WorldWideScience

Sample records for c91 test projectile

  1. Optimal design for projectile and blast protection during pressure testing

    OpenAIRE

    Storhaug, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    The thesis identifies the main hazards in hydrostatic pressure testing as pressure wave, water jet, burst of water hose, fragment and projectile discharge as well as ejection of plug or end section. A test, where a pressurized vessel ejected a projectile, was conducted as part of the thesis. The aim of this test was to find the relationship between potential energy inside pressure vessel and kinetic energy in a discharged projectile. The results showed that the Baker formula together with...

  2. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  3. Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Test Program. Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    flight. lae 1s9tfed 1-3 I Supp4,meii EmvromeW A&.sessmr EvP I I Fuel Storage I Fueling Area 5103 Payload Assembly Bldg 5065S Launch Pad5105 Oxidizer...Shop (G- 16), and Altitude Testing (C- 2A.Test activities will require 10 additional employees ; however, no new structures or modifications/expansions...since 1984 for their association with important World War II engagements in 1944. These properties are known as the Kwajalein Island Battlefield

  4. LX-04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Steven K.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Switzer, Lori L.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  5. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  6. The WRAIR projectile concussive impact model of mild traumatic brain injury: re-design, testing and preclinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lai Yee; Larimore, Zachary; Holmes, Larry; Cartagena, Casandra; Mountney, Andrea; Deng-Bryant, Ying; Schmid, Kara; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank

    2014-08-01

    The WRAIR projectile concussive impact (PCI) model was developed for preclinical study of concussion. It represents a truly non-invasive closed-head injury caused by a blunt impact. The original design, however, has several drawbacks that limit the manipulation of injury parameters. The present study describes engineering advancements made to the PCI injury model including helmet material testing, projectile impact energy/head kinematics and impact location. Material testing indicated that among the tested materials, 'fiber-glass/carbon' had the lowest elastic modulus and yield stress for providing an relative high percentage of load transfer from the projectile impact, resulting in significant hippocampal astrocyte activation. Impact energy testing of small projectiles, ranging in shape and size, showed the steel sphere produced the highest impact energy and the most consistent impact characteristics. Additional tests confirmed the steel sphere produced linear and rotational motions on the rat's head while remaining within a range that meets the criteria for mTBI. Finally, impact location testing results showed that PCI targeted at the temporoparietal surface of the rat head produced the most prominent gait abnormalities. Using the parameters defined above, pilot studies were conducted to provide initial validation of the PCI model demonstrating quantifiable and significant increases in righting reflex recovery time, axonal damage and astrocyte activation following single and multiple concussions.

  7. LX-04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Steven K.

    2005-07-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. Electromagnetic diagnostic techniques for hypervelocity projectile detection, velocity measurement, and size characterization: Theoretical concept and first experimental test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, W. Casey; Heine, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.heine@emi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer EMI, Eckerstr. 4, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-11-14

    A new measurement technique is suggested to augment the characterization and understanding of hypervelocity projectiles before impact. The electromagnetic technique utilizes magnetic diffusion principles to detect particles, measure velocity, and indicate relative particle dimensions. It is particularly suited for detection of small particles that may be difficult to track utilizing current characterization methods, such as high-speed video or flash radiography but can be readily used for large particle detection, where particle spacing or location is not practical for other measurement systems. In this work, particles down to 2 mm in diameter have been characterized while focusing on confining the detection signal to enable multi-particle characterization with limited particle-to-particle spacing. The focus of the paper is on the theoretical concept and the analysis of its applicability based on analytical and numerical calculation. First proof-of-principle experimental tests serve to further validate the method. Some potential applications are the characterization of particles from a shaped-charge jet after its break-up and investigating debris in impact experiments to test theoretical models for the distribution of particles size, number, and velocity.

  9. Projectile Motion Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  10. Test and injury assessment methods for less-lethal kinetic energy projectiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.J. van der; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Paulissen, J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    As is the case for all armed forces, the Netherlands’ MoD requires new weapons and munitions to be qualified according to existing rules and regulations. However, to date no generally accepted qualification process for Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) exists, and suitable test and assessment protocols for

  11. Advanced Propulsion for Gun Launched Projectiles and Missiles: Phase 1 - Low Cost Flight Test Platform Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Son blueberry fields as shown in Figure 113. All FAA and Maine DOT permits were acquired. Richard Willey was the designated LSO (Launch Safety...eliminated the need to develop a new motor for this specific flight testing. Two adaptations to the flight vehicles were made that will enable subsonic...installation of a motor mount adapter for the 75mm 7600ns commercial motor casting. The motor was installed before launch and secured with 3

  12. 77 FR 28668 - Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C91a, Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C91a, Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Equipment. SUMMARY: This notice announces the FAA's cancellation of TSO-C91a, Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Equipment. The effect of... December 1, 2012, must seek authorization for TSO-C126a, 406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT), or...

  13. Teaching Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  14. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  15. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  16. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  17. Projectile Demilitarization Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Projectile Wash Out Facility is US Army Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE 1300). It is a pilot scale wash out facility that uses high pressure water and steam...

  18. Small caliber guided projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  19. Heat-Transfer Tests of 20-Millimeter Projectiles at a Mach Number of 5 with an Analysis by Unsteady Scaling Laws to Predict Component Temperature Rises after Firing for Various Free-Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpi, Robert L.; Gallagher, James G.; Jones, Robert A.

    1961-01-01

    The temperature time history of various components of a 20-millimeter projectile was obtained by transient heating tests in a Mach number 5 blowdown tunnel. An unsteady scaling law is derived and used to predict the temperature time histories after firing in flight at various Mach numbers and altitudes.

  20. Visualization of Projectile Flying at High Speed in Dusty Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kojiro

    2017-10-01

    Considering a spacecraft that encounters particle-laden environment, such as dust particles flying up over the regolith by the jet of the landing thruster, high-speed flight of a projectile in such environment was experimentally simulated by using the ballistic range. At high-speed collision of particles on the projectile surface, they may be reflected with cracking into smaller pieces. On the other hand, the projectile surface will be damaged by the collision. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of such complicated phenomena, a projectile was launched at the velocity up to 400 m/s and the collective behaviour of particles around projectile was observed by the high-speed camera. To eliminate the effect of the gas-particle interaction and to focus on only the effect of the interaction between the particles and the projectile's surface, the test chamber pressure was evacuated down to 30 Pa. The particles about 400μm diameter were scattered and formed a sheet of particles in the test chamber by using two-dimensional funnel with a narrow slit. The projectile was launched into the particle sheet in the tangential direction, and the high-speed camera captured both projectile and particle motions. From the movie, the interaction between the projectile and particle sheet was clarified.

  1. Hydrodynamic Drag on Streamlined Projectiles and Cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Jetly, Aditya

    2016-04-19

    The air cavity formation resulting from the water-entry of solid objects has been the subject of extensive research due to its application in various fields such as biology, marine vehicles, sports and oil and gas industries. Recently we demonstrated that at certain conditions following the closing of the air cavity formed by the initial impact of a superhydrophobic sphere on a free water surface a stable streamlined shape air cavity can remain attached to the sphere. The formation of superhydrophobic sphere and attached air cavity reaches a steady state during the free fall. In this thesis we further explore this novel phenomenon to quantify the drag on streamlined shape cavities. The drag on the sphere-cavity formation is then compared with the drag on solid projectile which were designed to have self-similar shape to that of the cavity. The solid projectiles of adjustable weight were produced using 3D printing technique. In a set of experiments on the free fall of projectile we determined the variation of projectiles drag coefficient as a function of the projectiles length to diameter ratio and the projectiles specific weight, covering a range of intermediate Reynolds number, Re ~ 104 – 105 which are characteristic for our streamlined cavity experiments. Parallel free fall experiment with sphere attached streamlined air cavity and projectile of the same shape and effective weight clearly demonstrated the drag reduction effect due to the stress-free boundary condition at cavity liquid interface. The streamlined cavity experiments can be used as the upper bound estimate of the drag reduction by air layers naturally sustained on superhydrophobic surfaces in contact with water. In the final part of the thesis we design an experiment to test the drag reduction capacity of robust superhydrophobic coatings deposited on the surface of various model vessels.

  2. Grenade-launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris

    2001-09-01

    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a video-bandwidth transmitter. Impact and launch g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general-purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program. Test results and development issues are presented.

  3. Concrete structures under projectile impact

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the authors present their theoretical, experimental and numerical investigations into concrete structures subjected to projectile and aircraft impacts in recent years. Innovative approaches to analyze the rigid, mass abrasive and eroding projectile penetration and perforation are proposed. Damage and failure analyses of nuclear power plant containments impacted by large commercial aircrafts are numerically and experimentally analyzed. Ultra-high performance concrete materials and structures against the projectile impact are developed and their capacities of resisting projectile impact are evaluated. This book is written for the researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of protective structures and terminal ballistics.

  4. Penetration of rod projectiles in semi-infinite targets : a validation test for Eulerian X-FEM in ALEGRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Leavy, Richard Brian [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD; Niederhaus, John Henry J.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-element shock hydrodynamics code ALEGRA has recently been upgraded to include an X-FEM implementation in 2D for simulating impact, sliding, and release between materials in the Eulerian frame. For validation testing purposes, the problem of long-rod penetration in semi-infinite targets is considered in this report, at velocities of 500 to 3000 m/s. We describe testing simulations done using ALEGRA with and without the X-FEM capability, in order to verify its adequacy by showing X-FEM recovers the good results found with the standard ALEGRA formulation. The X-FEM results for depth of penetration differ from previously measured experimental data by less than 2%, and from the standard formulation results by less than 1%. They converge monotonically under mesh refinement at first order. Sensitivities to domain size and rear boundary condition are investigated and shown to be small. Aside from some simulation stability issues, X-FEM is found to produce good results for this classical impact and penetration problem.

  5. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction The Russian 14.5-mm heavy machine gun is a threat encountered globally. The 14.5...replaced with an inert SiO2 powder filler. As part of an armor ceramic qualification testing campaign, Chesapeake Testing imaged (210) projectiles...indicated by high-value striping, or lines spanning the entire plot, meaning there is high-dissimilarity intersection with all tiles (e.g

  6. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  7. Determination of extra trajectory parameters of projectile layout motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, A.; Burkin, V.; Faraponov, V.; Korolkov, L.; Maslov, E.; Diachkovskiy, A.; Chupashev, A.; Zykova, A.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a brief description of the experimental track developed and implemented on the base of the RIAMM TSU for external trajectory investigations on determining the main aeroballistic parameters of various shapes projectiles, in the wide velocity range. There is comparison between the experimentally obtained dependence of the fin-stabilized projectile mock-up aerodynamic drag coefficient on the Mach number with the 1958 aerodynamic drag law and aerodynamic tests of the same mock-up

  8. Microspoiler Actuation for Guided Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    Fabrication at Georgia Tech Machine Shop (right). G. Special Comments None. Projectile Aft Body and Fin Set Cam Mechanism Spacer and Guide...between the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech ) and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for DARPA.  Objective 1: Perform Trade Studies to...authority trade studies will examine scalability of microspoiler performance to various calibers of fin -stabilized projectiles, including small, medium

  9. Influence of projectile breakup on complete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    illustrates the typical reaction mechanisms following the breakup of weakly bound projectiles. When whole of the projectile fuses with whole of the target, the process is known as direct complete fusion (DCF). If prior to fusion, the projectile breaks up and subsequently all the fragments fuse with the target to form a compound.

  10. An Experiment on Projectile Motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    reading is taken, the reset switch is pressed for taking the next reading. The photogates (attached to launcher and the contact sensor pad) are connected to the microcontroller through USB ports. The timer can also be used in simple pendulum and free fall experiments. In this article, only the projectile motion experiment.

  11. Projectile Motion Gets the Hose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Liyanage, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Students take a weekly quiz in our introductory physics course. During the week in which material focused on projectile motion, we not-so-subtly suggested what problem the students would see on the quiz. The quiz problem was an almost exact replica of a homework problem we worked through in the class preceding the quiz. The goal of the problem is…

  12. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  13. On projectiles, missiles and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, J.

    2002-05-01

    The trajectories of projectiles are easily calculated and the way to the trajectories of intercontinental ballistic missiles is only a little more demanding. The first can be considered as limiting cases of the second. However, at the beginning of physics the two cases were taken as completely unrelated.

  14. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics.

  15. Dispersion Analysis of the XM881APFSDS Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Erline

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the results of a dispersion test with mathematical modeling. A 10-round group of modified 25-mm XM881 Armor Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot projectiles was fired from the M242 chain gun into a designated target. The mathematical modeling results come from BALANS, a product of Arrow Tech Associates. BALANS is a finite-element lumped parameter code that has the capability to model a flexible projectile being fired from a flexible gun. It also has the unique feature of an automated statistical evaluation of dispersion. This study represents an effort to evaluate a simulation approach with experiment.

  16. Identifying flight modes of Aerial Planting Projectile using Hilbert-Huang transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, H.; Sabzehparvar, M.

    2017-11-01

    A novel method based on Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) for analyzing the non-linear and non-stationary of Aerial Planting Projectile (APP) flight data signal is presented. Also an image processing method is used for acquire attitude signals of projectile. Experimental test setup includes an electrical fan, high speed digital camera and projectile that the images of projectile falling down against of fan flow is captured. The frequency components of the projectile attitude signal along separation phase and free falling are complicated. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) can decompose the signal into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). After a Hilbert transform, the instantaneous frequency and damping ratio of each IMF is obtained to get the physical meaning of each IMF. Analysis results indicate that the flight modes of APP are identified with high accuracy.

  17. Real-time estimation of projectile roll angle using magnetometers: in-lab experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changey, S.; Pecheur, E.; Wey, P.; Sommer, E.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the roll angle of a projectile is decisive to apply guidance and control law. For example, the goal of ISL's project GSP (Guided Supersonic Projectile) is to change the flight path of an airdefence projectile in order to correct the aim error due to the target manoeuvres. The originality of the concept is based on pyrotechnical actuators and onboard sensors which control the angular motion of the projectile. First of all, the control of the actuators requires the precise control of the roll angle of the projectile. To estimate the roll angle of the projectile, two magnetometers are embedded in the projectile to measure the projection of the Earth magnetic field along radial axes of the projectiles. Then, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to compute the roll angle estimation. As the rolling frequency of the GSP is about 22 Hz, it was easy to test the navigation algorithm in laboratory. In a previous paper [1], the In-Lab demonstration of this concept showed that the roll angle estimation was possible with an accuracy of about 1◦ . In this paper, the demonstration is extended to high-speed roll rate, up to 1000 Hz. Thus, two magnetometers, a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and a LED (Light Eminent Diode), are rotated using a pneumatic motor; the DSP runs an EKF and a guidance algorithm to compute the trigger times of the LED. By using a high-speed camera, the accuracy of the method can be observed and improved.

  18. Wind-influenced projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian; Perico Esguerra, Jose; Day Vallejos, Jazmine; Jerard Canda, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    We solved the wind-influenced projectile motion problem with the same initial and final heights and obtained exact analytical expressions for the shape of the trajectory, range, maximum height, time of flight, time of ascent, and time of descent with the help of the Lambert W function. It turns out that the range and maximum horizontal displacement are not always equal. When launched at a critical angle, the projectile will return to its starting position. It turns out that a launch angle of 90° maximizes the time of flight, time of ascent, time of descent, and maximum height and that the launch angle corresponding to maximum range can be obtained by solving a transcendental equation. Finally, we expressed in a parametric equation the locus of points corresponding to maximum heights for projectiles launched from the ground with the same initial speed in all directions. We used the results to estimate how much a moderate wind can modify a golf ball’s range and suggested other possible applications.

  19. Commissioning the A1900 projectile fragment separator

    CERN Document Server

    Morrissey, D J; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Wiedenhöver, I

    2003-01-01

    An important part of the recent upgrade of the NSCL facility is the replacement of the A1200 fragment separator with a new high acceptance device called the A1900. The design of the A1900 device represents a third generation projectile fragment separator (relative to the early work at LBL) as it is situated immediately after the primary accelerator, has a very large acceptance, a bending power significantly larger than that of the cyclotron and is constructed from large superconducting magnets (quadrupoles with 20 and 40 cm diameter warm bores). The A1900 can accept over 90% of a large range of projectile fragmentation products produced at the NSCL, leading to large gains in the intensity of the secondary beams. The results of initial tests of the system with a restricted momentum acceptance (+-0.5%) indicate that the A1900 is performing up to specifications. Further large gains in the intensities of primary beams, typically two or three orders of magnitude, will be possible as the many facets of high current...

  20. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  1. Projectile Balloting Attributable to Gun Tube Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse motion of a projectile during launch is detrimental to firing accuracy, structural integrity, and/or on-board electronics performance of the projectile. One manifest contributing factor to the undesired motion is imperfect bore centerline straightness. This paper starts with the presentation of a deterministic barrel model that possesses both vertical and lateral deviations from centerline in accordance with measurement data, followed by a novel approach to simulating comprehensive barrel centerline variations for the investigation of projectile balloting^1 motions. A modern projectile was adopted for this study. In-bore projectile responses at various locations of the projectile while traveling through the simulated gun tubes were obtained. The balloting was evaluated in both time and frequency domains. Some statistical quantities and the significance were outlined.

  2. Embolism of high energy firearm projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez Soler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The embolism of a projectile is very rare and out of the normal context, so the cor-oner in front of a wound projectile firearm must make a very judicious and careful analysis to recover the projectile and/or its fragments. This case presents evidence how modern military high-velocity weapons have a high kinetic energy which is transferred to body tissues, so including their fragments and parts of the projectile can cause serious injury and embolism, requiring a great effort scientific and in-terdisciplinary to give technical support to justice.

  3. Evaluation of different projectiles in matched experimental eye impact simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Kennedy, Eric A; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-03-01

    Eye trauma results in 30,000 cases of blindness each year in the United States and is the second leading cause of monocular visual impairment. Eye injury is caused by a wide variety of projectile impacts and loading scenarios with common sources of trauma being motor vehicle crashes, military operations, and sporting impacts. For the current study, 79 experimental eye impact tests in literature were computationally modeled to analyze global and localized responses of the eye to a variety of blunt projectile impacts. Simulations were run with eight different projectiles (airsoft pellets, baseball, air gun pellets commonly known as BBs, blunt impactor, paintball, aluminum, foam, and plastic rods) to characterize effects of the projectile size, mass, geometry, material properties, and velocity on eye response. This study presents a matched comparison of experimental test results and computational model outputs including stress, energy, and pressure used to evaluate risk of eye injury. In general, the computational results agreed with the experimental results. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to establish the stress and pressure thresholds that best discriminated for globe rupture in the matched experimental tests. Globe rupture is predicted by the computational simulations when the corneoscleral stress exceeds 17.21 MPa or the vitreous pressure exceeds 1.01 MPa. Peak stresses were located at the apex of the cornea, the limbus, or the equator depending on the type of projectile impacting the eye. A multivariate correlation analysis revealed that area-normalized kinetic energy was the best single predictor of peak stress and pressure. Additional incorporation of a relative size parameter that relates the projectile area to the area of the eye reduced stress response variability and may be of importance in eye injury prediction. The modeling efforts shed light on the injury response of the eye when subjected to a variety of blunt projectile

  4. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Zhong, Mintao; Lun, Yongzhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenchang; Li, Xingyun; Ning, Anhong; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Huang, Min

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91–3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3′-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5′-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins. PMID:22754362

  5. Graphical Method for Determining Projectile Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Baker, J. C.; Franzel, L.; McMahon, D.; Songer, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a nontrigonometric graphical method for predicting the trajectory of a projectile when the angle and initial velocity are known. Students enrolled in a general education conceptual physics course typically have weak backgrounds in trigonometry, making inaccessible the standard analytical calculation of projectile range. Furthermore,…

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Bumpers as a Means of Reducing Projectile Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John O.

    1961-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of bumpers on projectile penetration indicate that for impact velocities up to 12,500 feet per second, the penetration of 0.062-inch-diameter copper projectiles in to aluminum targets can be definitely reduced by using a properly selected bumper spaced a short distance in front of the main target surface. Bumpers and main targets were made of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy, and spherical projectiles made of 0.062-inch-diameter copper were used in all tests.

  7. Perforation of aluminum plates by fragment simulating projectiles (FSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the ballistic impact test, in which fragment simulating projectiles (FSPs of a 20-mm-diameter have been used against 40-mmthick plates made of an aluminum alloy AA7020-T651. To perforate plates, the projectiles must have reached a velocity higher than 890 m/s. Based on the performed ballistic test, the plugging failure mode is numerically modeled using the LS-DYNA software package. Results obtained due to the calculations in the Finite Element Method (FEM are compared with the results from the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH. A condition of geometrical similarity between the target deformed experimentally and its numerical representation is introduced to evaluate the performed simulations.

  8. Projectile orientation measurement during flight and just before impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Diederen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The angle between the line-of-fire and the rotation axis of a projectile is called the yaw angle. For fin and spin stabilized projectiles the yaw angle changes continuously during flight. Normally the yaw of a projectile is measured by orthogonal flash imaging of the projectile. However, this method

  9. Pepper spray projectile/disperser for countering hostage and barricade situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Roy

    1997-01-01

    An improved less-than-lethal projectile for use in hostage, barricade and tactical assault situations has been developed. The projectile is launched from a standoff position and disperse the incapacitating agent oleoresin capsicum in the form of atomized droplets. A literature search followed by an experimental study were conducted of the mechanism of barrier defeat for various shaped projectiles against the targets of interest in this work: window glass, plasterboard and plywood. Some of the trade- offs between velocity, standoff, projectile shape and size, penetration, and residual energy were quantified. Analysis of the ballistic trajectory and recoil, together with calculations of he amount of pepper spray needed to incapacitate the occupants of a typical barricaded structure, indicated the suitability of using a fin stabilized projectile fired from a conventional 37 mm riot control gas gun. Two projectile designs were considered, manufactured and tested. The results of static tests to simulate target impact, together with live firing trials against a variety of targets, showed that rear ejection of the atomized spray was more reproducible and effective than nose ejection. The performance characteristics of the finalized design were investigated in trials using the standard barrier for testing barrier penetrating tear gas agents as defined by the National Institute of Justice.

  10. Penetration of fast projectiles into resistant media: From macroscopic to subatomic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaite, José

    2017-09-01

    The penetration of a fast projectile into a resistant medium is a complex process that is suitable for simple modeling, in which basic physical principles can be profitably employed. This study connects two different domains: the fast motion of macroscopic bodies in resistant media and the interaction of charged subatomic particles with matter at high energies, which furnish the two limit cases of the problem of penetrating projectiles of different sizes. These limit cases actually have overlapping applications; for example, in space physics and technology. The intermediate or mesoscopic domain finds application in atom cluster implantation technology. Here it is shown that the penetration of fast nano-projectiles is ruled by a slightly modified Newton's inertial quadratic force, namely, F ∼v 2 - β, where β vanishes as the inverse of projectile diameter. Factors essential to penetration depth are ratio of projectile to medium density and projectile shape.

  11. Design and Analysis of A Spin-Stabilized Projectile Experimental Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Noah; Rodebaugh, Gregory; Elkins, Christopher; van Poppel, Bret; Benson, Michael; Cremins, Michael; Lachance, Austin; Ortega, Raymond; Vanderyacht, Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Spinning objects experience an effect termed `The Magnus Moment' due to an uneven pressure distribution based on rotation within a crossflow. Unlike the Magnus force, which is often small for spin-stabilized projectiles, the Magnus moment can have a strong detrimental effect on aerodynamic flight stability. Simulations often fail to accurately predict the Magnus moment in the subsonic flight regime. In an effort to characterize the conditions that cause the Magnus moment, researchers in this work employed Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) techniques to measure three dimensional, three component, sub-millimeter resolution fluid velocity fields around a scaled model of a spinning projectile in flight. The team designed, built, and tested using a novel water channel apparatus that was fully MRI-compliant - water-tight and non-ferrous - and capable of spinning a projectile at a constant rotational speed. A supporting numerical simulation effort informed the design process of the scaled projectile to thicken the hydrodynamic boundary layer near the outer surface of the projectile. Preliminary testing produced two-dimensional and three-dimensional velocity data and revealed an asymmetric boundary layer around the projectile, which is indicative of the Magnus effect.

  12. Ultrahigh-speed X-ray imaging of hypervelocity projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Campbell, Larry; Bishel, Ron; Rushing, Rick; Nagarkar, Vivek V.

    2011-08-01

    High-speed X-ray imaging is an extremely important modality for healthcare, industrial, military and research applications such as medical computed tomography, non-destructive testing, imaging in-flight projectiles, characterizing exploding ordnance, and analyzing ballistic impacts. We report on the development of a modular, ultrahigh-speed, high-resolution digital X-ray imaging system with large active imaging area and microsecond time resolution, capable of acquiring at a rate of up to 150,000 frames per second. The system is based on a high-resolution, high-efficiency, and fast-decay scintillator screen optically coupled to an ultra-fast image-intensified CCD camera designed for ballistic impact studies and hypervelocity projectile imaging. A specially designed multi-anode, high-fluence X-ray source with 50 ns pulse duration provides a sequence of blur-free images of hypervelocity projectiles traveling at speeds exceeding 8 km/s (18,000 miles/h). This paper will discuss the design, performance, and high frame rate imaging capability of the system.

  13. Impact Behaviour of Soft Body Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Sayyad Abdul; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; Ginka, Ranga Janardhana

    2018-02-01

    Bird strike analysis is a common type of analysis done during the design and analysis of primary structures such as engine cowlings or fuselage panels. These simulations are done in order to predict whether various designs will pass the necessary certification tests. Composite materials are increasingly being used in aerospace industry and bird strike is a major threat which may lead to serious structural damage of those materials. Such phenomenon may arise from numerous impact scenarios. The focus of current study is on the finite element modeling for composite structures and simulation of high velocity impact loads from soft body projectiles with an explicit dynamics code AUTODYN. This paper investigates the methodology which can be utilized to certify an aircraft for bird strike resistance using computational technique by first demonstrating the accuracy of the method for bird impact on rigid target modeling and then applies the developed model to a more complex problem. The model developed for bird strike threat assessment incorporates parameters of bird number (bird density), bird body mass, equation of state (EOS) and bird path during impact.

  14. Impact Behaviour of Soft Body Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Sayyad Abdul; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; Ginka, Ranga Janardhana

    2017-04-01

    Bird strike analysis is a common type of analysis done during the design and analysis of primary structures such as engine cowlings or fuselage panels. These simulations are done in order to predict whether various designs will pass the necessary certification tests. Composite materials are increasingly being used in aerospace industry and bird strike is a major threat which may lead to serious structural damage of those materials. Such phenomenon may arise from numerous impact scenarios. The focus of current study is on the finite element modeling for composite structures and simulation of high velocity impact loads from soft body projectiles with an explicit dynamics code AUTODYN. This paper investigates the methodology which can be utilized to certify an aircraft for bird strike resistance using computational technique by first demonstrating the accuracy of the method for bird impact on rigid target modeling and then applies the developed model to a more complex problem. The model developed for bird strike threat assessment incorporates parameters of bird number (bird density), bird body mass, equation of state (EOS) and bird path during impact.

  15. The representational dynamics of remembered projectile locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Hecht, Heiko; Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2013-12-01

    When people are instructed to locate the vanishing location of a moving target, systematic errors forward in the direction of motion (M-displacement) and downward in the direction of gravity (O-displacement) are found. These phenomena came to be linked with the notion that physical invariants are embedded in the dynamic representations generated by the perceptual system. We explore the nature of these invariants that determine the representational mechanics of projectiles. By manipulating the retention intervals between the target's disappearance and the participant's responses, while measuring both M- and O-displacements, we were able to uncover a representational analogue of the trajectory of a projectile. The outcomes of three experiments revealed that the shape of this trajectory is discontinuous. Although the horizontal component of such trajectory can be accounted for by perceptual and oculomotor factors, its vertical component cannot. Taken together, the outcomes support an internalization of gravity in the visual representation of projectiles.

