dopping on Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System


    ABUKAY, Mustafa TEPE and Doğan


    The effect of Ni doping on superconductivity properties of the Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2(Cu1-xNix)3Oy system has been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, ac electrical resistance, ac magnetic susceptibility and critical current measurements. The volume fraction of the 2223 phase decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The zero-resistance temperature and the critical current density are suppressed with Ni substitution.

  5. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Freitas


    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as the influence of shell organic content and/or crystal size and orientation, the latter reflecting conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. In the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell the lack of significant small-scale variation of Mg/Ca ratios, which is consistent with growth at constant temperature, suggest a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy. Cross-growth band element/Ca ratio profiles in the interior of bivalve shells may provide more promising palaeo-environmental tools than sampling from the outer region of bivalve shells.

  6. Oxygen Adsorption-Desorption Behavior and Superconducting Properties of High-Tc Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (United States)

    Miura, Norio; Suzuta, Hiroki; Deshimaru, Yuichi; Shimizu, Youichi; Sakashita, Hirofumi; Yamazoe, Noboru


    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) chromatograms revealed that a small amount of oxygen was desorbed from high-Tc Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) in the temperature range from ca. 350 to ca. 650°C prior to a steep increase of oxygen desorption in the higher temperature range. The Tc of BPSCCO was significantly lowered with the progress of oxygen desorption especially in the former temperature range, and was restored to the original level when the desorbed oxygen was recovered. With no corresponding changes in X-ray powder diffraction pattern being detected, the oxygen desorbed below ca. 650°C was concluded to have strong relevance to the superconductivity of BPSCCO.

  7. Neutron diffraction studies on La2-DyCa2Ba2Cu4+2O superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rayaprol; Rohini Parmar; D G Kuberkar; Keka R Chakraborty; P S R Krishna; M Ramanadham


    Structural studies on Dy-substituted La-2125 type superconductors have been carried out by neutron diffraction experiments at room temperature using a monochromatic neutron beam of wavelength () = 1.249 Å. A series of samples with La2-DyCa2Ba2Cu4+2O stoichiometric composition, for = 0.1-0.5, have been studied for their structural properties. A tetragonal Y-123 unit cell was taken as the starting model for the Rietveld analysis. All the samples fit into the starting model, with no structural transition taking place with increasing dopant concentration. The results of Rietveld analysis and structural properties will be discussed in detail.

  8. Study of the electronic structure and half-metallicity of CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Jun-Nan; Huang, Jian-Qi


    In this paper, the electronic structure, magnetic properties and half-metallicity of the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice are investigated by employing the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory within the GGA or GGA + U exchange-correlation functional. The CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice is constructed by the cubic CaMnO3 and the tetragonal ferroelectric BaTiO3 growing alternately along (0 0 1) direction. The cubic CaMnO3 presents a robust half-metallicity and a metastable ferromagnetic phase. Its magnetic moment is an integral number of 3.000 μB per unit cell. However, the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice has a stable ferromagnetic phase, for which the magnetic moment is 12.000 μB per unit cell. It also retains the robust half-metallicity which mainly results from the strong hybridization between Mn and O atoms. The results show that the constructed CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice exhibits superior magnetoelectric properties. It may provide a theoretical reference for the design and preparation of new multiferroic materials.

  9. Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie


    Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/Ca in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/Ca records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long periods. We found that corals with calcification rates sample and drill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/Ca-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.

  10. Thermoelectric Characterization of (Na1-yMy)1.6Co2O4(M=K,Ca,Sr)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LI; Guiying XU; Maofa JIANG


    Oxide materials NaCo2O4 and (Na1-yMy)1.6Co2O4 (M=K, 0.05≤y≤0.35; M=Ca, Sr, 0.10≤y≤0.40) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Experimental results indicated that the Seebeck coefficient and the Powerfactor of NaCo2O4 were improved by doping Ca and Sr but not by K. The Power-factor of NaCo2O4 is in its maximum, 1.68×10-4 W·m-1·K-2 and 11% bigger than that of the original one when the dopant fraction of Ca was 0.1. Doping Sr makes NaCo2O4 have the biggest Power-factor, 1.68×10-4 W·m-1·K-2 that is 50% bigger than the non-doping oxide. The experimental results indicate that suitable dopants and addition amounts could improve the thermoelectric properties of NaCo2O4 greatly.

  11. Trace element (Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, U and V) distribution and seasonality in compartments of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Kevrekidis, Theodoros


    Novel information on the biological fate of trace elements in seagrass ecosystems is provided. Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, U and V concentrations in five compartments (blades, sheaths, vertical rhizomes, main axis plus additional branches, roots) of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, as well as in seawater and sediments from the Thessaloniki Gulf, Greece were determined monthly. Uni- and multivariate data analyses were applied. Leaf compartments and roots displayed higher Al, Mo, Ni and Se annual mean concentrations than rhizomes, B was highly accumulated in blades and Cr in sheaths; As, Ba, Sr and Tl contents did not significantly vary among plant compartments. A review summarizing reported element concentrations in seagrasses has revealed that C. nodosa sheaths display a high Cr accumulation capacity. Most element concentrations in blades increased in early mid-summer and early autumn with blade size and age, while those in sheaths peaked in late spring-early summer and autumn when sheath size was the lowest; elevated element concentrations in seawater in late spring and early-mid autumn, possibly as a result of elevated rainfall and associated run-off from the land, may have also contributed to the observed variability. Element concentrations in rhizomes and roots generally displayed a temporary increase in late autumn, which was concurrent with high rainfall, low wind speed associated with reduced hydrodynamism, and elevated sediment element levels. The bioaccumulation factor based on element concentrations in seagrass compartments and sediments was lower than 1 except for B, Ba, Mo, Se and Sr in all compartments, Cr in sheaths and U in roots. Blade V concentration positively correlated with sediment V concentration, suggesting that C. nodosa could be regarded as a bioindicator for V. Our findings can contribute to the design of biomonitoring programs and the development of predictive models for rational management of seagrass meadows.

  12. Displacement-type ferroelectricity with off-center magnetic ions in perovskite Sr(1-x)Ba(x)MnO3. (United States)

    Sakai, H; Fujioka, J; Fukuda, T; Okuyama, D; Hashizume, D; Kagawa, F; Nakao, H; Murakami, Y; Arima, T; Baron, A Q R; Taguchi, Y; Tokura, Y


    We report a ferroelectric transition driven by the off-centering of magnetic Mn(4+) ions in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators Sr(1-x)Ba(x)MnO(3) with a perovskite structure. As x increases, the perovskite lattice shows the typical soft-mode dynamics, as revealed by the momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering and far-infrared spectroscopy, and the ferroelectricity shows up for x ≥ 0.45. The observed polarization is comparable to that for a prototypical ferroelectric BaTiO(3). We further demonstrate that the magnetic order suppresses the ferroelectric lattice dilation by ∼70% and increases the soft-phonon energy by ∼50%, indicating the largest magnetoelectric effects yet attained.

  13. Interaction between endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress (ER/SR stress), mitochondrial signaling and Ca(2+) regulation in airway smooth muscle (ASM). (United States)

    Delmotte, Philippe; Sieck, Gary C


    Airway inflammation is a key aspect of diseases such as asthma. Several inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-13) increase cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]cyt) responses to agonist stimulation and Ca(2+) sensitivity of force generation, thereby enhancing airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility (hyper-reactive state). Inflammation also induces ASM proliferation and remodeling (synthetic state). In normal ASM, the transient elevation of [Ca(2+)]cyt induced by agonists leads to a transient increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]mito) that may be important in matching ATP production with ATP consumption. In human ASM (hASM) exposed to TNFα and IL-13, the transient increase in [Ca(2+)]mito is blunted despite enhanced [Ca(2+)]cyt responses. We also found that TNFα and IL-13 induce reactive oxidant species (ROS) formation and endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) stress (unfolded protein response) in hASM. ER/SR stress in hASM is associated with disruption of mitochondrial coupling with the ER/SR membrane, which relates to reduced mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression. Thus, in hASM it appears that TNFα and IL-13 result in ROS formation leading to ER/SR stress, reduced Mfn2 expression, disruption of mitochondrion-ER/SR coupling, decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, mitochondrial fragmentation, and increased cell proliferation.

