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Sample records for ca influx arising

  1. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx arising from compartmentalized electrical signals in dendritic spines.

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    Brenda L Bloodgood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory synapses on mammalian principal neurons are typically formed onto dendritic spines, which consist of a bulbous head separated from the parent dendrite by a thin neck. Although activation of voltage-gated channels in the spine and stimulus-evoked constriction of the spine neck can influence synaptic signals, the contribution of electrical filtering by the spine neck to basal synaptic transmission is largely unknown. Here we use spine and dendrite calcium (Ca imaging combined with 2-photon laser photolysis of caged glutamate to assess the impact of electrical filtering imposed by the spine morphology on synaptic Ca transients. We find that in apical spines of CA1 hippocampal neurons, the spine neck creates a barrier to the propagation of current, which causes a voltage drop and results in spatially inhomogeneous activation of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs on a micron length scale. Furthermore, AMPA and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively that are colocalized on individual spine heads interact to produce two kinetically and mechanistically distinct phases of synaptically evoked Ca influx. Rapid depolarization of the spine triggers a brief and large Ca current whose amplitude is regulated in a graded manner by the number of open AMPARs and whose duration is terminated by the opening of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK channels. A slower phase of Ca influx is independent of AMPAR opening and is determined by the number of open NMDARs and the post-stimulus potential in the spine. Biphasic synaptic Ca influx only occurs when AMPARs and NMDARs are coactive within an individual spine. These results demonstrate that the morphology of dendritic spines endows associated synapses with specialized modes of signaling and permits the graded and independent control of multiple phases of synaptic Ca influx.

  2. Ketamine inhibits 45Ca influx and catecholamine secretion by inhibiting 22Na influx in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takara, Hiroshi; Wada, Akihiko; Arita, Masahide; Izumi, Futoshi; Sumikawa, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic, on 22 Na influx, 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion were investigated in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Ketamine inhibited carbachol-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner with a similar potency. Ketamine also reduced veratridine-induced 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. The influx of 22 Na caused by carbachol or by veratridine was suppressed by ketamine with a concentration-inhibition curve similar to that of 45 Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. Inhibition by ketamine of the carbachol-induced influx of 22 Na, 45 Ca and secretion of catecholamines was not reversed by the increased concentrations of carbachol. These observations indicate that ketamine, at clinical concentrations, can inhibit nicotinic receptor-associated ionic channels and that the inhibition of Na influx via the receptor-associated ionic channels is responsible for the inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca influx and catecholamine secretion. (Auth.)

  3. Maintained LTP and Memory Are Lost by Zn2+ Influx into Dentate Granule Cells, but Not Ca2+ Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Hisatsune, Marie; Murakami, Taku; Nakada, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    The idea that maintained LTP and memory are lost by either increase in intracellular Zn 2+ in dentate granule cells or increase in intracellular Ca 2+ was examined to clarify significance of the increases induced by excess synapse excitation. Both maintained LTP and space memory were impaired by injection of high K + into the dentate gyrus, but rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, which blocked high K + -induced increase in intracellular Zn 2+ but not high K + -induced increase in intracellular Ca 2+ . High K + -induced disturbances of LTP and intracellular Zn 2+ are rescued by co-injection of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxakine-2,3-dione, an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, but not by co-injection of blockers of NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors, and voltage-dependent calcium channels. Furthermore, AMPA impaired maintained LTP and the impairment was also rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, which blocked increase in intracellular Zn 2+ , but not increase in intracellular Ca 2+ . NMDA and glucocorticoid, which induced Zn 2+ release from the internal stores, did not impair maintained LTP. The present study indicates that increase in Zn 2+ influx into dentate granule cells through AMPA receptors loses maintained LTP and memory. Regulation of Zn 2+ influx into dentate granule cells is more critical for not only memory acquisition but also memory retention than that of Ca 2+ influx.

  4. A Ca2+ influx associated with exocytosis is specifically abolished in a Paramecium exocytotic mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerboeuf, D.; Cohen, J.

    1990-01-01

    A Paramecium possesses secretory organelles called trichocysts which are docked beneath the plasma membrane awaiting an external stimulus that triggers their exocytosis. Membrane fusion is the sole event provoked by the stimulation and can therefore be studied per se. Using 3 microM aminoethyl dextran as a vital secretagogue, we analyzed the movements of calcium (Ca 2+ ) during the discharge of trichocysts. We showed that (a) external Ca 2+ , at least at 3 X 10(-7) M, is necessary for AED to induce exocytosis; (b) a dramatic and transient influx of Ca 2+ as measured from 45 Ca uptake is induced by AED; (c) this influx is independent of the well-characterized voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels of the ciliary membranes since it persists in a mutant devoid of these channels; and (d) this influx is specifically abolished in one of the mutants unable to undergo exocytosis, nd12. We propose that the Ca 2+ influx induced by AED reflects an increase in membrane permeability through the opening of novel Ca 2+ channel or the activation of other Ca 2+ transport mechanism in the plasma membrane. The resulting rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration would in turn induce membrane fusion. The mutation nd12 would affect a gene product involved in the control of plasma membrane permeability to Ca 2+ , specifically related to membrane fusion

  5. Ca(2+) influx and neurotransmitter release at ribbon synapses.

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    Cho, Soyoun; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels triggers the release of neurotransmitters at presynaptic terminals. Some sensory receptor cells in the peripheral auditory and visual systems have specialized synapses that express an electron-dense organelle called a synaptic ribbon. Like conventional synapses, ribbon synapses exhibit SNARE-mediated exocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and short-term plasticity. However, unlike non-ribbon synapses, voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel opening at ribbon synapses triggers a form of multiquantal release that can be highly synchronous. Furthermore, ribbon synapses appear to be specialized for fast and high throughput exocytosis controlled by graded membrane potential changes. Here we will discuss some of the basic aspects of synaptic transmission at different types of ribbon synapses, and we will emphasize recent evidence that auditory and retinal ribbon synapses have marked differences. This will lead us to suggest that ribbon synapses are specialized for particular operating ranges and frequencies of stimulation. We propose that different types of ribbon synapses transfer diverse rates of sensory information by expressing a particular repertoire of critical components, and by placing them at precise and strategic locations, so that a continuous supply of primed vesicles and Ca(2+) influx leads to fast, accurate, and ongoing exocytosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ca2+ influx and efflux in animal cells in the presence of panax notoginseng extracts: investigated by using 45Ca as a radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Xu Falun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of extracts of Panax notoginseng on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in isolated rat visceral organs was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer. The results indicated that both extracts, the total flavonoids and total saponins of Panax notoginseng had significant influence on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in the isolated rat aorta, heart, and kidney, in those organs it could markedly block 45 Ca entering into cell and could facilitate efflux of intracellular Ca 2+ . Compared with the total flavonoids, total saponins had stronger role in the regulation of Ca 2+ influx and efflux. Also, regulation effects of Ca 2+ influx and efflux of the total saponins were compared with positive drug Verapamil, or even better. This implies that the total flavonoids and total saponins of Panax notoginseng have calcium antagonistic effect, and both may be the active ingredients in Panax notoginseng for coronary heart disease treatment. (authors)

  7. Inhibiting the Ca2+ Influx Induced by Human CSF

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    Anna Drews

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD is to use antibodies that bind to small soluble protein aggregates to reduce their toxic effects. However, these therapies are rarely tested in human CSF before clinical trials because of the lack of sensitive methods that enable the measurement of aggregate-induced toxicity at low concentrations. We have developed highly sensitive single vesicle and single-cell-based assays that detect the Ca2+ influx caused by the CSF of individuals affected with AD and healthy controls, and we have found comparable effects for both types of samples. We also show that an extracellular chaperone clusterin; a nanobody specific to the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ; and bapineuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody raised against Aβ, could all reduce the Ca2+ influx caused by synthetic Aβ oligomers but are less effective in CSF. These assays could be used to characterize potential therapeutic agents in CSF before clinical trials.

  8. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naohiko; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Takahara, Norihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca 2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca 2+ elevation is mainly via Ca 2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca 2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca 2+ ] i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i . The stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was attenuated in Ca 2+ -free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd 3+ , ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca 2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  9. Influence of a chinese crude drug on Ca2+ influx and efflux in rat visceral organs:Investigation and evaluation by 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Zhengji; Xie Jianping; Liao Jiali; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    The influences of a Chinese crude drug, Herba Epimedii (HE), on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in the isolated rat aorta and some visceral organs were evaluated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer. Additionally, its protective effect on myocardial ischemia was investigated in live animals. The results indicated that HE has significant influence on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in the isolated rat aorta, heart, and kidney, in that it can markedly block 45 Ca entering into cell and can facilitate efflux of intracellular Ca 2+ . However, among the three kinds of extracts from HE, the alkali extracts have the most obvious effect on calcium channels in visceral organs. Even if the alkali extracts are diluted by water for 10 times, the material still has a rather strong inhibition effect on calcium channels. Fortunately, the three kinds of extracts have favorable protective effect on myocardial ischemia induced by drugs or by the ligation of the coronary artery. This is consistent with the results about the Ca 2+ influx and efflux obtained by isotope tracer technique, and implies that the Chinese crude drug has attractive potential for the treatment of heart, cerebrovascular and other diseases

  10. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

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    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  11. Ca2+ influx insensitive to organic Ca2+ entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M. A.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+ to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 X 10(-5) mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+ release, we assumed that a Ca2+ influx component

  12. Ca2+influx insensitive to organic Ca2+entry blockers contributes to noradrenaline-induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, M.A.M.; Wilffert, B.; Wermelskirchen, D.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    We determined the contribution of intracellular Ca2+to the noradrenaline (NA, 3 x 10-5mmol/l)-induced contraction of the isolated guinea pig aorta. Since only about 55% of the NA-induced contraction could be attributed to intracellular Ca2+release, we assumed that a Ca2+influx component contributes

  13. Chronic Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels enhance delayed rectifier K+ currents via activating Src family tyrosine kinase in rat hippocampal neurons.

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    Yang, Yoon-Sil; Jeon, Sang-Chan; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Eun, Su-Yong; Jung, Sung-Cherl

    2017-03-01

    Excessive influx and the subsequent rapid cytosolic elevation of Ca 2+ in neurons is the major cause to induce hyperexcitability and irreversible cell damage although it is an essential ion for cellular signalings. Therefore, most neurons exhibit several cellular mechanisms to homeostatically regulate cytosolic Ca 2+ level in normal as well as pathological conditions. Delayed rectifier K + channels (I DR channels) play a role to suppress membrane excitability by inducing K + outflow in various conditions, indicating their potential role in preventing pathogenic conditions and cell damage under Ca 2+ -mediated excitotoxic conditions. In the present study, we electrophysiologically evaluated the response of I DR channels to hyperexcitable conditions induced by high Ca 2+ pretreatment (3.6 mM, for 24 hours) in cultured hippocampal neurons. In results, high Ca 2+ -treatment significantly increased the amplitude of I DR without changes of gating kinetics. Nimodipine but not APV blocked Ca 2+ -induced I DR enhancement, confirming that the change of I DR might be targeted by Ca 2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VDCCs) rather than NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The VDCC-mediated I DR enhancement was not affected by either Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release (CICR) or small conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels (SK channels). Furthermore, PP2 but not H89 completely abolished I DR enhancement under high Ca 2+ condition, indicating that the activation of Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) is required for Ca 2+ -mediated I DR enhancement. Thus, SFKs may be sensitive to excessive Ca 2+ influx through VDCCs and enhance I DR to activate a neuroprotective mechanism against Ca 2+ -mediated hyperexcitability in neurons.

  14. High Ca2+ Influx During Traumatic Brain Injury Leads to Caspase-1-Dependent Neuroinflammation and Cell Death.

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    Abdul-Muneer, P M; Long, Mathew; Conte, Adriano Andrea; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Pfister, Bryan J

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that high Ca 2+ influx during traumatic brain injury induces the activation of the caspase-1 enzyme, which triggers neuroinflammation and cell apoptosis in a cell culture model of neuronal stretch injury and an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We first established that stretch injury causes a rapid increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level, which activates interleukin-converting enzyme caspase-1. The increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level and subsequent caspase-1 activation culminates into neuroinflammation via the maturation of IL-1β. Further, we analyzed caspase-1-mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP western blotting. The voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, mitigated the stretch injury-induced neuroinflammation and subsequent apoptosis by blocking Ca 2+ influx during the injury. The effect of tetrodotoxin was similar to the caspase-1 inhibitor, zYVAD-fmk, in neuronal culture. To validate the in vitro results, we demonstrated an increase in caspase-1 activity, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in fluid percussion-injured animals. Our data suggest that neuronal injury/traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce a high influx of Ca 2+ to the cells that cause neuroinflammation and cell death by activating caspase-1, IL-1β, and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We conclude that excess IL-1β production and cell death may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment associated with TBI.

  15. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    A number of agonists increase intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i, in pancreatic ducts, but the influx/efflux pathways and intracellular Ca2+ stores in this epithelium are unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterise the Ca2+ influx pathways, especially their pH sensitivity, in nati...

  16. Reverse mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange mediated by STIM1 contributes to Ca2+ influx in airway smooth muscle following agonist stimulation

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    Fox Jane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agonist stimulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM results in IP3 mediated Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum followed by the activation of store operated and receptor operated non-selective cation channels. Activation of these non-selective channels also results in a Na+ influx. This localised increase in Na+ levels can potentially switch the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger into reverse mode and so result in a further influx of Ca2+. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression and physiological function of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells and determine its contribution to agonist induced Ca2+ influx into these cells. Methods The expression profile of NCX (which encodes the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger homologues in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR. The functional activity of reverse mode NCX was investigated using a combination of whole cell patch clamp, intracellular Ca2+ measurements and porcine airway contractile analyses. KB-R7943 (an antagonist for reverse mode NCX and target specific siRNA were utilised as tools to inhibit NCX function. Results NCX1 protein was detected in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMC cells and NCX1.3 was the only mRNA transcript variant detected. A combination of intracellular Na+ loading and addition of extracellular Ca2+ induced an outwardly rectifying current which was augmented following stimulation with histamine. This outwardly rectifying current was inhibited by 10 μM KB-R7943 (an antagonist of reverse mode NCX1 and was reduced in cells incubated with siRNA against NCX1. Interestingly, this outwardly rectifying current was also inhibited following knockdown of STIM1, suggesting for the first time a link between store operated cation entry and NCX1 activation. In addition, 10 μM KB-R7943 inhibited agonist induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+ and induced relaxation of porcine

  17. Effect of selective blockade of oxygen consumption, glucose transport, and Ca2+ influx on thyroxine action in human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    The effect of selective blockade of cellular glucose transporters, Ca2+ influx, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption on thyroxine (T4)-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake was examined in human mononuclear blood cells. Blockade of glucose transporters by cytochalasin B (1 x 10(-5) mol....../L) and of Ca2+ influx by alprenolol (1 x 10(-5) mol/L) and verapamil (4 x 10(-4) mol/L) inhibited T4-activated glucose uptaken and reduced T4-stimulated oxygen consumption by 20%. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxygen consumption by azide (1 x 10(-3) mol/L) inhibited T4-stimulated oxygen consumption, but had...... no effect on glucose uptake. We conclude that T4-stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells is dependent on intact glucose transporters and Ca2+ influx, but not on mitochondrial oxygen consumption. However, oxygen consumption is, in part, dependent on intact glucose uptake....

  18. Heterogeneous Cytoskeletal Force Distribution Delineates the Onset Ca2+ Influx Under Fluid Shear Stress in Astrocytes

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    Mohammad M. Maneshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations increase intracellular Ca2+ in cells, but the coupling of mechanical forces to the Ca2+ influx is not well understood. We used a microfluidic chamber driven with a high-speed pressure servo to generate defined fluid shear stress to cultured astrocytes, and simultaneously measured cytoskeletal forces using a force sensitive actinin optical sensor and intracellular Ca2+. Fluid shear generated non-uniform forces in actinin that critically depended on the stimulus rise time emphasizing the presence of viscoelasticity in the activating sequence. A short (ms shear pulse with fast rise time (2 ms produced an immediate increase in actinin tension at the upstream end of the cell with minimal changes at the downstream end. The onset of Ca2+ rise began at highly strained areas. In contrast to stimulus steps, slow ramp stimuli produced uniform forces throughout the cells and only a small Ca2+ response. The heterogeneity of force distribution is exaggerated in cells having fewer stress fibers and lower pre-tension in actinin. Disruption of cytoskeleton with cytochalasin-D (Cyt-D eliminated force gradients, and in those cells Ca2+ elevation started from the soma. Thus, Ca2+ influx with a mechanical stimulus depends on local stress within the cell and that is time dependent due to viscoelastic mechanics.

  19. Influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into the hippocampal CA1 neurons is required for cognitive performance via long-term potentiation.

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    Takeda, A; Suzuki, M; Tempaku, M; Ohashi, K; Tamano, H

    2015-09-24

    Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined in the CA1 of young rats. In vivo CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. In vivo CA1 LTP was inhibited under perfusion with CaEDTA and ZnAF-2DA, extracellular and intracellular Zn(2+) chelators, respectively, suggesting that the influx of extracellular Zn(2+) is required for in vivo CA1 LTP induction. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) was chelated with intracellular ZnAF-2 in the CA1 1h after local injection of ZnAF-2DA into the CA1, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling induced during learning is blocked with intracellular ZnAF-2 when the learning was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. Object recognition was affected when training of object recognition test was performed 1h after ZnAF-2DA injection. These data suggest that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the CA1 is required for object recognition memory via LTP. Surprisingly, in vivo CA1 LTP was affected under perfusion with 0.1-1μM ZnCl2, unlike the previous data that in vitro CA1 LTP was enhanced in the presence of 1-5μM ZnCl2. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells has bidirectional action in CA1 LTP. The present study indicates that the degree of extracellular Zn(2+) influx into CA1 neurons is critical for LTP and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of calcium influx in tethered rings of rabbit aorta under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, M.M.; Ratz, P.H.; Flaim, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) influx in vascular smooth muscle is routinely measured in untethered preparations not under passive stretch, and Ca influx data are correlated with data for steady-state isometric tension obtained under parallel conditions from tethered preparations under passive stretch. The validity of this method was tested by simultaneous measurement of Ca influx and tension in tethered rings of rabbit thoracic aorta. Ca influx ( 45 Ca 3-min pulse) and tension were measured at 3 and 30 min after norepinephrine (NE) or KCl and under control (no agonist) conditions. Active tension was significantly altered by variations in passive tension. Ca influx was unaffected by passive tension under control, NE, or KCl conditions, and results were similar at 3 and 30 min. The results confirm the validity of correlating Ca influx data from untethered rings with steady-state contractile response data obtained from tethered rings under similar experimental conditions

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases intracellular [Ca2+] in U87 cells mainly by influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by release of intracellular stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Yum, Keun Sang; Sung, Jong-Ho; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Kim, Myung-Jun; Min, Do Sik; Hahn, Sang June; Kim, Myung-Suk; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2004-02-01

    Green tea has been receiving considerable attention as a possible preventive agent against cancer and cardiovascular disease. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol component of green tea. Using digital calcium imaging and an assay for [3H]-inositol phosphates, we determined whether EGCG increases intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in non-excitable human astrocytoma U87 cells. EGCG induced concentration-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases were reduced to 20.9% of control by removal of extracellular Ca2+. The increases were also inhibited markedly by treatment with the non-specific Ca2+ channel inhibitors cobalt (3 mM) for 3 min and lanthanum (1 mM) for 5 min. The increases were not significantly inhibited by treatment for 10 min with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (100 nM). Treatment with the inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase thapsigargin (1 micro M) also significantly inhibited the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Treatment for 15 min with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin (300 micro M) attenuated the increases significantly, while the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (30 micro M) had no effect. EGCG increased [3H]-inositol phosphates formation via PLC activation. Treatment for 10 min with mefenamic acid (100 micro M) and flufenamic acid (100 micro M), derivatives of diphenylamine-2-carboxylate, blocked the EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i increase in non-treated and thapsigargin-treated cells but indomethacin (100 micro M) did not affect the increases. Collectively, these data suggest that EGCG increases [Ca2+]i in non-excitable U87 cells mainly by eliciting influx of extracellular Ca2+ and partly by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores by PLC activation. The EGCG-induced [Ca2+]i influx is mediated mainly through channels sensitive to diphenylamine-2-carboxylate derivatives.

  2. Calcium influx determines the muscular response to electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pernille Højman; Brolin, Camilla; Gissel, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    expression analyses and histology, we showed a clear association between Ca(2+) influx and muscular response. Moderate Ca(2+) influx induced by HVLV pulses results in activation of pathways involved in immediate repair and hypertrophy. This response could be attenuated by intramuscular injection of EGTA...... low-voltage pulse (HVLV), either alone or in combination with injection of DNA. Mice and rats were anesthetized before pulsing. At the times given, animals were killed, and intact tibialis cranialis muscles were excised for analysis. Uptake of Ca(2+) was assessed using (45)Ca as a tracer. Using gene...

  3. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ATP and other purines on 45 Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular 45 Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to 45 Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of 45 Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced 45 Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels

  4. Salvia miltiorrhiza Induces Tonic Contraction of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter in Rats via Activation of Extracellular Ca2+ Influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chung Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD suffer from proton pump inhibitor refractory GERD but clinically the medications to strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter (LES to avoid irritating reflux are few in number. This study aimed to examine whether Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM extracts induce tonic contraction of rat LES ex vivo and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To investigate the mechanism underlying the SM extract-induced contractile effects, rats were pretreated with atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist, tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker, nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, followed by administration of cumulative dosages of SM extracts. SM extracts induced dose-related tonic contraction of the LES, which was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, atropine, or nifedipine. However, the SM extract-induced LES contraction was significantly inhibited by Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution with EGTA. Next, SM extracts significantly induce extracellular Ca2+ entry into primary LES cells in addition to intracellular Ca2+ release and in a dose-response manner. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the SM extracts consistently induced significant extracellular Ca2+ influx into primary LES cells in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, SM extracts could induce tonic contraction of LES mainly through the extracellular Ca2+ influx pathway.

  5. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  6. Characterizing the glymphatic influx by utilizing intracisternal infusion of fluorescently conjugated cadaverine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Lin, Jun; Wei, Fang; Song, Jian; Chen, Wenyue; Shan, Lidong; Xue, Rong; Wang, Guoqing; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Guoxing; Xu, Guang-Yin; Wang, Linhui

    2018-05-15

    Accumulating evidence supports that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space (SAS) could reenter the brain parenchyma via the glymphatic influx. The present study was designed to characterize the detailed pathway of subarachnoid CSF influx by using a novel CSF tracer. Fluorescently conjugated cadaverine (A488-ca), for the first time, was employed to investigate CSF movement in the brain. Following intracisternal infusion of CSF tracers, mice brain was sliced and prepared for fluorescence imaging. Some brain sections were immunostained in order to observe tracer distribution and cellular uptake. A488-ca moved into the brain parenchyma rapidly, and the influx was time and region dependent. A488-ca entered the mice brain more readily and spread more widely than another commonly used CSF tracer-fluorescently conjugated ovalbumin (OA-45). Furthermore, A488-ca could enter the brain parenchyma either along the paravascular space or across the pial surface. Suppression of glymphatic transport by administration with acetazolamide strikingly reduced the influx of A488-ca. More importantly, relative to OA-45 largely remained in the extracellular space, A488-ca exhibited obvious cellular uptake by astrocytes surrounding the blood vessels and neurons in the cerebral cortex. Subarachnoid CSF could flow into the brain parenchyma via the glymphatic influx, in which the transcellular pathway was faithfully traced by intracisternal infusion with fluorescently conjugated cadaverine. These observations extend our comprehension on the glymphatic influx pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of Ca2+ influx by a protein kinase C activator in chromaffin cells: differential role of P/Q- and L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, C M; Santos, R M; Boarder, M R; Rosário, L M

    1999-02-05

    Phorbol esters reduce depolarization-evoked Ca2+ influx in adrenal chromaffin cells, suggesting that voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs) are inhibited by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. We now address the possibility that L- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channel subtypes might be differentially involved in phorbol ester action. In bovine chromaffin cells, short-term (10 min) incubations with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) inhibited early high K+-evoked rises in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the early component of the depolarization-evoked Mn2+ quenching of fura-2 fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner (IC50: 18 and 7 nM; maximal inhibitions: 45 and 48%, respectively). The protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) reverted the inhibitory action of PMA. PMA (0.1-1 microM) inhibited the early and late phases of the ionomycin (2 microM)-evoked [Ca2+]i transients by 14-23%. Omega-agatoxin IVA, a blocker of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, inhibited high K+-evoked [Ca2+]i rises in a dose-dependent fashion (IC50 = 50 nM). In contrast, 0.1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA, a blocker of N-type channels, was without effect. A sizeable (< 45%) component of early Ca2+ influx persisted in the combined presence of omega-agatoxin IVA (100 nM) and nitrendipine (1 microM). Simultaneous exposure to omega-agatoxin IVA and PMA inhibited both the early [Ca2+]i transients and Mn2+ quenching to a much greater extent than each drug separately. Inhibition of the [Ca2+]i transients by nitrendipine and PMA did not significantly exceed that produced by PMA alone. It is concluded that phorbol ester-mediated activation of protein kinase C inhibits preferentially L-type VSCCs over P/Q type channels in adrenal chromaffin cells. However, the possibility cannot be ruled out that dihydropyridine-resistant, non-P/Q type channels might also be negatively regulated by protein kinase C. This may represent an important pathway for the specific control of VSCCs by protein kinase C

  8. Derived (mutated)-types of TRPV6 channels elicit greater Ca²+ influx into the cells than ancestral-types of TRPV6: evidence from Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cell expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Yuka; Matsuo, Kiyotaka; Tetsuo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of the allele containing three derived nonsynonymous SNPs (157C, 378M, 681M) of the gene encoding calcium permeable TRPV6 channels expressed in the intestine has been increased by positive selection in non-African populations. To understand the nature of these SNPs, we compared the properties of Ca²+ influx of ancestral (in African populations) and derived-TRPV6 (in non-African populations) channels with electrophysiological, Ca²+-imaging, and morphological methods using both the Xenopus oocyte and mammalian cell expression systems. Functional electrophysiological and Ca²+-imaging analyses indicated that the derived-TRPV6 elicited more Ca²+ influx than the ancestral one in TRPV6-expressing cells where both channels were equally expressed in the cells. Ca²+-inactivation properties in the ancestral- and derived-TRPV6 were almost the same. Furthermore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis showed that both channels have similar multimeric formation properties, suggesting that derived-TRPV6 itself could cause higher Ca²+ influx. These findings suggest that populations having derived-TRPV6 in non-African areas may absorb higher Ca²+ from the intestine than ancestral-TRPV6 in the African area.

  9. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  10. Pharmacologic study of calcium influx pathways in rabbit aortic smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukeman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Functional characteristics and pharmacologic domains of receptor-operated and potential-sensitive calcium (Ca 2+ ) channels (ROCs and PSCs, respectively) were derived via measurements of 45 Ca 2+ influx (M/sup Ca/) during activation by the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), histamine (HS), and serotonin (5-HT) and by elevated extracellular potassium (K + ) in the individual or combined presence of organic Ca 2+ channel antagonists (CAts), calmodulin antagonists (Calm-ants), lanthanum (La 3+ ), and agents that increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP

  11. An inhibitory effect of extracellular Ca2+ on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    Full Text Available AIM: Neurotransmitter release is elicited by an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i. The action potential triggers Ca(2+ influx through Ca(2+ channels which causes local changes of [Ca(2+](i for vesicle release. However, any direct role of extracellular Ca(2+ (besides Ca(2+ influx on Ca(2+-dependent exocytosis remains elusive. Here we set out to investigate this possibility on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and chromaffin cells, widely used models for studying vesicle exocytosis. RESULTS: Using photolysis of caged Ca(2+ and caffeine-induced release of stored Ca(2+, we found that extracellular Ca(2+ inhibited exocytosis following moderate [Ca(2+](i rises (2-3 µM. The IC(50 for extracellular Ca(2+ inhibition of exocytosis (ECIE was 1.38 mM and a physiological reduction (∼30% of extracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](o significantly increased the evoked exocytosis. At the single vesicle level, quantal size and release frequency were also altered by physiological [Ca(2+](o. The calcimimetics Mg(2+, Cd(2+, G418, and neomycin all inhibited exocytosis. The extracellular Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR was not involved because specific drugs and knockdown of CaSR in DRG neurons did not affect ECIE. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As an extension of the classic Ca(2+ hypothesis of synaptic release, physiological levels of extracellular Ca(2+ play dual roles in evoked exocytosis by providing a source of Ca(2+ influx, and by directly regulating quantal size and release probability in neuronal cells.

  12. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and efflux rates in guinea pig cardiac mitochondria: low and high affinity effects of cyclosporine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, An-Chi; Liu, Ting; Cortassa, Sonia; Winslow, Raimond L; O'Rourke, Brian

    2011-07-01

    Ca(2+) plays a central role in energy supply and demand matching in cardiomyocytes by transmitting changes in excitation-contraction coupling to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Matrix Ca(2+) is controlled primarily by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter and the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, influencing NADH production through Ca(2+)-sensitive dehydrogenases in the Krebs cycle. In addition to the well-accepted role of the Ca(2+)-triggered mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cell death, it has been proposed that the permeability transition pore might also contribute to physiological mitochondrial Ca(2+) release. Here we selectively measure Ca(2+) influx rate through the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter and Ca(2+) efflux rates through Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent pathways in isolated guinea pig heart mitochondria in the presence or absence of inhibitors of mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (CGP 37157) or the permeability transition pore (cyclosporine A). cyclosporine A suppressed the negative bioenergetic consequences (ΔΨ(m) loss, Ca(2+) release, NADH oxidation, swelling) of high extramitochondrial Ca(2+) additions, allowing mitochondria to tolerate total mitochondrial Ca(2+) loads of >400nmol/mg protein. For Ca(2+) pulses up to 15μM, Na(+)-independent Ca(2+) efflux through the permeability transition pore accounted for ~5% of the total Ca(2+) efflux rate compared to that mediated by the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (in 5mM Na(+)). Unexpectedly, we also observed that cyclosporine A inhibited mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-mediated Ca(2+) efflux at higher concentrations (IC(50)=2μM) than those required to inhibit the permeability transition pore, with a maximal inhibition of ~40% at 10μM cyclosporine A, while having no effect on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. The results suggest a possible alternative mechanism by which cyclosporine A could affect mitochondrial Ca(2+) load in cardiomyocytes, potentially

  13. A dynamic model of interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and catalytic subunits of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Pepke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the acquisition of memories, influx of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic spine through the pores of activated N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors triggers processes that change the strength of excitatory synapses. The pattern of Ca2+influx during the first few seconds of activity is interpreted within the Ca2+-dependent signaling network such that synaptic strength is eventually either potentiated or depressed. Many of the critical signaling enzymes that control synaptic plasticity,including Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, are regulated by calmodulin, a small protein that can bindup to 4 Ca2+ ions. As a first step toward clarifying how the Ca2+-signaling network decides between potentiation or depression, we have created a kinetic model of the interactions of Ca2+, calmodulin, and CaMKII that represents our best understanding of the dynamics of these interactions under conditions that resemble those in a postsynaptic spine. We constrained parameters of the model from data in the literature, or from our own measurements, and then predicted time courses of activation and autophosphorylation of CaMKII under a variety of conditions. Simulations showed that species of calmodulin with fewer than four bound Ca2+ play a significant role in activation of CaMKII in the physiological regime,supporting the notion that processing of Ca2+ signals in a spine involves competition among target enzymes for binding to unsaturated species of CaM in an environment in which the concentration of Ca2+ is fluctuating rapidly. Indeed, we showed that dependence of activation on the frequency of Ca2+ transients arises from the kinetics of interaction of fluctuating Ca2+with calmodulin/CaMKII complexes. We used parameter sensitivity analysis to identify which parameters will be most beneficial to measure more carefully to improve the accuracy of predictions. This model provides a quantitative base from which to build more complex dynamic

  14. Intracellular alkalinization induces cytosolic Ca2+ increases by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Li

    Full Text Available Intracellular pH (pHi and Ca(2+ regulate essentially all aspects of cellular activities. Their inter-relationship has not been mechanistically explored. In this study, we used bases and acetic acid to manipulate the pHi. We found that transient pHi rise induced by both organic and inorganic bases, but not acidification induced by acid, produced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+. The sources of the Ca(2+ increase are from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca(2+ pools as well as from Ca(2+ influx. The store-mobilization component of the Ca(2+ increase induced by the pHi rise was not sensitive to antagonists for either IP(3-receptors or ryanodine receptors, but was due to inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA, leading to depletion of the ER Ca(2+ store. We further showed that the physiological consequence of depletion of the ER Ca(2+ store by pHi rise is the activation of store-operated channels (SOCs of Orai1 and Stim1, leading to increased Ca(2+ influx. Taken together, our results indicate that intracellular alkalinization inhibits SERCA activity, similar to thapsigargin, thereby resulting in Ca(2+ leak from ER pools followed by Ca(2+ influx via SOCs.

  15. Excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Miki; Fujise, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Yuka; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is nonessential for dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) and the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is unknown in the dentate gyrus. Excess increase in extracellular Zn(2+) in the hippocampal CA1, which is induced with excitation of zincergic neurons, induces memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into CA1 pyramidal cells. In the present study, it was examined whether extracellular Zn(2+) induces object recognition memory deficit via excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells. KCl (100 mM, 2 µl) was locally injected into the dentate gyrus. The increase in intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells induced with high K(+) was blocked by co-injection of CaEDTA and CNQX, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator and an AMPA receptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that high K(+) increases the influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation. Dentate gyrus LTP induction was attenuated 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also attenuated when KCl was injected 5 min after the induction. Memory deficit was induced when training of object recognition test was performed 1 h after KCl injection into the dentate gyrus and also induced when KCl was injected 5 min after the training. High K(+)-induced impairments of LTP and memory were rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA. These results indicate that excess influx of Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells via AMPA receptor activation affects object recognition memory via attenuated LTP induction. Even in the dentate gyrus where is scarcely innervated by zincergic neurons, it is likely that extracellular Zn(2+) homeostasis is strictly regulated for cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of plasma membrane calcium influx in bacterial induction of the K+/H+ and hypersensitive responses in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, M.M.; Keppler, L.D.; Orlandi, E.W.; Baker, C.J.; Mischke, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    An early event in the hypersensitive response of tobacco to Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae is the initiation of a K + /H + response characterized by specific plasma membrane K + efflux, extracellular alkalinization, and intracellular acidification. We investigated the role of calcium in induction of these host responses. Suspension-cultured tobacco cells exhibited a baseline Ca 2+ influx of 0.02 to 0.06 micromole per gram per hour as determined from 45 Ca 2+ uptake. Following bacterial inoculation, uptake rates began to increase coincidently with onset of the K + /H + response. Rates increased steadily for 2 to 3 hours, reaching 0.5 to 1 micromole per gram per hour. This increased Ca 2+ influx was prevented by EGTA and calcium channel blockers such as La 3+ , Co 2+ , and Cd 2+ but not by verapamil and nifedipine. Lanthanum, cobalt, cadmium, and EGTA inhibited the K + /H + response in both suspension-cultured cells and leaf discs and prevented hypersensitive cell death in leaf discs. We conclude that increase plasmalemma Ca 2+ influx is required for the K + /H + and hypersensitive responses in tobacco

  17. Maitotoxin-induced liver cell death involving loss of cell ATP following influx of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, R.K.; Singh, Y.; Santostasi, G.; Krishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Maitotoxin, one of the most potent marine toxins known, produced cell death in cultures of rat hepatocytes with a TD50 of 80 pM at 24 hr. The cell death, as indicated by a dose- and time-dependent leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was also associated with the leakage of [14C]adenine nucleotides from hepatocytes prelabeled with [14C]-adenine. The toxic effect of maitotoxin was completely abolished by the omission of calcium from the culture medium. The cell death induced by maitotoxin increased with increasing concentrations of calcium in the medium. Treatment of hepatocytes with low concentrations of the toxin (less than 0.5 ng/ml) resulted in increases in 45Ca influx into the cells. At higher concentrations of maitotoxin (greater than 1ng/ml), the initial increase in 45Ca influx was followed by the release of the 45Ca from the cells into the medium. Since the 45Ca release paralleled the LDH leakage, the release of calcium was due to cell death. The 45Ca influx, [14C]adenine nucleotide leakage, and LDH leakage were effectively inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. Maitotoxin also induced a time- and dose-dependent loss of ATP from hepatocytes, which preceded the [14C]adenine nucleotide and LDH leakage. Thus, it appears that the cell death resulting from maitotoxin treatment is caused by the elevated intracellular calcium, which in turn inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation causing depletion of cell ATP. Loss of cell ATP may be the causative event in the maitotoxin-induced cell death

  18. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché increases insulin secretion in RINm5F cells through an influx of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Perez, Maria Elizabeth; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Maria; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-21

    Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells. However, it remains unclear whether C. ficifolia and DCI causes the secretion of insulin by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) through K(+)ATP channel blockage or from the reservoir in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aqueous extract of C. ficifolia was obtained and standardized with regard to its DCI content. RINm5F pancreatic β-cells were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400μM) of DCI alone or C. ficifolia (9, 18, 36 and 72µg of extract/mL), and the [Ca(2+)]i of the cells was quantified. The cells were preloaded with the Ca(2+) fluorescent dye fluo4-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion was measured by an ELISA method. Subsequently, the effect of C. ficifolia on the K(+)ATP channel was evaluated. In this case, the blocker activator diazoxide was used to inhibit the C. ficifolia-induced calcium influx. In addition, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitor 2-amino-thoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) was used to inhibit the influx of calcium from the ER that was induced by C. ficifolia. It was found that DCI alone did not increase [Ca(2+)]i or insulin secretion. In contrast, treatment with C. ficifolia increased [Ca(2+)]i 10-fold compared with the control group. Insulin secretion increased by 46.9%. In the presence of diazoxide, C. ficifolia decreased [Ca(2+)]i by 50%, while insulin secretion

  19. Effects of vitamin D metabolites on cellular Ca2+ and on Ca transport in primary cultures of bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Y; Szydel, N; Harell, A

    1980-09-01

    Both 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25(OH)2D3) exerted direct effects on Ca2+ transport and accumulation in primary cultures of bone cells. The following changes were recorded. (1) A significant decrease in the amount of intracellular exchangeable Ca2+. (2) A marked increase in the rate constants of efflux from the 'slow'-turnover intracellular Ca pool. (3) A marked increase in the 'initial rate' of Ca influx into the cells. Thus, vitamin D metabolites caused an increase in the turnover of Ca2+ in bone cells and altered the steady-stae level of intracellular exchangeable Ca2+. Whereas the changes in the rate of efflux were abolished in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the increase in the rate of influx was not sensitive to these inhibitors. It is suggested that the changes in the two fluxes were mediated by different mechanisms and that the changes in influx were due to a direct effect of vitamin D metabolites on the cellular membranes.

  20. Caffeine-Induced Ca2+ Oscillations in Type I Horizontal Cells of the Carp Retina and the Contribution of the Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ting; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of release, depletion, and refilling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ were investigated in type I horizontal cells of the carp retina using a fluo-3-based Ca2+ imaging technique. Exogenous application of caffeine, a ryanodine receptor agonist, induced oscillatory intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses in a duration- and concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free Ringer’s solution, [Ca2+]i transients could also be induced by a brief caffeine application, whereas subsequent caffeine application induced no [Ca2+]i increase, which implied that extracellular Ca2+ was required for ER refilling, confirming the necessity of a Ca2+ influx pathway for ER refilling. Depletion of ER Ca2+ by thapsigargin triggered a Ca2+ influx which could be blocked by the store-operated channel inhibitor 2-APB, which proved the existence of the store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway. Taken together, these results suggested that after being depleted by caffeine, the ER was replenished by Ca2+ influx via store-operated channels. These results reveal the fine modulation of ER Ca2+ signaling, and the activation of the store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway guarantees the replenishment of the ER so that the cell can be ready for response to the subsequent stimulus. PMID:24918937

  1. Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: Preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2005-01-01

    Coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of Ca 2+ into cytoplasm. If Ca 2+ channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. The influence of some Chinese crude drugs, including Crocus sativus, Carthamus tinctorius, Ginkgo biloba and Bulbus allii macrostemi on Ca 2+ influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer, and their calcium antagonistic effects were evaluated. It can be noted that Ca 2+ uptake in isolated rat aorta rings in normal physiological status was not markedly altered by these drugs, whereas the Ca 2+ influxes induced by norepinephrine of 1.2 μmol/L and KCl of 100 mmol/L were significantly inhibited by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by Ginkgo. The results show that extracellular Ca 2+ influx through receptor-operated Ca 2+ channels and potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels can be blocked by Crocus, Carthamus and Bulbus. This implies that these Chinese crude drugs have obvious calcium antagonistic effects

  2. Store-operated Ca2+ Entry Modulates the Expression of Enamel Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, M K; Eckstein, M; Snead, M L; Feske, S; Lacruz, R S

    2015-10-01

    Dental enamel formation is an intricate process tightly regulated by ameloblast cells. The correct spatiotemporal patterning of enamel matrix protein (EMP) expression is fundamental to orchestrate the formation of enamel crystals, which depend on a robust supply of Ca2+. In the extracellular milieu, Ca2+ -EMP interactions occur at different levels. Despite its recognized role in enamel development, the molecular machinery involved in Ca2+ homeostasis in ameloblasts remains poorly understood. A common mechanism for Ca2+ influx is store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). We evaluated the possibility that Ca2+ influx in enamel cells might be mediated by SOCE and the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel, the prototypical SOCE channel. Using ameloblast-like LS8 cells, we demonstrate that these cells express Ca2+ -handling molecules and mediate Ca2+ influx through SOCE. As a rise in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is a versatile signal that can modulate gene expression, we assessed whether SOCE in enamel cells had any effect on the expression of EMPs. Our results demonstrate that stimulating LS8 cells or murine primary enamel organ cells with thapsigargin to activate SOCE leads to increased expression of Amelx, Ambn, Enam, Mmp20. This effect is reversed when cells are treated with a CRAC channel inhibitor. These data indicate that Ca2+ influx in LS8 cells and enamel organ cells is mediated by CRAC channels and that Ca2+ signals enhance the expression of EMPs. Ca2+ plays an important role not only in mineralizing dental enamel but also in regulating the expression of EMPs. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  3. MPK6 controls H2 O2-induced root elongation by mediating Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane of root cells in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuan; Fang, Lin; Ren, Xuejian; Wang, Wenle; Jiang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play critical roles in signalling and growth, and Ca(2+) and H2 O2 control plant growth processes associated with abscisic acid (ABA). However, it remains unclear how MPKs are involved in H2 O2 - and Ca(2+) -mediated root elongation. Root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutant Atmpk6 (Arabidopsis thaliana MPK6) was less sensitive to moderate H2 O2 or ABA than that in wild-type (WT) plants. The enhanced elongation was a result of root cell expansion. This effect disappeared when ABA-induced H2 O2 accumulation or the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase were defective. Molecular and biochemical evidence showed that increased expression of the cell wall peroxidase PRX34 in Atmpk6 root cells enhanced apoplastic H2 O2 generation; this promoted a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane damage caused by high levels of H2 O2 was ameliorated in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. These results suggested that there was intensified PRX34-mediated H2 O2 generation in the apoplast and increased Ca(2+) flux into the cytosol of Atmpk6 root cells; that is, the spatial separation of apoplastic H2 O2 from cytosolic Ca(2+) in root cells prevented H2 O2 -induced inhibition of root elongation in Atmpk6 seedlings. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Antidiarrheal and Antispasmodic Activities of Buddleja polystachya are Mediated Through Dual Inhibition of Ca(++) Influx and Phosphodiesterase Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Najeeb-ur; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Khan, Aslam; Nazneen, Maryam; El Gamal, Ali A; Fawzy, Ghada A; Al-Ati, Hanan Y; Abdel-kader, Maged S

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Buddleja polystachya (Bp.Cr) with possible mode of action explored along with activity-directed fractionation. Bp.Cr and its aqueous (Bp.Aq) and organic fractions, petroleum ether (Bp.Pet), dichloromethane (Bp.DCM), ethylacetate (Bp.EtAc) and butanol (Bp.But), were tested using the in-vivo and in-vitro assays. The crude extract (100-300 mg/kg) showed 20 and 60% protection of castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. In isolated rabbit jejunum, Bp.Cr like papaverine inhibited spontaneous and high K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions equi-potently. In guinea-pig ileum, Bp.Cr showed a moderate spasmogenic effect. The activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity was concentrated in the organic fractions and spasmogenic component in the aqueous fraction. Amongst the organic fractions, BP.DCM and Bp.Pet inhibited spontaneous and high K(+) -induced contractions equi-potently, while Bp.But, like verapamil was more potent against high K(+) . The crude extract and its organic fractions caused rightward shift in the Ca(++) -concentration response curves (CRCs), similar to verapamil, and all except Bp.But potentiated the isoprenaline-inhibitory CRCs to the left, similar to papaverine. The results of this study indicate that the crude extract of B. polystachya possesses antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities, mediated possibly through dual inhibition of Ca(++) influx and phospodiesterase enzyme. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Store-operated calcium entry is required for sustained contraction and Ca2+ oscillations of airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Sanderson, Michael J

    2017-05-15

    Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is driven by excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Agonist-induced Ca 2+ oscillations underlie this contraction of ASMCs and the magnitude of this contraction is proportional to the Ca 2+ oscillation frequency. Sustained contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations require an influx of extracellular Ca 2+ , although the mechanisms and pathways mediating this Ca 2+ influx during agonist-induced ASMC contraction are not well defined. By inhibiting store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (VGCCs), we show that SOCE, rather than Ca 2+ influx via VGCCs, provides the major Ca 2+ entry pathway into ASMCs to sustain ASMCs contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations. SOCE may therefore serve as a potential target for new bronchodilators to reduce airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Asthma is characterized by airway hyper-responsiveness: the excessive contraction of airway smooth muscle. The extent of this airway contraction is proportional to the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations within airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Sustained Ca 2+ oscillations require a Ca 2+ influx to replenish Ca 2+ losses across the plasma membrane. Our previous studies implied store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) as the major pathway for this Ca 2+ influx. In the present study, we explore this hypothesis, by examining the effects of SOCE inhibitors (GSK7975A and GSK5498A) as well as L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel inhibitors (nifedipine and nimodipine) on airway contraction and Ca 2+ oscillations and SOCE-mediated Ca 2+ influx in ASMCs within mouse precision-cut lung slices. We found that both GSK7975A and GSK5498A were able to fully relax methacholine-induced airway contraction by abolishing the Ca 2+ oscillations, in a manner similar to that observed in zero extracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] e ). In addition, GSK7975A and GSK5498A inhibited increases in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in ASMCs with depleted Ca 2+ -stores in

  6. Does calcium influx regulate melatonin production through the circadian pacemaker in chick pineal cells? Effects of nitrendipine, Bay K 8644, Co2+, Mn2+, and low external Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, M; Mullen, D A

    1988-11-01

    We have recently described a system, using dispersed chick pineal cells in static culture, which displays a persistent, photosensitive, circadian rhythm of melatonin production and release. Here, we describe the effects of nitrendipine (NTR) (a dihydropyridine 'antagonist' of L-type calcium channels), Bay K 8644 (BK) (a dihydropyridine calcium channel 'agonist'), cobalt and manganese ions (both inorganic calcium channel blockers), and low external calcium concentrations, on the melatonin rhythm. NTR inhibited and BK stimulated melatonin output; they were potent and effective. Co2+, Mn2+, and low external Ca2+ markedly inhibited melatonin output. These results support a role for calcium influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-type) in the regulation of melatonin production. Four or 8 h pulses of white light or darkness, in otherwise constant red light, cause, in addition to acute effects, phase-dependent phase shifts of the melatonin rhythm in subsequent cycles. Such phase shifts indicate an effect on (proximal to) the pacemaker generating the rhythm. Four or 8 h pulses of NTR, BK, Co2+, or low Ca2+, however, did not appreciably alter the phase of subsequent melatonin cycles. Neither did BK interfere with phase shifts induced by light pulses. Mn2+ pulses did induce phase-dependent phase shifts, but, unlike those evoked by light or dark pulses, these were all delays. Such effects of Mn2+ in other systems have been attributed to, and are characteristic of, 'metabolic inhibitors'. On balance, the results fail to support a prominent role for calcium influx in regulating the pacemaker underlying the circadian rhythm in chick pineal cells. Rather, calcium influx appears to regulate melatonin production primarily by acting on the melatonin-synthesizing apparatus, distal to the pacemaker.

  7. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K D [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Stoichiometry of Na/Ca antiport obtained by magnesium inhibition in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.B.; Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.

    1987-01-01

    Cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were loaded with Na, and Na/Ca antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux. The replacement of extracellular Na with other monovalent ions, usually N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG), was essential for obtaining significant antiport activity. Mg competitively inhibited 45 Ca influx via the antiporter (Ki = 100 uM). External Ca stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected for antiport activity. Mg did not stimulate 22 Na efflux indicating that Mg is not transported by the antiporter. Mg inhibited Ca-stimulated 22 Na efflux as expected from the 45 Ca influx data. The stoichiometry of the antiporter was calculated from the changes in the rates of 45 Ca influx and 22 Na efflux at 3 Mg concentrations: 2.87 +/- 0.25 (mean +/- SE, n=5). The replacement of external NMG with potassium, but not other monovalent ions (choline, Li), decreased the potency of Mg as an inhibitor of Na/Ca antiport by about 6 fold. Other divalent cations (Co, Mn, Cd, Ba) inhibited Na/Ca antiport and high external potassium decreased the potency of each by about 6 fold. The order of effectiveness of the divalent cations as inhibitors of Na/Ca antiport (Cd>Mn>Co>Ba>Mg) correlated with the crystal ionic radius of the cation

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-07-11

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases.