  16. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  17. Grenade launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Mallon, Charles E.; Vasel, Edward; Denson, Raymond; Lutjens, Steve; Wild, Norbert C.; Wondra, John

    1999-07-01

    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile flight characteristics are similar to existing 40-mm rounds, with a useful range of up to 300 m. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a transmitter that allows sensor data to be transmitted to a receiver at up to 1/4 mile range. Impact g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program, with Phase I proof-of- concept being demonstrated using a low-power CMOS camera.

  18. Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile`s initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

  19. High School Students' Understanding of Projectile Motion Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilber, Refik; Karaman, Ibrahim; Duzgun, Bahattin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change-based instruction and traditionally designed physics instruction on students' understanding of projectile motion concepts. Misconceptions related to projectile motion concepts were determined by related literature on this subject. Accordingly, the Projectile Motion…

  20. A note on stability of motion of a projectile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A projectile is stabilised using either gyroscopic or aerodynamic stability. But subcalibre projectiles with sabot have both spin and fins. Separate stability criteria are researched generally for each type of projectile. In this paper a stability criterion which can be used for all such bodies has been developed through the ...

  1. Destructive behavior of iron oxide in projectile impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wang; Xiaochen, Wang; Quan, Yang; Zhongde, Shan

    2017-12-01

    The damage strain values of Q235-A surface oxide scale were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS) and universal tensile testing machine. The finite element simulation was carried out to study the destruction effects of oxidation at different impact rates. The results show that the damage value of the oxide strain is 0.08%. With the increase of the projectile velocity, the damage area of the oxide scale is increased, and the damage area is composed of the direct destruction area and the indirect failure area. The indirect damage area is caused by the stress/strain to the surrounding expansion after the impact of the steel body.

  2. Ballistics projectile image analysis for firearm identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongguang

    2006-10-01

    This paper is based upon the observation that, when a bullet is fired, it creates characteristic markings on the cartridge case and projectile. From these markings, over 30 different features can be distinguished, which, in combination, produce a "fingerprint" for a firearm. By analyzing features within such a set of firearm fingerprints, it will be possible to identify not only the type and model of a firearm, but also each and every individual weapon just as effectively as human fingerprint identification. A new analytic system based on the fast Fourier transform for identifying projectile specimens by the line-scan imaging technique is proposed in this paper. This paper develops optical, photonic, and mechanical techniques to map the topography of the surfaces of forensic projectiles for the purpose of identification. Experiments discussed in this paper are performed on images acquired from 16 various weapons. Experimental results show that the proposed system can be used for firearm identification efficiently and precisely through digitizing and analyzing the fired projectiles specimens.

  3. Comment on "The envelope of projectile trajectories"

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I

    2003-01-01

    Several simple alternative methods to obtain the equation of the envelope of the family of projectile trajectories corresponding to the same initial speed are suggested, including methods in which the boundary of the region occupied by the parabolic trajectories is found as an envelope of a set of circles. Two possible generalizations of the discussed problem are also suggested. (letters and comments)

  4. Bulldozing Your Way Through Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Presents two models and two demonstrations targeted at student understanding of projectile motion as the sum of two independent, perpendicular vectors. Describes materials required, construction, and procedures used. Includes a discussion of teaching points appropriate to each demonstration or model. (JM)

  5. Cambodian students’ prior knowledge of projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piten, S.; Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2017-09-01

    Students always bring intuitive ideas about physics into classes, which can impact what they learn and how successful they are. To examine what Cambodian students think about projectile motion, we have developed seven open-ended questions and applied into grade 11 students before (N=124) and after (N=131) conventional classes. Results revealed several consistent misconceptions, for instance, many students believed that the direction of a velocity vector of a projectile follows the curved path at every position. They also thought the direction of an acceleration (or a force) follows the direction of motion. Observed by a pilot sitting on the plane, the falling object, dropped from a plane moving at a constant initial horizontal speed, would travel backward and land after the point of its release. The greater angle of the launched projectile creates the greater horizontal range. The hand force imparted with the ball leads the ball goes straight to hit the target. The acceleration direction points from the higher position to lower position. The misconceptions will be used as primary resources to develop instructional instruments to promote Cambodian students’ understanding of projectile motion in the following work.

  6. Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

  7. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

  8. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  9. Fatal lawn mower related projectile injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte

    2014-01-01

    the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which...

  10. In-flight dynamics of volcanic ballistic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Cruz-Vázquez, O.; Del Bello, E.; Scarlato, P.; Ricci, T.

    2017-09-01

    Centimeter to meter-sized volcanic ballistic projectiles from explosive eruptions jeopardize people and properties kilometers from the volcano, but they also provide information about the past eruptions. Traditionally, projectile trajectory is modeled using simplified ballistic theory, accounting for gravity and drag forces only and assuming simply shaped projectiles free moving through air. Recently, collisions between projectiles and interactions with plumes are starting to be considered. Besides theory, experimental studies and field mapping have so far dominated volcanic projectile research, with only limited observations. High-speed, high-definition imaging now offers a new spatial and temporal scale of observation that we use to illuminate projectile dynamics. In-flight collisions commonly affect the size, shape, trajectory, and rotation of projectiles according to both projectile nature (ductile bomb versus brittle block) and the location and timing of collisions. These, in turn, are controlled by ejection pulses occurring at the vent. In-flight tearing and fragmentation characterize large bombs, which often break on landing, both factors concurring to decrease the average grain size of the resulting deposits. Complex rotation and spinning are ubiquitous features of projectiles, and the related Magnus effect may deviate projectile trajectory by tens of degrees. A new relationship is derived, linking projectile velocity and size with the size of the resulting impact crater. Finally, apparent drag coefficient values, obtained for selected projectiles, mostly range from 1 to 7, higher than expected, reflecting complex projectile dynamics. These new perspectives will impact projectile hazard mitigation and the interpretation of projectile deposits from past eruptions, both on Earth and on other planets.

  11. Modeling and Experiments on Ballistic Impact into UHMWPE Yarns Using Flat and Saddle-Nosed Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leigh Phoenix

    2017-03-01

    -tension stress resulted in apparent yarn strengths much lower than 3.4 GPa from quasi-static tension tests, although a plot of critical velocity versus initial tension did project to 3.4 GPa at zero velocity. This strength reduction (occurring also in aramid fibers suggested that transverse fiber distortion and yarn compaction from a compressive shock wave under the projectile results in fiber-on-fiber interference in the emerging transverse wave front, causing a gradient in fiber tensile strains with depth, and strain concentration in fibers nearest the projectile face. A model was developed to illustrate the phenomenon.

  12. Initiation of Gaseous Detonation by Conical Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Jimmy

    Initiation and stabilization of detonation by hypersonic conical projectiles launched into combustible gas mixtures is investigated. This phenomenon must be understood for the design and optimization of specific hypersonic propulsion devices, such as the oblique detonation wave engine and the ram accelerator. The criteria for detonation initiation by a projectile is also related to fundamental aspects of detonation research, such as the requirement for direct initiation of a detonation by a blast wave. Experimental results of this problem also offer useful references for validation of numerical and theoretical modeling. Projectiles with cone half angles varying from 15° to 60° were launched into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen with 70% argon dilution at initial pressures between 10 and 200 kPa. The projectiles were launched from a combustion-driven gas gun at velocities up to 2.2 km/s (corresponding to 133% of the Chapman Jouguet velocity). Pictures of the flowfields generated by the projectiles were taken via Schlieren photography. Five combustion regimes were observed about the projectile ranging from prompt and delayed oblique detonation wave formation, combustion instabilities, a wave splitting, and an inert shock wave. Two types of transition from the prompt oblique detonation wave regime to the inert shock regime were observed. The first (the delayed oblique detonation wave regime) showed an inert shock attached to the tip of the projectile followed by a sharp kink at the onset of an oblique detonation wave; this regime occurred by decreasing the cone angle at high mixture pressures. The second (the combustion instabilities regime) exhibited large density gradients due to combustion ignition and quenching phenomena; this regime occurred by decreasing the mixture pressure at large cone angles. A number of theoretical models were considered to predict critical conditions for the initiation of oblique detonations. The Lee-Vasiljev model agreed

  13. Electrical parameters of projectile stun guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Wayne C; Benwell, Andrew; Kovaleski, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Projectile stun guns have been developed as less-lethal devices that law enforcement officers can use to control potentially violent subjects, as an alternative to using firearms. These devices apply high voltage, low amperage, pulsatile electric shocks to the subject, which causes involuntary skeletal muscle contraction and renders the subject unable to further resist. In field use of these devices, the electric shock is often applied to the thorax, which raises the issue of cardiac safety of these devices. An important determinant of the cardiac safety of these devices is their electrical output. Here the outputs of three commercially available projectile stun guns were evaluated with a resistive load and in a human-sized animal model (a 72 kg pig).

  14. Predicting the Accuracy of Unguided Artillery Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    would be the exact opposite if the projectile is fired into the southern hemisphere . This effect is depicted in Figure 15. Although it affects the...firing ranges. The model is able to take into account wind effects and varying levels of meteorological data staleness. The developed program is...firing table’s ballistic partials for typical firing ranges. The model is able to take into account wind effects and varying levels of meteorological data

  15. Migration spontanee de projectile intracranien: presentation clinique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les traumatismes crâniens par arme à feu sont graves. Les manifestations cliniques sont variables et peuvent présenter quelques particularités. Les auteurs rapportent un cas de migration spontané de projectile intracérébral survenue après un traumatisme crânien par arme à feu au cours d'une partie de chasse. Elle a été ...

  16. Intuitive Mechanics: Inferences of Vertical Projectile Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Damjenić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our intuitive knowledge of physics mechanics, i.e. knowledge defined through personal experience about velocity, acceleration, motion causes, etc., is often wrong. This research examined whether similar misconceptions occur systematically in the case of vertical projectiles launched upwards. The first experiment examined inferences of velocity and acceleration of the ball moving vertically upwards, while the second experiment examined whether the mass of the thrown ball and force of the throw have an impact on the inference. The results showed that more than three quarters of the participants wrongly assumed that maximum velocity and peak acceleration did not occur at the initial launch of the projectile. There was no effect of object mass or effect of the force of the throw on the inference relating to the velocity and acceleration of the ball. The results exceed the explanatory reach of the impetus theory, most commonly used to explain the naive understanding of the mechanics of object motion. This research supports that the actions on objects approach and the property transmission heuristics may more aptly explain the dissidence between perceived and actual implications in projectile motion.

  17. Target and Projectile: Material Effects on Crater Excavation and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Burleson, T.; Cintala, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relationships allow the initial conditions of an impact to be related to the excavation flow and final crater size and have proven useful in understanding the various processes that lead to the formation of a planetary-scale crater. In addition, they can be examined and tested through laboratory experiments in which the initial conditions of the impact are known and ejecta kinematics and final crater morphometry are measured directly. Current scaling relationships are based on a point-source assumption and treat the target material as a continuous medium; however, in planetary-scale impacts, this may not always be the case. Fragments buried in a megaregolith, for instance, could easily approach or exceed the dimensions of the impactor; rubble-pile asteroids could present similar, if not greater, structural complexity. Experiments allow exploration into the effects of target material properties and projectile deformation style on crater excavation and dimensions. This contribution examines two of these properties: (1) the deformation style of the projectile, ductile (aluminum) or brittle (soda-lime glass) and (2) the grain size of the target material, 0.5-1 mm vs. 1-3 mm sand.

  18. Transient Response of a Projectile in Gun Launch Simulation Using Lagrangian and Ale Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabiei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the usefulness of Lagrangian and arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian (ALE methods in simulating the gun launch dynamics of a generic artillery component subjected to launch simulation in an air gun test. Lagrangian and ALE methods are used to simulate the impact mitigation environment in which the kinetic energy of a projectile is absorbed by the crushing of aluminum honeycomb mitigator. In order to solve the problem due to high impact penetration, a new fluid structure coupling algorithm is developed and implemented in LS-DYNA, a three dimensional FEM code. The fluid structure coupling algorithm used in this paper combined with ALE formulation for the aluminum honeycomb mitigator allows to solve problems for which the contact algorithm in the Lagrangian calculation fails due to high mesh distortion. The numerical method used for the fluid and fluid structure coupling is discussed. A new coupling method is used in order to prevent mesh distortion. Issues related to the effectiveness of these methods in simulating a high degree of distortion of Aluminum honeycomb mitigator with the commonly used material models (metallic honeycomb and crushable foam are discussed. Both computational methods lead to the same prediction for the deceleration of the test projectile and are able to simulate the behavior of the projectile. Good agreement between the test results and the predicted projectile response is achieved via the presented models and the methods employed.

  19. Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile's initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

  20. Dynamic analysis of a guided projectile during engraving process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xue

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the electronic components inside a guided projectile is highly affected by the launch dynamics of guided projectile. The engraving process plays a crucial role on determining the ballistic performance and projectile stability. This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a guided projectile during the engraving process. By considering the projectile center of gravity moving during the engraving process, a dynamics model is established with the coupling of interior ballistic equations. The results detail the stress situation of a guided projectile band during its engraving process. Meanwhile, the axial dynamic response of projectile in the several milliseconds following the engraving process is also researched. To further explore how the different performance of the engraving band can affect the dynamics of guided projectile, this paper focuses on these two aspects: (a the effects caused by the different band geometry; and (b the effects caused by different band materials. The time domain and frequency domain responses show that the dynamics of the projectile are quite sensitive to the engraving band width. A material with a small modulus of elasticity is more stable than one with a high modulus of elasticity.

  1. Projectile fragmentation wall for CHICSi detector

    CERN Document Server

    Budzanowski, A; Siwek, A; Skwirczynska, I; Staszel, P

    2002-01-01

    The Forward Wall Detector (FWD) is designed to identify projectile-like fragments from heavy-ion reactions at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala, Sweden. FWD covers the polar angle from 3.9 deg. to 11.7 deg. with geometrical efficiency of 81%. The single-detection module can be either of phoswich type (10 mm fast plastic+80 mm CsI(Tl)) or DELTA E-E telescope (750 mu m Si + 80 mm CsI(Tl)). It is expected to have charge identification up to Z=18 and mass resolution for H and He isotopes.

  2. Corrected Launch Speed for a Projectile Motion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Justin M.; Boleman, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    At our university, students in introductory physics classes perform a laboratory exercise to measure the range of a projectile fired at an assigned angle. A set of photogates is used to determine the initial velocity of the projectile (the launch velocity). We noticed a systematic deviation between the experimentally measured range and the range…

  3. Trajectory Control of Small Rotating Projectiles by Laser Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Limbach, Christopher; Miles, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of controlling the trajectory of the supersonic motion of a rotating axisymmetric projectile using a remotely generated laser spark was investigated. The dynamic images of the interaction of thermal inhomogeneity created by the laser spark with the bow shock in front of the projectile were obtained. The criterion for a strong shock wave interaction with the thermal inhomogeneity at different angles of a shock wave was derived. Significant changes in the configuration of the bow shock wave and changes in the pressure distribution over the surface of the rotating projectile can appear for laser spark temperature of T' = 2500-3000 K. The experiment showed that strong interaction takes place for both plane and oblique shock waves. The measurement of the velocity of the precession of the rotating projectile axis from the initial position in time showed that the angle of attack of the projectile deviates with a typical time of perturbation propagation along the projectile's surface. Thus the laser spark can change the trajectory of the rotating projectile, moving at supersonic speed, through the creation of thermal heterogeneity in front of it.

  4. Veterinary Forensics: Firearms and Investigation of Projectile Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Siemens, N; Brower, A I

    2016-09-01

    Projectile injury represents an estimated 14% of reported animal cruelty cases in the United States. Cases involving projectiles are complicated by gross similarities to other common types of injury, including bite wounds and motor vehicle injuries, by weapons and ammunition not commonly recognized or understood by veterinary medical professionals, and by required expertise beyond that employed in routine postmortem examination. This review describes the common types of projectile injuries encountered within the United States, as well as firearms and ammunition associated with this form of injury. The 3 stages of ballistics-internal, external, and terminal-and wounding capacity are discussed. A general understanding of firearms, ammunition, and ballistics is necessary before pursuing forensic projectile cases. The forensic necropsy is described, including gunshot wound examination, projectile trajectories, different imaging procedures, collection and storage of projectile evidence, and potential advanced techniques for gunpowder analysis. This review presents aspects of projectile injury investigation that must be considered in tandem with standard postmortem practices and procedures to ensure reliable conclusions are reached for medicolegal as well as diagnostic purposes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  6. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  7. A Computer Program to Reduce Digitized Yaw-Card Data from Finned Kinetic-Energy Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Witness panels, commonly referred to as yaw cards, are used in ballistic testing to de- termine the pitch (a) and yaw (/3) of a projectile as a function...r(2)).gt..OO1))gotos return 5 xOxO+r(l) yOyO +r (2) goto 6 end 14 *This subroutine solves a system of equations. SUBROUTINE SIMUL(C ,R,N) DOUBLE

  8. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is nonexistent but necessary to protect the heart and lungs. In tests against ballistic projectiles, protective apparel is placed over ballistic clay and the projectiles are fired into the armor/clay target. The clay represents the human torso and its behind-armor, permanent deflection is the principal metric used to assess armor protection. Although this approach provides relative merit assessment of protection, it does not examine the behind-armor blunt trauma to crucial torso organs. We propose a modeling and simulation (M&S) capability for wound injury scenarios to the head, neck, and torso of the warfighter. We will use this toolset to investigate the consequences of, and mitigation against, blast exposure, blunt force impact, and ballistic projectile penetration leading to damage of critical organs comprising the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. We will leverage Sandia codes and our M&S expertise on traumatic brain injury to develop virtual anatomical models of the head, neck, and torso and the simulation methodology to capture the physics of wound mechanics. Specifically, we will investigate virtual wound injuries to the head, neck, and torso without and with protective armor to demonstrate the advantages of performing injury simulations for the development of body armor. The proposed toolset constitutes a significant advance over current methods by providing a virtual simulation capability to investigate wound injury and optimize armor design without the need for extensive field testing.

  9. Dynamics of dust-free cavities behind fast projectiles in a dusty plasma under microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliebe, D.; Arp, O.; Piel, A. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The penetration of a dusty plasma by fast charged projectiles is studied under microgravity conditions. The mass and charge of the projectiles are larger than those of the target particles. A projectile generates a dust-free cavity in its wake, whose shape strongly depends on the projectile velocity. The faster the projectile the more elongated becomes the cavity while its cross-section decreases. The opening time of the cavity is found independent of the projectile velocity. For supersonic projectiles, the dynamics of the cavity can be decomposed into an initial impulse and a subsequent elastic response that can be modeled by a damped harmonic oscillator.

  10. Penetration of a Small Caliber Projectile into Single and Multi-layered Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad A.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The normal penetration of armor-piercing projectiles into single and multi-layered steel plates has been investigated. An experimental program has been conducted to study the effect of spaced and in-contact layered targets on their ballistic resistance. Armor piercing projectiles with caliber of 7.62 mm were fired against a series of single and multi-layered steel targets. The projectile impact velocities were ranged from 300-600 m/s, whereas the total thicknesses of the tested single, spaced and in-contact layered steel targets were 3 mm. The penetration process of different tested target configurations has been simulated using Autodayn-2D hydrocode. The experimental measurements of the present work were used to discuss the effect of impact velocity, target configurations and number of layers of different spaced and in-contact layered steel targets on their ballistic resistance. In addition, the post-firing examination of the tested targets over the used impact velocity range showed that the single and each layer of spaced and in-contact laminated steel targets were failed by petalling. Finally, the obtained experimental measurements were compared with the corresponding numerical results of Autodyn-2D hydrocode, good agreement was generally obtained.

  11. Guiding supersonic projectiles using optically generated air density channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Luke A.; Sprangle, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using optically generated channels of reduced air density to provide trajectory correction (guiding) for a supersonic projectile. It is shown that the projectile experiences a force perpendicular to its direction of motion as one side of the projectile passes through a channel of reduced air density. A single channel of reduced air density can be generated by the energy deposited from filamentation of an intense laser pulse. We propose changing the laser pulse energy from shot-to-shot to build longer effective channels. Current femtosecond laser systems with multi-millijoule pulses could provide trajectory correction of several meters on 5 km trajectories for sub-kilogram projectiles traveling at Mach 3.

  12. Projectile Motion with Quadratic Damping in a Constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Projectile Motion with Quadratic Damping in a Constant Gravitational Field. Chandra Das Dhiranjan Roy. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 446-465 ...

  13. Energy-dependent expansion of .177 caliber hollow-point air gun projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Ronald; Schultz, Benno; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature. The terminal ballistic performance (energy-dependent expansion and penetration) of four different types of .177 caliber hollow-point pellets discharged at kinetic energy levels from approximately 3 J up to 30 J into water, ordnance gelatin, and ordnance gelatin covered with natural chamois as a skin simulant was the subject of this investigation. Energy-dependent expansion of the tested hollow-point pellets was observed after being shot into all investigated target media. While some hollow-point pellets require a minimum kinetic energy of approximately 10 J for sufficient expansion, there are also hollow-point pellets which expand at kinetic energy levels of less than 5 J. The ratio of expansion (RE, calculated by the cross-sectional area (A) after impact divided by the cross-sectional area (A 0) of the undeformed pellet) of hollow-point air gun pellets reached values up of to 2.2. The extent of expansion relates to the kinetic energy of the projectile with a peak for pellet expansion at the 15 to 20 J range. To conclude, this work demonstrates that the hollow-point principle, i.e., the design-related enlargement of the projectiles' frontal area upon impact into a medium, does work in air guns as claimed by the manufacturers.

  14. Numerical Prediction of Pitch Damping Stability Derivatives for Finned Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Air Force modified finner. ..............38 vii Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Dr. James DeSpirito and Dr. Paul Weinacht of...section 4.3.2. For a symmetric finned projectile without fin cants or bevels , when , and only a single coning computation at some nonzero...within the linear range is required to compute . For a finned projectile with fin cants or bevels , since , then simulations at two

  15. Effect of CFRP strengthening on the response of RC slabs to hard projectile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almusallam, Tarek; Al-Salloum, Yousef; Alsayed, Saleh; Iqbal, Rizwan; Abbas, Husain, E-mail: abbas_husain@hotmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Studied response of CFRP-strengthened RC slabs under the impact load. • Slabs were tested under the strike of hemispherical steel projectiles at varying impact. • The slabs were analyzed numerically using LS-DYNA. • Strengthening increased the ballistic limit velocity by 18% and perforation energy by 56.7%. • CFRP sheet reduced the crater damage and contained the flying concrete fragments. - Abstract: In this paper impact response of CFRP-strengthened RC panels under the impact of non-deformable projectiles has been presented. The control and CFRP-strengthened RC slab panels were tested under the strike of hemispherical nosed steel projectiles at varying impact velocities. The response of these panels was investigated experimentally as well as numerically. The damage of the slab panels was measured in terms of the penetration depth, formation of cracks, spalling and scabbing areas and fracture of CFRP sheet. This study presents a practical and efficient numerical method for analyzing the impact response of CFRP-strengthened RC structures using LS-DYNA. The CFRP strengthening was found to increase the ballistic limit velocity by 18%, perforation energy of RC slabs by 56.7%, reduce the front crater damage and contains the flying of concrete fragments from the rear face. The maximum impact force occurs at almost same penetration depth for the control and CFRP-strengthened slabs but the restraint provided by CFRP increased the penetration depth by about 1/19.3 of the thickness of slab.

  16. Mercury as the Unaccreted Projectile: Thermal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Gabriel, Travis; Jackson, Alan; Perera, Viranga

    2017-10-01

    Mercury retained substantial volatiles during its formation, in far greater proportion than the Moon, despite losing ~2/3 of its rocky mantle. Its volatile-rich geochemistry would contraindicate a giant impact because it would drive away the volatiles, as in the hypothesis for the Moon. However, the thermal consequences of Mercury formation vary considerably between the two giant impact scenarios, ‘direct hit’ (DH; Benz et al. 1989) and ‘hit and run’ (HR; Asphaug and Reufer 2014). Each begins with a differentiated chondritic proto-Mercury (PM) a bit larger than Mars. In DH, PM gets eroded by a very energetic impactor half its mass, at ~6-7 times the escape velocity. To remove half of PM’s mantle, the post-impact target gets completely shock-vaporized and is sheared apart into space. The bound remnant in DH would experience a comparable deposition of shock enthalpy, as in Moon formation, and would expand into a much larger volume of heliocentric space, leading to a dry planet. The bound remnant will go on to re-accrete much of the silicate mantle that it just lost, another challenge for DH. In HR, PM is the projectile that slams into a terrestrial planet twice its size (proto-Venus or proto-Earth). For typical impact angle and speed, a typical outcome is to ‘bounce”. But for HR to explain Mercury, PM must avoid accretion every time it encounters the target, until it is scattered or migrates away (or is accreted, in which case there is no Mercury), leading to multi-HR scenarios. Tides are intense in HR because the projectile grazes the target core; gravity does most of the work of mantle stripping. Shocks play a secondary role. Whereas in DH the impactor blasts the target inside-out, in HR the runner emerges relatively unshocked, and undispersed except for losing the gravitationally-unbound material. HR is a mechanism for collecting low-shocked remnants, because the intensely shocked material ends up bound to the target or escaping to heliocentric space

  17. Active IR System for Projectile Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIC, I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable detection and tracking of high-speed projectiles is crucial in providing modern battlefield protection or to be used as a forensic tool. Subsonic projectiles fired from silenced weapons are difficult to detect, whereas reliable tracking of the projectile trajectory is hard to accomplish. Contemporary radar based counter-battery systems showed to be valuable in detection of incoming artillery fire, but are unable to provide detection at close ranges. In this paper, an active IR system is proposed that aims to detect and track incoming projectiles at close ranges. Proposed system is able to reconstruct projectile’s trajectory in space, predict impact location and estimate direction of projectile origin. Active detector system is based on a pair of high-speed cameras in stereo-configuration synced with computer and IR illuminator that emits coded IR light bursts. Innovative IR light coding enables automated detection and tracking of a nearby projectile and elimination of false positive alarms caused by distant objects.

  18. [Eye injury from a paintball projectile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, I; Pitrová, S; Lest'ák, J; Záhlava, J

    2002-05-01

    A fourteen-year-old adolescent suffered after a direct hit with a plastic projective (paintball) a severe injury of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye manifested by intraocular haemorrhage, cyclodialysis, detachment of the retina with two giant tears and oedema and haemorrhages of the retina. After cerclage, pars plana vitrectomy and transient four-month tamponade with silicone oil the retina reattached. Late complications, cataract, broad anterior adherence with scars of the chamber angle and ciliary body, a lamellar defect of the macula and partial atrophy of the optic disc determined the subsequent development and were an indication for cataract surgery, implantation of an artificial lens into the lenticular capsule and reconstruction of the pupil. The final result was from the cosmetic and functional aspect (visual acuity 0.3) very satisfactory. Plastic projectiles (paintballs) are a new cause of severe eye injuries. At risk are in particular participants of games who do not protect their eyes with spectacles or masks. To save the function of the eye in unnecessary injuries frequently several operations are needed and close collaboration of surgeons for the anterior and posterior segment.

  19. Isospin-dependent multifragmentation of relativistic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, R.; Botvina, A. S.; Atav, U.; Buyukcizmeci, N.; Mishustin, I. N.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Bianchin, S.; Boiano, C.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; de Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-É.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J. D.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Kezzar, K.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pawłowski, P.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Trautmann, W.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwiegliński, B.