  14. Calcilytic Ameliorates Abnormalities of Mutant Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Knock-In Mice Mimicking Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia (ADH). (United States)

    Dong, Bingzi; Endo, Itsuro; Ohnishi, Yukiyo; Kondo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Abe, Masahiro; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio


    Activating mutations of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH). ADH patients develop hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalciuria, similar to the clinical features of hypoparathyroidism. The current treatment of ADH is similar to the other forms of hypoparathyroidism, using active vitamin D3 or parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, these treatments aggravate hypercalciuria and renal calcification. Thus, new therapeutic strategies for ADH are needed. Calcilytics are allosteric antagonists of CaSR, and may be effective for the treatment of ADH caused by activating mutations of CaSR. In order to examine the effect of calcilytic JTT-305/MK-5442 on CaSR harboring activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains in vitro, we first transfected a mutated CaSR gene into HEK cells. JTT-305/MK-5442 suppressed the hypersensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+) of HEK cells transfected with the CaSR gene with activating mutations in the extracellular and transmembrane domains. We then selected two activating mutations locating in the extracellular (C129S) and transmembrane (A843E) domains, and generated two strains of CaSR knock-in mice to build an ADH mouse model. Both mutant mice mimicked almost all the clinical features of human ADH. JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment in vivo increased urinary cAMP excretion, improved serum and urinary calcium and phosphate levels by stimulating endogenous PTH secretion, and prevented renal calcification. In contrast, PTH(1-34) treatment normalized serum calcium and phosphate but could not reduce hypercalciuria or renal calcification. CaSR knock-in mice exhibited low bone turnover due to the deficiency of PTH, and JTT-305/MK-5442 as well as PTH(1-34) increased bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in these mice. These results demonstrate that calcilytics can reverse almost all the phenotypes of ADH including hypercalciuria and renal calcification, and suggest that calcilytics can become a

  15. Preparation and Luminescence of Single-Host White-Light-Emitting BaSrMg(PO4)2 ∶ Eu2+ Phosphor for Ultraviolet LEDs%白光LED用单基质荧光粉BaSrMg( PO4)2∶Eu2+的制备及发光性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘再法; 刘爽; 朱澄静; 徐娟; 刘文涵; 王丽丽


    A single-host white-light-emitting phosphor BaSrMg(PO4)2:Eu2+ was prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction method, and the luminescence characteristics and XRD pattern were investigated. The results show that BaSrMg(PO1)2 phase was obtained by sintering at 1 200℃ for 3 hours. BaSrMg(PO4 )2: Eu2+ phosphor exhibits two main emission bands peaking at 424 and 585 nm, respectively. The emission band peaking at 424 nm is attributed to the 4f6 5d1→4f7 transition of Eu2+ substituting Sr2+ , while the emission band peaking at 585 nm originates from the 4f6 5d1→4f7 transition of Eu2+ replacing Ba2+ in host lattice. The excitation spectra of the two emission peaks are range from 250 to 400 nm and both peaking at 360 nm. The effect of the proportion of Ba and Sr, and the Eu2+ doping concentration on the emission intensity were discussed in detail. Different chromaticity coordinates were obtained for each phosphor, that is, the chromaticity coordinates of the designed phosphor is tunable for the white-emitting LED or for special purpose. Quantum efficiency was also examined for the phosphors with different Eu2+ doping concentration, and concentration quenching took place obviously when Eu2+ doping concentration was lager than 6% in mole ratio. The obtained phosphor BaSrMg(PO4)2 : Eu2+ can be excited by near ultraviolet radiation effectively and emit full color lighting, which is a promising single-host white-light-emitting phosphor for white LED.%采用高温固相反应法在1 200℃下制备了 Eu2+激活的BaSrMg( PO4)2高亮度白光荧光粉,并对其晶体结构和发光性能进行了研究.荧光光谱研究表明该荧光粉的发射光谱由两个谱带组成,其中心分别位于424和585 nm处,归结为Eu2+分别占据了基质中Sr2+,Ba2+格位而导致的4f 65d1→4f7电子跃迁.两个发射峰的激发光谱均分布在250~400nm的波长范围内,峰值位于360nm左右.表明该荧光粉可被INGaN管芯产生的近紫外辐射有效激发,是

  16. Preparation structure and dielectric properties of tungsten bronze ceramics Sr0.5 Ba0.5 Nb2O6%钨青铜陶瓷Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6的制备结构与介电性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁剑; 俞建长; 郑兴华; 梁国栋


    采用固相反应法合成Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6陶瓷,并对其结构、介电性能进行表征.研究结果表明,Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6陶瓷为四方钨青铜结构单相,其在100℃附近存在一个明显的弥散介电峰,峰值随测试频率增加而减小,为典型的弛豫铁电相变.室温时,10 kHz频率下,其介电常数约为450,介电损耗为0.121.

  17. 钨青铜陶瓷Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6的合成、结构与介电性能%Synthesis, Structure and Dielectric Properties of Tungsten Bronze Ceramic Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兴华; 丁剑; 俞建长; 梁国栋



  18. An investigation of the optical properties and water splitting potential of the coloured metallic perovskites Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.A.; Le, J.; Cheng, J. [Chemistry Department, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Weller, T.; Marschall, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Bloh, J.Z. [DECHEMA Research Institute, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, 60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Macphee, D.E.; Folli, A. [Chemistry Department, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Mclaughlin, A.C., E-mail: [Chemistry Department, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)


    The solid solution Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3} (x=0.00, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100 and 1.00) has been synthesised. Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data shows that all materials crystallise with cubic (Pm-3m) symmetry and that a miscibility gap exists from x=0.1–1.0. The optical properties of the metallic perovskites Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3} have been investigated by a combination of UV–vis spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). Upon increasing x from 0 to 1 in Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3} there is a reduction in the measured band gap from 2.20 eV to 2.07 eV. The measured band gap is attributed to the electronic transition from the Mo 4d t{sub 2g} band to the e{sub g} band. The potential of SrMoO{sub 3} and BaMoO{sub 3} as water-splitting photocatalysts was explored but there was no evidence of hydrogen or oxygen evolution, even with the presence of a Pt co-catalyst. - Graphical abstract: Ultraviolet–visible absorbance spectra (converted from diffuse reflectance spectra) for SrMoO{sub 3} and BaMoO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • The solid solution Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3} has been synthesised. • A miscibility gap exists from x=0.1–1.0 in Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3.} • Upon increasing x from 0 to 1 in Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}MoO{sub 3} there is a reduction in the measured band gap from 2.20 eV to 2.07 eV. • The potential of SrMoO{sub 3} and BaMoO{sub 3} as water-splitting photocatalysts was explored but there was no evidence of hydrogen or oxygen evolution, even with the presence of a Pt co-catalyst.

  19. Leakage current transport mechanisms of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3 bilayer films grown on Nb:SrTiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pan Ruikun; Liu Panke; Li Mingkai; Tao Haizheng; Li Pai; He Yunbin


    La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3(LSMO/BTO) bilayer films were epitaxially grown on Nb:SrTiO3 (NSTO) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Current–voltage (–) characteristics of the LSMO/BTO bilayer films were studied. – curves were measured at room temperature, which show rectifying behaviour and can be well fitted by the space-charge-limited current mechanism under forward bias while thermionic emission model under reverse bias. Analysis indicates that a modulating Schottky barrier exists at the LSMO/BTO interface, which dominates the leakage current transport properties of LSMO/BTO bilayer films.

  20. Synthesis of Ba3ZnNb2O9–Sr3ZnNb2O9 solid solution and their dielectric properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli


    Oxides of the type, Ba3–SrZnNb2O9 (0 ≤ ≤ 3), were synthesized by the solid state route. Oxides calcined at 1000°C show single cubic phase for all the compositions. The cubic lattice parameter (a) decreases with increase in Sr concentration from 4.0938(2) for = 0 to 4.0067(2) for = 3. Scanning electron micrographs show maximum grain size for the = 1 composition (∼ 2 m) at 1200°C. Disks sintered at 1200°C show dielectric constant variation between 28 and 40 (at 500 kHz) for different values of with the maximum dielectric constant at = 1.

  1. Toward complete isotopic analysis of individual presolar silicon carbide grains : C, N, Si, Sr, Zr, Mo, and Ba in single grains of type X.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellin, M. J.; Calaway, W. F.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.; Clayton, R. N.


    Presolar silicon carbide grains form in a variety of types of stars, including asymptotic giant branch red giant stars and supernovae. The dominant mechanisms of heavy element nucleosynthesis, the s-process and r-process, are thought to occur mainly in AGB stars and supernovae, respectively [1]. We have previously reported that mainstream SiC grains have strong enrichments in the s-process isotopes of Sr, Zr and Mo [2-4] and initial results for X-type SiC grains showing enrichments in the r-process isotopes of Mo[5]. We report here the first measurements of Zr, Sr, and Ba isotopes along with expanded studies of Mo in individual X-type SiC grains, which have previously been identified as having formed from supernova ejects.