  10. TRPV5, the gateway to Ca2+ homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Ca2+ homeostasis in the body is tightly controlled, and is a balance between absorption in the intestine, excretion via the urine, and exchange from bone. Recently, the epithelial Ca2+ channel (TRPV5) has been identified as the gene responsible for the Ca2+ influx in epithelial cells of the renal

  11. Interactive HIV-1 Tat and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury is triggered through focal disruptions in Na⁺ influx, mitochondrial instability, and Ca²⁺ overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Sylvia; Knapp, Pamela E; Zou, Shiping; Marks, William D; Bowers, M Scott; Akbarali, Hamid I; Hauser, Kurt F

    2014-09-17

    Synaptodendritic injury is thought to underlie HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and contributes to exaggerated inflammation and cognitive impairment seen in opioid abusers with HIV-1. To examine events triggering combined transactivator of transcription (Tat)- and morphine-induced synaptodendritic injury systematically, striatal neuron imaging studies were conducted in vitro. These studies demonstrated nearly identical pathologic increases in dendritic varicosities as seen in Tat transgenic mice in vivo. Tat caused significant focal increases in intracellular sodium ([Na(+)]i) and calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) in dendrites that were accompanied by the emergence of dendritic varicosities. These effects were largely, but not entirely, attenuated by the NMDA and AMPA receptor antagonists MK-801 and CNQX, respectively. Concurrent morphine treatment accelerated Tat-induced focal varicosities, which were accompanied by localized increases in [Ca(2+)]i and exaggerated instability in mitochondrial inner membrane potential. Importantly, morphine's effects were prevented by the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP and were not observed in neurons cultured from μ-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Combined Tat- and morphine-induced initial losses in ion homeostasis and increases in [Ca(2+)]i were attenuated by the ryanodine receptor inhibitor ryanodine, as well as pyruvate. In summary, Tat induced increases in [Na(+)]i, mitochondrial instability, excessive Ca(2+) influx through glutamatergic receptors, and swelling along dendrites. Morphine, acting via μ-opioid receptors, exacerbates these excitotoxic Tat effects at the same subcellular locations by mobilizing additional [Ca(2+)]i and by further disrupting [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis. We hypothesize that the spatiotemporal relationship of μ-opioid and aberrant AMPA/NMDA glutamate receptor signaling is critical in defining the location and degree to which opiates exacerbate the synaptodendritic injury commonly observed in neuro

  12. 12-lipoxygenase regulates hippocampal long-term potentiation by modulating L-type Ca2+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCostanzo, Anthony J.; Voloshyna, Iryna; Rosen, Zev B.; Feinmark, Steven J.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Although long-term potentiation (LTP) has been intensely studied, there is disagreement as to which molecules mediate and modulate LTP. This is partly due to the presence of mechanistically distinct forms of LTP that are induced by different patterns of stimulation and that depend on distinct Ca2+ sources. Here we report a novel role for the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) in LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses that is dependent on the pattern of tetanic stimulation. We find that 12-LO activity is required for the induction of LTP in response to a theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocol, which depends on Ca2+ influx through both NMDA receptors and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. In contrast, LTP induced by 100 Hz tetanic stimulation, which requires Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptors but not L-type channels, does not require 12-LO. We find that 12-LO regulates LTP by enhancing postsynaptic somatodendritic Ca2+ influx through L-type channels during theta burst stimulation, an action exerted via 12(S)-HPETE, a downstream metabolite of 12-LO. These results help define the role of a long-disputed signaling enzyme in LTP. PMID:20130191

  13. Characteristic of Extracellular Zn2+ Influx in the Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Attenuation of LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Koike, Yuta; Osaw, Misa; Tamano, Haruna

    2018-03-01

    An increased influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into neurons is a cause of cognitive decline. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was compared between young and middle-aged rats because of vulnerability of the dentate gyrus to aging. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was increased in middle-aged rats after injection of AMPA and high K + into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. Simultaneously, high K + -induced attenuation of LTP was observed in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. The attenuation was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator. Intracellular Zn 2+ in dentate granule cells was also increased in middle-aged slices with high K + , in which the increase in extracellular Zn 2+ was the same as young slices with high K + , suggesting that ability of extracellular Zn 2+ influx into dentate granule cells is greater in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, extracellular zinc concentration in the hippocampus was increased age-dependently. The present study suggests that the influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells is more readily increased in middle-aged rats and that its increase is a cause of age-related attenuation of LTP in the dentate gyrus.

  14. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  15. Effects of dihydropyridines on tension and calcium-45 influx in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels from spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, C.; Hwang, O.; Yamamoto, M.; van Breemen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Contractile tension responses to norepinephrine and depolarizing potassium (80 mM K+), as well as calcium-45 influx stimulated by these agents, were studied in isolated mesenteric resistance vessels (each 100 microM internal diameter) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs). Inhibitory effects of 2 dihydropyridine Ca++ antagonists, PN 200-110 (isradipine) and nisoldipine, on these parameters were also determined. Contractile responses to 80 mM K+ were inhibited by both Ca++ antagonists with the same potency and efficacy in SHR compared with WKY vessels (PN 200-110 IC50 = 2.8 +/- 1.3 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 2.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(-8) M in WKYs; nisoldipine IC50 = 1.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-8) M in SHRs and 1.2 +/- 0.9 X 10(-8) M in WKYs). However, contractile responses to norepinephrine (10(-4) M) were inhibited less potently by nisoldipine in SHR vessels (IC50 = 2.2 +/- 0.3 X 10(-9) M) compared with WKY vessels (IC50 = 1.6 +/- 0.6 X 10(-10) M). Similarly, PN 200-110 tended to be less (but not significantly less) potent in SHR vessels (IC50 = 3.3 +/- 1.8 X 10(-8) M) than in WKY vessels (IC50 = 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(-9) M); its efficacy was significantly depressed in the SHR vessels (by approximately 20%). When norepinephrine-stimulated calcium-45 influx was determined in the presence of these Ca++ antagonists, a similar profile emerged with respect to a comparison of SHR and WKY vessels. These results support a previously hypothesized alteration in receptor-activated Ca++ influx pathways in SHR mesenteric resistance vessels

  16. Ca²⁺ influx-linked protein kinase C activity regulates the β-catenin localization, micromere induction signalling and the oral-aboral axis formation in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Ikuko; Tsurugaya, Toko; Santella, Luigia; Chun, Jong Tai; Amore, Gabriele; Kusunoki, Shinichiro; Asada, Akiko; Togo, Tatsuru; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Sea urchin embryos initiate cell specifications at the 16-cell stage by forming the mesomeres, macromeres and micromeres according to the relative position of the cells in the animal-vegetal axis. The most vegetal cells, micromeres, autonomously differentiate into skeletons and induce the neighbouring macromere cells to become mesoendoderm in the β-catenin-dependent Wnt8 signalling pathway. Although the underlying molecular mechanism for this progression is largely unknown, we have previously reported that the initial events might be triggered by the Ca2+ influxes through the egg-originated L-type Ca2+ channels distributed asymmetrically along the animal-vegetal axis and through the stretch-dependent Ca2+channels expressed specifically in the micromere at the 4th cleavage. In this communication, we have examined whether one of the earliest Ca2+ targets, protein kinase C (PKC), plays a role in cell specification upstream of β-catenin. To this end, we surveyed the expression pattern of β-catenin in early embryos in the presence or absence of the specific peptide inhibitor of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus PKC (HpPKC-I). Unlike previous knowledge, we have found that the initial nuclear entrance of β-catenin does not take place in the micromeres, but in the macromeres at the 16-cell stage. Using the HpPKC-I, we have demonstrated further that PKC not only determines cell-specific nucleation of β-catenin, but also regulates a variety of cell specification events in the early sea urchin embryos by modulating the cell adhesion structures, actin dynamics, intracellular Ca2+ signalling, and the expression of key transcription factors.

  17. The GluR2 hypothesis: Ca(++)-permeable AMPA receptors in delayed neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, M. V.; Pellegrini-Giampietro, D. E.; Gorter, J. A.; Aronica, E.; Connor, J. A.; Zukin, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    Increased glutamate-receptor-mediated Ca++ influx is considered an important factor underlying delayed neurodegeneration following ischemia or seizures. Until recently, the NMDA receptor was the only glutamate receptor known to be Ca(++)-permeable. It is now well established that glutamate receptors

  18. Extracellular Zn2+ Influx into Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons Plays a Key Role for Pathogenesis of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Morioka, Hiroki; Takeda, Atsushi

    2018-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease characterized by a selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The exact cause of the neuronal loss remains unclear. Here, we report a unique mechanism of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, in which extracellular Zn 2+ influx plays a key role for PD pathogenesis induced with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. 6-OHDA rapidly increased intracellular Zn 2+ only in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of brain slices and this increase was blocked in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, indicating that 6-OHDA rapidly increases extracellular Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Extracellular Zn 2+ concentration was decreased under in vivo SNpc perfusion with 6-OHDA and this decrease was blocked by co-perfusion with CNQX, supporting 6-OHDA-induced Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Interestingly, both 6-OHDA-induced loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and turning behavior to apomorphine were ameliorated by co-injection of intracellular Zn 2+ chelators, i.e., ZnAF-2DA and N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Co-injection of TPEN into the SNpc blocked 6-OHDA-induced increase in intracellular Zn 2+ but not in intracellular Ca 2+ . These results suggest that the rapid influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dopaminergic neurons via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc induces nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, resulting in 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats.

  19. Acid-gastric antisecretory effect of the ethanolic extract from Arctium lappa L. root: role of H+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+ influx and the cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Burci, Ligia de Moura; Crestani, Sandra; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca; Dartora, Nessana; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; André, Eunice; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula

    2018-04-01

    Arctium lappa L., popularly known as burdock, is a medicinal plant used worldwide. The antiulcer and gastric-acid antisecretory effects of ethanolic extract from roots of Arctium lappa (EET) were already demonstrated. However, the mechanism by which the extract reduces the gastric acid secretion remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antisecretory mode of action of EET. The effects of EET on H + , K + -ATPase activity were verified in vitro, whereas the effects of the extract on cholinergic-, histaminergic- or gastrinergic-acid gastric stimulation were assessed in vivo on stimulated pylorus ligated rats. Moreover, ex vivo contractility studies on gastric muscle strips from rats were also employed. The incubation with EET (1000 µg/ml) partially inhibited H + , K + -ATPase activity, and the intraduodenal administration of EET (10 mg/kg) decreased the volume and acidity of gastric secretion stimulated by bethanechol, histamine, and pentagastrin. EET (100-1000 µg/ml) did not alter the gastric relaxation induced by histamine but decreased acetylcholine-induced contraction in gastric fundus strips. Interestingly, EET also reduced the increase in the gastric muscle tone induced by 40 mM KCl depolarizing solution, as well as the maximum contractile responses evoked by CaCl 2 in Ca 2+ -free depolarizing solution, without impairing the effect of acetylcholine on fundus strips maintained in Ca 2+ -free nutritive solution. Our results reinforce the gastric antisecretory properties of preparations obtained from Arctium lappa, and indicate that the mechanisms involved in EET antisecretory effects include a moderate reduction of the H + , K + -ATPase activity associated with inhibitory effects on calcium influx and of cholinergic pathways in the stomach muscle.

  20. STIM1 as a key regulator for Ca2+ homeostasis in skeletal-muscle development and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiviluoto Santeri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stromal interaction molecules (STIM were identified as the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER Ca2+ sensor controlling store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE and Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels in non-excitable cells. STIM proteins target Orai1-3, tetrameric Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane. Structure-function analysis revealed the molecular determinants and the key steps in the activation process of Orai by STIM. Recently, STIM1 was found to be expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle controlling muscle function and properties. Novel STIM targets besides Orai channels are emerging. Here, we will focus on the role of STIM1 in skeletal-muscle structure, development and function. The molecular mechanism underpinning skeletal-muscle physiology points toward an essential role for STIM1-controlled SOCE to drive Ca2+/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT-dependent morphogenetic remodeling programs and to support adequate sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR Ca2+-store filling. Also in our hands, STIM1 is transiently up-regulated during the initial phase of in vitro myogenesis of C2C12 cells. The molecular targets of STIM1 in these cells likely involve Orai channels and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels TRPC1 and TRPC3. The fast kinetics of SOCE activation in skeletal muscle seem to depend on the triad-junction formation, favoring a pre-localization and/or pre-formation of STIM1-protein complexes with the plasma-membrane Ca2+-influx channels. Moreover, Orai1-mediated Ca2+ influx seems to be essential for controlling the resting Ca2+ concentration and for proper SR Ca2+ filling. Hence, Ca2+ influx through STIM1-dependent activation of SOCE from the T-tubule system may recycle extracellular Ca2+ losses during muscle stimulation, thereby maintaining proper filling of the SR Ca2+ stores and muscle function. Importantly, mouse models for dystrophic pathologies, like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, point towards an

  1. Tyrosine content, influx and accumulation rate, and catecholamine biosynthesis measured in vivo, in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs of the young rat. Influence of neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A; Lefauconnier, J M; Valens, M; Georges, P; Gripois, D

    1989-10-01

    The influence of neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on different aspects of tyrosine metabolism in the hypothalamus, striatum, brainstem, adrenal glands, heart and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were studied in 14-day old rats. The synthesis rate of catecholamines (CA) was also determined in vivo after the injection of labelled tyrosine. Hypothyroidism increases tyrosinaemia and endogenous tyrosine concentration in the hypothalamus and BAT. Hyperthyroidism decreases tyrosinaemia and endogenous tyrosine levels in the striatum, adrenals and heart. The accumulation rate of tyrosine determined 30 min after an intravenous injection of the labelled amino acid has been determined in the organs, together with the influx of the amino acid, determined within 20s. Hypothyroidism increases tyrosine accumulation rate in all the organs studied, and tyrosine clearance is decreased in the striatum and brainstem; together with an increased tyrosinaemia, this leads to a normal influx. The influx of tyrosine is increased in the hypothalamus. Hyperthyroidism decreases tyrosine accumulation rate in all the organs except the adrenals. These results indicate that the thyroid status of the young rat can influence tyrosine uptake mechanisms, without modifying an organ's tyrosine content. The fact that hypothyroidism increases tyrosine influx in the hypothalamus without modifying it in the brainstem and striatum reflects an heterogeneous reactivity to the lack of thyroid hormones in different brain structures. Neonatal hypothyroidism decreases the CA synthesis rate in the striatum, the heart and the interscapular brown adipose tissue, while synthesis was enhanced in the brainstem and the adrenals. It is likely that these variations in CA synthesis are due to thyroid hormone modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity, the enzyme which catalyses the rate limiting step in CA biosynthesis.

  2. T-type Ca(2+) channels and Autoregulation of Local Blood Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Salomonsson, Max

    2017-01-01

    L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are considered to be the primary source of calcium influx during the myogenic response. However, many vascular beds also express T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies suggest that these channels may also play a role in autoregulation. At low pre...

  3. How Does the Ca2+-paradox Injury Induce Contracture in the Heart?—A Combined Study of the Intracellular Ca2+ Dynamics and Cell Structures in Perfused Rat Hearts—

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hideo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Ikegawa, Masaya; Dai, Ping; Fujita, Naohisa; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    The calcium (Ca 2+ )-paradox injury of the heart, induced by restoration of extracellular Ca 2+ after its short-term depletion, is known to provoke cardiomyocyte contracture. However, undetermined is how the Ca 2+ -paradox provokes such a distinctive presentation of myocytes in the heart. To address this, we imaged sequential intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and concomitant structures of the subepicardial ventricular myocytes in fluo3-loaded, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts produced by the Ca 2+ paradox. Under rapid-scanning confocal microscopy, repletion of Ca 2+ following its depletion produced high-frequency Ca 2+ waves in individual myocytes with asynchronous localized contractions, resulting in contracture within 10 min. Such alterations of myocytes were attenuated by 5-mM NiCl 2 , but not by verapamil, SEA0400, or combination of ryanodine and thapsigargin, indicating a contribution of non-specific transmembrane Ca 2+ influx in the injury. However, saponin-induced membrane permeabilization of Ca 2+ showed no apparent contracture despite the emergence of high-frequency Ca 2+ waves, indicating an essential role of myocyte-myocyte and myocyte-extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical connections in the Ca 2+ paradox. In immunohistochemistry Ca 2+ depletion produced separation of the intercalated disc that expresses cadherin and dissipation of β-dystroglycan located along the sarcolemma. Taken together, along with the trans-sarcolemmal Ca 2+ influx, disruption of cell-cell and cell-ECM connections is essential for contracture in the Ca 2+ -paradox injury

  4. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pónya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation.

  5. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca(2+) Signaling in Human Sperm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca(2+) influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca(2+) channel and controls multiple Ca(2+)-dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic...

  6. Polyamines mediate abnormal Ca2+ transport and Ca2+-induced cardiac cell injury in the calcium paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, J.J.; Koenig, H.; Goldstone, A.D.; Lu, C.Y.; Fan, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Ca 2+ -free perfusion renders heart cells Ca 2+ -sensitive so that readmission of Ca 2+ causes a sudden massive cellular injury attributed to abnormal entry of Ca 2+ into cells (Ca paradox). Hormonal stimulation of Ca 2+ fluxes was earlier shown to be mediated by polyamines (PA). 5 min perfusion of rat heart with Ca 2+ -free medium induce a prompt 40-50% decline in levels of the PA putrescine (PUT), spermidine and spermine and their rate-regulatory synthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and readmission of Ca 2+ -containing medium abruptly ( 2+ reperfusion-induced increases in ODC and PA and also prevented increased 45 Ca 2+ uptake and heart injury, manifested by loss of contractility, release of enzymes (CPK, LDH), myoglobin and protein, and E.M. lesions (contracture bands, mitochondrial changes). 1 mM PUT negated DFMO inhibition, repleted heart PA and restored Ca 2+ reperfusion-induced 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell injury. These data indicate that the Ca 2+ -directed depletion-repletion cycle of ODC and PA triggers excessive transsarcolemmal Ca 2+ transport leading to the calcium paradox

  7. Toxic acrolein production due to Ca(2+) influx by the NMDA receptor during stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mizuho; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Park, Hyerim; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Terui, Yusuke; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2016-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have a high permeability to Ca(2+), contributing to neuronal cell death after stroke. We recently found that acrolein produced from polyamines is a major toxic compound during stroke. Thus, it was determined whether over-accumulation of Ca(2+) increases the production of acrolein from polyamines in a photochemically-induced thrombosis mouse model of stroke and in cell culture systems. A unilateral infarction was induced in mouse brain by photoinduction after injection of Rose Bengal. The volume of the infarction was analyzed using the public domain National Institutes of Health image program. Protein-conjugated acrolein levels at the locus of infarction and in cells were measured by Western blotting. Levels of polyamines were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. When the size of brain infarction was decreased by N(1), N(4), N(8)-tribenzylspermidine, a channel blocker of the NMDA receptors, levels of Ca(2+) and protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) were reduced, while levels of polyamines were increased at the locus of infarction. When cell growth of mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells and neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells was inhibited by Ca(2+), the level of polyamines decreased, while that of PC-Acro increased. It was also shown that Ca(2+) toxicity was decreased in an acrolein toxicity decreasing FM3A mutant cells recently isolated. In addition, 20-40 μM Ca(2+) caused the release of polyamines from ribosomes. The results indicate that acrolein is produced from polyamines released from ribosomes through Ca(2+) increase. The results indicate that toxicity of Ca(2+) during brain infarction is correlated with the increase of acrolein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive transport pathways for Ca2+ and Co2+ in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Harbak, Henrik; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The passive transport of calcium and cobalt and their interference were studied in human red cells using (45)Ca and (57)Co as tracers. In ATP-depleted cells, with the ATP concentration reduced to about 1µM, the progress curve for (45)Ca uptake at 1mM rapidly levels off with time, consistent...... with a residual Ca-pump activity building up at increasing [Ca(T)](c) to reach at [Ca(T)](c) about 5µmol(lcells)(-1) a maximal pump rate that nearly countermands the passive Ca influx, resulting in a linear net uptake at a low level. In ATP-depleted cells treated with vanadate, supposed to cause Ca-pump arrest......, a residual pump activity is still present at high [Ca(T)](c). Moreover, vanadate markedly increases the passive Ca(2+) influx. The residual Ca-pump activity in ATP-depleted cells is fuelled by breakdown of the large 2,3-DPG pool, rate-limited by the sustainable ATP-turnover at about 40-50µmol(lcells)(-1)h(-1...

  9. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Activation of sodium channels by α-scorpion toxin, BmK NT1, produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells: an association with intracellular Ca2+ overloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuwei; Zou, Xiaohan; Li, Xichun; Chen, Juan; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu

    2017-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the action potential generation in excitable cells including neurons and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Scorpion toxins are invaluable tools to explore the structure and function of ion channels. BmK NT1, a scorpion toxin from Buthus martensii Karsch, stimulates sodium influx in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). In this study, we characterized the mode of action of BmK NT1 on the VGSCs and explored the cellular response in CGC cultures. BmK NT1 delayed the fast inactivation of VGSCs, increased the Na + currents, and shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation to more hyperpolarized membrane potential, which was similar to the mode of action of α-scorpion toxins. BmK NT1 stimulated neuron death (EC 50  = 0.68 µM) and produced massive intracellular Ca 2+ overloading (EC 50  = 0.98 µM). TTX abrogated these responses, suggesting that both responses were subsequent to the activation of VGSCs. The Ca 2+ response of BmK NT1 was primary through extracellular Ca 2+ influx since reducing the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration suppressed the Ca 2+ response. Further pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that BmK NT1-induced Ca 2+ influx and neurotoxicity were partially blocked either by MK-801, an NMDA receptor blocker, or by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers. Nifedipine, an L-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor, slightly suppressed both Ca 2+ response and neurotoxicity. A combination of these three inhibitors abrogated both responses. Considered together, these data ambiguously demonstrated that activation of VGSCs by an α-scorpion toxin was sufficient to produce neurotoxicity which was associated with intracellular Ca 2+ overloading through both NMDA receptor- and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ influx.

  11. Vascular mechanism of action of endothelin-1: Effect of Ca2+ antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrier, P.E.; Auguet, M.; Roubert, P.; Lonchampt, M.O.; Gillard, V.; Guillon, J.M.; Delaflotte, S.; Braquet, P.

    1989-01-01

    The vasoconstrictive properties of the endothelium-derived peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), were investigated on rat isolated aorta and on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. In rat isolated aorta, endothelin-1 induced a slow and sustained contraction in a Ca2+-free medium; after calcium readmission, an additional sustained contraction was elicited. In vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelin-1 provoked a dose-dependent Ca2+ influx that was not inhibited by calcium entry blockers (nifedipine, D 600, or diltiazem). In these cells, [ 125 I]-endothelin-1 bound to a specific, saturable, and high affinity recognition site (Kd about 10(-9) M and Bmax = 52 +/- 2 fmol/10(6) cells). The binding was not reversible and not affected by calcium antagonists. These data do not support the hypothesis that endothelin-1 acts as an endogenous agonist of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. The action of endothelin-1 can be separated into two components: one dependent on Ca2+ influx but insensitive to calcium antagonists and another independent of extracellular Ca2+. The irreversible binding of endothelin-1 may reflect an internalization of the ligand inside the cell membrane, leading to multiple contractile events

  12. Plasma Membrane Ca2+-Permeable Channels are Differentially Regulated by Ethylene and Hydrogen Peroxide to Generate Persistent Plumes of Elevated Cytosolic Ca2+ During Transfer Cell Trans-Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-ming; van Helden, Dirk F; McCurdy, David W; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2015-09-01

    The enhanced transport capability of transfer cells (TCs) arises from their ingrowth wall architecture comprised of a uniform wall on which wall ingrowths are deposited. The wall ingrowth papillae provide scaffolds to amplify plasma membranes that are enriched in nutrient transporters. Using Vicia faba cotyledons, whose adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously and rapidly (hours) undergo a synchronous TC trans-differentiation upon transfer to culture, has led to the discovery of a cascade of inductive signals orchestrating deposition of ingrowth wall papillae. Auxin-induced ethylene biosynthesis initiates the cascade. This in turn drives a burst in extracellular H2O2 production that triggers uniform wall deposition. Thereafter, a persistent and elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, resulting from Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels, generates a Ca(2+) signal that directs formation of wall ingrowth papillae to specific loci. We now report how these Ca(2+)-permeable channels are regulated using the proportionate responses in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration as a proxy measure of their transport activity. Culturing cotyledons on various combinations of pharmacological agents allowed the regulatory influence of each upstream signal on Ca(2+) channel activity to be evaluated. The findings demonstrated that Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity was insensitive to auxin, but up-regulated by ethylene through two independent routes. In one route ethylene acts directly on Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, through an ethylene receptor-dependent pathway. The other route is mediated by an ethylene-induced production of extracellular H2O2 which then acts translationally and post-translationally to up-regulate Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity. A model describing the differential regulation of Ca(2+)-permeable channel activity is presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  13. Calcium influx through L-type channels attenuates skeletal muscle contraction via inhibition of adenylyl cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Rodrigues, Francisco Sandro; Pires-Oliveira, Marcelo; Duarte, Thiago; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Chiavegatti, Tiago; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira

    2013-11-15

    Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by acetylcholine induced release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Although this signaling pathway is independent of extracellular Ca(2+), L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) blockers have inotropic effects on frog skeletal muscles which occur by an unknown mechanism. Taking into account that skeletal muscle fiber expresses Ca(+2)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms and that cAMP is able to increase skeletal muscle contraction force, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) influx on mouse skeletal muscle contraction and the putative crosstalk between extracellular Ca(2+) and intracellular cAMP signaling pathways. The effects of Cav blockers (verapamil and nifedipine) and extracellular Ca(2+) chelator EGTA were evaluated on isometric contractility of mouse diaphragm muscle under direct electrical stimulus (supramaximal voltage, 2 ms, 0.1 Hz). Production of cAMP was evaluated by radiometric assay while Ca(2+) transients were assessed by confocal microscopy using L6 cells loaded with fluo-4/AM. Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine had positive inotropic effect, which was mimicked by removal of extracellular Ca(+2) with EGTA or Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. While phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX potentiates verapamil positive inotropic effect, it was abolished by AC inhibitors SQ22536 and NYK80. Finally, the inotropic effect of verapamil was associated with increased intracellular cAMP content and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+), indicating that positive inotropic effects of Ca(2+) blockers depend on cAMP formation. Together, our results show that extracellular Ca(2+) modulates skeletal muscle contraction, through inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive AC. The cross-talk between extracellular calcium and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways appears to regulate the extent of skeletal muscle contraction responses. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ca2+ signaling in injured in situ endothelium of rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Moccia, Francesco; Oldani, Amanda; Speroni, Francisco; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2008-09-01

    The inner wall of excised rat aorta was scraped by a microelectrode and Ca2+ signals were investigated by fluorescence microscopy in endothelial cells (ECs) directly coupled with injured cells. The injury caused an immediate increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), followed by a long-lasting decay phase due to Ca2+ influx from extracellular space. The immediate response was mainly due to activation of purinergic receptors, as shown by the effect of P2X and P2Y receptors agonists and antagonists, such as suramin, alpha,beta-MeATP, MRS-2179 and 2-MeSAMP. Inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ influx did not affect either the peak response or the decay phase. Furthermore, the latter was: (i) insensitive to phospholipase C inhibition, (ii) sensitive to the gap junction blockers, palmitoleic acid, heptanol, octanol and oleamide, and (iii) sensitive to La3+ and Ni2+, but not to Gd3+. Finally, ethidium bromide or Lucifer Yellow did not enter ECs facing the scraped area. These results suggest that endothelium scraping: (i) causes a short-lasting stimulation of healthy ECs by extracellular nucleotides released from damaged cells and (ii) uncouples the hemichannels of the ECs facing the injury site; these hemichannels do not fully close and allow a long-lasting Ca2+ entry.

  15. β-Cell Ca(2+) dynamics and function are compromised in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Christopher J; Li, Luosheng; Köhler, Martin; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    Defects in pancreatic β-cell function and survival are key components in type 2 diabetes (T2D). An age-dependent deterioration in β-cell function has also been observed, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Our previous studies indicate that the regulation of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) may be critical and that this is dependent on the proper function of the mitochondria. The [Ca(2+)]i dynamics of the pancreatic β-cell are driven by an interplay between glucose-induced influx of extracellular Ca(2+) via voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3)-mediated liberation of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Our previous work has indicated a direct relationship between disruption of Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) regulation and loss of β-cell function, including disturbed [Ca(2+)]i dynamics and compromised insulin secretion. To investigate these processes in aging we used three mouse models, a premature aging mitochondrial mutator mouse, a mature aging phenotype (C57BL/6) and an aging-resistant phenotype (129). Our data suggest that age-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function leads to modest changes in [Ca(2+)]i dynamics in mouse β-cells, particularly in the pattern of [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. These changes are driven by modifications in both PLC/Ins(1,4,5)P3-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores and decreased β-cell Ca(2+) influx over the plasma membrane. Our findings underscore an important concept, namely that even relatively small, time-dependent changes in β-cell signal-transduction result in compromised insulin release and in a diabetic phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtt, Morten; Romanowsky, Shawn M; Bækgaard, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome...... and a high frequency of aborted fertilization, resulting in a >80% reduction in seed set. These findings identify a plasma membrane Ca(2+) transporter as a key regulator of pollen development and fertilization in flowering plants.......Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization. The dynamics of a Ca(2+) signal are largely controlled by influx (through channels) and efflux (through pumps and antiporters). The Arabidopsis genome......-inducing) plasmid that is transferred to plant cells] gene disruptions of ACA9 were found to result in partial male sterility. Complementation was observed by using a ACA9-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) fusion that displayed plasma membrane localization. Mutant aca9 pollen displayed a reduced growth potential...

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of seven amiloride congeners as inhibitors of Na/H and Na/Ca antiport in cultured smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Higgins, B.L.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors cultured smooth muscle cells from rat aorta and assayed Na/Ca antiport by measuring the initial rate of 45 Ca influx in Na-loaded cells. Na/H antiport was assayed by measuring the initial rate of 22 Na influx in acid-loaded cells. The external medium was the same for both assays except Na was 10 mM for Na/H antiport and O for the Na/Ca antiport assay. The dose of each congener that caused 50% inhibition (I 50 ) was calculated using a log-log median effect plot. The linear regression coefficients ranged from 0.916 to 0.998. Of all the compounds tested only dimethylbenzamil is more potent as an inhibitor of Na/Ca compared to Na/H antiport

  18. Involvement of the putative Ca²⁺-permeable mechanosensitive channels, NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, in Ca²⁺ uptake, Ca²⁺-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yamanaka, Takuya; Nakano, Masataka; Takiguchi, Akiko; Ogasawara, Yoko; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Iida, Kazuko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Iida, Hidetoshi; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    To gain insight into the cellular functions of the mid1-complementing activity (MCA) family proteins, encoding putative Ca²⁺-permeable mechanosensitive channels, we isolated two MCA homologs of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, named NtMCA1 and NtMCA2. NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 partially complemented the lethality and Ca²⁺ uptake defects of yeast mutants lacking mechanosensitive Ca²⁺ channel components. Furthermore, in yeast cells overexpressing NtMCA1 and NtMCA2, the hypo-osmotic shock-induced Ca²⁺ influx was enhanced. Overexpression of NtMCA1 or NtMCA2 in BY-2 cells enhanced Ca²⁺ uptake, and significantly alleviated growth inhibition under Ca²⁺ limitation. NtMCA1-overexpressing BY-2 cells showed higher sensitivity to hypo-osmotic shock than control cells, and induced the expression of the touch-inducible gene, NtERF4. We found that both NtMCA1-GFP and NtMCA2-GFP were localized at the plasma membrane and its interface with the cell wall, Hechtian strands, and at the cell plate and perinuclear vesicles of dividing cells. NtMCA2 transcript levels fluctuated during the cell cycle and were highest at the G1 phase. These results suggest that NtMCA1 and NtMCA2 play roles in Ca²⁺-dependent cell proliferation and mechanical stress-induced gene expression in BY-2 cells, by regulating the Ca²⁺ influx through the plasma membrane.

  19. Crosstalk between mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ cycling modulates cardiac pacemaker cell automaticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available Mitochondria dynamically buffer cytosolic Ca(2+ in cardiac ventricular cells and this affects the Ca(2+ load of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. In sinoatrial-node cells (SANC the SR generates periodic local, subsarcolemmal Ca(2+ releases (LCRs that depend upon the SR load and are involved in SANC automaticity: LCRs activate an inward Na(+-Ca(2+ exchange current to accelerate the diastolic depolarization, prompting the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels to generate the next action potential (AP.To determine if mitochondrial Ca(2+ (Ca(2+ (m, cytosolic Ca(2+ (Ca(2+ (c-SR-Ca(2+ crosstalk occurs in single rabbit SANC, and how this may relate to SANC normal automaticity.Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+ influx into (Ru360 or Ca(2+ efflux from (CGP-37157 decreased [Ca(2+](m to 80 ± 8% control or increased [Ca(2+](m to 119 ± 7% control, respectively. Concurrent with inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+ influx or efflux, the SR Ca(2+ load, and LCR size, duration, amplitude and period (imaged via confocal linescan significantly increased or decreased, respectively. Changes in total ensemble LCR Ca(2+ signal were highly correlated with the change in the SR Ca(2+ load (r(2 = 0.97. Changes in the spontaneous AP cycle length (Ru360, 111 ± 1% control; CGP-37157, 89 ± 2% control in response to changes in [Ca(2+](m were predicted by concurrent changes in LCR period (r(2 = 0.84.A change in SANC Ca(2+ (m flux translates into a change in the AP firing rate by effecting changes in Ca(2+ (c and SR Ca(2+ loading, which affects the characteristics of spontaneous SR Ca(2+ release.

  20. Cyclic ADP ribose-dependent Ca2+ release by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Sohn

    Full Text Available Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (group I mGluRs; mGluR1 and mGluR5 exert diverse effects on neuronal and synaptic functions, many of which are regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. In this study, we characterized the cellular mechanisms underlying Ca(2+ mobilization induced by (RS-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; a specific group I mGluR agonist in the somata of acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons using microfluorometry. We found that DHPG activates mGluR5 to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+ from ryanodine-sensitive stores via cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR, while the PLC/IP(3 signaling pathway was not involved in Ca(2+ mobilization. The application of glutamate, which depolarized the membrane potential by 28.5±4.9 mV (n = 4, led to transient Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels. We found no evidence that mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+ release and Ca(2+ influx through L-type Ca(2+ channels interact to generate supralinear Ca(2+ transients. Our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of intracellular Ca(2+ mobilization by mGluR5 in the somata of hippocampal neurons.

  1. The influx of amino acids into the heart of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos, G.; Moorhouse, S.R.; Pratt, O.E.; Wilson, P.A.; Daniel, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    The influx of nineteen amino acids into the heart of the living rat was studied by a method specially devised for experiments under controlled conditions in vivo. When, in separate experiments, the concentration of each amino acid in turn was artificially raised in the circulation, the influx of that amino acid into the heart increased. The data indicate that at least ten of these amino acids enter the heart in vivo by means of saturable carrier-mediated transport systems. The transport rates conform, at least approximately, to Michaelis kinetics and the transport systems are clearly, in the case of many amino acids, active, i.e. energy-dependent. The amino acids which were studied had rates of influx into the heart which differed from each other over a range of more than 10 to 1, even when allowances were made for the differences in their concentration in the circulating blood. These differences in influx were not related to such factors as the molecular size of the individual amino acids. The amino acids which have a high influx into the heart are mainly those which are needed either to re-synthesize contractile protein or as oxidizable substrates. (author)

  2. Endothelin receptor mediated Ca(2+) signaling in coronary arteries after experimentally induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Sarah Brøgger; Haanes, Kristian A.; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2017-01-01

    a phenotypical shift, which includes increased evoked ETB induced contraction in the smooth muscle cell, and also a higher basal tone development which both are dependent on Ca(2+) influx through VGCCs. This is combined with alterations in the ETA calcium handling, which has a stronger dependence on Ca(2...

  3. Radiation entropy influx as a measure of planetary dissipative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Dissipative processes including high flows of matter and energy occur at the planets. Radiation negentropy influx, resulting from difference of entropy fluxes of incoming solar and outgoing thermal radiation of the planet, is a measure of all these processes. Large share of radiation negentropy influx is spent in the vertical thermal fluxes which keep the planet temperature conditions. Next share of radiation negentropy consumption at the Earth is water evaporation. It's rest part is used for the dynamics, which is explained by the efficiency insignificant amount of heat engine, which generates movements in the atmosphere and ocean. Essentially higher share of radiation negentropy influx, than at the Earth, is spent at the Venus, where there are practically no water

  4. Predicting dietborne metal toxicity from metal influxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Dietborne metal uptake prevails for many species in nature. However, the links between dietary metal exposure and toxicity are not well understood. Sources of uncertainty include the lack of suitable tracers to quantify exposure for metals such as copper, the difficulty to assess dietary processes such as food ingestion rate, and the complexity to link metal bioaccumulation and effects. We characterized dietborne copper, nickel, and cadmium influxes in a freshwater gastropod exposed to diatoms labeled with enriched stable metal isotopes. Metal influxes in Lymnaea stagnalis correlated linearly with dietborne metal concentrations over a range encompassing most environmental exposures. Dietary Cd and Ni uptake rate constants (kuf) were, respectively, 3.3 and 2.3 times higher than that for Cu. Detoxification rate constants (k detox) were similar among metals and appeared 100 times higher than efflux rate constants (ke). Extremely high Cu concentrations reduced feeding rates, causing the relationship between exposure and influx to deviate from linearity; i.e., Cu uptake rates leveled off between 1500 and 1800 nmol g-1 day-1. L. stagnalis rapidly takes up Cu, Cd, and Ni from food but detoxifies the accumulated metals, instead of reducing uptake or intensifying excretion. Above a threshold uptake rate, however, the detoxification capabilities of L. stagnalis are overwhelmed.

  5. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  6. Arabidopsis annexin1 mediates the radical-activated plasma membrane Ca²+- and K+-permeable conductance in root cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shang, Zhonglin; Rubio, Lourdes; Cuin, Tracey A; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Wang, Aihua; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Macpherson, Neil; Coxon, Katy M; Battey, Nicholas H; Brownlee, Colin; Park, Ohkmae K; Sentenac, Hervé; Shabala, Sergey; Webb, Alex A R; Davies, Julia M

    2012-04-01

    Plant cell growth and stress signaling require Ca²⁺ influx through plasma membrane transport proteins that are regulated by reactive oxygen species. In root cell growth, adaptation to salinity stress, and stomatal closure, such proteins operate downstream of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidases that produce extracellular superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species that is readily converted to extracellular hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, OH•. In root cells, extracellular OH• activates a plasma membrane Ca²⁺-permeable conductance that permits Ca²⁺ influx. In Arabidopsis thaliana, distribution of this conductance resembles that of annexin1 (ANN1). Annexins are membrane binding proteins that can form Ca²⁺-permeable conductances in vitro. Here, the Arabidopsis loss-of-function mutant for annexin1 (Atann1) was found to lack the root hair and epidermal OH•-activated Ca²⁺- and K⁺-permeable conductance. This manifests in both impaired root cell growth and ability to elevate root cell cytosolic free Ca²⁺ in response to OH•. An OH•-activated Ca²⁺ conductance is reconstituted by recombinant ANN1 in planar lipid bilayers. ANN1 therefore presents as a novel Ca²⁺-permeable transporter providing a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and cytosolic Ca²⁺ in plants.

  7. [Interaction between TRPC1 and STIM1 in calcium sensing receptor mediated calcium influx and nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Zhong, H; Tang, N; Pang, L J; Zhang, C J; He, F

    2017-11-24

    Objective: To investigate the interaction of Ca(2+) protein TRPC1 and STIM1 in extracellular Ca(2+) -sensing receptor (CaR)-induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx and the production of nitric oxide (NO). Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and incubated with CaR agonist spermine (activating store-operates cation channels (SOC) and receptor-operated channels (ROC)), CaR negative allosteric modulator Calhex231 (blocking SOC, activating ROC) and ROC analogue TPA (activating ROC, blocking SOC), protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro31-8220, PKCs and PKCμ inhibitor Go6967(activate SOC, blocking ROC), respectively. The interaction of TRPC1 and STIM1 was determined using the immunofluorescence methods. The interaction between TRPC1 and STIM1 were examined by Co-immuno precipitation. The HUVECs were divided into: TRPC1 and STIM1 short hairpin RNA group (shTRPC1+ shSTIM1 group), vehicle-TRPC1+ vehicle-STIM1 group and control group. The cells were incubated with four different treatments under the action of above mentioned interventions, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](i)) was detected using the fluorescence Ca(2+) indicator Fura-2/AM, the production of NO was determined by DAF-FM. Results: (1) The expression of TRPC1 and STIM1 proteins levels in HUVECs: Under the confocal microscope, TRPC1 and STIM1 protein expression showed masculine gender, both located in cytoplasm in the normal control group. Post incubation with Calhex231+ TPA, Ro31-8220 and Go6967, TRPC1 and STIM1 positioned in cytoplasm was significantly reduced, and the combined TRPC1 and STIM1 was also significantly reduced. (2) The interaction of TRPC1 and STIM1 in HUVECs: The relative ratios of Calhex231+ TPA+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group, Ro31-8220+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group and Go6976+ Spermine+ Ca(2+) group STIM1/TRPC1 and TRPC1/STIM1 were as follows: (25.98±2.17)% and (44.10±4.01)%, (20.85±1.01)% and (46.31±3.47)%, (23.88±2.05)% and (39.65±2.91)%, which were

  8. Relationship between sodium influx and salt tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, S.K.; Reddy, B.R.; Thomas, J.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between sodium uptake and cyanobacterial salt (NaCl) tolerance has been examined in two filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing species of Anabaena. During diazotrophic growth at neutral pH of the growth medium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31, a freshwater strain, showed threefold higher uptake of Na+ than Anabaena torulosa, a brackish-water strain, and was considerably less salt tolerant (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 55 mM) than the latter (50% lethal dose of NaCl, 170 mM). Alkaline pH or excess K+ (more than 25 mM) in the medium causes membrane depolarization and inhibits Na+ influx in both cyanobacteria (S.K. Apte and J. Thomas, Eur. J. Biochem. 154:395-401, 1986). The presence of nitrate or ammonium in the medium caused inhibition of Na+ influx accompanied by membrane depolarization. These experimental manipulations affecting Na+ uptake demonstrated a good negative correlation between Na+ influx and salt tolerance. All treatments which inhibited Na+ influx (such as alkaline pH, K+ above 25 mM, NO3-, and NH4+), enhanced salt tolerance of not only the brackish-water but also the freshwater cyanobacterium. The results indicate that curtailment of Na+ influx, whether inherent or effected by certain environmental factors (e.g., combined nitrogen, alkaline pH), is a major mechanism of salt tolerance in cyanobacteria. (Refs. 27)

  9. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Jeans, Alexander F.; van Heusden, Fran C.; Al-Mubarak, Bashayer; Padamsey, Zahid; Emptage, Nigel J.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VGCC) represent the principal source of Ca2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent ...

  10. Voltage-Induced Ca²⁺ Release in Postganglionic Sympathetic Neurons in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Sun

    Full Text Available Recent studies have provided evidence that depolarization in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ can trigger Ca2+ release from internal stores in a variety of neuron subtypes. Here we examine whether postganglionic sympathetic neurons are able to mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores in response to depolarization, independent of Ca2+ influx. We measured changes in cytosolic ΔF/F0 in individual fluo-4 -loaded sympathetic ganglion neurons in response to maintained K+ depolarization in the presence (2 mM and absence of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e. Progressive elevations in extracellular [K+]e caused increasing membrane depolarizations that were of similar magnitude in 0 and 2 mM [Ca2+]e. Peak amplitude of ΔF/F0 transients in 2 mM [Ca2+]e increased in a linear fashion as the membrane become more depolarized. Peak elevations of ΔF/F0 in 0 mM [Ca2+]e were ~5-10% of those evoked at the same membrane potential in 2 mM [Ca2+]e and exhibited an inverse U-shaped dependence on voltage. Both the rise and decay of ΔF/F0 transients in 0 mM [Ca2+]e were slower than those of ΔF/F0 transients evoked in 2 mM [Ca2+]e. Rises in ΔF/F0 evoked by high [K+]e in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ were blocked by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, or the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 receptor antagonists 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and xestospongin C, but not by extracellular Cd2+, the dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine, or by ryanodine at concentrations that caused depletion of ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ stores. These results support the notion that postganglionic sympathetic neurons possess the ability to release Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive internal stores in response to membrane depolarization, independent of Ca2+ influx.

  11. Vasoconstriction triggered by hydrogen sulfide: Evidence for Na+,K+,2Cl-cotransport and L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Gusakova, Svetlana V; Smaglii, Liudmila V; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Sidorenko, Svetalana V

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the dose-dependent actions of hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) on isometric contractions and ion transport in rat aorta smooth muscle cells (SMC). Isometric contraction was measured in ring aortas segments from male Wistar rats. Activity of Na + /K + -pump and Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport was measured in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta as ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-resistant, bumetanide-sensitive components of the 86 Rb influx, respectively. NaHS exhibited the bimodal action on contractions triggered by modest depolarization ([K + ] o =30 mM). At 10 -4 M, NaHS augmented contractions of intact and endothelium-denuded strips by ~ 15% and 25%, respectively, whereas at concentration of 10 -3  M it decreased contractile responses by more than two-fold. Contractions evoked by 10 -4  M NaHS were completely abolished by bumetanide, a potent inhibitor of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport, whereas the inhibition seen at 10 -3  M NaHS was suppressed in the presence of K + channel blocker TEA. In cultured SMC, 5×10 -5  M NaHS increased Na + ,K + ,2Cl - - cotransport without any effect on the activity of this carrier in endothelial cells. In depolarized SMC, 45 Ca influx was enhanced in the presence of 10 -4  M NaHS and suppressed under elevation of [NaHS] up to 10 -3  M. 45 Ca influx triggered by 10 -4  M NaHS was abolished by bumetanide and L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker nicardipine. Our results strongly suggest that contractions of rat aortic rings triggered by low doses of NaHS are mediated by activation of Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransport and Ca 2+ influx via L-type channels.

  12. Apo-states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine; Minor, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks CDI and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca2+/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium binding properties. The observation that the apo-forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. PMID:23811053

  13. Apo states of calmodulin and CaBP1 control CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channel function through direct competition for the IQ domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Rumpf, Christine H; Minor, Daniel L

    2013-09-09

    In neurons, binding of calmodulin (CaM) or calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) to the CaV1 (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channel IQ domain endows the channel with diametrically opposed properties. CaM causes calcium-dependent inactivation and limits calcium entry, whereas CaBP1 blocks calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and allows sustained calcium influx. Here, we combine isothermal titration calorimetry with cell-based functional measurements and mathematical modeling to show that these calcium sensors behave in a competitive manner that is explained quantitatively by their apo-state binding affinities for the IQ domain. This competition can be completely blocked by covalent tethering of CaM to the channel. Further, we show that Ca(2+)/CaM has a sub-picomolar affinity for the IQ domain that is achieved without drastic alteration of calcium-binding properties. The observation that the apo forms of CaM and CaBP1 compete with each other demonstrates a simple mechanism for direct modulation of CaV1 function and suggests a means by which excitable cells may dynamically tune CaV activity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress activates the TRPM2-Ca2+-CaMKII-ROS signaling loop to induce cell death in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Huang, Lihong; Yue, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    High intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress that results in numerous pathologies, including cell death. Transient potential receptor melastatin-2 (TRPM2), a Ca 2+ -permeable cation channel, is mainly activated by intracellular adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) in response to oxidative stress. Here we studied the role and mechanisms of TRPM2-mediated Ca 2+ influx on oxidative stress-induced cell death in cancer cells. We found that oxidative stress activated the TRPM2-Ca 2+ -CaMKII cascade to inhibit early autophagy induction, which ultimately led to cell death in TRPM2 expressing cancer cells. On the other hand, TRPM2 knockdown switched cells from cell death to autophagy for survival in response to oxidative stress. Moreover, we found that oxidative stress activated the TRPM2-CaMKII cascade to further induce intracellular ROS production, which led to mitochondria fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, our data demonstrated that oxidative stress activates the TRPM2-Ca 2+ -CaMKII-ROS signal loop to inhibit autophagy and induce cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytosine arabinoside influx and nucleoside transport sites in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J S; Jones, S P; Sawyer, W H; Paterson, A R

    1982-02-01

    Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells, since mean influxes for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 6- and 2.3-fold greater than polymorphs and lymphocytes, respectively. Also, the mean influx for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than the mean for lymphoblasts. The number of nucleoside transport sites was estimated for each cell type by measuring the equilibrium binding of [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), which inhibits nucleoside fluxes by binding with high affinity to specific sites on the transport mechanism. The mean binding site numbers for myeloblasts and lymphoblasts were 5- and 2.8-fold greater, respectively, than for the mature cells of the same maturation series. The mean number of NBMPR binding sites for myeloblasts was fourfold greater than for lymphoblasts. Patients with AUL were heterogeneous since blasts from some gave values within the myeloblastic range and others within the lymphoblastic range. The araC influx correlated closely with the number of NBMPR binding sites measured in the same cells on the same day. Transport parameters were measured on blasts from 15 patients with AML or AUL who were then treated with standard induction therapy containing araC. Eight patients entered complete remission, while seven failed therapy, among whom were the three patients with the lowest araC influx (myeloblasts have both higher araC transport rates and more nucleoside transport sites than lymphoblasts and this factor may contribute to the greater sensitivity of AML to this drug. AraC transport varied >10

  16. Cytosine Arabinoside Influx and Nucleoside Transport Sites in Acute Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, J. S.; Jones, S. P.; Sawyer, W. H.; Paterson, A. R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Although cytosine arabinoside (araC) can induce a remission in a majority of patients presenting with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), a minority fail to respond and moreover the drug has less effect in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The carrier-mediated influx of araC into purified blasts from patients with AML, ALL, and acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) has been compared to that of normal lymphocytes and polymorphs. Blasts showed a larger mediated influx of araC than mature cells...