    2011-02-01

    The N/Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied with the ALADIN forward spectrometer at the GSI Schwerionen Synchrotron (SIS). Stable and radioactive Sn and La beams with an incident energy of 600 MeV per nucleon have been used in order to explore a wide range of isotopic compositions. For the interpretation of the data, calculations with the statistical multifragmentation model for a properly chosen ensemble of excited sources were performed. The parameters of the ensemble, representing the variety of excited spectator nuclei expected in a participant-spectator scenario, are determined empirically by searching for an optimum reproduction of the measured fragment-charge distributions and correlations. An overall very good agreement is obtained. The possible modification of the liquid-drop parameters of the fragment description in the hot freeze-out environment is studied, and a significant reduction of the symmetry-term coefficient is found necessary to reproduce the mean neutron-to-proton ratios /Z and the isoscaling parameters of Z⩽10 fragments. The calculations are, furthermore, used to address open questions regarding the modification of the surface-term coefficient at freeze-out, the N/Z dependence of the nuclear caloric curve, and the isotopic evolution of the spectator system between its formation during the initial cascade stage of the reaction and its subsequent breakup.

  20. N/z Dependence of Projectile Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, W.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bacri, C. O.; Barczyk, T.; Bassini, R.; Bianchin, S.; Boiano, C.; Botvina, A. S.; Boudard, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Chbihi, A.; Cibor, J.; Czech, B.; de Napoli, M.; Ducret, J.-É.; Emling, H.; Frankland, J. D.; Hellström, M.; Henzlova, D.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Johansson, H.; Kezzar, K.; Lafriakh, A.; Le Fèvre, A.; Le Gentil, E.; Leifels, Y.; Lühning, J.; Łukasik, J.; Lynch, W. G.; Lynen, U.; Majka, Z.; Mocko, M.; Müller, W. F. J.; Mykulyak, A.; Orth, H.; Otte, A. N.; Palit, R.; Pawłowski, P.; Pullia, A.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Sann, H.; Schwarz, C.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Tsang, M. B.; Verde, G.; Volant, C.; Wallace, M.; Weick, H.; Wiechula, J.; Wieloch, A.; Zwiegliński, B.

    The N/Z dependence of projectile fragmentation at relativistic energies has been studied in a recent experiment at the GSI laboratory with the ALADiN forward spectrometer coupled to the LAND neutron detector. Besides a primary beam of 124Sn, also secondary beams of 124La and 107Sn delivered by the FRS fragment separator have been used in order to extend the range of isotopic compositions of the produced spectator sources. With the achieved mass resolution of ΔA/A ≈ 1.5%, lighter isotopes with atomic numbers Z ≤ 10 are individually resolved. The presently ongoing analyses of the measured isotope yields focus on isoscaling and its relation to the properties of hot fragments at freeze-out and on the derivation of chemical freeze-out temperatures which are found to be independent of the isotopic composition of the studied systems. The latter result is at variance with the predictions for limiting temperatures as obtained with finite-temperature Hartree-Fock calculations.

  1. Severe retinal injuries from paintball projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baath, J; Ells, A L; Kherani, A; Williams, R G

    2007-08-01

    To determine the outcomes and circumstances of retinal injuries caused by blunt trauma from paintball pellet projectiles. Retrospective case series of all patients who presented with retinal injuries due to paintball-related trauma to 2 retina specialists in a clinical setting from 2004 to 2005. Patients were followed for a mean of 7.3 months, and retinal trauma was documented with retinal photographs and ocular coherence tomography as needed. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was the main outcome measure. Three eyes of 3 patients suffered severe retinal injuries after blunt trauma from a paintball pellet. Together, the 3 eyes demonstrated extensive retinal findings, including commotio retinae, choroidal rupture, and macular hole. BCVA at last follow-up ranged from 20/80 to hand motions. Our small case series indicates that retinal trauma from paintball injuries is not uncommon and results in severe long-term visual morbidity. The sale of paintball guns and pellets should be strictly prohibited for minors, and adults should be educated about the need for appropriate ocular protection and the potentially serious consequences of the use of these guns outside of commercial settings.

  2. Evaluating simulant materials for understanding cranial backspatter from a ballistic projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raj; Collins, Alistair; Verma, Anurag; Fernandez, Justin; Taylor, Michael

    2015-05-01

    In cranial wounds resulting from a gunshot, the study of backspatter patterns can provide information about the actual incidents by linking material to surrounding objects. This study investigates the physics of backspatter from a high-speed projectile impact and evaluates a range of simulant materials using impact tests. Next, we evaluate a mesh-free method called smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the splashing mechanism during backspatter. The study has shown that a projectile impact causes fragmentation at the impact site, while transferring momentum to fragmented particles. The particles travel along the path of least resistance, leading to partial material movement in the reverse direction of the projectile motion causing backspatter. Medium-density fiberboard is a better simulant for a human skull than polycarbonate, and lorica leather is a better simulant for a human skin than natural rubber. SPH is an effective numerical method for modeling the high-speed impact fracture and fragmentations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Electromagnetic dissociation of target nuclei by $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S projectiles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the inclusive cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation (ED) of $^{197}$Au targets by 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S projectiles. This is an extension of similar measurements carried out earlier at 2 GeV/nucleon. ED is a purely electromagnetic process occuring when a virtual photon is exchanged between projectile and target. The experiment emphasized precise measurement of total one-neutron-out cross sections. A secondary goal was to test the applicability of the concepts of factorization and limiting fragmentation at ultrarelativistic energies.\\\\ \\\\ Each individual target will be irradiated upstream and parasitic to experiment NA38 on the dimuon spectrometer. Cross sections for reactions of interest will be determined by off-line counting of the appropriate residual $\\gamma$ ray activities in Ames, Iowa, USA. Preliminary results indicate an ED one-neutron removal cross section for 200 GeV/nucleon $^{16}$O projectiles on $^{197}$Au of approximately 0.45~barns. The result i...

  4. The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC) at Centro de Astrobiología, Spain: Reproducibility and verification of scaling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormö, J.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G.; Melero Asensio, I.

    2012-09-01

    The Experimental Projectile Impact Chamber (EPIC) consists of a 20.5mm caliber, compressed gas gun and a 7m wide test bed. It is possible to vary the projectile size and density, the velocity up to about 5001n/"s, the impact angle. and the target composition. The EPIC is especially designed for the analysis of impacts into unconsolidated and liquid targets. i.e. allowing the use of gravity scaling. The general objective with the EPIC is to analyze the cratering and modification processes at wet-target (e.g. marinle) impacts. We have carried out 14 shots into dry sand targets with two projectile compositions (light and weak; heavy and strong), at two impact angles. at three impact velocities, and in both quarter-space and half- space geometries. We recorded the impacts with a high-speed camera and compared the results with numerical simulations using iSALE. The evaluation demonstrated that there are noticeable differences between the results from the two projectile types, but that the crater dimensions are consistent with scaling laws based on other impact experiments [1]. This proves the usefulness of the EPIC in the analysis of natural impacts.

  5. Fragmentation of Pb-Projectiles at SPS Energies

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU17 \\\\ \\\\ We have exposed stacks consisting of solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass) and different target materials at the SPS to beams of Pb projectiles. Our detectors record tracks of relativistic nuclei with charge numbers of Z~$\\geq$~6 for CR-39 and Z~$\\geq$75 for BP-1. After development of the tracks by etching they are detected and measured using completely automated microscope systems. Thus experiments with high statistics are possible. \\\\ \\\\BP-1 detectors were exposed to measure total charge changing cross sections and elemental production cross sections for heavy projectile fragments. These experiments were performed for different targets CH$ _{2} $, C, Al, Cu, Ag and Pb. Comparison of the results for different targets allows to investigate contributions to charge changing reactions by electromagnetic dissociation. Multifragmentation events in which several intermediate mass fragments are emitted from the heavy Pb projectile are studied using stacks containing CR-39 d...

  6. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    .... The "Little RASCAL" program was used to estimate the tipoff angles and angular rates for the Mk 64 5-in projectile, and the "PC-PRODAS" computer program was used to estimate the projectile yaw...

  7. Saturation Effect of Projectile Excitation in Ion-Atom Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi; Lin, Chii-Dong

    Calculations of projectile K-shell electron excitation cross sections for He-like ions during ion-atom collisions have been performed in the distortion approximation by the use of Herman-Skillman wave functions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for several targets. The excitation cross sections deviate from the first-Born approximation and show the saturation effect as a function of target atomic number. This effect can be explained as the distortion of the projectile electronic states by the target nucleus.

  8. Optimization of Construction of the rocket-assisted projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New scheme of the rocket motor of rocket-assisted projectile providing the increase in distance of flight due to controlled and optimal delay time of ignition of the solid-propellant charge of the SRM and increase in reliability of initiation of the SRM by means of the autonomous system of ignition excluding the influence of high pressure gases of the propellant charge in the gun barrel has been considered. Results of the analysis of effectiveness of using of the ignition delay device on motion characteristics of the rocket-assisted projectile has been presented.

  9. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  10. Predicting the fragmentation onset velocity for different metallic projectiles using numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, I.H.G.; Verolme, K.; Hayhurst, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    For cubes and spheres under high velocity impact there exists for each system of projectile and target, a threshold velocity that is just sufficient to shatter the projectile. This velocity, usually above 2km/s for metallic projectiles, is known as the fragmentation onset velocity. To determine the

  11. A note on stability of motion of a projectile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Nielsen. & Synge1946). The motion of a nonlinear Lock–Fowler missile under the same conditon using the Routh–Hurwitz criterion has been discussed by Rath & Namboodiri (1980). The dynamical motion of an axi-symmetric projectile in the ...

  12. Projectile Motion in the "Language" of Orbital Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We consider the orbit of projectiles launched with arbitrary speeds from the Earth's surface. This is a generalization of Newton's discussion about the transition from parabolic to circular orbits, when the launch speed approaches the value [image omitted]. We find the range for arbitrary launch speeds and angles, and calculate the eccentricity of…

  13. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: A Versatile Projectile Motion Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert B.; Korda, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and use of a projectile motion apparatus to illustrate a variety of projective motion results typically discussed in an introductory course. They include independence of horizontal (constant speed) and vertical (constant acceleration) motions, parabolic path shape, and other types of motion. (JN)

  14. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  15. Projectile General Motion in a Vacuum and a Spreadsheet Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives the solution and analysis of projectile motion in a vacuum if the launch and impact heights are not equal. Formulas for the maximum horizontal range and the corresponding angle are derived. An Excel application that simulates the motion is also presented, and the result of an experiment in which 38 secondary school students…

  16. Using Statcast to lift the discussion of projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, P. B.

    2017-04-01

    Home run data from Major League Baseball's Statcast can be described by adding a lift force to the equations of projectile motion commonly used in undergraduate computational physics courses. We discuss how the Statcast data can be implemented in the classroom.

  17. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  18. Horizontal and vertical projectile motion in a resistant medium under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Horizontal and vertical projectile motion in a resistant medium under the influence of magnetic field is carried out. Solutions to the governing equations is developed using integrating factor method. The results are in reasonable agreement with the findings of [2] and [3] JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp. 83-86 ...

  19. Horizontal and vertical projectile motion in a resistant medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of projectile motion in a resistant medium subject to varying path angles and speed was carried out. Solutions to the governing equations of motion is developed employing double integration. Analysis of the results shows that the path of the particle in a resistant medium is affected by both increase in path angle and ...

  20. On the Trajectories of Projectiles Depicted in Early Ballistic Woodcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by quaint woodcut depictions often found in many late 16th and 17th century ballistic manuals of cannonballs fired in air, a comparison of their shapes with those calculated for the classic case of a projectile moving in a linear resisting medium is made. In considering the asymmetrical nature of such trajectories, the initial launch…

  1. Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Test Program. Environment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), sage sparrows (Amphispiza belli), side blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and antelope ground squirrels...In washes or flats (3000-5000 ft); flowers June ILee’s pincushion cactus (E),E E Rocky slopes of lime -stone mountains ~QgyptVutha sned !la (4000-6000

  2. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  3. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. PMID:26874437

  4. Influence of projectile neutron number on cross section in cold fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragojevic, Irena; Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Elements 107-112 [1,2] have been discovered in reactions between {sup 208}Pb or {sup 209}Bi targets and projectiles ranging from {sup 54}Cr through {sup 70}Zn. In such reactions, the compound nucleus can be formed at excitation energies as low as {approx}12 MeV, thus this type of reaction has been referred to as 'cold fusion'. The study of cold fusion reactions is an indispensable approach to gaining a better understanding of heavy element formation and decay. A theoretical model that successfully predicts not only the magnitudes of cold fusion cross sections, but also the shapes of excitation functions and the cross section ratios between various reaction pairs was recently developed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski [3,4]. This theoretical model, also referred to as Fusion by Diffusion, has been the guide in all of our cold fusion studies. One particularly interesting aspect of this model is the large predicted difference in cross sections between projectiles differing by two neutrons. The projectile pair where this difference is predicted to be largest is {sup 48}Ti and {sup 50}Ti. To test and extend this model, {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ti,n){sup 255}Rf and {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 257}Rf excitation functions were recently measured at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) 88-Inch Cyclotron utilizing the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). The {sup 50}Ti reaction was carried out with thin lead targets ({approx}100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}), and the {sup 48}Ti reaction with both thin and thick targets ({approx}470 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}). In addition to this reaction pair, reactions with projectile pairs {sup 52}Cr and {sup 54}Cr [5], {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Fe [6], and {sup 62}Ni [7] and {sup 64}Ni [8] will be discussed and compared to the Fusion by Diffusion predictions. The model predictions show a very good agreement with the data.

  5. Wound ballistics of injuries caused by handguns with different types of projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von See, Constantin; Stuehmer, Alexander; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Blum, Katrin S; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Rücker, Martin

    2009-07-01

    There are considerable differences in the shape and composition of military and civilian projectiles. Five different projectiles with the same kinetic energy were fired into the heads of freshly sacrificed pigs (n=30) through the submental region in the occipital direction. Computed tomography (CT) and 3D face scans of the animal skulls were obtained before and after firing. The image data sets were fused and provided the basis for a quantitative analysis of destruction patterns. As a result of the destruction of the parietal bone at the potential exit site, there were significant volume difference between the Action 4 (6.45 +/- 3.42 ml) and the Hydra-Shok projectile (12.71 +/- 2.86 ml). The partial metal-jacketed projectile showed a minor increase in volume (4.89 +/- 1.47 ml) and a partial loss of soft projectile components. Radiology showed differences between the various projectiles in fragmentation and bone and soft-tissue destruction. Although the projectiles had the same kinetic energy, there were considerable differences in injury patterns between full metal-jacketed projectiles, which are the only projectiles permitted for military use under the Geneva Conventions, and the other investigated projectiles. These injuries present a major medical challenge to both first responders and surgeons.

  6. Study on miss distance based on projectile shock wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guohua; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Chenjun; Zhou, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The paper establishes miss distance models based on physical characteristic of shock-wave. The aerodynamic theory shows that the shock-wave of flying super-sonic projectile is generated for the projectile compressing and expending its ambient atmosphere. It advances getting miss distance according to interval of the first sensors, which first catches shock-wave, to solve the problem such as noise filtering on severe background, and signals of amplifier vibration dynamic disposal and electromagnetism compatibility, in order to improves the precision and reliability of gathering wave N signals. For the first time, it can identify the kinds of pills and firing units automatically, measure miss distance and azimuth when pills are firing. Application shows that the tactics and technique index is advanced all of the world.

  7. Developmental changes in children's understanding of horizontal projectile motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yi; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated 5- to 13-year-old children's performance in solving horizontal projectile motion problems, in which they predicted the trajectory of a carried object released from a carrier in three different contexts. The results revealed that 5- and 8-year-olds' trajectory predictions were easily distracted by salient contextual features (e.g. the relative spatial locations between objects), whereas a proportion of 11- and 13-year-olds' performance suggested the engagement of the impetus concept in trajectory prediction. The impetus concept is a typical misconception of inertial motion that assumes that motion is caused by force. Children's performance across ages suggested that their naïve knowledge of projectile motion was neither well-developed and coherent nor completely fragmented. Instead, this study presented the dynamic process in which children with age gradually overcame the influences of contextual features and consistently used the impetus concept across motion problems. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Two dimensional fractional projectile motion in a resisting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Juan; Guía, Manuel; Gómez, Francisco; Aguilar, Flor; Martínez, Juan

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation describing the behavior of a two dimensional projectile in a resisting medium. In order to maintain the dimensionality of the physical quantities in the system, an auxiliary parameter k was introduced in the derivative operator. This parameter has a dimension of inverse of seconds (sec)-1 and characterizes the existence of fractional time components in the given system. It will be shown that the trajectories of the projectile at different values of γ and different fixed values of velocity v 0 and angle θ, in the fractional approach, are always less than the classical one, unlike the results obtained in other studies. All the results obtained in the ordinary case may be obtained from the fractional case when γ = 1.

  9. Developmental changes of misconception and misperception of projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Kyeong

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of perceptual and cognitive commonsense physical knowledge. Children 4 to 9 years old (N = 156; 79 boys, 77 girls) participated. Each child was asked to predict the landing positions of balls that rolled down and fell off a virtual ramp and to choose the most natural-looking motion from different projectile motions depicted. The landing position of the most natural-looking projectile was compared with the predicted landing position and also compared with the actual landing position. The results showed children predicted the ball's landing position closer to the ramp than the actual position. Children also chose the depiction in which the ball fell closer to the ramp than the accurate position, although the error in the prediction task was larger than in the perception task and decreased with age. The results indicated the developmental convergence of explicit reasoning and implicit perception, which suggest a single knowledge system with representational re-description.

  10. The FRS Ion Catcher - A facility for high-precision experiments with stopped projectile and fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, W. R.; Dickel, T.; Purushothaman, S.; Dendooven, P.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Haettner, E.; Jesch, C.; Ranjan, M.; Reiter, M. P.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Schäfer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight, range-focused, slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) is used to perform direct mass measurements and to provide an isobarically clean beam for further experiments, such as mass-selected decay spectroscopy. A versatile RF quadrupole transport and diagnostics unit guides the ions from the stopping cell to the MR-TOF-MS, provides differential pumping, ion identification and includes reference ion sources. The FRS Ion Catcher serves as a test facility for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), where the cryogenic stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS will be key devices for the research with stopped projectile and fission fragments that will be performed with the experiments MATS and LaSpec. Off-line tests of the stopping cell yield a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency for 219Rn ions of about 30% and an extraction time of about 25 ms. The stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS were commissioned on-line as part of the FRS Ion Catcher. For the first time, a stopping cell for exotic nuclei was operated on-line at cryogenic temperatures. Using a gas density almost two times higher than ever reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures, various 238U projectile fragments were thermalized and extracted with very high efficiency. Direct mass measurements of projectile fragments were performed with the MR-TOF-MS, among them the nuclide 213Rn with a half-life of 19.5 ms only.

  11. Measuring the Effects of Lift and Drag on Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The trajectory of a projectile through the air is affected both by gravity and by aerodynamic forces. The latter forces can conveniently be ignored in many situations, even when they are comparatively large. For example, if a 145-g, 74-mm diameter baseball is pitched at 40 ms[superscript -1] (89.5 mph), it experiences a drag force of about 1.5 N.…

  12. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pushpendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 % has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027 in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern’s systematics.

  13. Learning Projectile Motion with the Computer Game ``Scorched 3D``

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, John S.

    2008-01-01

    For most of our students, video games are a normal part of their lives. We should take advantage of this medium to teach physics in a manner that is engrossing for our students. In particular, modern video games incorporate accurate physics in their game engines, and they allow us to visualize the physics through flashy and captivating graphics. I recently used the game "Scorched 3D" to help my students understand projectile motion.

  14. Assessment of two fast codes used for preliminary aerodynamic design of guided projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Ameer G.

    1986-07-01

    Two missile aerodynamic prediction fast codes, namely NSWCAP and Missile-DATCOM, have been applied to the geometry of the guided, gun-launched Copperhead projectile. Assessment of the two codes was made in comparison with wind tunnel and free-flight range test data. Two configurations were considered for computation: the launch configuration (body-tail) in the Mach range of 0.5 to 1.8 and the maneuvering configuration (body-wing-tail) in the Mach range of 0.3 to 0.95. Results show reasonable agreement for the drag coefficient, C sub D, and show very large disagreements for both C sub N sub alpha and C sub M sub alpha. The incapability of both codes to include body slots and fin gap effects seems to have contributed largely to these differences. The dynamic derivatives C sub l sub p and (C sub M sub q + C sub M sub alpha) are not adequately estimated by the NSWCAP code, and are not calculated in the DATCOM code. For the coefficients actually computed, the DATCOM code results were slightly more accurate than those of the NSWCAP code. Both codes lack the determination of the explicit effects of control surface deflection angles on the aerodynamic coefficients. Development is needed for the determination if both codes are to be used for predictions for guided projectiles. Several areas of improvements in both codes are identified.

  15. Shape Effect Analysis of Aluminum Projectile Impact on Whipple Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Maria J.; Miller, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    respect to their mass, size, and material composition needs to be summarized in a form that can be used in MMOD analysis. The mechanism that brings these fragment traits into MMOD analysis is through ballistic limit equations (BLE) that have been developed largely for a few types of materials1. As a BLE provides the failure threshold for a shield or spacecraft component based on parameters such as the projectile impact velocity and size, and the target's materials, thickness, and configuration, it is used to design protective shields for spacecraft such as Whipple shields (WS) to an acceptable risk level. The majority of experiments and simulations to test shields and validate BLEs have, heretofore, largely used spheres as the impactor, not properly reflecting the irregular shapes of MMOD. This shortfall has motivated a numerical impact analysis study of HVI involving non-spherical geometries to identify key parameters that environment models should provide.

  16. Satellite Splat: An Inelastic Collision with a Surface-launched Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-23

    conservation of mechanical energy and angular momentum for orbital motion . Consider the following problem: a projectile of mass m is launched...Satellite splat: an inelastic collision with a surface-launched projectile Philip R Blanco1 and Carl E Mungan2 1Department of Physics and Astronomy...revised 13 March 2015 Accepted for publication 1 April 2015 Published 23 April 2015 Abstract A projectile is launched vertically from the surface of an

  17. Study of high-speed interaction processes between fluoropolymer projectiles and aluminum-based targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Khmelnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results and numerical modeling of penetration process of fluoropolymer projectiles in aluminum-based targets are presented. Analysis of mathematical models for interaction of elastoplastic projectile and target without taking additional energy released during interaction of fluoropolymer and aluminum into consideration is carried out. Energy fraction which is spent effectively on the increase in cavity volume is determined. The experimental and calculated results of penetration by combined and inert projectiles are compared.

  18. The FRS Ion Catcher – A facility for high-precision experiments with stopped projectile and fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaß, W.R., E-mail: Wolfgang.R.Plass@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dickel, T. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Purushothaman, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dendooven, P. [KVI, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Geissel, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Ebert, J. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Haettner, E. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jesch, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen, 35392 Gießen (Germany); Ranjan, M. [KVI, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An overview of the FRS Ion Catcher experiment at GSI is given. • The FRS Ion Catcher consists of the FRS, a cryogenic stopping cell, an RF quadrupole-based beam transport and diagnostics unit and a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. • Off-line tests of the stopping cell with {sup 219}Rn ions. • First on-line operation of a stopping cell for exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures. • First mass measurements of heavy projectile fragments using a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. -- Abstract: At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight, range-focused, slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) is used to perform direct mass measurements and to provide an isobarically clean beam for further experiments, such as mass-selected decay spectroscopy. A versatile RF quadrupole transport and diagnostics unit guides the ions from the stopping cell to the MR-TOF-MS, provides differential pumping, ion identification and includes reference ion sources. The FRS Ion Catcher serves as a test facility for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), where the cryogenic stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS will be key devices for the research with stopped projectile and fission fragments that will be performed with the experiments MATS and LaSpec. Off-line tests of the stopping cell yield a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency for {sup 219}Rn ions of about 30% and an extraction time of about 25 ms. The stopping cell and the MR-TOF-MS were commissioned on-line as part of the FRS Ion Catcher. For the first time, a stopping cell for exotic nuclei was operated on-line at cryogenic temperatures. Using a gas density almost two times higher than ever reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures

  19. Hidrodinamički model podvodnog projektila / Hidrodinamical model of an underwater projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radosavljević

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Radi dobijanja kvalitetnog matematičkog modela podvodnog projektila u radu su definisane ulazne i izlazne veličine, brzine i ubrzanje projektila. Uz zadate uslove mogućeg kretanja projektila definisan je model podvodnog projektila sa šest jednačina. / The paper analyzes an underwater projectile. The input and output values, the projectile speed and acceleration are defined for a quality definition of the projectile mathematical model. With the conditions of the projectile potential movement previously set out, the torpedo model is defined by six equations.

  20. Prediction of Projectile Performance, Stability, and Free-Flight Motion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinacht, Paul

    2003-01-01

    ... that are derived solely from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As a demonstration of the capability, this report presents results for a family of axisymmetric projectiles in supersonic flight...

  1. Comment on ‘Wind-influenced projectile motion’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther Andersen, Poul

    2015-11-01

    We comment on the article ‘Wind-influenced projectile motion’ by Bernardo et al (2015 Eur. J. Phys. 36 025016) where they examine the trajectory of a particle that is subjected to gravity and a linear air resistance plus the influence from the wind. They find by using the Lambert W function that the particle's trajectory for a special angle, the critical angle {θ }{{C}}, between the initial velocity and the horizontal is part of a straight line. In this comment we will show that this result can be proved without using the Lambert W function which is not that well known to beginning students of physics.

  2. Stagnation pressure activated fuel release mechanism for hypersonic projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartland, Harry E.; Hunter, John W.

    2003-01-01

    A propulsion-assisted projectile has a body, a cowl forming a combustion section and a nozzle section. The body has a fuel reservoir within a central portion of the body, and a fuel activation system located along the central axis of the body and having a portion of the fuel activation system within the fuel reservoir. The fuel activation system has a fuel release piston with a forward sealing member where the fuel release piston is adapted to be moved when the forward sealing member is impacted with an air flow, and an air-flow channel adapted to conduct ambient air during flight to the fuel release piston.

  3. An Investigation of Oblique Perforation of Metallic Plates by Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    34LISTICS, TERMINAL DYNAMIC PLASTICITY PERFORATION PENETRATION IMPACT (OBLIQUE) N OR *0. AOSTRACT (47"fifte an orev ie It moina.. y and Idon#ItV by’ bloc...follow that to good approximation (be/h’) - (b/h) and the second stage would comence when x - (h-b)/cosa. For the second stage of the perforation proceso ...rather than along the projectile path and has a rotational velocity, but this can be shown to have a small influence on the terminal velocity of the

  4. Anthropological analysis of projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Caitlin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistics literature often focuses on soft tissue injures and projectile trauma to the cranium. Minimal details on the bony characteristics of projectile trauma to the thorax/abdomen regions have been published. This study aims to analyse projectile trauma to the bony trunk region including the ribs, vertebrae, scapula, sternum and the hip bone to form a better understanding of the characteristics and biomechanics of skeletal trauma caused by a projectile and contribute to the existing database on skeletal trauma caused by projectiles. Fourteen cases of documented projectile trauma to the bony regions of the trunk from the Hamman-Todd Human Osteological Collection at the Cleveland Natural History Museum, Ohio were analysed. Of the 14 individuals with gunshot wounds examined, 40 wounds occurred to the bones. Twenty- four injuries to the ribs, 1 ilium, 11 vertebrae, 3 scapulae, and 1 sternum. Fracture patterns, heaving and bevelling can be used to determine the direction of travel of the projectile which can be evident on the ribs, sternum, scapula and ilium. It is critical to understand the wounding patterns associated with projectile trauma to the torso region as this is often targeted, due to being the centre of mass.

  5. Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…

  6. An Analytic Approach to Projectile Motion in a Linear Resisting Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean M.

    2006-01-01

    The time of flight, range and the angle which maximizes the range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium are expressed in analytic form in terms of the recently defined Lambert W function. From the closed-form solutions a number of results characteristic to the motion of the projectile in a linear resisting medium are analytically confirmed,…

  7. Projectile Motion on an Inclined Misty Surface: I. Capturing and Analysing the Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S. Y.; Foong, S. K.; Lim, C. H.; Lim, C. C.; Lin, K.; Kuppan, L.