  2. NLTE strontium abundance in a sample of extremely metal poor stars and the Sr/Ba ratio in the early Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A; Francois, P; Spite, M; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Hill, V


    Heavy element abundances in extremely metal-poor stars provide strong constraints on the processes of forming these elements in the first stars. We attempt to determine precise abundances of strontium in a homogeneous sample of extremely metal-poor stars. The abundances of strontium in 54 very or extremely metal-poor stars, was redetermined by abandoning the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) hypothesis, and fitting non-LTE (NLTE) profiles to the observed spectral lines. The corrected Sr abundances and previously obtained NLTE Ba abundances are compared to the predictions of several hypothetical formation processes for the lighter neutron-capture elements. Our NLTE abundances confirm the previously determined huge scatter of the strontium abundance in low metallicity stars. This scatter is also found (and is even larger) at very low metallicities (i. e. early in the chemical evolution). The Sr abundance in the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars is compatible with the main r-process involved in other processe...

  3. Effect of Electron Beam on the Structure and Crystallization Features of BaO-SrO-TiO2-SiO2 Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Glasses of BaO-SrO-TiO2-SiO2 after electronic radiation treatment of 50-1000 kgy were studied by means of IR spectra, DTA and visible light absorption method.The result shows that the glass structure is changed due to the formation of structure defect from oxygen vacancy and E′ color center,which resultsd in the crystallization process and new precursors,and decreasement of Tg temperature and crystallization peaks by 20-50℃.

  4. Calculation Model of Mass Action Concentration for Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Ba-Al Melts and Determination of Their Thermodynamic Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the phase diagrams and the mass action law in combination with the coexistence theory of metallic melts structure, the calculation model of mass action concentration for Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Ba-Al was built, and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. The agreement between calculated and measured results shows that the model and the determined thermodynamic parameters can reflect the structural characteristics of relevant melts. However, the fact that the thermodynamic parameters from literature don′t give the value agree with the measured result may be due to unconformity of these parameters to real chemical reactions in metallic melts.

  5. Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers (United States)

    Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.


    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.





    Single layered Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (304) and quartz substrates by solution method. The microstructure, grain size, surface morphology and thickness of the films were reported on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectrometer. Variation in thickness influences the microstructure of the films. The single layered thin film had uniform crack-free surfa...

  7. Structure refinement of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) (United States)

    Zakaria, Nurhamidah; Osman, Rozana A. M.; Idris, Mohd Sobri


    Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ was successfully prepared using modified solid-state synthesis routes. The lowest temperature to obtained single phase of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ is about 900°C for 15 hours. Longer period of time are required compared to only 5 hours at 950°C as established in literatures. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) data confirmed that Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ is formed a cubic perovskite with the space group of Pm-3m. The lattice parameters of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ are a = 3.990 (1) Å and unit cell volume is V = 63.5 (1) Å3. The Rietveld refinement of XRD data revealed that the crystal structure of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ slightly changes as a function of temperature.

  8. Preparation and dielectric properties of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5})-doped SrTiO{sub 3}-based ceramics for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxia, E-mail:; Yu, Xiaoxu; Cai, Haocheng; Liao, Qingwei; Han, Yemei; Gao, Zhengdong


    Highlights: • BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is added to the multi-ions doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics as sintering aid. • The sintering temperature is decreased from 1300 °C to 1075 °C. • The incorporation of Ba{sup 2+} into the matrix increases the dielectric constant. • The breakdown strength increases due to the decrease of grain size and porosity. • The dissolution of BCB contributes to the improvement of dielectric properties. -- Abstract: BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) (BCB) was used as sintering aids to lower the sintering temperature of multi-ions doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics effectively from 1300 °C to 1075 °C by conventional solid state method. The effect of BCB content on crystalline structures, microstructures and properties of the ceramics was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements, respectively. The addition of BCB enhanced the breakdown strength (BDS) while did not sacrifice the dielectric constant. The enhancement of BDS should be due to the modification of microstructures, i.e., smaller and more homogeneous grain sizes after BCB addition. The dielectric constant of BCB-doped ceramics maintained a stable value with 1.0 mol% BCB, which was dominated by the combination of two opposite effects caused by the presence of second phases and the incorporation of Cu{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}, while further increase was owing to the increase of dissolved Ba{sup 2+} ions when the content of BCB is more than 2.0 mol%. The multi-ions doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics with 1.0 mol% BCB addition showed optimal dielectric properties as follows: dielectric constant of 311.37, average breakdown strength of 28.78 kV/mm, discharged energy density of 1.05 J/cm{sup 3} and energy efficiency of 98.83%.

  9. Metallo-organic decomposition derived (Ca, Sr)ZrO{sub 3} dielectric thin films on Pt coated Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changhong [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail:; Huang Dexiu [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhu Weiguang [Microelectronics Center, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yao Xi [Microelectronics Center, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)


    Metallo-organic decomposition derived dielectric thin films of calcium zirconate doped with various concentrations of strontium ((Ca, Sr)ZrO{sub 3}) were prepared on Pt coated silicon substrate. Mainly in this paper, we present the investigations of their structural developments and present their electric and dielectric properties as well. The structural developments show that the CaZrO{sub 3} film has amorphous structure with carbonate existing when annealed at 600 deg. C, while annealed at 650 deg. C and above, the carbonate is decomposed and those films crystallize into perovskite phase without preferred orientation. In addition, the prepared (Ca, Sr)ZrO{sub 3} films with their Zr-O bonds affected by strontium doping are homogenous and stable as solid solutions in any concentration of strontium and all Bragg diffraction characteristics for the films shift downward with the increase in the concentration of strontium. Moreover, the electric properties show that the (Ca, Sr)ZrO{sub 3} films have very low leakage current density and high breakdown strength; typically, the CaZrO{sub 3} film annealed at 650 deg. C has the leakage current density approximately 9.5 x 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} in the field strength of 2.6 MV cm{sup -1}. Furthermore, the dielectric properties show that their dielectric constants are higher than 12.8 with very little dispersion in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and are independent of applied dc bias as well. The dielectric properties, in combination with the electric properties, make the materials promising candidates for high-voltage and high-reliability capacitor applications.

  10. Enhanced photoluminescence and thermal properties of size mismatch in Sr(2.97-x-y)Eu0.03Mg(x)Ba(y)SiO5 for high-power white light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Ci, Zhipeng; Que, Meidan; Shi, Yurong; Zhu, Ge; Wang, Yuhua


    In this Study, Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) act to enhance the maximum emission of Sr2.97SiO5:0.03Eu(2+) significantly and redshift the emission band to the orange-red region in Sr(2.97-x-y)Mg(x)Ba(y)SiO5:0.03Eu(2+). Size mismatch between the host and the doped cations tunes the photoluminescence spectra shift systematically. A slight blue shift when increasing the amount of Mg(2+) occurs in the Sr(2.97-x)Eu0.03Mg(x)SiO5 lattices, and a rapid red shift occurs when Ba(2+) is codoped in the Sr(2.57-y)Eu0.03Mg0.4Ba(y)SiO5 lattices. The emission spectra were tuned from 585 to 601 nm by changing the concentration of Ba(2+). Accordingly, we propose the underlying mechanisms of the changes in the photoluminescence properties by adjusting the cation composition of phosphors. The influence of the size mismatch on the thermal quenching is also observed. This mechanism could be widely applied to oxide materials and could be useful in tuning the photoluminescence properties, which are sensitive to local coordination environment. The emission bands of Sr(2.97-x-y)Eu0.03Mg(x)Ba(y)SiO5 show the blue shift with increasing temperature, which could be described in terms of back tunneling of the excited electrons from the low-energy excited state to the high-energy excited state. Thus, the Sr(2.97-x-y)Eu0.03Mg(x)Ba(y)SiO5 phosphors could have potential applications in the daylight LEDs or warm white LEDs.

  11. Neutron total scattering and reverse Monte Carlo study of cation ordering in Ca(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3). (United States)

    Hui, Qun; Dove, Martin T; Tucker, Matthew G; Redfern, Simon A T; Keen, David A


    We use neutron total scattering measurements with reverse Monte Carlo analysis methods incorporating an atom-swapping algorithm to identify the short-range Ca/Sr cation ordering within the Ca(x)Sr(1-x)TiO(3) solid solution (compositions x = 0.2,0.5,0.8). Our results show that nearest-neighbour pairs have a strong tendency for unlike Ca/Sr first-neighbour coordination in the x = 0.2 and 0.5 cases. In the x = 0.5 case the Ca/Sr ordering results in a structure with space group P 2(1)nm. In contrast, there is much less short-range cation ordering in the x = 0.8 case.