  17. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  18. Ca²⁺ signal contributing to the synthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zenghui; Li, Tianjiao; Zheng, Jian; Yang, Kai; He, Xiangfeng; Leng, Pingsheng

    2015-06-01

    The floral scent is an important part of plant volatile compounds, and is influenced by environmental factors. The emission of monoterpenes of Lilium 'siberia' is regulated by light intensity, but the mechanism is large unknown. In this study, the expression of Li-mTPS, a monoterpene synthase gene in the tepals of Lilium 'siberia', and net Ca(2+) flux were investigated after exposure to different levels of light intensity (0, 100, 300, 600, 1000, and 1500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Moreover the effect of LaCl3 and ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) on the Li-mTPS expression, monoterpene emission, and net Ca(2+) flux were examined at 600 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that along with the enhancement of light intensity, the expression level of Li-mTPS increased gradually, and the net Ca(2+) influx was also enhanced showing a similar pattern. It was found that LaCl3 and EGTA effectively inhibited the increase in expression of Li-mTPS and the net Ca(2+) influx induced by light treatment. Moreover, the release amounts of monoterpenes decreased significantly after treatment with LaCl3 and EGTA. So it can be concluded that Ca(2+) signal contributed to the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity in Lilium 'siberia' tepals. The increased light intensity firstly triggered the Ca(2+) influx to cytoplasm, and then the gene expression of monoterpene synthases downstream was activated to regulate the biosynthesis and emission of monoterpenes. But in the signaling pathway other mechanisms were thought to be involved in the emission of monoterpenes regulated by light intensity, which need to be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel

  20. Cerebellar ataxia by enhanced Cav2.1 currents is alleviated by Ca2+-dependent K-channel activators in Cacna1aS218l mutant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Gao (Zhenyu); B. Todorov (Boyan); C.F. Barrett (Curtis); S. van Dorp (Stijn); M.D. Ferrari (Michel); M. Dichgans (Martin); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); F.E. Hoebeek (Freek)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMutations in the CACNA1A gene are associated with neurological disorders, such as ataxia, hemiplegic migraine, and epilepsy. These mutations affect the pore-forming α1A-subunit of CaV2.1 channels and thereby either decrease or increase neuronal Ca2+ influx. A decreased CaV2.1-mediated

  1. Effective water influx control in gas reservoir development: Problems and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the diversity of geological characteristics and the complexity of percolation rules, many problems are found ineffective water influx control in gas reservoir development. The problems mainly focus on how to understand water influx rules, to establish appropriate countermeasures, and to ensure the effectiveness of technical measures. It is hard to obtain a complete applicable understanding through the isolated analysis of an individual gas reservoir due to many factors such as actual gas reservoir development phase, research work, pertinence and timeliness of measures, and so on. Over the past four decades, the exploration, practicing and tracking research have been conducted on water control in gas reservoir development in the Sichuan Basin, and a series of comprehensive water control technologies were developed integrating advanced concepts, successful experiences, specific theories and mature technologies. Though the development of most water-drive gas reservoirs was significantly improved, water control effects were quite different. Based on this background, from the perspective of the early-phase requirements of water influx control, the influencing factors of a water influx activity, the dynamic analysis method of water influx performance, the optimizing strategy of a water control, and the water control experience of typical gas reservoirs, this paper analyzed the key problems of water control, evaluated the influencing factors of water control effect, explored the practical water control strategies, and proposed that it should be inappropriate to apply the previous water control technological model to actual work but the pertinence should be improved according to actual circumstances. The research results in the paper provide technical reference for the optimization of water-invasion gas reservoir development.

  2. Polyamines as mediators of insulin's action on pyruvate dehydrogenase, 45Ca2+ fluxes, and membrane transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, A.D.; Koenig, H.; Lu, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Insulin (IN) induces a rapid stimulation of Ca 2+ fluxes and membrane transport in mouse kidney cortex which involves rapid polyamine synthesis. 1.3 nM (IN) induced an early ( 45 Ca 2+ influx and efflux peaked at 1-2 min and returned to basal levels by 5-10 min. The ODC inhibitor α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, 5 mM) abolished IN stimulation of PDH, 45 Ca 2+ fluxes and membrane transport, and putrescine (.5 mM) nullified DFMO inhibition. IN (50 mUnits/kg) in rats induced an early ( 2+ fluxes, and membrane transport

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  4. INMS measures an influx of molecules from Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 1984, Connerney and Waite proposed water influx from Saturn's rings to explain the low electron densities measured during Pioneer and Voyager radio occultation experiments. Charge exchange with this minor species depleted the H+ ions and provided a faster path to electron recombination. With ice the primary constituent of the rings, water was the most likely in-falling molecule. During the Grand Finale orbits, Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) detected and quantified an influx from the rings. Unexpectedly, the primary influx molecules are CH4 and a heavier carbon-bearing species. Water was detected, but quantities were factors of ten lower than these other species. Distribution in both altitude and latitude are consistent with a ring influx. The concentration of the minor species in Saturn's atmosphere shows that they enter Saturn's atmosphere from the top. Both molecules have their highest concentrations at the highest altitudes, with concentrations >0.4% at 3,500 km altitude and only 0.02% at 2,700 km. Molecules from the rings deorbit to Saturn's atmosphere at altitudes near 4,000 km, consistent with the INMS measurements. The latitudinal dependence of the minor species indicates that their source is near the equatorial plane. At high altitudes, the minor species were observed primarily at zero latitude, where the 28u species was six times more concentrated than at 5° latitude. At lower altitudes, the peaking ratio was 1, indicating that the species had diffused and was fully mixed into Saturn's H2 atmosphere. The lighter molecule, CH4, diffuses more rapidly than the 28u species. INMS also detected both of these species during the earlier F-ring passes, finding that the neutrals were centered at the ring plane and extended 3,000 km (half width, half max) north and south.

  5. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca2+ on 45Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis on 45 Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca 2+ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased 45 Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca 2+ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca 2+ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell

  6. Cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan reduces ischaemia-related neutrophil influx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, PM; Schoemaker, RG; van Veghel, R; Hoepelman, AIM; Coenjaerts, FEJ

    Background The capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Cryptococcus neoformans interferes with the chemotaxis and transendothelial migration of neutrophils. Intravenous administration of purified GXM has been shown to reduce the influx of inflammatory cells in an animal model of

  7. Ethanol enhances GABA-induced 36Cl-influx in primary spinal cord cultured neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticku, M.K.; Lowrimore, P.; Lehoullier, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol has a pharmacological profile similar to other centrally acting drugs, which facilitate GABAergic transmission. GABA is known to produce its effects by increasing the conductance to Cl- ions. In this study, we have examined the effect of ethanol on GABA-induced 36Cl-influx in primary spinal cord cultured neurons. GABA produces a concentration-dependent, and saturable effect on 36Cl-influx in these neurons. Ethanol potentiates the effect of GABA on 36Cl-influx in these neurons. GABA (20 microM) increased the 36Cl-influx by 75% over the basal value, and in the presence of 50 mM ethanol, the observed increase was 142%. Eadie-Hoffstee analysis of the saturation curves indicated that ethanol decreases the Km value of GABA (10.6 microM to 4.2 microM), and also increases the Vmax. Besides potentiating the effect of GABA, ethanol also appears to have a direct effect in the absence of added GABA. These results suggest that ethanol enhances GABA-induced 36Cl-influx and indicate a role of GABAergic system in the actions of ethanol. These results also support the behavioral and electrophysiological studies, which have implicated GABA systems in the actions of ethanol. The potential mechanism(s) and the role of direct effect of ethanol is not clear at this time, but is currently being investigated

  8. Neutrophil elastase-induced elastin degradation mediates macrophage influx and lung injury in 60% O2-exposed neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Azhar; Yi, Man; Belcastro, Rosetta; Li, Jun; Lopez, Lianet; Kantores, Crystal; Jankov, Robert P; Tanswell, A Keith

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophil (PMNL) influx precedes lung macrophage (LM) influx into the lung following exposure of newborn pups to 60% O2. We hypothesized that PMNL were responsible for the signals leading to LM influx. This was confirmed when inhibition of PMNL influx with a CXC chemokine receptor-2 antagonist, SB-265610, also prevented the 60% O2-dependent LM influx, LM-derived nitrotyrosine formation, and pruning of small arterioles. Exposure to 60% O2 was associated with increased lung contents of neutrophil elastase and α-elastin, a marker of denatured elastin, and a decrease in elastin fiber density. This led us to speculate that neutrophil elastase-induced elastin fragments were the chemokines that led to a LM influx into the 60% O2-exposed lung. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase with sivelestat or elafin attenuated the LM influx. Sivelestat also attenuated the 60% O2-induced decrease in elastin fiber density. Daily injections of pups with an antibody to α-elastin prevented the 60% O2-dependent LM influx, impaired alveologenesis, and impaired small vessel formation. This suggests that neutrophil elastase inhibitors may protect against neonatal lung injury not only by preventing structural elastin degradation, but also by blocking elastin fragment-induced LM influx, thus preventing tissue injury from LM-derived peroxynitrite formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Early postischemic 45Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benveniste, H.; Diemer, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of 45 Ca and 3 H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of 45 Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the 45 Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with 3 H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of 45 Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of 3 H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that 45 Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca 2+ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane

  10. A critical comparison of the current view of Ca signaling with the novel concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus; Gartzke, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    A detailed comparative survey on the current idea of Ca signaling and the alternative concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling is given. The two hypotheses differ in one central aspect - the mechanism of Ca storage. The current theory rests on the assumption of Ca-accumulating vesicles derived from the endoplasmic/ sarcoplasmic reticulum, which are equipped with an ATP-dependent Ca pump and IP3- or ryanodine-sensitive Ca-release channels/receptors. The alternative hypothesis proceeds from the idea of Ca storage at the high-affinity binding sites of F-actin subunits. Several prominent features of Ca signaling, which are not adequately described by the current concept, are inherent properties of the F-actin system and its dynamic state of treadmilling. F-actin is the only known biological Ca-binding system that has been proven by in vitro experiments to work within the physiological range of Ca concentrations and the only system that meets all necessary conditions to function as receptor-operated Ca store and as a coupling device between the Ca store and the store-operated Ca influx pathway. The most important properties of Ca signaling, such as store-channel coupling, quantal Ca release, spiking and oscillations, biphasic and "phasic" uptake kinetics, and Ca-induced Ca release, turn out to be systematic features of the new concept but remain unexplained by the classical vesicle storage hypothesis. A number of novel findings, specifically recent reports about direct effects of actin-specific toxins on Ca stores, have strengthened the new concept. The concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling combined with the notion of microvillar regulation of ion and substrate fluxes opens new aspects and far-reaching consequences, not only for cellular Ca signaling but also for various other cell functions, and represents an opportunity to connect several fields of cell physiology on the basis of a common mechanism.

  11. The CaV2.3 R-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel in mouse sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca(2+) channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca(2+) channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3(-/-) mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca(2+) influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in rodent sleep. The role of CaV2.3 Ca(2+) channels was analyzed in CaV2.3(-/-) mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3(-/-) mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca(2+) channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3(-/-) mice remain to be determined. Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamocortical loop and extra

  12. EGF suppresses hydrogen peroxide induced Ca2+ influx by inhibiting L-type channel activity in cultured human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Stefan; Pleyer, Uwe; Reinach, Peter; Bednarz, Jürgen; Dannowski, Haike; Engelmann, Katrin; Hartmann, Christian; Yousif, Tarik

    2005-02-01

    Endogenous generated hydrogen peroxide during eye bank storage limits viability. We determined in cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) whether: (1) this oxidant induces elevations in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i; (2) epidermal growth factor (EGF) medium supplementation has a protective effect against peroxide mediated rises in [Ca2+]i. Whereas pathophysiological concentrations of H2O2 (10 mM) induced irreversible large increases in [Ca2+]i, lower concentrations (up to 1 mM) had smaller effects, which were further reduced by exposure to either 5 microM nifedipine or EGF (10 ng ml(-1)). EGF had a larger protective effect against H2O2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i than nifedipine. In addition, icilin, the agonist for the temperature sensitive transient receptor potential protein, TRPM8, had complex dose-dependent effects (i.e. 10 and 50 microM) on [Ca2+]i. At 10 microM, it reversibly elevated [Ca2+]i whereas at 50 microM an opposite effect occurred suggesting complex effects of temperature on endothelial viability. Taken together, H2O2 induces rises in [Ca2+]i that occur through increases in Ca2+ permeation along plasma membrane pathways that include L-type Ca2+ channels as well as other EGF-sensitive pathways. As EGF overcomes H2O2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i, its presence during eye bank storage could improve the outcome of corneal transplant surgery.

  13. Clinical outcomes of patients with clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer arising from endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, E Sun; Kim, Tae Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Jeong Won

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this investigation is to compare outcomes of patients according to the presence of cancer arising from endometriosis in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and endometrioid carcinoma (EC). This study retrospectively investigated 224 CCC and EC patients treated in Samsung Medical Center from 2001 to 2015 to identify cancer arising from endometriosis according to Sampson and Scott criteria. Propensity score matching was performed to compare patients arising from endometriosis to patients without endometriosis (ratio 1:1) according to stage, age, lymph node metastasis (LNM), cancer antigen (CA)-125 level, and residual status after debulking surgery. Forty-five cases arising from endometriosis were compared with 179 cases without endometriosis. CCC and EC arising from endometriosis tended to present with early age (mean, 45.2 vs. 49.2 years; p=0.003), early-stage (stages I and II, 92.7% vs. 62.3%; p<0.001), lower CA-125 level (mean, 307.1 vs. 556.7; p=0.041), higher percentages of no gross residual disease after surgery (87.8% vs.56.8%; p=0.001), and higher percentages of negative LNM (82.9% vs. 59.0%; p=0.008) compared to cases without endometriosis. Kaplan-Meier curves for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) showed better outcomes for groups with cancer arising from endometriosis (p=0.014 for PFS; and p=0.010 for OS). However, the association with endometriosis was not significant in multivariate analysis. Also, after propensity score matching, survival differences between the 2 groups were not significant. CCC and EC arising from endometriosis are diagnosed at an earlier age and stage. However, cancer arising from endometriosis was not a significant prognostic factor. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  14. Ca2+ transport and signalling in enamel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Eckstein, Miriam; Feske, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dental enamel is one of the most remarkable examples of matrix‐mediated biomineralization. Enamel crystals form de novo in a rich extracellular environment in a stage‐dependent manner producing complex microstructural patterns that are visually stunning. This process is orchestrated by specialized epithelial cells known as ameloblasts which themselves undergo striking morphological changes, switching function from a secretory role to a cell primarily engaged in ionic transport. Ameloblasts are supported by a host of cell types which combined represent the enamel organ. Fully mineralized enamel is the hardest tissue found in vertebrates owing its properties partly to the unique mixture of ionic species represented and their highly organized assembly in the crystal lattice. Among the main elements found in enamel, Ca2+ is the most abundant ion, yet how ameloblasts modulate Ca2+ dynamics remains poorly known. This review describes previously proposed models for passive and active Ca2+ transport, the intracellular Ca2+ buffering systems expressed in ameloblasts and provides an up‐dated view of current models concerning Ca2+ influx and extrusion mechanisms, where most of the recent advances have been made. We also advance a new model for Ca2+ transport by the enamel organ. PMID:27510811

  15. TFTR L mode energy confinement related to deuterium influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Tokamak energy confinement scaling in TFTR L mode and supershot regimes is discussed. The main result is that TFTR L mode plasmas fit the supershot scaling law for energy confinement. In both regimes, plasma transport coefficients increased with increased edge deuterium influx. The common L mode confinement scaling law on TFTR is also inversely proportional to the volume of wall material that is heated to a high temperature, possibly the temperature at which the deuterium sorbed in the material becomes detrapped and highly mobile. The deuterium influx is increased by: (a) increased beam power due to a deeper heated depth in the edge components and (b) decreased plasma current due to an increased wetted area as governed by the empirically observed dependence of the SOL width upon plasma current. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  16. Ca2+ sensitization and Ca2+ entry in the control of blood pressure and adrenergic vasoconstriction in conscious Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behuliak, Michal; Pintérová, Mária; Bencze, Michal; Petrová, M.; Líšková, Silvia; Karen, Petr; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vaněčková, Ivana; Zicha, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2013), s. 2025-2035 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Ca2+ influx * nifedipine * RhoA/Rho kinase * fasudil * sympathetic vasoconstriction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.222, year: 2013

  17. DDPH ameliorated oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in rat hippocampal neurons via interrupting Ca2+ overload and glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Huang, Lin; Chen, Jianguo; Guo, Lianjun

    2009-01-28

    Our previous work has demonstrated that DDPH (1-(2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride), a competitive alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, could improve cognitive deficits, reduce histopathological damage and facilitate synaptic plasticity in vivo possibly via increasing NR2B (NMDA receptor 2B) expression and antioxidation of DDPH itself. The present study further evaluated effects of DDPH on OGD (Oxygen and glucose deprivation)-induced neuronal damage in rat primary hippocampal cells. The addition of DDPH to the cultured cells 12 h before OGD for 4 h significantly reduced neuronal damage as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release experiments. The effects of DDPH on intracellular calcium concentration were explored by Fura-2 based calcium imaging techniques and results showed that DDPH at the dosages of 5 microM and 10 microM suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) stimulated by 50 mM KCl in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions. However, DDPH couldn't suppress the increase of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by both 50 microM glutamate in Ca(2+)-containing extracellular solutions and 20 microM ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) in Ca(2+)-free solution. These results indicated that DDPH prevented [Ca(2+)](i) overload in hippocampal neurons by blocking Ca(2+) influx (voltage-dependent calcium channel) but not Ca(2+) mobilization from the intracellular Ca(2+) store in endoplasm reticulum (ER). We also demonstrated that DDPH could decrease glutamate release when hippocampal cells were subjected to OGD. These observations demonstrated that DDPH protected hippocampal neurons against OGD-induced damage by preventing the Ca(2+) influx and decreasing glutamate release.

  18. Enhanced carbon influx into TFTR supershots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.T.; Bush, C.E.; Dylla, H.F.; Owens, D.K.; Pitcher, C.S.; Ulrickson, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Under some conditions, a very large influx of carbon into TFTR occurs during neutral beam injection into low recycling plasmas (the supershot regime). These carbon ''blooms'' result in serious degradation of plasma parameters. The sources of this carbon have been identified as hot spots on the TFTR bumper limiter at or near the last closed flux surface. Two separate temperature thresholds have been identified. One threshold, at about 1650 deg. C, is consistent with radiation enhanced sublimation (RES). The other, at about 2300 deg. C, appears to be thermal sublimation of carbon from the limiter. The carbon influx can be quantitatively accounted for by taking laboratory values for RES rates, making reasonable assumptions about the extent of the blooming area and assuming unity carbon recycling at the limiter. Such high carbon recycling is expected, and it is shown that, in target plasmas at least, it is observed on TFTR. The sources of the carbon blooms are sites which have either loosely attached fragments of limiter material (caused by damage) or surfaces that are nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Such surfaces may have local power depositions two orders of magnitude higher than usual. The TFTR team modified the limiter during the opening of winter 1989-1990. The modifications greatly reduced the number and magnitude of the blooms, so that they are no longer a problem. (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  19. The investigation of minoxidil-induced [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Minoxidil is clinically used to prevent hair loss. However, its effect on Ca 2+ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored the effect of minoxidil on cytosolic-free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Minoxidil at concentrations between 200 and 800 μM evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by 60% by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ influx was confirmed by Mn 2+ -induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), nifedipine and SKF96365 inhibited minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ signal in Ca 2+ containing medium by 60%. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-ditert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca 2+ -free medium abolished minoxidil-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Conversely, treatment with minoxidil abolished BHQ-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished minoxidil-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Overnight treatment with minoxidil killed cells at concentrations of 200-600 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent minoxidil's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 cells, minoxidil induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises that involved Ca 2+ entry through PKC-regulated store-operated Ca 2+ channels and PLC-dependent Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Minoxidil-induced cytotoxicity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner.

  20. Use of geochemical tracers for estimating groundwater influxes to the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; Mehan, Sushant; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and variability of geochemical tracers is crucial for estimating groundwater influxes into a river and can contribute to better future water management strategies. Because of the much higher radon (222Rn) activities in groundwater compared to river water, 222Rn was used as the main tracer to estimate groundwater influxes to river discharge over a 323-km distance of the Big Sioux River, eastern South Dakota, USA; these influx estimates were compared to the estimates using Cl- concentrations. In the reaches overall, groundwater influxes using the 222Rn activity approach ranged between 0.3 and 6.4 m3/m/day (mean 1.8 m3/m/day) and the cumulative groundwater influx estimated during the study period was 3,982-146,594 m3/day (mean 40,568 m3/day), accounting for 0.2-41.9% (mean 12.5%) of the total river flow rate. The mean groundwater influx derived using the 222Rn activity approach was lower than that calculated based on Cl- concentration (35.6 m3/m/day) for most of the reaches. Based on the Cl- approach, groundwater accounted for 37.3% of the total river flow rate. The difference between the method estimates may be associated with minimal differences between groundwater and river Cl- concentrations. These assessments will provide a better understanding of estimates used for the allocation of water resources to sustain agricultural productivity in the basin. However, a more detailed sampling program is necessary for accurate influx estimation, and also to understand the influence of seasonal variation on groundwater influxes into the basin.

  1. Thermal conductive heating in fractured bedrock: Screening calculations to assess the effect of groundwater influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Daniel P.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2009-02-01

    A two-dimensional semi-analytical heat transfer solution is developed and a parameter sensitivity analysis performed to determine the relative importance of rock material properties (density, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) and hydrogeological properties (hydraulic gradient, fracture aperture, fracture spacing) on the ability to heat fractured rock using thermal conductive heating (TCH). The solution is developed using a Green's function approach in which an integral equation is constructed for the temperature in the fracture. Subsurface temperature distributions are far more sensitive to hydrogeological properties than material properties. The bulk ground water influx ( q) can provide a good estimate of the extent of influx cooling when influx is low to moderate, allowing the prediction of temperatures during heating without specific knowledge of the aperture and spacing of fractures. Target temperatures may not be reached or may be significantly delayed when the groundwater influx is large.

  2. Influx: A Tool and Framework for Reasoning under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    document provides a high-level description of Influx1 from the reasoning perspective. The organisation of the document is given below. Section 2 presents a...exhibits behaviour similar to that of the proposed alternatives while maintaining mathematical simplicity and possessing highly-desirable

  3. Stimulation of Drosophila TrpL by capacitative Ca2+ entry.

    OpenAIRE

    Estacion, M; Sinkins, W G; Schilling, W P

    1999-01-01

    Trp-like protein (TrpL, where Trp is transient receptor-potential protein) of Drosophila, a non-selective cation channel activated in photoreceptor cells by a phospholipase C-dependent mechanism, is thought to be a prototypical receptor-activated channel. Our previous studies showed that TrpL channels are not activated by depletion of internal Ca2+ stores when expressed in Sf9 cells. Using fura-2 to measure cation influx via TrpL, and cell-attached patch recordings to monitor TrpL single-chan...

  4. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  5. Endomembrane Ca2+-AtPases play a significant role in virus-induced adaptation to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Sergey; Bækgaard, Lone; Shabala, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of Ca2+ influx channels in oxidative stress signaling and cross-tolerance in plants is well established, little is known about the role of active Ca2+ efflux systems in this process. In our recent paper,17 we reported Potato Virus X (PVX)-induced acquired resistance to oxidative...... in adaptive responses to oxidative stress by removing excessive Ca2+ from the cytosol, and that their functional expression is significantly altered in PVX-inoculated plants. These findings highlight the crucial role of Ca2+ efflux systems in acquired tolerance to oxidative stress and open up prospects...... stress in Nicotiana benthamiana and showed the critical role of plasma membrane Ca2+/H+ exchangers in this process. The current study continues this research. Using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, we reveal that both endomembrane P2A and P2B Ca2+-ATPases play significant roles...

  6. Tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane enhances capsaicin-induced intracellular Ca2+ influx through transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Murakami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-selective transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV cation channels are activated by various insults, including exposure to heat, acidity, and the compound capsaicin, resulting in sensations of pain in the skin, visceral organs, and oral cavity. Recently, TRPV1 activation was also demonstrated in response to basic pH elicited by ammonia and intracellular alkalization. Tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane (THAM is widely used as an alkalizing agent; however, the effects of THAM on TRPV1 channels have not been defined. In this study, we characterized the effects of THAM-induced TRPV1 channel activation in baby hamster kidney cells expressing human TRPV1 (hTRPV1 and the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent sensor GCaMP2 by real-time confocal microscopy. Notably, both capsaicin (1 μM and pH 6.5 buffer elicited steep increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, while treatment with THAM (pH 8.5 alone had no effect. However, treatment with THAM (pH 8.5 following capsaicin application elicited a profound, long-lasting increase in [Ca2+]i that was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Taken together, these results suggest that hTRPV1 pre-activation is required to provoke enhanced, THAM-induced [Ca2+]i increases, which could be a mechanism underlying pain induced by basic pH.

  7. Modification of Ca2+ - exchange in blood cells of cattles with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.S.; Kobyalko, V.O.; Shevchenko, T.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Astasheva, N.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing of Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm and of the rate of 45 Ca iflux into cows erythrocytes in 19-24 month efter Chernobyl accident was revealed. Correlation between Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm of erythrocytes and thyroxin content in plasma of cows with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland was found. Reduction of the rate of 45 Ga influx into erythrocytes in cows with radiation doses of 20-60 By on thyroid gland was shown in later time after accident (3-5 years). Changes in Ca 2+ permeability through membranes of erythrocytes and neutrophiles after injection of 131 I into calfs in doses of 300 Gy and more on thyroid gland was found

  8. Potentiation of the isoproterenol-induced net /sup 45/Ca uptake into the ventricular myocardium of rats by means of 9. cap alpha. -fluorocortisoleacetate, dihydrotachysterole or NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. Cancelling of the potentiation by organic Ca/sup 2 +/ antagonists or K/sup +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R

    1974-01-01

    Myocardial necroses resembling infarctions as well as disseminated myocardial necroses can be induced in rats by high doses of isoprotenerol which effects a maximum stimulation of the decomposition of energy-rich phosphate. This leads to an isoprotenerol-induced increase of the transmembranous Ca/sup + +/ influx, flooding the myocardium with Ca/sup + +/ ions. It is these Ca/sup + +/ ions which then trigger the break-down of the ATP and creatine phosphate fractions by activating the myofibrit-ATPase and impairing the mitochondrial function. It seems that physiological Ca/sup + +/ antagonists such as K/sup +/- or Mg/sup + +/-salts counteract the loss of energy-rich phosphate, thus preventing necroses. A new group of organic Ca/sup + +/ antagonists (verapamil, substance D 600, prenylamine) appears to be even more effective in this respect. Given in appropriate doses, these substances may prevent the isoprotenerol-induced Ca/sup + +/ flooding of the myocardium to a large extent, so that a break-down of the ATP and creatine phosphate fractions is avoided. On the other hand, the isoprotenerol-induced increase of the Ca/sup + +/ influx may be further potentiated by a preliminary treatment of the animals with 9..cap alpha..-fluorocortisoleacetate, dihydrotachysterole or NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/. This results in an extreme loss of energy-rich phosphate from the myocardium with excessive enhancement of necrosis production. The findings suggest that - unrecognized so far - Ca/sup + +/ ions play a key role in the generation of myocardial necroses: the present assumption, according to which increased Ca/sup + +/ uptake into damaged myocardial fibres is only a result - or at the most an accompanying symptom - of necrosis can thus no longer be considered valid.

  9. Induction of nitrate transport in maize roots, and kinetics of influx, measured with nitrogen-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, D.J.; Drew, M.C.; Emran, A.M.; Fares, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Unlike phosphate or potassium transport, uptake of nitrate by roots is induced, in part, by contact with the substrate ion. Plasmalemma influx of 13 N-labeled nitrate in maize roots was studied in relation to induction of the uptake system, and the influence of short-term N starvation. Maize (Zea mays) roots not previously exposed to nitrate had a constitutive transport system (state 1), but influx increased 250% during six hours of contact with 100 micromolar nitrate, by which time the transport mechanism appeared to be fully synthesized (state 2). A three-day period of N starvation prior to induction and measurement of nitrate influx resulted in a greater capacity to transport nitrate than in unstarved controls, but this was fully expressed only if roots were kept in contact with nitrate for the six hours needed for full induction (state 2E). A kinetic analysis indicated a 160% increase in maximum influx in N-starved, induced roots with a small decrease in K m . The inducible component to nitrate influx was induced only by contact with nitrate. Full expression of the nitrate inducible transport system was dependent upon mRNA synthesis. An inhibitor of cytoplasmic protein synthesis (cycloheximide) eliminated the formation of the transport system while inhibition by chloramphenicol of mitochondrial- or plastid-coded protein synthesis had no effect. Poisoning of membrane-bound proteins effectively disabled both the constitutive and induced transport systems

  10. Amyloid β-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.

  11. Amyloid β-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Uematsu, Chihiro; Minamino, Tatsuya; Adlard, Paul A; Bush, Ashley I; Tamano, Haruna

    2014-01-01

    We examined an idea that short-term cognition is transiently affected by a state of confusion in Zn2+ transport system due to a local increase in amyloid-β (Aβ) concentration. A single injection of Aβ (25 pmol) into the dentate gyrus affected dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Simultaneously, 1-h memory of object recognition was affected when the training was performed 1 h after the injection, but not 4 h after the injection. Aβ-mediated impairments of LTP and memory were rescued in the presence of zinc chelators, suggesting that Zn2+ is involved in Aβ action. When Aβ was injected into the dentate gyrus, intracellular Zn2+ levels were increased only in the injected area in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that Aβ induces the influx of Zn2+ into cells in the injected area. When Aβ was added to hippocampal slices, Aβ did not increase intracellular Zn2+ levels in the dentate granule cell layer in ACSF without Zn2+, but in ACSF containing Zn2+. The increase in intracellular Zn2+ levels was inhibited in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular zinc chelator, but not in the presence of CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist. The present study indicates that Aβ-mediated Zn2+ influx into dentate granule cells, which may occur without AMPA receptor activation, transiently induces a short-term cognitive deficit. Extracellular Zn2+ may play a key role for transiently Aβ-induced cognition deficits.

  12. New methodology for aquifer influx status classification for single wells in a gas reservoir with aquifer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For gas reservoirs with strong bottom or edge aquifer support, the most important thing is avoiding aquifer breakthrough in a gas well. Water production in gas wells does not only result in processing problems in surface facilities, but it also explicitly reduces well productivity and reservoir recovery. There are a lot of studies on the prediction of water breakthrough time, but they are not completely practicable due to reservoir heterogeneity. This paper provides a new method together with three diagnostic curves to identify aquifer influx status for single gas wells; the aforementioned curves are based on well production and pressure data. The whole production period of a gas well can be classified into three periods based on the diagnostic curves: no aquifer influx period, early aquifer influx period, and middle-late aquifer influx period. This new method has been used for actual gas well analysis to accurately identify gas well aquifer influx status and the water breakthrough sequence of all wells in the same gas field. Additionally, the evaluation results are significantly beneficial for well production rate optimization and development of an effective gas field.

  13. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti, E-mail: kitazawa.siniti@jaea.go.jp [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Ogawa, Hiroaki [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, JAEA, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke [Core Technology Center, Nikon Corporation, Yokohama 244-8533 (Japan); Ohmori, Keisuke [Customized Products Business Unit, Nikon Corporation, Mito 310-0843 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  14. Aberrations in preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity influx monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Katsunuma, Atsushi; Kitazawa, Daisuke; Ohmori, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • The spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of receiving fiber. • The aberration of DIM is suppressed in the preliminary design. - Abstract: Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is a diagnostic system that observes light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. This system is affected by various aberrations because it observes light from the fan-array chord near the divertor in the ultraviolet–near infrared wavelength range. The aberrations should be suppressed to the extent possible to observe the light with very high spatial resolution. In the preliminary design of DIM, spot diagrams were suppressed within the core of the receiving fiber's cross section, and the resulting spatial resolutions satisfied the design requirements.

  15. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  16. Influx mechanisms in the embryonic and adult rat choroid plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome of embryonic and adult rat lateral ventricular choroid plexus, using a combination of RNA-Sequencing and microarray data, was analyzed by functional groups of influx transporters, particularly solute carrier (SLC) transporters. RNA-Seq was performed at embryonic day (E) 15 and a...

  17. Inward rectifier K+ channel and T-type Ca2+ channel contribute to enhancement of GABAergic transmission induced by β1-adrenoceptor in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Zheng, Jian; Sun, Xuan; Tang, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) are sensitive to norepinephrine (NE). Endogenously released NE influences synaptic transmission through activation of different subtypes of adrenergic receptors in PFC including α 1 , α 2 , β 1 or β 2 -adrenoceptor. Our recent study has revealed that β 1 -adrenoceptor (β 1 -AR) activation modulates glutamatergic transmission in the PFC, whereas the roles of β 1 -AR in GABAergic transmission are elusive. In the current study, we probed the effects of the β 1 -AR agonist dobutamine (Dobu) on GABAergic transmission onto pyramidal neurons in the PFC of juvenile rats. Dobu increased both the frequency and amplitude of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). Ca 2+ influx through T-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel was required for Dobu-enhanced mIPSC frequency. We also found that Dobu facilitated GABA release probability and the number of releasable vesicles through regulating T-type Ca 2+ channel. Dobu depolarized GABAergic fast-spiking (FS) interneurons with no effects on the firing rate of action potentials (APs) of interneurons. Dobu-induced depolarization of FS interneurons required inward rectifier K + channel (Kir). Our results suggest that Dobu increase GABA release via inhibition of Kir, which further depolarizes FS interneurons resulting in Ca 2+ influx via T-type Ca 2+ channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelial CaMKII as a regulator of eNOS activity and NO-mediated vasoreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Murthy

    Full Text Available The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure. Under baseline conditions, CaMKII activation was low in the aortic wall. Consistently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma NO levels were unaltered by endothelial CaMKII inhibition. Moreover, endothelial CaMKII inhibition had no significant effect on NO-dependent vasodilation. These results were confirmed in studies of aortic rings transduced with adenovirus expressing a CaMKII inhibitor peptide. In cultured endothelial cells, bradykinin treatment produced the anticipated rapid influx of Ca2+ and transient CaMKII and eNOS activation, whereas CaMKII inhibition blocked eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1179 and dephosphorylation at Thr-497. Ca2+/CaM binding to eNOS and resultant NO production in vitro were decreased under CaMKII inhibition. Our results demonstrate that CaMKII plays an important role in transient bradykinin-driven eNOS activation in vitro, but does not regulate NO production, vasorelaxation or blood pressure in vivo under baseline conditions.

  19. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i release without altering cellular metabolism in fibroblast EGFR T17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugaza, J L; Casabiell, X A; Bokser, L; Casanueva, F F

    1995-02-06

    EGFR-T17 cells were pretreated with oleic acid and 5-10 minutes later stimulated with EGF, to study if early ionic signals are instrumental in inducing metabolic cellular response. Oleic acid blocks EGF-induced [Ca2+]i rise and Ca2+ influx without altering 2-deoxyglucose and 2-aminobutiryc acid uptake nor acute, nor chronically. Oleic acid it is shown, in the first minutes favors the entrance of both molecules to modify the physico-chemical membrane state. On the other hand, oleic acid is unable to block protein synthesis. The results suggest that EGF-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ pathway does not seem to be decisive in the control of cellular metabolic activity.

  20. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    ,816 flies captured from farm surroundings. Each individual fly was macerated, preenriched in Bolton broth for 24 h at 42 degrees C, streaked onto modified Campylobater blood-free selective agar and incubated under microaerobic conditions for 48 h at 42 degrees C. Second, the influx of insects to broiler...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... without other livestock, the prevalence was constantly below 1.0%. The average influx of insects per broiler rotation was estimated to be 30,728 +/- 2,443 SE (range 2,233 to 180,300), of which 21.4% were flies. The influx of insects correlated with the flow (m(3)/h) of ventilation air (P

  1. The Kinetics of Ouabain Inhibition and the Partition of Rubidium Influx in Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauge, L. A.; Adragna, Norma

    1971-01-01

    In the development of ouabain inhibition of rubidium influx in human red blood cells a time lag can be detected which is a function of at least three variables: the concentrations of external sodium, rubidium, and ouabain. The inhibition is antagonized by rubidium and favored by sodium. Similar considerations could be applied to the binding of ouabain to membrane sites. The total influx of rubidium as a function of external rubidium concentration can be separated into two components: (a) a linear uptake not affected by external sodium or ouabain and not requiring an energy supply, and (b) a saturable component. The latter component, on the basis of the different effects of the aforementioned factors, can be divided into three fractions. The first is ouabain-sensitive, inhibited by external sodium at low rubidium, and requires an energy supply; this represents about 70–80% of the total uptake and is related to the active sodium extrusion mechanism. The second is ouabain-insensitive, activated by external sodium over the entire range of rubidium concentrations studied, and dependent on internal ATP; this represents about 15% of the total influx; it could be coupled to an active sodium extrusion or belong to a rubidium-potassium exchange. The third, which can be called residual influx, is ouabain-insensitive, unaffected by external sodium, and independent of internal ATP; this represents about 10–20% of the total influx. PMID:5553102

  2. Coupling of SK channels, L-type Ca2+ channels, and ryanodine receptors in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Coulibaly, Zana A; Chen, Wei Chun; Ledford, Hannah A; Lee, Jeong Han; Sirish, Padmini; Dai, Gu; Jian, Zhong; Chuang, Frank; Brust-Mascher, Ingrid; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2018-03-16

    Small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (SK) channels regulate the excitability of cardiomyocytes by integrating intracellular Ca 2+ and membrane potentials on a beat-to-beat basis. The inextricable interplay between activation of SK channels and Ca 2+ dynamics suggests the pathology of one begets another. Yet, the exact mechanistic underpinning for the activation of cardiac SK channels remains unaddressed. Here, we investigated the intracellular Ca 2+ microdomains necessary for SK channel activation. SK currents coupled with Ca 2+ influx via L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) continued to be elicited after application of caffeine, ryanodine or thapsigargin to deplete SR Ca 2+ store, suggesting that LTCCs provide the immediate Ca 2+ microdomain for the activation of SK channels in cardiomyocytes. Super-resolution imaging of SK2, Ca v 1.2 Ca 2+ channel, and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) was performed to quantify the nearest neighbor distances (NND) and localized the three molecules within hundreds of nanometers. The distribution of NND between SK2 and RyR2 as well as SK2 and Ca v 1.2 was bimodal, suggesting a spatial relationship between the channels. The activation mechanism revealed by our study paved the way for the understanding of the roles of SK channels on the feedback mechanism to regulate the activities of LTCCs and RyR2 to influence local and global Ca 2+ signaling.

  3. Is there a role for T-type Ca2+ channels in regulation of vasomotor tone in mesenteric arterioles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The largest peripheral blood pressure drop occurs in terminal arterioles (microm lumen diameter). L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) are considered the primary pathway for Ca2+ influx during physiologic activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Recent evidence suggests...... was predominantly expressed in endothelial cells. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry was inhibited by the new specific T-type blockers R(-)-efonidipine and NNC 55-0396. The effect of NNC 55-0396 persisted in depolarized arterioles, suggesting an unusually high activation threshold of mesenteric T-type channels. T...... that T-type VDCCs are expressed in renal afferent and efferent arterioles, mesenteric arterioles, and skeletal muscle arterioles. T-type channels are small-conductance, low voltage-activated, fast-inactivating channels. Thus, their role in supplying Ca2+ for contraction of VSMC has been disputed. However...

  4. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  5. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the nucleus accumbens shell inhibits cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization to transient over-expression of α-Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lixia; Meng, Qing; Sun, Xi; Lu, Xiangtong; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Qinghua; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2018-01-04

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide is a widely distributed neurotransmitter that attenuates cocaine-induced locomotor activity when injected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our previous work first confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of the CART peptide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity is related to a reduction in cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIα (pCaMKIIα) and the enhancement of cocaine-induced D3R function. This study investigated whether CART peptide inhibited cocaine-induced locomotor activity via inhibition of interactions between pCaMKIIα and the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R). We demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated gene transfer transiently increased pCaMKIIα expression, which peaked at 10 days after microinjection into the rat NAc shell, and induced a significant increase in Ca 2+ influx along with greater behavioral sensitivity in the open field test after intraperitoneal injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg). However, western blot analysis and coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that CART peptide treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing NAc rat tissues or cells prior to cocaine administration inhibited the cocaine-induced Ca 2+ influx and attenuated the cocaine-increased pCaMKIIα expression in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. CART peptide decreased the cocaine-enhanced phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) expression via inhibition of the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, which may account for the prolonged locomotor sensitization induced by repeated cocaine treatment in lentivirus-transfected CaMKIIα-over-expressing cells. These results provide strong evidence for the inhibitory modulation of CART peptide in cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Structural basis for the differential effects of CaBP1 and calmodulin on CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits CaV1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit CaV1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF-hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the CaV1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca2+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates CaVs. PMID:21134641

  7. Structural basis for the differential effects of CaBP1 and calmodulin on Ca(V)1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Felix; Minor, Daniel L

    2010-12-08

    Calcium-binding protein 1 (CaBP1), a calmodulin (CaM) homolog, endows certain voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) with unusual properties. CaBP1 inhibits Ca(V)1.2 calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and introduces calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). Here, we show that the ability of CaBP1 to inhibit Ca(V)1.2 CDI and induce CDF arises from interaction between the CaBP1 N-lobe and interlobe linker residue Glu94. Unlike CaM, where functional EF hands are essential for channel modulation, CDI inhibition does not require functional CaBP1 EF hands. Furthermore, CaBP1-mediated CDF has different molecular requirements than CaM-mediated CDF. Overall, the data show that CaBP1 comprises two structural modules having separate functions: similar to CaM, the CaBP1 C-lobe serves as a high-affinity anchor that binds the Ca(V)1.2 IQ domain at a site that overlaps with the Ca²+/CaM C-lobe site, whereas the N-lobe/linker module houses the elements required for channel modulation. Discovery of this division provides the framework for understanding how CaBP1 regulates Ca(V)s. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polish Perceptions on the Immigration Influx: a Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Hódor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of Poles’ attitude to the problem of the influx of migrants to Poland in the context of the migration crisis, which Europe has to face today. The issues discussed in the present paper are aimed to illustrate the characteristic features specific to Poles’ attitudes in favor of or against the process of influx of migrants to the E.U. Member States or Poland. The analysis covers both positive and negative aspects of migration to Poland, which have been most often indicated by Poles with respects to migrants. On the one hand, they include fears with regard to national security, potential conflicts of cultural and religious background, fear of the alleged loss of jobs to migrants and their preying on the country’s social security system. All of the above result in anti-migration demonstrations and the language of hatred. On the other hand, positive aspects of the migration influx are believed to consist in cultural enrichment, benefits for the labor market resulting from the inflow of both qualified professionals and laborers with lower pay expectations in comparison to Polish workers and believing that migrants might be the chance of minimize the negative effects of the demographic crisis. The supporters of helping migrants also point out the issue of solidarity and sympathy for the victims and the fact that in the past it was the Poles who received support from other countries in Poland’s difficult moments. Thus, extending such help to others may prove to be beneficial in the future. The present paper is based on academic articles, internet sources and statistical data, which all reveal a division into two camps: supporters and opponents of receiving migrants in Poland, which prevents determining Poland’s definitive stance on this issue. All the aspects of the problem discussed in the paper are undoubtedly a basis for further analysis.

  9. Lung Beractant Increases Free Cytosolic Levels of Ca2+ in Human Lung Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guzmán-Silva

    Full Text Available Beractant, a natural surfactant, induces an antifibrogenic phenotype and apoptosis in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF. As intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been related to programmed cell death, we aimed to assess the effect of beractant on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in NHLF in vitro. Cultured NHLF were loaded with Fura-2 AM (3 μM and Ca2+ signals were recorded by microfluorimetric techniques. Beractant causes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a EC50 of 0.82 μg/ml. The application of beractant, at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which has been shown to exert an apoptotic effect in human fibroblasts, elicited different patterns of Ca2+ signals in NHLF: a a single Ca2+ spike which could be followed by b Ca2+ oscillations, c a sustained Ca2+ plateau or d a sustained plateau overlapped by Ca2+ oscillations. The amplitude and pattern of Ca2+ transients evoked by beractant were dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that beractant activates a Ca2+ signal through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ, Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs and Ca2+ influx via a store-operated pathway. Moreover, beractant-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by preventing membrane depolarization upon removal of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+. Finally, the inhibition of store-operated channels prevented beractant-induced NHLF apoptosis and downregulation of α1(I procollagen expression. Therefore, beractant utilizes SOCE to exert its pro-apoptotic and antifibrinogenic effect on NHLF.

  10. The estimation of doses to the inhabitants arising from natural radiation source in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Hong; Morishima, H.; Wei Lvxin; Jian Yuannu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purposes is to estimate the average annual effective dose of the inhabitants and absorbed dose in some human tissues and organs arising from natural radiation sources in the High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) of Yangjiang and in the neighboring Control Area (CA). In order to provide more effective evidence for analyzing the dose-effect relationships among the cohort members in the investigated areas, authors divided the local inhabitant into different dose-groups. Methods: The authors measured the environmental gamma external radiation levels and individual accumulated doses of 5293 people in the investigated areas. The concentrations for 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in air were also surveyed. The authors estimated the internal doses of natural radionuclides based on the results obtained from measurements in food, in drinking water, in human teeth, in several human tissues, in human placenta, and in activity concentration of exhaled 222 Rn and 220 Rn of the residents living in the investigated areas. Results: The estimation of average annual effective doses in HBRA and CA based on the data of environmental measurements of radiation level respectively are 2.12 ± 0.29 mSv a -1 and 0.69 ± 0.09 mSv a -1 . The sources of higher background radiation in HBRA are mainly contributed from terrestrial gamma radiation. The estimation of average annual effective doses to the residents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products was 3.28 mSv a -1 in HBRA, while that in CA was 1.03 mSv a -1 . The values of the absorbed dose of the residents in their trachea-bronchial tree and lung in HBRA arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products are 5.40 mGy a -1 and 1.08 mGy a -1 respectively, which are about four times of the values of the absorbed dose in CA. The estimation of average annual effective doses to the inhabitants caused by 226 Ra and 228 Ra in HBRA and CA were 281.88 μSv a -1 and 84.54 μSv a -1

  11. Accretion rate of extraterrestrial {sup 41}Ca in Antarctic snow samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J.M., E-mail: jose.gomez@ph.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bishop, S.; Faestermann, T.; Famulok, N.; Fimiani, L.; Hain, K.; Jahn, S.; Korschinek, G.; Ludwig, P. [Technische Universität München, Fakultät für Physik, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rodrigues, D. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) are small grains, generally less than a few hundred micrometers in size. Their main source is the Asteroid Belt, located at 3 AU from the Sun, between Mars and Jupiter. During their flight from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth they are irradiated by galactic and solar cosmic rays (GCR and SCR), thus radionuclides are formed, like {sup 41}Ca and {sup 53}Mn. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca (T{sub 1/2} = 1.03 × 10{sup 5} yr) can be used as a key tracer to determine the accretion rate of IDPs onto the Earth because there are no significant terrestrial sources for this radionuclide. The first step of this study consisted to calculate the production rate of {sup 41}Ca in IDPs accreted by the Earth during their travel from the Asteroid Belt. This production rate, used in accordance with the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratios that will be measured in snow samples from the Antarctica will be used to calculate the amount of extraterrestrial material accreted by the Earth per year. There challenges for this project are, at first, the much longer time for the flight needed by the IDPs to travel from the Asteroid Belt to the Earth in comparison with the {sup 41}Ca half-life yields an early saturation for the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, and second, the importance of selecting the correct sampling site to avoid a high influx of natural {sup 40}Ca, preventing dilution of the {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca ratio, the quantity measured by AMS.

  12. CaMKII binding to GluN2B is important for massed spatial learning in the Morris water maze [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3ud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar S. Stein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning and memory as well as long-term potentiation (LTP depend on Ca2+ influx through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR and the resulting activation of the Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII. Ca2+ influx via the NMDAR triggers CaMKII binding to the NMDAR for enhanced CaMKII accumulation at post-synaptic sites that experience heightened activity as occurring during LTP. Previously, we generated knock-in (KI mice in which we replaced two residues in the NMDAR GluN2B subunit to impair CaMKII binding to GluN2B. Various forms of LTP at the Schaffer collateral synapses in CA1 are reduced by 50%. Nevertheless, working memory in the win-shift 8 arm maze and learning of the Morris water maze (MWM task was normal in the KI mice although recall of the task was impaired in these mice during the period of early memory consolidation. We now show that massed training in the MWM task within a single day resulted in impaired learning. However, learning and recall of the Barnes maze task and contextual fear conditioning over one or multiple days were surprisingly unaffected. The differences observed in the MWM compared to the Barnes maze and contextual fear conditioning suggest a differential involvement of CaMKII and the specific interaction with GluN2B, probably depending on varying degrees of stress, cognitive demand or even potentially different plasticity mechanisms associated with the diverse tasks.

  13. Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b/CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3), its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface. PMID:24058533

  14. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  15. Composition for limiting water influx into a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, A.Sh.; Budarina, L.A.; Kuznetsov, Ye.V.; Zhdanov, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for restricting water influx into a well. It contains acrylamide, ammonium persulfate, sodium hyposulfite, water and additive. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve water resistance of the copolymer formed in the bed and to preserve permeability of the bed for oil, it contains as an additive polymethacylic acid with the following ratio of components (% by weight): acrylamide 2.0-5.6; polymethacrylic acid 3.08.0; ammonium persulfate 0.020-0.072; sodium hyposulfite 0.018-0.068; water--the rest.

  16. Environmental and cortisol-mediated control of Ca(2+) uptake in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Kuan, Wei-Chun; Liao, Bo-Kai; Deng, Ang-Ni; Tseng, Deng-Yu; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-04-01

    Ca(2+) is a vital element for many physiological processes in vertebrates, including teleosts, which live in aquatic environments and acquire Ca(2+) from their surroundings. Ionocytes within the adult gills or larval skin are critical sites for transcellular Ca(2+) uptake in teleosts. The ionocytes of zebrafish were found to contain transcellular Ca(2+) transporters, epithelial Ca(2+) channel (ECaC), plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (PMCA2), and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1b (NCX1b), providing information about the molecular mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transports mediated by ionocytes in fish. However, more evidence is required to establish whether or not a similar mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transport also exists in others teleosts. In the present study, ecac, pmca2, and ncx1 were found to be expressed in the branchial ionocytes of tilapia, thereby providing further support for the mechanism of transcellular Ca(2+) transport through ionocytes previously proposed for zebrafish. In addition, we also reveal that low Ca(2+) water treatment of tilapia stimulates Ca(2+) uptake and expression of ecac and cyp11b (the latter encodes a cortisol-synthesis enzyme). Treatment of tilapia with exogenous cortisol (20 mg/l) enhanced both Ca(2+) influx and ecac expression. Therefore, increased cyp11b expression is suggested to enhance Ca(2+) uptake capacity in tilapia exposed to low Ca(2+) water. Furthermore, the application of cortisol receptor antagonists revealed that cortisol may regulate Ca(2+) uptake through glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid receptor (GR and/or MR) in tilapia. Taken together, the data suggest that cortisol may activate GR and/or MR to execute its hypercalcemic action by stimulating ecac expression in tilapia.

  17. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Jeans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VGCC represent the principal source of Ca2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent regulation is unknown. Here, we study the role of VGCC in homeostatic plasticity (HSP in mammalian hippocampal neurons using optical techniques. We find that changes in evoked Ca2+ currents specifically through P/Q-type, but not N-type, VGCC mediate bidirectional homeostatic regulation of both neurotransmitter release efficacy and the size of the major synaptic vesicle pools. Selective dependence of HSP on P/Q-type VGCC in mammalian terminals has important implications for phenotypes associated with P/Q-type channelopathies, including migraine and epilepsy.

  18. 86Rb(K) influx and [3H]ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P.