    2009-01-01

    Projectile motion is usually the first non-uniform two-dimensional motion that students will encounter in a pre-university physics course. In this article, we introduce a novel technique for capturing the trajectory of projectile motion on an inclined Perspex plane. This is achieved by coating the Perspex with a thin layer of fine water droplets…

  8. Solution to Projectile Motion with Quadratic Drag and Graphing the Trajectory in Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This note gives the analytical solution to projectile motion with quadratic drag by decomposing the velocity vector to "x," "y" coordinate directions. The solution is given by definite integrals. First, the impact angle is estimated from above, then the projectile coordinates are computed, and the trajectory is graphed at various launch angles and…

  9. Spreadsheet Application Showing the Proper Elevation Angle, Points of Shot and Impact of a Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the formula for the elevation angle at which a projectile has to be fired in a vacuum from a general position to hit a target at a given distance. A spreadsheet application that models the trajectory is presented, and the problem of finding the points of shot and impact of a projectile moving in a vacuum if three points of the…

  10. New projectiles: multicharged metal clusters and biopolymers; De nouveaux projectiles, les agregats metalliques et les biopolymeres multicharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della-Negra, S.; Gardes, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Waast, B.

    1991-12-31

    Metal clusters and molecules are the one mean to realize simultaneous impacts of several atoms on a reduced surface({approx}100A). The interaction characteristics is the non-linearity of energy deposition; the perturbation that the cluster produces, is above than the sum of the perturbation induced by its components, taken separately. The purpose of ORION project is to accelerate these new projectiles at ORSAY Tandem. The considered mass range is from 100 Daltons to 100 000 Daltons and energy range from MeV to GeV.

  11. Projectile charge state dependent sputtering of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hayderer, G

    2000-01-01

    dependence on the ion kinetic energy. This new type of potential sputtering not only requires electronic excitation of the target material, but also the formation of a collision cascade within the target in order to initiate the sputtering process and has therefore been termed kinetically assisted potential sputtering. In order to study defects induced by potential sputtering on the atomic scale we performed measurements of multiply charged Ar ion irradiated HOPG (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite) samples with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The only surface defects found in the STM images are protrusions. The mean diameter of the defects increases with projectile charge state while the height of the protrusions stays roughly the same indicating a possible pre-equilibrium effect of the stopping of slow multiply charged projectiles in HOPG. Total sputter yields for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on metal- (Au), oxide- (Al2O3, MgO) and alkali-halide surfaces (LiF) have been measured as a...

  12. On the Resistance of the Air at High Speeds and on the Automatic Rotation of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabouchinski, D

    1921-01-01

    Here, the laws governing the flow of a compressible fluid through an opening in a thin wall are applied to the resistance of the air at high speeds, especially as applied to the automatic rotation of projectiles. The instability which we observe in projectiles shot into the air without being given a moment of rotation about their axis of symmetry, or without stabilizing planes, is a phenomenon of automatic rotation. It is noted that we can prevent this phenomenon of automatic rotation by bringing the center of gravity sufficiently near one end, or by fitting the projectile with stabilizing planes or a tail. The automatic rotation of projectiles is due to the suction produced by the systematic formation of vortices behind the extremity of the projectile moving with the wind.

  13. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  14. Experimental investigations of visco-plastic properties of the aluminium and tungsten alloys used in KE projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magier M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of studies on dynamic behaviour of construction materials at high strain rates is to determine the variation of mechanical properties (strength, plasticity in function of the strain rate and temperature. On the basis of results of dynamic tests on the properties of constructional materials the constitutive models are formulated to create numerical codes applied to solve constructional problems with computer simulation methods. In the case of military applications connected with the phenomena of gunshot and terminal ballistics it’s particularly important to develop a model of strength and armour penetration with KE projectile founded on reliable results of dynamic experiments and constituting the base for further analyses and optimization of projectile designs in order to achieve required penetration depth. Static and dynamic results of strength investigations of the EN AW-7012 aluminium alloy (sabot and tungsten alloy (penetrator are discussed in this paper. Static testing was carried out with the INSTRON testing machine. Dynamic tests have been conducted using the split Hopkinson pressure bars technique at strain rates up to 1,2 ⋅ 104s−1 (for aluminium alloy and 6 ⋅ 103s−1 (for tungsten alloy.

  15. Asteroid surface impact sampling: dependence of the cavity morphology and collected mass on projectile shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bin; Yu, Yang; Baoyin, Hexi

    2017-08-30

    In-situ exploration and remote thermal infrared observation revealed that a large fraction of Solar System small bodies should be covered with granular regolith. The complex and varied geology of the regolith layer may preserve the historical records of the surface modification and topographic evolution experienced by asteroids, especially cratering processes, in which the projectile shape plays a crucial role. Regarding the impact sampling scheme, the projectile-shape dependence of both the cavity morphology and the collected mass remains to be explored. This paper studies the process of the low-speed impact sampling on granular regolith using projectiles of different shapes. The results demonstrate that the projectile shape significantly influences the excavation stage, forming cavities with different morphologies, i.e., cone-shaped, bowl-shaped and U-shaped. We further indicate that the different velocity distributions of the ejecta curtains due to the various projectile shapes result in various amounts of collected mass in sampler canister, regarding which the 60° conical projectile exhibits preferable performance for impact sampling scheme. The results presented in this article are expected to reveal the dependence of the excavation process on projectile shape under micro gravity and provide further information on the optimal designs of impact sampling devices for future sample-return space missions.

  16. Fairly direct hit! Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Sebastian; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Klarhöfer, Markus; Peters, Alexander; Bolliger, Stephan A; Thali, Michael J; Anderson, Suzanne; Froehlich, Johannes M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2°; paramagnetic 62°; diamagnetic mean 0°) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. • Metal artefact reduction sequence improves overall image quality of bullets (p Classification of projectiles' magnetic properties based on artefacts' characteristics is possible. • Classifying of bullets has important implications in diagnostic and forensic imaging. • Identification of projectiles' magnetic attributes improves estimation of patients' injury risk.

  17. Systematics of the breakup probability function for {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capurro, O.A., E-mail: capurro@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pacheco, A.J.; Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carnelli, P.F.F. [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. General Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2016-01-15

    Experimental non-capture breakup cross sections can be used to determine the probability of projectile and ejectile fragmentation in nuclear reactions involving weakly bound nuclei. Recently, the probability of both type of dissociations has been analyzed in nuclear reactions involving {sup 9}Be projectiles onto various heavy targets at sub-barrier energies. In the present work we extend this kind of systematic analysis to the case of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li projectiles with the purpose of investigating general features of projectile-like breakup probabilities for reactions induced by stable weakly bound nuclei. For that purpose we have obtained the probabilities of projectile and ejectile breakup for a large number of systems, starting from a compilation of the corresponding reported non-capture breakup cross sections. We parametrize the results in accordance with the previous studies for the case of beryllium projectiles, and we discuss their systematic behavior as a function of the projectile, the target mass and the reaction Q-value.

  18. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožbolt Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  19. Selected Screen for Engaging Students in Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramae, A.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    Connecting physics concepts to activities that are interesting to students or what they encounter in everyday life will help students build a strong foundation. When there is an interesting activity for the student, it will result in the student responding, engaging, and enthusiasm in learning. Learning activities that are based on what students are interested in and regularly experience will enable students to understand the long and memorable experience. Both of these will enhance the student’s learning experience. One of the activities that can be described in this research used the learning activity through movies, which is the application of the basic motion projectile for students to understand the characteristics of such movement. It also aims to further develop critical thinking skills of learners.

  20. Aerodynamic Jump: A Short Range View for Long Rod Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bundy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that aerodynamic jump for a nonspinning kinetic energy penetrator is not – as conventional definitions may infer – a discontinuous change in the direction of motion at the origin of free flight, nor is it the converse, a cumulative redirection over a domain of infinite extent. Rather, with the aid of an alternative kinematical definition, it is shown that aerodynamic jump for such a projectile is a localized redirection of the center-of-gravity motion, caused by the force of lift due to yaw over the relatively short region from entry into free flight until the yaw reaches its first maximum. A rigorous proof of this statement is provided, but the primary objective of this paper is to provide answers to the questions: what is aerodynamic jump, what does it mean, and what aspects of the flight trajectory does it refer to, or account for.

  1. Adolescents' cognition of projectile motion: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun-Yan; Yu, Guoliang

    2009-04-01

    Previous work on the development of intuitive knowledge about projectile motion has shown a dissociation between action knowledge expressed on an action task and conceptual knowledge expressed on a judgment task for young children. The research investigated the generality of dissociation for adolescents. On the action task, participants were asked to swing Ball A of a bifilar pendulum to some height then release it to collide with Ball B, which was projected to hit a target. On the judgment task, participants indicated orally the desired swing angle at which Ball A should be released so that Ball B would strike a target. Unlike previous findings with adults, the adolescents showed conceptual difficulties on the judgment task and well-developed action knowledge on the action task, which suggests dissociation between the two knowledge systems is also present among adolescents. The result further supports the hypothesis that the two knowledge systems follow different developmental trajectories and at different speeds.

  2. Reaction of Projectiles with Targets during Hypervelocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rod; Bless, Stephan; Persad, Chadee; Manthiram, Karthish

    2009-06-01

    Hollow tungsten projectiles were filled with bismuth oxide or copper and shot into aluminum blocks at 2200 m/s. The blocks were cut open, and the contents and morphology of the penetration channels were examined. In the case of copper fill, the channel was found to be filled with a black foam containing closed-cell bubbles. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of CuAl2, indicating reaction with the aluminum target. In the case of bismuth oxide, there was little foam, but the penetration channel walls had many craters, which contained nodules of bismuth metal, again indicating reaction with the target. There were variations in crater diameter apparently corresponding to the onset and termination of the reactions. The exothermic nature of the reactions produced cracks in the target blocks.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Oblique Impact on Microspacecraft Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microspacecraft bulkhead was reduced to the double honeycomb panel, and the projectile oblique hypervelocity impact on the double honeycomb panel was simulated. The distribution of the debris cloud and the damage of a honeycomb sandwich panel were investigated when the incident angles were set to be 60°, 45°, and 30°. The results showed that as incident angle decreased, the distribution of debris cloud was increased gradually, while the maximum perforation size of the rear face sheet was firstly increased with the decrease of the incident angle and then decreased. On the other hand, the damage area and the damage degree of the front face sheet of the second honeycomb panel layer were increased with the decrease of the incident angle. Finally, the critical angle of front and rear face sheets of the honeycomb sandwich panel was obtained under oblique hypervelocity impact.

  4. Breakup conditions of projectile spectators from dynamical observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Pochodzalla, J.; Adloff, J. C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Kunde, G. J.; Leray, S.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R. J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Müller, W. F.; Ngô, C.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Sann, H.; Schnittker, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Seidel, W.; Stuttge, L.; Trautmann, W.; Tucholski, A.

    1998-09-01

    Momenta and masses of heavy projectile fragments (Z>=8), produced in collisions of 197Au with C, Al, Cu, and Pb targets at E/A=600 MeV, were determined with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at SIS. Using this information, an analysis of kinematic correlations between the two and three heaviest projectile fragments in their rest frame was performed. The sensitivity of these correlations to the conditions at breakup was verified within the schematic SOS model. For a quantitative investigation, the data were compared to calculations with statistical multifragmentation models and to classical three-body calculations. With classical trajectory calculations, where the charges and masses of the fragments are taken from a Monte Carlo sampling of the experimental events, the dynamical observables can be reproduced. The deduced breakup parameters, however, differ considerably from those assumed in the statistical multifragmentation models which describe the charge correlations. If, on the other hand, the analysis of kinematic and charge correlations is performed for events with two and three heavy fragments produced by statistical multifragmentation codes, good agreement with the data is found with the exception that the fluctuation widths of the intrinsic fragment energies are significantly underestimated. A new version of the multifragmentation code MCFRAG was therefore used to investigate the potential role of angular momentum at the breakup stage. If a mean angular momentum of 0.75ħ/nucleon is added to the system, the energy fluctuations can be reproduced, but at the same time the charge partitions are modified and deviate from the data.

  5. Breakup conditions of projectile spectators from dynamical observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Pochodzalla, J. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Momenta and masses of heavy projectile fragments (Z {>=} 8), produced in collisions of {sup 197}Au with C, Al, Cu and Pb targets at E/A=600 MeV, were determined with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at SIS. Using these informations, an analysis of kinematic correlations between the two and three heaviest projectile fragments in their rest frame was performed. The sensitivity of these correlations to the conditions at breakup was verified within the schematic SOS-model. For a quantitative investigation, the data were compared to calculations with statistical multifragmentation models and to classical three-body calculations. With classical trajectory calculations, where the charges and masses of the fragments are taken from a Monte Carlo sampling of the experimental events, the dynamical observables can be reproduced. The deduced breakup parameters, however, differ considerably from those assumed in the statistical multifragmentation models which describe the charge correlations. If, on the other hand, the analysis of kinematic and charge correlations is performed for events with two and three heavy fragments produced by statistical multifragmentation codes, a good agreement with the data is found with the exception that the fluctuation widths of the intrinsic fragment energies are significantly underestimated. A new version of the multifragmentation code MCFRAG was therefore used to investigate the potential role of angular momentum at the breakup stage. If a mean angular momentum of 0.75 {Dirac_h}/nucleon is added to the system, the energy fluctuations can be reproduced, but at the same time the charge partitions are modified and deviate from the data. (orig.)

  6. Comment on "The motion of an arbitrarily rotating spherical projectile and its application to ball games"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Højgaard

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper (Robinson G and Robinson I 2013 Phys. Scr. 88 018101) the authors developed the differential equations which govern the motion of a spherical projectile rotating about an arbitrary axis in the presence of an arbitrary wind, assuming that both the drag force and the lift force...... are independent of the Reynolds number and proportional to the square of the projectile's velocity. In this paper, by dimensional analysis, the latter assumption is shown to be incorrect for forces dependent on the angular velocity of the projectile, e.g. the lift force....

  7. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  8. Combining Experimental Data, Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Six-Degree of Freedom Simulation to Develop a Guidance Actuator for a Supersonic Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To Develop A Guidance Actuator For A Supersonic Projectile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d... MLM ) tomatch the theoretical tra- jectory to the experimentallymeasured trajectory. The MLM is an iterative procedure that adjusts the aerody- namic...flow conditions After completion of the range tests, two new sets of CFD calculations were completed under contract by Metacomp Technologies using the

  9. RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CANINE DEATH DUE TO PROJECTILE INJURY - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Banerjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reason of death of a dog was analysed by radiographic findings of thoracic cavity during post mortem examination and the specific cause of death was diagnosed as due to projectile injury.

  10. High resolution imaging of a subsonic projectile using automated mirrors with large aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Y.; Ishii, M.; Oku, H.

    2017-02-01

    Visual tracking of high-speed projectiles is required for studying the aerodynamics around the objects. One solution to this problem is a tracking method based on the so-called 1 ms Auto Pan-Tilt (1ms-APT) system that we proposed in previous work, which consists of rotational mirrors and a high-speed image processing system. However, the images obtained with that system did not have high enough resolution to realize detailed measurement of the projectiles because of the size of the mirrors. In this study, we propose a new system consisting of enlarged mirrors for tracking a high-speed projectiles so as to achieve higher-resolution imaging, and we confirmed the effectiveness of the system via an experiment in which a projectile flying at subsonic speed tracked.

  11. A Web-Based Video Digitizing System for the Study of Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, John W.; Carlton, Les G.; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Hay, James G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses advantages of a video-based, digitized image system for the study and analysis of projectile motion in the physics laboratory. Describes the implementation of a web-based digitized video system. (WRM)

  12. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  13. 'The Monkey and the Hunter' and Other Projectile Motion Experiments with Logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiy, George Oleh

    1988-01-01

    Presents the LOGO computer language as a source to experience and investigate scientific laws. Discusses aspects and uses of LOGO. Lists two LOGO programs, one to simulate a gravitational field and the other projectile motion. (MVL)

  14. Simulation of changes in temperature and pressure fields during high speed projectiles forming by explosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marković Miloš D; Milinović Momčilo P; Jeremić Olivera M; Jaramaz Slobodan S

    2016-01-01

    The Research in this paper considered the temperatures fields as the consequently influenced effects appeared by plastic deformation, in the explosively forming process aimed to design Explosively Formed Projectiles (henceforth EFP...

  15. Computational Simulation of High-Speed Projectiles in Air, Water, and Sand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jack R

    2007-01-01

    ... for efficient time integration at all flow speeds. A solids-stress model based on Mohr-Coulomb critical-state theory is used to account for compaction and deformation of sand during projectile penetration...

  16. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subject to Impact by Non-deformable Projectiles

    OpenAIRE

    Alkloub, Amer Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    In impact resistance of reinforced concrete (RC) panels against projectiles the contribution of the orthogonal mesh reinforcement has been ignored. In this study the contribution of mesh reinforcement to impact resistance and itseffect on the nature of local damage caused by impact of non-deformable projectiles are investigated. The investigation included a combination of 53 experiments and series of finite-element based numerical simulations. Three levels of local damage modes were investega...

  17. [A sign of the rotational impact of the gunshot projectile on the flat bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the mechanisms of formation of the gunshot fracture of the flat bones with special reference to the translational and rotational motion of the projectile. A total of 120 real and experimental injuries of this type were available for the investigation with the use of simulation by the finite-elemental analysis. A set of morphological features has been identified that make it possible to determine the direction of rotation of the gunshot projectile.

  18. The Effects of High Velocity Variable Mass Projectiles on the Maxillofacial Complex,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    injuring missile, but it may be only one of many contributors to the morphology of the wound. High velocity projectiles, striking bone and/or teeth ...This is especially true of hits shattering the hard enamel of teeth . These findings tend to re-emphasize the work of Mcleod who stated that...through controlled studies to determine the morphology of wounds caused by such projectiles and to establish and disseminate treatment data which

  19. Numeric Computation of the Radar Cross Section of In-flight Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this report, we evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) of in-flight ballistic projectiles (rockets, artillery rounds, and mortars ) by...examples. We consider 2 types of projectiles: a 155-mm artillery round and a 120-mm mortar , as well as 4 radar frequency bands: L, S, C, and X. Using...10 2.4 Propagation and Antenna Effects and the Radar Received Power 15 3. Simulation of Ballistics Trajectories 18 3.1 The Modified Point Mass

  20. Characteristics study of projectile's lightest fragment for 84Kr36-emulsion interaction at around 1 A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Inbanathan, S. S. R.

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we present the results of our investigations on the projectile's lightest fragment (proton) multiplicity and probability distributions with 84Kr36 emulsion collision at around 1 A GeV. The multiplicity and normalized multiplicity of projectile's lightest fragment (proton) are correlated with the compound particles, shower particles, black particles, grey particles; alpha (helium nucleus) fragments and heavily ionizing charged particles. It is found that projectile's lightest fragment (proton) is strongly correlated with compound particles and shower particles rather than other particles and the average multiplicity of projectile's lightest fragment (proton) increases with increasing compound, shower and heavily ionizing charge particles. Normalized projectile's lightest fragment (proton) is strongly correlated with compound particles, shower particles and heavily ionizing charge particles. The multiplicity distribution of the projectile's lightest fragment (proton) emitted in the 84Kr36 + emulsion interaction at around 1 A GeV with different target has been well explained by KNO scaling. The mean multiplicity of projectile's lightest fragments (proton) depends on the mass number of the projectile and does not significantly dependent of the projectile energy. The mean multiplicity of projectile's lightest fragment (proton) increases with increasing the target mass number.

  1. Fairly direct hit. Advances in imaging of shotgun projectiles in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, Sebastian [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Peters, Alexander [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klarhoefer, Markus [Siemens Healthcare, Zurich (Switzerland); Bolliger, Stephan A.; Thali, Michael J. [University of Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Anderson, Suzanne [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University of Notre Dame Australia, Radiology, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Federal Institute of Technology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the magnetic properties of different types of projectiles and qualify the metal artefact reduction technique for diagnostic and/or forensic MRI. Ten different projectiles embedded in ordnance gelatine blocks underwent an in vitro 1.5-T MR study with seven sequences including a recently developed metal artefact reduction sequence (Advanced WARP) combining VAT (view-angle-tilting) and SEMAC (slice-encoding metal-artefact-correction). Resulting image quality (five-point scale: 1=best; 5=worst) was scored. Quantifiable magnetic characteristics were correlated with qualitative rating of the MR sequences and torque dislodgment. Metal artefact reduction sequence (median: 2.5) significantly (p < 0.001) improves depiction of projectiles in comparison to all other MR pulse sequences (median: 4.75). Images from diamagnetic composed bullets (median: 2) are much less disturbed compared to magnetic attracted ones (median: 5). Correlation (0.623) between deflection angle measurement (ferromagnetic mean 84.2 ; paramagnetic 62 ; diamagnetic mean 0 ) and median qualitative image quality was highly significant (p = 0.027). Torque dislodgement was distinct for elongated magnetic attracted projectiles. Significant improvement of MR imaging of projectiles using metal artefact reduction techniques has important implications for diagnostic/forensic work-up. The correlations between magnetic attraction force, deflection-angle results and image properties demonstrate that the MR safety of projectiles can be estimated with one of these methods. (orig.)

  2. Projectile fragmentation studies using F, Ne, and Na isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Maria; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Projectile fragmentation is one of the techniques used at nuclear science facilities around the world for the production and study of rare isotopes. In the inverse kinematics reaction, a heavy high energy primary beam impinges on a reaction target producing an excited pre-fragment that soon decays - in a time range between 10-9 and 10-21 s - by emission of neutrons and gamma rays. The result is a secondary beam of radioactive nuclei suited for each experiment's needs, but the short lifetime of the pre-fragments prevents direct observation. However, an indirect analysis can be conducted from the reaction products. Neutron multiplicities and the excitation energies of the final fragments are in fact related to the pre-fragments produced in the target and this relationship is expected to be enhanced for final fragments with mass number closest to the reacting beam. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), where a 32Mg beam at 86 MeV/u was impinged on a 9Be reaction target. The MoNA Collaboration measured neutron multiplicities and kinetic energy spectra for neutrons in coincidence with sodium, neon, and fluorine final fragments in order to study the reaction mechanisms in the production of specific pre-fragments.

  3. Multiple pulsed hypersonic liquid diesel fuel jetsdriven by projectile impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianthong, K.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2005-06-01

    Further studies on high-speed liquid diesel fuel jets injected into ambient air conditions have been carried out. Projectile impact has been used as the driving mechanism. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was used as a launcher to provide the high-speed impact. This paper describes the experimental technique and visualization methods that provided a rapid series of jet images in the one shot. A high-speed video camera (106 fps) and shadowgraph optical system were used to obtain visualization. Very interesting and unique phenomena have been discovered and confirmed in this study. These are that multiple high frequency jet pulses are generated within the duration of a single shot impact. The associated multiple jet shock waves have been clearly captured. This characteristic consistently occurs with the smaller conical angle, straight cone nozzles but not with those with a very wide cone angle or curved nozzle profile. An instantaneous jet tip velocity of 2680 m/s (Mach number of 7.86) was the maximum obtained with the 40^circ nozzle. However, this jet tip velocity can only be sustained for a few microseconds as attenuation is very rapid.

  4. Flight Behaviors of a Complex Projectile Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Projectile Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...38 vi Preface The paper “Flight Behaviors of a Complex Projectile using a Coupled CFD-based Simulation Technique: Free Motion ” was...involves coupling of CFD and rigid body dynamics (RBD) codes for the simulation of projectile free flight motion in a time-accurate manner. This

  5. Behavior of steel fiber high strength concrete under impact of projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the investigation carried out by the authors about the behavior of 80 MPa characteristic compression strength concrete reinforced with different amount of high carbon content steel fiber, submit to impact of different caliber projectiles, determining the thickness of this type of concrete walls needs to prevent no perforation, as well as the maximum penetration to reach into them, so that in the event of no perforation and only penetration, "scabbing" phenomena does not take place on the rear surface of the wall. Prior to ballistic testing was necessary to design the high-strength concrete with specific mechanical properties, especially those related to ductility, since these special concrete must absorb the high energy of projectiles and also the shock waves that accompany them.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de la investigación llevada a cabo por los autores sobre el comportamiento de hormigón de 80 MPa de resistencia característica a compresión reforzado con diferentes cuantías de fibras de acero de alto contenido en carbono sometido al impacto de proyectiles de distintos calibres, determinando el espesor de muros de este tipo de hormigón que sería preciso disponer para impedir su perforación por dichos proyectiles, así como los valores máximos de penetración, para que en el caso de no producirse perforación y sólo penetración, no se genera cráter, “scabbing”, en el trasdós de los mismos. Previamente a los ensayos balísticos fue preciso diseñar los hormigones para que, presentaran determinadas características mecánicas, especialmente las relacionadas con la ductilidad, dado que estos hormigones especiales deben absorber la elevada energía que le transmiten los proyectiles y las ondas de choque que los acompañan.

  6. Observation of wounding characteristics in dogs wounded by super velocity projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Wu, G; Chen, J; Wang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, Z; Chen, X

    2001-05-01

    To understand wounding characteristics in dogs wounded by super velocity projectile with a purpose of providing a basis for prevention and treatment of such wounds. A specially-made explosive gun was used to shoot aluminium bullet weighing 3.0 g and 1.4 g to injure both legs of dogs at velocities of 2330 m/s, 3200 m/s and 4250 m/s, respectively, and the soap specially made was also shot. At the same time, steel ball of 1.03 g was shot with a Type 53 smooth chamber gun at a speed of 1280 m/s. Within 30 min after wounding, debridement and pathological anatomy were performed and specimens were taken for light microscope observation. When the dogs were wounded by the 3 g bullet at speed of 2330 m/s, the entrance of the left leg was penetrated explosively with a defect area of 225 cm(2), and the femur trunk was also injured and the residual femur had comminution fracture. The exit of the right leg was blindly wounded with a defect area of 63 cm(2), but only the skin was not penetrated. Both testes and part pelvis were injured too. Under light microscope, degenerative myofibers and bleeding of the spatium between the myofibers could be found at the place 4 cm away from the wounding track. Furthermore, serious bleeding of the bladder and blood vessels of the brain could be observed. The lungs showed changes of blast injury. Vacuolar change was presented in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Injuries of the animals in other two experimental groups were similar to those described above, but the defect area of the wounded track was 124 cm(2) in the group of 4250 m/s. Injuries caused by the steel ball were milder than caused by the explosive gun. The volume of the residual cavity in the soap was 5000 ml. The super-velocity projectile causes destructive damage to the local tissues and multi-organ injuries. Therefore, the practical medical care needs not only amputation but also management of multi-organ injuries.

  7. The influence of aerodynamic coefficients on the elements of classic projectile paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir D. Jerković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research on the influence of aerodynamic coefficient values on the trajectory elements and the stability parameters of classic axisymmetric projectiles. It presents the characteristic functions of aerodynamic coefficients with regard to aerodynamic parameters and the projectile body shape. The trajectory elements of the model of classic axisymmetric projectiles and the analyses of their changes were presented with respect to the aerodynamic coefficient values. Introduction Classic axisymmetric projectiles fly through atmosphere using muzzle velocity as initial energy resource, so the aerodynamic force and moment have the most significant influence on the motion of projectiles. The aerodynamic force and moment components represented as aerodynamic coefficients depend on motion velocity i. e. flow velocity, the flow features produced by projectile shape and position in the flow, and angular velocity (rate of the body. The functional dependence of aerodynamic coefficients on certain influential parameters, such as angle of attack and angular velocity components is expressed by the derivative of aerodynamic coefficients. The determination of aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives enables complete definition of the aerodynamic force and moment acting on the classic projectile. The projectile motion problem is considered in relation to defining the projectile stability parameters and the conditions under which the stability occurs. The comparative analyses of aerodynamic coefficient values obtained by numerical methods, semi empirical calculations and experimental research give preliminary evaluation of the quality of the determined values. The flight simulation of the motion of a classic axisymetric projectile, which has the shape defined by the aerodynamic coefficient values, enables the comparative analyses of the trajectory elements and stability characteristics. The model of the classic projectile

  8. Half-life measurements of isomeric states populated in projectile fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowry, M.; Podolyák, Zs.; Kurcewicz, J.; Pietri, S.; Bunce, M.; Regan, P. H.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Weick, H.; Allegro, P.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Boutachkov, P.; Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Gottardo, A.; Gregor, N.; Janik, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kojouharov, I.; Kubo, T.; Litvinov, Y. A.; Merchan, E.; Mukha, I.; Naqvi, F.; Pfeiffer, B.; Pfützner, M.; Plaß, W.; Pomorski, M.; Riese, B.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schaffner, H.; Kurz, N.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Bruce, A. M.; Farrelly, G. F.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Spiller, P.; Stadlmann, J.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Takeda, H.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Valiente Dobon, J. J.; Winfield, J. S.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Woods, P. J.