  12. Correlation between upconversion photoluminescence and dielectric response in Ba-substituted (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, T., E-mail: [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, X. D. [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China); Zhao, C. Z. [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Liu, M. F.; Liu, J. M., E-mail: [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    The filled tetragonal tungsten bronze (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30} (SBLTNx: Ho-Yb) ceramics with different Ba substitution levels (x) are prepared. The upconversion photoluminescence (UC-PL) and dielectric permittivity are investigated. The substitution of Sr{sup 2+} ions at the A{sub 2}-sites by larger Ba{sup 2+} ions results in substantial variation of the UC-PL intensity as a function of substitution level x. Furthermore, the dielectric response to the substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by Ba{sup 2+} suggests a close correlation between the UC-PL intensity and dielectric permittivity. The origin for this correlation is discussed based on the random stress field (RSF) model.

  13. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik;


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  14. Effect of Ferroelectric Properties of Zr doping on Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 Ceramics%锆掺杂对Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6陶瓷铁电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉杰; 隋万美; 苏龙; 张古品


    Lead-free ferroelectric ceramics Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 with and without Zr4+ dopant were prepared by a partial co-precipitation method,and their phase transformation,density and ferroelectric properties were investigated.Results indicate that with the cooperative effects of Zr4+ doping and silica sintering additive,all the ceramics can be well sintered and exhibit a dense and pure tungsten-bronze structureon the sintering behaviors,the coercive field Ec of ceramics,as well as the remanent polarization Pr and the spontaneous polarizationPs,decrease with increasing Zr4+ content.%采用部分共沉淀法制备了纯相及锆掺杂的Ba0.5Sr05Nb2O6无铅铁电陶瓷,研究了其相组成、致密度及铁电性能.结果表明,适量的掺杂锆,并引入SiO2为烧结助剂,可制备出致密、单一的钨青铜Ba0.5Sr0.5(ZrxNb1-x)2O6陶瓷.随着Zr4+掺杂量的增加,陶瓷的矫顽场Ec有所降低,剩余极化强度Pr和饱和极化强度Ps均减小.

  15. Combined effects of Sr substitution and pressure on the ground states in CaFe2As2 (United States)

    Knöner, S.; Gati, E.; Köhler, S.; Wolf, B.; Tutsch, U.; Ran, S.; Torikachvili, M. S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Lang, M.


    We present a detailed study of the combined effects of Sr substitution and hydrostatic pressure on the ground-state properties of CaFe2As2 . Measurements of the electrical resistance and magnetic susceptibility, both at ambient and finite pressure P ≤2 GPa, were performed on Ca1 -xSrxFe2As2 single crystals grown out of Sn flux. We find that by Sr substitution the transition temperature to the magnetic/structural phase is enhanced and therefore a higher pressure is needed to suppress the transition to lowest temperature. In addition, the transition to the collapsed tetragonal phase is found at a pressure, which is distinctly higher than in the pure compound. This implies that the stability ranges of both phases shift on the pressure-axis upon doping, but the latter one with a higher rate. These observations suggest the possibility of separating the two phase lines, which intersect already at elevated temperatures for x =0 and low Sr concentration levels. For x =0.177 , we find strong evidence that both phases remain separated down to the lowest temperature and that a zero-resistance state emerges in this intermediate pressure window. This observation indicates that Sr substitution combined with hydrostatic pressure provides another route for stabilizing superconductivity in CaFe2As2 . Our results are consistent with the notion that (i) preserving the fluctuations associated with the structural-magnetic transition to low temperatures is vital for superconductivity to form in this material and that (ii) the nonmagnetic collapsed tetragonal phase is detrimental for superconductivity.

  16. Hypermethylation of the CaSR and VDR genes in the parathyroid glands in chronic kidney disease rats with high-phosphate diet. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taketo; Tatsumi, Norifumi; Kamejima, Sahoko; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Ohkido, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Yokoo, Takashi; Okabe, Masataka


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) disrupts mineral homeostasis and its representative pathosis is defined as secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). SHPT occurs during the early course of progressive renal insufficiency, and is associated with mortality and cardiovascular events. SHPT results in reduction of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the parathyroid glands during CKD. However, the precise mechanism of CaSR and VDR reduction is largely unknown. CKD was induced through two-step 5/6 nephrectomy, and then CKD rats and sham-operated rats were maintained for 8 weeks on diets containing 0.7 % phosphorus (normal phosphate) or 1.2 % phosphorus (high phosphate). In gene expression analysis, TaqMan probes were used for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, CaSR and VDR protein expressions were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. DNA methylation analysis was performed using a restriction digestion and quantitative PCR. CaSR and VDR mRNA were reduced only in CKD rats fed the high-phosphorus diets (CKD HP), then CaSR and VDR immunohistochemical expressions were compatible with gene expression assay. SHPT was then confirmed only in CKD HP rats. Furthermore, sole CKD HP rats showed the hypermethylation in CaSR and VDR genes; however, the percentage methylation of both genes was low. Although CaSR and VDR hypermethylation was demonstrated in PTGs of CKD HP rats, the extent of hypermethylation was insufficient to support the relevance between hypermethylation and down-regulation of gene expression because of the low percentage of methylation. Consequently, our data suggest that mechanisms, other than DNA hypermethylation, were responsible for the reduction in mRNA and protein levels of CaSR and VDR in PTGs of CKD HP rats.

  17. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication. (United States)

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa


    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  18. Mechanisms of Vanadium Recovery from Stone Coal by Novel BaCO3/CaO Composite Additive Roasting and Acid Leaching Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlei Cai


    Full Text Available In this report, the vanadium recovery mechanisms by novel BaCO3/CaO composite additive roasting and acid leaching technology, including the phase transformations and the vanadium leaching kinetics, were studied. The purpose of this manuscript is to realize and improve the vanadium recovery from stone coal using BaCO3/CaO as the composite additive. The results indicated that during the composite additive BaCO3/CaO roasting process, the monoclinic crystalline structure of muscovite (K(Al,V2[Si3AlO10](OH2 was converted into the hexagonal crystalline structure of BaSi4O9 and the tetragonal crystalline structure of Gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7, which could, therefore, facilitate the release and extraction of vanadium. Vanadium in leaching residue was probably in the form of vanadate or pyrovanadate of barium and calcium, which were hardly extracted during the sulfuric acid leaching process. The vanadium leaching kinetic analysis indicated that the leaching process was controlled by the diffusion through a product layer. The apparent activation energy could be achieved as 46.51 kJ/mol. The reaction order with respect to the sulfuric acid concentration was 1.1059. The kinetic model of vanadium recovery from stone coal using novel composite additive BaCO3/CaO could be finally established.

  19. Effect of Strong Basic Oxide (Li2O, Na2O, K2O and BaO) on Property of CaO-Based Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-rong


    It is found that strong basic oxides including Li2O, Na2O, K2O and BaO, which are used to replace a part of CaO in CaO-based fluxes, can lower the melting point and the viscosity and enhance the dephosphorizing ability. The mechanism was analysed and the addition of Li2O to CaO-based fluxes was recommended.

  20. Specific-heat of polycrystalline (Hg,Pb)Ba 2Ca 2C 3O 8+δ near T c (United States)

    Jeandupeux, O.; Schilling, A.; Büchi, S.; Guo, J. D.; Ott, H. R.


    We have measured the specific heat of polycrystalline (Hg,Pb)Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8+δ between 60 K and 200 K with a calorimeter based on the standard continuous-heating method. The occurence of an anomaly in Cp( T)/ T peaking at Tc for these samples clearly shows that superconductivity is a bulk phenomenon in this type of compound. After subtraction of a fitted background, we deduce a value of ΔCp/ Tc≈27 mJ/mole K 2 for a 15% Pb-doped sample containing ≈60% of Hg-1223. An as-prepared sample containing Hg 0.8Pb 0.2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8+δ as the dominant phase shows a distinct anomaly in the specific heat data at Tc=130 K and at Tc=115 K for a specimen cut from the same initial sample after oxygen annealing. The size and the shape of the specific heat anomalies are very similar, irrespective of the value of Tc and thus hole-dopping level.