    1989-01-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), 86 Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding by the human platelet. This 86 Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active 86 Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active 86 Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets

  19. Ca(2+) coding and decoding strategies for the specification of neural and renal precursor cells during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marc; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L; Riou, Jean-François; Leclerc, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    During embryogenesis, a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) is known to be a widespread trigger for directing stem cells towards a specific tissue fate, but the precise Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms involved in achieving these pleiotropic effects are still poorly understood. In this review, we compare the Ca(2+) signalling events that appear to be one of the first steps in initiating and regulating both neural determination (neural induction) and kidney development (nephrogenesis). We have highlighted the necessary and sufficient role played by Ca(2+) influx and by Ca(2+) transients in the determination and differentiation of pools of neural or renal precursors. We have identified new Ca(2+) target genes involved in neural induction and we showed that the same Ca(2+) early target genes studied are not restricted to neural tissue but are also present in other tissues, principally in the pronephros. In this review, we also described a mechanism whereby the transcriptional control of gene expression during neurogenesis and nephrogenesis might be directly controlled by Ca(2+) signalling. This mechanism involves members of the Kcnip family such that a change in their binding properties to specific DNA sites is a result of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand motifs. The different functions of Ca(2+) signalling during these two events illustrate the versatility of Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photochemistry Saturn's Atmosphere. 2; Effects of an Influx of External Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bezard, Bruno; Gladstone, G. Randall; Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model of photochemistry and diffusion in Saturn's stratosphere to investigate the influence of extraplanetary debris on atmospheric chemistry. In particular, we consider the effects of an influx of oxygen from micrometeoroid ablation or from ring-particle diffusion; the contribution from cometary impacts, satellite debris, or ring vapor is deemed to be less important. The photochemical model results are compared directly with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to constrain the influx of extraplanetary oxygen to Saturn. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column densities of CO2 and H2O above 10 mbar in Saturn's atmosphere are (6.3 +/- 1) x 10(exp 14) and (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 15)/ square cm, respectively; our models indicate that a globally averaged oxygen influx of (4+/-2) x 10(exp 6) O atoms /sq cm/s is required to explain these observations. Models with a locally enhanced influx of H20 operating over a small fraction of the projected area do not provide as good a fit to the ISO H2O observations. If volatile oxygen compounds comprise one-third to one-half of the exogenic source by mass, then Saturn is currently being bombarded with (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp -16) g/square cm/s of extraplanetary material. To reproduce the observed CO2/H2O ratio in Saturn's stratosphere, some of the exogenic oxygen must arrive in the form of a carbon-oxygen bonded species such as CO or CO2. An influx consistent with the composition of cometary ices fails to reproduce the high observed CO2/H2O ratio, suggesting that (i) the material has ices that are slightly more carbon-rich than is typical for comets, (ii) a contribution from an organic-rich component is required, or (iii) some of the hydrogen-oxygen bonded material is converted to carbon-oxygen bonded material without photochemistry (e.g., during the ablation process). We have also reanalyzed the 5-micron CO observations of Noll and Larson and determine that the CO

  1. Ca2+ influx and tyrosine kinases trigger Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT endocytosis. Cell physiology and expression of the CD11b/CD18 integrin major determinants of the entry route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepa B Uribe

    Full Text Available Humans infected with Bordetella pertussis, the whooping cough bacterium, show evidences of impaired host defenses. This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Additionally, ACT permeabilizes cells through pore formation in the target cell membrane. Recently, we demonstrated that ACT is internalised into macrophages together with other membrane components, such as the integrin CD11b/CD18 (CR3, its receptor in these immune cells, and GM1. The goal of this study was to determine whether ACT uptake is restricted to receptor-bearing macrophages or on the contrary may also take place into cells devoid of receptor and gain more insights on the signalling involved. Here, we show that ACT is rapidly eliminated from the cell membrane of either CR3-positive as negative cells, though through different entry routes, which depends in part, on the target cell physiology and characteristics. ACT-induced Ca(2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. Very importantly, we show that, upon incubation with ACT, target cells are capable of repairing the cell membrane, which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell surface.

  2. Mobilisation of store Ca2+ activates tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, S.; Marley, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Many receptor agonists are able to activate tyrosine hydroxylase (TOH) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The majority of these are dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ for this action. Entry of extracellular Ca 2+ through voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels is very effective at activating TOH. The contribution of the intracellular Ca 2+ stores to TOH activation however is not known. Previous studies have shown that mobilisation of intracellular Ca 2+ stores is effective at increasing phosphorylation of TOH, but its effect on TOH activity has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of mobilisation of store Ca 2+ on TOH activity was investigated using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were prepared from abattoir tissue and cultured for 3-6 days. TOH activity was determined over 10 minutes, measuring the 14 CO 2 produced following the hydroxylation and rapid decarboxylation of 14 C-tyrosine offered to intact cells. Caffeine increased TOH activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum response of 100% increase at 20mM. This effect was not due to osmolarity since 20mM sucrose had no effect.Nor was it due to inhibition of phosphodiesterases, since the effect of caffeine was still seen in the presence of 1mM IBMX. However,caffeine-induced TOH activation was substantially reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . The results suggest that TOH activity can be increased by mobilising intracellular Ca 2+ stores, but that this effect involves extracellular Ca 2+ influx, possibly through store-operated channels. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  3. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide regulates intracellular Ca2+ concentration in endothelial cells from excised rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Pla, Alessandra Florio; Dragoni, Silvia; Pupo, Emanuela; Merlino, Annalisa; Mancardi, Daniele; Munaron, Luca; Tanzi, Franco

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a recently discovered gasotransmitter that may regulate a growing number of endothelial functions, including nitric oxide (NO) release, proliferation, adhesion and migration, which are the key steps of angiogenesis. The mechanism whereby H2S impacts on endothelial physiology is still unclear: however, the aforementioned processes are driven by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the present study, we exploited the excised rat aorta to gain insights into the regulation of [Ca2+]i by H2S within in situ endothelial cells (ECs). Sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS), a H2S donor, caused an elevation in [Ca2+]i, which disappeared in absence of extracellular Ca2+. NaHSinduced Ca2+ inflow was sensitive to high doses of Gd3+, but not BTP-2. Inhibition of the reverse-mode of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), with KB-R7943 or upon removal of extracellular Na+, abrogated the Ca2+ response to NaHS. Moreover, NaHS-elicited Ca2+ entry was significantly reduced by TEA and glybenclamide, which hinted at the involvement of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels. Conversely, NaHS-evoked Ca2+ signal was not affected by the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Acute addition of NaHS hindered both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ entry induced by ATP, a physiological agonist of ECs. Consistently, inhibition of endogenous H2S synthesis with DL-propargylglycine impaired ATP-induced Ca2+ inflow, whereas it did not affect Ca2+ mobilization. These data provide the first evidence that H2S may stimulate Ca2+ influx into ECs by recruiting the reverse-mode of NCX and KATP channels. In addition, they show that such gasotransmitter may modulate the Ca2+ signals elicited by physiological stimuli in intact endothelium.

  5. Mutations in PIK3CA are infrequent in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Vincent; Morgan, Brian T; Mazanek, Pavel; Hogarty, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a frequently lethal pediatric cancer in which MYCN genomic amplification is highly correlated with aggressive disease. Deregulated MYC genes require co-operative lesions to foster tumourigenesis and both direct and indirect evidence support activated Ras signaling for this purpose in many cancers. Yet Ras genes and Braf, while often activated in cancer cells, are infrequent targets for activation in neuroblastoma. Recently, the Ras effector PIK3CA was shown to be activated in diverse human cancers. We therefore assessed PIK3CA for mutation in human neuroblastomas, as well as in neuroblastomas arising in transgenic mice with MYCN overexpressed in neural-crest tissues. In this murine model we additionally surveyed for Ras family and Braf mutations as these have not been previously reported. Sixty-nine human neuroblastomas (42 primary tumors and 27 cell lines) were sequenced for PIK3CA activating mutations within the C2, helical and kinase domain 'hot spots' where 80% of mutations cluster. Constitutional DNA was sequenced in cases with confirmed alterations to assess for germline or somatic acquisition. Additionally, Ras family members (Hras1, Kras2 and Nras) and the downstream effectors Pik3ca and Braf, were sequenced from twenty-five neuroblastomas arising in neuroblastoma-prone transgenic mice. We identified mutations in the PIK3CA gene in 2 of 69 human neuroblastomas (2.9%). Neither mutation (R524M and E982D) has been studied to date for effects on lipid kinase activity. Though both occurred in tumors with MYCN amplification the overall rate of PIK3CA mutations in MYCN amplified and single-copy tumors did not differ appreciably (2 of 31 versus 0 of 38, respectively). Further, no activating mutations were identified in a survey of Ras signal transduction genes (including Hras1, Kras2, Nras, Pik3ca, or Braf genes) in twenty-five neuroblastic tumors arising in the MYCN-initiated transgenic mouse model. These data suggest that activating

  6. Increased 22Na+-influx in lymphocytes from offspring of essential hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E; Klitgaard, N A

    1989-01-01

    Lymphocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of 22Na+-influx during sodium pump inhibition by ouabain. The measurements were made using lymphocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension in order to assess any changes and to analyse whether...

  7. Involvement of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in LTP at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Takeda, Atsushi

    2017-07-01

    Physiological significance of synaptic Zn 2+ signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn 2+ chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP. Even in rat brain slices bathed in CaEDTA in ACSF, intracellular Zn 2+ level, which was measured with intracellular ZnAF-2, was increased in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare where perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses were contained after tetanic stimulation. These results suggest that intracellular Zn 2+ signaling, which originates in internal stores/proteins, is involved in LTP at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. Because the influx of extracellular Zn 2+ , which originates in presynaptic Zn 2+ release, is involved in LTP at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses, synapse-dependent Zn 2+ dynamics may be involved in plasticity of postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nicotine-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ increase and cell depolarization in capillary endothelial cells of the bovine adrenal medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAÚL VINET

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are directly involved in many functions of the cardiovascular system by regulating blood flow and blood pressure through Ca2+ dependent exocitosis of vasoactive compounds. Using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 and the patch-clamp technique, we show that bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (B AMCECs respond to acetylcholine (ACh with a cytosolic Ca2+ increase and depolarization of the membrane potential (20.3±0.9 mV; n=23. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by 10µM ACh was mimicked by the same concentration of nicotine but not by muscarine and was blocked by 100 µM of hexamethonium. On the other hand, the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ could be depressed by nifedipine (0.01 -100 µM or withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+. Taken together, these results give evidence for functional nicotinic receptors (nAChRs in capillary endothelial cells of the adrenal medulla. It suggests that nAChRs in B AMCECs may be involved in the regulation of the adrenal gland's microcirculation by depolarizing the membrane potential, leading to the opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, influx of external Ca2+ and liberation of vasoactive compounds.

  9. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, A.; McCulloch, A.

    2001-01-01

    We extended the model of the ventricular myocyte by Winslow et al. (Circ. Res 1999, 84:571-586) by incorporating equations for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffering and transport by ATP and ADP and equations for MgATP regulation of ion transporters (Na(+)-K(+) pump, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps). The results indicate that, under normal conditions, Ca(2+) binding by low-affinity ATP and diffusion of CaATP may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model also suggests that a fall in ATP/ADP ratio significantly reduces sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) content, increases diastolic Ca(2+), lowers systolic Ca(2+), increases Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels, and decreases the efficiency of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in extruding Ca(2+) during periodic voltage-clamp stimulation. The analysis suggests that the most important reason for these changes during metabolic inhibition is the down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase pump by reduced diastolic MgATP levels. High Ca(2+) concentrations developed near the membrane might have a greater influence on Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP concentrations than that of the lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the bulk myoplasm. The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions.

  10. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the alpha(1A) subunit of a P-/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+)Channel, and It is functionally important in renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the alpha(1A) subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) (P-/Q-type), was present and functional in vascular smooth muscle and renal resistance vessels. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...... preglomerular resistance vessels and aorta, as well as mesangial cells, and that P-type VDCCs contribute to Ca(2+) influx in aortic and renal VSMCs and are involved in depolarization-mediated contraction in renal afferent arterioles....

  11. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon. PMID:27471417

  12. The Lebanese-Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherri, Zeinab; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese-Syrian borders since 2011 as "displaced", emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives. The two major recommendations for future interventions are to ensure continuous and effective monitoring and sustainability in order to alleviate current and future suffering in Lebanon.

  13. Role of ion channels in regulating Ca²⁺ homeostasis during the interplay between immune and cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, T; Cieślar-Pobuda, A; Wiechec, E

    2015-02-19

    Ion channels are abundantly expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells, thereby regulating the Ca(2+) influx and downstream signaling pathways of physiological processes. The immune system is specialized in the process of cancer cell recognition and elimination, and is regulated by different ion channels. In comparison with the immune cells, ion channels behave differently in cancer cells by making the tumor cells more hyperpolarized and influence cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, ion channels comprise an important therapeutic target in anti-cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the implication of ion channels in regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis during the crosstalk between immune and cancer cell as well as their role in cancer progression.

  14. sup 86 Rb(K) influx and ( sup 3 H)ouabain binding by human platelets: Evidence for beta-adrenergic stimulation of Na-K ATPase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaihi, K.; Khokher, M.A.; Barradas, M.A.; Mikhailidis, D.P.; Dandona, P. (Royal Free Hospital and School of Medicine, London (England))

    1989-08-01

    Although active transport of potassium into human platelets has been demonstrated previously, there is hitherto no evidence that human platelets have an ouabain-inhibitable Na-K ATPase in their membrane. The present study demonstrates active rubidium (used as an index of potassium influx), {sup 86}Rb(K), influx into platelets, inhibitable by ouabain, and also demonstrates the presence of specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding by the human platelet. This {sup 86}Rb(K) influx was stimulated by adrenaline, isoprenaline, and salbutamol, but noradrenaline caused a mild inhibition. Active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx by platelets was inhibited markedly by timolol, mildly by atenolol, but not by phentolamine. Therefore, active {sup 86}Rb(K) influx in human platelets is enhanced by stimulation of beta adrenoceptors of the beta 2 subtype. The platelet may therefore replace the leukocyte in future studies of Na-K ATPase activity. This would be a considerable advantage in view of the ease and rapidity of preparation of platelets.

  15. Homeostatic Presynaptic Plasticity Is Specifically Regulated by P/Q-type Ca2+ Channels at Mammalian Hippocampal Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Alexander F; van Heusden, Fran C; Al-Mubarak, Bashayer; Padamsey, Zahid; Emptage, Nigel J

    2017-10-10

    Voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (VGCC) represent the principal source of Ca 2+ ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca 2+ influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent regulation is unknown. Here, we study the role of VGCC in homeostatic plasticity (HSP) in mammalian hippocampal neurons using optical techniques. We find that changes in evoked Ca 2+ currents specifically through P/Q-type, but not N-type, VGCC mediate bidirectional homeostatic regulation of both neurotransmitter release efficacy and the size of the major synaptic vesicle pools. Selective dependence of HSP on P/Q-type VGCC in mammalian terminals has important implications for phenotypes associated with P/Q-type channelopathies, including migraine and epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strengthening Emergency Care Systems to Mitigate Public Health Challenges Arising from Influxes of Individuals with Different Socio-Cultural Backgrounds to a Level One Emergency Center in South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Michèle; Šijački, Ana; Krummrey, Gert; Welzel, Tyson; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Ercegovac, Marko

    2018-03-12

    Emergency center visits are mostly unscheduled, undifferentiated, and unpredictable. A standardized triage process is an opportunity to obtain real-time data that paints a picture of the variation in acuity found in emergency centers. This is particularly pertinent as the influx of people seeking asylum or in transit mostly present with emergency care needs or first seek help at an emergency center. Triage not only reduces the risk of missing or losing a patient that may be deteriorating in the waiting room but also enables a time-critical response in the emergency care service provision. As part of a joint emergency care system strengthening and patient safety initiative, the Serbian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Centre of Excellence in Emergency Medicine (CEEM) introduced a standardized triage process at the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS). This paper describes four crucial stages that were considered for the integration of a standardized triage process into acute care pathways.

  17. Strengthening Emergency Care Systems to Mitigate Public Health Challenges Arising from Influxes of Individuals with Different Socio-Cultural Backgrounds to a Level One Emergency Center in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Twomey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency center visits are mostly unscheduled, undifferentiated, and unpredictable. A standardized triage process is an opportunity to obtain real-time data that paints a picture of the variation in acuity found in emergency centers. This is particularly pertinent as the influx of people seeking asylum or in transit mostly present with emergency care needs or first seek help at an emergency center. Triage not only reduces the risk of missing or losing a patient that may be deteriorating in the waiting room but also enables a time-critical response in the emergency care service provision. As part of a joint emergency care system strengthening and patient safety initiative, the Serbian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Centre of Excellence in Emergency Medicine (CEEM introduced a standardized triage process at the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS. This paper describes four crucial stages that were considered for the integration of a standardized triage process into acute care pathways.

  18. Urban-Dome GHG Monitoring: Challenges and Perspectives from the INFLUX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, J.; Shepson, P. B.; Davis, K. J.; Sweeney, C.; Gurney, K. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Razlivanov, I.; Zhou, Y.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Callahan, W.; Novakovskaia, E.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Possolo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Quantification of carbon dynamics in urban areas using advanced and diverse observing systems enables the development of measurable, reportable, and verifiable (MRV) mitigation strategies as suggested in the Bali Action Plan, agreed upon at the 13th Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 13, 2007). The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), supports the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX). INFLUX is focused on demonstrating the utility of dense, surface-based observing networks coupled with aircraft-based measurements, advanced atmospheric boundary layer observation and modeling to determine GHG emission source location and strength in urban areas. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), responsible for carrying GHGs from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. The observing system design, using multiple instruments and observing methods, is intended to provide multi-scale measurements as a basis for mimicking the complex and evolving dynamics of a city. To better understand such a dynamic system, and incorporate this into models, reliable representations of horizontal and vertical transport, as well as ABL height, GHG mixing ratio measurements are planned for 11 tower locations, 2 are currently in operation with the remaining 9 planned for operational status in early to mid-2012. These observations are complimented by aircraft flights that measure mixing ratio as well as ABL parameters. Although measurements of ABL mixing heights and dynamics are presently only available intermittently, limiting efforts to evaluate ABL model performance and the uncertainties of GHG flux estimates, expansion of them is planned for the near future. INFLUX will significantly benefit from continuous, high resolution measurements of mixing depth, wind speed and direction, turbulence profiles in the boundary layer, as well as measurements of surface energy balance, momentum flux, and short and

  19. Observation of impurity accumulation and concurrent impurity influx in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.S.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Couture, P.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Powell, E.T.; Reusch, M.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Morris, W.

    1987-01-01

    Impurity studies in L- and H-mode discharges in PBX have shown that both types of discharges can evolve into either an impurity accumulative or nonaccumulative case. In a typical accumulative discharge, Z eff peaks in the center to values of about 5. The central metallic densities can be high, n met /n e ≅ 0.01, resulting in central radiated power densities in excess of 1 W/cm 3 , consistent with bolometric estimates. The radial profiles of metals obtained independently from the line radiation in the soft X-ray and the VUV regions are very peaked. Concurrent with the peaking, an increase in the impurity influx coming from the edge of the plasma is observed. At the beginning of the accumulation phase the inward particle flux for titanium has values of 6x10 10 and 10x10 10 particles/cm 2 s at minor radii of 6 and 17 cm. At the end of the accumulation phase, this particle flux is strongly increased to values of 3x10 12 and 1x10 12 particles/cm 2 s. This increased flux is mainly due to influx from the edge of the plasma and to a lesser extent due to increased convective transport. Using the measured particle flux, an estimate of the diffusion coefficient D and the convective velocity v is obtained. (orig.)

  20. (-)-Epicatechin-induced relaxation of isolated human saphenous vein: Roles of K+ and Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko, Marija; Jankovic, Goran; Nenezic, Dragoslav; Milojevic, Predrag; Stojanovic, Ivan; Kanjuh, Vladimir; Novakovic, Aleksandra

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate relaxant effect of flavanol (-)-epicatechin on the isolated human saphenous vein (HSV), as a part of its cardioprotective action, and to define the mechanisms underlying this vasorelaxation. (-)-Epicatechin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of HSV pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Among K + channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine, margatoxin, and iberiotoxin significantly inhibited relaxation of HSV, while glibenclamide considerably reduced effects of the high concentrations of (-)-epicatechin. Additionally, (-)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by 80 mM K + , whereas in the presence of nifedipine produced partial relaxation of HSV rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine. In Ca 2+ -free solution, (-)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by phenylephrine, but had no effect on contraction induced by caffeine. A sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, significantly reduced relaxation of HSV produced by (-)-epicatechin. These results demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin produces endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated HSV rings. Vasorelaxation to (-)-epicatechin probably involves activation of 4-aminopyridine- and margatoxin-sensitive K V channels, BK Ca channels, and at least partly, K ATP channels. In addition, not only the inhibition of extracellular Ca 2+ influx, but regulation of the intracellular Ca 2+ release, via inositol-trisphosphate receptors and reuptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum, via stimulation of Ca 2+ -ATPase, as well, most likely participate in (-)-epicatechin-induced relaxation of HSV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [On the origin, course and influx-vessels of the V. basalis and the V. cerebri interna (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J; Köth, R; Reiss, G

    1981-01-01

    Origin, course and influx-vessels of the basal vein are investigated on 100 brains. An anterior formation of the basal vein (textbook) was found in 41%, a posterior formation in 34%. The different possibilities of drainage are examined procentually at the different types. Course and number of the different variations of the influx-vessels are taken into account: Vv. thalamostriata inferiores, gyri olfactorii, ventricularis inferior, peduncularis, cerebri interna, thalamostriata superioris, (terminalis), septi pellucidi anterior, septi pellucidi posterior, atrii medialis, atrii lateralis, nuclei caudati.

  2. Hierarchic stochastic modelling applied to intracellular Ca(2+ signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Moenke

    Full Text Available Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011 which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This reduces the number of system states by several orders of magnitude and avoids fitting of kinetic parameters. The method is applied to Ca(2+ signalling. Ca(2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger transmitting information by stochastic sequences of concentration spikes, which arise by coupling of subcellular Ca(2+ release events (puffs. We derive analytical expressions for a mechanistic Ca(2+ model, based on recent data from live cell imaging, and calculate Ca(2+ spike statistics in dependence on cellular parameters like stimulus strength or number of Ca(2+ channels. The new approach substantiates a generic Ca(2+ model, which is a very convenient way to simulate Ca(2+ spike sequences with correct spiking statistics.

  3. Cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania eVecchia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1 is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the EPSC were all similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  4. Mastoparan-Induced Intracellular Ca2+ Fluxes May Regulate Cell-to-Cell Communication in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. B.; Boss, W. F.

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of Ca2+ and plasmodesmatal closure was examined in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea by microinjecting cells with active mastoparan (Mas-7), inactive mastoparan (Mas-17), active inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), or inactive IP3. Calcium green dextran 10,000 was used to study cellular free Ca2+, and carboxyfluorescein was used to monitor plasmodesmatal closure. When Mas-7 was microinjected into the cytoplasm of cell 1 (the tip cell of a chain of cells), a rapid increase in calcium green dextran-10,000 fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasmic areas on both sides of the plasmodesmata connecting cells 1 and 2 during the same time that the diffusion of carboxyfluorescein through them was blocked. The inhibition of cell-to-cell diffusion was transient, and the closed plasmodesmata reopened within 30 s. The elevated Ca2+ level near plasmodesmata was also transient and returned to base level in about 1.5 min. The transient increase in Ca2+, once initiated in cell 1, repeated with an oscillatory period of 3 min. Elevated Ca2+ and oscillations of Ca2+ were also observed near interconnecting cell walls throughout the chain of cells, indicating that the signal had been transmitted. Previously, we reported that IP3 closed plasmodesmata; now we report that it stimulated Ca2+ and oscillations similar to Mas-7. The effect was specific for similar concentrations of Mas-7 over Mas-17 and active IP3 over inactive IP3. It is important that the Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ eliminated the responses from Mas-7 and IP3, indicating that an influx of Ca2+ was required. These results support the contention that plasmodesmata functioning is regulated via Ca2+ and that IP3 may be an intermediary between the stimulus and Ca2+ elevations.

  5. 5-(2-Cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB): correlation of hypnotic and convulsant properties with alterations of synaptosomal 45Ca2+ influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, L.J.; Leslie, S.W.; Gonzales, R.

    1986-01-01

    Male ICR mice were given either 5-(2-cyclohexylideneethyl)-5-ethyl barbituric acid (CHEB) alone or CHEB after a 1 h pretreatment with phenobarbital CHEB alone produced excitatory behavior but not convulsive seizures. Higher doses produced convulsive seizures resulting in death. Pretreatment with phenobarbital prevented seizure activity. In vitro, CHEB significantly inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake into cerebrocortical synaptosomes. CHEB also significantly increased basal 45 Ca 2+ uptake. The addition of CHEB or pentobarbital to striatal synaptosomes inhibited 'fast-phase' K + -stimulated 45 Ca 2+ uptake and endogenous dopamine release. CHEB, but not pentobarbital, produced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the resulting release of endogenous dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. The results of this study show that CHEB possesses hypnotic activity if its lethal convulsant actions are blocked. The hypnotic actions of CHEB appear to correlate with inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in brain synaptosomes. (Auth.)

  6. Essential Roles of Raf/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ Influx in Growth Arrest of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Bilirubin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Erat, Anna; Fujikawa, Tatsuya; Hiromura, Makoto; Koulova, Anna; Otterbein, Leo; Bianchi, Cesario; Tobiasch, Edda; Dagon, Yossi; Sellke, Frank W.; Usheva, Anny

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway and the cellular Raf and cyclin D1 content that results in retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation on amino acids S608 and S780. These events impede the release of YY1 to the nuclei and its availability to regulate the expression of genes and to support cellular proliferation. Moreover, altered calcium influx and calpain II protease activation leads to proteolytical degradation of transcription factor YY1. We conclude that in the serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle primary cell cultures, bilirubin favors growth arrest, and we propose that this activity is regulated by its interaction with the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, effect on cyclin D1 and Raf content, altered retinoblastoma protein profile of hypophosphorylation, calcium influx, and YY1 proteolysis. We propose that these activities together culminate in diminished 5 S and 45 S ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth arrest. The observations provide important mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition of human vascular smooth muscle cells from proliferative to contractile phenotype and the role of bilirubin in this transition. PMID:22262839

  7. The Lebanese–Syrian crisis: impact of influx of Syrian refugees to an already weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherri Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeinab Cherri, Pedro Arcos González, Rafael Castro Delgado Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain Background: Lebanon, a small Middle Eastern country facing constant political and national unity challenges with a population of approximately 300,000 Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, has welcomed more than 1.2 million Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR-registered Syrian refugees since 2012. The Government of Lebanon considers individuals who crossed Lebanese–Syrian borders since 2011 as “displaced”, emphasizing its long-standing position that Lebanon is not a state for refugees, refusing to establish camps, and adopting a policy paper to reduce their numbers in October 2014. Humanitarian response to the Syrian influx to Lebanon has been constantly assembling with the UNHCR as the main acting body and the Lebanon Crisis Response Plan as the latest plan for 2016. Methods: Review of secondary data from gray literature and reports focusing on the influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon by visiting databases covering humanitarian response in complex emergencies. Limitations include obtaining majority of the data from gray literature and changing statistics due to the instability of the situation. Results: The influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, an already weak and vulnerable state, has negatively impacted life in Lebanon on different levels including increasing demographics, regressing economy, exhausting social services, complicating politics, and decreasing security as well as worsened the life of displaced Syrians themselves. Conclusion: Displaced Syrians and Lebanese people share aggravating hardships of a mutual and precarious crisis resulting from the Syrian influx to Lebanon. Although a lot of response has been initiated, both populations still lack much of their basic needs due to lack of funding and nonsustainable program initiatives

  8. Abnormal cortical synaptic transmission in CaV2.1 knockin mice with the S218L missense mutation which causes a severe familial hemiplegic migraine syndrome in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels. Knockin (KI) mice carrying the FHM1 R192Q missense mutation show enhanced cortical excitatory synaptic transmission at pyramidal cell synapses but unaltered cortical inhibitory neurotransmission at fast-spiking interneuron synapses. Enhanced cortical glutamate release was shown to cause the facilitation of cortical spreading depression (CSD) in R192Q KI mice. It, however, remains unknown how other FHM1 mutations affect cortical synaptic transmission. Here, we studied neurotransmission in cortical neurons in microculture from KI mice carrying the S218L mutation, which causes a severe FHM syndrome in humans and an allele-dosage dependent facilitation of experimental CSD in KI mice, which is larger than that caused by the R192Q mutation. We show gain-of-function of excitatory neurotransmission, due to increased action-potential evoked Ca2+ influx and increased probability of glutamate release at pyramidal cell synapses, but unaltered inhibitory neurotransmission at multipolar interneuron synapses in S218L KI mice. In contrast with the larger gain-of-function of neuronal CaV2.1 current in homozygous than heterozygous S218L KI mice, the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release, the paired-pulse ratio and the Ca2+ dependence of the excitatory postsynaptic current were similar in homozygous and heterozygous S218L KI mice, suggesting compensatory changes in the homozygous mice. Furthermore, we reveal a unique feature of S218L KI cortical synapses which is the presence of a fraction of mutant CaV2.1 channels being open at resting potential. Our data suggest that, while the gain-of-function of evoked glutamate release may explain the facilitation of CSD in heterozygous S218L KI mice, the further facilitation of CSD in homozygous S218L KI mice is due to other CaV2.1-dependent mechanisms, that likely include Ca2+ influx at voltages sub-threshold for action

  9. Transfer of plasma lipoprotein components and of plasma proteins into aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Molecular size as a determinant of plasma lipoprotein influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, S.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The arterial influx of esterified and free cholesterol from low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins in 20 hypercholesterolemic rabbits was measured simultaneously by the use of lipoproteins labeled in vivo with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]-cholesterol. The simultaneous arterial influx of either [ 3 H]-leucine-labeled very low density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, or plasma proteins was also measured in each rabbit. The arterial influx was calculated as intimal clearance, i.e., the influx of a given fraction divided by its plasma concentration. The intimal clearance of low density lipoprotein esterified cholesterol was equal to that for the apolipoproteins of that fraction, which is compatible with an arterial influx of intact low density lipoprotein molecules. The intimal clearance of very low density apolipoprotein or cholesteryl ester was less than that for low density lipoprotein, whereas high density lipoprotein and albumin clearances exceeded low density lipoprotein clearance by 1.5- to 3-fold. The intimal clearances of plasma proteins, high density, low density, and very low density lipoproteins decreased linearly with the logarithm of the macromolecular diameter. This indicates that the arterial influx of three plasma lipoprotein fractions and of plasma proteins proceeds by similar mechanisms. Apparently the relative intimal clearances of lipoproteins are more dependent on their size relative to pores or vesicular diameters at the plasma-artery interface than on specific interactions between lipoproteins and the arterial intimal surface

  10. Divergent biophysical properties, gating mechanisms, and possible functions of the two skeletal muscle Ca(V)1.1 calcium channel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2011-12-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes that specifically allow calcium ions to enter the cell in response to membrane depolarization. But, for many years it seemed that the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca(V)1.1 is the exception. The classical splice variant Ca(V)1.1a activates slowly, has a very small current amplitude and poor voltage sensitivity. In fact adult muscle fibers work perfectly well even in the absence of calcium influx. Recently a new splice variant of the skeletal muscle calcium channel Ca(V)1.1e has been characterized. The lack of the 19 amino acid exon 29 in this splice variant results in a rapidly activating calcium channel with high current amplitude and good voltage sensitivity. Ca(V)1.1e is the dominant channel in embryonic muscle, where the expression of this high calcium-conducting Ca(V)1.1 isoform readily explains developmental processes depending on L-type calcium currents. Moreover, the availability of these two structurally similar but functionally distinct channel variants facilitates the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique current properties of the classical Ca(V)1.1a channel.

  11. Impaired leukocyte influx in cervix of postterm women not responding to prostaglandin priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masironi Britt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased rate of maternal and fetal complications. Post term women could be divided into at least two subgroups, one where parturition is possible to induce by prostaglandins and one where it is not. Our aim was to study parameters in cervical biopsies in women with spontaneous delivery at term (controls and compare to those that are successfully induced post term (responders, and those that are not induced (non-responders, by local prostaglandin treatment. Methods Stromal parameters examined in this study were the accumulation of leukocytes (CD45, CD68, mRNAs and/or proteins for the extracellular matrix degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9, their inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8, the platelet activating factor-receptor (PAF-R, syndecan-1 and estrogen binding receptors (estrogen receptor (ERα, ERβ and G-coupled protein receptor (GPR 30 as well as the proliferation marker Ki-67. Results The influx of leukocytes as assessed by CD45 was strongest in the responders, thereafter in the controls and significantly lower in the non-responders. IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9, all predominantly expressed in leukocytes, showed significantly reduced immunostaining in the group of non-responders, while ERα and GPR30 were more abundant in the non-responders, as compared to the controls. Conclusion The impaired leukocyte influx, as reflected by the reduced number of CD45 positive cells as well as decreased immunostaining of IL-8, PAF-R and MMP-9 in the non-responders, could be one explanation of the failed ripening of the cervix in post term women. If the decreased leukocyte influx is a primary explanation to absent ripening or secondary, as a result of other factors, is yet to be established.

  12. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  13. Potassium ion influx measurements on cultured Chinese hamster cells exposed to 60-hertz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.P.; Tobey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium ion influx was measured by monitoring 42 KCl uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown in suspension culture and exposed in the culture medium to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields up to 2.85 V/m. In the presence of the field CHO cells exhibited two components of uptake, the same as previously observed for those grown under normal conditions; both these components of influx were decreased when compared to sham-exposed cells. Although decreases were consistently observed in exposed cells when plotted as loge of uptake, the differences between the means of the calculated fluxes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were quite small (on the order of 4-7%). When standard deviations were calculated, there was no significant difference between these means; however, when time-paired uptake data were analyzed, the differences were found to be statistically significant. Cells exposed only to the magnetic field exhibited similar small decreases in influx rates when compared to sham-exposed cells, suggesting that the reduction in K+ uptake could be attributed to the magnetic field. Additionally, intracellular K+ levels were measured over a prolonged exposure period (96 h), and no apparent differences in intracellular K+ levels were observed between field-exposed and sham-exposed cultures. These results indicate that high-strength electric fields have a small effect on the rate of transport of potassium ions but no effect on long-term maintenance of intracellular K+

  14. Distribution of voltage-dependent and intracellular Ca2+ channels in submucosal neurons from rat distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Matthias; Bader, Sandra; Bell, Anna; Diener, Martin

    2013-09-01

    We recently observed a bradykinin-induced increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in submucosal neurons of rat colon, an increase inhibited by blockers of voltage-dependent Ca2+ (Ca(v)) channels. As the types of Ca(v) channels used by this part of the enteric nervous system are unknown, the expression of various Ca(v) subunits has been investigated in whole-mount submucosal preparations by immunohistochemistry. Submucosal neurons, identified by a neuronal marker (microtubule-associated protein 2), are immunoreactive for Ca(v)1.2, Ca(v)1.3 and Ca(v)2.2, expression being confirmed by reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction. These data agree with previous observations that the inhibition of L- and N-type Ca2+ currents strongly inhibits the response to bradykinin. However, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments have revealed that bradykinin does not enhance Ca2+ inward currents under voltage-clamp conditions. Consequently, bradykinin does not directly interact with Ca(v) channels. Instead, the kinin-induced Ca2+ influx is caused indirectly by the membrane depolarization evoked by this peptide. As intracellular Ca2+ channels on Ca(2+)-storing organelles can also contribute to Ca2+ signaling, their expression has been investigated by imaging experiments and immunohistochemistry. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R) have been functionally demonstrated in submucosal neurons loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Histamine, a typical agonist coupled to the phospholipase C pathway, induces an increase in the fura-2 signal ratio, which is suppressed by 2-aminophenylborate, a blocker of IP3 receptors. The expression of IP3R1 has been confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In contrast, ryanodine, tested over a wide concentration range, evokes no increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration nor is there immunohistochemical evidence for the expression of ryanodine receptors in these neurons. Thus, rat submucosal neurons are equipped

  15. Differential potassium influx influences growth of two cotton varieties in hydroponics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Kanwal, S.; Aziz, T.

    2010-01-01

    Potassium uptake rate of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties viz., NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 was investigated in nutrient solution culture having deficient K at the rate 0.3 mM and deficient K+ Na at the rate 0.3 +2.7 mM. Depletion of K from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time intervals after 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h to estimate K uptake kinetics of the roots i.e. maximum influx, I/sub max/ and the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km. NIBGE-2 had about 2-fold higher (2.0 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) I/sub max/ value for K uptake rate at deficient K+Na than that (1.207 mg g rdw-1 hr-1) for MNH-786. Higher, Michaelis-Menten constant, Km (12.82 ppm) for K uptake rate was observed in both cultivars NIBGE-2 and MNH-786 at deficient K+Na than that at deficient K. Main effects of treatments and varieties had significant (p< 0.05) effect on shoot dry matter, root dry matter, total dry matter and leaf area per plant. Maximum K influx in NIBGE-2 at deficient K and deficient K +Na was attributed to enhanced growth response as compared to that in MNH-786. (author)

  16. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependence of Ca2+-ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbit muscle has been widely studied, and it is generally accepted that a break point in Arrhenius plot exist at approximately 20 degreesC. Whether the break point arises as a result of temperature dependent changes......+- ATPase activity. The temperature range of the plateau was 14-21 and 18-25 degreesC in salmon and rainbow trout, respectively. Ca2+-dependence in the four different fish species investigated was very similar with half maximal activation (K-0.5) between 0.2 and 0.6 muM and half maximal inhibition (I-0.......5) between 60 and 250 muM. Results indicated that interaction between SR Ca2+-ATPase and its lipid environment may play an important role for the different Arrhenius plot of the different types of fish species investigated. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  17. Limitation of the influx of formation water into oil wells. Ogranichenie pritoka plastovykh vod v neftyanye skvazhiny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, R.T.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Gabdullin, R.G.; Yusupov, I.G.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of limiting the influx of water into oil wells are examined. On the basis of studies, systemization, and generalization of the reasons for the premature flooding of wells, the improvement of strata by polymer-cement solutions with consolidating liquid phases is considered. A detailed description is given of the technology and results of cementing well using solutions based on plugging cement and water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resins of the TSD-9 type. Results are reported on the study of the properties of selective water-insulating substances based on acrylamide monomers and hydrolyzed polyacrylonitriles. Industrial testing of these materials is generalized. An economic evaluation is made of the efficiency of measures undertaken to prevent water influx into oil wells.

  18. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) 1 Acts as a Negative Regulator for Vanilloid TRPV6-mediated Ca2+ Influx*

    OpenAIRE

    Schindl, Rainer; Fritsch, Reinhard; Jardin, Isaac; Frischauf, Irene; Kahr, Heike; Muik, Martin; Riedl, Maria Christine; Groschner, Klaus; Romanin, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    TRP proteins mostly assemble to homomeric channels but can also heteromerize, preferentially within their subfamilies. The TRPC1 protein is the most versatile member and forms various TRPC channel combinations but also unique channels with the distantly related TRPP2 and TRPV4. We show here a novel cross-family interaction between TRPC1 and TRPV6, a Ca2+ selective member of the vanilloid TRP subfamily. TRPV6 exhibited substantial co-localization and in vivo interaction with TRPC1 in HEK293 ce...

  19. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P Ziemba

    Full Text Available The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while

  20. A PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module links Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2018-01-01

    The leukocyte chemosensory pathway detects attractant gradients and directs cell migration to sites of inflammation, infection, tissue damage, and carcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that local Ca2+ and PIP3 signals at the leading edge of polarized leukocytes play central roles in positive feedback loop essential to cell polarization and chemotaxis. These prior studies showed that stimulation of the leading edge Ca2+ signal can strongly activate PI3K, thereby triggering a larger PIP3 signal, but did not elucidate the mechanistic link between Ca2+ and PIP3 signaling. A hypothesis explaining this link emerged, postulating that Ca2+-activated PKC displaces the MARCKS protein from plasma membrane PIP2, thereby releasing sequestered PIP2 to serve as the target and substrate lipid of PI3K in PIP3 production. In vitro single molecule studies of the reconstituted pathway on lipid bilayers demonstrated the feasibility of this PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking Ca2+ and PIP3 signals in the reconstituted system. The present study tests the model predictions in live macrophages by quantifying the effects of: (a) two pathway activators-PDGF and ATP that stimulate chemoreceptors and Ca2+ influx, respectively; and (b) three pathway inhibitors-wortmannin, EGTA, and Go6976 that inhibit PI3K, Ca2+ influx, and PKC, respectively; on (c) four leading edge activity sensors-AKT-PH-mRFP, CKAR, MARCKSp-mRFP, and leading edge area that report on PIP3 density, PKC activity, MARCKS membrane binding, and leading edge expansion/contraction, respectively. The results provide additional evidence that PKC and PI3K are both essential elements of the leading edge positive feedback loop, and strongly support the existence of a PKC-MARCKS-PI3K regulatory module linking the leading edge Ca2+ and PIP3 signals. As predicted, activators stimulate leading edge PKC activity, displacement of MARCKS from the leading edge membrane and increased leading edge PIP3 levels, while inhibitors

  1. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2016-08-26

    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the plasma impurity influx from alkali-metal coatings for fusion-reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWald, A.B.; Davidson, J.N.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that alkali-metal covered surfaces be applied to magnetic fusion devices as a means of controlling plasma impurity contamination and shielding the substrate from erosion. Monolayer films of alkali metals have been shown to sputter primarily as ions under particle bombardment. Thus, it is thought that a sheath potential and/or magnetic fields encountered by a sputtered ion will return the ion to the surface without entering the plasma. In this paper, we investigate the net wall impurity influx associated with coatings which exhibit substantial secondary ion emission as compared to those which sputter only as neutral atoms. Included in the analysis are sputtered substrate atoms. These are sometimes found to be a significant fraction of the total sputtering yield for low-Z alkali monolayers and affect the overall performance of such coatings. Estimates of the impurity influx made in the neighborhood of a sheath potential show that secondary-ion emitting coatings are effective as a means of inhibiting plasma impurity contamination and wall erosion

  3. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca 2+ influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca 2+ chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca 2+ -independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation

  4. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gostan, N.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to measure influx and efflux rates of Ca 2+ in freshwater-adapted Oreochromis mossambicus. The influx rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight (W) as Fin = 50W0.805 nmol Ca 2+ /h. For a 20-g fish the calculated influx rate was 558 nmol Ca 2+ /h, and this was attributed largely to extraintestinal uptake since the drinking rate was estimated to be only 28 microliter water/h, which corresponds to an intake of 22.4 nmol Ca 2+ /h. The Ca 2+ efflux rate was calculated using the initial rate of appearance of radiotracer in the ambient water and the specific activity of plasma Ca 2+ . Tracer efflux rates were constant over 6-8 h, which indicated that there was no substantial loss of tracer in either the urine or the feces because this would have resulted in random bursts of tracer loss. Efflux rates then primarily represent integumentary and presumably branchial efflux rates. The efflux rate of Ca 2+ is related to body weight as Fout = 30W0.563 nmol Ca 2+ /h, which means an efflux rate of 162 nmol Ca 2+ /h for a 20-g fish. The net whole-body Ca 2+ influx, calculated as Fnet = Fin - Fout, was 396 nmol/h for a 20-g fish, which proves that the ambient water is an important source of Ca 2+

  5. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3 H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [ 3 H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [ 3 H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se

  6. Deep-sea spherules from Pacific clay - Mass distribution and influx rate. [extraterrestrial origins from optical and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, M. T.; Davis, P. A., Jr.; Nishiizumi, K.; Millard, H. T., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    From 411 kg of Pacific clay, 22 mg of stony spherules and 50 mg of iron spherules larger than 150 microns were concentrated. The extraterrestrial origin of these particles was evaluated with the aid of optical and electron microscopy and atomic absorption elemental analysis. An expression for the integral number of stony particles from this sediment in the mass range 20-300 micrograms was derived. The world-wide influx rate of stony particles in the mass range which survive atmospheric heating and ocean sediment storage is calculated to be 90 tons/yr. The relative contributions of ablation debris vs fused interplanetary dust to the influx of stony spherules is discussed, but no conclusions could be made.

  7. Control of the neurovascular coupling by nitric oxide-dependent regulation of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Muñoz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity must be tightly coordinated with blood flow to keep proper brain function, which is achieved by a mechanism known as neurovascular coupling. Then, an increase in synaptic activity leads to a dilation of local parenchymal arterioles that matches the enhanced metabolic demand. Neurovascular coupling is orchestrated by astrocytes. These glial cells are located between neurons and the microvasculature, with the astrocytic endfeet ensheathing the vessels, which allows fine intercellular communication. The neurotransmitters released during neuronal activity reach astrocytic receptors and trigger a Ca2+ signaling that propagates to the endfeet, activating the release of vasoactive factors and arteriolar dilation. The astrocyte Ca2+ signaling is coordinated by gap junction channels and hemichannels formed by connexins (Cx43 and Cx30 and channels formed by pannexins (Panx-1. The neuronal activity-initiated Ca2+ waves are propagated among neighboring astrocytes directly via gap junctions or through ATP release via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels. In addition, Ca2+ entry via connexin hemichannels or pannexin channels may participate in the regulation of the astrocyte signaling-mediated neurovascular coupling. Interestingly, nitric oxide (NO can activate connexin hemichannel by S-nitrosylation and the Ca2+-dependent NO-synthesizing enzymes endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS are expressed in astrocytes. Therefore, the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling triggered in neurovascular coupling may activate NO production, which, in turn, may lead to Ca2+ influx through hemichannel activation. Furthermore, NO release from the hemichannels located at astrocytic endfeet may contribute to the vasodilation of parenchymal arterioles. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the astrocytic Ca2+ signaling that mediates neurovascular coupling, with a special emphasis in the possible participation of NO in

  8. Ca2+ signaling in taste bud cells and spontaneous preference for fat: unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Azize, Souleymane; Selvakumar, Subramaniam; Sadou, Hassimi; Besnard, Philippe; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Recent compelling evidences from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids. Understanding the mechanisms underlying oro-gustatory detection of dietary fat is critical for the prevention and treatment of obesity. A number of studies have suggested that lingual CD36, a glycoprotein, highly expressed by circumvallate papillae of the tongue, is implicated in the perception of dietary fat taste. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important signaling molecules for many aspects of cellular functions. It has been shown that these receptors, particularly GPR120, are also involved in lipid taste perception. We have shown that dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), in CD36-positive taste bud cells (TBC), induce increases in free intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, [Ca(2+)]i, by recruiting Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pool via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production, followed by Ca(2+) influx via opening of store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channels. GPR120 is also coupled to increases in [Ca(2+)]i by dietary fatty acids. We observed that stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a sensor of Ca(2+) depletion in the ER, mediated fatty acid-induced Ca(2+) signaling and spontaneous preference for fat in the mouse. In this review article, we discuss the recent advances and unresolved roles of CD36 and GPR120 in lipid taste signaling in taste bud cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  10. [Kinetic properties of the fructose influx across the brush border of the rat jejunum. Effects of a diet rich in fructose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzoulon, G

    1978-10-01

    The unidirectional influx (i.e. initial rate of uptake) of D-fructose across the brush border of rat jejunum is a saturable function of concentration, with a Kt of 125 mM, which implicates a carrier mechanism. This mechanism appears to be very specific for fructose in view of the lack of influx inhibition observed in the presence of large concentrations of the sugars or polyols, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose, sorbitol or mannitol. D-Fructose uptake is inhibited by incubation, preceded by a 30-min preincubation in the same inhibitory conditions, in the absence of Na, or in the presence of metabolic poisons, NaF, 2,4-dinitrophenol, monoiodoacetate. Phloridzin (10-3 M), with or without preincubation, has no effect on uptake. D-Fructose influx is stimulated by fructose feeding, mainly because the augmentation of the number of active sites of transfer: Jmax is increased two-fold, Kt is more weakly affected.

  11. Enhanced carbon influx into TFTR supershots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.T.; Bush, C.E.; Dylla, H.F.; Owens, D.K.; Pitcher, C.S.; Ulrickson, M.

    1990-12-01

    Under some conditions, a very large influx of carbon into TFTR occurs during beam injection into low recycling plasmas (the Supershot regime). These carbon ''blooms'' result in serious degradation of plasma parameters. The sources of this carbon have been identified as hot spots on the TFTR bumper limiter at or near the last closed flux surface. Two separate temperature thresholds have been identified. One, at about 1650 degree C, is consistent with radiation enhanced sublimation. The other, at about 2300 degree C, appears to be thermal sublimation of carbon from the limiter. To account for the increased density caused by the blooms, near unity recycling of the carbon at the limiter by physical sputtering is required; this effect is expected from laboratory measurements, and we believe we are seeing it on TFTR. The sources of the carbon blooms are sites which have either loosely attached fragments of limiter material (caused by damage) or surfaces nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Such surfaces may have local power depositions two orders of magnitude higher than usual. The TFTR team modified the limiter during the opening of Winter 1989--90. The modifications greatly reduced the number and magnitude of the blooms, so that they are no longer a problem

  12. Release from the cone ribbon synapse under bright light conditions can be controlled by the opening of only a few Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoletti, Theodore M; Jackman, Skyler L; Babai, Norbert; Mercer, Aaron J; Kramer, Richard H; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2011-12-01

    Light hyperpolarizes cone photoreceptors, causing synaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels to open infrequently. To understand neurotransmission under these conditions, we determined the number of L-type Ca(2+) channel openings necessary for vesicle fusion at the cone ribbon synapse. Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) were activated in voltage-clamped cones, and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from horizontal cells in the salamander retina slice preparation. Ca(2+) channel number and single-channel current amplitude were calculated by mean-variance analysis of I(Ca). Two different comparisons-one comparing average numbers of release events to average I(Ca) amplitude and the other involving deconvolution of both EPSCs and simultaneously recorded cone I(Ca)-suggested that fewer than three Ca(2+) channel openings accompanied fusion of each vesicle at the peak of release during the first few milliseconds of stimulation. Opening fewer Ca(2+) channels did not enhance fusion efficiency, suggesting that few unnecessary channel openings occurred during strong depolarization. We simulated release at the cone synapse, using empirically determined synaptic dimensions, vesicle pool size, Ca(2+) dependence of release, Ca(2+) channel number, and Ca(2+) channel properties. The model replicated observations when a barrier was added to slow Ca(2+) diffusion. Consistent with the presence of a diffusion barrier, dialyzing cones with diffusible Ca(2+) buffers did not affect release efficiency. The tight clustering of Ca(2+) channels, along with a high-Ca(2+) affinity release mechanism and diffusion barrier, promotes a linear coupling between Ca(2+) influx and vesicle fusion. This may improve detection of small light decrements when cones are hyperpolarized by bright light.