    2012-10-01

    The half-lives of excited isomeric states observed in 195Au, 201Tl and 215Rn are reported for the first time. Delayed γ-rays were correlated with nuclei produced in the projectile fragmentation of relativistic 238U ions, unambiguously identified in terms of their atomic number (Z) and mass-to-charge ratio (A/Q) after traversing an in-flight separator. The observation of a long-lived isomeric state in 195Au with t1/2 = 16-4+8 μs is presented. Two shorter-lived isomeric states were detected in 201Tl and 215Rn with t1/2 = 95-21+39 and 57-12+21 ns respectively. In total 24 isomeric states were identified in different nuclei from Pt to Rn (A ˜ 200) during the current study, the majority of which were previously reported. The wealth of spectroscopic data provides the opportunity to determine the isomeric ratios over a wide range of Z, A and angular momentum (I ħ) of the reaction products. In particular, high-spin states with I ≳ 18 ħ provide a robust test of theoretical models of fragmentation.

  9. Hybrid Projectile Body Angle Estimation for Selectable Range Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J.

    A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. A simple launch timer was first envisioned to control the transformation point in order to achieve maximum distance. However, this timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It was also necessary to filter out noise from a simulated inertial measurement unit (IMU), GPS receiver, and magnetometer. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was chosen to estimate the Euler angles, position and velocity of the HP while an algorithm determined when to deploy the wings. A parametric study was done to verify the optimum deployment condition using a Simulink aerodynamic model. Because range is directly related to launch angle, various launch angles were simulated in the model. By fixing the glide slope angle to -10° as a deployment condition for all launch angles, the range differed only by a maximum of 6.1% from the maximum possible range. Based on these findings, the body angle deployment condition provides the most flexible option to maintain maximum distance without the need of reprogramming. Position and velocity estimates were also determined from the EKF using the GPS measurements. Simulations showed that the EKF estimates exhibited low root mean squared error values, corresponding to less than 3% of the total position values. Because the HP was in flight for less than a minute in this experiment, the drift encountered was acceptable.

  10. Accuracy Improvement Capability of Advanced Projectile Based on Course Correction Fuze Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsaadany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze. The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  11. Accuracy improvement capability of advanced projectile based on course correction fuze concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadany, Ahmed; Wen-jun, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in terminal accuracy is an important objective for future artillery projectiles. Generally it is often associated with range extension. Various concepts and modifications are proposed to correct the range and drift of artillery projectile like course correction fuze. The course correction fuze concepts could provide an attractive and cost-effective solution for munitions accuracy improvement. In this paper, the trajectory correction has been obtained using two kinds of course correction modules, one is devoted to range correction (drag ring brake) and the second is devoted to drift correction (canard based-correction fuze). The course correction modules have been characterized by aerodynamic computations and flight dynamic investigations in order to analyze the effects on deflection of the projectile aerodynamic parameters. The simulation results show that the impact accuracy of a conventional projectile using these course correction modules can be improved. The drag ring brake is found to be highly capable for range correction. The deploying of the drag brake in early stage of trajectory results in large range correction. The correction occasion time can be predefined depending on required correction of range. On the other hand, the canard based-correction fuze is found to have a higher effect on the projectile drift by modifying its roll rate. In addition, the canard extension induces a high-frequency incidence angle as canards reciprocate at the roll motion.

  12. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  13. Special features of high-speed projectile interaction with barriers protected by a water layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'eva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; D'yachkovskii, A. S.; Evtyushkin, E. V.; Zykov, E. N.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Monakhov, R. Yu.; Rodionov, A. A.; Khabibullin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.

    2013-09-01

    The stress-strain state (SSS) of projectiles is investigated when a high-speed projectile enters water and interacts with barriers protected by a water layer. Experimental investigations are carried out using a high-speed ballistic setup. Calculations are performed within the framework of mechanics of continuous media for an elastic plastic model of a solid with allowance for fracture and hydrodynamic water model. Depending on the projectile speed, different SSS regimes are observed: from small deformed at a speed of ≈1 km/s to fractured at a speed of ≈2 km/s. Calculation technique allows distances in water to be determined at which the metal barrier can be punched for the inertial model.

  14. Projectile motion of a once rotating object: physical quantities at the point of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabasi, Sameer

    2016-09-01

    Vertical circular motion is a widely used example to explain non-uniform circular motion in most undergraduate general physics textbooks. However, most of these textbooks do not elaborate on the case when this motion turns into projectile motion under certain conditions. In this paper, we describe thoroughly when a mass attached to a cord, moving in a vertical circular motion, turns into a projectile and its location and velocity when it rejoins the circular orbit. This paper provides an intuitive understanding, supported by basic kinematic equations, to give an interesting elegant connection between circular motion and projectile motion—something lacking in most physics textbooks—and will be very useful to present to an undergraduate class to deepen their understanding of both models of motion.

  15. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  16. On the non-equilibrium dynamics of cavitation around the underwater projectile in variable motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Lu, C. J.; Li, J.; Chen, X.; Gong, Z. X.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the dynamic behavior of the non-equilibrium cavitation occurring around the underwater projectiles navigating with variable speed was numerically and theoretically investigated. The cavity collapse induced by the decelerating motion of the projectiles can be classified into two types: periodic oscillation and damped oscillation. In each type the evolution of the total mass of vapor in cavity are found to have strict correlation with the pressure oscillation in far field. By defining the equivalent radius of cavity, we introduce the specific kinetic energy of collapse and demonstrate that its change-rate is in good agreement with the pressure disturbance. We numerically investigated the influence of angle of attack on the collapse effect. The result shows that when the projectile decelerates, an asymmetric-focusing effect of the pressure induced by collapse occurs on its pressure side. We analytically explained such asymmetric-focusing effect.

  17. Physics Learning Achievement Study: Projectile, Using Mathematica Program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutem, Artit; Kerdmee, Supoj

    2013-01-01

    The propose of this study is to study Physics Learning Achievement, projectile motion, using the Mathematica program of Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students, comparing with Faculty of Science and Technology Phetchabun Rajabhat University students who study the projectile motion experiment set. The samples are…

  18. Distorted wave theories for dressed-ion-atom collisions with GSZ projectile potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Fainstein, P D, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-10-14

    The continuum distorted wave and the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximations for electron emission in ion-atom collisions are generalized to the case of dressed projectiles. The interaction between the dressed projectile and the active electron is represented by the analytic Green-Sellin-Zachor (GSZ) potential. Doubly differential cross sections as a function of the emitted electron energy and angle are computed. The region of the binary encounter peak is analysed in detail. Interference structures appear in agreement with the experimental data and are interpreted as arising from the coherent interference between short- and long-range scattering amplitudes.

  19. Optimal design of the aerodynamic parameters for a supersonic two-dimensional guided artillery projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method is introduced to design the aerodynamic parameters of a dual-spin two-dimensional guided projectile with the canards for trajectory correction. The nose guidance component contains two pairs of canards which can provide lift and despin with the projectile for stability. The optimal design algorithm is developed to decide the profiles both of the steering and spinning canards, and their deflection angles are also simulated to meet the needs of trajectory correction capabilities. Finally, the aerodynamic efficiency of the specific canards is discussed according to the CFD simulations. Results that obtained here can be further applied to the exterior ballistics design.

  20. Estimating 3D positions and velocities of projectiles from monocular views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnick, Evan; Atev, Stefan; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of localizing a projectile in 3D based on its apparent motion in a stationary monocular view. A thorough theoretical analysis is developed, from which we establish the minimum conditions for the existence of a unique solution. The theoretical results obtained have important implications for applications involving projectile motion. A robust, nonlinear optimization-based formulation is proposed, and the use of a local optimization method is justified by detailed examination of the local convexity structure of the cost function. The potential of this approach is validated by experimental results.

  1. Tissue preservation and projectile context in a Spanish Civil War victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2010-07-01

    Exhumations of mass graves containing the remains of those executed during the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco regime are currently being conducted at the request of surviving relatives. This individual case report illustrates how soft tissue preservation, through copper ion contact in one particular victim aided in preserving the projectile in an anatomical context, thereby permitting the correct interpretation of the projectile's path and angle, which otherwise would not have been possible as no bone tissue was affected. The information obtained has important relevance for human rights investigations and the work of the forensic anthropologist. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of double-wall containment against the impact of hard projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem A., E-mail: nadeem@ksu.edu.sa; Khateeb, Baha M.A.; Almusallam, Tarek H.; Abbas, Husain

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The reliability of double-wall containment against impact of projectiles was studied. • Probabilistic procedure based on Monte Carlo simulation technique was used. • Sensitivity studies were carried out to obtain the results of practical interest. • Reliability is correlated with the ballistic limit of the outer RC wall. - Abstract: Effectiveness of single or double-wall containment structures against a possible strike of projectiles, missiles or airplanes is well researched. However, how the uncertainties involved in the various design parameters influence the reliability of the containment is not very well known. In a double-wall containment structure, as name implies, there are two walls – an outer thick reinforced concrete (RC) wall and an inner thin steel shell/wall. In the present study, a simple probabilistic procedure based on Monte Carlo simulation technique is presented to study the reliability of double-wall containment structures against the impact of external hard projectiles on outer RC wall for varying impact velocities. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, an idealized double-wall containment structure and a hard projectile were chosen. The probability of failure and the reliability indices of the selected double-wall containment structure were obtained for different striking velocities of the projectile and safety of the containment was correlated with the ballistic limit of the outer RC wall. The results of the study show that the double-wall containment is “safe enough” against the impact of the selected projectile if the projectile nominal velocity is less than 65% of the containment outer wall's nominal ballistic limit (V{sub BL}). Results also show that under the given uncertainties, if the nominal impact velocity is less than 65% of the nominal ballistic limit of the outer RC wall (i.e. 0.65V{sub BL}), failure probability of the containment is almost zero. However, when impact velocity is more than

  3. Effectiveness of projectile screening in single and multiple ionization of Ne by B{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, W.; Luna, H.; Santos, A. C. F.; Montenegro, E. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil); DuBois, R. D. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Montanari, C. C.; Miraglia, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    Pure multiple ionization cross sections of Ne by B{sup 2+} projectiles have been measured in the energy range of 0.75 to 4.0 MeV and calculated using the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation. The experiment and calculations show that the ionization cross sections by B{sup 2+}, principally for the production of highly charged recoils, is strongly enhanced when compared to the bare projectile with the same charge state, He{sup 2+}, at the same velocities.

  4. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Sisk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed.

  5. Development of odd-Z-projectile reactions for transactinide element synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folden, III, Charles Marvin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new odd-Z-projectile reactions leading to the production of transactinide elements is described. The cross section of the even-Z-projectile 208Pb(64Ni, n)271Ds reaction was measured at two new energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, seven decay chains attributable to 271Ds were observed. These data, combined with previous results, establish an excitation function for the production of 271Ds. The maximum cross section was 20 +15 -11 pb at a center-of-target energy of 311.5 MeV in the laboratory frame.The data from the 271Ds experiments were used to estimate the optimum beam energy for the new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(65Cu, n)272-111 reaction using the Fusion by Diffusion theory proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski. A cross section for this reaction was measured for the first time, at a center-of-target energy of 321.1 MeV in the laboratory frame. The excitation energy f or compound nuclei formed at the target center was 13.2 MeV. One decay chain was observed, resulting in a measured cross section of 1.7 +3.9 -1.4 pb. This decay chain is in good agreement with previously published data on the decay of 272-111.The new odd-Z-projectile 208Pb(55Mn, n)262Bh reaction was studied at three different projectile energies, and 33 decay chains of 262Bh were observed. The existence of a previously reported alpha-decaying isomeric state in this nuclide was confirmed. Production of the ground state was preferred at all three beam energies. The maximum cross section was 540 +180 -150 pb at a projectile center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV. This cross section is much larger than that previously reported for the even-Z-projectile 209Bi(54Cr, n)262Bh reaction, which may be because the 54Cr projectile

  6. Living in a physical world II. The bio-ballistics of small projectiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-02-21

    Feb 21, 2005 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2. Living in a physical world II. The bio-ballistics of small projectiles. Steven Vogel. Series Volume 30 Issue 2 March 2005 pp 167-175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/030/02/0167-0175 ...

  7. Interaction of 3d transition metal atoms with charged ion projectiles from Electron Nuclear Dynamics computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Computational results on atomic scattering between charged projectiles and transition metal target atoms are presented. This work aims at obtaining detailed information about charge, spin and energy transfer processes that occur between the interacting particles. An in-depth understanding of these phenomena is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the interpretation of various types of ion beam experiments, ranging from gas phase chromatography to spectroscopic observations of fast ions in ferromagnetic media. This contribution focuses on the scattering of light projectiles ranging from He to O, that are prepared in various initial charge states, by 3d transition metal atoms. The presented computations are performed in the framework of Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END)^1 theory which incorporates the coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom without reliance on the computationally cumbersome and frequently intractable determination of potential energy surfaces. In the present application of END theory to ion - transition metal atom scattering, a supermolecule approach is utilized in conjunction with a spin-unrestricted single determinantal wave function describing the electronic system. Integral scattering, charge and spin exchange cross sections are discussed as functions of the elementary parameters of the problem, such as projectile and target atomic numbers as well as projectile charge and initial kinetic energy. ^1 E.Deumens, A.Diz, R.Longo, Y.Oehrn, Rev.Mod.Phys. 66, 917 (1994)

  8. K-vacancy production by secondaries due to charged projectiles in thick targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onegin, M.S. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Pashuk, V.V. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Tverskoy, M.G. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Vodopyanov, I.B. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    K-vacancy production due to ionization of atoms by charged projectiles in thick targets is investigated. Secondary particles contribution is taken into account. The calculations were performed for Pb and U targets irradiated by 1 GeV protons. The results are compared with the experimental data. (orig.).

  9. The scaling and dynamics of a projectile obliquely impacting a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengming; Ye, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of a spherical projectile obliquely impacting into a two-dimensional granular bed is numerically investigated using the discrete element method. The influences of projectile's initial velocities and impacting angles are mainly considered. Numerical results show that the relationship between the final penetration depth and the initial impact velocity is very similar to that in the vertical-impact case. However, the dependence of the stopping time on the impact velocity of the projectile exhibits critical characteristics at different impact angles: the stopping time approximately increases linearly with the impact velocity for small impact angles but decreases in an exponential form for larger impact angles, which demonstrates the existence of two different regimes at low and high impact angles. When the impact angle is regarded as a parametric variable, a phenomenological force model at large impact angles is eventually proposed based on the simulation results, which can accurately describe the nature of the resistance force exerted on the projectile by the granular medium at different impact angels during the whole oblique-impact process. The degenerate model agrees well with the existing experimental results in the vertical-impact cases.

  10. Projectile atomic-number effect on ion-induced fragmentation and ionization of fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjar, O; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R; Schlatholter, T

    The delocalized pi electrons of a C-60 cluster can be well described as an electron gas. Electronic friction experienced by a multicharged ion colliding with a fullerene might then be modeled in terms of the electronic stopping power. We investigated such collisions for projectile atomic numbers Z

  11. Energy distribution of the particles obtained after irradiation of carbon nanotubes with carbon projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Cristian D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat d’Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03690 Alacant (Spain); Moreno-Marín, Juan Carlos; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago [Departament de Física, Enginyeria de Sistemes i Teoria de la Senyal, Universitat d’Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03690 Alacant (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    The idea of using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as masks against irradiation has recently emerged, because of the region of a given material covered by a CNT can be protected from the effects of irradiation, creating nanowires. In this case, it is interesting to know in detail the number of generated recoils and their energy. In order to obtain these data, we simulate the irradiation of CNTs with carbon ions using a molecular dynamics code. To describe the interaction between carbon ions we use the Brenner potential joined smoothly to the Universal ZBL potential at short distances. We have analyzed the energy distributions of the carbon atoms emerging from the CNT for single projectile irradiation with incident energies from 30 eV to 5 keV. Our results show that the number and the energy of the recoil carbon atoms emerging from the CNT increases with the projectile incident energy. In average, each projectile with incident energy of 1 keV produces ∼3.6 recoils, which have a mean energy of 150 eV, while projectiles with 5 keV produce ∼7 recoils with a mean energy of 400 eV.

  12. Studying the influence of target and projectile properties on low-velocity collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Nguyen, G.; Calandry, A.; Cherrier, O.; Gourinat, Y.

    2017-09-01

    To improve our understanding of landing on small bodies and of asteroid evolution, we have performed new experiments of low-velocity impacts into granular material in both normal and reduced-gravity. We study the influence of the target material, the projectile shape and orientation, and the gravitational acceleration.

  13. Amazing Physics: Learning about Work, Energy and Projectile Motion in a Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Guner

    2013-01-01

    Teaching physics through a historical context provides effective learning and increases students' motivation for and interest in physics. For example, trebuchets and mangonels may be interesting historical contexts for learning about energy, work, and projectile motion. In this study, the implementation of physics lessons related to these subjects…

  14. Projectile Motion with a Drag Force: Were the Medievals Right After All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    An educational and historical study of the projectile motion with drag forces dependent on speed shows, by simple results, that trajectories quite similar to those depicted before the Galilean era may be obtained with a realistic choice of quantities involved. Numerical simulations of the trajectory in space and velocity coordinates help us to…

  15. Projectile Impact Point Prediction Based on Self-Propelled Artillery Dynamics and Doppler Radar Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trajectory calculation method has three primary sources of errors, which are model error, parameter error, and initial state error. In this paper, based on initial projectile flight trajectory data measured using Doppler radar system; a new iterative method is developed to estimate the projectile attitude and the corresponding impact point to improve the second shot hit probability. In order to estimate the projectile initial state, the launch dynamics model of practical 155 mm self-propelled artillery is defined, and hence, the vibration characteristics of the self-propelled artillery is obtained using the transfer matrix method of linear multibody system MSTMM. A discrete time transfer matrix DTTM-4DOF is developed using the modified point mass equations of motion to compute the projectile trajectory and set a direct algebraic relation between any two successive radar data. During iterations, adjustments to the repose angle are made until an agreement with acceptable tolerance occurs between the Doppler radar measurements and the estimated values. Simulated Doppler radar measurements are generated using the nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom trajectory model using the resulted initial disturbance. Results demonstrate that the data estimated using the proposed algorithm agrees well with the simulated Doppler radar data obtained numerically using the nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom model.

  16. Preservice Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change about Projectile Motion: Refutation Text, Demonstration, Affective Factors, and Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, Cynthia; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates changes in preservice teachers' conceptions about projectile motion brought about by a combination of reading and demonstration and appeal to usefulness. Results indicate the effectiveness of a combined Demo-Text condition on immediate posttests and effectiveness of text in producing long-term change. Analysis also indicates an…

  17. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Grade 12 Learners' Performance in Projectile Motions, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, Israel; Lehong, Moyahabo Jeridah

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the effect of cooperative learning on Grade 12 learners' performance in projectile motions. A quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent control group was used. Two schools were purposively selected from Maleboho Central circuit in South Africa based on their performance in Physical Sciences Grade 12 results of 2011.…

  18. On the Locus Formed by the Maximum Heights of Projectile Motion with Air Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Saldana, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis on the locus formed by the set of maxima of the trajectories of a projectile launched in a medium with linear drag. Such a place, the locus of apexes, is written in terms of the Lambert "W" function in polar coordinates, confirming the special role played by this function in the problem. To characterize the locus, a study of…

  19. Approximate Formula for the Vertical Asymptote of Projectile Motion in Midair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudinov, Peter Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The classic problem of the motion of a point mass (projectile) thrown at an angle to the horizon is reviewed. The air drag force is taken into account with the drag factor assumed to be constant. An analytical approach is used for the investigation. An approximate formula is obtained for one of the characteristics of the motion--the vertical…

  20. Modeling Fragment Simulating Projectile Penetration into Steel Plates Using Finite Elements and Meshfree Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O’Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulating fragment penetration into steel involves complicated modeling of severe behavior of the materials through multiple phases of response. Penetration of a fragment-like projectile was simulated using finite element (FE and meshfree particle formulations. Extreme deformation and failure of the material during the penetration event were modeled with several approaches to evaluate each as to how well it represents the actual physics of the material and structural response. A steel Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP – designed to simulate a fragment of metal from a weapon casing – was simulated for normal impact into a flat square plate. A range of impact velocities was used to examine levels of exit velocity ranging from relatively small to one on the same level as the impact velocity. The numerical code EPIC, used for all the simulations presented herein, contains the element and particle formulations, as well as the explicit methodology and constitutive models needed to perform these simulations. These simulations were compared against experimental data, evaluating the damage caused to the projectile and the target plates, as well as comparing the residual velocity when the projectile perforated the target.

  1. Design and Analysis of Kinetic Energy Projectiles Using Finite Element Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    1991; DeSalvo and Gorman 1987; PRISM/DDM User Manuals 1990; Hallquist 1983). Using 4inite element techniques, simplified models of the projectile can...Handbook: Interior Ballistics of Guns. AMC Pamphlet 706-150, Washington, DC, February 1965. DeSalvo , G. J., and R. W. Gorman. ANSYS Engineering

  2. Tissue simulant response at projectile impact on flexible fabric armour systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Volker, A.; Heiden, N. van der

    2006-01-01

    Behind Armour Blunt Trauma is a phenomenon which has been studied extensively for rigid personal protective armour systems. These systems used in e.g. bullet proof vests manage to defeat high velocity small arms projectiles. Tissue simulants are used to study behind armour effects. At high velocity

  3. Comment on 'The envelope of projectile trajectories'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Several simple alternative methods to obtain the equation of the envelope of the family of projectile trajectories corresponding to the same initial speed are suggested, including methods in which the boundary of the region occupied by the parabolic trajectories is found as an envelope of a set of circles. Two possible generalizations of the discussed problem are also suggested. (letters and comments)

  4. Projectile Penetration into Sandy Soil Confined by a Honeycomb-Like Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HPS (Honeycomb-like Protective Structure is a newly proposed protective structure filled with sandy soil. In order to investigate the penetration resistance of the structure, numerical simulations based on SPH method had been carried out by using LS-DYNA, which are corresponding to the experiments. The calibrated model leads to reasonable predictions of the dynamic responses and damage modes of the HPS. More situations were carried out taking factors influencing the penetration into consideration, including point of impact, angle of impact, and projectile caliber. Penetration mode was established by analyzing the energy dissipation and investigating the mechanism from the phenomenological viewpoint. Simulation results show that the resisting forces and the torque that act on the long rod projectile would be greater than those acting on the short one when instability occurred. Besides, approximate 45° angle of impact was formed in the case of off-axis, which has a certain influence on the ballistic stability, resulting in more kinetic energy of projectile dissipating in HPS and less depth of penetration. The kinetic energy of projectile dissipated in sandy soil largely and the strip slightly, and the former was greater than the sum of the latter.

  5. [An unusual embolization of a projectile in the superficial femoral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubal, P; Korger, J; Ondrůsková, O; Kratochvíl, D; Holý, M

    1997-11-01

    The authors present an account on a gunshot wound which penetrated into the lateral side of the distal chest on the right. They describe acute treatment of severe haemorrhagic shock by suture of a lacerated with liver segment and resection of the upper pole of the right kidney. The projectile was not searched for because of the patients general serious condition. After 30 days the patient was discharged in a good condition. Shortly after discharge, i.e. cca one month after the injury, the patient developed signs of chronic ischaemia of the left lower extremity-finally claudications after 150 meters. Based on peripheral arteriography, which revealed the projectile in the area of the beginning of the superficial femoral artery and an ample collateral circulation, surgery was initiated. The bullet was extracted from the lumen of the superficial femoral artery from longitudinal arteriotomy. The artery was then treated by thrombectomy and a venous patch. Peroperative arteriography indicates satisfactory passage into the periphery. The authors try to reconstruct the pathway of the shot and in particular how the projectile penetrated into the artery. They emphasize the necessity to look for the projectice at the site of the shot wound. The objective of the paper is to make readers familiar with a case of uncommon embolization of a projectile into the superficial femoral artery and mistakes which may occur during treatment of a gunshot wound. The result is that the patient is quite free from complaints, as was confirmed by repeated out-patient check-ups.

  6. Cq+-induced excitation and fragmentation of uracil : effects of the projectile electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.; Schlathölter, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation of the RNA base uracil (C4H4N2O2) by means of Cq+ ions (q = 1-6) has been studied for ion kinetic energies ranging from ;2 to 120 keV. Whereas for Cq+ (q = 1, 3, 4, 5, 6) very similar fragmentation yields are observed which increase with the projectile velocity v, C2+

  7. The Dependency of Penetration on the Momentum Per Unit Area of the Impacting Projectile and the Resistance of Materials to Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rufus D., Jr.; Kinard, William H.

    1960-01-01

    The results of this investigation indicate that the penetration of projectiles into quasi-infinite targets can be correlated as a function of the maximum momentum per unit area possessed by the projectiles. The penetration of projectiles into aluminum, copper, and steel targets was found to be a linear function while the penetration into lead targets was a nonlinear function of the momentum per unit area of the impacting projectiles. Penetration varied inversely as the projectile density and the elastic modulus of the target material for a given projectile momentum per unit area. Crater volumes were found to be a linear function of the kinetic energy of the projectile, the greater volumes being obtained in the target materials which had the lowest yield strength and the lowest speed of sound.

  8. Multiple laser-based high-speed digital shadowgraphy system for small caliber projectile-target interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, Ramesh C.; Chhachhia, Dharam P.; Bajpai, Phun Phun; Singh, Manjit; Biswas, Ipsita; Yadav, Mohinder S.

    2014-03-01

    High-speed optical shadowgraphy plays an important role in study of various phenomena including projectile-target interaction for small caliber projectile. Present work reports design, development, and implementation of a multiple laser-based high-speed digital shadowgraphy system to study the behavior of a small caliber projectile in flight as well as the projectile-target interaction. System is based on Cranz-Schardin technique. Low power digitally modulated laser diodes along with low-resolution CMOS cameras in global shuttering mode are used to record good quality digital shadowgraphs. The system can record 11 shadowgraphs at a maximum frame rate of 1 million/s and is able to capture even minute details of fragments in the form of shockwaves. Operation of the system, image recording and analysis are fully computer controlled. The design and system description inclusive ultra-short pulse generator and opto-electronic triggering unit are presented and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Analysis of projectile motion with quadratic air resistance from a nonzero height using the Lambert W function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belgacem, Chokri Hadj

    Using the Lambert W function, the quadratic resisted projectile motion with an approximation of low-angle trajectory has been studied where the launching point is assumed to be higher than the landing point...

  10. Chromium isotope anomaly in an impactite sample from the El'gygytgyn structure, Russia: Evidence for a ureilite projectile?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foriel, Julien; Moynier, Frederic; Schulz, Toni; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    ... that an achondritic projectile was involved. We studied the major and trace element composition in samples from the new ICDP drill core obtained near the center of the structure, as well as the chromium isotopic composition of an impact glass...