  1. MB82- (M=Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,and Ba):Planar octacoordinate alkaline earth metal atoms enclosed by boron rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Complexes involving planar octacoordinate alkaline earth metal atoms in the centers of eight-membered boron rings have been investigated by two density functional theory (DFT) methods.BeB82-with D8h symmetry is predicted to be stable,both geometrically and electronically,since a good match is achieved between the size of the central beryllium atom and the eight-membered boron ring.By contrast,the other alkaline earth metal atoms cannot be stabilized in the center of a planar eight-membered boron ring because of their large radii.By following the out-of-plane imaginary vibrational frequency,pyramidal C8v MgB82-,CaB82-,SrB82-,and BaB82-structures are obtained.The presence of delocalized π and σ valence molecular orbitals in D8h BeB82-gives rise to aromaticity,which is reflected by the value of the nucleus-independent chemical shift.The D8h BeB82-structure is confirmed to be the global minimum on the potential energy surface.

  2. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Ca-substituted M-type SrLaCo hexagonal ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin; Liu, Xiansong, E-mail:; Yang, Yujie; Huang, Kai; Niu, Xiaofei; Jin, Dali; Gao, Shang; Ma, Yuqi; Huang, Feng; Lv, Farui; Feng, Shuangjiu


    M-type strontium hexaferrites with chemical composition of Sr{sub 0.80−x}Ca{sub x}La{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 11.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 19} (x=0−0.15) were prepared by the ceramic process. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1175, 1185 and 1195 °C for 2 h in air. Effects of the substituted amount x of Ca{sup 2+} on the ferrites microstructure and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and B–H hysteresis curve measurements. As a result, at x≤0.12, all samples are single phase after the Ca substitution. At x=0.15, another phase of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is present. In addition, the maximum values of the remanence (B{sub r}) and maximum energy product ((BH){sub max}) for the magnets have been obtained at x=0.08 for sintering temperature=1185 °C. The maximum value of the intrinsic coercive force (H{sub cj}) for the magnets has been obtained at x=0.12 when the magnets were sintered at 1185 °C. - Highlights: • For the chemical composition of Sr{sub 0.80−x}Ca{sub x}La{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 11.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 19} (x=0–0.15), the secondary phase (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) appears when x>0.12. • The Sr{sub 0.80−x}Ca{sub x}La{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 11.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 19} (x=0–0.15) ferrites obtained the favorable microstructure and magnetic properties when x=0.08. • A proper temperature (1185 °C) in the synthesis of Sr{sub 0.80−x}Ca{sub x}La{sub 0.20}Fe{sub 11.85}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 19} ferrites can obtain preferable magnetic properties.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The in-plane optical properties of two crystals of the bilayer cuprate La{sub 2-x}(Ca,Sr){sub x}Ca,Sr){sub x}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}}, one with excess Ca and x = 0.10 and the other with Sr and x = 0.15, were investigated over the frequency range of 45-25000 cm{sup -1}. A metallic response both in frequency and temperature was observed for Sr = 0.15 superconducting sample at low frequencies. Meanwhile, the sample also exhibits a prominent charge-transfer excitation at around 15000 cm{sup -1}. This observation, together with neutron experiments performed on the same sample showing diffuse, elastic antiferromagnetic scattering, indicate that the quasi-mobile carriers coexist at low temperature with static antiferromagnetic clusters. This coexistence indicates intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity.

  4. Electronic, optical properties and chemical bonding in six novel 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) from first principles calculations (United States)

    Bannikov, V. V.; Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.


    Employing first-principles band structure calculations, we have examined the electronic, optical properties and the peculiarities of the chemical bonding for six newly synthesized layered quaternary 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides SrAgSF, SrAgSeF, SrAgTeF, BaAgSF, BaAgSeF, and SrCuTeF, which are discussed in comparison with some isostructural 1111-like chalcogenide oxides. We found that all of the studied phases AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) are semiconductors for which the fitted “experimental” gaps lie in the interval from 2.23 eV (for SrAgSeF) to 3.07 eV (for SrCuTeF). The near-Fermi states of AMChF are formed exclusively by the valence orbitals of the atoms from the blocks (MCh); thus, these phases belong to the layered materials with “natural multiple quantum wells”. The bonding in these new AMChF phases is described as a high-anisotropic mixture of ionic and covalent contributions, where ionic M-Ch bonds together with covalent M-Ch and Ch-Ch bonds take place inside blocks (MCh), while inside blocks (AF) and between the adjacent blocks (MCh)/(AF) mainly ionic bonds emerge.

  5. Rapid stability of ferroelectric polarization in the Ca, Ce hybrid doped BaTiO3 ceramics (United States)

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Jiping; Shi, Xiujing; Zhao, Yingying; Zhang, Dawei


    In this work, we report a rapid stability phenomenon of ferroelectric polarization in the Ca, Ce hybrid doped BaTiO3 ceramics (BCaxT+BTCe8) (x = 10, 20, 24, 30 mol%) prepared by separate doping Ca2+ and Ce4+ ions. Double hysteresis loops are identified in the aged BCaxT+BTCe8 samples; meanwhile, the polarization of these loops present a rapid decrease within very short aging time (about 1 h), and then the polarization remains almost unchanged over the followed ~1000 h. This phenomenon is not reported in previous researches. Raman scattering spectrum indicates that oxygen vacancies are generated because of Ca2+ ions entering into Ti sites partly in the BCaxT+BTCe8 samples, and then the oxygen vacancies are quantitatively characterized by half of the Ce3+ content through the XPS test. The emergence of the aging phenomenon is explained through the defect dipole reorientation mechanism. The larger radius of Ca2+ ions is further discussed as a possible reason for the rapid stability phenomenon of ferroelectric polarization. It may provide an effective design method from the viewpoint of the ionic radius to accelerate polarization stability, and thus to facilitate the possible practical applications of the aging effect.

  6. Red, Green, and Blue Photoluminescence of Ba2SiO4:M (M = Eu3+, Eu2+, Sr2+ Nanophosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wickleder


    Full Text Available Divalent europium doped barium orthosilicate is a very important phosphor for the production of light emitting diodes (LEDs, generally associated to the green emission color of micron-sized crystals synthesized by means of solid-state reactions. This work presents the combustion synthesis as an energy and time-saving preparation method for very small nano-sized Ba2SiO4 particles, flexibly doped to acquire different emission energies. The size of the resulting spherical nanoparticles (NPs of the green emitting Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ was estimated to about 35 nm applying the Scherrer equation and further characterized with aid of atomic force microscopy (AFM as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM. This phosphor is able to build homogeneous luminescent suspensions and was successfully down-sized without changing the optical properties in comparison to the bulk phosphors. Besides the X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and the different types of microscopy, the samples were characterized by luminescence spectroscopy. Undoped Ba2SiO4 NPs are not luminescent, but show characteristic red emission of the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0–4 electronic transitions when doped with Eu3+ ions. Moreover, these orthosilicate nanoparticles generate blue light at low temperatures due to impurity-trapped excitons, introduced by the partial substitution of the Ba2+ with Sr2+ ions in the Ba2SiO4 lattice causing a substantial distortion. A model for the temperature behavior of the defect luminescence as well as for their nature is provided, based on temperature-dependent luminescence spectra and lifetime measurements.

  7. Preparation and characterization of Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.2) fibers by sol-gel process using catechol-complexed titanium isopropoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qifang; Chen Dairong; Jiao Xiuling


    Sol-gel synthesis of Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.2) ceramic fibers with a diameter of 6-10 {mu}m using catechol-complexed titanium isopropoxide, barium acetate hydrate and strontium acetate hydrate as precursors has been investigated. The green fibers and those sintered at different temperatures were characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. Microstructural development of barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) ceramic fibers as a function of strontium concentrations was studied. X-ray diffraction indicated that the well-developed cubic phase of (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3} was crystallized at 1100 deg. C.

  8. Enhancement of Sinter Densification of SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 Tungsten-Bronze Glass-Ceramics by Doping with P2O5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.C.Chen; Y.Zhang


    Densification behaviors of SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 based glass-ceramics prepared by conventional sintering were investigated with an emphasis on the influence of P2O5 content.Although P2O5 dopant did not modify the surface crystallization mechanism,it resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature,which facilitates the viscous glass flow necessary for sintering.However,premature crystallization of (Sr,Ba)Nb2O6 induced by addition of excess amount of P2O5 essentially retarded sintering due to the formation of closed pores in the matrix.The SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with 1.0 mol% P2O5 (SBN-1P) showed the best sinter densification,which was accomplished at about 850 ℃.