  13. Functional properties of a newly identified C-terminal splice variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-12-09

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Ca(v)1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels (Ca(v)1.3(L)) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Ca(v)1.3(42A) channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Ca(v)1.3(43S)) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Ca(v)1.3(42A), still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Ca(v)1.3(43S) also activated at more negative voltages like Ca(v)1.3(42A) but Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Ca(v)1.3(L). The presence of the proximal C terminus in Ca(v)1.3(43S) channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Ca(v)1.3- and Ca(v)1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca(2+) influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Ca(v)1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca(2+) channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca(2+) accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca(2+)-induced neurodegenerative processes.

  14. Rapid effects of 17beta-estradiol on TRPV5 epithelial Ca2+ channels in rat renal cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-08-01

    The renal distal tubules and collecting ducts play a key role in the control of electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. The discovery of highly calcium selective channels, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) of the TRP superfamily, has clarified the nature of the calcium entry channels. It has been proposed that this channel mediates the critical Ca(2+) entry step in transcellular Ca(2+) re-absorption in the kidney. The regulation of transmembrane Ca(2+) flux through TRPV5 is of particular importance for whole body calcium homeostasis.In this study, we provide evidence that the TRPV5 channel is present in rat cortical collecting duct (RCCD(2)) cells at mRNA and protein levels. We demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) is involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) influx in these cells via the epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5. By combining whole-cell patch-clamp and Ca(2+)-imaging techniques, we have characterized the electrophysiological properties of the TRPV5 channel and showed that treatment with 20-50nM E(2) rapidly (<5min) induced a transient increase in inward whole-cell currents and intracellular Ca(2+) via TRPV5 channels. This rise was significantly prevented when cells were pre-treated with ruthenium red and completely abolished in cells treated with siRNA specifically targeting TRPV5.These data demonstrate for the first time, a novel rapid modulation of endogenously expressed TRPV5 channels by E(2) in kidney cells. Furthermore, the results suggest calcitropic effects of E(2). The results are discussed in relation to present concepts of non-genomic actions of E(2) in Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  15. Two-photon activation of endogenous store-operated calcium channels without optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pan; Tang, Wanyi; He, Hao

    2018-02-01

    Store-operated calcium (SOC) channels, regulated by intracellular Ca2+ store, are the essential pathway of calcium signaling and participate in a wide variety of cellular activities such as gene expression, secretion and immune response1. However, our understanding and regulation of SOC channels are mainly based on pharmacological methods. Considering the unique advantages of optical control, optogenetic control of SOC channels has been developed2. However, the process of genetic engineering to express exogenous light-sensitive protein is complicated, which arouses concerns about ethic difficulties in some research of animal and applications in human. In this report, we demonstrate rapid, robust and reproducible two-photon activation of endogenous SOC channels by femtosecond laser without optogenetics. We present that the short-duration two-photon scanning on subcellular microregion induces slow Ca2+ influx from extracellular medium, which can be eliminated by removing extracellular Ca2+. Block of SOC channels using various pharmacological inhibitors or knockdown of SOC channels by RNA interference reduce the probability of two-photon activated Ca2+ influx. On the contrary, overexpression of SOC channels can increase the probability of Ca2+ influx by two-photon scanning. These results collectively indicate Ca2+ influx through two-photon activated SOC channels. Different from classical pathway of SOC entry activated by Ca2+ store depletion, STIM1, the sensor protein of Ca2+ level in endoplasmic reticulum, does not show any aggregation or migration in this two-photon activated Ca2+ influx, which rules out the possibility of intracellular Ca2+ store depletion. Thereby, we propose this all-optical method of two-photon activation of SOC channels is of great potential to be widely applied in the research of cell calcium signaling and related biological research.

  16. PKA Controls Calcium Influx into Motor Neurons during a Rhythmic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Sieburth, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine) rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels. PMID:24086161

  17. PKA controls calcium influx into motor neurons during a rhythmic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels.

  18. Localization of Rod Bipolar Cells in the Mammalian Retina Using an Antibody Against the α1c L-type Ca2+ Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Yu-Jin; Choi, Jae-Sik; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar cells transmit stimuli via graded changes in membrane potential and neurotransmitter release is modulated by Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the α 1 c subunit of L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel (α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel) colocalizes with protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α), which labels rod bipolar cells. Retinal whole mounts and vertical sections from mouse, hamster, rabbit, and dog were immunolabeled with antibodies against PKC-α and α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and Cy5 as visualizing agents. PKC-α-immunoreactive cells were morphologically identical to rod bipolar cells as previously reported. Their cell bodies were located within the inner nuclear layer, dendritic processes branched into the outer plexiform layer, and axons extended into the inner plexiform layer. Immunostaining showed that α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel colocalized with PKC-α in rod bipolar cells. The identical expression of PKC-α and α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel indicates that the α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel has a specific role in rod bipolar cells, and the antibody against the α 1 c L-type Ca 2+ channel may be a useful marker for studying the distribution of rod bipolar cells in mouse, hamster, rabbit, and dog retinas

  19. The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX: A test-bed for developing urban greenhouse gas emission measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Davis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX is to develop, evaluate and improve methods for measuring greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from cities. INFLUX’s scientific objectives are to quantify CO2 and CH4 emission rates at 1 km2 resolution with a 10% or better accuracy and precision, to determine whole-city emissions with similar skill, and to achieve high (weekly or finer temporal resolution at both spatial resolutions. The experiment employs atmospheric GHG measurements from both towers and aircraft, atmospheric transport observations and models, and activity-based inventory products to quantify urban GHG emissions. Multiple, independent methods for estimating urban emissions are a central facet of our experimental design. INFLUX was initiated in 2010 and measurements and analyses are ongoing. To date we have quantified urban atmospheric GHG enhancements using aircraft and towers with measurements collected over multiple years, and have estimated whole-city CO2 and CH4 emissions using aircraft and tower GHG measurements, and inventory methods. Significant differences exist across methods; these differences have not yet been resolved; research to reduce uncertainties and reconcile these differences is underway. Sectorally- and spatially-resolved flux estimates, and detection of changes of fluxes over time, are also active research topics. Major challenges include developing methods for distinguishing anthropogenic from biogenic CO2 fluxes, improving our ability to interpret atmospheric GHG measurements close to urban GHG sources and across a broader range of atmospheric stability conditions, and quantifying uncertainties in inventory data products. INFLUX data and tools are intended to serve as an open resource and test bed for future investigations. Well-documented, public archival of data and methods is under development in support of this objective.

  20. An analysis of the plasma impurity influx from alkali-metal coatings for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWald, A.B.; Davidson, J.N.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that alkali-metal covered surfaces be applied to magnetic fusion devices as a means of controlling plasma impurity contamination and shielding the substrate from erosion. Monolayer films of alkali metals have been shown to sputter primarily as ions under particle bombardment. Thus, it is thought that a sheath potential and/or magnetic fields encountered by a sputtered ion will return the ion to the surface without entering the plasma. In this paper, we investigate the net wall impurity influx associated with coatings which exhibit substantial secondary ion emission compared with those which sputter only as neutral atoms. Included in the analysis are sputtered substrate atoms. These are sometimes found to be a significant fraction of the total sputtering yield for low-Z alkali monolayers and affect the overall performance of such coatings. Estimates of the impurity influx made in the neighborhood of a sheath potential show that secondary-ion emitting coatings are effective as a means of inhibiting plasma impurity contamination and wall erosion. (orig.)

  1. EDRF [endothelium-derived relaxing factor]-release and Ca++-channel blockage by Magnolol, an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, in rat thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Cheming; Yu, Sheumeei; Chen, Chienchih; Huang, Yulin; Huang, Turfu

    1990-01-01

    Magnolol is an antiplatelet agent isolated from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis. It inhibited norepinephrine-induced phasic and tonic contractions in rat thoracic aorta. At the plateau of the NE-induced tonic contraction, addition of magnolol caused two phases (fast and slow) of relaxation. These two relaxations were concentration-dependent, and were not inhibited by indomethacin. The fast relaxation was completely antagonized by hemoglobin and methylene blue, and disappeared in de-endothelialized aorta while the slow relaxation was not affected by the above treatments. Magnolol also inhibited high potassium-induced, calcium-dependent contraction of rat aorta in a concentration-dependent manner. 45 Ca ++ influx induced by high potassium or NE was markedly inhibited by magnolol. Cyclic GMP, but not PGI 2 , was increased by magnolol in intact, but not in de-endothelialized aorta. It is concluded that magnolol relaxed vascular smooth muscle by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and by inhibiting calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels

  2. Stark broadening of Ca IV spectral lines of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Medina, A.; Colón, C.

    2014-12-01

    Ca IV emission lines are under the preview of Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation device aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Also, lines of the Ca IV in planetary nebulae NGC 7027 were detected with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory. These facts justify an attempt to provide new spectroscopic parameters of Ca IV. There are no theoretical or experimental Stark broadening data for Ca IV. Using the Griem semi-empirical approach and the COWAN code, we report in this paper calculated values of the Stark broadening parameters for 467 lines of Ca IV. They were calculated using a set of wavefunctions obtained by using Hartree-Fock relativistic calculations. These lines arising from 3s23p4ns (n = 4, 5), 3s23p44p, 3s23p4nd (n = 3, 4) configurations. Stark widths and shifts are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 10 000, 20 000 and 50 200 K. As these data cannot be compared to others in the literature, we present an analysis of the different regularities of the values presented in this work.

  3. Effect of inhibition of microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase on cytoplasmic calcium and enzyme secretion in pancreatic acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, D C; Pradhan, T K; Mrozinski, J E; Jensen, R T; Turner, R J; Patto, R J; Gardner, J D

    1994-01-13

    We used thapsigargin (TG), 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), each of which inhibits microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, to evaluate the effects of this inhibition on cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and secretagogue-stimulated enzyme secretion in rat pancreatic acini. Using single-cell microspectrofluorimetry of fura-2-loaded acini we found that all three agents caused a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i by mobilizing calcium from inositol-(1,4,5)-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular calcium stores and by promoting influx of extracellular calcium. Concentrations of all three agents that increased [Ca2+]i potentiated the stimulation of enzyme secretion caused by secretagogues that activate adenylate cyclase but inhibited the stimulation of enzyme secretion caused by secretagogues that activate phospholipase C. With BHQ, potentiation of adenylate cyclase-mediated enzyme secretion occurred immediately whereas inhibition of phospholipase C-mediated enzyme secretion occurred only after several min of incubation. In addition, the effects of BHQ and CPA on both [Ca2+]i and secretagogue-stimulated enzyme secretion were reversed completely by washing whereas the actions of TG could not be reversed by washing. Concentrations of BHQ in excess of those that caused maximal changes in [Ca2+]i inhibited all modes of stimulated enzyme secretion by a mechanism that was apparently unrelated to changes in [Ca2+]i. Finally, in contrast to the findings with TG and BHQ, CPA inhibited bombesin-stimulated enzyme secretion over a range of concentrations that was at least 10-fold lower than the range of concentrations over which CPA potentiated VIP-stimulated enzyme secretion.

  4. Modulation of contraction by intracellular Na+ via Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in single shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näbauer, M; Morad, M

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of direct alteration of intracellular Na+ concentration on contractile properties of whole-cell clamped shark ventricular myocytes was studied using an array of 256 photodiodes to monitor the length of the isolated myocytes. 2. In myocytes dialysed with Na(+)-free solution, the voltage dependence of Ca2+ current (ICa) and contraction were similar and bell shaped. Contractions activated at all voltages were completely suppressed by nifedipine (5 microM), and failed to show significant tonic components, suggesting dependence of the contraction on Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel. 3. In myocytes dialysed with 60 mM Na+, a ICa-dependent and a ICa-independent component of contraction could be identified. The Ca2+ current-dependent component was prominent in voltages between -30 to +10 mV. The ICa-independent contractions were maintained for the duration of depolarization, increased with increasing depolarization between +10 to +100 mV, and were insensitive to nifedipine. 4. In such myocytes, repolarization produced slowly decaying inward tail currents closely related to the time course of relaxation and the degree of shortening prior to repolarization. 5. With 60 mM Na+ in the pipette solution, positive clamp potentials activated decaying outward currents which correlated to the size of contraction. These outward currents appeared to be generated by the Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger since they depended on the presence of intracellular Na+, and were neither suppressed by nifedipine nor by K+ channel blockers. 6. The results suggest that in shark (Squalus acanthias) ventricular myocytes, which lack functionally relevant Ca2+ release pools, both Ca2+ channel and the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger deliver sufficient Ca2+ to activate contraction, though the effectiveness of the latter mechanism was highly dependent on the [Na+]i. PMID:1338467

  5. Involvement of glucocorticoid-mediated Zn2+ signaling in attenuation of hippocampal CA1 LTP by acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Miki; Tamano, Haruna; Takada, Shunsuke; Ide, Kazuki; Oku, Naoto

    2012-03-01

    Glucocorticoid-glutamatergic interactions have been proposed as a potential model to explain stress-mediated impairment of cognition. However, it is unknown whether glucocorticoid-zincergic interactions are involved in this impairment. Histochemically reactive zinc (Zn(2+)) is co-released with glutamate from zincergic neurons. In the present study, involvement of synaptic Zn(2+) in stress-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was examined in hippocampal slices from young rats after exposure to tail suspension stress for 30s, which significantly increased serum corticosterone. Stress-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was ameliorated by administration of clioquinol, a membrane permeable zinc chelator, to rats prior to exposure to stress, implying that the reduction of synaptic Zn(2+) by clioquinol participates in this amelioration. To pursue the involvement of corticosterone-mediated Zn(2+) signal in the attenuated CA1 LTP by stress, dynamics of synaptic Zn(2+) was checked in hippocampal slices exposed to corticosterone. Corticosterone increased extracellular Zn(2+) levels measured with ZnAF-2 dose-dependently, as well as the intracellular Ca(2+) levels measured with calcium orange AM, suggesting that corticosterone excites zincergic neurons in the hippocampus and increases Zn(2+) release from the neuron terminals. Intracellular Zn(2+) levels measured with ZnAF-2DA were also increased dose-dependently, but not in the coexistence of CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) levels is increased by the influx of extracellular Zn(2+). Furthermore, corticosterone-induced attenuation of CA1 LTP was abolished in the coexistence of CaEDTA. The present study suggests that corticosterone-mediated increase in postsynaptic Zn(2+) signal in the cytosolic compartment is involved in the attenuation of CA1 LTP after exposure to acute stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous release from mossy fiber terminals inhibits Ni2+-sensitive T-type Ca2+ channels of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the rat organotypic hippocampal slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Xu, Shenghong; Williams, David A

    2008-01-01

    Mossy fibers (axons arising from dentate granule cells) form large synaptic contacts exclusively onto the proximal apical dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons. They can generate large synaptic currents that occur in close proximity to the soma. These properties mean that active conductance in the proximal apical dendrite could have a disproportionate influence on CA3 pyramidal neuron excitability. Ni(2+)-sensitive T-type Ca(2+) channels are important modulators of dendritic excitability. Here, we use an optical approach to determine the contribution of Ni(2+) (100 microM)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels to action potential (AP) elicited Ca(2+) flux in the soma, proximal apical and distal apical dendrites. At resting membrane potentials Ni(2+)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels do not contribute to the Ca(2+) signal in the proximal apical dendrite, but do contribute in the other cell regions. Spontaneous release from mossy fiber terminals acting on 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX)-sensitive postsynaptic channels underlies a tonic inhibition of Ni(2+)-sensitive channels. Chelating Zn(2+) with CaEDTA blocks CNQX-sensitive changes in Ca(2+) flux implicating a mechanistic role of this ion in T-type Ca(2+) channel block. To test if this inhibition influenced excitability, progressively larger depolarizing pulses were delivered to CA3 pyramidal neurons. CNQX significantly reduced the size of the depolarizing step required to generate APs and increased the absolute number of APs per depolarizing step. This change in AP firing was completely reversed by the addition of Ni(2+). This mechanism may reduce the impact of T-type Ca(2+) channels in a region where large synaptic events are common.

  7. Stochastic simulation of a single inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ channel reveals repetitive openings during 'blip-like' Ca2+ transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swillens, S; Champeil, P; Combettes, L; Dupont, G

    1998-05-01

    Confocal microscope studies with fluorescent dyes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization recently established the existence of 'elementary' events, dependent on the activity of individual InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ channels. In the present work, we try by theoretical stochastic simulation to explain the smallest signals observed in those studies, which were referred to as Ca2+ 'blips' [Parker I., Yao Y. Ca2+ transients associated with openings of inositol trisphosphate-gated channels in Xenopus oocytes. J Physiol Lond 1996; 491: 663-668]. For this purpose, we assumed a simple molecular model for the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ channel and defined a set of parameter values accounting for the results obtained in electrophysiological bilayer experiments [Bezprozvanny I., Watras J., Ehrlich B.E. Bell-shaped calcium-response curves of Ins(1,4,5)P3- and calcium-gated channels from endoplasmic reticulum of cerebellum. Nature 1991; 351: 751-754; Bezprozvanny I., Ehrlich B.E. Inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3)-gated Ca channels from cerebellum: conduction properties for divalent cations and regulation by intraluminal calcium. J Gen Physiol 1994; 104: 821-856]. With a stochastic procedure which considered cytosolic Ca2+ diffusion explicitly, we then simulated the behaviour of a single channel, placed in a realistic physiological environment. An attractive result was that the simulated channel exhibited bursts of activity, arising from repetitive channel openings, which were responsible for transient rises in Ca2+ concentration and were reminiscent of the relatively long-duration experimental Ca2+ blips. The influence of the values chosen for the various parameters (affinity and diffusion coefficient of the buffers, luminal Ca2+ concentration) on the kinetic characteristics of these theoretical blips is analyzed.

  8. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca2+ mobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Meichun; Li, Jianjie; Lv, Jingzhang; Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin; Chen, Xiangdong; Liu, Zhigang; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca 2+ increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca 2+ increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl 3 to block the Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca 2+ entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca 2+ influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca 2+ mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca 2+ entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca 2+ entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  9. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R.; Zanotto, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd 2+ enter gill cells through Ca 2+ channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca 2+ levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd 2+ /Ca 2+ (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na + /K + -ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd 2+ transport and ouabain increase gill Cd 2+ transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd 2+ ) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd 2+ transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd 2+ concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd 2+ transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl 2 and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd 2+ was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca 2+ channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd 2+ influx as well as vanadate, a Ca 2+ -ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca 2+ (BAPTA) decreased Cd 2+ influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca 2+ (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd 2+ and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd 2+ accumulation. Ouabain (Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd 2+ influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd 2+ influx, a non-essential metal, through the gill cell plasma membrane of crabs are suggested

  10. Thymosin β4 promotes the migration of endothelial cells without intracellular Ca2+ elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmi, Anna; Malinowski, Mariusz; Brutkowski, Wojciech; Bednarek, Radoslaw; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of Tβ4 on cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation after exogenous treatment, but the mechanism by which Tβ4 functions is still unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that incubation of endothelial cells with Tβ4 induced synthesis and secretion of various proteins, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and matrix metaloproteinases. We also showed that Tβ4 interacts with Ku80, which may operate as a novel receptor for Tβ4 and mediates its intracellular activity. In this paper, we provide evidence that Tβ4 induces cellular processes without changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. External treatment of HUVECs with Tβ4 and its mutants deprived of the N-terminal tetrapeptide AcSDKP (Tβ4 AcSDKPT/4A ) or the actin-binding sequence KLKKTET (Tβ4 KLKKTET/7A ) resulted in enhanced cell migration and formation of tubular structures in Matrigel. Surprisingly, the increased cell motility caused by Tβ4 was not associated with the intracellular Ca 2+ elevation monitored with Fluo-4 NW or Fura-2 AM. Therefore, it is unlikely that externally added Tβ4 induces HUVEC migration via the surface membrane receptors known to generate Ca 2+ influx. Our data confirm the concept that externally added Tβ4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration.

  11. Arabidopsis Glutamate Receptor Homolog3.5 Modulates Cytosolic Ca2+ Level to Counteract Effect of Abscisic Acid in Seed Germination1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Ju, Chuanli; Parihar, Aisha; Kim, So; Cho, Daeshik; Kwak, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination is a critical step in a plant’s life cycle that allows successful propagation and is therefore strictly controlled by endogenous and environmental signals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying germination control remain elusive. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) glutamate receptor homolog3.5 (AtGLR3.5) is predominantly expressed in germinating seeds and increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that counteracts the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) to promote germination. Repression of AtGLR3.5 impairs cytosolic Ca2+ concentration elevation, significantly delays germination, and enhances ABA sensitivity in seeds, whereas overexpression of AtGLR3.5 results in earlier germination and reduced seed sensitivity to ABA. Furthermore, we show that Ca2+ suppresses the expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4), a key transcription factor involved in ABA response in seeds, and that ABI4 plays a fundamental role in modulation of Ca2+-dependent germination. Taken together, our results provide molecular genetic evidence that AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ influx stimulates seed germination by antagonizing the inhibitory effects of ABA through suppression of ABI4. These findings establish, to our knowledge, a new and pivotal role of the plant glutamate receptor homolog and Ca2+ signaling in germination control and uncover the orchestrated modulation of the AtGLR3.5-mediated Ca2+ signal and ABA signaling via ABI4 to fine-tune the crucial developmental process, germination, in Arabidopsis. PMID:25681329

  12. Effect of cholera toxin on cAMP levels and Na+ influx in isolated intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, C.S.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly isolated chicken intestinal cells contain approximately 20 pmol adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/mg cellular protein. Incubation with 3 μg/ml cholera toxin (CT) at 37 0 C induces an elevation of cellular cAMP beginning 10-15 min after initial exposure. The response is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eightfold increase over control levels at steady state. Dibutyryl cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Na + influx into the isolated enterocytes. Chlorpromazine completely abolishes the toxin-induced elevation of cAMP in the isolated cells and also reverses the effect on Na + entry. The data provide evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal cell Na + uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na + during induction of intestinal secretory activity. Studies on the time-dependent effects of chlorpromazine on both intracellular cAMP concentration and Na + influx suggest that the reactivation of the Na + transport system after cAMP-induced inhibition is slow relative to the disappearance of cAMP

  13. Effect of metabolic syndrome and aging on Ca2+ dysfunction in coronary smooth muscle and coronary artery disease severity in Ossabaw miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Jill K; Bruning, Rebecca S; Sturek, Michael

    2018-05-03

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and aging are prevalent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and contribute to the etiology of CAD, including dysregulation of Ca 2+ handling mechanisms in coronary smooth muscle (CSM). The current study tested the hypothesis that CAD severity and CSM Ca 2+ dysregulation were different in MetS-induced CAD compared to aging-induced CAD. Young (2.5 ± 0.2 years) and old (8.8 ± 1.2 years) Ossabaw miniature swine were fed an atherogenic diet for 11 months to induce MetS and were compared to lean age-matched controls. The metabolic profile was confirmed by body weight, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, and intravenous glucose tolerance test. CAD was measured with intravascular ultrasound and histology. Intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) was assessed with fura-2 imaging. CAD severity was similar between MetS young and lean old swine, with MetS old swine exhibiting the most severe CAD. Compared to CSM [Ca 2+ ] i handling in lean young, the MetS young and lean old swine exhibited increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store release, increased Ca 2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels, and attenuated sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase activity. MetS old and MetS young swine had similar Ca 2+ dysregulation. Ca 2+ dysregulation, mainly the SR Ca 2+ store, in CSM is more pronounced in lean old swine, which is indicative of mild, proliferative CAD. MetS old and MetS young swine exhibit Ca 2+ dysfunction that is typical of late, severe disease. The more advanced, complex plaques in MetS old swine suggest that the "aging milieu" potentiates effects of Ca 2+ handling dysfunction in CAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Meichun [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (China); Li, Jianjie [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lv, Jingzhang [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen 518045 (China); Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Xiangdong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: ljljz@yahoo.com [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl{sub 3} to block the Ca{sup 2+} release-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca{sup 2+} entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  15. Factors affecting the amounts of emissions arising from fluidized bed combustion of solid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaj, P.

    1996-01-01

    The factors affecting the amounts of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x , i.e. SO 2 + SO 3 ) formed during fluidized bed combustion of fossil fuels are analyzed using both theoretical concepts and experimental data. The factors treated include temperature, excess air, fuel parameters, pressure, degree of combustion gas recycling, combustion distribution along the combustion chamber height, and sulfur trapping processes for NO x , and the Ca/S ratio, fluidized layer height and fluidization rate, granulometry and absorbent type, fluidized layer temperature, and pressure during combustion for SO x . It is concluded that fluidized bed boilers are promising power generating facilities, mitigating the environmental burden arising from fossil fuel combustion. (P.A.). 12 figs., 9 refs

  16. ORIGIN FOR IRRADIATION EFFECT OF 0.56GeV C6+ ON CaVSn:YIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊宏齐; 侯明东; 等

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents numerous physical characteristics of Ca,V.Sn doped yttrium iron garnet(CaVSn:YIG) irradiated with 0.56GeV carbon ions delivered by the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL).The reason for change of the magnetic properties of the samples induced by energetic carbon ions bombardment is discussed.By comparison of this results with the irradiation effects of YIG induced by eneregetic argon,krypton and xenon oibtained on the GANIL,Caen,France,it is concluded that the irradiation effect of 0.56GeV C6+ on CaVSn:YIG arises from the electronic energy losses.

  17. Role of phosphate and other proton-donating anions in respiration-coupled transport of Ca2+ by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, A L

    1974-04-01

    Measurements of extra oxygen consumption, (45)Ca(2+) uptake, and the osmotic expansion of the matrix compartment show that not all permeant anions are capable of supporting and accompanying the energy-dependent transport of Ca(2+) from the medium into the matrix in respiring rat-liver mitochondria. Phosphate, arsenate, acetate, butyrate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and bicarbonate + CO(2) supported Ca(2+) uptake, whereas the permeant anions, nitrate, thiocyanate, chlorate, and perchlorate, did not. The active anions share a common denominator, the potential ability to donate a proton to the mitochondrial matrix; the inactive anions lack this capacity. Phosphate and the other active permeant anions move into the matrix in response to the alkaline-inside electrochemical gradient of protons generated across the mitochondrial membrane by electron transport, thus forming a negative-inside anion gradient. It is postulated that the latter gradient is the immediate "pulling" force for the influx of Ca(2+) on the electrogenic Ca(2+) carrier in respiring mitochondria under intracellular conditions. Since mitochondria in the cell are normally exposed to an excess of phosphate (and the bicarbonate-CO(2) system), particularly in state 4, inward transport of these proton-yielding anions probably precedes and is necessary for inward transport of Ca(2+) and other cations under biological conditions. These observations indicate that a negative-inside gradient of phosphate generated by electron transport is a common step and provides the immediate motive power not only for (a) the inward transport of dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates and (b) the energy-dependent exchange of external ADP(3-) for internal ATP(4-) during oxidative phosphorylation, as has already been established, but also for (c) the inward transport of Ca(2+), K(+), and other cations.

  18. Mechanism of palytoxin-induced [3H]norepinephrine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohizumi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Palytoxin, isolated from the zoanthid Palytoha species, is one of the most potent marine toxins. Palytoxin caused a release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine from clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This releasing action of palytoxin was markedly inhibited or abolished by Co 2+ or Ca 2+ -free medium, but was not modified by tetrodotoxin. The release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine induced by a low concentration of palytoxin was abolished in sodium-free medium and increased as the external Na+ concentrations were increased, but the release induced by a high concentration was unaffected by varying the concentration of external Na + . The release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine induced by both concentrations of palytoxin increased with increasing Ca 2+ concentrations. Palytoxin caused a concentration-dependent increase in 22 Na and 45 Ca influxes into pheochromocytoma cells. The palytoxin-induced 45 Ca influx was markedly inhibited by Co 2+ , whereas the palytoxin-induced 22 Na influx was not affected by tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that in pheochromocytoma cells the [ 3 H]norepinephrine release induced by lower concentrations of palytoxin is primarily brought about by increasing tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na + permeability across the cell membrane, whereas that induced by higher concentrations is mainly caused by a direct increase in Ca 2+ influx into them

  19. Basal activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels controls the IP3-mediated contraction by α(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Fransen, Paul

    2015-08-05

    α1-Adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta causes intracellular Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores via stimulation of inositoltriphosphate (IP3) receptors. It is hypothesized that this Ca(2+) release from the contractile and IP3-sensitive Ca(2+) store is under the continuous dynamic control of time-independent basal Ca(2+) influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LCC) residing in their window voltage range. Mouse aortic segments were α1-adrenoceptor stimulated with phenylephrine in the absence of external Ca(2+) (0Ca) to measure phasic isometric contractions. They gradually decreased with time in 0Ca, were inhibited with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and declined with previous membrane potential hyperpolarization (levcromakalim) or with previous inhibition of LCC (diltiazem). Former basal stimulation of LCC with depolarization (15 mM K(+)) or with BAY K8644 increased the subsequent phasic contractions by phenylephrine in 0Ca. Although exogenous NO (diethylamine NONOate) reduced the phasic contractions by phenylephrine, stimulation of endothelial cells with acetylcholine in 0Ca failed to attenuate these phasic contractions. Finally, inhibition of the basal release of NO with N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also attenuated the phasic contractions by phenylephrine. Results indicated that α1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine causes phasic contractions, which are controlled by basal LCC and endothelial NO synthase activity. Endothelial NO release by acetylcholine was absent in 0Ca. Given the growing interest in the active regulation of arterial compliance, the dependence of contractile SR Ca(2+) store-refilling in basal conditions on the activity of LCC and basal eNOS may contribute to a more thorough understanding of physiological mechanisms leading to arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Single-channel L-type Ca2+ currents in chicken embryo semicircular canal type I and type II hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Valli, Paolo; Zucca, Giampiero; Masetto, Sergio

    2006-08-01

    Few data are available concerning single Ca channel properties in inner ear hair cells and particularly none in vestibular type I hair cells. By using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique in combination with the semicircular canal crista slice preparation, we determined the elementary properties of voltage-dependent Ca channels in chicken embryo type I and type II hair cells. The pipette solutions included Bay K 8644. With 70 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, Ca channel activity appeared as very brief openings at -60 mV. Ca channel properties were found to be similar in type I and type II hair cells; therefore data were pooled. The mean inward current amplitude was -1.3 +/- 0.1 (SD) pA at - 30 mV (n = 16). The average slope conductance was 21 pS (n = 20). With 5 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, very brief openings were already detectable at -80 mV. The mean inward current amplitude was -0.7 +/- 0.2 pA at -40 mV (n = 9). The average slope conductance was 11 pS (n = 9). The mean open time and the open probability increased significantly with depolarization. Ca channel activity was still present and unaffected when omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (3.2 microM) were added to the pipette solution. Our results show that types I and II hair cells express L-type Ca channels with similar properties. Moreover, they suggest that in vivo Ca(2+) influx might occur at membrane voltages more negative than -60 mV.

  1. Role of Ca++ Influx via Epidermal TRP Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    manuscript and helpful discussions. References 1. Burkhart, C. G., and Burkhart, H. R. (2003) Contact irritant dermatitis and anti-pruritic agents...E. (2013) TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis . FASEB J. 27, 3549–3563 64. Yoshioka, T., Imura, K...allergic   contact   dermatitis ,   including   contact   dermatitis   elicited  by  the  poison  ivy  allergen,  urushiol  [75,  126].     Similarly

  2. Role of Ca ++ Influx via Epidermal TRP Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    the North Carolina Biotechnology Center (NCBC), and by the Harrington Discovery Institute of University Hospitals in Cleveland OH. 7   The...widely read forum on Pain Medicine in the US and in English-speaking countries. http://www.painmedicinenews.com/Science-Technology/Article/08-16/Study...University, Durham NC USA. 2Dept of Medicine , Duke University, Durham NC USA. 3Dept of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC USA. 4Dept of Neurobiology

  3. The Allergen Der p3 from House Dust Mite Stimulates Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels and Mast Cell Migration through PAR4 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ping; Nelson, Charmaine; Kramer, Holger; Parekh, Anant B

    2018-04-19

    The house dust mite is the principal source of perennial aeroallergens in man. How these allergens activate innate and adaptive immunity is unclear, and therefore, there are no therapies targeting mite allergens. Here, we show that house dust mite extract activates store-operated Ca 2+ channels, a common signaling module in numerous cell types in the lung. Activation of channel pore-forming Orai1 subunits by mite extract requires gating by STIM1 proteins. Although mite extract stimulates both protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR2) and PAR4 receptors, Ca 2+ influx is more tightly coupled to the PAR4 pathway. We identify a major role for the serine protease allergen Der p3 in stimulating Orai1 channels and show that a therapy involving sub-maximal inhibition of both Der p3 and Orai1 channels suppresses mast cell activation to house dust mite. Our results reveal Der p3 as an important aeroallergen that activates Ca 2+ channels and suggest a therapeutic strategy for treating mite-induced asthma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CSMA/CCA: A Modified CSMA/CA Protocol Mitigating the Fairness Problem for IEEE 802.11 DCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA has been adopted by the IEEE 802.11 standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs. Using a distributed coordination function (DCF, the CSMA/CA protocol reduces collisions and improves the overall throughput. To mitigate fairness issues arising with CSMA/CA, we develop a modified version that we term CSMA with copying collision avoidance (CSMA/CCA. A station in CSMA/CCA contends for the shared wireless medium by employing a binary exponential backoff similar to CSMA/CA. Different from CSMA/CA, CSMA/CCA copies the contention window (CW size piggybacked in the MAC header of an overheard data frame within its basic service set (BSS and updates its backoff counter according to the new CW size. Simulations carried out in several WLAN configurations illustrate that CSMA/CCA improves fairness relative to CSMA/CA and offers considerable advantages for deployment in the 802.11-standard-based WLANs.

  5. Functional Properties of a Newly Identified C-terminal Splice Variant of Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ Channels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gabriella; Gebhart, Mathias; Scharinger, Anja; Jangsangthong, Wanchana; Busquet, Perrine; Poggiani, Chiara; Sartori, Simone; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Herzig, Stefan; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    An intramolecular interaction between a distal (DCRD) and a proximal regulatory domain (PCRD) within the C terminus of long Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels (Cav1.3L) is a major determinant of their voltage- and Ca2+-dependent gating kinetics. Removal of these regulatory domains by alternative splicing generates Cav1.342A channels that activate at a more negative voltage range and exhibit more pronounced Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Here we describe the discovery of a novel short splice variant (Cav1.343S) that is expressed at high levels in the brain but not in the heart. It lacks the DCRD but, in contrast to Cav1.342A, still contains PCRD. When expressed together with α2δ1 and β3 subunits in tsA-201 cells, Cav1.343S also activated at more negative voltages like Cav1.342A but Ca2+-dependent inactivation was less pronounced. Single channel recordings revealed much higher channel open probabilities for both short splice variants as compared with Cav1.3L. The presence of the proximal C terminus in Cav1.343S channels preserved their modulation by distal C terminus-containing Cav1.3- and Cav1.2-derived C-terminal peptides. Removal of the C-terminal modulation by alternative splicing also induced a faster decay of Ca2+ influx during electrical activities mimicking trains of neuronal action potentials. Our findings extend the spectrum of functionally diverse Cav1.3 L-type channels produced by tissue-specific alternative splicing. This diversity may help to fine tune Ca2+ channel signaling and, in the case of short variants lacking a functional C-terminal modulation, prevent excessive Ca2+ accumulation during burst firing in neurons. This may be especially important in neurons that are affected by Ca2+-induced neurodegenerative processes. PMID:21998310

  6. Relationship between NaCl- and H2O2-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increases in response to stress in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Jiang

    Full Text Available Salinity is among the environmental factors that affect plant growth and development and constrain agricultural productivity. Salinity stress triggers increases in cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i via Ca(2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Salinity stress, as well as other stresses, induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. It is well established that ROS also triggers increases in [Ca(2+]i. However, the relationship and interaction between salinity stress-induced [Ca(2+]i increases and ROS-induced [Ca(2+]i increases remain poorly understood. Using an aequorin-based Ca(2+ imaging assay we have analyzed [Ca(2+]i changes in response to NaCl and H2O2 treatments in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that NaCl and H2O2 together induced larger increases in [Ca(2+]i in Arabidopsis seedlings than either NaCl or H2O2 alone, suggesting an additive effect on [Ca(2+]i increases. Following a pre-treatment with either NaCl or H2O2, the subsequent elevation of [Ca(2+]i in response to a second treatment with either NaCl or H2O2 was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the NaCl pre-treatment suppressed the elevation of [Ca(2+]i seen with a second NaCl treatment more than that seen with a second treatment of H2O2. A similar response was seen when the initial treatment was with H2O2; subsequent addition of H2O2 led to less of an increase in [Ca(2+]i than did addition of NaCl. These results imply that NaCl-gated Ca(2+ channels and H2O2-gated Ca(2+ channels may differ, and also suggest that NaCl- and H2O2-evoked [Ca(2+]i may reduce the potency of both NaCl and H2O2 in triggering [Ca(2+]i increases, highlighting a feedback mechanism. Alternatively, NaCl and H2O2 may activate the same Ca(2+ permeable channel, which is expressed in different types of cells and/or activated via different signaling pathways.

  7. Examination of the calcium-erythrocyte membrane interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardos, Gy.; Szasz, I.; Sarkadi, B.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the cation-transport mechanisms of human erythrocytes is given. The following experimental methods were applied: measurement of 45 Ca influx, 45 Ca efflux, 42 K influx, 42 K efflux, 22 Na efflux and determination of the activity of the Ca-ATP-ase enzyme. The increase of the intracellular Ca-level opens some specific K-channels, through which K is leaking out passively. The kinetics and the chemical nature of this K-transport are given in detail. On the other hand, Ca ions taken up are removed by active transport. Detailed data are given on the activity and specific inhibition of this Ca-pump. In human erythrocytes the pump is working with the stoichiometry of Ca:ATP=2. (L.E.)

  8. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDM and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM.

  9. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagha, Edward; Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Purkinje cell dendrites are excitable structures with intrinsic and synaptic conductances contributing to the generation and propagation of electrical activity. Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. However, the functional relevance of this dendritic distribution is not understood. Moreover, mutations in Kv3.3 cause movement disorders in mice and cerebellar atrophy and ataxia in humans, emphasizing the importance of understanding the role of these channels. In this study, we explore functional implications of this dendritic channel expression and compare Purkinje cell dendritic excitability in wild-type and Kv3.3 knockout mice. We demonstrate enhanced excitability of Purkinje cell dendrites in Kv3.3 knockout mice, despite normal resting membrane properties. Combined data from local application pharmacology, voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents, and assessment of dendritic Ca(2+) spike threshold in Purkinje cells suggest a role for Kv3.3 channels in opposing Ca(2+) spike initiation. To study the physiological relevance of altered dendritic excitability, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) changes throughout the dendritic tree in response to climbing fiber activation. Ca(2+) signals were specifically enhanced in distal dendrites of Kv3.3 knockout Purkinje cells, suggesting a role for dendritic Kv3.3 channels in regulating propagation of electrical activity and Ca(2+) influx in distal dendrites. These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease.

  10. Dynamic Equilibrium of Cardiac Troponin C's Hydrophobic Cleft and Its Modulation by Ca2+ Sensitizers and a Ca2+ Sensitivity Blunting Phosphomimic, cTnT(T204E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, William; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2017-10-18

    Several studies have suggested that conformational dynamics are important in the regulation of thin filament activation in cardiac troponin C (cTnC); however, little direct evidence has been offered to support these claims. In this study, a dye homodimerization approach is developed and implemented that allows the determination of the dynamic equilibrium between open and closed conformations in cTnC's hydrophobic cleft. Modulation of this equilibrium by Ca 2+ , cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), Ca 2+ -sensitizers, and a Ca 2+ -desensitizing phosphomimic of cTnT (cTnT(T204E) is characterized. Isolated cTnC contained a small open conformation population in the absence of Ca 2+ that increased significantly upon the addition of saturating levels of Ca 2+ . This suggests that the Ca 2+ -induced activation of thin filament arises from an increase in the probability of hydrophobic cleft opening. The inclusion of cTnI increased the population of open cTnC, and the inclusion of cTnT had the opposite effect. Samples containing Ca 2+ -desensitizing cTnT(T204E) showed a slight but insignificant decrease in open conformation probability compared to samples with cardiac troponin T, wild type [cTnT(wt)], while Ca 2+ sensitizer treated samples generally increased open conformation probability. These findings show that an equilibrium between the open and closed conformations of cTnC's hydrophobic cleft play a significant role in tuning the Ca 2+ sensitivity of the heart.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Choi, Jeong Hee

    2003-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst is uncommon. The diagnosis of carcinoma arising in a cyst requires that there must be an area of microscopic transition from the benign epithelial cyst lining to the invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We report a histopathologically proven case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a residual mandibular cyst in a 54-year-old woman.

  12. Glucose-Dependent Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cell Islets from Male Rats Requires Ca2+ Release via ROS-Stimulated Ryanodine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Llanos

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from pancreatic β-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]. Glucose uptake into β-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in β-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated β-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that β-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of β-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated β-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose to β-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.

  13. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was seen during abdominal computed tomography. A solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach, although rare, could be considered as a diagnostic possibility for gastric submucosal tumors. PMID:18159603

  14. Low Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Study on CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Shuyuan; Deng, Liangzi; Wu, Zheng; Zhao, Kui; Lv, Bing; Xue, Yiyu; Chu, Ching-Wu; B. Lv Collaboration; HPLT (Paul C. W. Chu) Team

    For undoped CaFe2As2 single crystals, we observed that utilizing thermal treatments could stabilize two pure tetragonal phases PI and PII. Both phases are non-superconducting, while the superconductivity with a Tc up to 25 K can be induced through proper thermal treatment. Room temperature X-ray studies suggest that the origin of superconductivity arises from the interface of the mesoscopically stacked layers of PI and PII. To further investigate, a systematic low temperature X-ray study was conducted over a series of thermal treated CaFe2As2 single crystals. From which, we observed the phase aggregation of PI and PII upon cooling, more importantly, an ordered stacking structure exists at low temperature, which closely related to superconducting volume fraction and the ratio of PI and PII. These results further support the proposal of interface-enhanced superconductivity in undoped CaFe2As2. UT Dallas

  15. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laňková, Martina; Smith, R. S.; Pešek, Bedřich; Kubeš, Martin; Zažímalová, Eva; Petrášek, Jan; Hoyerová, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 13 (2010), s. 3589-3598 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600380702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034 Grant - others:_(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Auxin efflux carrier * auxin influx carrier * auxin transport Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2010

  16. Characterization of cadmium plasma membrane transport in gills of a mangrove crab Ucides cordatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, P.; Custódio, M.R. [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Zanotto, F.P., E-mail: fzanotto@usp.br [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, Travessa 14, #101, São Paulo 05508-900, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biofísica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Três de Maio 100, São Paulo 04044-020 (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} gill cell transport, a non-essential toxic metal, was characterized in a hypo-hyper-regulating mangrove crab Ucides cordatus. • Cd{sup 2+} enter gill cells through Ca{sup 2+} channels and is dependent of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels. • Route of entry in gill cells also involves a Cd{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} (2Na) exchanger. • Cd transport depends on Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and gill cell electrochemical gradient. • Vanadate inhibits gill Cd{sup 2+} transport and ouabain increase gill Cd{sup 2+} transport. - Abstract: Membrane pathway for intracellular cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) accumulation is not fully elucidated in many organisms and has not been studied in crab gill cells. To characterize membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport of anterior and posterior gill cells of Ucides cordatus, a hypo-hyper-regulating crab, a change in intracellular Cd{sup 2+} concentration under various experimental conditions was examined by using FluoZin, a fluorescent probe. The membrane Cd{sup 2+} transport was estimated by the augmentation of FluoZin fluorescence induced by extracellular application of CdCl{sub 2} and different inhibitors. Addition of extracellular calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) to the cells affected little the fluorescence of FluoZin, confirming that Cd{sup 2+} was the main ion increasing intracellular fluorescence. Ca{sup 2+} channels blockers (nimodipine and verapamil) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx as well as vanadate, a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase blocker. Chelating intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (BAPTA) decreased Cd{sup 2+} influx in gill cells, while increasing intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (caffeine) augmented Cd influx. Cd{sup 2+} and ATP added at different temporal conditions were not effective at increasing intracellular Cd{sup 2+} accumulation. Ouabain (Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor) increased Cd{sup 2+} influx probably through a change in intracellular Na and/or a change in cell membrane potential. Routes of Cd{sup 2+} influx, a non-essential metal, through the

  17. Live Imaging of Calcium Dynamics during Axon Degeneration Reveals Two Functionally Distinct Phases of Calcium Influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a key regulator of axon degeneration caused by trauma and disease, but its specific spatial and temporal dynamics in injured axons remain unclear. To clarify the function of calcium in axon degeneration, we observed calcium dynamics in single injured neurons in live zebrafish larvae and tested the temporal requirement for calcium in zebrafish neurons and cultured mouse DRG neurons. Using laser axotomy to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) in zebrafish peripheral sensory axons, we monitored calcium dynamics from injury to fragmentation, revealing two stereotyped phases of axonal calcium influx. First, axotomy triggered a transient local calcium wave originating at the injury site. This initial calcium wave only disrupted mitochondria near the injury site and was not altered by expression of the protective WD slow (WldS) protein. Inducing multiple waves with additional axotomies did not change the kinetics of degeneration. In contrast, a second phase of calcium influx occurring minutes before fragmentation spread as a wave throughout the axon, entered mitochondria, and was abolished by WldS expression. In live zebrafish, chelating calcium after the first wave, but before the second wave, delayed the progress of fragmentation. In cultured DRG neurons, chelating calcium early in the process of WD did not alter degeneration, but chelating calcium late in WD delayed fragmentation. We propose that a terminal calcium wave is a key instructive component of the axon degeneration program. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Axon degeneration resulting from trauma or neurodegenerative disease can cause devastating deficits in neural function. Understanding the molecular and cellular events that execute axon degeneration is essential for developing treatments to address these conditions. Calcium is known to contribute to axon degeneration, but its temporal requirements in this process have been unclear. Live calcium imaging in severed zebrafish neurons and temporally controlled

  18. Ca2+-associated triphasic pH changes in mitochondria during brown adipocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanyan; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Kriszt, Rókus; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Raghunath, Michael; Suzuki, Madoka

    2017-08-01

    Brown adipocytes (BAs) are endowed with a high metabolic capacity for energy expenditure due to their high mitochondria content. While mitochondrial pH is dynamically regulated in response to stimulation and, in return, affects various metabolic processes, how mitochondrial pH is regulated during adrenergic stimulation-induced thermogenesis is unknown. We aimed to reveal the spatial and temporal dynamics of mitochondrial pH in stimulated BAs and the mechanisms behind the dynamic pH changes. A mitochondrial targeted pH-sensitive protein, mito-pHluorin, was constructed and transfected to BAs. Transfected BAs were stimulated by an adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. The pH changes in mitochondria were characterized by dual-color imaging with indicators that monitor mitochondrial membrane potential and heat production. The mechanisms of pH changes were studied by examining the involvement of electron transport chain (ETC) activity and Ca 2+ profiles in mitochondria and the intracellular Ca 2+ store, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A triphasic mitochondrial pH change in BAs upon adrenergic stimulation was revealed. In comparison to a thermosensitive dye, we reveal that phases 1 and 2 of the pH increase precede thermogenesis, while phase 3, characterized by a pH decrease, occurs during thermogenesis. The mechanism of pH increase is partially related to ETC. In addition, the pH increase occurs concurrently with an increase in mitochondrial Ca 2+ . This Ca 2+ increase is contributed to by an influx from the ER, and it is further involved in mitochondrial pH regulation. We demonstrate that an increase in mitochondrial pH is implicated as an early event in adrenergically stimulated BAs. We further suggest that this pH increase may play a role in the potentiation of thermogenesis.

  19. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  20. Glucose metabolism, islet architecture, and genetic homogeneity in imprinting of [Ca2+](i and insulin rhythms in mouse islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S Nunemaker

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We reported previously that islets isolated from individual, outbred Swiss-Webster mice displayed oscillations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i that varied little between islets of a single mouse but considerably between mice, a phenomenon we termed "islet imprinting." We have now confirmed and extended these findings in several respects. First, imprinting occurs in both inbred (C57BL/6J as well as outbred mouse strains (Swiss-Webster; CD1. Second, imprinting was observed in NAD(PH oscillations, indicating a metabolic component. Further, short-term exposure to a glucose-free solution, which transiently silenced [Ca2+](i oscillations, reset the oscillatory patterns to a higher frequency. This suggests a key role for glucose metabolism in maintaining imprinting, as transiently suppressing the oscillations with diazoxide, a K(ATP-channel opener that blocks [Ca2+](i influx downstream of glucose metabolism, did not change the imprinted patterns. Third, imprinting was not as readily observed at the level of single beta cells, as the [Ca2+](i oscillations of single cells isolated from imprinted islets exhibited highly variable, and typically slower [Ca2+](i oscillations. Lastly, to test whether the imprinted [Ca2+](i patterns were of functional significance, a novel microchip platform was used to monitor insulin release from multiple islets in real time. Insulin release patterns correlated closely with [Ca2+](i oscillations and showed significant mouse-to-mouse differences, indicating imprinting. These results indicate that islet imprinting is a general feature of islets and is likely to be of physiological significance. While islet imprinting did not depend on the genetic background of the mice, glucose metabolism and intact islet architecture may be important for the imprinting phenomenon.

  1. Sodium-22 influx into erythrocytes from diabetic hypertensive patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, K.K.; Mathews, J.; Parui, R.; Cruz, I.A.; Hosten, A.O.; Dillard, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the percentage of 22Na+ uptake in cell suspensions; 0.4 to 2.0 x 10(9) erythrocytes/mL from diabetic uremic patients with secondary hypertension and from normal subjects. Suspensions from diabetic uremic patients with secondary hypertension 0.42 +/- 0.06 to 2.05 +/- 0.28; normal subjects showed a percentage uptake of 22Na+ of 0.27 +/- 0.05 to 1.28 +/- 0.22. The uptake of 22Na+ in 2.0 x 10(9) cells/mL was 60% more (P less than .05) in diabetic uremic patients than in the controls. These studies indicate that 22Na+ influx determinations may be used to distinguish secondary hypertensive patients from normal subjects

  2. Wilms tumor arising in extracoelomic paravertebral soft tissues.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulligan, Linda

    2012-02-01

    Extrarenal Wilms tumor (ERWT) is a well-established entity which most commonly arises within the genitourinary tract, including intracoelomic paranephric soft tissue. Rarely, ERWT arises within teratoma, and it tends to occur predominantly in distinct settings, such as females with spinal defects and males with testicular teratomas. We report a unique ERWT arising within an extracoelomic teratoma of the paraspinal musculature, thereby expanding the range of reported locations for this unusual tumor.