  11. On the Horizontal Deviation of a Spinning Projectile Penetrating into Granular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ghazi Alshanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a general theory that describes the dynamical behavior of the particulate materials makes the numerical simulations the most current powerful tool that can grasp many mechanical problems relevant to the granular materials. In this paper, based on a two-dimensional soft particle discrete element method (DEM, a numerical approach is developed to investigate the consequence of the orthogonal impact into various granular beds of projectile rotating in both clockwise (CW and counterclockwise (CCW directions. Our results reveal that, depending on the rotation direction, there is a significant deviation of the x-coordinate of the final stopping point of a spinning projectile from that of its original impact point. For CW rotations, a deviation to the right occurs while a left deviation has been recorded for CCW rotation case.

  12. Onset of cavity deformation upon subsonic motion of a projectile in a fluid complex plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, D I; Ivlev, A V; Fortov, V E; Morfill, G E

    2013-06-01

    We study the deformation of a cavity around a large projectile moving with subsonic velocity in the cloud of small dust particles. To solve this problem, we employ the Navier-Stokes equation for a compressible fluid with due regard for friction between dust particles and atoms of neutral gas. The solution shows that due to friction, the pressure of a dust cloud at the surface of a cavity around the projectile can become negative, which entails the emergence of a considerable asymmetry of the cavity, i.e., the cavity deformation. Corresponding threshold velocity is calculated, which is found to decrease with increasing cavity size. Measurement of such velocity makes it possible to estimate the static pressure inside the dust cloud.

  13. Convergent close-coupling approach to light and heavy projectile scattering on atomic and molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, I.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Bailey, J. J.; Bray, A. W.; Fursa, D. V.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Rawlins, C. M.; Savage, J. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Zammit, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    The atomic hydrogen target has played a pivotal role in the development of quantum collision theory. The key complexities of computationally managing the countably infinite discrete states and the uncountably infinite continuum were solved by using atomic hydrogen as the prototype atomic target. In the case of positron or proton scattering the extra complexity of charge exchange was also solved using the atomic hydrogen target. Most recently, molecular hydrogen has been used successfully as a prototype molecule for developing the corresponding scattering theory. We concentrate on the convergent close-coupling computational approach to light projectiles, such as electrons and positrons, and heavy projectiles, such as protons and antiprotons, scattering on atomic and molecular hydrogen.

  14. In medium fragment break-up of projectile in 58Ar+36Ni central collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francalanza, L.

    2017-06-01

    Latest results concerning the study of central collisions in 36Ar+58Ni reactions, carried out by using the INDRA 4π detector at the GANIL are presented. Reaction mechanisms involved in very central collisions for such asymmetric system and their evolution as function of incident energy are studied, from 32 to 95 AMeV, suggesting an in-medium “break-up” process of the projectile where the presence of nuclear transparency plays an important role. Such a process, leading to forward emission of fragments and lights particles in the laboratory frame, is found to be more and more relevant at high energies, when the contribution from quasi-fusion processes vanishes. Evidences of emissions from an excited quasi-target (QT*), moving along the beam direction with velocity rising with incident energy under the dragging effect of the in-medium “crumbling” of the projectile are highlighted.

  15. Energy requirements for the penetration of heads of domestic stock and the development of a multiple projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, D K

    1985-01-12

    The forces and kinetic energy required to penetrate the isolated heads of calves, adult beef cattle, sheep and red deer with a metal probe the same diameter as the bore of an experimental pistol were determined. Approximately 16 and 127 Joules were required to penetrate the heads of adult sheep and cattle, respectively. Using these data a 10 g projectile, consisting of 49 lead pellets and a lead disc in a polyethylene sleeve, was constructed. This projectile, when fired by a charge sufficient to produce a muzzle velocity of 165 m/second, had sufficient kinetic energy to penetrate the heads and brains of cattle, sheep, horses and deer. The projectile was fired from a new design of humane killer with a spring loaded barrel and fitted with a silencer. After penetration of the frontal bones the projectile fragmented and the kinetic energy of its individual particles were insufficient for them to penetrate the opposite side of the head of any of the animals, including one-week-old calves. Fragmentation also caused more brain damage and inhibition of spinal reflexes than a solid free bullet or captive bolt. It is suggested that the use of such a projectile for the emergency slaughter of animals is less hazardous than a solid free bullet and is easier to use and more effective than either a solid free bullet or captive bolt. The projectile was not suitable for killing adult pigs because of problems associated with the frontal sinus.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Sciences Meeting; 2003 Jan 6– 9; Reno, NV. AIAA Paper No.: 2003-1352. 2. DeSpirito J. Transient lateral jet interaction effects on a generic fin- stabilized ...Microflaps for Flow Control by Jubaraj Sahu Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES...Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control by Jubaraj Sahu Weapons and Materials Research

  17. Terra-Drill program: progress report and program plan. [Prefracturing using 50 caliber steel projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, M.M.; Alvis, R.L.; Dardick, D.

    1976-06-01

    This report presents the status of the Terra-Drill development program as of May 31, 1976. The Terra-Drill system uses high velocity projectiles to prefracture the rock in front of a conventional rotary bit. The significant progress is reviewed and a long-range program plan is developed to indicate the level of effort required to bring this system to commercial production.

  18. Range and flight time of quadratic resisted projectile motion using the Lambert W function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Chokri Hadj

    2014-09-01

    We study projectile motion with air resistance quadratic in speed. An approximation of a low-angle trajectory is considered where the horizontal velocity, v x , is assumed to be much larger than the vertical velocity, v y . The explicit solutions for the range and flight time are expressed in terms of the secondary branch of the Lambert function, {{W}_{-1}}. In addition to their theoretical importance, the results obtained will be of interest to teachers involved in undergraduate physics courses.

  19. Aerodynamic Optimization of a Supersonic Bending Body Projectile by a Vector-Evaluated Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Physics and Industrial Engineering ; 2012; Beijing, China . ICAPIE 1875-3892. 26. Lipowski A, Lipowska D. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic...Evaluated Genetic Algorithm prepared by Justin L Paul Academy of Applied Science 24 Warren Street Concord, NH 03301 under contract W911SR...Supersonic Bending Body Projectile by a Vector-Evaluated Genetic Algorithm prepared by Justin L Paul Academy of Applied Science 24 Warren Street

  20. Position Estimation for Projectiles Using Low-cost Sensors and Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    339. 16. Habibi, S.; Cooper, S. J.; Stauffer, J. M. Gun Hard Inertial Measurement Unit Based on MEMS Capacitive Accelerometer and Rate Sensor. In...target. For example, accelerometers and gyroscopes located off the center of gravity of the rigid body can be compensated for in order to obtain...environment using low-cost measurement devices and projectile flight dynamics. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) was developed to blend accelerometer

  1. Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    10 The impulse from the primer firing was calculated from the integration of the first primer pressure pulse over the time for which it is...ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer Output and Initial Projectile Motion for 5.56- and 7.62-mm Ammunition...report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7479 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Primer

  2. The Influence of Muzzle Gasdynamics upon the Trajectory of Fin- Stabilized Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    extend behind the sabot. Sufficient extension eliminates aerodynamic interference be- tween the fins and sabot, permitting direct exposure of these... loss of generality that the projectile is launched with an initial angle of attack but zero sideslip. The initial transverse linear and angular...t tt’jC.^/O , (Defined in Figures 16 and 17) (C5) C =.£Si fk - 2 c + C 1 L 2Fr tKa S DJ P P The normal force coefficient, C

  3. Optimization of aerodynamic form of projectile for solving the problem of shooting range increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipanov, Alexey M.; Korolev, Stanislav A.; Rusyak, Ivan G.

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the development of methods for solving the problem of external ballistics using a more complete system of motion equation taken into account the rotation and oscillation about the mass center and using aerodynamic coefficients of forces and moments which are calculated on the basis of modeling the hydrodynamics of flow around the projectile. Developed methods allows to study the basic ways of increasing the shooting range or artillery.

  4. Dynamic Analysis of the XM650E4 8-Inch Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    corresponding frequency results from restraining an axial node, the center of gravity , which is necessary in the NONSAP eigenvalue routine. The profile...acceleration forces. Due to these high forces the overall effect is reflected in a shortening of the projectile around the center of gravity as the...Univer- sity Computing Center Library No. G60001, Bethlehem , Pennsylvania, July 1970. 7. Goudreau, G. L., "Evaluation of Discrete Methods for the

  5. Off-shell gluon production in interaction of a projectile with 2 or 3 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, M.A.; Salykin, M.Yu. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of High Energy physics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Within the effective QCD action for the Regge kinematics, the amplitudes for virtual gluon emission are studied in collision of a projectile with two and three targets. It is demonstrated that all non-Feynman singularities cancel between induced vertices and rescattering contributions. Formulas simplify considerably in a special gauge, which is a straightforward generalization of the light-cone gauge for emission of real gluons. (orig.)

  6. Demonstration of UXO-PenDepth for the Estimation of Projectile Penetration Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    inner filler material shape and distribution, weights of the projectile and fill, case material type, and nose shape. From this information, the...munitions using a physics-based algorithm within the software UXO-PenDepth. The physical dimensions and weight of the munitions, and type of filler ...in Montana. Site # Recovered Depth to CG (cm) Limestone Hills 105mm 1 12 155mm Illumination M118 2 18, 24 Chevallier Ranch 105mm HE 1

  7. Cardiac changes after simulated behind armor blunt trauma or impact of nonlethal kinetic projectile ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Arborelius, Ulf P; Gryth, Dan; Sonden, Anders; Gustavsson, Jenny; Wangyal, Tashi; Svensson, Leif; Rocksén, David

    2011-11-01

    Cardiac-related injuries caused by blunt chest trauma remain a severe problem. The aim of this study was to investigate pathophysiological changes in the heart that might arise after behind armor blunt trauma or impacts of nonlethal projectiles. Sixteen pigs were shot directly at the sternum with "Sponge Round eXact I Mpact" (nonlethal ammunition; diameter 40 mm and weight 28 g) or hard-plastic ammunition (diameter 65 mm and weight 58 g) to simulate behind armor blunt trauma. To evaluate the influence of the shot location, seven additional pigs where exposed to an oblique heart shot. Physiologic parameters, electrocardiography, echocardiogram, the biochemical marker troponin I (TnI), and myocardial injuries were analyzed. Nonlethal kinetic projectiles (101-108 m/s; 143-163 J) did not cause significant pathophysiological changes. Five of 18 pigs shot with 65-mm plastic projectiles (99-133 m/s; 284-513 J) to the front or side of the thorax died directly after the shot. No major physiologic changes could be observed in surviving animals. Animals shot with an oblique heart shot (99-106 m/s; 284-326 J) demonstrated a small, but significant decrease in saturation. Energy levels over 300 J caused increased TnI and myocardial damages in most of the pigs. This study indicates that nonlethal kinetic projectiles "eXact iMpact" does not cause heart-related damage under the examined conditions. On impact, sudden heart arrest may occur independently from the cardiac's electrical cycle. The cardiac enzyme, TnI, can be used as a reliable diagnostic marker to detect heart tissue damages after blunt chest trauma.

  8. Pilot experiments with relativistic uranium projectile and fission fragments thermalized in a cryogenic gas-filled stopping cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Moritz Pascal

    2015-07-01

    High precision experiments and decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei are of great interest for nuclear structure and nuclear astro-physics. They allow for studies of the nuclear structure far from stability, test of fundamental interactions and symmetries and give important input for the understanding of the nuclear synthesis in the universe. In the context of this work a second generation stopping cell for the low energy branch of the Super-FRS was commissioned at the FRS at GSI and significant improvements were made to the device. The prototype stopping cell is designed as a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC), featuring enhanced cleanliness and high area density. The CSC was brought into full operation and its performance characteristics were investigated including the maximal area density, extraction times, cleanliness and extraction efficiencies. In three commissioning experiments at the current GSI FRS facility in 2011, 2012 and 2014 up to 22 isotopes from 14 elements produced by in-flight projectile fragmentation and fission of {sup 238}U could be thermalized and extracted with high efficiency. For the first time projectile and fission fragmentation produced at 1000 MeV/u could be thermalized in a stopping cell and provided as a low-energy beam of high brilliance for high precision experiments. The technical improvements of the CSC, such as an improved RF carpet, new cryocooler-based cooling system, a monitoring system of the cleanliness and the high density operation, made it possible to thermalize heavy {sup 238}U projectile fragments with total efficiencies of about 20% in the 2014 experiment. In addition the improvements lead to an increase in the stability and reliability of the CSC and the performance of the CSC during online experiments at the FRS Ion Catcher showed that the utilized techniques are ready for the final CSC for the low-energy branch of the Super-FRS at FAIR. The CSC was operated with an area density of up to 6.3 mg/cm{sup 2} helium during

  9. Fin gaps and body slots of guided projectiles: Effects, data correlation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Ameer G.

    1987-06-01

    Prior work concerned with the effect of streamwise fin-body gaps unporting effect and body slots on the fin loads of projectiles and missiles in the transonic speed regime of 0.8 less than or = M less than or = 1.2, was reviewed. Experimental data for the gap effects have been analyzed. A correlation established to predict fin normal force losses due to gaps for any fin shape, size, aspect ratio, fitted very well with the data which span a large variation in Reynolds number, body diameter and boundary layer thickness. Although the Mach range for the present model was intended to be 0.8 less than or = M less than or = 1.2, available data indicated its validity in the wider range of 0.7 less than or = M less than or = 1.6. Fifteen cases were used to validate the present gap model. Application of these two corrections to the Copperhead guided projectile was made and a reduction as large as 38% was predicted for the normal force, which was then validated by the experimental data. The present results can be used for estimating fin load losses for the fin design of guided projectiles and missiles, with 5% accuracy, over the intended Mach number range 0.8 less than or = M less than or = 1.2.

  10. Swerving Orientation of Spin-Stabilized Projectile for Fixed-Cant Canard Control Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-dong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large launch overload and high spin rate of spin-stabilized projectile, no attitude sensor is adopted in square crossing fixed-cant canard concept, which causes the lack of existing projectile linear theory for the close form solution of swerving motion. This work focuses on swerving orientation prediction with the restricted conditions. By importing the mathematical models of canard force and moment into the projectile angular motion equations, trim angle induced by canard control force is extracted as the analytical solution of angle of attack increment (AOAI. On this basis, analytical orientations of trajectory angular rate increment and swerving increment are obtained via the frozen coefficient method. A series of simulations under different conditions were implemented to validate the expressions in this effort. Results state that increment orientation of swerving motion can be predicted with available trajectory parameters. The analytical orientations indicate trim value of numerical orientations. Deviations between analytical and numerical orientations relate to initial launch angles and control start time, both lower initial launch angle, and the start time which is closer to the end of flight decreases the deviation convergence time.

  11. Highly accurate analytic formulae for projectile motion subjected to quadratic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmazoglu, Mustafa

    2016-05-01

    The classical phenomenon of motion of a projectile fired (thrown) into the horizon through resistive air charging a quadratic drag onto the object is revisited in this paper. No exact solution is known that describes the full physical event under such an exerted resistance force. Finding elegant analytical approximations for the most interesting engineering features of dynamical behavior of the projectile is the principal target. Within this purpose, some analytical explicit expressions are derived that accurately predict the maximum height, its arrival time as well as the flight range of the projectile at the highest ascent. The most significant property of the proposed formulas is that they are not restricted to the initial speed and firing angle of the object, nor to the drag coefficient of the medium. In combination with the available approximations in the literature, it is possible to gain information about the flight and complete the picture of a trajectory with high precision, without having to numerically simulate the full governing equations of motion.

  12. Scaling invariance of spherical projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin continuous shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myagkov, N. N., E-mail: nn-myagkov@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The problem of aluminum projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin aluminum shield is considered. A distinctive feature of this description is that the fragmentation has been numerically simulated using the complete system of equations of deformed solid mechanics by a method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics in three-dimensional setting. The transition from damage to fragmentation is analyzed and scaling relations are derived in terms of the impact velocity (V), ratio of shield thickness to projectile diameter (h/D), and ultimate strength (σ{sub p}) in the criterion of projectile and shield fracture. Analysis shows that the critical impact velocity V{sub c} (separating the damage and fragmentation regions) is a power function of σ{sub p} and h/D. In the supercritical region (V > V{sub c}), the weight-average fragment mass asymptotically tends to a power function of the impact velocity with exponent independent of h/D and σ{sub p}. Mean cumulative fragment mass distributions at the critical point are scale-invariant with respect to parameters h/D and σ{sub p}. Average masses of the largest fragments are also scale-invariant at V > V{sub c}, but only with respect to variable parameter σ{sub p}.

  13. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Cherniaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and aluminum plate provides better fragmentation of small hypervelocity projectiles. At the same time, none of the combined mesh/plate bumpers provide a significant increase of ballistic properties as compared to an aluminum plate bumper. This indicates that the positive results reported in the literature for bumpers with metallic meshes and large projectiles are not scalable down to millimeter-sized particles. Based on this investigation’s results, a possible modification of the combined mesh/plate bumper is proposed for the future study.

  14. Influence of impact conditions on plasma generation during hypervelocity impact by aluminum projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weidong; Lv, Yangtao; Li, Jianqiao; Wang, Cheng; Ning, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    For describing hypervelocity impact (relative low-speed as related to space debris and much lower than travelling speed of meteoroids) phenomenon associated with plasma generation, a self-developed 3D code was advanced to numerically simulate projectiles impacting on a rigid wall. The numerical results were combined with a new ionization model which was developed in an early study to calculate the ionized materials during the impact. The calculated results of ionization were compared with the empirical formulas concluded by experiments in references and a good agreement was obtained. Then based on the reliable 3D numerical code, a series of impacts with different projectile configurations were simulated to investigate the influence of impact conditions on hypervelocity impact generated plasma. It was found that the form of empirical formula needed to be modified. A new empirical formula with a critical impact velocity was advanced to describe the velocity dependence of plasma generation and the parameters of the modified formula were ensured by the comparison between the numerical predictions and the empirical formulas. For different projectile configurations, the changes of plasma charges with time are different but the integrals of charges on time almost stayed in the same level.

  15. New measurements of the properties of neutron-rich projectile fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, D. J.; Meierbachtol, K.; Mosby, M.; Thoennessen, M. R.; MoNa Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Two new experiments were carried out at the NSCL to explore the details of the linear moment and excitation energy distributions of projectile fragmentation production. In the first experiment the full linear momentum distributions of fragments from the reaction of a 76 Ge beam with beryllium and gold targets were measured in the S800 spectrometer. The results indicate a strong contribution of "far side" or attractive scattering to the near-projectile products with the gold target. In the second experiment the excitation energy of primary projectile fragments from peripheral nuclear reactions at intermediate energies was carried out at the NSCL. Sodium, neon and fluorine isotopes produced by the fragmentation of a neutron-rich 32Mg beam by a beryllium target were observed in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with fast neutrons detected using the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA). A new technique based on an analysis of the observed neutron multiplicity distributions was used to estimate the excitation energy and mass of the precursor intermediate products for the first time. A strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity and the total mass loss was observed indicating that large excitation energies were created in the prefragments by the initial collision. These findings are generally consistent with the internuclear cascade model of the collision dynamics but not with macroscopic abrasion-ablation models.

  16. CFD Simulations of a Finned Projectile with Microflaps for Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubaraj Sahu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a computational study undertaken to determine the effect of a flow control mechanism and its associated aerodynamics for a finned projectile. The flow control system consists of small microflaps located between the rear fins of the projectile. These small microflaps alter the flow field in the aft finned region of the projectile, create asymmetric pressure distributions, and thus produce aerodynamic control forces and moments. A number of different geometric parameters, microflap locations, and the number of microflaps were varied in an attempt to maximize the control authority generated by the flaps. Steady-state Navier-Stokes computations were performed to obtain the control aerodynamic forces and moments associated with the microflaps. These results were used to optimize the control authority at a supersonic speed, M=2.5. Computed results showed not only the microflaps to be effective at this speed, but also configurations with 6 and 8 microflaps were found to generate 25%–50% more control force than a baseline 4-flap configuration. These results led to a new optimized 8-flap configuration that was further investigated for a range of Mach numbers from M=0.8 to 5.0 and was found to be a viable configuration effective in providing control at all of these speeds.

  17. Fragmentation of the Pb projectile at 158 GeV/nucleon an Pb-Pb interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge (United States); Dabrowska, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)] [and others; KLM Collaboration

    1998-08-01

    We have investigated the process of fragmentation of the Pb nucleus at 158 GeV/nucleon in Pb-Pb interactions recorded in lead-emulsion chambers of the EMU13 CERN experiment. The number of Pb-Pb interactions found was larger than that expected from the nuclear charge changing cross section which indicates an important role of electromagnetic dissociation processes in Pb-Pb interactions at this high energy. The emission angles of multiply charged projectile fragments as well as of spectator protons were measured using the semiautomated device with the CCD camera mounted on a microscope. Taking the advantage of the unconventional design of the emulsion chambers the charges of all multiply charged projectile fragments were measured. On the basis of these measurements, different modes of the Pb projectile break-up are discussed. The rates and properties of the fragmentation processes such as fission, multifragmentation and disintegration only into singly charged fragments are presented. (author) 21 refs, 15 figs, 1 tab

  18. Research of the In-process Artillery Shot in Terms of Projectile Band-engraving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Efremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers, in the classical treatment of an artillery shot, a pyrostatic (preliminary shot period during which a projectile is assumed to be motionless until the pressure of the powder gases becomes equal to the conditional shot-start pressure. The latter is determined by the maximum force of resistance to the driving band completely engraved by rifling, with resistance related to the projectile cross-section area. In actual practice, the engraving is a gradual process (in this case the shot period is called a forcing one. A level of the axial inertial forces may even be sufficient for fuse arming of inertial safety devices.The fact that there is a need to have a sufficiently large set of the appropriate design and physical parameters, which are, usually, incompletely known, hinders the use of a rigorous calculation technique.To simplify the inter ballistics calculation, an analytical approximation of the engraving curve is proposed.  For its description it is necessary to know the maximum force of resistance (or the shot-start pressure, the width of the driving band and the total travel of a projectile when engraving. Thus, it is assumed that after complete engraving of the driving band the resistance super-quickly drops to zero, and an appropriate jump in the acceleration (setback curve of the projectile occurs.For the first time, it is proposed to include the number of inter ballistic parameters into the work of powder gases, thus ensuring an automatic integration of the system of equations regardless of the specific description of the engraving curve (in some cases, analytical integration needed for calculation may be impossible.The example of calculation for the 122-mm D-30 howitzer illustrates a practical application of the proposed technique. Comparison of calculation results using the traditional and proposed techniques is made to show that the integral characteristics of the shot are close. It is found that a progress of the

  19. Techniques for Surface-Temperature Measurements and Transition Detection on Projectiles at Hypersonic Velocities--Status Report No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Wilder, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The latest developments in a research effort to advance techniques for measuring surface temperatures and heat fluxes and determining transition locations on projectiles in hypersonic free flight in a ballistic range are described. Spherical and hemispherical titanium projectiles were launched at muzzle velocities of 4.6-5.8 km/sec into air and nitrogen at pressures of 95-380 Torr. Hemisphere models with diameters of 2.22 cm had maximum pitch and yaw angles of 5.5-8 degrees and 4.7-7 degrees, depending on whether they were launched using an evacuated launch tube or not. Hemisphere models with diameters of 2.86 cm had maximum pitch and yaw angles of 2.0-2.5 degrees. Three intensified-charge-coupled-device (ICCD) cameras with wavelength sensitivity ranges of 480-870 nm (as well as one infrared camera with a wavelength sensitivity range of 3 to 5 microns), were used to obtain images of the projectiles in flight. Helium plumes were used to remove the radiating gas cap around the projectiles at the locations where ICCD camera images were taken. ICCD and infrared (IR) camera images of titanium hemisphere projectiles at velocities of 4.0-4.4 km/sec are presented as well as preliminary temperature data for these projectiles. Comparisons were made of normalized temperature data for shots at approx.190 Torr in air and nitrogen and with and without the launch tube evacuated. Shots into nitrogen had temperatures 6% lower than those into air. Evacuation of the launch tube was also found to lower the projectile temperatures by approx.6%.

  20. Aerodynamics, Dimensions, Inertial Properties, and Performance of Artillery Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    8 contingency runs 4 4. Tota , T6 Ill. Body and TIal Canards (cntrols deflected) A. Test Conditions 1. Mach No.: Same as l1 (4) 2. Angles of Attack...0.030 (4) 6. Control Deflections: 0 (1) B. Number of Runs 280 t 1. p = 0, 00, 1800, 2700, M 0.8: 4 (Asymmetry check) 2. p=0: 88 3. pif0: 33 4. Tota I...Library 45 Code 5557 46 China Lake , CA 93557 Commander Air Proving Ground Center (PGTRI) ATTN: Technical Library 47 Mr. C. Butier 48 Eglin Air Force

  1. Transient forces generated by projectiles on variable quality mouthguards monitored by instrumented impact testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnet, Laurent; Greasley, A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: (a) To determine the force-time trace that occurs when a spring mounted simulated upper jaw is impacted; (b) to examine if mouthguards of variable quality have significant influence on such force-time traces; (c) to attempt to relate physical events to the profile of the force-time

  2. Numerical simulation and experimental study of explosive projectile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, V. V.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Goldenko, N. A.; Sudomoev, A. D.; Feldstein, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    A study of explosive-throwing device (ETD) was undertaken to simulate the hypervelocity impact of space debris fragments (SDF) and meteoroids with spacecrafts. The principle of operation of an ETD is based on the cumulative effect in combination with the cut-off head of the cumulative jet, which enables one to simulate a compact particle, such as a meteoroid or a fragment of space debris. Different design schemes of ETD with different composition explosive charge initiation schemes with notably low speeds of the jet cut-off are explored, and a method to control the particle velocity is proposed. Numerical simulation of device modes and basic technical characteristics of experimental testing are investigated.

  3. Impact cratering as a major process in planet formation: Projectile identification of meteorite craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G.; Kratz, K.