  9. Effect of elastic stress on the resistivity and Tc of (Bi,Pb) sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub n-1 Cu sub n O sub x. [BiPbSrCaCuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xinfen; Tessema, G.X.; Skove, M.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson Univ., SC (United States))


    We have measured the effect of elastic uniaxial stress {sigma} in the a direction on the superconducting transition temperature Tc of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Ca{sub 2}O{sub x} (2212) and (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223). We find dT/d{sigma}{sub 11}=-10{+-}2 K/GPa for 2212 and -6{+-}2K/GPa for the 2223 compound. Combining these results with those of others on dTc/dP we find that dTc/d{sigma}{sub 33}=+18K/GPa. An estimate of the elastic constants of these compounds from the work of others together with these results implies that the change in Tc with a fractional change in the c-axis spacing is probably positive, although the uncertainties in the elastic constants make this estimate subject to a large uncertainty. The resistance changes by less than 1 part in 12000 for strains up to 0.5%, implying that dln {rho}/d{sigma}{sub 11}=-76x10{sup -3} GPa{sup -1}. (orig.).

  10. Spin Gap in the Zigzag Spin-1/2 Chain Cuprate Sr0.9Ca0.1CuO2 (United States)

    Hammerath, F.; Nishimoto, S.; Grafe, H.-J.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Kataev, V.; Ribeiro, P.; Hess, C.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Büchner, B.


    We report a comparative study of Cu63 nuclear magnetic resonance spin lattice relaxation rates T1-1 on undoped SrCuO2 and Ca-doped Sr0.9Ca0.1CuO2 spin chain compounds. A temperature independent T1-1 is observed for SrCuO2 as expected for an S=1/2 Heisenberg chain. Surprisingly, we observe an exponential decrease of T1-1 for Texchange coupling as a possible cause of the spin gap.

  11. Influence of bismuth on properties and microstructures of Sr0.5Ba0.5–Bi TiO3 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tao Wenhong; Wang Yin; Fu Xinghua; Wei Qihong


    The influence of bismuth (Bi) on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Sr0.5Ba0.5–Bi TiO3 (BST, 0 < < 0.030 mol) thin films was studied. The results showed that the dielectric constant (r) and dielectric loss (tan ) decreased, and temperature, m, for maximum and r (Curie temperature), moved to lower temperature with increasing Bi content. The r, s and c were 0.22 C/cm2, 0.32 C/cm2 and 60 kV/cm, respectively for Sr0.5Ba0.485Bi0.015TiO3 thin films measured at 100 Hz, 20 V. The microstructure of BST thin films was studied by XRD and TEM. Tetragonal perovskite grains existed in BST thin films, but the grain size decreased with increasing doping ratio in BST. The characteristic absorption band for octahedron [TiO2] (471.65 cm-1) was shifted to lower wave number.

  12. On synthesis of BaFe12O19, SrFe12O19, and PbFe12O19 hexagonal ferrite ceramics with multiferroid properties (United States)

    Kostishin, V. G.; Panina, L. V.; Kozhitov, L. V.; Timofeev, A. V.; Zyuzin, A. K.; Kovalev, A. N.


    We analyze the possibility of obtaining M-type hexagonal ferrites of barium, strontium, and lead with multiferroid properties with the help of ceramic technology. Using the modified ceramic technology (especially pure initial raw materials, admixture of B2O3, and sintering in the oxygen atmosphere), we obtained for the first time the BaFe12O19 and SrFe12O19 samples with intense multiferroid properties at room temperature. At the same time, the employed technology does not make it possible to obtain PbFe12O19 samples exhibiting ferroelectricity. The multiferroid characteristics of experimental samples are compared with the characteristics of classical high-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 and with the characteristics of BaFe12O19, SrFe12O19, and PbFe12O19 ferrite ceramics obtained in accordance with polymer precursor technology. We propose a mechanism explaining multiferroid properties of the hexagonal ferrite ceramic samples and note the importance of our results for applications.

  13. Preparation of Ba0.09Sr0.91TiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-x bilayers and investigation of their dielectric properties (United States)

    Jia, Jiqiang; Zhao, Gaoyang; Shi, Xiaoxue; Lei, Li


    YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films of 110 nm thickness were prepared on LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates via the sol-gel method. Subsequently, about 400 nm thick Ba0.09Sr0.91TiO3 (BST) films were epitaxially grown on the YBCO and LNO films surface; the BST films exhibited a strong c-axis orientation. The dielectric adjustability and relative dielectric constant was investigated in the range of 300-83 K. Results indicate that the tunability of the Ba0.09Sr0.91TiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-x (BST/YBCO) displayed an increase relative to c-axis-oriented BST on LaNiO3 (LNO). The tunability was further enhanced as the operating temperature decreased, yet the loss tangent (tanδ) decreased. The tunability and the tanδ at 100 kHz and 83 K were 58% and 0.029, respectively.

  14. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and transport properties of (Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x})NbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Jaca, J.; Santos, J.; Insausti, M.; Arriortua, M.I.; Rojo, T. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)


    Oxides of the (Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x})NbO{sub 3} system (x = 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0) have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique with zirconium metal. The oxides with x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 present a simple cubic perovskite structure while a distorted perovskite is observed in the oxide with x = 0.4. Infrared spectra showed the presence of two absorption maxima in the case of the cubic perovskites and only one for the distorted perovskite. The observed vibration modes have been associated with stretching vibration modes of a [NbO{sub 6}] octahedral entity. The substitution of barium by strontium influences the transport properties specially in the case of the (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})NbO{sub 3} oxide.

  15. Thickness-dependent Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Kiselev


    Full Text Available The thickness dependent of electrical and piezoelectric properties of lead-free ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films is reported. Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 (BST 80/20 thin films for various thickness, ranging from 150 nm to 550 nm, were prepared by high-frequency reactive sputtering of a ceramic target in an oxygen atmosphere on p-type Si substrate. Memory windows and effective dielectric constant of the BST film in Au/BST/Si thin film capacitors is found to increase with the increasing thickness of the film. Domain structure, domain switching and hysteresis loops of the BST 80/20 thin film were investigate via the piezoresponse force microscopy. Complete domain switching and strong piezoresponse are found in the ferroelectric BST film. The piezoelectric coefficient ( and the remnant piezoelectric response (ΔPR of BST 80/20 films is found to increase with the thickness of the film.

  16. Effect of Na Content on the Physical Properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Tubchareon


    Full Text Available The different Na contents (0 ≤ Na ≤ 0.35, based on mole of NaOH of doped Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST powders synthesized via sol-gel process were studied. The substitution of Na+ ions into a partial A-site of BST powders provided the reduction in vacancy defects as confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR and UV-visible spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL spectra appeared in violet, blue, and green emissions. The phase structure, oxygen deficiency, and titanium deficiency of BST powders were further investigated as a function of Na content. X-ray diffraction (XRD result was found that low Na content (0 ≤ Na ≤ 0.15 exhibited the tetragonal structure, while it was transformed to the cubic phase when high Na content. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS result revealed that the partial oxidation of Ti3+ ions to Ti4+ ions was observed at Na content lower than 0.05 mole, while more addition of Na content resulted in the increasing of the oxygen and the titanium deficiency. Furthermore, the result indicated the oxygen deficiency significantly formed at the A-site of Sr atoms more than that of Ba atoms.

  17. Electrical Characteristics and Preparation of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 Films by Spray Pyrolysis and Rapid Thermal Annealing (United States)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Chen, Mi; Ku, Hong-Kou; Kawai, Tomoji


    Functional films of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 on Pt (1000 Å)/Ti (100 Å)/SiO2 (2000 Å)/Si substrates are prepared by spray pyrolysis and subsequently rapid thermal annealing. Barium nitrate, strontium nitrate and titanium isopropoxide are used as starting materials with ethylene glycol as solvent. For (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 functional thin film, thermal characteristics of the precursor powder scratched from as-sprayed films show a remarkable peak around 300-400 °C and 57.7% weight loss up to 1000 °C. The as-sprayed precursor film with coffee-like color and amorphous-like phase is transformed into the resultant film with white, crystalline perovskite phase and characteristic peaks (110) and (100). The resultant films show correspondent increases of dielectric constant, leakage current and dissipation factor with increasing annealing temperatures. The dielectric constant is 264 and tangent loss is 0.21 in the resultant films annealed at 750 °C for 5 min while leakage current density is 1.5× 10-6 A/cm2 in the film annealed at 550 °C for 5 min.