  3. Estrone-1-sulphate (E1S) has impact on the kinetics parameters of transporter mediated taurine and glutamate influx in Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; El-Sayed, F

    Previously, we have suggested estrone-1-sulfate (E1S) to be intercalated into the phospholipid membrane 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DPPC). The overall hypothesis of the present study was that E1S intercalation in the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells may changes the functionality...... of membrane transporters. The aim was therefore to investigate if addition of E1S to the growth medium of Caco-2 cells before but not during the influx study, change the kinetic parameters of transporter-mediated influx of taurine and glutamate by respective TAUT and EAAT transporters. The results show that 4...

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration by Ginsenoside Ro Are Dependent on Phosphorylation of IP3RI and Dephosphorylation of ERK in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Woo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i is platelet aggregation-inducing molecule and is involved in activation of aggregation associated molecules. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro, an oleanane-type saponin in Panax ginseng. G-Ro, without affecting leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was approximately 155 μM. G-Ro inhibited strongly thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which was strongly increased by A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared to G-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. G-Ro increased the level of cAMP and subsequently elevated the phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I (IP3RI (Ser1756 to inhibit [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756 by G-Ro was decreased by PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. In addition, G-Ro inhibited thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ influx across plasma membrane. We demonstrate that G-Ro upregulates cAMP-dependent IP3RI (Ser1756 phosphorylation and downregulates phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa to decrease thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which contributes to inhibition of ATP and serotonin release, and p-selectin expression. These results indicate that G-Ro in Panax ginseng is a beneficial novel Ca2+-antagonistic compound and may prevent platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  5. Esophageal leiomyoma arising in an epiphrenic diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 32-year old woman was found at surgery to have an esophageal leiomyoma arising within an epiphrenic diverticulum. These uncommon conditions may rarely occur together, causing difficulty in diagnosis of the leiomyoma. Other neoplasms may also arise in an epiphrenic diverticulum and should be borne in mind in this situation. (orig.)

  6. Thymosin {beta}4 promotes the migration of endothelial cells without intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmi, Anna [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Malinowski, Mariusz [Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland); Brutkowski, Wojciech [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Bednarek, Radoslaw [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Cierniewski, Czeslaw S., E-mail: czeslaw.cierniewski@umed.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular and Medical Biophysics, Medical University of Lodz, 92-215 Lodz (Poland); Institute of Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lodz (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of T{beta}4 on cell migration, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation after exogenous treatment, but the mechanism by which T{beta}4 functions is still unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that incubation of endothelial cells with T{beta}4 induced synthesis and secretion of various proteins, including plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and matrix metaloproteinases. We also showed that T{beta}4 interacts with Ku80, which may operate as a novel receptor for T{beta}4 and mediates its intracellular activity. In this paper, we provide evidence that T{beta}4 induces cellular processes without changes in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. External treatment of HUVECs with T{beta}4 and its mutants deprived of the N-terminal tetrapeptide AcSDKP (T{beta}4{sub AcSDKPT/4A}) or the actin-binding sequence KLKKTET (T{beta}4{sub KLKKTET/7A}) resulted in enhanced cell migration and formation of tubular structures in Matrigel. Surprisingly, the increased cell motility caused by T{beta}4 was not associated with the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation monitored with Fluo-4 NW or Fura-2 AM. Therefore, it is unlikely that externally added T{beta}4 induces HUVEC migration via the surface membrane receptors known to generate Ca{sup 2+} influx. Our data confirm the concept that externally added T{beta}4 must be internalized to induce intracellular mechanisms supporting endothelial cell migration.

  7. The Distribution of Charged Amino Acid Residues and the Ca2+ Permeability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: A Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fucile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca2+ permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca2+ permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca2+ permeability of nAChRs is lacking. In the last years the Ca2+ permeability of several nAChR subtypes has been experimentally evaluated, in terms of fractional Ca2+ current (Pf, i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca2+ ions. In the present study, the available Pf-values of nAChRs are used to build a simplified modular model describing the contribution of the charged residues in defined regions flanking TM2 to the selectivity filter controlling Ca2+ influx. This model allows to predict the currently unknown Pf-values of existing nAChRs, as well as the hypothetical Ca2+ permeability of subunit combinations not able to assemble into functional receptors. In particular, basing on the amino acid sequences, a Pf > 50% would be associated with homomeric nAChRs composed by different α subunits, excluding α7, α9, and α10. Furthermore, according to the model, human α7β2 receptors should have Pf-values ranging from 3.6% (4:1 ratio to 0.1% (1:4 ratio, much lower than the 11.4% of homomeric α7 nAChR. These results help to understand the evolution and the function of the large diversity of the nicotinic receptor family.

  8. All-optical functional synaptic connectivity mapping in acute brain slices using the calcium integrator CaMPARI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Timothy A; Sha, Fern; Johenning, Friedrich W; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L; Larkum, Matthew E; Sachdev, Robert N S

    2017-03-01

    The genetically encoded fluorescent calcium integrator calcium-modulated photoactivatable ratiobetric integrator (CaMPARI) reports calcium influx induced by synaptic and neural activity. Its fluorescence is converted from green to red in the presence of violet light and calcium. The rate of conversion - the sensitivity to activity - is tunable and depends on the intensity of violet light. Synaptic activity and action potentials can independently initiate significant CaMPARI conversion. The level of conversion by subthreshold synaptic inputs is correlated to the strength of input, enabling optical readout of relative synaptic strength. When combined with optogenetic activation of defined presynaptic neurons, CaMPARI provides an all-optical method to map synaptic connectivity. The calcium-modulated photoactivatable ratiometric integrator (CaMPARI) is a genetically encoded calcium integrator that facilitates the study of neural circuits by permanently marking cells active during user-specified temporal windows. Permanent marking enables measurement of signals from large swathes of tissue and easy correlation of activity with other structural or functional labels. One potential application of CaMPARI is labelling neurons postsynaptic to specific populations targeted for optogenetic stimulation, giving rise to all-optical functional connectivity mapping. Here, we characterized the response of CaMPARI to several common types of neuronal calcium signals in mouse acute cortical brain slices. Our experiments show that CaMPARI is effectively converted by both action potentials and subthreshold synaptic inputs, and that conversion level is correlated to synaptic strength. Importantly, we found that conversion rate can be tuned: it is linearly related to light intensity. At low photoconversion light levels CaMPARI offers a wide dynamic range due to slower conversion rate; at high light levels conversion is more rapid and more sensitive to activity. Finally, we employed Ca

  9. Kinetics, Ca2+ dependence, and biophysical properties of integrin-mediated mechanical modulation of transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. M.; Grinnell, A. D.

    1997-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals is strongly modulated by change in muscle length. Over the physiological range, there is an approximately 10% increase in spontaneous and evoked release per 1% muscle stretch. Because many muscle fibers do not receive suprathreshold synaptic inputs at rest length, this stretch-induced enhancement of release constitutes a strong peripheral amplifier of the spinal stretch reflex. The stretch modulation of release is inhibited by peptides that block integrin binding of natural ligands. The modulation varies linearly with length, with a delay of no more than approximately 1-2 msec and is maintained constant at the new length. Moreover, the stretch modulation persists in a zero Ca2+ Ringer and, hence, is not dependent on Ca2+ influx through stretch activated channels. Eliminating transmembrane Ca2+ gradients and buffering intraterminal Ca2+ to approximately normal resting levels does not eliminate the modulation, suggesting that it is not the result of release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Finally, changes in temperature have no detectable effect on the kinetics of stretch-induced changes in endplate potential (EPP) amplitude or miniature EPP (mEPP) frequency. We conclude, therefore, that stretch does not act via second messenger pathways or a chemical modification of molecules involved in the release pathway. Instead, there is direct mechanical modulation of release. We postulate that tension on integrins in the presynaptic membrane is transduced mechanically into changes in the position or conformation of one or more molecules involved in neurotransmitter release, altering sensitivity to Ca2+ or the equilibrium for a critical reaction leading to vesicle fusion.

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumor Arising from Stomach: CT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kwon, Jieun; Park, Jong-pil; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

    2007-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are spindle-cell neoplasms that usually develop in the pleura and peritoneum, and rarely arise in the stomach. To our knowledge, there is only one case reporting a solitary fibrous tumor arising from stomach in the English literature. Here we report the case of a 26-year-old man with a large solitary fibrous tumor arising from the stomach which involved the submucosa and muscular layer and resembled a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach, based on what was see...

  11. Estradiol up-regulates L-type Ca2+ channels via membrane-bound estrogen receptor/phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/cAMP response element-binding protein signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Mao, Xiaofang; Xu, Gao; Xing, Shasha; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Jin, Si; Salama, Guy

    2018-05-01

    In long QT syndrome type 2, women are more prone than men to the lethal arrhythmia torsades de pointes. We previously reported that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates L-type Ca 2+ channels and current (I Ca,L ) (∼30%) in rabbit ventricular myocytes by a classic genomic mechanism mediated by estrogen receptor-α (ERα). In long QT syndrome type 2 (I Kr blockade or bradycardia), the higher Ca 2+ influx via I Ca,L causes Ca 2+ overload, spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ release, and reactivation of I Ca,L that triggers early afterdepolarizations and torsades de pointes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms whereby E2 up-regulates I Ca,L , which are poorly understood. H9C2 and rat myocytes were incubated with E2 ± ER antagonist, or inhibitors of downstream transcription factors, for 24 hours, followed by western blots of Cav1.2α1C and voltage-clamp measurements of I Ca,L . Incubation of H9C2 cells with E2 (10-100 nM) increased I Ca,L density and Cav1.2α1C expression, which were suppressed by the ER antagonist ICI182,780 (1 μM). Enhanced I Ca,L and Cav1.2α1C expression by E2 was suppressed by inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (Pi3K) (30 μM LY294002; P L via plasma membrane ER and by activating Pi3K, Akt, and CREB signaling. The promoter regions of the CACNA1C gene (human-rabbit-rat) contain adjacent/overlapping binding sites for p-CREB and ERα, which suggests a synergistic regulation by these pathways. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weak ferromagnetism in Re0.67Ca0.33FeO3 (Re=La, Sm, Gd) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangong; Kou Xinli; Qin Yong; He Haiying

    2003-01-01

    Perovskite-type complex ferrite Re 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 (Re=La, Sm, Gd) nanoparticles of nearly the same particle size were prepared using sol-gel method. The influence of rare-earth ions on weak ferromagnetism in the Re 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles has been studied. The spontaneous magnetization M s of the Sm 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is greater than that of Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles; and M s of Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is greater than that of La 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic component arising from the Fe sublattice increases with the decreasing rare-earth ionic radii. The magnetization of the rare-earth ions in the Sm 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles is smaller than that in the Gd 0.67 Ca 0.33 FeO 3 nanoparticles. The influences of the geometric and intrinsic magnetic characters of rare-earth ions as well as the particle size of the nanoparticles on weak ferromagnetism are discussed

  13. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  14. Dependence of calcium on thyroid hormone for the regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentration by mobilizing intracellular Ca2+. The mobilization of intracellular Ca2+in the absence of transmembrane Ca2+influx has been accepted as evidence for a cell-surface Ca2+ - receptor. The possible role of thyroid hormone in the ...

  15. Primary extradural meningioma arising from the calvarium | Ravi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumours. Meningiomas arising at other locations are termed primary extradural meningiomas (EDMs) and are rare. Here we report a case of EDM arising from the calvarium – a primary calvarial meningioma (PCM).

  16. Fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the continental shelf waters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ocean and receives a large freshwater influx ca. 1600 km3 yr ... oceanic surface area of 1.13%, this influx consti- ... the Bay. The export flux of total organic carbon ..... Cycles 20. GB2006. Benner R 2002 Chemical composition and reactivity;.

  17. Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Activation by Backpropagating Action Potentials Downregulates NMDAR Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Theis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of excitatory synapses are located on dendritic spines of cortical glutamatergic neurons. In spines, compartmentalized Ca2+ signals transduce electrical activity into specific long-term biochemical and structural changes. Action potentials (APs propagate back into the dendritic tree and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs. For spines, this global mode of spine Ca2+ signaling is a direct biochemical feedback of suprathreshold neuronal activity. We previously demonstrated that backpropagating action potentials (bAPs result in long-term enhancement of spine VGCCs. This activity-dependent VGCC plasticity results in a large interspine variability of VGCC Ca2+ influx. Here, we investigate how spine VGCCs affect glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We combined electrophysiology, two-photon Ca2+ imaging and two-photon glutamate uncaging in acute brain slices from rats. T- and R-type VGCCs were the dominant depolarization-associated Ca2+conductances in dendritic spines of excitatory layer 2 neurons and do not affect synaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs measured at the soma. Using two-photon glutamate uncaging, we compared the properties of glutamatergic synapses of single spines that express different levels of VGCCs. While VGCCs contributed to EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx, the amount of EPSP mediated Ca2+ influx is not determined by spine VGCC expression. On a longer timescale, the activation of VGCCs by bAP bursts results in downregulation of spine NMDAR function.

  18. Demand for Zn2+ in acid-secreting gastric mucosa and its requirement for intracellular Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JingJing Liu

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that Zn(2+ plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn(2+ in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation.Content and distribution of zinc were evaluated in sections of whole gastric mucosa using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significant stores of Zn(2+ were identified in neural elements of the muscularis, glandular areas enriched in parietal cells, and apical regions of the surface epithelium. In in vivo studies, extraction of the low abundance isotope, (70Zn(2+, from the circulation was demonstrated in samples of mucosal tissue 24 hours or 72 hours after infusion (250 µg/kg. In in vitro studies, uptake of (70Zn(2+ from media was demonstrated in isolated rabbit gastric glands following exposure to concentrations as low as 10 nM. In additional studies, demand of individual gastric parietal cells for Zn(2+ was monitored using the fluorescent zinc reporter, fluozin-3, by measuring increases in free intracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ {[Zn(2+](i} during exposure to standard extracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ (10 µM for standard intervals of time. Under resting conditions, demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increased with exposure to secretagogues (forskolin, carbachol/histamine and under conditions associated with increased intracellular Ca(2+ {[Ca(2+](i}. Uptake of Zn(2+ was abolished following removal of extracellular Ca(2+ or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+ stores, suggesting that demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increases and depends on influx of extracellular Ca(2+.This study is the first to characterize the content and distribution of Zn(2+ in an organ of the gastrointestinal tract. Our findings offer the novel interpretation, that Ca(2+ integrates basolateral demand for Zn(2+ with stimulation of secretion of HCl into the lumen of the gastric

  19. Novel model of neuronal bioenergetics: postsynaptic utilization of glucose but not lactate correlates positively with Ca2+ signalling in cultured mouse glutamatergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Lasse K; Obel, Linea F; Walls, Anne B; Schousboe, Arne; Faek, Sevan A A; Jajo, Farah S; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2012-04-05

    We have previously investigated the relative roles of extracellular glucose and lactate as fuels for glutamatergic neurons during synaptic activity. The conclusion from these studies was that cultured glutamatergic neurons utilize glucose rather than lactate during NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate)-induced synaptic activity and that lactate alone is not able to support neurotransmitter glutamate homoeostasis. Subsequently, a model was proposed to explain these results at the cellular level. In brief, the intermittent rises in intracellular Ca2+ during activation cause influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix thus activating the tricarboxylic acid cycle dehydrogenases. This will lead to a lower activity of the MASH (malate-aspartate shuttle), which in turn will result in anaerobic glycolysis and lactate production rather than lactate utilization. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of an ionomycin-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ (i.e. independent of synaptic activity) on neuronal energy metabolism employing 13C-labelled glucose and lactate and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of labelling in glutamate, alanine and lactate. The results demonstrate that glucose utilization is positively correlated with intracellular Ca2+ whereas lactate utilization is not. This result lends further support for a significant role of glucose in neuronal bioenergetics and that Ca2+ signalling may control the switch between glucose and lactate utilization during synaptic activity. Based on the results, we propose a compartmentalized CiMASH (Ca2+-induced limitation of the MASH) model that includes intracellular compartmentation of glucose and lactate metabolism. We define pre- and post-synaptic compartments metabolizing glucose and glucose plus lactate respectively in which the latter displays a positive correlation between oxidative metabolism of glucose and Ca2+ signalling.

  20. A Ca2+-based computational model for NDMA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity at individual post-synaptic spines in the hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Rackham

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Associative synaptic plasticity is synapse specific and requires coincident activity in presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons to activate NMDA receptors (NMDARs. The resultant Ca2+ influx is the critical trigger for the induction of synaptic plasticity. Given its centrality for the induction of synaptic plasticity, a model for NMDAR activation incorporating the timing of presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic depolarization by back-propagating action potentials could potentially predict the pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns required to induce synaptic plasticity. We have developed such a model by incorporating currently available data on the timecourse and amplitude of the postsynaptic membrane potential within individual spines. We couple this with data on the kinetics of synaptic NMDARs and then use the model to predict the continuous spine [Ca2+] in response to regular or irregular pre- and post-synaptic spike patterns. We then incorporate experimental data from synaptic plasticity induction protocols by regular activity patterns to couple the predicted local peak [Ca2+] to changes in synaptic strength. We find that our model accurately describes [Ca2+] in dendritic spines resulting from NMDAR activation during presynaptic and postsynaptic activity when compared to previous experimental observations. The model also replicates the experimentally determined plasticity outcome of regular and irregular spike patterns when applied to a single synapse. This model could therefore be used to predict the induction of synaptic plasticity under a variety of experimental conditions and spike patterns.

  1. Computer simulation and interpretation of 45Ca efflux profile patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borle, A.B.; Uchikawa, T.; Anderson, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Stimulations or inhibitions by various agents of 45 Ca efflux from prelabeled cells or tissues display distinct and reproducible profile patterns when the results are plotted against time as fractional efflux ratios (FER). FER is the fractional efflux of 45 Ca from stimulated cells divided by the fractional efflux from a control unstimulated group. These profile patterns fall into three categories: peak patterns, exponential patterns, and mixed patterns. Each category can be positive (stimulation) or negative (inhibition). The interpretation of these profiles is difficult because 45 Ca efflux depends on three variables: the rate of calcium transport out of the cell, the specific activity of the cell compartment from which the calcium originates, and the concentration of free calcium in this compartment. A computer model based on data obtained by kinetic analyses of 45 Ca desaturation curves and consisting of two distinct intracellular pools was designed to follow the concentration of the traced substance ( 40 Ca), the tracer ( 45 Ca), and the specific activity of each compartment before, during, and after the stimulation or the inhibition of calcium fluxes at various pool boundaries. The computer model can reproduce all the FER profiles obtained experimentally and bring information which may be helpful to the interpretation of this type of data. Some predictions of the model were tested experimentally, and the results support the views that a peak pattern may reflect a sustained change in calcium transport across the plasma membrane, that an exponential pattern arises from calcium mobilization from an internal subcellular pool, and that a mixed pattern may be caused by a simultaneous change in calcium fluxes at both compartment boundaries

  2. Ca Isotope Geochemistry in Marine Deep Sea Sediments of the Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, A.; Gussone, N. C.; Derigs, D.; Schälling, M.; Teichert, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Ca isotope ratio analysis (δ44/40Ca) is a powerful tool to investigate diagenetic reactions in marine sedimentary porewater systems, as it is sensitive to processes such as carbonate dissolution, precipitation, recrystallization, ion exchange and deep fluid sources, due to the isotopic difference between dissolved Ca and solid carbonate minerals (e.g. [1];[2]). We analyzed eight sediment cores of the (paleo-) Pacific equatorial age transect. Two sediment cores show decreasing Ca isotope profiles starting at the sediment/water interface with seawater-like values down to sediment-like values due to recrystallization and an increasing in the bottom part again to seawater-like values. The other studied cores show different degrees of flattening of this middle bulge. We interpret this pattern either as an effect of sediment composition and thickness, decreasing recrystallization rates and/or fluid flux or a combination of all of these factors at the respective sampling sites. Element concentration profiles and Sr-isotope variations on some of these sediment cores show a similar behavior, supporting our findings ([3]; [4]). Seawater influx at (inactive) seamounts is supposed to cause seawater-like values at the bottom of the sediment cores by fluids migrating through the oceanic basement (e.g. [5]). While [6] hypothesizes that two seamounts or bathymetric pits are connected, with a recharge and a discharge site [7] say that uptaken fluids could be released through the surrounding seafloor as well due to diffusive exchange with the underlying oceanic crust. Our Ca isotope results combined with a transport reaction model approach support the latter hypothesis. References: [1] Teichert B. M., Gussone N. and Torres M. E. (2009) [2] Ockert C., Gussone N., Kaufhold S. and Teichert B. (2013) [3] Pälike H., Lyle M., Nishi H., Raffi I., Gamage K. and Klaus A. (eds.) (2010) [4] Voigt J., Hathorne E. C., Frank M., Vollstaedt H. and Eisenhauer A. (2015) [5] Villinger H. W

  3. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  4. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland. XV. Properties of spontaneous and LHRH-induced Ca2+ transients in the transitional zone of the rat anterior pituitary in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hikaru; Otsuka, Takanobu; Wada, Ikuo; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2013-01-01

    In the transitional zone of the rat anterior pituitary, spontaneous and LHRH-induced Ca(2+) dynamics were visualized using fluo-4 fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging. A majority of cells exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, while small populations of cells remained quiescent. Approximately 70% of spontaneously active cells generated fast, oscillatory Ca(2+) transients that were inhibited by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μm) but not nicardipine (1 μm), suggesting that Ca(2+) handling by endoplasmic reticulum, but not Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels, plays a fundamental role in their generation. In the adult rat anterior pituitary, LHRH (100 μg/ml) caused a transient increase in the Ca(2+) level in a majority of preparations taken from the morning group rats killed between 0930 h and 1030 h. However, the second application of LHRH invariably failed to elevate Ca(2+) levels, suggesting that the long-lasting refractoriness to LHRH stimulation was developed upon the first challenge of LHRH. In contrast, LHRH had no effect in most preparations taken from the afternoon group rats euthanized between 1200 h and 1400 h. In the neonatal rat anterior pituitary, LHRH caused a suppression of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. Strikingly, the second application of LHRH was capable of reproducing the suppression of Ca(2+) signals, indicating that the refractoriness to LHRH had not been established in neonatal rats. These results suggest that responsiveness to LHRH has a long-term refractoriness in adult rats, and that the physiological LHRH surge may be clocked in the morning. Moreover, LHRH-induced excitation and associated refractoriness appear to be incomplete in neonatal rats and may be acquired during development.

  5. Earth's influx of different populations of sporadic meteoroids from photographic and television data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Precise photographic and television double- and multi-station data on 3624 sporadic meteors in the mass range from 2 x 10 -5 grams to 2 x 10 7 grams form the basis of this paper. The applied classification criteria and procedures are defined and described. A survey of 7 different populations of sporadic meteoroids known so far is presented. The total numbers and masses of meteoroids as a function of mass are given for individual groups and for all sporadic meteors. The absolute calibration of the influx to the Earth was carried out by comparison with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The comparison with the visual and cratering data revealed good agreement in the narrow ''visual'' interval of masses, and disagreement in the extrapolated parts of the visual and cratering flux curves. The slope of the cumulative number curve for the meteorite-dropping fireballs (type I) with masses larger than 1 kg was found as -0.69 in perfect agreement with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The final mass scale derived in this paper is situated between the scale of McCrosky and the scale of Halliday. The relative significance of the different groups of meteoroids changes with the mass quite dramatically. The total influx of sporadic meteoroids in the mass interval of 12 orders from 2 x 10 7 to 2 x 10 -5 grams resulted in 5 x 10 9 grams per year for the entire Earth's surface. Most of this mass comes in the form of larger meteoroids. Bulk densities and ablation coefficient are presented for the individual meteor groups depending on different ablation models of several authors and some extreme concepts of this problem are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 38 refs

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC)/Orai1-dependent Store-operated Ca2+ Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jessica; Bartoli, Fiona; Antigny, Fabrice; Gomez, Ana Maria; Benitah, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has emerged as an important mechanism in cardiac pathology. However, the signals that up-regulate SOCE in the heart remain unexplored. Clinical trials have emphasized the beneficial role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling blockade in heart failure and associated arrhythmias. Accumulated evidence suggests that the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone, through activation of its receptor, MR, might be a key regulator of Ca2+ influx in cardiomyocytes. We thus assessed whether and how SOCE involving transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) and Orai1 channels are regulated by aldosterone/MR in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Molecular screening using qRT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that aldosterone treatment for 24 h specifically increased the mRNA and/or protein levels of Orai1, TRPC1, -C4, -C5, and stromal interaction molecule 1 through MR activation. These effects were correlated with a specific enhancement of SOCE activities sensitive to store-operated channel inhibitors (SKF-96365 and BTP2) and to a potent Orai1 blocker (S66) and were prevented by TRPC1, -C4, and Orai1 dominant negative mutants or TRPC5 siRNA. A mechanistic approach showed that up-regulation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 mRNA expression by aldosterone is involved in enhanced SOCE. Functionally, 24-h aldosterone-enhanced SOCE is associated with increased diastolic [Ca2+]i, which is blunted by store-operated channel inhibitors. Our study provides the first evidence that aldosterone promotes TRPC1-, -C4-, -C5-, and Orai1-mediated SOCE in cardiomyocytes through an MR and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 pathway. PMID:27129253

  7. Aberrant Splicing Induced by Dysregulated Rbfox2 Produces Enhanced Function of CaV1.2 Calcium Channel and Vascular Myogenic Tone in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Fan, Jia; Zhu, Huayuan; Ji, Li; Fan, Wenyong; Kapoor, Isha; Wang, Yue; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Guoqing; Wang, Juejin

    2017-12-01

    Calcium influx from activated voltage-gated calcium channel Ca V 1.2 in vascular smooth muscle cells is indispensable for maintaining myogenic tone and blood pressure. The function of Ca V 1.2 channel can be optimized by alternative splicing, one of post-transcriptional modification mechanisms. The splicing factor Rbfox2 is known to regulate the Ca V 1.2 pre-mRNA alternative splicing events during neuronal development. However, Rbfox2's roles in modulating the key function of vascular Ca V 1.2 channel and in the pathogenesis of hypertension remain elusive. Here, we report that the proportion of Ca V 1.2 channels with alternative exon 9* is increased by 10.3%, whereas that with alternative exon 33 is decreased by 10.5% in hypertensive arteries. Surprisingly, the expression level of Rbfox2 is increased ≈3-folds, presumably because of the upregulation of a dominant-negative isoform of Rbfox2. In vascular smooth muscle cells, we find that knockdown of Rbfox2 dynamically increases alternative exon 9*, whereas decreases exon 33 inclusion of Ca V 1.2 channels. By patch-clamp studies, we show that diminished Rbfox2-induced alternative splicing shifts the steady-state activation and inactivation curves of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel to hyperpolarization, which makes the window current potential to more negative. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rbfox2 increases the pressure-induced vascular myogenic tone of rat mesenteric artery. Taken together, our data indicate that Rbfox2 modulates the functions of vascular Ca V 1.2 calcium channel by dynamically regulating the expressions of alternative exons 9* and 33, which in turn affects the vascular myogenic tone. Therefore, our work suggests a key role for Rbfox2 in hypertension, which provides a rational basis for designing antihypertensive therapies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Single cell wound generates electric current circuit and cell membrane potential variations that requires calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxardi, Guillaume; Reid, Brian; Maillard, Pauline; Zhao, Min

    2014-07-24

    Breaching of the cell membrane is one of the earliest and most common causes of cell injury, tissue damage, and disease. If the compromise in cell membrane is not repaired quickly, irreversible cell damage, cell death and defective organ functions will result. It is therefore fundamentally important to efficiently repair damage to the cell membrane. While the molecular aspects of single cell wound healing are starting to be deciphered, its bio-physical counterpart has been poorly investigated. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes as a model for single cell wound healing, we describe the temporal and spatial dynamics of the wound electric current circuitry and the temporal dynamics of cell membrane potential variation. In addition, we show the role of calcium influx in controlling electric current circuitry and cell membrane potential variations. (i) Upon wounding a single cell: an inward electric current appears at the wound center while an outward electric current is observed at its sides, illustrating the wound electric current circuitry; the cell membrane is depolarized; calcium flows into the cell. (ii) During cell membrane re-sealing: the wound center current density is maintained for a few minutes before decreasing; the cell membrane gradually re-polarizes; calcium flow into the cell drops. (iii) In conclusion, calcium influx is required for the formation and maintenance of the wound electric current circuitry, for cell membrane re-polarization and for wound healing.

  9. Calcium dependence of eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Roberts

    Full Text Available Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. However, it is unclear whether a toxic cytosolic Ca2+elevation mediates the fungicidal activity of eugenol. In the present study, no significant difference in yeast survival was observed following transient eugenol treatment in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, using yeast expressing apoaequorin to report cytosolic Ca2+ and a range of eugenol derivatives, antifungal activity did not appear to be coupled to Ca2+ influx or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Taken together, these results suggest that eugenol toxicity is not dependent on a toxic influx of Ca2+. In contrast, careful control of extracellular Ca2+ (using EGTA or BAPTA revealed that tolerance of yeast to eugenol depended on Ca2+ influx via Cch1p. These findings expose significant differences between the antifungal activity of eugenol and that of azoles, amiodarone and carvacrol. This study highlights the potential to use eugenol in combination with other antifungal agents that exhibit differing modes of action as antifungal agents to combat drug resistant infections.

  10. P2X7 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 independently of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Jan; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    P2X7 nucleotide receptors modulate a spectrum of cellular events in various cells including epithelia, such as exocrine pancreas. Although the pharmacology and channel properties of the P2X7 receptors have been studied intensively, signal transduction pathways are relatively unknown. In this study...... we applied a heterologous expression system of rat P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells. We followed the receptor expression and function using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag, activation of intracellular proteins and increases in cellular Ca2+. EGFP-P2X7 receptors localized...... to the plasma membrane, clusters within the membrane and intracellularly. Stimulation of P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells led to an activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 and this activation was seen after just 1 min of stimulation with ATP. Using C- and N-terminal P2X7-receptor...

  11. Responding to a Refugee Influx: Lessons from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninette Kelley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Between 2011 and 2015, Lebanon received over one million Syrian refugees. There is no country in the world that has taken in as many refugees in proportion to its size: by 2015, one in four of its residents was a refugee from Syria. Already beset, prior to the Syrian crisis, by political divisions, insecure borders, severely strained infrastructure, and over-stretched public services, the mass influx of refugees further taxed the country. That Lebanon withstood what is often characterized as an existential threat is primarily due to the remarkable resilience of the Lebanese people. It is also due to the unprecedented levels of humanitarian funding that the international community provided to support refugees and the communities that hosted them. UN, international, and national partners scaled up more than a hundred-fold to meet ever-burgeoning needs and creatively endeavored to meet challenges on the ground. And while the refugee response was not perfect, and funding fell well below needs, thousands of lives were saved, protection was extended, essential services were provided, and efforts were made to improve through education the future prospects of the close to half-a-million refugee children residing in Lebanon. This paper examines what worked well and where the refugee response stumbled, focusing on areas where improved efforts in planning, delivery, coordination, innovation, funding, and partnerships can enhance future emergency responses.

  12. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  13. Store-operated Ca2+ entry is remodelled and controls in vitro angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells isolated from tumoral patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lodola

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs may be recruited from bone marrow to sustain tumor vascularisation and promote the metastatic switch. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EPC proliferation and tubulogenesis could outline novel targets for alternative anti-angiogenic treatments. Store-operated Ca(2+ entry (SOCE, which is activated by a depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+ pool, regulates the growth of human EPCs, where is mediated by the interaction between the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-sensor, Stim1, and the plasmalemmal Ca(2+ channel, Orai1. As oncogenesis may be associated to the capability of tumor cells to grow independently on Ca(2+ influx, it is important to assess whether SOCE regulates EPC-dependent angiogenesis also in tumor patients.The present study employed Ca(2+ imaging, recombinant sub-membranal and mitochondrial aequorin, real-time polymerase chain reaction, gene silencing techniques and western blot analysis to investigate the expression and the role of SOCE in EPCs isolated from peripheral blood of patients affected by renal cellular carcinoma (RCC; RCC-EPCs as compared to control EPCs (N-EPCs. SOCE, activated by either pharmacological (i.e. cyclopiazonic acid or physiological (i.e. ATP stimulation, was significantly higher in RCC-EPCs and was selectively sensitive to BTP-2, and to the trivalent cations, La(3+ and Gd(3+. Furthermore, 2-APB enhanced thapsigargin-evoked SOCE at low concentrations, whereas higher doses caused SOCE inhibition. Conversely, the anti-angiogenic drug, carboxyamidotriazole (CAI, blocked both SOCE and the intracellular Ca(2+ release. SOCE was associated to the over-expression of Orai1, Stim1, and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1 at both mRNA and protein level The intracellular Ca(2+ buffer, BAPTA, BTP-2, and CAI inhibited RCC-EPC proliferation and tubulogenesis. The genetic suppression of Stim1, Orai1, and TRPC1 blocked CPA-evoked SOCE in RCC-EPCs.SOCE is remodelled in EPCs

  14. High-density expression of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels in NG2 glia of rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Lin

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, a fourth type of glial cell in the mammalian CNS, undergo reactive changes in response to a wide variety of brain insults. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuronally expressed acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are implicated in various neurological disorders including brain ischemia and seizures. Acidosis is a common feature of acute neurological conditions. It is postulated that a drop in pH may be the link between the pathological process and activation of NG2 cells. Such postulate immediately prompts the following questions: Do NG2 cells express ASICs? If so, what are their functional properties and subunit composition? Here, using a combination of electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we present evidence to demonstrate that NG2 cells of the rat hippocampus express high density of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels compared with several types of hippocampal neurons. First, nucleated patch recordings from NG2 cells revealed high density of proton-activated currents. The magnitude of proton-activated current was pH dependent, with a pH for half-maximal activation of 6.3. Second, the current-voltage relationship showed a reversal close to the equilibrium potential for Na+. Third, psalmotoxin 1, a blocker specific for the ASIC1a channel, largely inhibited proton-activated currents. Fourth, Ca2+ imaging showed that activation of proton-activated channels led to an increase of [Ca2+]i. Finally, immunocytochemistry showed co-localization of ASIC1a and NG2 proteins in the hippocampus. Thus the acid chemosensor, the ASIC1a channel, may serve for inducing membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, thereby playing a crucial role in the NG2 cell response to injury following ischemia.

  15. Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence phenomenon in CaAl2O4:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yongbin; Wu, Zheng; Jia, Yanmin; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence in the CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ was investigated. Blue light that was visible to the naked eye could be observed in the dark when a pulse force of ∼7.7 kN was applied to the sample. The intensity of the stress-luminescence strongly depended on the magnitude of the applied force during a pulse cycle. The intensity decreased with repetitive application of pulse stress and was completely recovered after irradiation with ultraviolet light. It is suggested that the stress-luminescence effect in CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ arises from the piezoelectrically-induced de-trapping of the charge carriers. A CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ceramic that exhibits a stress-luminescence effect has potential applications in smart stress optically-sensing devices. - Highlights: • The strong induced stress-luminescence in CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ was observed. • The stress-luminescent intensity strongly depends on the magnitude of force. • The stress-luminescence could be completely recovered after the UV irradiation. • The strong stress-luminescent effect is potential in stress-light sensors

  16. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-[3-thiotriphosphate]) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels

  17. Local fibroblast proliferation but not influx is responsible for synovial hyperplasia in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yusuke; Mizoguchi, Fumitaka; Saito, Tetsuya [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Kawahata, Kimito [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Ueha, Satoshi; Matsushima, Kouji [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Department of Molecular Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Inagaki, Yutaka [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan); Center for Matrix Biology and Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and the Institute of Medical Sciences, Tokai University, 143 Shimo-kasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1193 (Japan); Miyasaka, Nobuyuki [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Kohsaka, Hitoshi, E-mail: kohsaka.rheu@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8519 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) Program, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0075 (Japan)

    2016-02-12

    Synovial fibroblasts play crucial roles in inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). How they accumulate in the RA joints remains unclear. This study was conducted to discern whether cellular influx from the outside of the joints and local proliferation are responsible for synovial fibroblast accumulation in an animal model of RA. We found that synovial fibroblasts were identified as GFP+ cells using collagen type I alpha 2 (Col1a2)-GFP transgenic reporter mice. Then, bone marrow transplantation and parabiosis techniques were utilized to study the cellular influx. Irradiated wild-type mice were transplanted with bone marrow from Col1a2-GFP mice. Col1a2-GFP and wild-type mice were conjoined for parabiosis. The transplanted mice and the parabionts were subjected to collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). We found no GFP+ cells in the hyperplastic synovial tissues from the transplanted mice with CAIA and from the wild-type parabionts with CAIA. Furthermore, normal and CAIA synovial tissues from Col1a2-GFP mice and from fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) transgenic mice, in which cells in S/G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle express Azami-Green, were studied for Ki67, a cellular proliferation marker, and vimentin, a fibroblast marker, expression. The percentages of Ki67+/GFP+ and Azami-Green+/vimentin+ cells in the CAIA synovial tissues were higher than those in the untreated synovial tissues (34% vs. 0.40% and 19% vs. 0.26%, respectively). These findings indicate that local fibroblast proliferation but not cellular influx is responsible for the synovial hyperplasia in CAIA. Suppression of proliferation of the local synovial fibroblasts should be a promising treatment for RA. - Highlights: • We studied how synovial fibroblasts accumulate in joints in a murine model of RA. • Bone marrow-derived cells did not accumulate in arthritic joints. • Synovial fibroblasts did not accumulate in arthritic joints via

  18. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z

    2017-01-03

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca 2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil reduced NMDA-activated currents, but had no effect on the mechanically induced Ca 2+ influx. Extracellular Mg 2+ at 2 mM did not significantly affect the shear induced Ca 2+ influx, but at 10 mM it produced significant inhibition. Patch clamp experiments showed mechanical activation of NMDAR and inhibition by MK-801. The mechanical sensitivity of NMDARs may play a role in the normal physiology of fluid flow in the glymphatic system and it has obvious relevance to TBI.

  19. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  20. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Q.; Gyftogianni, E.; Graaf, K.F.J. van de; Hoefs, S.J.G.; Weidema, A.F.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  1. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Qing; Gyftogianni, Emmanouela; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Hoefs, Susan; Weidema, Freek A.; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  2. A Devil in the Details: Matrix-Dependent 40Ca42Ca++/42Ca+ and Its Effects on Estimates of the Initial 41Ca/40Ca in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Liu, M.-C.

    2015-07-01

    Ian Hutcheon established that the molecular ion interference 40Ca42Ca++/42Ca+ on 41K+ is strongly dependent on the mineral analyzed. Correction for this "matrix effect" led to a downward revision of the initial 41Ca/40Ca of the solar system.

  3. The SigmaR1 chaperone drives breast and colorectal cancer cell migration by tuning SK3-dependent Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguinou, M; Crottès, D; Chantôme, A; Rapetti-Mauss, R; Potier-Cartereau, M; Clarysse, L; Girault, A; Fourbon, Y; Jézéquel, P; Guérin-Charbonnel, C; Fromont, G; Martin, P; Pellissier, B; Schiappa, R; Chamorey, E; Mignen, O; Uguen, A; Borgese, F; Vandier, C; Soriani, O

    2017-06-22

    The remodeling of calcium homeostasis contributes to the cancer hallmarks and the molecular mechanisms involved in calcium channel regulation in tumors remain to be characterized. Here, we report that SigmaR1, a stress-activated chaperone, is required to increase calcium influx by triggering the coupling between SK3, a Ca 2+ -activated K + channel (KCNN3) and the voltage-independent calcium channel Orai1. We show that SigmaR1 physically binds SK3 in BC cells. Inhibition of SigmaR1 activity, either by molecular silencing or by the use of sigma ligand (igmesine), decreased SK3 current and Ca 2+ entry in breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Interestingly, SigmaR1 inhibition diminished SK3 and/or Orai1 levels in lipid nanodomains isolated from BC cells. Analyses of tissue microarray from CRC patients showed higher SigmaR1 expression levels in cancer samples and a correlation with tumor grade. Moreover, the exploration of a cohort of 4937 BC patients indicated that high expression of SigmaR1 and Orai1 channels was significantly correlated to a lower overall survival. As the SK3/Orai1 tandem drives invasive process in CRC and bone metastasis progression in BC, our results may inaugurate innovative therapeutic approaches targeting SigmaR1 to control the remodeling of Ca 2+ homeostasis in epithelial cancers.

  4. Mechanism underlying unaltered cortical inhibitory synaptic transmission in contrast with enhanced excitatory transmission in CaV2.1 knockin migraine mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Dania; Tottene, Angelita; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Pietrobon, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura, is caused by gain-of-function mutations in CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. In FHM1 knockin mice, excitatory neurotransmission at cortical pyramidal cell synapses is enhanced, but inhibitory neurotransmission at connected pairs of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and pyramidal cells is unaltered, despite being initiated by CaV2.1 channels. The mechanism underlying the unaltered GABA release at cortical FS interneuron synapses remains unknown. Here, we show that the FHM1 R192Q mutation does not affect inhibitory transmission at autapses of cortical FS and other types of multipolar interneurons in microculture from R192Q knockin mice, and investigate the underlying mechanism. Lowering the extracellular [Ca2+] did not reveal gain-of-function of evoked transmission neither in control nor after prolongation of the action potential (AP) with tetraethylammonium, indicating unaltered AP-evoked presynaptic calcium influx at inhibitory autapses in FHM1 KI mice. Neither saturation of the presynaptic calcium sensor nor short duration of the AP can explain the unaltered inhibitory transmission in the mutant mice. Recordings of the P/Q-type calcium current in multipolar interneurons in microculture revealed that the current density and the gating properties of the CaV2.1 channels expressed in these interneurons are barely affected by the FHM1 mutation, in contrast with the enhanced current density and left-shifted activation gating of mutant CaV2.1 channels in cortical pyramidal cells. Our findings suggest that expression of specific CaV2.1 channels differentially sensitive to modulation by FHM1 mutations in inhibitory and excitatory cortical neurons underlies the gain-of-function of excitatory but unaltered inhibitory synaptic transmission and the likely consequent dysregulation of the cortical excitatory–inhibitory balance in FHM1. PMID:24907493

  5. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    Incidence rates of epilepsy and use of Wi-Fi worldwide have been increasing. TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable and non-selective channel, gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). The hyperthermia and oxidant effects of Wi-Fi may induce apoptosis and Ca(2+) entry through activation of TRPV1 channel in epilepsy. Therefore, we tested the effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and apoptosis through TRPV1 channel in the murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and hippocampus of pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Rats in the present study were divided into two groups as controls and PTZ. The PTZ groups were divided into two subgroups namely PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + capsazepine (CPZ). The hippocampal and DRG neurons were freshly isolated from the rats. The DRG and hippocampus in PTZ + Wi-Fi and PTZ + Wi-Fi + CPZ groups were exposed to Wi-Fi for 1 hour before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic free Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase-3 and -9 values in hippocampus were higher in the PTZ group than in the control although cell viability values decreased. The Wi-Fi exposure induced additional effects on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. However, pretreatment of the neurons with CPZ, results in a protection against epilepsy-induced Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis and oxidative damages. In results of whole cell patch-clamp experiments, treatment of DRG with Ca(2+) channel antagonists [thapsigargin, verapamil + diltiazem, 2-APB, MK-801] indicated that Wi-Fi exposure induced Ca(2+) influx via the TRPV1 channels. In conclusion, epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by CPZ pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.

  6. Association between cadmium and calcium uptake and distribution during the moult cycle of female shore crabs, Carcinus maenas: an in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondgaard, Morten; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2005-01-01

    Net influxes into the haemolymph and tissue distribution of 45 Ca and 109 Cd were studied in vivo in female Carcinus maenas at different moult stages. Net influxes of 45 Ca and 109 Cd from water were higher in postmoult (A and B) C. maenas than in C 3 - and C 4 -intermoult crabs and the net influx of calcium was higher in C 3 -intermoult crabs than in C 4 -intermoult crabs. The net influxes of 45 Ca and 109 Cd increased in postmoult C. maenas with decreasing external calcium concentrations at constant salinity. At all external calcium concentrations a significant correlation existed between 45 Ca and 109 Cd accumulated in the haemolymph of individual animals. In vivo exposure of postmoult C. maenas to external lanthanum decreased the 45 Ca and 109 Cd uptake rates to 30 and 10%, respectively, of the control values. About 30% of injected 109 Cd were found in the midgut gland, 10-20% in the gills and only a few (1-2) percent was lost to the seawater 24 h after injection. No major variations in tissue distribution of 109 Cd were observed between moult stages in these tissues. Premoult crabs retained more cadmium in the haemolymph 24 h after injection than other moult stages, and postmoult crabs retained more in muscle. Between 20 and 40% of the injected 45 Ca were excreted to the water, while only a few percent of the injected 45 Ca were found in the soft tissues 24 h after injection. Large moult stage variations, however, were observed in the tissue distribution of internalised 45 Ca. This study demonstrates that cadmium and calcium uptakes are elevated in postmoult C. maenas. The results indicate that cadmium and calcium in this stage are taken up via Ca 2+ -channels located in the apical membrane of gill epithelium cells. When internalised, however, cadmium and calcium are metabolised in fundamentally different ways, determined by the chemical properties and biological significance of the two metals

  7. Carcinoma arising in thyroglossal remnants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, P. A.; Balm, A. J.; Gregor, R. T.; Hilgers, F. J.; Loftus, B. M.; Delprat, C. C.; Rutgers, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Three patients with a papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst are presented and the literature is reviewed. This rare malignancy is seen mostly in women between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The distribution of carcinoma subtypes differs from that of thyroid carcinomas and

  8. Hydrolysis of molten CaCl2-CaF2 with additions of CaO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Olsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium halide based molten salts have recently attracted interest for a number of applications such as direct reduction of oxides for metal production and as liquefying agent in cyclic sorption processes for CO2 by CaO from dilute flue gases (Ca-looping. A fundamental aspect of these melts is the possible hydrolysis reaction upon exposure to gaseous H2O forming corrosive and poisonous hydrogen halides. In this work experiments have been performed investigating the formation of HCl and HF from a molten salt consisting of a 13.8 wt% CaF2 in CaCl2 eutectic exposed to a flowing gas consisting of 10 vol% H2O in N2. Hydrolysis has been investigated as function of content of CaO and temperature. HCl and HF are shown to be formed at elevated temperatures; HCl forms to a substantially larger extent than HF. Addition of CaO has a marked, limiting effect on the hydrolysis. Thermodynamic modeling of the reaction indicates activity coefficients for CaO above unity in the system. For cyclic CO2-capture based on thermal swing, it is advisable to keep the temperature in the carbonation (absorption reactor well below 850 ℃ while maintaining a high CaO content if molten CaCl2 is employed. Similar conclusions can be drawn with regards to CaF2.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of the misfit cobaltate Ca3Co4O9

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    The layered misfit cobaltate CaCoO, also known as CaCoO[CoO], is a promising p-type thermoelectric oxide. Employing density functional theory, we study its electronic structure and determine, on the basis of Boltzmann theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation, the thermoelectric transport coefficients. The dependence on strain and temperature is determined. In particular, we find that the XX-component of the thermopower is strongly enhanced, while the yy-component is strongly reduced, when applying 2% tensile strain. A similar anisotropy is also found in the power factor. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the a-b plane is found to be rather weak above 200 K, which clearly indicates that the experimentally observed transport properties are dominated by inhomogeneities arising during sample growth, i.e., they are not intrinsic.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of the misfit cobaltate Ca3Co4O9

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2017-06-09

    The layered misfit cobaltate CaCoO, also known as CaCoO[CoO], is a promising p-type thermoelectric oxide. Employing density functional theory, we study its electronic structure and determine, on the basis of Boltzmann theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation, the thermoelectric transport coefficients. The dependence on strain and temperature is determined. In particular, we find that the XX-component of the thermopower is strongly enhanced, while the yy-component is strongly reduced, when applying 2% tensile strain. A similar anisotropy is also found in the power factor. The temperature dependence of the conductivity in the a-b plane is found to be rather weak above 200 K, which clearly indicates that the experimentally observed transport properties are dominated by inhomogeneities arising during sample growth, i.e., they are not intrinsic.

  11. Measuring coral calcification under ocean acidification: methodological considerations for the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity anomaly technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cohen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the oceans become less alkaline due to rising CO2 levels, deleterious consequences are expected for calcifying corals. Predicting how coral calcification will be affected by on-going ocean acidification (OA requires an accurate assessment of CaCO3 deposition and an understanding of the relative importance that decreasing calcification and/or increasing dissolution play for the overall calcification budget of individual corals. Here, we assessed the compatibility of the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity (TA anomaly techniques as measures of gross and net calcification (GC, NC, respectively, to determine coral calcification at pHT 8.1 and 7.5. Considering the differing buffering capacity of seawater at both pH values, we were also interested in how strongly coral calcification alters the seawater carbonate chemistry under prolonged incubation in sealed chambers, potentially interfering with physiological functioning. Our data indicate that NC estimates by TA are erroneously ∼5% and ∼21% higher than GC estimates from 45Ca for ambient and reduced pH, respectively. Considering also previous data, we show that the consistent discrepancy between both techniques across studies is not constant, but largely depends on the absolute value of CaCO3 deposition. Deriving rates of coral dissolution from the difference between NC and GC was not possible and we advocate a more direct approach for the future by simultaneously measuring skeletal calcium influx and efflux. Substantial changes in carbonate system parameters for incubation times beyond two hours in our experiment demonstrate the necessity to test and optimize experimental incubation setups when measuring coral calcification in closed systems, especially under OA conditions.

  12. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L.; Wendum, D.; Balladur, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  13. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  14. VIGS approach reveals the modulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by CaMYB in Chili pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhen ezhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purple coloration of pepper leaves arises from the accumulation of anthocyanin. Three regulatory and 12 structural genes have been characterized for their involvement in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Examination of the abundance of these genes in leaves showed that the majority of them differed between anthocyanin pigmented line Z1 and non-pigmented line A3. Silencing of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor CaMYB in pepper leaves of Z1 resulted in the loss of anthocyanin accumulation. Moreover, the expression of multiple genes was altered in the silenced leaves. The expression of MYC was significantly lower in CaMYB-silenced leaves, whereas WD40 showed the opposite pattern. Most structural genes including CHS, CHI, F3H, F3’5’H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, ANP and GST were repressed in CaMYB-silenced foliage with the exception of PAL, C4H and 4CL. These results indicated that MYB plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic related genes. Besides CaMYB silenced leaves rendered more sporulation of Phytophthora capsici Leonian indicating that CaMYB might be involved in the defense response to pathogens.

  15. Impact of freshwater influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R; Madhu, N.V.; Jayalakshmi, K.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Shiyas, C.C.; Martin, G.D.; Nair, K.K.C.

    -1 Impact of fresh water influx on microzooplankton mediated food web in a tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters - India) R. Jyothibabu A, B, N.V. Madhu A, K.V. Jayalakshmi A, K. K. Balachandran A, C. A. Shiyas A, G. D. Martin A and K. K. C. Nair A A... in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research 40, 479 ? 493. Burkill, P. H., Leaky, R. J. G., Owens, N. J. P., and Mantoura, R. F. C., 1993b. Synechococcus and its importance to the microbial food web of the northwestern Indian Ocean, In: Biogeochemical...