    2009-12-01

    Ancient surfaces of solid planets show that impact cratering is a major process in planet formation. Understanding origin and influence of impactors on the chemical composition of planets (core, mantle and crust) it is important to know the relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd) in the silicate mantle and crust of planets and meteorites. Refractory highly siderophile elements, such as Os and Ir, are abundant in most meteorites but depleted in crustal rocks (low target/meteorite ratios) and thus the most reliable elements for projectile identification. However, target/meteorite ratios are high if target rocks consist of mantle rocks. In such cases elements are enriched in impactites due to relatively high abundances (ng/g level) in target rocks to make the identification of projectile types difficult (e.g., Gardnos impact structure in Norway). The Ru/Ir ratio is the most reliable key ratio that rules out Earth primitive upper mantle (PUM) derived refractory highly siderophile element components in impactites. The well established Ru/Ir ratio of the Earth mantle of 2.0 ± 0.1 (e.g. Schmidt and Kratz 2004) is significantly above the chondritic ratios varying from 1.4 to 1.6. On Earth Rh/Ir, Ru/Ir, Pd/Ir, and Pt/Os derived from PUM match the ratios of group IV irons with fractionated trace element patterns. The question raise if HSE in mantle rocks are added to the accreting Earth by a late bombardment of pre-differentiated objects or the cores of these objects (magmatic iron meteorites as remnants of the first planetesimals, e.g. Kleine et al. 2009) or some unsampled inner solar system materials from the Mercury-Venus formation region, not sampled through meteorite collections (Schmidt 2009). The PGE and Ni systematics of the upper continental crust (UCC) closely resembles group IIIAB iron meteorites with highly fractionated refractory trace element patterns, pallasites, and the evolved suite of Martian meteorites (representing

  4. Death, injury and disability from kinetic impact projectiles in crowd-control settings: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Rohini J; Iacopino, Vincent; Ranadive, Nikhil; Dandu, Madhavi; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-01-01

    Objective We conducted a systematic review of the available literature on deaths, injuries and permanent disability from rubber and plastic bullets, as well as from bean bag rounds, shot pellets and other projectiles used in arrests, protests and other contexts from 1 January 1990 until 1 June 2017. Data sources PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR and grey literature. Data synthesis We report on descriptive statistics as well as data on injury severity, permanent disability and death. We analysed potential risk factors for injury severity, including the site of impact, firing distance and access to medical care. Results Of 3228 identified articles, 26 articles met inclusion criteria. These articles included injury data on 1984 people, 53 of whom died as a result of their injuries. 300 people suffered permanent disability. Deaths and permanent disability often resulted from strikes to the head and neck (49.1% of deaths and 82.6% of permanent disabilities). Of the 2135 injuries in those who survived their injuries, 71% were severe, injuries to the skin and to the extremities were most frequent. Anatomical site of impact, firing distance and timely access to medical care were correlated with injury severity and risk of disability. Conclusions Kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs), often called rubber or plastic bullets, are used commonly in crowd-control settings. We find that these projectiles have caused significant morbidity and mortality during the past 27 years, much of it from penetrative injuries and head, neck and torso trauma. Given their inherent inaccuracy, potential for misuse and associated health consequences of severe injury, disability and death, KIPs do not appear to be appropriate weapons for use in crowd-control settings. There is an urgent need to establish international guidelines on the use of crowd-control weapons to prevent unnecessary injuries and deaths. PMID:29255079

  5. Death, injury and disability from kinetic impact projectiles in crowd-control settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Rohini J; Iacopino, Vincent; Ranadive, Nikhil; Dandu, Madhavi; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-12-05

    We conducted a systematic review of the available literature on deaths, injuries and permanent disability from rubber and plastic bullets, as well as from bean bag rounds, shot pellets and other projectiles used in arrests, protests and other contexts from 1 January 1990 until 1 June 2017. PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR and grey literature. We report on descriptive statistics as well as data on injury severity, permanent disability and death. We analysed potential risk factors for injury severity, including the site of impact, firing distance and access to medical care. Of 3228 identified articles, 26 articles met inclusion criteria. These articles included injury data on 1984 people, 53 of whom died as a result of their injuries. 300 people suffered permanent disability. Deaths and permanent disability often resulted from strikes to the head and neck (49.1% of deaths and 82.6% of permanent disabilities). Of the 2135 injuries in those who survived their injuries, 71% were severe, injuries to the skin and to the extremities were most frequent. Anatomical site of impact, firing distance and timely access to medical care were correlated with injury severity and risk of disability. Kinetic impact projectiles (KIPs), often called rubber or plastic bullets, are used commonly in crowd-control settings. We find that these projectiles have caused significant morbidity and mortality during the past 27 years, much of it from penetrative injuries and head, neck and torso trauma. Given their inherent inaccuracy, potential for misuse and associated health consequences of severe injury, disability and death, KIPs do not appear to be appropriate weapons for use in crowd-control settings. There is an urgent need to establish international guidelines on the use of crowd-control weapons to prevent unnecessary injuries and deaths. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  6. Systematic investigation of projectile fragmentation using beams of unstable B and C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, R.; Heinz, A.; Adachi, T.; Aksyutina, Y.; Alcantara-Núñes, J.; Altstadt, S.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ashwood, N.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Barr, M.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Camaño, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkäll, J.; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespo, R.; Datta, U.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estradé, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubev, P.; Gonzalez Diaz, D.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Henriques, A.; Holl, M.; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, A.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lepyoshkina, O.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Maroussov, V.; Mostazo, M.; Movsesyan, A.; Najafi, A.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Röder, M.; Rossi, D.; Sanchez del Rio, J.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Stoica, V.; Streicher, B.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Terashima, S.; Togano, Y.; Uberseder, E.; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Weigand, M.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, C.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M. V.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Background: Models describing nuclear fragmentation and fragmentation fission deliver important input for planning nuclear physics experiments and future radioactive ion beam facilities. These models are usually benchmarked against data from stable beam experiments. In the future, two-step fragmentation reactions with exotic nuclei as stepping stones are a promising tool for reaching the most neutron-rich nuclei, creating a need for models to describe also these reactions. Purpose: We want to extend the presently available data on fragmentation reactions towards the light exotic region on the nuclear chart. Furthermore, we want to improve the understanding of projectile fragmentation especially for unstable isotopes. Method: We have measured projectile fragments from 10,12 -18C and B-1510 isotopes colliding with a carbon target. These measurements were all performed within one experiment, which gives rise to a very consistent data set. We compare our data to model calculations. Results: One-proton removal cross sections with different final neutron numbers (1 p x n ) for relativistic 10,12 -18C and B-1510 isotopes impinging on a carbon target. Comparing model calculations to the data, we find that the epax code is not able to describe the data satisfactorily. Using abrabla07 on the other hand, we find that the average excitation energy per abraded nucleon needs to be decreased from 27 MeV to 8.1 MeV. With that decrease abrabla07 describes the data surprisingly well. Conclusions: Extending the available data towards light unstable nuclei with a consistent set of new data has allowed a systematic investigation of the role of the excitation energy induced in projectile fragmentation. Most striking is the apparent mass dependence of the average excitation energy per abraded nucleon. Nevertheless, this parameter, which has been related to final-state interactions, requires further study.

  7. Effect of system size on the traditional signatures of critical behavior in projectile multifragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, B.; Talukdar, R.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of the system size on a number of traditionally accepted signatures of cluster approximation technique of critical behavior have been examined for projectile multifragmenting systems like Mg at 4.5 AGeV and Kr at 0.95 AGeV. The results obtained from analyzing our experimental data on the fluctuation of size of the largest fragments, reduced variance and the mean value of the second moments of charge distribution provide clear evidences of size effect in terms of the height and position of the peaks of the studied parameters.

  8. Anomalies in the Flow over Projectile with Wrap-around Fins

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Krishna; Rhishabh Surit; Abhijit Kushari; Ghosh, A K

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study to understand the flow field over a projectile with wraparoundfins. This investigation is performed in order to determine aerodynamic coefficients for the missile model for varying Mach number from 1.2 to 2.5. The roll moment coefficients were computed from the flow field solution and compared with other computational models and experimental works. The results show a reversal of the rolling moment in a Mach number from 1.2 to 1.4. While gen...

  9. Projectile motion on an inclined misty surface: II. Scoring a goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, S. K.; Lim, C. C.; Kuppan, L.

    2009-05-01

    Feedback on part I of this series (Ho et al 2009 Phys. Educ. 44 253) motivated us to make hitting the target more interesting with a simple innovation: changing the target to a ring shaped hoop or goalpost and shooting for it in the 'air', as if playing basketball on the inclined plane. We discuss in detail the demarcation of the boundary (safety parabola) between the accessible region and the inaccessible region for a projectile on the surface of the inclined plane, and derive the angle of projection for scoring a goal. We also consider the orientation of the rings for maximizing the chance of scoring.

  10. Multiple-projectile penetrating neck injury from a modified nail-containing gas pistol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazardzhikliev, Dimitar Dimitrov

    2014-09-01

    Penetrating neck injuries result from missiles and stab wounds. A gas pistol is a non-lethal weapon for self-defence. We present a case where the use of a modified gun led to multiple injuries in a single shot. Four projectiles were embedded in the neck, one in the larynx and three in the cervical spine. The first was removed via a combined external and endoscopic approach, while the rest were put on follow-up. The reported case shows that damage from modified gas pistols, although rarely life threatening, may cause long term discomfort and diminished quality of life.

  11. Clovis age Western stemmed projectile points and human coprolites at the Paisley Caves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, Dennis L.; Davis, Loren G.; Stafford jr., Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Paisley Caves in Oregon record the oldest directly dated human remains (DNA) in the Western Hemisphere. More than 100 high-precision radiocarbon dates show that deposits containing artifacts and coprolites ranging in age from 12,450 to 2295 C years ago are well stratified. Western Stemmed...... projectile points were recovered in deposits dated to 11,070 to 11,340 C years ago, a time contemporaneous with or preceding the Clovis technology. There is no evidence of diagnostic Clovis technology at the site. These two distinct technologies were parallel developments, not the product of a unilinear...

  12. Fragmentation of Millimeter-Size Hypervelocity Projectiles on Combined Mesh-Plate Bumpers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Telichev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This numerical study evaluates the concept of a combined mesh-plate bumper as a shielding system protecting unmanned spacecraft from small (1 mm) orbital debris impacts. Two-component bumpers consisting of an external layer of woven mesh (aluminum or steel) directly applied to a surface of the aluminum plate are considered. Results of numerical modeling with a projectile velocity of 7 km/s indicate that, in comparison to the steel mesh-combined bumper, the combination of aluminum mesh and alu...

  13. Methyl Centralite Coated M10 Propellant for the 25-mm Bushmaster Gun Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    USrO FOR GOVERNMENT PURPOSES ONLY L’ would bo marginal with the lower, projectile weights for SP KC coated propellant (RAD-PE-485-Bl) or NP KC coated...EXPLOSIVE (SOLID) CLASS B 25umm GUN HE LOT RAD-PE-559- 6 0.024" WEB SP GRAIN 150 LBS NET 101 LBS GROSS 4.2 CU FT PACKD * *Insert as applicable. TO...IA,14n Avne_ . 5 MANUFATURE O PROPELLANTSC 35 5 62-IP _Weter n 1 11 7& 76 Coating Cycle -58 1 67 Post Coating

  14. Hockey, iPads, and Projectile Motion in a Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2013-09-01

    With the increased availability of modern technology and handheld probeware for classrooms, the iPad1 and the Video Physics2 application developed by Vernier are used to capture and analyze the motion of an ice hockey puck within secondary-level physics education. Students collect, analyze, and generate digital modes of representation of physics phenomena using modern technologies to complement theoretical plots. This activity acknowledges hockey players' implicit understanding of the launch angle and initial velocity of a saucer pass as basic projectile motion while engaging students in authentic physics-based problem solving.

  15. Multifragmentation of the Pb projectile at 158 GeV/nucleon in Pb-Pb interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holynski, R.; Dabrowska, A.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Nilsen, B.S.; Waddington, C.J.; Wefel, J.P.

    1999-06-01

    We have investigated the process of fragmentation of the Pb nucleus at 158 GeV/nucleon in Pb-Pb interactions recorded in the lead-emulsion chambers of the EMU13 CERN experiment. The number of Pb-Pb interactions found was larger than expected from the nuclear charge changing cross section, which indicates an important role of electromagnetic dissociation processes in Pb-Pb interactions at this energy. Different modes of the Pb projectile break-up, including the multifragmentation process, are discussed. The rates and properties of fragmentation processes such as fission, multifragmentation and disintegration into singly charged fragments are presented. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Effect of a Bore Evacuator on Projectile In-Bore Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    VEL QCýITY 534 m/s •0 200 5500 2ൈ,• i • / / 50 20 __ ACCE RATION 240 40 220 40"O 4 i000 40 41000 3:00 100 ( ISO < 00o.t °300 140.... 120 2000 2 0 0...Figure 6 Projectile velocity, travel, and acceleration versus time - TRN 82 5 Acceleration (G’s) Travel 28500 t(in.) 2550 TRAVEL 6 255 i C EL R TIi500 260

  17. New approach to the nuclear in beam {gamma} spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei at N=20 using projectile fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Jimenez, M.J.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Achouri, L.; Daugas, J.M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds, 14 - Caen (France); Belleguic, M.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Stanoiu, M.; Borcea, C. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Angelique, J.C. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire] [and others

    1999-11-01

    The structure of nuclei far from stability around {sup 32}Mg have been recently investigated by means of a novel method. In-beam {gamma}-decay spectroscopy of a large number of exotic neutron-rich nuclei produced by projectile fragmentation of a {sup 36}S projectile has been performed, using coincidences between the recoil fragments collected at the focal plane of SPEG spectrometer and {gamma}-rays emitted at the target location. Preliminary results on both the population mechanism and the decay of excited states in nuclei around {sup 32}Mg are presented. (author) 24 refs.

  18. Computational design of graphene sheets for withstanding the impact of ultrafast projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    A multi-scale method is employed in this paper to conduct a virtual study of the high-strain behavior of single- and multi-layer graphene sheets and to investigate the design of related graphene-based devices. By bridging the length and time scales by combining the Molecular Dynamics and Finite Element methods together, a comprehensive multiscale model is developed to study the fascinating capabilities of single- and multi-layer graphene sheets in withstanding the impact of ultrafast projectiles. In order to contribute to future developments and innovations in this field, several quantitative and qualitative comparisons are also performed. By employing the validated model, the effects of several parameters on the impact resistance efficiency of the examined sheets are evaluated. The specific penetration energy of multilayer graphene sheets is several times greater than that of metal sheets. It is demonstrated that the number of layers, aspect ratio, sheet size, interlayer distance, delamination, and projectile shape significantly influence the impact resistance of graphene sheets. The specific critical rupture velocity decreases asymptotically with the increase in the number of layers. A large-scale array of fewer graphene layers can withstand bullets of much higher velocities than a multilayer graphene sheet with equivalent weight. Finally, the coefficient of restitution for the oblique collision of gold and steel nanoparticles with multilayer graphene sheets is calculated at different impact velocities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of projectile structure on evaporation residue yields in incomplete fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Sudarshan, K; Shrivastava, B D; Goswami, A; Tomar, B S

    2003-01-01

    The excitation functions of heavy residues, representing complete and incomplete fusion products, produced in the reaction of sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C on sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta have been measured over the projectile energy range of 5 to 6.5 MeV/nucleon by the recoil catcher method and off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the measured excitation functions with those calculated using the PACE2 code based on the statistical model revealed the occurrence of incomplete fusion reactions in the formation of alpha emission products. The fraction of incomplete fusion cross sections in the sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction was found to be higher, by a factor of approx 2, than that in the sup 1 sup 3 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction. The results have been discussed in terms of the effect of alpha cluster structure of the projectile on incomplete fusion reactions.

  20. Simulation of changes in temperature and pressure fields during high speed projectiles forming by explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miloš D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Research in this paper considered the temperatures fields as the consequently influenced effects appeared by plastic deformation, in the explosively forming process aimed to design Explosively Formed Projectiles (henceforth EFP. As the special payloads of the missiles, used projectiles are packaged as the metal liners, joined with explosive charges, to design explosive propulsion effect. Their final form and velocity during shaping depend on distributed temperatures in explosively driven plastic deformation process. Developed simulation model consider forming process without metal cover of explosive charge, in aim to discover liner’s dynamical correlations of effective plastic strains and temperatures in the unconstrained detonation environment made by payload construction. The temperature fields of the liner’s copper material are considered in time, as the consequence of strain/stress displacements driven by explosion environmental thermodynamically fields of pressures and temperatures. Achieved final velocities and mass loses as the expected EFP performances are estimated regarding their dynamical shaping and thermal gradients behavior vs. effective plastic strains. Performances and parameters are presented vs. process time, numerically simulated by the Autodyne software package. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47029

  1. Bringing Javanesse Traditional Dance into Basic Physics Class: Exemplifying Projectile Motion through Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Langlang; Prasetya Aji, Mahardika; Susilo; Marwoto, Putut

    2016-08-01

    An alternative approach of an arts-based instruction for Basic Physics class has been developed through the implementation of video analysis of a Javanesse traditional dance: Bambangan Cakil. A particular movement of the dance -weapon throwing- was analyzed by employing the LoggerPro software package to exemplify projectile motion. The results of analysis indicated that the movement of the thrown weapon in Bambangan Cakil dance provides some helping explanations of several physics concepts of projectile motion: object's path, velocity, and acceleration, in a form of picture, graph and also table. Such kind of weapon path and velocity can be shown via a picture or graph, while such concepts of decreasing velocity in y direction (weapon moving downward and upward) due to acceleration g can be represented through the use of a table. It was concluded that in a Javanesse traditional dance there are many physics concepts which can be explored. The study recommends to bring the traditional dance into a science class which will enable students to get more understanding of both physics concepts and Indonesia cultural heritage.

  2. Effects of the projectile electronic structure on Bethe-Bloch stopping parameters for Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, D., E-mail: djamelmoussa@gmail.co [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Damache, S. [Division de Physique, CRNA, 02 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399 Alger-gare, Algiers (Algeria); Ouichaoui, S., E-mail: souichaoui@gmail.co [USTHB, Faculte de Physique, B.P. 32, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-06-15

    Energy losses of protons and alpha particles in silver have been accurately measured under the same experimental conditions over the velocity range E{sub lab}=(0.192-2.595) MeV/amu using the transmission method. Deduced S(E) stopping powers are compared to most accurate ones from the literature, to values generated by the SRIM-2008 computer code and to ICRU-49 compilation. They were analyzed in the framework of modified Bethe-Bloch theory for extracting Ag target mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and Barkas effect parameter, b. Values of (466{+-}5) eV and 1.20{+-}0.01 for these two parameters were inferred from the proton S(E) data while the alpha particle data yielded values of (438{+-}4) eV and 1.38{+-}0.01, respectively. The (I, b) stopping parameters thus exhibit opposite variations as the projectile charge increases, similarly as we have found previously for nickel . This can be ascribed only to an effect of the projectile electronic structure at low velocities. The obtained results are discussed in comparison to previous ones reported in the literature.

  3. Evaluation of the performance of three elastomers for non-lethal projectile applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thota N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Less lethal kinetic ammunitions with soft noses such as eXact iMpact 1006, National Sports Spartan and B&T have been commonly used by military and law enforcement officers in the situations where lethal force is not warranted. In order to explore new materials to be used as nose in such ammunitions, a scholastic study using finite element simulations has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two rubber like elastomers and a polyolefinic foam (low density, highly compressible, stiff and closed cell type of thermos plastic elastomer. State-of-the art thorax surrogate MTHOTA has been employed for the evaluation of blunt thoracic trauma. Force-rigid wall method was employed for the evaluation of head damage curves for each material. XM 1006 has been used as the benchmark projectile for the purpose of comparison. Both blunt thoracic trauma and head damage criterion point of view, both rubbers (R1 and R2 have yielded high values of VCmax and peak impact force. Polyolefinic foam (F1 considered in the study has yielded very promising VCmax values and very less peak impact force when compared with those of bench mark projectile XM 1006.

  4. A New Mechanism of Sediment Attachment to Oil in Turbulent Flows: Projectile Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Katz, Joseph; Haspel, Gal; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Robinson, Brian

    2017-10-03

    The interaction of oil and sediment in the environment determines, to a large extent, the trajectory and fate of oil. Using confocal microscope imaging techniques to obtain detailed 3D structures of oil-particle aggregates (OPAs) formed in turbulent flows, we elucidated a new mechanism of particle attachment, whereby the particles behave as projectiles penetrating the oil droplets to depths varying from ∼2 to 10 μm due to the hydrodynamic forces in the water. This mechanism results in a higher attachment of particles on oil in comparison with adsorption, as commonly assumed. The projectile hypothesis also explains the fragmentation of oil droplets with time, which occurred after long hours of mixing, leading to the formation of massive OPA clusters. Various lines of inquiry strongly suggested that protruding particles get torn from oil droplets and carry oil with them, causing the torn particles to be amphiphillic so that they contribute to the formation of massive OPAs of smaller oil droplets (<∼5-10 μm). Low particle concentration resulted in large, irregularly shaped oil blobs over time, the deformation of which without fragmentation could be due to partial coverage of the oil droplet surface by particles. The findings herein revealed a new pathway for the fate of oil in environments containing non-negligible sediment concentrations.

  5. Prospects for the discovery of the next new element: Influence of projectiles with Z > 20

    CERN Document Server

    Folden, Charles M; Werke, Tyler A; Alfonso, Marisa C; Bennett, Megan E; DeVanzo, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of forming new superheavy elements with projectiles having Z > 20 is discussed. Current research has focused on the fusion of 48Ca with actinides targets, but these reactions cannot be used for new element discoveries in the future due to a lack of available target material. The influence on reaction cross sections of projectiles with Z > 20 have been studied in so-called analog reactions, which utilize lanthanide targets carefully chosen to create compound nuclei with energetics similar to those found in superheavy element production. The reactions 48Ca, 45Sc, 50Ti, 54Cr + 159Tb, 162Dy have been studied at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University using the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer. The results of these experimental studies are discussed in terms of the influence of collective enhancements to level density for compound nuclei near closed shells, and the implications for the production of superheavy elements. We have observed no evidence to contradict theoretical predict...

  6. Evaluation of the performance of three elastomers for non-lethal projectile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, N.; Epaarachchi, J.; Lau, K. T.

    2015-09-01

    Less lethal kinetic ammunitions with soft noses such as eXact iMpact 1006, National Sports Spartan and B&T have been commonly used by military and law enforcement officers in the situations where lethal force is not warranted. In order to explore new materials to be used as nose in such ammunitions, a scholastic study using finite element simulations has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of two rubber like elastomers and a polyolefinic foam (low density, highly compressible, stiff and closed cell type of thermos plastic elastomer). State-of-the art thorax surrogate MTHOTA has been employed for the evaluation of blunt thoracic trauma. Force-rigid wall method was employed for the evaluation of head damage curves for each material. XM 1006 has been used as the benchmark projectile for the purpose of comparison. Both blunt thoracic trauma and head damage criterion point of view, both rubbers (R1 and R2) have yielded high values of VCmax and peak impact force. Polyolefinic foam (F1) considered in the study has yielded very promising VCmax values and very less peak impact force when compared with those of bench mark projectile XM 1006.

  7. EFFECT OF BODY SHAPE ON THE AERODYNAMICS OF PROJECTILES AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKAREEM SH. MAHDI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been made to predict the effects of forebody and afterbody shapes on the aerodynamic characteristics of several projectile bodies at supersonic speeds using analytical methods combined with semi-empirical design curves. The considered projectile bodies had a length-to-diameter ratio of 6.67 and included three variations of forebody shape and three variations of afterbody shape. The results, which are verified by comparison with available experimental data, indicated that the lowest drag was achieved with a cone-cylinder at the considered Mach number range. It is also shown that the drag can be reduced by boattailing the afterbody. The centre-of-pressure assumed a slightly rearward location for the ogive-cylinder configuration when compared to the configuration with boattailed afterbody where it was the most forward. With the exception of the boattailed afterbody, all the bodies indicated inherent static stability above Mach number 2 for a centre-of-gravity location at about 40% from the body nose.

  8. A new analytical model for the low-velocity perforation of thin steel plates by hemispherical-nosed projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hai Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic experiments were conducted on thin steel plates that are normally impacted by hemispherical-nosed projectiles at velocities higher than their ballistic limits. The deformation and failure modes of the thin steel plates were analyzed. A new method was proposed according to the experimental results and the perforation phenomenon of the thin steel plates to determine the radius of the bulging region. In establishing this new method, a dynamic method combined with the plastic wave propagation concept based on the rigid plastic assumption was adopted. The whole perforation process was divided into four consecutive stages, namely, bulging deformation, dishing deformation, ductile hole enlargement, and projectile exit. On the basis of the energy conservation principle, a new model was developed to predict the residual velocities of hemispherical-nosed projectiles that perforate thin steel plates at low velocities. The results obtained from the theoretical calculations by the present model were compared with the experimental results. Theoretical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results in terms of both the radius of the bulging region and the residual velocity of the projectile when the strain rate effects of the target material during each stage were considered.

  9. The FRS Ion Catcher : A facility for high-precision experiments with stopped projectile and fission fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass, W. R.; Dickel, T.; Purushothaman, S.; Dendooven, P.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Haettner, E.; Jesch, C.; Ranjan, M.; Reiter, M. P.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A. -K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Schaefer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight, range-focused, slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) is used to perform direct mass

  10. Use of monoatomic and polyatomic projectiles for the characterisation of polylactic acid by static secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmans, Bart; Van Royen, Pieter; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2005-01-01

    The application of polyatomic primary ions is a strongly developing branch of static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS), since these projectiles allow a significant increase in the secondary ion yields to be achieved. However, the different limitations and possibilities of certain polyatomic primary ions for use on specific functional classes of samples are still not completely known. This paper compares the use of monoatomic and polyatomic primary ions in S-SIMS for thin layers of polylactic acid (PLA), obtained by spin-coating solutions on silicon wafers. Bombardment with Ga+, Xe+ and SF5+ primary ions allowed the contribution of the projectile mass and number of atoms in the gain in ion yield and molecular specificity (relative importance of high m/z and low m/z signals) to be assessed. Samples obtained by spin-coating solutions with increasing concentration showed that optimal layer thickness depended on the primary ion used. In comparison with the use of Ga+ projectiles, the yield of structural ions increased by a factor of about 1.5 to 2 and by about 7 to 12 when Xe+ and SF5+ primary ion bombardment were applied, respectively. A detailed fragmentation pattern was elaborated to interpret ion signal intensity changes for different projectiles in terms of energy deposition and collective processes in the subsurface, and the internal energy of radical and even-electron precursor ions. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, Rotational Dynamics, and Statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 10 courseware packages covering topics for introductory physics. Discusses the price; sub-topics; program type; interaction; possible hardware; time; calculus required; graphics; and comments on each program. Recommends two packages in projectile and circular motion, and three packages in statics and rotational dynamics. (YP)

  12. Reassessing the Aurignacian of Slovenia: techno-economic behaviour and direct dating of osseous projectile points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Luc; Odar, Boštjan; Higham, Tom; Horvat, Aleksander; Pirkmajer, Darja; Turk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Palaeolithic of southern Central Europe has a long history of archaeological research. Particularly, the presence of numerous osseous projectile points in many early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) assemblages in this region has attracted the attention of the international research community. However, the scarcity of properly identified and well-dated Aurignacian contexts represents an obstacle for investigation of the nature and timing of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition. In this context, the question of whether Neandertals made Aurignacian osseous projectile points, either on their own or as a consequence of cultural interaction with anatomically modern humans (AMH), still remains an open issue. Here we reassess the EUP record of Slovenia by evaluating the Aurignacian character of the assemblages from Potočka zijalka, Mokriška jama and Divje babe I in the light of their suggested roots in the local Mousterian. We provide a comprehensive description of the lithic industry from Potočka zijalka, which represents one of the rare EUP assemblages of southern Central Europe with a representative number of lithic artefacts to be analysed from the perspective of lithic technology and raw material economy. Our re-analysis of the Slovenian assemblages is backed by a series of 11 new ultrafiltered collagen 14C dates obtained directly on associated osseous projectile points from the studied assemblages. The Aurignacian of Potočka zijalka underlines the remarkable consistency of the Early Aurignacian with low typo-technological variability across Europe, resulting from a marked dependence on transported toolkits and raw material conservation. The new radiocarbon determinations for the Aurignacian of Slovenia appear to post-date the 34-32 ka BP (thousands of years before present) threshold for the last Neandertals in the region. Although not falsified, the hypothesis of Aurignacian bone tools in southern Central Europe as a product of late Neandertals is not

  13. Korekcija putanje žiroskopski stabilisanog projektila primenom proporcionalne navigacije / Trajectory correction of gyroscopic stabilized projectile using proportional navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane metode korekcije putanje žiroskopski stabilisanih projektila primenom proporcionalne navigacije. Sekcija upravljanja tipa 'patka' ugrađena je na klasični projektil radi generisanja aerodinamičke sile. Efikasnost projektila sa korekcijom putanje prikazana je pomoću rezultata numeričke simulacije leta, primenom proporcionalne navigacije sa i bez kompenzacije poremećaja zbog gravitacionog i tangentnog ubrzanja. Analizirani su, takođe, uticaji početnog ugla elevacije i odstupanja ravni upravljanja od ravni praćenja cilja na promašaj projektila. Pokazano je da se precesioni oblik oscilovanja ugaonog kretanja projektila prenosi na ugaonu brzinu linije viziranja cilja koju treba filtrirati kako bi se otklonila pojava rezonantne nestabilnosti leta projektila. / This paper presents the methods of the trajectory correction of gyroscopic stabilized projectiles using different modifications of proportional navigation. The canard section is built into the conventional projectile to generate aerodynamic force. The effectiveness of the trajectory correctable projectile is shown by the results of a flight numerical simulation using proportional navigation with and without the compensation of the disturbance due to gravitational and tangent acceleration. The paper also analyzes the effects of the initial elevation angle and the deflection of the control plane from the target tracking one on the miss distance. It is shown that the precessional mode of the projectile angular motion is transferred to the line of sight rate which should be filtered to prevent the phenomenon of resonance instability of the projectile flight.