  18. Remarkable influence of heat treatment on the structural and superconducting properties of (Y1-x Prx )(BaSr)Cu3O6+z (United States)

    Bouallal, B.; Nafidi, A.; El Abidi, A.; El Kaaouachi, A.


    We report here on the preparation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Seebeck effect, AC magnetic susceptibility, resistivity measurements and effect of heat treatments in the high Tc superconductor (Y1-x Prx)(BaSr)Cu3O6+z . Each sample was subject to two types of heat treatment: oxygen annealing [O] and argon annealing followed by oxygen annealing [AO]. When x increase, the oxygen content (6+z) of the samples decrease slightly from 6.9 to 6.8 as determined by our iodometry measurements. The orthorhombicity = (b -a)/(b +a) decreases to zero at xt [O] = 0.6 and xt [AO] = 0.75. These indicate a structural phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal at xt. Whereas, Tc decrease to zero at xc [O] = 0.7 and xc [A,O] = 0.75. Therefore the [A,O] heat treatment increase xc. Note that decrease with Tc as foreseen. However, for a given x the [AO] heat treatment makes increase (Tc). Independently of heat treatment, a increase with x, whereas b decreased to its minimum at xt. For a given x Prx on the (Sr,Ba) site along c axis, chain oxygen ordering on (O4,O5) sites; increase in p and in-phase purity for the [AO] samples may qualitatively account for the observed data.

  19. 用激光诱导击穿光谱技术定量分析土壤中Ba和Sr%Quantitative Analysis of Ba and Sr in Soil Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈添兵; 姚明印; 刘木华; 雷泽剑; 彭秋梅; 徐媛; 张旭


    利用激光诱导击穿光谱(laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,LIBS)技术检测土壤标准样品中Ba和Sr的含量,用光纤光谱仪探测等离子体冷却过程中的发射谱线,选取BaⅡ455.41 nm和SrⅠ460.73 nm特征谱线为分析线.为了减小误差,采用Lorenizian函数进行光谱轮廓曲线拟合对数据预处理,提取光谱净强度值.选择多元素谱线强度和作为内标,根据分析线与内标线强度值之比建立定标曲线,Ba和Sr含量与其强度比的线性系数分别达到0.9900和0.9906,采用这种强度比定标法对Ba和Sr的含量进行反演,测定Ba和Sr含量值与标准值的相对偏差分别为5.7%和5.1%.%Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to measure barium and strontium elements in soil The emission spectrum was emitted as the plasma was cooling off, which was collected and analyzed by fiber spectrometer. Spectral lines of barium(BaII line at 455.41 nm) and strontium(Srl line at 460. 73 ran) were separately used for the determining. In order to reduce the error, fitting of the spectra by using Lorcnizian function was used, the datum was preprocessed and the net intensity value of the spectra was collected. A signal intensity in the proper range of the characteristic spectrum was chosen as the interior label. A calibration curve was drawn according to the ratio between the value of the analytical line and the interior scaling line. The correlation coefficient between the content and the intensity ratio of Ba and Sr were up to 0.990 0 and 0.990 6. The content of Ba and Sr was inversed by means of the intensity scaling method . As a result, the relative deviations between the content values and the standard values of Ba and Sr were 5. 7% and 5.1% respectively.

  20. Defect-induced wetting on BaF 2(111) and CaF 2(111) at ambient conditions (United States)

    Cardellach, M.; Verdaguer, A.; Fraxedas, J.


    The interaction of water with freshly cleaved (111) surfaces of isostructural BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals at ambient conditions (room temperature and under controlled humidity) has been studied using scanning force microscopy in different operation modes and optical microscopy. Such surfaces exhibit contrasting behaviors for both materials: while on BaF2(111) two-dimensional water layers are formed after accumulation at step edges, CaF2(111) does not promote the formation of such layers. We attribute such opposed behavior to lattice match (mismatch) between hexagonal water ice and the hexagonal (111) surfaces of BaF2(CaF2). Optical microscope images reveal that this behavior also determines the way the surfaces become wetted at a macroscopic level.

  1. Magnetic and electronic transitions in charge-ordered Nd 0.50Ca 0.47Ba 0.03MnO 3 manganite (United States)

    Mavani, K. R.; Paulose, P. L.

    The ABO 3 type charge-ordered antiferromagnetic Nd 0.50Ca 0.50MnO 3 (NCMO) manganite is doped at A-site by 3%of Ba 2+ for Ca 2+. The resulting system, Nd 0.50Ca 0.47Ba 0.03MnO 3 (NCBMO), is studied for the effects of Ba doping on the magnetic and electronic properties. On application of magnetic field to NCBMO, strongly correlated successive sharp metamagnetic and electronic transitions are observed from antiferromagnetic-insulating to ferromagnetic-metallic state at 2.5 K. The critical magnetic field ( Hc) required for metamagnetism is found to reduce drastically from 15 T for undoped NCMO to 3 T for NCBMO. On increasing the temperature, the Hc of NCBMO passes through a minimum. This behavior of Hc of NCBMO contrasts to that of NCMO. The results are discussed in context of A-site cation disorder and size.

  2. Swelling Studies and in vitro Release of Acemetacin and BSA from Alginate Gel Beads Crosslinked with Ca2+ or Ba2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Pei; JIA Yuntao; ZHANG Liangke; ZHANG Jingqing; HU Wenjing; WANG Chengyuan


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the swelling behavior and the in vitro release of acemetacin and bovine serum albumin from alginate gel beads crosslinked with Ca2+ or Ba2+.The release profiles suggested that the extent of swelling of the alginate beads played an important role in the release of drug.Small drugs are mainly released via diffusion through the alginate gel matrix.Compared with small drugs,large molecule drugs are difficult to diffuse through the pores of the matrix bead until the beads swell to a certain extent to provide enough large pores.The Ba2+ crosslinked alginate beads showed slower release rate compared with the Ca2+ crosslinked alginate beads,whether loaded the large molecules or small drugs.In conclusion,the Ba2+ crosslinked alginate beads are considered more suitable than Ca2+ crosslinked alginate beads for using as a sustained release vehicle especially for large molecule drugs.

  3. High-T(c) Superconductivity at the Interface between the CaCuO2 and SrTiO3 Insulating Oxides. (United States)

    Di Castro, D; Cantoni, C; Ridolfi, F; Aruta, C; Tebano, A; Yang, N; Balestrino, G


    At interfaces between complex oxides it is possible to generate electronic systems with unusual electronic properties, which are not present in the isolated oxides. One important example is the appearance of superconductivity at the interface between insulating oxides, although, until now, with very low T(c). We report the occurrence of high T(c) superconductivity in the bilayer CaCuO(2)/SrTiO(3), where both the constituent oxides are insulating. In order to obtain a superconducting state, the CaCuO(2)/SrTiO(3) interface must be realized between the Ca plane of CaCuO(2) and the TiO(2) plane of SrTiO(3). Only in this case can oxygen ions be incorporated in the interface Ca plane, acting as apical oxygen for Cu and providing holes to the CuO(2) planes. A detailed hole doping spatial profile can be obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy at the O K edge, clearly showing that the (super)conductivity is confined to about 1-2 CaCuO(2) unit cells close to the interface with SrTiO(3). The results obtained for the CaCuO(2)/SrTiO(3) interface can be extended to multilayered high T(c) cuprates, contributing to explaining the dependence of T(c) on the number of CuO(2) planes in these systems.

  4. Ethylene production by ODHE in catalytically modified Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) membrane reactors. (United States)

    Lobera, M Pilar; Escolástico, Sonia; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Serra, José M


    Process intensification by the integration of membranes and high-temperature reactors offers several advantages with regard to conventional process schemes, that is, energy saving, safe operation, reduced plant/unit size, and higher process performance, for example, higher productivity, catalytic activity, selectivity, or stability. We present the study of oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 °C on a catalytic membrane reactor based on a mixed ionic-electronic conducting membrane. The surface of the membrane made of Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ) has been activated by using different porous catalytic layers based on perovskites. The layer was deposited by screen printing, and the porosity and thickness was studied for the catalyst composition. The different catalyst formulations are based on partial substitution of A- and B-site atoms of doped strontium ferrite/cobaltites (A(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(3-δ) and Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)BO(3-δ)) and were synthesized by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-citrate complexation route. The use of a disk-shaped membrane in the reactor enabled the direct contact of gaseous oxygen and hydrocarbons to be avoided, and thus, the ethylene content increased. High ethylene yields (up to ≈81 %) were obtained by using a catalytic coating based on Ba(0.5)Sr(0.5)Co(0.8)Fe(0.2)O(3-δ), which included macropores produced by the addition of graphite platelets into the screen-printing ink. The promising catalytic results obtained with this catalytically modified membrane reactor are attributed to the combination of 1) the high activity, as a result of the high temperature and oxygen species diffusing through the membrane; 2) the control of oxygen dosing and the low concentration of molecules in the gas phase; and 3) suitable fluid dynamics, which enables appropriate feed contact with the membrane and the rapid removal of products.