  16. Spontaneous Ca2+ transients in interstitial cells of Cajal located within the deep muscular plexus of the murine small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Salah A.; Drumm, Bernard T.; Saur, Dieter; Hennig, Grant W.; Ward, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    determined that firing was stochastic in nature. Ca2+ transients were tabulated in multiple cells within fields of view, and no correlation was found between the events in adjacent cells. TTX (1 μm) significantly increased the occurrence of Ca2+ transients, suggesting that ICC‐DMP contributes to the tonic inhibition conveyed by ongoing activity of inhibitory motor neurons. Ca2+ transients were minimally affected after 12 min in Ca2+ free solution, indicating these events do not depend immediately upon Ca2+ influx. However, inhibitors of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+‐ATPase (SERCA) pump and blockers of inositol triphosphate receptor (InsP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels blocked ICC Ca2+ transients. These data suggest an interdependence between RyR and InsP3R in the generation of Ca2+ transients. Itpr1 and Ryr2 were the dominant transcripts expressed by ICC. These findings provide the first high‐resolution recording of the subcellular Ca2+ dynamics that control the behaviour of ICC‐DMP in situ. PMID:26824875

  17. Spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in interstitial cells of Cajal located within the deep muscular plexus of the murine small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Salah A; Drumm, Bernard T; Saur, Dieter; Hennig, Grant W; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M

    2016-06-15

    was determined that firing was stochastic in nature. Ca(2+) transients were tabulated in multiple cells within fields of view, and no correlation was found between the events in adjacent cells. TTX (1 μm) significantly increased the occurrence of Ca(2+) transients, suggesting that ICC-DMP contributes to the tonic inhibition conveyed by ongoing activity of inhibitory motor neurons. Ca(2+) transients were minimally affected after 12 min in Ca(2+) free solution, indicating these events do not depend immediately upon Ca(2+) influx. However, inhibitors of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA) pump and blockers of inositol triphosphate receptor (InsP3 R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels blocked ICC Ca(2+) transients. These data suggest an interdependence between RyR and InsP3 R in the generation of Ca(2+) transients. Itpr1 and Ryr2 were the dominant transcripts expressed by ICC. These findings provide the first high-resolution recording of the subcellular Ca(2+) dynamics that control the behaviour of ICC-DMP in situ. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT 2 R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT 2 R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca 2+ -free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca 2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca 2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT 2 R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca 2+ entry

  19. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CaO catalyst was successfully developed from wood gasification bottom ash. • CaCO 3 in bottom ash can be converted to CaO catalyst by calcination. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash exhibited high activity towards transesterification. • CaO catalysts derived from bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times. - Abstract: The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propose, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 °C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (E a ) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol −1 . Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly

  20. Mechanism and evolution of calcium transport across the plant plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient, thus the influx of Ca(2+) into plant cells is a critical process. In addition, the efflux of Ca(2+) out of a cell is important to prevent toxicity resulting from Ca(2+) excess, and to modulate levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) required for signaling functions. Bioc...

  1. Structural characterization of the interactions between calmodulin and skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase: Effect of peptide (576-594)G binding on the Ca2+-binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeholzer, S.H.; Wand, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Calcium-containing calmodulin (CaM) and its complex with a peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase [skMLCK(576-594)G] have been studied by one- and two-dimensional 1 H NMR techniques. Resonances arising from the antiparallel β-sheet structures associated with the calcium-binding domains of CaM and their counterparts in the CaM-skMLCK(576-594)G complex have been assigned. The assignments were initiated by application of the main chain directed assignment strategy. It is found that, despite significant changes in chemical shifts of resonances arising from amino acid residues in this region upon binding of the peptide, the β-sheets have virtually the same structure in the complex as in CaM. Hydrogen exchange rates of amide NH within the β-sheet structures are significantly slowed upon binding of peptide. These data, in conjunction with the observed nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns and relative intensities and the downfield shifts of associated amide and α resonances upon binding of peptide, show that the peptide stabilizes the Ca 2+ -bound state of calmodulin. The observed pattern of NOEs within the β-sheets and their structural similarity correspond closely to those predicted by the crystal structure. These findings imply that the apparent inconsistency of the crystal structure with recently reported low-angle X-ray scattering profiles of CaM may lie within the putative central helix bridging the globular domains

  2. Value of Combined Detection of Serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5 in the Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Chen, Qiuyuan; Zhao, Qiangyuan; Liu, Min; Guo, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether the combined detection of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5) improves the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). An automatic chemiluminescence immune analyzer with matched kits was used to determine the levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3, and CA12-5 in 87 patients with gastric cancer (GC group), 60 patients with gastric benign diseases (GBD group) who were hospitalized during the same period, and 40 healthy subjects undergoing a physical examination. The values of these 5 tumor markers in the diagnosis of gastric cancer were analyzed. The levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 were higher in the GC group than in the GBD group and healthy subjects, and these differences were significant ( P 0.05). The combined detection of CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 had a higher diagnostic value for gastric cancer than did single detection, and the positive detection rate of the combined detection of the four tumor markers was 60.9%. The diagnostic power when using the combined detection of CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9, and CA12-5 was the best. The combined detection of serum CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9 and CA12-5 increases the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of GC and can thus be considered an important tool for early diagnosis. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Cajaninstilbene acid relaxes rat renal arteries: roles of Ca2+ antagonism and protein kinase C-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA is a major active component present in the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. The present study explores the underlying cellular mechanisms for CSA-induced relaxation in rat renal arteries. Vascular reactivity was examined in arterial rings that were suspended in a Multi Myograph System and the expression of signaling proteins was assessed by Western blotting method. CSA (0.1-10 µM produced relaxations in rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine, serotonin, 9, 11-dideoxy-9α, 11α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2α (U46619, and 60 mM KCl. CSA-induced relaxations did not show difference between genders and were unaffected by endothelium denudation, nor by treatment with N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, ICI-182780, tetraethylammonium ion, BaCl(2, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine or propranolol. CSA reduced contraction induced by CaCl(2 (0.01-5 mM in Ca(2+-free 60 mM KCl solution and by 30 nM (--Bay K8644 in 15 mM KCl solution. CSA inhibited 60 mM KCl-induced Ca(2+ influx in smooth muscle of renal arteries. In addition, CSA inhibited contraction evoked by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, protein kinase C agonist in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Moreover, CSA reduced the U46619- and PMA-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC at Ser19 and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1 at Thr853 which was associated with vasoconstriction. CSA also lowered the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKCδ at Thr505. In summary, the present results suggest that CSA relaxes renal arteries in vitro via multiple cellular mechanisms involving partial inhibition of calcium entry via nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels, protein kinase C and Rho kinase.

  4. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  5. Differential intracellular calcium influx, nitric oxide production, ICAM-1 and IL8 expression in primary bovine endothelial cells exposed to nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Anitsi; Carretta, María D; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A

    2016-02-25

    Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). Myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) rapidly increased Ca(2+) i. The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. The EC50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. We also detected a functional FFAR1/GPR40 protein in BUVECs by using western blotting and the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist TAK-875. Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. LA stimulation but not MA stimulation increased ICAM-1 and IL-8-expression in BUVECs. This effect was inhibited by GW1100, an antagonist of FFAR1/GPR40, but not by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. These findings not only extend our understanding of NEFA-mediated diseases in ruminants, but also provide new insight into the different molecular mechanisms involved during endothelial cell activation by NEFAs.

  6. Multiple C-terminal tail Ca(2+)/CaMs regulate Ca(V)1.2 function but do not mediate channel dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Rumpf, Christine H; Van Petegem, Filip; Arant, Ryan J; Findeisen, Felix; Cooley, Elizabeth S; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Minor, Daniel L

    2010-12-01

    Interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)s) and calmodulin (CaM) modulate Ca(V) function. In this study, we report the structure of a Ca(2+)/CaM Ca(V)1.2 C-terminal tail complex that contains two PreIQ helices bridged by two Ca(2+)/CaMs and two Ca(2+)/CaM-IQ domain complexes. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments establish that the complex has a 2:1 Ca(2+)/CaM:C-terminal tail stoichiometry and does not form higher order assemblies. Moreover, subunit-counting experiments demonstrate that in live cell membranes Ca(V)1.2s are monomers. Thus, contrary to previous proposals, the crystallographic dimer lacks physiological relevance. Isothermal titration calorimetry and biochemical experiments show that the two Ca(2+)/CaMs in the complex have different properties. Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the PreIQ C-region is labile, whereas Ca(2+)/CaM bound to the IQ domain is not. Furthermore, neither of lobes of apo-CaM interacts strongly with the PreIQ domain. Electrophysiological studies indicate that the PreIQ C-region has a role in calcium-dependent facilitation. Together, the data show that two Ca(2+)/CaMs can bind the Ca(V)1.2 tail simultaneously and indicate a functional role for Ca(2+)/CaM at the C-region site.

  7. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p calcareum Ca was greater (p calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  8. Effects of antibiotics on uptake of calcium into isolated nerve terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, W.D.; Adgate, L.; Beaman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether several antibiotics which are known to block neuromuscular transmission would impair depolarization-dependent and/or -independent uptake of calcium into isolated nerve terminals prepared from forebrain synaptosomes of rats by conventional methods. Antibiotics tested for potential block of Ca++ uptake included the aminoglycosides neomycin and streptomycin, the lincosamide clindamycin, oxytetracycline and polymyxin B. Drugs were applied in concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 microM. Uptake of 45Ca was determined during depolarization induced by an elevated K+ concentration (77.5 mM). Influxes of 45Ca during 1 and 10 sec of depolarization were used to assess Ca++ uptake via a fast, inactivating path and total uptake, respectively. Uptake of 45Ca during 10 sec of depolarization into synaptosomes which were previously depolarized for 10 sec in the presence of 77.5 mM K+ but in the absence of external Ca++ was used to measure uptake during a slow, noninactivating path. Total depolarization-dependent uptake of 45Ca was depressed significantly by all antibiotics tested except oxytetracycline; however, the various agents differed with respect to their efficacy and potency as blockers of Ca influx. The fast component of uptake, which is thought to be associated with neurotransmitter release, was decreased significantly by all antibiotics. Neomycin and polymyxin were the most potent and most effective at lowering fast phase 45Ca influx; streptomycin, was intermediate in effectiveness whereas clindamycin and oxytetracycline were only effective at concentrations greater than or equal to 100 microM. Only clindamycin, streptomycin and polymyxin B caused significant reductions in the slow phase of 45Ca uptake

  9. Cytoplasmic Calcium Increases in Response to Changes in the Gravity Vector in Hypocotyls and Petioles of Arabidopsis Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Furuichi, Takuya; Tatsumi, Hitoshi; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Plants respond to a large variety of environmental signals, including changes in the gravity vector (gravistimulation). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, gravistimulation is known to increase the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). However, organs responsible for the [Ca2+]c increase and the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain to be solved. In this study, using Arabidopsis seedlings expressing apoaequorin, a Ca2+-sensitive luminescent protein in combination with an ultrasensitive photon counting camera, we clarified the organs where [Ca2+]c increases in response to gravistimulation and characterized the physiological and pharmacological properties of the [Ca2+]c increase. When the seedlings were gravistimulated by turning 180°, they showed a transient biphasic [Ca2+]c increase in their hypocotyls and petioles. The second peak of the [Ca2+]c increase depended on the angle but not the speed of rotation, whereas the initial peak showed diametrically opposite characters. This suggests that the second [Ca2+]c increase is specific for changes in the gravity vector. The potential mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable channel (MSCC) inhibitors Gd3+ and La3+, the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and the endomembrane Ca2+-permeable channel inhibitor ruthenium red suppressed the second [Ca2+]c increase, suggesting that it arises from Ca2+ influx via putative MSCCs in the plasma membrane and Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Moreover, the second [Ca2+]c increase was attenuated by actin-disrupting drugs cytochalasin B and latrunculin B but not by microtubule-disrupting drugs oryzalin and nocodazole, implying that actin filaments are partially involved in the hypothetical activation of Ca2+-permeable channels. These results suggest that the second [Ca2+]c increase via MSCCs is a gravity response in the hypocotyl and petiole of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:18055589

  10. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  11. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  12. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  13. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is...

  14. The proton spectral function of 40Ca and 48Ca studied with the (e,e'p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental study into the occupation of the orbitals around the Fermi level for 40 Ca and 48 Ca with quasi-elastic proton knock-out (e,e'p). Experiments have been carried out with the 500 MeV electron beam of the linear accelerator MEA at NIKHEF, Amsterdam. For 40 Ca the mechanism of the (e,e'p) reaction has been studied by comparing the measured momentum distributions of some strong transitions to discrete states in 39K , with various theoretical calculations. From this it has been concluded that uncertainties caused by deviations of the impulse approximation can be minimized if the measurements are carried out under parallel kinematical conditions. The spectroscopic strengths of the shell-model orbitals in states just below the Fermi level, for 40 Ca the 1d 3/2 , 1d 5/2 and 2s 1/2 orbitals, turned out to amount 50 to 70% of the IPSM limit. A small part of the missing strength has been found in the 1f 7/2 and 2p 3/2 orbitals which are just above the Fermi level (resp. 11 and 2% of the 2j+1 limit), which is an indication for ground state correlations. The spectroscopic strengths for the 1d 3/2 , 2s 1/2 and 1d 3/2 orbitals of 48 Ca turned out to be the same as for 40C a within the actual measuring accuracy. Above the Fermi level only strength in the 1f 7/2 orbital has been found (1% of the 2j+1 limit). The spectroscopic strengths determined with (e,e'p) experiments are about a factor two smaller than those obtained from (d, 3 He) experiments. This discrepancy has been studied by reviewing the model dependency of the DWBA analysis for the (d, 3 He) reaction with special emphasis on the sensitivities of the spectroscopic factors to the various approximations made in this theory. It is also investigated which part of the bound state wave function is probed by the (e,e'p) and the (d, 3 He) reactions in order to understand the model sensitivities arising from the exact shape of the bound state wave function. (H.W.).97 refs.; 48

  15. The Marine Guanidine Alkaloid Crambescidin 816 Induces Calcium Influx and Cytotoxicity in Primary Cultures of Cortical Neurons through Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Aida G; Juncal, Andrea Boente; Silva, Siguara B L; Thomas, Olivier P; Martín Vázquez, Víctor; Alfonso, Amparo; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Vale, Carmen; Botana, Luís M

    2017-07-19

    Crambescidin 816 is a guanidine alkaloid produced by the sponge Crambe crambe with known antitumoral activity. While the information describing the effects of this alkaloid in central neurons is scarce, Cramb816 is known to block voltage dependent calcium channels being selective for L-type channels. Moreover, Cramb816 reduced neuronal viability through an unknown mechanism. Here, we aimed to describe the toxic activity of Cramb816 in cortical neurons. Since calcium influx is considered the main mechanism responsible for neuronal cell death, the effects of Cramb816 in the cytosolic calcium concentration of cortical neurons were studied. The alkaloid decreased neuronal viability and induced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium that was also related to the presence of calcium in the extracellular media. The increase in calcium influx was age dependent, being higher in younger neurons. Moreover, this effect was prevented by glutamate receptor antagonists, which did not fully block the cytotoxic effect of Cramb816 after 24 h of treatment but completely prevented Cramb816 cytotoxicity after 10 min exposure. Therefore, the findings presented herein provide new insights into the cytotoxic effect of Cramb816 in cortical neurons.

  16. Control of ciliary motility by Ca2+: Integration of Ca2+-dependent functions and targets for Ca2+ action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca 2+ -induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca 2+ current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca 2+ current from Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca 2+ -dependent K + and Ca 2+ -dependent Na + currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca 2+ action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a 125 I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed

  17. Proteolytic cleavage and PKA phosphorylation of α1C subunit are not required for adrenergic regulation of CaV1.2 in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchman, Alexander; Yang, Lin; Zakharov, Sergey I; Kushner, Jared; Abrams, Jeffrey; Chen, Bi-Xing; Liu, Guoxia; Pitt, Geoffrey S; Colecraft, Henry M; Marx, Steven O

    2017-08-22

    Calcium influx through the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (Ca V 1.2) rapidly increases in the heart during "fight or flight" through activation of the β-adrenergic and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. The precise molecular mechanisms of β-adrenergic activation of cardiac Ca V 1.2, however, are incompletely known, but are presumed to require phosphorylation of residues in α 1C and C-terminal proteolytic cleavage of the α 1C subunit. We generated transgenic mice expressing an α 1C with alanine substitutions of all conserved serine or threonine, which is predicted to be a potential PKA phosphorylation site by at least one prediction tool, while sparing the residues previously shown to be phosphorylated but shown individually not to be required for β-adrenergic regulation of Ca V 1.2 current (17-mutant). A second line included these 17 putative sites plus the five previously identified phosphoregulatory sites (22-mutant), thus allowing us to query whether regulation requires their contribution in combination. We determined that acute β-adrenergic regulation does not require any combination of potential PKA phosphorylation sites conserved in human, guinea pig, rabbit, rat, and mouse α 1C subunits. We separately generated transgenic mice with inducible expression of proteolytic-resistant α 1C Prevention of C-terminal cleavage did not alter β-adrenergic stimulation of Ca V 1.2 in the heart. These studies definitively rule out a role for all conserved consensus PKA phosphorylation sites in α 1C in β-adrenergic stimulation of Ca V 1.2, and show that phosphoregulatory sites on α 1C are not redundant and do not each fractionally contribute to the net stimulatory effect of β-adrenergic stimulation. Further, proteolytic cleavage of α 1C is not required for β-adrenergic stimulation of Ca V 1.2.

  18. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su

    2017-03-07

    In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca 2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca 2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM). Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent.

  19. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM. Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent.

  20. On the ligand binding profile and desensitization of plant ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR)-like channels functioning in MAMP-triggered Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J; Maintz, Jens; Cavdar, Meltem

    2012-01-01

    in the putative agonist binding profile and potential mode of desensitization of MAMP-activated plant iGluRs. Based on results from pharmacological inhibition and desensitization experiments, we propose that plant iGluR complexes responsible for the MAMP-triggered Ca ( 2+) signature have a binding profile...... that combines the specificities of mammalian NMDA-and non-NMDA types of iGluRs, possibly reflecting the evolutionary history of plant and animal iGluRs. We further hypothesize that, analogous to the mammalian NMDA-NR1 receptor, desensitization of plant iGluR-like channels might involve binding of the ubiquitous...

  1. Four Different Tumors Arising in a Nevus Sebaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Namiki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nevus sebaceous is known by its association with one or more secondary tumors, but more than three multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous is extremely rare. A 67-year-old female presented with a light brown plaque on the back of her head that contained a dome-shaped black node and an erosive lesion. Histopathological examination showed atypical basaloid cells in the black node. At the periphery of that node, structures resembling follicular germs extruded from interlacing cords in the upper portion and tumor nests with sebocytes were in the lower portion. In the erosive lesion, papillated structures with an apocrine epithelium were observed. In the light brown plaque, enlargement of sebaceous lobules was noted. From those histopathological features, a diagnosis of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, sebaceoma, trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma arising from a nevus sebaceous was made. We discuss the rarity of multiple tumors arising from a nevus sebaceous.

  2. Original Paper Etude des effets vermicide et anti-diarrhéique du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lisse intestinal qui serait due, soit à une inhibition de l'influx calcique, soit à une augmentation de l'efflux de calcium sans modification de l'influx ou même à une capture du Ca2+ libre cytoplasmique. Effet des concentrations croissantes du macéré aqueux des feuilles de Salvadora persica, L. sur la contracture induite par.

  3. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  5. 32 CFR 536.111 - Investigation of claims arising under international agreements (for those claims arising in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under international agreements (for those claims arising in the United States). Responsibility for... civilian component is attached, including the legal office of another armed force, to carry out the responsibility to investigate. The investigation will comply with the responsible Service's implementing claims...

  6. Interactions of Eu(III) with biogenic CaCO{sub 3} studied with TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Schmidt, Moritz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Surface Processes; Cherkouk, Andrea [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    The interactions of Eu(III) with CaCO{sub 3} arising from biogenic origin was investigated by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). Biologically-induced precipitation via ureolysis was studied with the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii in the presence of Eu(III). Biomineralization occurred forming mixed phases of vaterite and calcite after one day that transformed over two weeks to pure calcite. Eu(III) was quantitatively removed from solution during mineral formation. TRLFS results show that after one day the Eu{sup 3+} is located in the vaterite phase. After one week, the Eu{sup 3+} was found primarily in the vaterite, despite calcite now being the predominant mineral, and a transition species was also formed. In the calcite two incorporated Eu{sup 3+} species were present: one substitutes at the Ca{sup 2+} site in the crystal lattice and the other is speculated to be associated with the organicmineral matrix.

  7. Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence phenomenon in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yongbin [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Wu, Zheng, E-mail: wuzheng@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Jia, Yanmin, E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Liu, Yongsheng [Department of Physics, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Piezoelectrically-induced stress-luminescence in the CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} was investigated. Blue light that was visible to the naked eye could be observed in the dark when a pulse force of ∼7.7 kN was applied to the sample. The intensity of the stress-luminescence strongly depended on the magnitude of the applied force during a pulse cycle. The intensity decreased with repetitive application of pulse stress and was completely recovered after irradiation with ultraviolet light. It is suggested that the stress-luminescence effect in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} arises from the piezoelectrically-induced de-trapping of the charge carriers. A CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} ceramic that exhibits a stress-luminescence effect has potential applications in smart stress optically-sensing devices. - Highlights: • The strong induced stress-luminescence in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} was observed. • The stress-luminescent intensity strongly depends on the magnitude of force. • The stress-luminescence could be completely recovered after the UV irradiation. • The strong stress-luminescent effect is potential in stress-light sensors.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Patni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare condition and usually arises in mature cystic teratoma (MCT or dermoid cyst of the ovary. The reported incidence of malignant transformation in MCT is approximately 2%. A case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a dermoid cyst of the ovary presenting at an early stage is presented here. A 53-year-old postmenopausal lady, presented with the complaint of pain in right lower abdomen since one month and a large complex abdomino-pelvic mass on examination and investigations. Final histopathology was reported as squamous cell carcinoma of left ovary arising from dermoid cyst and a benign dermoid cyst in the right ovary. The patient was assigned to squamous cell carcinoma of the ovary arising in a mature cystic teratoma, surgical stage Ic2. In view of the poor prognosis, adjuvant chemotherapy was started.

  9. Effect of membrane hyperpolarization induced by a K+ channel opener on histamine-induced Ca2+ mobilization in rabbit arterial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, H; Itoh, T

    1996-03-01

    -toxin-skinned smooth muscles. 5. It is concluded that the membrane hyperpolarization induced by Y-26763 may not be enough to inhibit the Hist-activated Ca2+ influx. It is also suggested that Hist prevents the membrane hyperpolarization induced by Y-26763, activating an unknown mechanism which is thought to depend on the function of intracellular Ca2+ storage sites.

  10. Fast gamma oscillations are generated intrinsically in CA1 without the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/353616-09$15.00/0.

  11. Aβ42 oligomers selectively disrupt neuronal calcium release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Cristian; Kipanyula, Maulilio J; Agostini, Mario; Pozzan, Tullio; Fasolato, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides correlates with aging and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptides, which cause early synaptic dysfunctions, spine loss, and memory deficits, also disturb intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. By cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) measurements, we here define the short-term effects of synthetic Aβ42 on neuronal Ca(2+) dynamics. When applied acutely at submicromolar concentration, as either oligomers or monomers, Aβ42 did not cause Ca(2+) release or Ca(2+) influx. Similarly, 1-hour treatment with Aβ42 modified neither the resting cytosolic Ca(2+) level nor the long-lasting Ca(2+) influx caused by KCl-induced depolarization. In contrast, Aβ42 oligomers, but not monomers, significantly altered Ca(2+) release from stores with opposite effects on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)- and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) mobilization without alteration of the total store Ca(2+) content. Ca(2+) dysregulation by Aβ42 oligomers involves metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and requires network activity and the intact exo-endocytotic machinery, being prevented by tetrodotoxin and tetanus toxin. These findings support the idea that Ca(2+) store dysfunction is directly involved in Aβ42 neurotoxicity and represents a potential therapeutic target in AD-like dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  13. Photoemission study of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Iwai, Keisuke; Noami, Kengo; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Hirai, Masaaki; Tomioka, Fumiaki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Asami; Toyoda, Masahiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have performed resonant photoemission studies of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC 6 . Using photon energy of the Ca 2p-3d threshold, the photoemission intensity of the peak at Fermi energy (E F ) is resonantly enhanced. This result provides spectroscopic evidence for the existence of Ca 3d states at E F , and strongly supports that Ca 3d state plays a crucial role for the superconductivity of this material with relatively high T c .

  14. Solubility of calcium in CaO-CaCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, G.S.; Shaw, S.J.

    1991-06-01

    The Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process is well established as a process to produce plutonium metal from plutonium dioxide by reaction with calcium. Calcium chloride is added to dissolve the calcium oxide produced, allowing the metal to coalesce into a button. Since calcium metal melts at 840 0 C and DOR can take place successfully below this temperature, it is likely calcium dissolved in calcium chloride reacts with the plutonium dioxide. The solubility of calcium in calcium chloride is reasonably well established but the effect of the CaO formed during the DOR process on the solubility of calcium has not been previously determined. For this reason the solubility of calcium in CaCl 2 -CaO melts at 800 o C has been studied. The solubility decreases from 2.7 mol % in CaCl 2 to 0.4 mol % in 9 mol % CaO-CaCl 2 . (author)

  15. Degradation effects in the one-band-tunneling Au/CaF{sub 2}/n-Si(111) MIS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, M.I.; Suturin, S.M.; Tyaginov, S.E.; Banshchikov, A.G. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya Str., 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sokolov, N.S. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya Str., 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru

    2008-10-01

    High quality Au/CaF{sub 2}/n-Si(111) metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with thin (< 2.5 nm) epitaxial fluorite layers were fabricated. Damage of such structures due to electrical overload has been investigated in this work. Current-voltage characteristics of these structures before and in process of degradation are measured. A mechanism explaining the pronounced breakdown at reverse bias is suggested. This mechanism relies on the potentially possible bistability arising from the one-band character of tunneling in the studied devices. Some comparisons with the degradation scenario in SiO{sub 2}-based samples are made. Wear-out fields for CaF{sub 2} films are estimated. The changes in behaviour of fresh and damaged structures under visible light irradiation are treated.

  16. The microbe-secreted isopeptide poly-γ-glutamic acid induces stress tolerance in Brassica napus L. seedlings by activating crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Pang, Xiao; Feng, Xiaohai; Li, Sha; Chi, Bo; Wang, Rui; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a microbe-secreted isopeptide that has been shown to promote growth and enhance stress tolerance in crops. However, its site of action and downstream signaling pathways are still unknown. In this study, we investigated γ-PGA-induced tolerance to salt and cold stresses in Brassica napus L. seedlings. Fluorescent labeling of γ-PGA was used to locate the site of its activity in root protoplasts. The relationship between γ-PGA-induced stress tolerance and two signal molecules, H2O2 and Ca2+, as well as the γ-PGA-elicited signaling pathway at the whole plant level, were explored. Fluorescent labeling showed that γ-PGA did not enter the cytoplasm but instead attached to the surface of root protoplasm. Here, it triggered a burst of H2O2 in roots by enhancing the transcription of RbohD and RbohF, and the elicited H2O2 further activated an influx of Ca2+ into root cells. Ca2+ signaling was transmitted via the stem from roots to leaves, where it elicited a fresh burst of H2O2, thus promoting plant growth and enhancing stress tolerance. On the basis of these observation, we propose that γ-PGA mediates stress tolerance in Brassica napus seedlings by activating an H2O2 burst and subsequent crosstalk between H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling. PMID:28198821

  17. ARISE: American renaissance in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-14

    The national standards and state derivatives must be reinforced by models of curricular reform. In this paper, ARISE presents one model based on a set of principles--coherence, integration of the sciences, movement from concrete ideas to abstract ones, inquiry, connection and application, sequencing that is responsive to how people learn.

  18. Issues arising in applying the BSS concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following issues are discussed arising in applying the basic safety standard concepts: terminology, naturally occurring radionuclides, the exemption and clearance levels, management of very low level wastes, transboundary movements, the waste convention

  19. Coxsackievirus protein 2B modifies endoplasmic reticulum membrane and plasma membrane permeability and facilitates virus release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Hoenderop, J G; Smeets, R L; Willems, P H; Dijkman, H B; Galama, J M; Melchers, W J

    1997-01-01

    Digital-imaging microscopy was performed to study the effect of Coxsackie B3 virus infection on the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration and the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During the course of infection a gradual increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration was observed, due to the influx of extracellular Ca2+. The Ca2+ content of the ER decreased in time with kinetics inversely proportional to those of viral protein synthesis. Individual expression of protein 2B was sufficient to induce the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and to release Ca2+ from ER stores. Analysis of mutant 2B proteins showed that both a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix and a second hydrophobic domain in 2B were required for these activities. Consistent with a presumed ability of protein 2B to increase membrane permeability, viruses carrying a mutant 2B protein exhibited a defect in virus release. We propose that 2B gradually enhances membrane permeability, thereby disrupting the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and ultimately causing the membrane lesions that allow release of virus progeny. PMID:9218794

  20. Nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation and Ca2+ signalling induced by erythrodiol in rat aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidèle Ntchapda

    2015-06-01

    suggested by functional studies. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the mechanism of relaxation seems to be mainly mediated by the endothelial production of NO. Such a vasorelaxation was an endotheliumdependent effect, via the NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. This result also suggests that erythrodiol causes a slow influx of extracellular Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ stores and an inhibition of Ca2+ extruding mechanism. It can be concluded that erythrodiol may have interesting therapeutic potential as a new vasodilator drug, for protecting the cardiovascular system.

  1. Analysis and effects of cytosolic free calcium increases in response to elicitors in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, David; Mazars, Christian; Pauly, Nicolas; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2002-10-01

    Cell suspensions obtained from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants stably expressing the apoaequorin gene were used to analyze changes in cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in response to elicitors of plant defenses, particularly cryptogein and oligogalacturonides. The calcium signatures differ in lag time, peak time, intensity, and duration. The intensities of both signatures depend on elicitor concentration and extracellular calcium concentration. Cryptogein signature is characterized by a long-sustained [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase that should be responsible for sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, microtubule depolymerization, defense gene activation, and cell death. The [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase in elicitor-treated cells first results from a calcium influx, which in turns leads to calcium release from internal stores and additional Ca(2+) influx. H(2)O(2) resulting from the calcium-dependent activation of the NADPH oxidase also participates in [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase and may activate calcium channels from the plasma membrane. Competition assays with different elicitins demonstrate that [Ca(2+)](cyt) increase is mediated by cryptogein-receptor interaction.

  2. Development and function of membrane systems in plant tissue. Annual technical progress report, 15 September 1981-15 August 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 11 months we have continued investigation of ion transport mechanisms in corn roots and mitochondria. In mitochondria we find that only citrate and isocitrate are transported by the H + /citrate symporter. However, the in vivo function of this carrier remains in doubt because citrate does not appear to be an effective substrate for corn mitochondria. Studies with roots have been directed to why various types of injury or shock all result in temporary blockage of the H + -efflux pump in the plasmamembrane. It appears this may be due to an injury-mediated Ca 2 + influx into the tissue, which by raising free Ca 2 + in the cytosal activates calmodulin (CaM). In turn, the Ca.CaM complex appears to activate protein kinase, phosphorylating membrane proteins. It is possible that one of these phosphorylated proteins is responsible for inactivation of the H + -ATPase. Future work is planned around the consequences of Ca 2 + influx into the root cell subsequent to injury, investigating the recovery of the H + -ATPase and the initiation of the biosyntheses which lead to augmented ion transport

  3. Protective effect of zinc against ischemic neuronal injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Youji; Iida, Yasuhiko; Abe, Jun; Ueda, Masashi; Mifune, Masaki; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Ohta, Masayuki; Igarashi, Kazuo; Saito, Yutaka; Saji, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of vesicular zinc on ischemic neuronal injury. In cultured neurons, addition of a low concentration (under 100 microM) of zinc inhibited both glutamate-induced calcium influx and neuronal death. In contrast, a higher concentration (over 150 microM) of zinc decreased neuronal viability, although calcium influx was inhibited. These results indicate that zinc exhibits biphasic effects depending on its concentration. Furthermore, in cultured neurons, co-addition of glutamate and CaEDTA, which binds extra-cellular zinc, increased glutamate-induced calcium influx and aggravated the neurotoxicity of glutamate. In a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, the infarction volume, which is related to the neurotoxicity of glutamate, increased rapidly on the intracerebral ventricular injection of CaEDTA 30 min prior to occlusion. These results suggest that zinc released from synaptic vesicles may provide a protective effect against ischemic neuronal injury.

  4. Sequential induction of auxin efflux and influx carriers regulates lateral root emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péret, Benjamin; Middleton, Alistair M; French, Andrew P; Larrieu, Antoine; Bishopp, Anthony; Njo, Maria; Wells, Darren M; Porco, Silvana; Mellor, Nathan; Band, Leah R; Casimiro, Ilda; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Sairanen, Ilkka; Mallet, Romain; Sandberg, Göran; Ljung, Karin; Beeckman, Tom; Benkova, Eva; Friml, Jiří; Kramer, Eric; King, John R; De Smet, Ive; Pridmore, Tony; Owen, Markus; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2013-10-22

    In Arabidopsis, lateral roots originate from pericycle cells deep within the primary root. New lateral root primordia (LRP) have to emerge through several overlaying tissues. Here, we report that auxin produced in new LRP is transported towards the outer tissues where it triggers cell separation by inducing both the auxin influx carrier LAX3 and cell-wall enzymes. LAX3 is expressed in just two cell files overlaying new LRP. To understand how this striking pattern of LAX3 expression is regulated, we developed a mathematical model that captures the network regulating its expression and auxin transport within realistic three-dimensional cell and tissue geometries. Our model revealed that, for the LAX3 spatial expression to be robust to natural variations in root tissue geometry, an efflux carrier is required--later identified to be PIN3. To prevent LAX3 from being transiently expressed in multiple cell files, PIN3 and LAX3 must be induced consecutively, which we later demonstrated to be the case. Our study exemplifies how mathematical models can be used to direct experiments to elucidate complex developmental processes.

  5. Intra-Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Elevated Serum CA 125: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Yang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive tumor usually involving the peritoneum. It occurs more commonly in young males and is characterized by distinctive clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features. The histogenesis of DSRCT remains unknown. Coexpression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural antigens in the same cell provides evidence that DSRCT may arise from a primitive pluripotent stem cell with divergent differentiation. Recently, according to cytogenetic studies, some authors have proposed that the divergent differentiation of DSRCT may be the result of the fusion of Ewing's sarcoma gene and Wilms' tumor suppressor gene. Clinically, an elevated serum CA 125 concentration is found in some patients with DSRCT. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with diffuse intra-abdominal DSRCT and elevated serum CA 125 concentration and briefly review the relevant literature.

  6. Characteristics of 36C103- influx into nitrate reductase deficient mutant E1 pisum sativum seedlings: evidence for restricted ''induction'' by nitrate compared with wild type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deane-Drummond, C.E.; Jacobsen, E.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrate uptake into seedlings of Pisum sativum L. cv. Rondo mutant E 1 defective for nitrate reductase (NR) and of its parent variety Rondo have been investigated using 36 C10 3 - as an analogue for nitrate. The apparent Michaelis Menten constants (K m ) for 36 ClO 3 - influx measured over 10 min were similar for mutant E 1 and the wild type (Wt). There was a 28% increase in 36 C10 3 - into Wt seedlings following nitrate pretreatment but this was not found when mutant seedlings were used. N starvation increased 36 C10 3 - influx into both mutant and Wt seedlings, and the rate of cycling E/I was also enhanced to a similar extent. The results are discussed in terms of current ideas on the regulation of nitrate uptake and assimilation. (author)

  7. Electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Go; Cho, Hideo; Ogawa, Kazuma

    2006-03-01

    The aim of present study is the investigation of the electric reaction arising in bone subjected to mechanical loadings. Firstly, specimen was fabricated from femur of cow, and ultrasonic propagation in bone was measured by ultrasonic technique. Secondary, 4-point bending test was conducted up to fracture, and electric reaction arising in bone was measured during loading. Thirdly, cyclic 4-point bending test was conducted to investigate the effect of applied displacement speed on electric reaction.

  8. EDC IMPACT: Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, A; Egeberg, D L; Almstrup, K; Petersen, J H; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2018-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca 2+ influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca 2+ -channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca 2+ influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca 2+ signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on sperm function. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the US and/or EU for their ability to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation and viability in human sperm cells. We found that, similar to progesterone, the UV filters 4-MBC, 3-BC, Meradimate, Octisalate, BCSA, HMS and OD-PABA induced acrosome reaction and 3-BC increased sperm penetration into a viscous medium. The capacity of the UV filters to induce acrosome reaction and increase sperm penetration was positively associated with the ability of the UV filters to induce a Ca 2+ influx. None of the UV filters induced significant changes in the proportion of hyperactivated cells. In conclusion, chemical UV filters that mimic the effect of progesterone on Ca 2+ signaling in human sperm cells can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm the results in vivo . © 2018 The authors.

  9. EDC IMPACT: Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rehfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+ influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca2+ influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca2+ signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on sperm function. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the US and/or EU for their ability to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation and viability in human sperm cells. We found that, similar to progesterone, the UV filters 4-MBC, 3-BC, Meradimate, Octisalate, BCSA, HMS and OD-PABA induced acrosome reaction and 3-BC increased sperm penetration into a viscous medium. The capacity of the UV filters to induce acrosome reaction and increase sperm penetration was positively associated with the ability of the UV filters to induce a Ca2+ influx. None of the UV filters induced significant changes in the proportion of hyperactivated cells. In conclusion, chemical UV filters that mimic the effect of progesterone on Ca2+ signaling in human sperm cells can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm the results in vivo.

  10. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F. [Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT{sub 2}R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT{sub 2}R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca{sup 2+}-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores and Ca{sup 2+} influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT{sub 2}R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  11. TRPA1-dependent reversible opening of tight junction by natural compounds with an α,β-unsaturated moiety and capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Youhei; Sasaki-Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Ida-Koga, Noriko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Nagumo, Yoko; Usui, Takeo

    2018-02-02

    The delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules runs into difficulties such as penetration of the cell membrane lipid bilayer. Our prior experiment demonstrated that capsaicin induces the reversible opening of tight junctions (TJs) and enhances the delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules through a paracellular route. Herein, we screened paracellular permeability enhancers other than capsaicin. As TJ opening by capsaicin is associated with Ca 2+ influx, we first screened the compounds that induce Ca 2+ influx in layered MDCK II cells, and then we determined the compounds' abilities to open TJs. Our results identified several natural compounds with α,β-unsaturated moiety. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and the results of pretreatment with reducing reagent DTT suggested the importance of α,β-unsaturated moiety. We also examined the underlying mechanisms, and our findings suggest that the actin reorganization seen in capsaicin treatment is important for the reversibility of TJ opening. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that TRPA1 is involved in the Ca 2+ influx and TJ permeability increase not only by an α,β-unsaturated compound but also by capsaicin. Our results indicate that the α,β-unsaturated moiety can be a potent pharmacophore for TJ opening.

  12. NMDA-dependent phase synchronization between septal and temporal CA3 hippocampal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Jackson, Jesse; Goutagny, Romain; Lowe, Germaine; Manseau, Frédéric; Williams, Sylvain

    2013-05-08

    Increasing evidence suggests that synchronization between brain regions is essential for information exchange and memory processes. However, it remains incompletely known which synaptic mechanisms contribute to the process of synchronization. Here, we investigated whether NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity was an important player in synchronization between septal and temporal CA3 areas of the rat hippocampus. We found that both the septal and temporal CA3 regions intrinsically generate weakly synchronized δ frequency oscillations in the complete hippocampus in vitro. Septal and temporal oscillators differed in frequency, power, and rhythmicity, but both required GABAA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptor activation, and most particularly the NR2B subunit, contributed considerably more to rhythm generation at the temporal than the septal region. Brief activation of NMDA receptors by application of extracellular calcium dramatically potentiated the septal-temporal coherence for long durations (>40 min), an effect blocked by the NMDA antagonist AP-5. This long-lasting NMDA-receptor-dependent increase in coherence was also associated with an elevated phase locking of spikes locally and across regions. Changes in coherence between oscillators were associated with increases in phase locking between oscillators independent of oscillator amplitude. Finally, although the septal CA3 rhythm preceded the oscillations in temporal regions in control conditions, this was reversed during the NMDA-dependent enhancement in coherence, suggesting that NMDA receptor activation can change the direction of information flow along the septotemporal CA3 axis. These data demonstrate that plastic changes in communication between septal and temporal hippocampal regions can arise from the NMDA-dependent phase locking of neural oscillators.

  13. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Antitumor Activity of a Ca(II Coordination Polymer Based on 1,6-Naphthalenedisulfonate and 4,4′-Bipyridyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel Ca(II coordination polymer, [CaL(4,4′-bipyridyl(H2O4]n (L = 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonate, was synthesized by reaction of calcium perchlorate with 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and 4,4′-bipyridyl in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray crystallography reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer belongs to the orthorhombic system, with space group P212121. The geometry of the Ca(II ion is a distorted CaNO6 pengonal bipyramid, arising from its coordination by four water molecules, one nitrogen atom of 4,4′-bipyridyl molecule, and two oxygen atoms from two L ligands. The complex molecules form a helical chain by self-assembly. The antitumor activity of 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt and the Ca(II coordination polymer against human hepatoma smmc-7721 cell line and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line reveals that the Ca(II coordination polymer inhibits cell growth of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line with IC50 value of 27 μg/mL, and is more resistive to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line as compared to 1,6-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt.

  14. Temperature dependence of positron annihilation parameters in Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.; Ching, W.Y.; Jean, Y.C.; Hor, P.H.; Meng, R.L.; Huang, Z.J.; Chu, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadened line-shape parameter measurements as a function of temperature, across T c , in the Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are presented. The bulk lifetime in the normal state is found to decrease with the increase in the number of CuO 2 layers. Different temperature dependencies of the annihilation parameters are observed in the various Tl systems containing different numbers of CuO 2 layers. In the Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 system, an increase in lifetime is observed below T c , whereas in Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , a decrease in lifetime is seen below T c . In the Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 system, the lifetime is observed to be temperature independent. The different temperature variations of positron annihilation parameters are discussed in the light of the positron density distribution, obtained with use of the results of the self-consistent orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals band-structure calculations. It is argued that the different temperature dependencies of the annihilation parameters is related to the positron density distribution within the unit cell and arise due to local charge transfer in the vicinity of the CuO 2 layer in the superconducting state

  15. The application package DeCA for calculating cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.I.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.; Strelkov, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The application Package DeCA (Design Cyclic Accelerator) is offered to solve a set of problem which arise on designing electron storage rings. The package is based on the block principle. This makes it extremely flexible in designing storage rings and investigating beam dynamics in them. The package is intended for a user not familiar with programming languages, it is arranged so that the user familiar with FORTRAN-77 can easily extend the package functions. This is of particular interest, when the input data are the storage ring or electron bunch parameters. The code allows operation in both the batch and interactive modes. The programming language is FORTRAN-77. The capacity of the total package is 40,000 code lines. The necessary main storage capacity for the total version is 4 Mbytes

  16. Effect of HeNe laser on calcium signals in sperm cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubart, Rachel; Friedmann, Harry; Cohen, Natalie; Brietbart, Haim

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation of mouse spermatozoa by 630 nm HeNe laser was found to enhance calcium transport in these cells. The change in Ca transport was investigated through two approaches, the first employing the fluorescent Ca indicator, Fluo-3 AM and a fluorescence microscopic system, and the second the radiolabeled Ca uptake. In both approaches the effect of light on Ca transport was abrogated in the absence of Ca during the irradiation time, indicating that the effect of light is Ca-dependent. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was inhibited by treatment with catalase, suggesting H2O2 to be involved in light stimulated Ca2+ uptake. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was abolished in the presence of a voltage-dependent Ca-channel inhibitor, nifedipine, indicating the involvement of a plasma membrane, voltage- dependent Ca-channel. In contrast, addition of nifedipine prior to the HeNe laser irradiation did not affect the light-induced rise in intracellular Ca levels, as measured with Fluo-3 loaded sperm cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that this Ca influx occurs via a voltage- insensitive Ca-channel. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was almost completely abolished by the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP. These data imply that light affects the mitochondrial Ca transport mechanisms. It is well known that Ca influx from an extracellular environment is an essential component of a signaling cascade leading to fertilization.

  17. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  18. crdi.ca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et des enfants d'Afrique. INITIATIVE CONCERTÉE. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique. Centre de recherches pour le développement international. CP Box 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Téléphone : +1 613 236 6163 • Télécopieur : +1 613 657 7749 ismea@crdi.ca | www.crdi.ca/ismea crdi.ca.

  19. Effect of GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides on sensitive yeasts cells: membrane permeability, intracellular pH and H+-influx/-efflux rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils; Prista, Catarina

    2018-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce the death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically synthesised analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H. guilliermondii, although to a lesser extent than saccharomycin. To assess the underlying causes of the pHi drop, we evaluated the membrane permeability to H+ cations of H. guilliermondii cells, after being exposed to saccharomycin or its synthetic analogues. Results showed that the H+-efflux decreased by 75.6% and the H+-influx increased by 66.5% in cells exposed to saccharomycin at pH 3.5. Since H+-efflux via H+-ATPase is energy dependent, reduced glucose consumption would decrease ATP production and consequently H+-ATPase activity. However, glucose uptake rates were not affected, suggesting that the AMPs rather than affecting glucose transporters may affect directly the plasma membrane H+-ATPase or increase ATP leakage due to cell membrane disturbance. Thus, our study revealed that both saccharomycin and its synthetic analogues induced cell death of H. guilliermondii by increasing the proton influx and inhibiting the proton efflux.

  20. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  2. The Role of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Seizure and Excitotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels are a family of polymodal cation channels with some degree of Ca2+ permeability. Although initially thought to be channels mediating store-operated Ca2+ influx, TRPC channels can be activated by stimulation of Gq-coupled G-protein coupled receptors, or by an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. Thus, activation of TRPC channels could be a common downstream event of many signaling pathways that contribute to seizure and excitotoxicity, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx, or metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Recent studies with genetic ablation of various TRPC family members have demonstrated that TRPC channels, in particular heteromeric TRPC1/4 channels and homomeric TRPC5 channels, play a critical role in both pilocarpine-induced acute seizures and neuronal cell death. However, exact underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, and selective TRPC modulators and antibodies with better specificity are urgently needed for future research.

  3. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis YfkE (ChaA): a calcium-specific Ca2+/H+ antiporter of the CaCA family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Makoto; Wada, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Ito, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    YfkE, a protein from Bacillus subtilis, exhibits homology to the Ca(2+):Cation Antiporter (CaCA) Family. In a fluorescence-based assay of everted membrane vesicles prepared from Na(+)(Ca(2+))/H(+) antiporter-defective mutant Escherichia coli KNabc, YfkE exhibited robust Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity, with a K (m) for Ca(2+) estimated at 12.5 muM at pH 8.5 and 113 muM at pH 7.5. Neither Na(+) nor K(+) served as a substrate. Mg(2+) also did not serve as a substrate, but inhibited the Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter activity. The Ca(2+) transport capability of YfkE was also observed directly by transport assays in everted membrane vesicles using radiolabeled (45)Ca(2+). Transcriptional analysis from the putative yfkED operon using beta-garactosidase activity as a reporter revealed that both of the yfkE and yfkD genes are regulated by forespore-specific sigma factor, SigG, and the general stress response regulator, SigB. These results suggest that YfkE may be needed for Ca(2+) signaling in the sporulation or germination process in B. subtilis. ChaA is proposed as the designation for YfkE of B. subtilis.

  4. Fine-scale responses of phytoplankton to freshwater influx in a tropical monsoonal estuary following the onset of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pednekar, S.M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Gomes, H.R.; Goes, J.I.; Parab, S.G.; Kerkar, V.

    of seawater which have a significant impact on circulation, salinity (Shetye et al 2007; Vijith et al 2009) as well as water column turbidity caused by the dis- turbance of bottom sediments (Devassy and Goes 1988). On account of this free mixing of coastal.... By the first week of October (PostM Influence of SW monsoon in phytoplankton–freshwater influx 549 phase), rainfall had reduced to occasional and spo- radic showers and salinity values began rising to between3and7psu. 3.3 Nitrate Nitrate variation across...

  5. In vivo quantification of the unidirectional influx constant for Gd-DTPA diffusion across the myocardial capillaries with MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Stubgaard, M; Søndergaard, Lise

    1994-01-01

    The authors present an in vivo method for measuring the unidirectional influx constant (Ki) for gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) diffusion across the capillary membrane in the human myocardium with magnetic resonance imaging. Ki is related to the extraction fraction (E......) and the perfusion (F) by the equation Ki = E.F.Ki was obtained by using the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) as a measure of the myocardial concentration of Gd-DTPA in the mathematical model for transcapillary transport across capillary membranes. Myocardial enhancement after Gd-DTPA injection was followed...

  6. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Bing, E-mail: jbshh@163.com; Yu, Dong, E-mail: yudong-mail@126.com; Jiang, Sen, E-mail: jasfly77@vip.163.com [Tongji University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (China)

    2016-04-15

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months.

  7. Comparative study of anisotropic superconductivity in CaAlSi and CaGaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Uozato, K.; Kasahara, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Tokunaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to get some insight into the origin of the anomalous angular dependence of H c2 in a layered intermetallic compound CaAlSi, electronic, superconducting, and structural properties are compared between CaAlSi and CaGaSi. The angular dependence of H c2 in CaGaSi is well described by the anisotropic GL model. Parallel to this finding, the pronounced lattice modulation accompanying the superstructure along the c-axis in CaAlSi is absent in CaGaSi. A relatively large specific heat jump at the superconducting transition in CaAlSi compared with CaGaSi indicates the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling in CaAlSi, which may cause the superstructure and the anomalous angular dependence of H c2

  8. Mass yield distributions for the reactions Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb and Ca+Ca at E/A=800 MeV in the molecular-dynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield distributions obtained on the basis of the molecular-dynamical model are presented for the Ca+Ca, Nb+Nb reactions at E/A=400 MeV and Ca+Ca reaction at E/A=800 MeV. For the fragments with masses upto quarter of the mass of initial nucleus the model predicts a power law for mass spectra with almost the same value of the exponent. Such the behaviour is roughly a result of the superposition of the fireball breakup and the disintegration of spectator regions rather than the evidence of a liquid-gas-like phase transition in hot nuclear matter

  9. Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in ... However, although the consideration of multiple objectives may seem a novel concept, virtually any nontrivial ..... Solving multiobjective programming problems by discrete optimization.