  5. Texture analysis of monofilamentary, Ag-sheathed (Pb,Bi) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tapes by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) (United States)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Qu, T.; Han, Z.; Mücklich, F.


    Using automated orientation imaging, the grain orientations and texture of monofilamentary, Ag-sheathed (Pb,Bi) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (Bi-2223) tape is analysed in detail by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The achieved high image quality of the Kikuchi patterns enables multi-phase scans including Bi-2223, Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x, Bi 2Sr 2CuO x, (Sr,Ca) 14Cu 24O 41 and Ag to be performed. Two areas are selected for the EBSD analysis, one close to the silver sheath, the other located in the center of the sample. The grain orientation maps are presented for each phase separately allowing a new insight into the microtexture of Ag-sheathed Bi-2223 tapes. Furthermore, the EBSD analysis provides the possibility for a misorientation angle analysis within each individual phase.

  6. Structural and Magnetic Phase Coexistence in Oxygen Deficient Perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO 2 . 5 + δ (United States)

    Carlo, J. P.; Evans, M. E.; Anczarski, J. A.; Ock, J.; Boyd, K.; Pollichemi, J. R.; Leahy, I. A.; Vogel, W.; Viescas, A. J.; Papaefthymiou, G. C.

    A variety of compounds crystallize into perovskite and similar structures, making them versatile laboratories for many phenomena and applications, including multiferroicity, superconductivity, and photovoltaics. Oxygen-deficient perovskites ABOx have attracted interest for use in fuel cells and related applications due to high oxygen mobility and the possibility of charge disproportionation. Vast chemical flexibility is obtained through reductions in lattice symmetry and rotation/distortion of the BO6 octahedra, as well as ordering of oxygen vacancies. We have synthesized and studied the structural and magnetic properties of oxygen-deficient perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO2 . 5 + δ using x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. While the ideal perovskite has δ = 0.5, this requires Fe4+, and hence strongly oxidizing environments. When grown in air, Fe3+ is favored, yielding δ ~ 0. SrFeO2 . 5 + δ exhibits cubic symmetry and paramagnetism at 300K, but CaFeO2 . 5 + δ crystallizes into the orthorhombic brownmillerite structure, and is magnetically ordered at 300K. In the doped intermediaries we find coexistence of cubic/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/magnetic phases over a wide range of Ca content. Financial support from the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellowship program and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  7. VUV Luminescent Properties of M2SiO4:Re M2SiO4:Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba;Re=Ce3+,Tb3+)%M2SiO4:Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba;Re=Ce3+,Tb3+)的发光性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何大伟; 刘红利; 卢鹏志; 李鑫


    合成了系列M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re= Ce3+,Tb3+)样品,研究了样品在真空紫外区域的激发光谱和发射光谱.从激发谱可以看出:M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re= Ce3+,Tb3+)在147,172 nm有很强的吸收带.用Mg,Ca完全取代Ba2SiO4∶Tb3+中的Ba ,相对应的晶体的晶格参数逐渐增大,晶场的能量逐渐减少,其激发光谱随着碱土离子半径的增加向长波方向移动.在172 nm真空紫外光激发下,观察到M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re=Tb3+和M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re= Ce3+,Tb3+)特征发射;在真空紫外激发下,随着M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re= Ce3+,Tb3+)中Ce3+含量的增加,M2SiO4∶Re的特征发射明显减弱,并分析讨论了相关发光现象的成因.%A series of phosphor of M2SiO4∶Re(M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re= Ce3+,Tb3+) were synthesized and studied. The excitation spectra measurement showed that M2SiO4(M=Mg,Ca,Ba) had high energy absorption in the excitation spectra centered at 147 nm and 172 nm. The excitation spectra of M2SiO4∶Tb3+ (M=Mg,Ca,Ba) consist of two broad bands: one is in the range from 130 to 200 nm and the other is from 200 to 250 nm. The former is assigned to the host absorption, the latter is attributed to the absorption of the Tb3+. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that M2SiO4∶Re (M=Mg,Ca,Ba; Re=Ce3+,Tb3+) phosphor exhibits green emission under VUV excitation. However as Ce3+ doped in the samples, the absorption band decreases evidently in VUV.

  8. Commensurate and Incommensurate Phases in the System A4A'Ir 2O 9( A=Sr, Ba; A'=Cu, Zn) (United States)

    Battle, Peter D.; Blake, Graeme R.; Sloan, Jeremy; Vente, Jaap F.


    The crystal structure of Sr 4CuIr 2O 9is very sensitive to the conditions of synthesis. Prolonged heating of a commensurate trigonal sample prepared at 1120°C leads to the adoption of an incommensurate structure which can be regarded as a composite of two substructures having common unit cell parameters aand bbut different parameters c1and c2. No detectable change in chemical composition accompanies the structural transition, nor do the magnetic properties of the sample change significantly. The structure of the commensurate form has been determined from neutron powder diffraction data collected at 4.5 K (space group P321, a=9.68540(3) Å, c=8.04726(6) Å). Ir 2O 9octahedral dimers and CuO 6trigonal prisms alternate in chains parallel to z, with the Sr cations located between the chains; the Cu 2+cations are disordered within the prisms. The incommensurate form has been studied by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy ( a=9.7020(6) Å, c1=4.0069(5) Å, c2=2.6993(4) Å). The relationship between the commensurate and incommensurate unit cells is discussed ( c˜2 c1˜3 c2). No commensurate Ba 4A'Ir 2O 9phases could be prepared, but incommensurate samples having A'=Cu, Zn showed behavior similar to that of Sr 4CuIr 2O 9.

  9. Crystal and Magnetic Structures of the Oxide Sulfides CaCoSO and BaCoSO. (United States)

    Salter, Edward J T; Blandy, Jack N; Clarke, Simon J


    CaCoSO, synthesized from CaO, Co, and S at 900 °C, is isostructural with CaZnSO and CaFeSO. The structure is non-centrosymmetric by virtue of the arrangement of the vertex-sharing CoS3O tetrahedra which are linked by their sulfide vertices to form layers. The crystal structure adopts space group P63mc (No. 186), and the lattice parameters are a = 3.7524(9) Å and c = 11.138(3) Å at room temperature with two formula units in the unit cell. The compound is highly insulating, and powder neutron diffraction measurements reveal long-range antiferromagnetic order with a propagation vector k = (1/3, 1/3, 1/2). The magnetic scattering from a powder sample can be modeled starting from a 120° arrangement of Co(2+) spin vectors in the triangular planes and then applying a canting out of the planes which can be modeled in the magnetic space group C(c)c (space group 9.40 in the Belov, Neronova, and Smirnova (BNS) scheme) with Co(2+) moments of 2.72(5) μ(B). The antiferromagnetic structure of the recently reported compound BaCoSO, which has a very different crystal structure from CaCoSO, is also described, and this magnetic structure and the magnitude of the ordered moment (2.75(2) μ(B)) are found by experiment to be similar to those predicted computationally.

  10. Optical spectroscopy study of charge density wave order in Sr3Rh4Sn13 and (Sr0.5Ca0.5)3Rh4Sn13 (United States)

    Ban, W. J.; Wang, H. P.; Tseng, C. W.; Kuo, C. N.; Lue, C. S.; Wang, N. L.


    We perform optical spectroscopy measurement on single-crystal samples of Sr3Rh4Sn13 and (Sr0.5Ca0.5)3Rh4Sn13. Formation of CDW energy gap was clearly observed for both single-crystal samples when they undergo the phase transitions. The existence of residual Drude components in σ 1( ω) below T CDW indicates that the Fermi surface is only partially gapped in the CDW state. The obtained value of 2Δ/ k B T CDW is roughly 13 for both Sr3Rh4Sn13 and (Sr0.5Ca0.5)3Rh4Sn13 compounds, which is considerably larger than the mean-field value based on the weak-coupling BCS theory. The measurements provide optical evidence for the strong coupling characteristics of the CDW phase transition.