  10. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  11. Arachidonic acid is a chemoattractant for Dictyostelium discoideum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arachidonic acid is a chemoattractant for Dictyostelium discoideum cells ... Arachidonic acid; chemotaxis; fatty acids; iplA ... Previously, we have shown that arachidonic acid (AA) induces an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration by causing the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activating influx of ...

  12. Role of GluR2 expression in AMPA-induced toxicity in cultured murine cerebral cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Bisgaard; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Timmermann, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    of the Mg(2+) block of the NMDA receptor on AMPA-R stimulation. The involvement of Ca(2+) influx through AMPA-R was also examined. The number of neurons possessing Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA-R increased during culture development, concurrently with an increasing susceptibility for AMPA-induced toxicity during...

  13. EDC IMPACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders; Egeberg, Dorte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+-influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have...... to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation, and viability in human sperm cells. We found that, similar to progesterone, the UV filters 4-MBC, 3-BC, Meradimate, Octisalate, BCSA, HMS and OD-PABA induced acrosome reaction, and 3-BC increased sperm penetration into a viscous medium. The capacity...... of the UV filters to induce acrosome reaction and increase sperm penetration was positively associated with the ability of the UV filters to induce a Ca2+-influx. None of the UV filters induced significant changes in the proportion of hyperactivated cells. In conclusion, chemical UV filters that mimic...

  14. Ascorbic acid deficiency increases endotoxin influx to portal blood and liver inflammatory gene expressions in ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuki; Miura, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Murai, Atsushi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Horio, Fumihiko

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ascorbic acid (AsA) deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. The mechanisms by which AsA deficiency provokes inflammatory changes in the liver were investigated in Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats (which are unable to synthesize AsA). Male ODS rats (6-wk-old) were fed a diet containing sufficient (300 mg/kg) AsA (control group) or a diet without AsA (AsA-deficient group) for 14 or 18 d. On day 14, the hepatic mRNA levels of acute-phase proteins and inflammation-related genes were significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than the control group, and these elevations by AsA deficiency were exacerbated on day 18. The serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, which induce acute-phase proteins in the liver, were also significantly elevated on day 14 in the AsA-deficient group compared with the respective values in the control group. IL-1β mRNA levels in the liver, spleen, and lung were increased by AsA deficiency. Moreover, on both days 14 and 18, the portal blood endotoxin concentration was significantly higher in the AsA-deficient group than in the control group, and a significant correlation between serum IL-1β concentrations and portal endotoxin concentrations was found in AsA-deficient rats. In the histologic analysis of the ileum tissues, the number of goblet cells per villi was increased by AsA deficiency. These results suggest that AsA deficiency-induced endotoxin influx into portal blood from the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the inflammatory changes in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of both sodium influx and potassium efflux in ciguatoxin-induced nodal swelling of frog myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, César; Molgó, Jordi; Benoit, Evelyne

    2014-10-01

    Ciguatoxins, mainly produced by benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus species, are responsible for a complex human poisoning known as ciguatera. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that these toxins activate voltage-gated Na+ channels. In frog nodes of Ranvier, ciguatoxins induce spontaneous and repetitive action potentials (APs) and increase axonal volume that may explain alterations of nerve functioning in intoxicated humans. The present study aimed determining the ionic mechanisms involved in Pacific ciguatoxin-1B (P-CTX-1B)-induced membrane hyperexcitability and subsequent volume increase in frog nodes of Ranvier, using electrophysiology and confocal microscopy. The results reveal that P-CTX-1B action is not dependent on external Cl- ions since it was not affected by substituting Cl- by methylsulfate ions. In contrast, substitution of external Na+ by Li+ ions suppressed spontaneous APs and prevented nodal swelling. This suggests that P-CTX-1B-modified Na+ channels are not selective to Li+ ions and/or are blocked by these ions, and that Na+ influx through Na+ channels opened during spontaneous APs is required for axonal swelling. The fact that the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium modified, but did not suppress, spontaneous APs and greatly reduced nodal swelling induced by P-CTX-1B indicates that K+ efflux might also be involved. This is supported by the fact that P-CTX-1B, when tested in the presence of both tetraethylammonium and the K+ ionophore valinomycin, produced the characteristic nodal swelling. It is concluded that, during the action of P-CTX-1B, water movements responsible for axonal swelling depend on both Na+ influx and K+ efflux. These results pave the way for further studies regarding ciguatera treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Relaxation of isolated guinea-pig trachea by apigenin, a constituent of celery, via inhibition of phosphodiesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junn-Lain; Ko, Wun-Chang

    2017-09-15

    Apigenin, was reported to have vasodilatory effects by inhibiting Ca 2+ influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated calcium channels, but not by inhibiting cAMP- or cGMP-phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in rat thoracic aorta. However, apigenin was reported to inhibit PDE1, 2 and 3 in guinea-pig lung and heart. The aim of this study was to clarify that guinea-pig tracheal relaxation by apigenin whether via PDE inhibition. We isometrically recorded the tension of isolated guinea-pig tracheal segments on a polygraph. Antagonistic effects of apigenin against cumulative contractile agents or Ca 2+ induced contractions of the trachealis in normal or isotonic high-K + , Ca 2+ -free Krebs solution, respectively. Effects of apigenin (15 and 30μM) on the cumulative forskolin- and nitroprusside-induced relaxations to histamine (30μM)-induced precontraction were performed. The inhibitory effects of 30-300μM apigenin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, positive control) on the cAMP- and cGMP-PDEs were determined. Apigenin concentration-dependently but non-competitively inhibited cumulative histamine-, carbachol- or Ca 2+ -induced contractions in normal or in the depolarized (K + , 60mM) trachealis, suggesting that Ca 2+ influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels is inhibited. However, apigenin (15-30μM) parallel leftward shifted the concentration-response curves of forskolin and nitroprusside, and significantly increased the pD 2 values of these two cyclase activators. Both apigenin and IBMX, a reference drug, concentration (10-300μM)-dependently and significantly, but non-selectively inhibited the activities of cAMP- and cGMP-PDEs in the trachealis. In conclusion, the relaxant effect of apigenin may be due to inhibition of both enzyme activities and reduction of intracellular Ca 2+ by inhibiting Ca 2+ influx in the trachealis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extremely Elevated CA 125 and CA 19-9 in Endometrioma; A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugar Bayramov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is a benign condition, increased levels of the tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9 may be seen. However, these tumor markers reach to very high levels, rarely. In this report, 4 patients between 20 and 43 year-old with extremely elevated CA 125, CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 levels are discussed. In endometriosis extremely increased tumor markers are determined in the case of ruptured endometrioma cyst. There are two mechanisms to clarify extremely elevated levels of CA 125 in endometriosis. First, the peritoneal irritation of CA 125 molecule after the rupture of endometioma cyst and CA 125 secretion from the periton. And the second is penetration of the CA 125 moecule easily to the circulation through the peritoneal endothelial surface after the cyst rupture. In conclusion, the diagnosis of ruptured endometrioma cyst should be kept in mind especially in young patients with extremely elevated serum CA 125 levels with regard to the history and ultrasonographical signs and invasive procedures should be avoided.

  19. Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... entirely antagonistic to one another, one favoring the senses and the other favoring the mind.

  20. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  1. Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ channels in zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Won

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG somata from rodents have provided an excellent model system to study ion channel properties and modulation using electrophysiological investigation. As in other vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio DRG are organized segmentally and possess peripheral axons that bifurcate into each body segment. However, the electrical properties of zebrafish DRG sensory neurons, as compared with their mammalian counterparts, are relatively unexplored because a preparation suitable for electrophysiological studies has not been available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show enzymatically dissociated DRG neurons from juvenile zebrafish expressing Isl2b-promoter driven EGFP were easily identified with fluorescence microscopy and amenable to conventional whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Two kinetically distinct TTX-sensitive Na(+ currents (rapidly- and slowly-inactivating were discovered. Rapidly-inactivating I(Na were preferentially expressed in relatively large neurons, while slowly-inactivating I(Na was more prevalent in smaller DRG neurons. RT-PCR analysis suggests zscn1aa/ab, zscn8aa/ab, zscn4ab and zscn5Laa are possible candidates for these I(Na components. Voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents (I(Ca were primarily (87% comprised of a high-voltage activated component arising from ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V2.2 (N-type Ca(2+ channels. A few DRG neurons (8% displayed a miniscule low-voltage-activated component. I(Ca in zebrafish DRG neurons were modulated by neurotransmitters via either voltage-dependent or -independent G-protein signaling pathway with large cell-to-cell response variability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results indicate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish DRG neurons are heterogeneous being composed of functionally distinct subpopulations that may correlate with different sensory modalities. These findings provide the first comparison of zebrafish and rodent DRG neuron electrical properties and

  2. Clinical evaluation of CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4 and CA125 in gastric cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhang, Nengwei

    2014-12-29

    In the clinical practice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, response markers are very important. We aimed o investigate whether tumor markers CEA(carcino-embryonic antigen), CA19-9(carbohydrate antigen 19-9), CA72-4(carbohydrate antigen 72-4), and CA125(carbohydrate antigen 125) can be used to evaluate the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to evaluate the diagnosis and prognosis value of four tumor markers in the patients of gastric cancer. A retrospective review was performed of 184 gastric cancer patients who underwent a 5-Fu, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, followed by surgical treatment. Blood samples for CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, and CA125 levels were taken from patients upon admission to the hospital and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the clinical value of these tumor markers in predicting the survival and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Median overall survival times of pretreatment CA19-9-positive and CA72-4-positive patients (14.0 +/-2.8 months and 14.8 +/-4.0 months, respectively) were significantly less than negative patients (32.5 +/-8.9 months and 34.0 +/-10.1 months, respectively) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively). Pretreatment status of CA19-9 and CA72-4 were independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients (P = 0.029 and P = 0.008, respectively). Pretreatment CEA >50 ng/ml had a positive prediction value for clinical disease progression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the ROC curve (AUC: 0.694, 95% CI: 0.517 to 0.871, P = 0.017). The decrease of tumor markers CEA, CA72-4, and CA125 was significant after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.030, P = 0.010, and P = 0.009, respectively), especially in patients with disease control (including complete, partial clinical response, and stable disease) (P = 0.012, P = 0.020, and P = 0.025, respectively). A decrease in CA72-4 by more than 70% had

  3. Transient permeabilization of cell membranes by ultrasound-exposed microbubbles is related to formation of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffermans, L J M; Dijkmans, P A; Musters, R J P; Visser, C A; Kamp, O

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, we addressed the interactions among ultrasound, microbubbles, and living cells as well as consequent arising bioeffects. We specifically investigated whether hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is involved in transient permeabilization of cell membranes in vitro after ultrasound exposure at low diagnostic power, in the presence of stable oscillating microbubbles, by measuring the generation of H(2)O(2) and Ca(2+) influx. Ultrasound, in the absence or presence of SonoVue microbubbles, was applied to H9c2 cells at 1.8 MHz with a mechanical index (MI) of 0.1 or 0.5 during 10 s. This was repeated every minute, for a total of five times. The production of H(2)O(2) was measured intracellularly with CM-H(2)DCFDA. Cell membrane permeability was assessed by measuring real-time changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration with fluo-4 using live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Ultrasound, in the presence of microbubbles, caused a significant increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) at MI 0.1 of 50% and MI 0.5 of 110% compared with control (P ultrasound exposure was completely blocked at MI 0.1 (P ultrasound-exposed microbubbles.

  4. Discrete-State Stochastic Models of Calcium-Regulated Calcium Influx and Subspace Dynamics Are Not Well-Approximated by ODEs That Neglect Concentration Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Seth H.; Smith, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac myocyte calcium signaling is often modeled using deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and mass-action kinetics. However, spatially restricted “domains” associated with calcium influx are small enough (e.g., 10−17 liters) that local signaling may involve 1–100 calcium ions. Is it appropriate to model the dynamics of subspace calcium using deterministic ODEs or, alternatively, do we require stochastic descriptions that account for the fundamentally discrete nature of these local calcium signals? To address this question, we constructed a minimal Markov model of a calcium-regulated calcium channel and associated subspace. We compared the expected value of fluctuating subspace calcium concentration (a result that accounts for the small subspace volume) with the corresponding deterministic model (an approximation that assumes large system size). When subspace calcium did not regulate calcium influx, the deterministic and stochastic descriptions agreed. However, when calcium binding altered channel activity in the model, the continuous deterministic description often deviated significantly from the discrete stochastic model, unless the subspace volume is unrealistically large and/or the kinetics of the calcium binding are sufficiently fast. This principle was also demonstrated using a physiologically realistic model of calmodulin regulation of L-type calcium channels introduced by Yue and coworkers. PMID:23509597

  5. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  6. Protection of cortical cells by equine estrogens against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is mediated through a calcium independent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrella Joel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High concentrations of glutamate can accumulate in the brain and may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This form of neurotoxicity involves changes in the regulation of cellular calcium (Ca2+ and generation of free radicals such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-. Estrogen may protect against glutamate-induced cell death by reducing the excitotoxic Ca2+ influx associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. In this study, the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS along with the effect of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 and a more potent antioxidant Δ8, 17β-estradiol (Δ8, 17β-E2 on cell viability and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i, following treatment of rat cortical cells with glutamate, was investigated. Results Primary rat cortical cells were cultured for 7–12 days in Neurobasal medium containing B27 supplements. Addition of glutamate (200 μM decreased cell viability to 51.3 ± 0.7% compared to control. Treatment with the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, and the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, completely prevented cell death. Pretreatment (24 hrs with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 (0.01 to 10 μM significantly reduced cell death. 17β-E2 was more potent than Δ8, 17β-E2. Glutamate caused a rapid 2.5 fold increase in [Ca2+]i. Treatment with 0.001 to 10 μM MK-801 reduced the initial Ca2+ influx by 14–41% and increased cell viability significantly. Pretreatment with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 had no effect on Ca2+ influx but protected the cortical cells against glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion Glutamate-induced cell death in cortical cultures can occur through NMDAR and NOS-linked mechanisms by increasing nitric oxide and ONOO-. Equine estrogens: 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2, significantly protected cortical cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by a mechanism that appears to be independent of Ca2+ influx. To our knowledge, this is a first

  7. Cellular schwannoma arising from sigmoid mesocolon presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  8. Cellular Schwannoma Arising from Sigmoid Mesocolon Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are a type of peripheral nerve sheath tumors with clinically indolent behavior. Though, they can occur anywhere in body, the incidence in retroperitoneum, mediastinum, and pelvis is exceedingly rare. We present a case of a 58‑year‑old female with a massive twisted tumor arising from sigmoid mesocolon.

  9. Are there intracellular Ca2+ oscillations correlated with flagellar beating in human sperm? A three vs. two-dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkidi, G; Montoya, F; Hernández-Herrera, P; Ríos-Herrera, W A; Müller, M F; Treviño, C L; Darszon, A

    2017-09-01

    Are there intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) oscillations correlated with flagellar beating in human sperm? The results reveal statistically significant [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated with the human sperm flagellar beating frequency, when measured in three-dimensions (3D). Fast [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated to the beating flagellar frequency of cells swimming in a restricted volume have been detected in hamster sperm. To date, such findings have not been confirmed in any other mammalian sperm species. An important question that has remained regarding these observations is whether the fast [Ca2+]i oscillations are real or might they be due to remaining defocusing effects of the Z component arising from the 3D beating of the flagella. Healthy donors whose semen samples fulfill the WHO criteria between the age of 18-28 were selected. Cells from at least six different donors were utilized for analysis. Approximately the same number of experimental and control cells were analyzed. Motile cells were obtained by the swim-up technique and were loaded with Fluo-4 (Ca2+ sensitive dye) or with Calcein (Ca2+ insensitive dye). Ni2+ was used as a non-specific plasma membrane Ca2+ channel blocker. Fluorescence data and flagella position were acquired in 3D. Each cell was recorded for up to 5.6 s within a depth of 16 microns with a high speed camera (coupled to an image intensifier) acquiring at a rate of 3000 frames per second, while an oscillating objective vibrated at 90 Hz via a piezoelectric device. From these samples, eight experimental and nine control sperm cells were analyzed in both 2D and 3D. We have implemented a new system that allows [Ca2+]i measurements of the human sperm flagellum beating in 3D. These measurements reveal statistically significant [Ca2+]i oscillations that correlate with the flagellar beating frequency. These oscillations may arise from intracellular sources and/or Ca2+ transporters, as they were insensitive to external Ni2+, a non

  10. Giant magnetostructural coupling in Gd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, V F; Nieva, G; Haberkorn, N [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Saenger, N [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Jorge, G, E-mail: victor.correa@cab.cnea.gov.a [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We report high magnetic field magnetostructural studies on Gd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} single crystals. A giant linear magnetostrictive effect is observed in a wide temperature range (T < 120 K). Above 25 K a large hysteresis is seen reflecting the Mn magnetic moments ordering. At lower temperature (T < 15 K), a rather complicated field dependence arising from the competition between the Mn and Gd magnetic sublattices is observed. The relevance of the Gd ions in the low temperature behavior is further corroborated by specific heat experiments.

  11. Novel model of neuronal bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Walls, Anne B

    2012-01-01

    -methyl-d-aspartate)-induced synaptic activity and that lactate alone is not able to support neurotransmitter glutamate homoeostasis. Subsequently, a model was proposed to explain these results at the cellular level. In brief, the intermittent rises in intracellular Ca2+ during activation cause influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial...

  12. Primary chondroid chordoma arising from the petrous temporal bone: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung [Koryo General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    Chordomas are uncommon tumors which arise from remnants of the primitive notochord. They are situated chiefly in the anterior spinal axis with a predilection for the sacrococcygeal region and the basiocciput. About 50% of chordomas are sacrococcygeal, 35% are intracranial, and 15% arise from a vertebral body. As a histologic variant of chordoma, /chondroid chordoma' was first described by Heffelfinger et al. We present a rare case of primary chondroid chordoma arising from the petrous temporal bone. To our knowledge, only two other cases of this type have been reported earlier.

  13. Primary chondroid chordoma arising from the petrous temporal bone: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung

    1991-01-01

    Chordomas are uncommon tumors which arise from remnants of the primitive notochord. They are situated chiefly in the anterior spinal axis with a predilection for the sacrococcygeal region and the basiocciput. About 50% of chordomas are sacrococcygeal, 35% are intracranial, and 15% arise from a vertebral body. As a histologic variant of chordoma, /chondroid chordoma' was first described by Heffelfinger et al. We present a rare case of primary chondroid chordoma arising from the petrous temporal bone. To our knowledge, only two other cases of this type have been reported earlier

  14. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Babich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  15. Depletion of H2S during obesity enhances store-operated Ca2+ entry in adipose tissue macrophages to increase cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Gopal V; Huang, Huiya; Sun, Hongbin; Candela, Joseph; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Beaman, Kenneth D; Yamashita, Megumi; Prakriya, Murali; White, Carl

    2015-12-15

    The increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contributes to chronic, low-level inflammation during obesity. We found that obesity in mice reduced the bioavailability of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Steady-state, intracellular concentrations of H2S were lower in ATMs isolated from mice with diet-induced obesity than in ATMs from lean mice. In addition, the intracellular concentration of H2S in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was reduced during an acute inflammatory response evoked by the microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reduced intracellular concentrations of H2S led to increased Ca(2+) influx through the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway, which was prevented by the exogenous H2S donor GYY4137. Furthermore, GYY4137 inhibited the Orai3 channel, a key component of the SOCE machinery. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines by RAW264.7 cells and ATMs from obese mice was reduced by exogenous H2S or by inhibition of SOCE. Together, these data suggest that the depletion of macrophage H2S that occurs during acute (LPS-induced) or chronic (obesity) inflammation increases SOCE through disinhibition of Orai3 and promotes the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Study of 40Ca-40Ca elastic scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross sections for 40 Ca- 40 Ca elastic scattering have been calculated at laboratory incident energy of 240 MeV using a sharp cut off of the partial waves below a critical angular momentum, 1sub(c)' to account for absorption. The effective 40 Ca- 40 Ca potential is taken to be the sum of a real nuclear potential and the Coulomb potential. The calculated differential cross sections which are in fair agreement with the experimental data are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Effect of toluene diisocyanate on homeostasis of intracellular-free calcium in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.-S.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Kao, Y.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate)-induced occupational asthma are not fully established. Previous studies have indicated that TDI induces non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and induces contraction of smooth muscle tissue by activating 'capsaicin-sensitive' nerves resulting asthma. Cytosolic-free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] c ) are elevated when either capsaicin acts at vanilloid receptors, or methacholine at muscarinic receptors. This study therefore investigated the effects of TDI on Ca 2+ mobilization in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. TDI was found to elevate [Ca 2+ ] c by releasing Ca 2+ from the intracellular stores and extracellular Ca 2+ influx. 500 μM TDI induced a net [Ca 2+ ] c increase of 112 ± 8 and 78 ± 6 nM in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , respectively. In Ca 2+ -free buffer, TDI induced Ca 2+ release from internal stores to reduce their Ca 2+ content and this reduction was evidenced by a suppression occurring on the [Ca 2+ ] c rise induced by thapsigargin, ionomycin, and methacholine after TDI incubation. In the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ , simultaneous exposure to TDI and methacholine led a higher level of [Ca 2+ ] c compared to single methacholine stimulation, that might explain that TDI induces bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. We conclude that TDI is capable of interfering the [Ca 2+ ] c homeostasis including releasing Ca 2+ from internal stores and inducing extracellular Ca 2+ influx. The interaction of this novel character and bronchial hyperreactivity need further investigation

  18. Heavy sediment influx during early Holocene: Inference from clay mineral studies in a core from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, K.M.

    is attributed to heavy sediment influx du r- ing Mid Termination (MT) (12,500 ? 10,000 years BP), due to i n creased precipitation and run - off resulting from high inte n sity monsoonal regime. C LAY minerals are a powerful source for the interpret a... to address to the prov e nance of the sediments in a sediment core from the western Bengal Fan. In this paper, we report clay mi n eralogy and provide an explanation for the heavy sed i ment deposition du r ing the Holocene. A sediment core of 650...

  19. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  20. An overview of techniques for the measurement of calcium distribution, calcium fluxes, and cytosolic free calcium in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borle, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    An array of techniques can be used to study cell calcium metabolism that comprises several calcium compartments and many types of transport systems such as ion channels, ATP-dependent pumps, and antiporters. The measurement of total call calcium brings little information of value since 60 to 80% of total cell calcium is actually bound to the extracellular glycocalyx. Cell fractionation and differential centrifugation have been used to study intracellular Ca 2+ compartmentalization, but the methods suffer from the possibility of Ca 2+ loss or redistribution among cell fractions. Steady-state kinetic analyses of 45 Ca uptake or desaturation curves have been used to study the distribution of Ca 2+ among various kinetic pools in living cells and their rate of Ca 2+ exchange, but the analyses are constrained by many limitations. Nonsteady-state tracer studies can provide information about rapid changes in calcium influx or efflux in and out of the cell. Zero-time kinetics of 45 Ca uptake can detect instantaneous changes in calcium influx, while 45 Ca fractional efflux ratio, can detect rapid stimulations or inhibitions of calcium efflux out of cells. The best strategy to study cell calcium metabolism is to use several different methods that focus on a specific problem from widely different angles

  1. The CANDU-PHW generating system waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1979-03-01

    In this report, the volume of material and level of contained radioactive nuclides are tabulated for wastes arising from four fuel cycles which might be operated in CANDU-PHW (CANada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) reactors. The data presented, based on Canadian experience and/or studies, cover the range of conditioned waste volumes which could be expected from steady-state (no growth), CANDU-PHW-powered electrical generating systems. The wastes arising from operation and decommissioning of facilities in each phase of each fuel cycle are estimated. Each fuel cycle is considered to operate in isolation with the data given in terms of quantities per gigawatt-year of electricity produced. Three of the fuel cycles for which data are presented, the natural uranium once-through cycle, the plutonium-enriched uranium cycle (plutonium recycle) and the low-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle (thorium and uranium recycle), were studied by INFCE WG.7 (the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation, Working Group 7) as fuel cycles 4, 5 and 6. The high-burnup uranium-enriched thorium cycle is included for comparison. INFCE WG.7 selected many common reference parameters which are applied uniformly to all seven INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycles in determining waste arisings. Where these parameters differ from the data of Canadian origin given in the body of this report, the INFCE WG.7 data are given in an appendix. The waste management costs associated with operation of each INFCE WG.7 reference fuel cycle were calculated and compared by the working group. An arbitrary set of costing parameters and disposal technologies was selected by the working group for application to each of the reference fuel cycles. The waste management and disposal costs for the PHW reactor fuel cycles based on these arbitrary cost parameters are given in an appendix. (author)

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within a maxillary odontogenic keratocyst: A rare occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Elnaz; Tadinada, Aditya; Rengasamy, Kandasamy; Ferneini, Elie M.

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising within the lining of an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare occurrence. Although potentially locally destructive, OKC is a benign odontogenic process that typically presents with clinical and radiographic features characteristic of a benign intraosseous neoplasm. We present the clinical and radiographic features of a maxillary mass that demonstrated SCC arising from the lining of an OKC. Although the initial clinical and radiographic presentation suggested an infection or malignant neoplasm, biopsies revealed an infiltrative well-differentiated SCC contiguous with and arising from the focus of a pre-existing OKC. The patient subsequently underwent a type II hemi-maxillectomy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This report discusses the clinical and radiographic features associated with intraosseous malignancies, especially those arising from an otherwise benign odontogenic lesion. While the majority of OKCs are benign, the current report illustrates the potential for carcinomatous transformation within the lining of an OKC

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma arising within a maxillary odontogenic keratocyst: A rare occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, Elnaz [Eliray Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Consulting Services, Miami (United States); Tadinada, Aditya; Rengasamy, Kandasamy; Ferneini, Elie M. [University of Connecticut, School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising within the lining of an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a rare occurrence. Although potentially locally destructive, OKC is a benign odontogenic process that typically presents with clinical and radiographic features characteristic of a benign intraosseous neoplasm. We present the clinical and radiographic features of a maxillary mass that demonstrated SCC arising from the lining of an OKC. Although the initial clinical and radiographic presentation suggested an infection or malignant neoplasm, biopsies revealed an infiltrative well-differentiated SCC contiguous with and arising from the focus of a pre-existing OKC. The patient subsequently underwent a type II hemi-maxillectomy with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This report discusses the clinical and radiographic features associated with intraosseous malignancies, especially those arising from an otherwise benign odontogenic lesion. While the majority of OKCs are benign, the current report illustrates the potential for carcinomatous transformation within the lining of an OKC.

  4. Exploring the mechanism of action of the sperm-triggered calcium-wave pacemaker in ascidian zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Levasseur, Mark; Wood, Chris; Whitaker, Michael; Jones, Keith T; McDougall, Alex

    2003-12-15

    In ascidians, as in mammals, sperm trigger repetitive Ca2+-waves that originate from cortical pacemakers situated in the vegetal hemisphere of the zygotes. In ascidians, a vegetal protrusion termed the contraction pole (CP) acts as the Ca2+-wave pacemaker, but the mechanism that underlies the generation of a Ca2+-wave pacemaker is not known. Here, we tested four hypotheses to determine which factors at the CP are involved in setting the pace of the ascidian Ca2+-wave pacemaker: (1) localized Ca2+ influx; (2) accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]; (3) accumulation of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER); and (4) enrichment of the sperm activating factor. We developed a method of dynamically monitoring the location of the CP during fertilization using a plekstrin homology (PH) domain from phospholipase Cdelta1 coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) that binds PtdIns(4,5)P2. We found that eggs in Ca2+-free sea water displayed Ca2+ waves that originated from the CP, showing that enhanced CP Ca2+ influx does not determine the origin of the pacemaker. Also, disruption of the PH::GFP-labelled CP once it had formed did not dislodge the Ca2+-wave pacemaker from that site. Next, when we prevented the accumulation of cER at the CP, all of the Ca2+ waves came from the site of sperm-egg fusion and the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations was unaltered. These data show that local Ca2+ influx, the accumulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and cER at the CP are not required for Ca2+-wave pacemaker function and instead suggest that a factor associated with the sperm determines the site of the Ca2+-wave pacemaker. Finally, when we injected ascidian sperm extract into the centre of unfertilized ascidian eggs that had been treated with microfilament- and microtubule-disrupting drugs, all the Ca2+ waves still originated from near the plasma membrane, showing that the sperm factor does not require an intact cortex if it is enriched near the plasma membrane (PM). We

  5. F-actin-based Ca signaling-a critical comparison with the current concept of Ca signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus; Gartzke, Joachim

    2006-11-01

    A short comparative survey on the current idea of Ca signaling and the alternative concept of F-actin-based Ca signaling is given. The two hypotheses differ in one central aspect, the mechanism of Ca storage. The current theory rests on the assumption of Ca-accumulating endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles equipped with an ATP-dependent Ca pump and IP3- or ryanodine-sensitive channel-receptors for Ca-release. The alternative hypothesis proceeds from the idea of Ca storage at the high-affinity binding sites of actin filaments. Cellular sites of F-actin-based Ca storage are microvilli and the submembrane cytoskeleton. Several specific features of Ca signaling such as store-channel coupling, quantal Ca release, spiking and oscillations, biphasic and "phasic" uptake kinetics, and Ca-induced Ca release (CICR), which are not adequately described by the current concept, are inherent properties of the F-actin system and its dynamic state of treadmilling. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca2+ overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Min-Ji; Jang, Jin-Kyung; Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon; Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Choi, Eunhyun; Jeon, Woo-min; Hwang, Hye Jin; Shin, Hyun-Taek

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H 2 O 2 -induced Ca 2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca 2+ overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca 2+ signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca 2+ -mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H 2 O 2 -mediated Ca 2+ overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca 2+ overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca 2+ -related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca 2+ overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses

  7. Occupancy statistics arising from weighted particle rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The box-occupancy distributions arising from weighted rearrangements of a particle system are investigated. In the grand-canonical ensemble, they are characterized by determinantal joint probability generating functions. For doubly non-negative weight matrices, fractional occupancy statistics, generalizing Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, can be defined. A spatially extended version of these balls-in-boxes problems is investigated

  8. Changes in the expression of serum markers CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TNF-α and TSGF after cryosurgery in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Niu, Lizhi; Chiu, David; He, Lihua; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of serum tumor markers, carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor-supplied group of factors (TSGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is closely associated with invasion and metastasis of many malignancies. The expression of these markers were measured in serum taken from 37 pancreatic cancer patients prior to treatment. Levels of CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA and TNF-α expression correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph node and liver metastasis (P markers were significantly reduced compared with levels prior to cryosurgery (P 0.05). Thus, cryosurgery is more effective than chemotherapy for decreasing CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TSGF and TNF-α serum levels in these patients.

  9. Applicative Value of Serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Lei; Lan, Chao; Pei, Hui; Yang, Shuang-Ning; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xiao, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the application value of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases treated with concurrent chemotherapy. 52 patients with pancreatic cancer, 40 with benign pancreatic diseases and 40 healthy people were selected. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method was used for detecting levels of CA19-9, CEA and CA125, and a CanAg CA242 enzyme linked immunoassay kit for assessing the level of CA242. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for analyzing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) for survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. The levels of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign pancreatic diseases and healthy people (PCEA. The specificity of CA242 is the highest, followed by CA125, CEA and CA19-9. The sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125and CA242 were 90.4% and 93.8%, obviously higher than single detection of those markers in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The median survival time of 52 patients with pancreatic cancer was 10 months (95% CI7.389~12.611).. Patients with the increasing level of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125, CA242 had shorter survival times (P=0.047. 0.043, 0.0041, 0.029). COX regression analysis showed that CA19-9 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer (P=0.001, 95%CI 2.591~38.243). The detection of serum tumor markers (CA19.9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and joint detection of tumor markers helps improve the diagnostic efficiency. Moreover, CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  10. Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen utilization and ruminal influx of endogenous urea nitrogen in growing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunting, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of ruminal influx of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on intestinal protein supply and nitrogen (N) metabolism in growing animals at both excess and growth-limiting protein intake. In Experiment 1, wether lambs were given diets, either high or low in protein, containing 25% cottonseed hulls and 75% corn-soybean meal hourly in 24 equal portions. Single injections of 14 C- and 15 N-urea, and 15 N-ammonium sulfate (AS) were made into the BUN and ruminal ammonia N (RAN) pools, respectively, to measure rate of flux through, and transfer of N between these and the bacterial N pool. In Experiment 2, beef calves were given HP and LP diets containing 30% cottonseed hulls and 70% corn-soybean meal every 4 h in 6 equal portions. Single injections of 15 N-urea and 15 N-AS were made into the BUN and RAN pools, respectively, to measure rate of flux through, and transfer of N between these and the bacterial N pool. Abomasal N flow was 24% greater than intake in LP and 29% less than intake in HP. An inverse relationship may exist between level of N intake and rate of influx of BUN into the rumen. In Experiment 3 ruminal fluid samples were obtained. With HP, BUN-derived 15 N-ammonia appeared to rapidly equilibrate with RAN in the primary digesta mass. In contrast, with LP, there appeared to be an enrichment gradient for both RAN and bacterial N, declining from the rumen wall toward the center of the digesta mass, suggesting that bacteria at or near the rumen wall may preferentially utilized some BUN-derived ammonia N entering through the rumen wall

  11. Malignancy arising within cutaneous tattoos: case of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavitha K; Hanke, C William; Tierney, Emily P

    2011-08-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon tumor of the skin with high rates of local recurrence. Several reports describe a frequent history of local trauma. In one prior case, a DFSP arising in a tattoo site has been reported. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has been used successfully for treatment. To present a case of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans arising in the site of a prior and current tattoo, and treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present findings of a case of a DFSP arising in a tattoo and a review of Medline literature on the association between tattoos and cutaneous malignancy, and treatment of DFSP with MMS. Review of the literature confirms multiple reports of DFSP arising in sites of local trauma, as well as malignancies arising in sites of tattoos. The recurrence rate for MMS treatment of DFSP (0-6.6%) was found to be significantly lower than that for patients treated with wide local excision (13% to 95%). DFSP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neoplasms arising within areas of tattoos. Sites of local trauma and tattoos may show predilection for benign and malignant changes and should be evaluated during regular skin exams. Review of the literature confirms MMS is an ideal treatment modality for DFSP as the tumor often extends far beyond clinical margins.

  12. Two cases of basal cell carcinoma arising from chronic radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamori, Takeshi; Takenaka, Hideya; Ueda, Eiichiro; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo

    2003-01-01

    A 48-year-old female and a 51-year-old male with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arising from chronic radiation dermatitis are reviewed. They are treated with radiotherapy for hemangioma on their right cheek in their childhood. Review in the literature showed high incidence of the histological diagnosis of malignant skin tumors arising from chronic radiation dermatitis are follows: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), BCC, sarcoma, and Bowen's disease. (author)

  13. Magma-sponge hypothesis and stratovolcanoes: Case for a compressible reservoir and quasi-steady deep influx at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Barry; Widiwijayanti, Christina; Mattioli, Glen; Elsworth, Derek; Hidayat, Dannie; Strutt, M.

    2010-02-01

    We use well-documented time histories of episodic GPS surface deformation and efflux of compressible magma to resolve apparent magma budget anomalies at Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) on Montserrat, WI. We focus on data from 2003 to 2007, for an inflation succeeded by an episode of eruption-plus-deflation. We examine Mogi-type and vertical prolate ellipsoidal chamber geometries to accommodate both mineralogical constraints indicating a relatively shallow pre-eruption storage, and geodetic constraints inferring a deeper mean-pressure source. An exsolved phase involving several gas species greatly increases andesite magma compressibility to depths >10 km (i.e., for water content >4 wt%, crystallinity ˜40%), and this property supports the concept that much of the magma transferred into or out of the crustal reservoir could be accommodated by compression or decompression of stored reservoir magma (i.e., the “magma-sponge”). Our results suggest quasi-steady deep, mainly mafic magma influx of the order of 2 m3s-1, and we conclude that magma released in eruptive episodes is approximately balanced by cumulative deep influx during the eruptive episode and the preceding inflation. Our magma-sponge model predicts that between 2003 and 2007 there was no evident depletion of magma reservoir volume at SHV, which comprises tens of km3 with radial dimensions of order ˜1-2 km, in turn implying a long-lived eruption.

  14. Components of calcium homeostasis in Archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varecka, L.; Smigan, P.; Vancek, M.; Greksak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The cells of Archaea are interesting from several points of view. Among others there are: (a) the evolutionary relationship to procaryotes and eucaryotes and (b) the involvement of Na + and H + gradient in archaeal bio-energetics. The observations are presented which are devoted to the description of components of Ca 2+ homeostasis, an apparatus is vital for both procaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, in obligate anaerobe Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. This is, after the demonstration of the ATP-dependent Ca 2+ transport in Halobacterium halobium membrane vesicles, the first complex description of processes of Ca 2+ homeostasis in Archaea. The Ca 2+ influx and efflux was measured using radionuclide 4 5 Ca 2+ . The experiment were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The measurement of the membrane potential by means of 3 H-tetraphenyl phosphonium chloride showed that the presence of Na + depolarized the membrane from -110 to -60 mV. The growth of M. thermoautotrophicum and methanogenesis was suppressed but nor arrested by the presence EGTA suggesting that the Ca 2+ homeostasis may be involved in controlling these cellular functions. The results indicate the presence of three components involved in establishing the Ca 2+ homeostasis in cell of M. thermoautotrophicum. The first is the Ca 2+ -carrier mediating the CA 2+ influx driven by the proton motive force or the membrane potential. The Ca 2+ efflux is mediated by two transport systems, Na + /Ca 2+ and H + /Ca 2+ anti-porters. The evidence for the presence of the Ca 2+ -transporting ATPase was not obtained so far. (authors)

  15. Rates for some reactions involving 42Ca and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.; King, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-state reaction rates have been deduced from recent cross section measurements for the 42 CA(α, n) 45 Ti, 42 Ca(p, γ) 43 Sc, and 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reactions. Comparison of these rates with those calculated from a statistical model of nuclear reactions. (Woosley et al) shows good agreement for the first two, but the 44 Ca(p, n) rate is more than a factor of 2 less than the theoretical prediction. Stellar reaction rates have been derived from the ground-state rates by multiplying the ground-state rates by the ratio of stellar to ground-state rates given by the statistical model. Both ground-state and stellar rates have been represented by analytic functions of the temperature. The role of these reactions in the approach to quasi-equilibrium during explosive silicon burning is discussed

  16. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  17. The study of skeletal calcium metabolism with 41Ca and 45Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Beck, Belinda; Bierman, June M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Heaney, Robert P.; Holloway, Leah; Marcus, Robert; Southon, John R.; Vogel, John S.

    2000-10-01

    The living skeleton can be labeled for life by the administration of radiologically trivial amounts of 41Ca tracer. After initial elimination of tracer from the readily exchangeable calcium pools subsequent skeletal calcium turnover maintains and modulates the urine 41Ca content. Uniquely, bone calcium metabolism may then be studied with tracer in near equilibrium with the body's calcium and resorbing calcium directly measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of excreta. Our experiments with 25 41Ca labeled subjects demonstrate excellent diurnal stability and remarkable response to intervention of the urine signal. Thus the tracer method may prove a competitive means of measuring the effects of antiresorptive osteoporosis treatments, for therapy development or even clinical monitoring. Novel studies of long-term skeletal evolution are also possible. We realize that routinely administered short-lived calcium radiotracers contain 41Ca impurities and that thousands of experimental participants have been historically inadvertently 41Ca labeled. The 41Ca urine index might now rapidly further be characterized by contemporary measurements of these one-time subjects, and with their by now thoroughly skeleton-equilibrated tracer they might be ideal participants in other new experiments. We are also investigating 45Ca AMS. It may prove preferable to label the skeleton with this radiotracer already familiar to bioscientists, but new to AMS.

  18. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  19. The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial statistical analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Anthony P; Peake, Sandra L; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cameron, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Howe, Belinda; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeffrey; Webb, Steve

    2013-09-01

    The Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) study is an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of early goal-directed therapy compared with standard care for patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis. In keeping with current practice, and considering aspects of trial design and reporting specific to non-pharmacological interventions, our plan outlines the principles and methods for analysing and reporting the trial results. The document is prepared before completion of recruitment into the ARISE study, without knowledge of the results of the interim analysis conducted by the data safety and monitoring committee and before completion of the two related international studies. Our statistical analysis plan was designed by the ARISE chief investigators, and reviewed and approved by the ARISE steering committee. We reviewed the data collected by the research team as specified in the study protocol and detailed in the study case report form. We describe information related to baseline characteristics, characteristics of delivery of the trial interventions, details of resuscitation, other related therapies and other relevant data with appropriate comparisons between groups. We define the primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes for the study, with description of the planned statistical analyses. We have developed a statistical analysis plan with a trial profile, mock-up tables and figures. We describe a plan for presenting baseline characteristics, microbiological and antibiotic therapy, details of the interventions, processes of care and concomitant therapies and adverse events. We describe the primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes with identification of subgroups to be analysed. We have developed a statistical analysis plan for the ARISE study, available in the public domain, before the completion of recruitment into the study. This will minimise analytical bias and

  20. Structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 phases from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. D.; Li, K.; Wei, C. H.; Han, W. D.; Zhou, N. G.

    2018-06-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 are systematically investigated by using first-principles calculations method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies and cohesive energies show that CaSi2 possesses the greatest structural stability and CaSi has the strongest alloying ability. The structural stability of the three phases is compared according to electronic structures. Further analysis on electronic structures indicates that the bonding of these phases exhibits the combinations of metallic, covalent, and ionic bonds. The elastic constants are calculated, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and anisotropy factor of polycrystalline materials are deduced. Additionally, the thermodynamic properties were theoretically predicted and discussed.

  1. Electric modulation of conduction in multiferroic Ca-doped BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.-H.; Seidel, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Rossen, P. B.; Yu, P.; Gajek, M.; Chu, Y. H.; Martin, L. W.; Holcomb, M. B.; He, Q.; Maksymovych, P.; Balke, N.; Kalinin, S. V.; Baddorf, A. P.; Basu, S. R.; Scullin, M. L.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-06-01

    Many interesting materials phenomena such as the emergence of high-Tc superconductivity in the cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in the manganites arise out of a doping-driven competition between energetically similar ground states. Doped multiferroics present a tantalizing evolution of this generic concept of phase competition. Here, we present the observation of an electronic conductor-insulator transition by control of band-filling in the model antiferromagnetic ferroelectric BiFeO3 through Ca doping. Application of electric field enables us to control and manipulate this electronic transition to the extent that a p-n junction can be created, erased and inverted in this material. A `dome-like' feature in the doping dependence of the ferroelectric transition is observed around a Ca concentration of ~1/8, where a new pseudo-tetragonal phase appears and the electric modulation of conduction is optimized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed on the basis of the interplay of ionic and electronic conduction. This observation opens the door to merging magnetoelectrics and magnetoelectronics at room temperature by combining electronic conduction with electric and magnetic degrees of freedom already present in the multiferroic BiFeO3.

  2. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  3. Charge effects controlling the current hysteresis and negative differential resistance in periodical nanosize Si/CaF sub 2 structures

    CERN Document Server

    Berashevich, Y A; Kholod, A N; Borisenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic model of charge carrier transport in nanosize periodical Si/CaF sub 2 structures via localized states in dielectric is proposed. Computer simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of such structures has shown that the built-in field arises in a dielectric due to polarization of the trapped charge by localized centers. This results in current hysteresis and negative differential resistance region at the current-voltage characteristics when the bias polarity is changed. At temperature below 250 K, the portion of negative differential resistance vanishes

  4. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  5. A-site ionic-size mismatch effects in La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5-x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, R; Paulose, P L; Reddy, E S; Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-07-01

    We present the results of measurements of electrical resistivity({rho}), magnetoresistance (MR=[{rho}(H)-{rho}(0)]/{rho}())) and DC susceptibility on polycrystalline samples of the type La{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5-x}Ba{sub x}MnO{sub 3}. The substitution of larger Ba ions for Ca is seen to result in a non-monotonic variation of T{sub c} as the system evolves from a charge-ordered insulating state for x=0.0 to a ferromagnetic metallic state for x=0.5, and this is in sharp contrast to our earlier reported results for Sr doping. The x=0.2 and 0.3 compounds show a weak increase in {rho} at low temperatures (T<30K), possibly arising due to A-site ionic size mismatch between La/Ca and Ba ions. There is a significant MR for all temperatures well below T{sub c}, but not at T{sub c}. (author)

  6. Mg and Ca isotope fractionation during CaCO3 biomineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Veronica T.-C.; Williams, R.J.P.; Makishima, Akio; Belshawl, Nick S.; O'Nions, R. Keith

    2004-01-01

    The natural variation of Mg and Ca stable isotopes of carbonates has been determined in carbonate skeletons of perforate foraminifera and reef coral together with Mg/Ca ratios to assess the influence of biomineralisation processes. The results for coral aragonite suggest its formation, in terms of stable isotope behaviour, approximates to inorganic precipitation from a seawater reservoir. In contrast, results for foraminifera calcite suggest a marked biological control on Mg isotope ratios presumably related to its low Mg content compared with seawater. The bearing of these observations on the use of Mg and Ca isotopes as proxies in paleoceanography is considered

  7. Interaction with phosphoinositides confers adaptation onto the TRPV1 pain receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yao

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca(2+ influx following the channel opening caused a profound shift (approximately 14-fold of the agonist sensitivity, but did not alter the maximum attainable current. The shift was adequate to render the channel irresponsive to normally saturating concentrations, leaving the notion that the channel became no longer functional after desensitization. By simultaneous patch-clamp recording and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF imaging, it was shown that the depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 induced by Ca(2+ influx had a rapid time course synchronous to the desensitization of the current. The extent of the depletion was comparable to that by rapamycin-induced activation of a PIP2 5-phosphatase, which also caused a significant reduction of the agonist sensitivity without affecting the maximum response. These results support a prominent contribution of PIP2 depletion to the desensitization of TRPV1 and suggest the adaptation as a possible physiological function for the Ca(2+ influx through the channel.

  8. Effects of Ca on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Li, Nian Feng; Lei, Ting; Liu, Lin; Ouyang, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Zn and Ca were selected as alloying elements to develop an Mg-Zn-Ca alloy system for biomedical application due to their good biocompatibility. The effects of Ca on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties as well as the biocompatibility of the as-cast Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were studied. Results indicate that the microstructure of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys typically consists of primary α-Mg matrix and Ca₂Mg₆Zn₃/Mg₂Ca intermetallic phase mainly distributed along grain boundary. The yield strength of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy increased slightly with the increase of Ca content, whilst its tensile strength increased at first and then decreased. Corrosion tests in the simulated body fluid revealed that the addition of Ca is detrimental to corrosion resistance due to the micro-galvanic corrosion acceleration. In vitro hemolysis and cytotoxicity assessment disclose that Mg-5Zn-1.0Ca alloy has suitable biocompatibility.

  9. Alteration of alpha 1 Na+,K(+)-ATPase 86Rb+ influx by a single amino acid substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, V.L.; Ruiz-Opazo, N.

    1990-01-01

    The sodium- and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) maintains the transmembrane Na+ gradient to which is coupled all active cellular transport systems. The R and S alleles of the gene encoding the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit isoform were identified in Dahl salt-resistant (DR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, respectively. Characterization of the S allele-specific Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 complementary DNA identified a leucine substitution of glutamine at position 276. This mutation alters the hydropathy profile of a region in proximity to T3(Na), the trypsin-sensitive site that is only detected in the presence of Na+. This mutation causes a decrease in the rubidium-86 influx of S allele-specific sodium pumps, thus marking a domain in the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit important for K+ transport, and supporting the hypothesis of a putative role of these pumps in hypertension

  10. Lower Limb Injuries Arising From Motorcycle Crashes | Kortor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycle accidents are the second most common cause of road traffic accidents in both developing and developed countries. In this study we aim to look at the pattern and characteristics of lower limb injuries arising from motorcycle accidents and evaluate early outcome of treatment. Methods: All the patients ...

  11. On time-dependent diffusion coefficients arising from stochastic processes with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Barredo, Wilson I.; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent diffusion coefficients arise from anomalous diffusion encountered in many physical systems such as protein transport in cells. We compare these coefficients with those arising from analysis of stochastic processes with memory that go beyond fractional Brownian motion. Facilitated by the Hida white noise functional integral approach, diffusion propagators or probability density functions (pdf) are obtained and shown to be solutions of modified diffusion equations with time-dependent diffusion coefficients. This should be useful in the study of complex transport processes.

  12. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (Ptumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, Ptumor markers have varying diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. New limits on 2β processes in 40Ca and 46Ca by using low radioactive CaF2(Eu) crystal scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Dai, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    The development of highly radiopure CaF 2 (Eu) crystal scintillators has been performed aiming at a substantial sensitivity enhancement of the 2β decay investigation and of the search for dark matter particles with spin-dependent (SD) interaction. The results of CaF 2 (Eu) background measurements and simulation are presented. New and highly improved T 1/2 limits on the 2β decay of 46 Ca and the double electron capture of 40 Ca are obtained

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  15. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  16. Sulfate influx on band 3 protein of equine erythrocyte membrane (Equus caballus) using different experimental temperatures and buffer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, S; Piccione, D; Ielati, S; Bocchino, E G; Piccione, G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anion transport in equine erythrocytes through the measurement of the sulfate uptake operating from band 3 using different experimental temperatures and buffer solutions. Blood samples of six clinically healthy horses were collected via jugular vein puncture, and an emochrome-citometric examination was performed. The blood was divided into four aliquots and by centrifugation and aspiration the plasma and buffy coat were carefully discarded. The red blood cells were washed with an isosmotic medium and centrifuged. The obtained cell suspensions were incubated with two different experimental buffer solutions (buffer A: 115 mM Na2SO4, 10 mM NaCl, 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 30 mM glucose; and buffer B: 115 mM Na2SO4, 10 mM NaCl, 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 30 mM MgCl2) in a water bath for 1 h at 25 °C and 37 °C. Normal erythrocytes, suspended at 3% hematocrit, were used to measure the SO4= influx by absorption spectrophotometry at 425 nm wavelength. Unpaired Student's t-test showed a statistically significant decrease (P buffer solutions. Comparing the buffer A with buffer B unpaired Student's t-test showed statistically lower values (P < 0.0001) for A solution versus B solution both at 25 °C and at 37 °C. The greater inhibition of SO4 (=) influx measured in equine erythrocytes indicates the increased formation of the sulfydryl bonds in band 3 and the modulation of the sulfydryl groups, culminating in the conformational changes in band 3. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Solitary osteochondroma arising in lumbar spinous process: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Hadhri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solitary osteochondromas rarely occur in the axial skeleton. Tho