  14. A Monolithic High-G SOI-MEMS Accelerometer for Measuring Projectile Launch and Flight Accelerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford S. Davis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analog Devices (ADI has designed and fabricated a monolithic high-g acceleration sensor (ADXSTC3-HG fabricated with the ADI silicon-on-insulator micro-electro-mechanical system (SOI-MEMS process. The SOI-MEMS sensor structure has a thickness of 10 um, allowing for the design of inertial sensors with excellent cross-axis rejection. The high-g accelerometer discussed in this paper was designed to measure in-plane acceleration to 10,000 g while subjected to 100,000 g in the orthogonal axes. These requirements were intended to meet Army munition applications. The monolithic sensor was packaged in an 8-pin leadless chip carrier (LCC-8 and was successfully demonstrated by the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL as part of an inertial measurement unit during an instrumented flight experiment of artillery projectiles launched at 15,000 g.

  15. Projectile X-ray emission in relativistic ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Shadi Mohammad Ibrahim

    2010-03-16

    This work reports on the study of the projectile X-ray emission in relativistic ion-atom collisions. Excitation of K-shell in He-like uranium ions, electron capture into H-like uranium ions and Simultaneous ionization and excitation of initially He-like uranium ions have been studied using the experimental storage ring at GSI. For the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} and K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} transitions originating from the excitation of the He-like uranium ions, no alignment was observed. In contrast, the Ly{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} radiation from the simultaneous ionization-excitation process of the He-like uranium ions shows a clear alignment. The experimental value leads to the inclusion of a magnetic term in the interaction potential. The capture process of target electrons into the highly-charged heavy ions was studied using H-like uranium ions at an incident energy of 220 MeV/u, impinging on N{sub 2} gas-target. It was shown that, the strongly aligned electrons captured in 2p{sub 3/2} level couple with the available 1s{sub 1/2} electron which shows no initial directional preference. The magnetic sub-state population of the 2p{sub 3/2} electron is redistributed according to the coupling rules to the magnetic sub-states of the relevant two-electron states. This leads to the large anisotropy in the corresponding individual ground state transitions contributing to the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} emission. From the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1}/K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} ratio, the current results show that the incoherent addition of the E1 and M2 transition components yield to an almost isotropic emission of the total K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1}. In contrast to the radiative electron capture, the experimental results for the K-shell single excitation of He-like uranium ions indicate that only the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level contributes to the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} transition. For this case, the anisotropy parameter {beta}{sub 20} was found to be -0.20{+-}0.03. This work also reports on the study of a two

  16. Nuclear Fragmentation Induced by Relativistic Projectiles Studied in the 4$\\pi$ Configuration of Plastic Track Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU19 \\\\ \\\\ The collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies have been studied to explore a number of questions related with hot and dense nuclear matter in order to extend our knowledge of nuclear equation-of-state. There are other aspects of these interactions which are studied to expound the process of projectile and/or target disintegrations. The disintegrations in question could be simply binary fissions or more complex processes leading to spallation or complete fragmentation. These important aspects of nuclear reactions are prone to investigations with nuclear track detectors. \\\\ \\\\One of the comparatively new track detector materials, CR-39, is sensitive enough to record particles of Z~$\\geq$~6 with almost 100\\% efficiency up to highly relativistic energies. The wide angle acceptance and exclusive measurements possible with plastic track detectors offer an opportunity to use them in a variety of situations in which high energy charged fragments are produced. The off-line nature of measuring tra...

  17. Comparative Analysis of the $^{178m2}$Hf Yield at Reactions with Different Projectiles

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A

    2004-01-01

    The long-lived high-spin $^{178m2}$Hf $K$-isomer can be produced in nuclear reactions with different projectiles. The reaction yields and cross-sections have been measured in the series of experiments and the results are now overviewed. The systematics of isomer-to-ground state ratios are drawn and real production capabilities are estimated for the best reactions. Such a summary is relevant to the significance of the isomer studies both for the nuclear-science knowledge and for possible applications. Potential isomer applications have been earlier stressed in popular publications with probably overestimated expectations. The real possibilities are restricted in part by the production yield and by other shortcomings as well.

  18. Pion production in dp-->dNπ reactions with deuteron projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, J.; Koch I.; Scobel, W.; Rohdjeß, H.; Dyring, J.; Fransson, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Häggström, S.; Höistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kullander, S.; Ruber, R. J.; Złomańczuk, J.; Dunin, V.; Morosov, B.; Sukhanov, A.; Zernov, A.; Kupść, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Stepaniak, J.; Bilger, R.; Brodowski, W.; Clement, H.; Wagner, G. J.; Calén, H.; Ekström, C.; Zabierowski, J.; Shwartz, B.; Sukhanov, A.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Turowiecki, A.

    2000-12-01

    Kinematically complete events have been studied for the reactions dp-->dpπ0 and dp-->dnπ+ at projectile energies between 437 and 559 MeV. The measurement covers a range of pion momenta η=pmaxπ,c.m./mπc from near the production threshold (η=0.32) to η=0.86 close to the NN-->NNπ threshold. The measurements were performed at the CELSIUS storage ring with the PROMICE/WASA setup. Angular and spectral distributions of the charged ejectiles as well as total cross sections are decomposed into the fractions that can be attributed to a quasifree NN-->dπ process with a spectator nucleon, and to a process involving all three nucleons. The quasifree contribution increases with energy and dominates from the NN-->NNπ threshold on. The results are compared to calculations with a spectator model with and without dp final state interactions.

  19. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  20. Projectile compositions and modal frequencies on the chemistry of micrometeoroids LDEF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; See, Thomas H.; Hoerz, Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry of Micrometeoroids Experiment (LDEF instrument A0187-1) exposed witness plates of high-purity gold (greater than 99.99 percent Au) and commercial aluminum (greater than 99 percent Al) with the objective of analyzing the residues of cosmic-dust and orbital-debris particles associated with hypervelocity impact craters. The gold substrates were located approximately 8 deg off LDEF's trailing edge (Bay A03), while the aluminum surfaces resided in Bay A11, approximately 52 deg from LDEF's leading edge. SEM-EDX techniques were employed to analyze the residues associated with 199 impacts on the gold and 415 impacts on the aluminum surfaces. The residues that could be analyzed represent natural or man-made materials. The natural particles dominate at all particle sizes less than 5 micron. It is possible to subdivide both particle populations into subclasses. Chondritic compositions dominate the natural impactors (71 percent), followed by monomineralic, mafic-silicate compositions (26 percent), and by Fe-Ni rich sulfides (approximately 3 percent). Approximately 30 percent of all craters on the gold collectors were caused by man-made debris such as aluminum, paint flakes, and other disintegrated, structural and electronic components. Equations-of-state and associated calculations of shock stresses for typical LDEF impacts into the gold and aluminum substrates suggest that substantial vaporization may have occurred during many of the impacts and is the reason why approximately 50 percent of all craters did not contain sufficient residue to permit analysis by the SEM-EDX technique. After converting the crater diameters into projectile sizes using encounter speeds typical for the trailing-edge and forward-facing (Row 11) directions, and accounting for normalized exposure conditions of the CME collectors, we derived the absolute and relative fluxes of specific projectile classes. The natural impactors encounter all LDEF pointing directions with comparable, modal

  1. Damage visualization and deformation measurement in glass laminates during projectile penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transparent armor consists of glass-polymer laminates in most cases. The formation and propagation of damage in the different glass layers has a strong influence on the ballistic resistance of such laminates. In order to clarify the course of events during projectile penetration, an experimental technique was developed, which allows visualizing the onset and propagation of damage in each single layer of the laminate. A telecentric objective lens was used together with a microsecond video camera that allows recording 100 frames at a maximum rate of 1 MHz in a backlit photography set-up. With this technique, the damage evolution could be visualized in glass laminates consisting of four glass layers with lateral dimensions 500 mm × 500 mm. Damage evolution was recorded during penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles with tungsten carbide core and a total mass of 11.1 g in the impact velocity range from 800 to 880 m/s. In order to measure the deformation of single glass plates within the laminates, a piece of reflecting tape was attached to the corresponding glass plate, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV was applied. With the photonic Doppler velocimeter, an infrared laser is used to illuminate an object to be measured and the Doppler-shifted light is superimposed to a reference light beam at the detector. The simultaneous visualization and PDV measurement of the glass deformation allow determining the deformation at the time of the onset of fracture. The analysis of the experimental data was supported by numerical simulations, using the AUTODYN commercial hydro-code.

  2. Defining the essential anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R; Hepper, A E; Mahoney, Peter F; Clasper, Jon C

    2016-08-01

    Body armour is a type of equipment worn by military personnel that aims to prevent or reduce the damage caused by ballistic projectiles to structures within the thorax and abdomen. Such injuries remain the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths on the modern battlefield. Recent developments in computer modelling in conjunction with a programme to procure the next generation of UK military body armour has provided the impetus to re-evaluate the optimal anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify those anatomical structures within the thorax and abdomen that if damaged were highly likely to result in death or significant long-term morbidity. These structures were superimposed upon two designs of ceramic plate used within representative body armour systems using a computerised representation of human anatomy. Those structures requiring essential medical coverage by a plate were demonstrated to be the heart, great vessels, liver and spleen. For the 50th centile male anthropometric model used in this study, the front and rear plates from the Enhanced Combat Body Armour system only provide limited coverage, but do fulfil their original requirement. The plates from the current Mark 4a OSPREY system cover all of the structures identified in this study as requiring coverage except for the abdominal sections of the aorta and inferior vena cava. Further work on sizing of plates is recommended due to its potential to optimise essential medical coverage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Radiolysis of astrophysical ice analogs by energetic ions: the effect of projectile mass and ice temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Sergio; Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Rothard, Hermann; Boduch, Philippe; da Silveira, Enio F

    2011-09-21

    An experimental study of the interaction of highly charged, energetic ions (52 MeV (58)Ni(13+) and 15.7 MeV (16)O(5+)) with mixed H(2)O : C(18)O(2) astrophysical ice analogs at two different temperatures is presented. This analysis aims to simulate the chemical and the physicochemical interactions induced by cosmic rays inside dense, cold astrophysical environments, such as molecular clouds or protostellar clouds as well at the surface of outer solar system bodies. The measurements were performed at the heavy ion accelerator GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen, France. The gas samples were deposited onto a CsI substrate at 13 K and 80 K. In situ analysis was performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at different fluences. Radiolysis yields of the produced species were quantified. The dissociation cross section at 13 K of both H(2)O and CO(2) is about 3-4 times smaller when O ions are employed. The ice temperature seems to affect differently each species when the same projectile was employed. The formation cross section at 13 K of molecules such as C(18)O, CO (with oxygen from water), and H(2)O(2) increases when Ni ions are employed. The formation of organic compounds seems to be enhanced by the oxygen projectiles and at lower temperatures. In addition, because the organic production at 13 K is at least 4 times higher than the value at 80 K, we also expect that interstellar ices are more organic-rich than the surfaces of outer solar system bodies.

  4. Supernumerary rainbows in the angular distribution of scattered projectiles for grazing collisions of fast atoms with a LiF(001) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, A; Winter, H

    2008-03-07

    Fast atoms with keV energies are scattered under a grazing angle of incidence from a clean and flat LiF(001) surface. For scattering along low index azimuthal directions within the surface plane ("axial surface channeling") we observe pronounced peak structures in the angular distributions for scattered projectiles that are attributed to "supernumerary rainbows." This phenomenon can be understood in the framework of quantum scattering only and is observed here up to projectile energies of 20 keV. We demonstrate that the interaction potential and, in particular, its corrugation for fast atomic projectiles at surfaces can be derived with a high accuracy.

  5. A Monte Carlo track structure simulation code for the full-slowing-down carbon projectiles of energies 1 keV u-1-10 MeV u-1 in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamsuwan, T.; Nikjoo, H.

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents a new Monte Carlo track structure code (KURBUC_carbon) for simulations of full-slowing-down carbon projectiles C0-C6+ of energies 1 keV u-1-10 MeV u-1 in water vapour. The code facilitates investigation of the spatial resolution effect for scoring track parameters under the Bragg peak of a carbon ion beam. Interactions of carbon projectiles and secondary electrons were followed interaction-by-interaction down to a 1 keV u-1 cutoff for primary ions and down to 10 eV for electrons. Electronic interactions and nuclear elastic scattering were taken into account, including charge exchange reactions and double electronic interactions for the carbon projectiles. The reliability of the code was tested for radial dose, range and W-value. The calculated results were compared with the published experimental data and other model calculations. The results obtained showed good agreement in most cases where comparisons could be made. Depth dose profiles for 1-10 MeV u-1 C6+ were used to form a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of 0.35 mm width in water. At all depths of the SOBP, the energy distributions of the carbon projectiles varied appreciably with the change in the scoring volume. The corresponding variation was nearly negligible for the track average linear energy transfer (LET), except at the distal end of the SOBP. By varying the scoring slab thickness from 1 to 100 µm, the maximum track average LET decreased by ˜30%. The Monte Carlo track structure simulation in the full-slowing-down mode is a powerful tool for investigation of the biophysical properties of radiation tracks under the Bragg peak and SOBP of a carbon ion beam. For estimation of radiation effectiveness under the Bragg peak the new Monte Carlo track structure code provides yet another accurate and effective dosimetry tool at a single cell level. This is because radiobiology within tissue elements can be understood better with dosimetry at cellular and subcellular level.

  6. A Monte Carlo track structure simulation code for the full-slowing-down carbon projectiles of energies 1 keV u(-1)-10 MeV u(-1) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H

    2013-02-07

    The paper presents a new Monte Carlo track structure code (KURBUC_carbon) for simulations of full-slowing-down carbon projectiles C(0)-C(6+) of energies 1 keV u(-1)-10 MeV u(-1) in water vapour. The code facilitates investigation of the spatial resolution effect for scoring track parameters under the Bragg peak of a carbon ion beam. Interactions of carbon projectiles and secondary electrons were followed interaction-by-interaction down to a 1 keV u(-1) cutoff for primary ions and down to 10 eV for electrons. Electronic interactions and nuclear elastic scattering were taken into account, including charge exchange reactions and double electronic interactions for the carbon projectiles. The reliability of the code was tested for radial dose, range and W-value. The calculated results were compared with the published experimental data and other model calculations. The results obtained showed good agreement in most cases where comparisons could be made. Depth dose profiles for 1-10 MeV u(-1) C(6+) were used to form a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) of 0.35 mm width in water. At all depths of the SOBP, the energy distributions of the carbon projectiles varied appreciably with the change in the scoring volume. The corresponding variation was nearly negligible for the track average linear energy transfer (LET), except at the distal end of the SOBP. By varying the scoring slab thickness from 1 to 100 µm, the maximum track average LET decreased by ∼30%. The Monte Carlo track structure simulation in the full-slowing-down mode is a powerful tool for investigation of the biophysical properties of radiation tracks under the Bragg peak and SOBP of a carbon ion beam. For estimation of radiation effectiveness under the Bragg peak the new Monte Carlo track structure code provides yet another accurate and effective dosimetry tool at a single cell level. This is because radiobiology within tissue elements can be understood better with dosimetry at cellular and subcellular

  7. A database of chondrite analyses including platinum group elements, Ni, Co, Au, and Cr: Implications for the identification of chondritic projectiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tagle, Roald; Berlin, Jana

    2008-01-01

    .... To obtain a better knowledge of compositional differences between potential chondritic projectile types, meteorite analyses of the elements Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Cr, Co, Ni, and Au were gathered into a database...

  8. Experimental Determination of Ballistic Performance of Composite Material Kevlar 29 and Alumina Powder/ Epoxy by Spherical Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Hashem Abbud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a response of hybrid composite laminate woven fiber Kevlar29 – Al2O3 Powder/ Epoxy subjected to high velocity impact loading is presented. The energy absorbed due to impact of small rigid projectile on composite materials targets is determined experimentally. The energy absorbed due to impact of hemispherical projectiles on the developed composite laminates is investigated. The results revealed the maximum ballistic limit at impact velocity is found to be 390.87 ± 6 m/s for an the 18 mm target thickness. The ballistic limit velocity predictions are based on the theoretical method presented from another article. The initial velocity and residual velocity results showed good is agreement compared with the predicted results of Ipson and Recht equations. With 5.4 % of accuracy based on the experimental value for the theoretical model for ballistic limit velocity.

  9. Binary projectile fragmentation of 12C at an incident energy of 33.3 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Förtsch, S V; Gadioli, E; Bassini, R; Buthelezi, E Z; Cerutti, F; Connell, S H; Cowley, A A; Fujita, H; Mabiala, J; Mairani, A; Mira, J; Papka, P; Neveling, R; Smit, F D

    2010-01-01

    Direct binary projectile fragmentation is being investigated for the case where a 400 MeV 12C projectile breaks up into an particle and a 8Be fragment in the interaction with a thin 93Nb and 197Au target. While the 8Be fragments were measured at 9 , the correlated particles were detected in an angular range between 16 and 30 on the opposite side of the beam. From the preliminary results presented here one may obtain information on the amount of quasi-elastic fragmentation (both fragments do not suffer any further interactions after they are produced). These experimental results indicate that the quasi-elastic break-up process is the dominant contribution to the measured correlation spectra. As was also observed in earlier work, the most forward quasi-elastically emitted particles have energies exceeding the beam velocity.

  10. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in fragmentation reactions of {sup 132}Sn projectiles at relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Loureiro, D., E-mail: david.loureiro@usc.es [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Benlliure, J.; Alvarez-Pol, H. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, F-33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan Cedex (France); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Dragosavac, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Foehr, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gascon, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Gawlikowicz, W. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, PL-01-938 Warsaw (Poland); Heinz, A. [A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Helariutta, K. [University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kelic-Heil, A.; Lukic, S.; Montes, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Pienkowski, L. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Schmidt, K.-H.; Staniou, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Subotic, K. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Suemmerer, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Taieb, J. [CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)

    2011-09-26

    The fragmentation of neutron-rich {sup 132}Sn nuclei produced in the fission of {sup 238}U projectiles at 950 A MeV has been investigated at the FRagment Separator (FRS) at GSI. This work represents the first investigation of fragmentation of medium-mass radioactive projectiles with a large neutron excess. The measured production cross sections of the residual nuclei are relevant for the possible use of a two-stage reaction scheme (fission + fragmentation) for the production of extremely neutron-rich medium-mass nuclei in future rare-ion-beam facilities. Moreover, the new data will provide a better understanding of the 'memory' effect in fragmentation reactions.

  11. Satellite splat II: an inelastic collision with a surface-launched projectile and the maximum orbital radius for planetary impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Philip R.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-07-01

    Starting with conservation of energy and angular momentum, we derive a convenient method for determining the periapsis distance of an orbiting object, by expressing its velocity components in terms of the local circular speed. This relation is used to extend the results of our previous paper, examining the effects of an adhesive inelastic collision between a projectile launched from the surface of a planet (of radius R) and an equal-mass satellite in a circular orbit of radius r s. We show that there is a maximum orbital radius r s ≈ 18.9R beyond which such a collision cannot cause the satellite to impact the planet. The difficulty of bringing down a satellite in a high orbit with a surface-launched projectile provides a useful topic for a discussion of orbital angular momentum and energy. The material is suitable for an undergraduate intermediate mechanics course.

  12. Comparison of Two Railgun Power Supply Architectures to Quantify the Energy Dissipated After the Projectile Leaves the Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    large electrical currents to generate strong magnetic fields which accelerate projectiles (armature) to speeds of over seven times the speed of sound ...an electric circuit and a magnetic field creating a magnetic force, the voltage V needed to hold the current constant must increase as the...the muzzle. This energy, which is due to the loss of the low-voltage electrical contact that is ordinarily between the armature and the rail, is

  13. Removal of a low-velocity projectile from the base of the sphenoid sinus using navigation-guided endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Wim; Schepers, Serge; Sun, Yi; Orye, Johan; Vrielinck, Luc; Lakiere, Eva; De Temmerman, Griet; Politis, Constantinus

    2012-03-01

    A patient surviving after a metal projectile penetrates the sphenoid sinus is unusual. Removing a foreign object from this region is challenging because of the difficult access and proximity to delicate structures. The use of navigation-guided endoscopy makes the manipulation of the surgical instruments near delicate structures safer, and the procedure is minimally invasive. A computed tomographic scan of brain showed the projectile located at the base of the left sphenoid sinus. To prevent infection and irritation and avoid secondary surgical damage, navigation-guided endoscopy was used to remove the bullet. Using the BRAINLAB navigation system, the movement of the endoscope could be followed on the screen, and the tip could be navigated into close contact with the projectile. The bullet could be located, without being visible through the endoscope, making the incision and removal of the bony wall of the sinus minimal; it was removed without complications. Intraoperative navigation of endoscopes is very useful because it enables the surgeon to correlate the visual information through the endoscope with the localization of the instruments seen on the navigation screen. Patient safety and reinforced self-confidence of surgeons are advantages of this procedure. Reduced operative time may not always occur because of a lack of experience with the navigation system. When there are no vascular or neurologic complications, a minimally invasive treatment using nasal navigation-guided endoscopic removal can limit the potential surgical damage.

  14. Sputtering of octatetraene by 15 keV C60 projectiles: Comparison of reactive interatomic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, Michal; Maciazek, Dawid; Golunski, Mikolaj; Postawa, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been used to probe the effect of the AIREBO, ReaxFF and COMB3 interatomic potentials on sputtering of an organic sample composed of octatetraene molecules. The system is bombarded by a 15 keV C60 projectile at normal incidence. The effect of the applied force fields on the total time of simulation, the calculated sputtering yield and the angular distribution of sputtered particles is investigated and discussed. It has been found that caution should be taken when simulating particles ejection from nonhomogeneous systems that undergo significant fragmentation described by the ReaxFF. In this case, the charge state of many particles is improper due to an inadequacy of a procedure used for calculating partial charges on atoms in molecules for conditions present during sputtering. A two-step simulation procedure is proposed to minimize the effect of this deficiency. There is also a possible problem with the COMB3 potential, at least at conditions present during cluster impact, as its results are very different from AIREBO or ReaxFF.

  15. Firearm Projectile in the Maxillary Tuberosity Located by Adjunctive Examination of Wide-Field Optical Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio Araújo; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Pratavieira, Sebastião

    2017-10-10

    Demonstrate the use of wide-field optical fluorescence as an adjunctive examination in a clinical routine to oral diagnosis. Use of wide-field optical fluorescence in the oral cavity has been restricted to topics related to the detection and diagnosis of oral cancer. In a regular medical appointment, a 58-year-old female patient, without any complaint or oral symptom, underwent the complementary examination by wide-field optical fluorescence. A device with high-power light-emitting diode emitting light centered at a wavelength of (400 ± 10) nm and maximum irradiance of (0.040 ± 0.008) W/cm(2) was used for fluorescence visualization. We report the location of a firearm projectile, intraosseous, in the maxillary tuberosity using wide-field optical fluorescence. It is evidenced that wide-field optical fluorescence, within a clinical routine, can provide relevant images and data, with an immediate result, without the use of ionizing radiation, enabling an efficient oral diagnosis.

  16. Detailed Modeling of Projectile Impact on Dyneema Composite Using Dynamic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, B. D. Heru; Ernst, L. J.

    Dyneema composite panels, which contain high Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene fibers, are used in armor applications. They give good protection against fragments, bullets or other projectiles. In order to be able to study the internal processes in such a composite panel, a new modeling approach is developed and is described in this paper. This approach uses a detailed modeling approach that discretises the fibrous phase in Dyneema composite. In the past, continuum approaches and layer discretisation have been used by other researchers to study the processes in Dyneema composite panels and to predict the ballistic strength of these panels. The aforementioned approaches were however not very successful in predicting the ballistic strength, because fiber sliding, fiber failure and delamination of layers were not taken into account and static properties of the material were used. In addition to this, these models were often too coarse to study the processes in the panel. This often resulted in a calculated ballistic strength that was often too low. In this research, fiber sliding, fiber failure and delamination of layers are taken into account in the proposed model together with dynamically determined material properties. It is expected that studying the physical processes in a Dyneema composite panel and a better ballistic strength prediction should be possible using the aforementioned fiber bundle discretisation approach. The modeling of Dyneema composite is done in ABAQUS/Standard for the quasi-static simulations and in ABAQUS/Explicit for the dynamic simulations.

  17. Molecular depth profiling in ice matrices using C{sub 60} projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wucher, A.; Sun, S.; Szakal, C.; Winograd, N

    2004-06-15

    The prospects of molecular sputter depth profiling using C{sub 60}{sup +} projectiles were investigated on thick ice layers prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of histamine onto a metal substrate. The samples were analyzed in a ToF-SIMS spectrometer equipped with a liquid metal Ga{sup +} ion source and a newly developed fullerene ion source. The C{sub 60}{sup +} beam was used to erode the surface, while static ToF-SIMS spectra were taken with both ion beams alternatively between sputtering cycles. We find that the signals both related to the ice matrix and to the histamine are about two orders of magnitude higher under 20-keV C{sub 60} than under 15-keV Ga bombardment. Histamine related molecular signals are found to increase drastically if the freshly introduced surface is pre-sputtered with C{sub 60} ions, until at a total ion fluence of about 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} the spectra are completely dominated by the molecular ion and characteristic fragments of histamine. At larger fluence, the signal is found to decrease with a disappearance cross section of approximately 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}, until at total fluences of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} a steady state with stable molecular signals is reached. In contrast, no appreciable molecular signal could be observed if Ga{sup +} ions were used to erode the surface.

  18. Study of Relativistic Nucleus-nucleus Coll.Induced by 16O Projectiles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A double experiment in which two detector systems (Streamer Chamber, Plastic Ball Calorimeter), running concurrently via a beam split (West Area H3, X5), search for quark matter formation in violent collisions of |1|6O or |2|0Ne with target nuclei between |4|0Ca and |2|0|6Pb. The acceleration of |1|6O will be facilitated by a high charge state injector, consisting of an ECR source and an RFQ pre-accelerator, installed by GSI and LBL at the PS Linac 1. Experimental equipment will be a streamer chamber installed in the Vertex Magnet of experiment WA75 together with beam hodoscopes and a downstream trigger calorimeter selecting violent events by the absence of energy flow to the projectile fragmentation region. Observed particles will be p, @p, K|0, @L and @L. In addition there will be the Plastic Ball, 800-fold @DE-E particle identifier system, covering the target fragmentation and backward fireball regions. Together with a multisegmented large solid angle (@+~9|0 of beam) energy calorimeter and a trigger calor...

  19. Influence of the embedded structure on the EFP formation of compact terminal sensitive projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yang Xing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the damage efficiency of compact terminal sensitive projectile with EFP warhead, it is vital to understand how the embedded structure (ES affects the EFP forming performance. In this paper, the corresponding numerical investigation is focused on, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI method and the experimental verification are used. Based on the obtained quantitative relations between the forming performance and α (the ratio of height to maximum radius of ES, an optimal design is further provided. The results indicate that: when the embedded structural length and width range 0.1–0.3D and 0.1–0.2D (D: diameter of EFP warhead at a fixed volume, respectively, EFP forming velocity nearly keeps as a constant, 1760 m/s; the height of ES has a dramatical effect on the propagating range of detonation wave, resulting in significant influence on the aerodynamic shape and length-to-diameter ratio of EFP; under the given constraints, the EFP length-diameter ratio can reach the optimal value 2.76, when the height of ES is 0.22D.

  20. The quantified evaluation of the wounding potential of a ricochet projectile of a handgun cartridge calibre 9 mm (type 82) in a ballistic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravanský, Norbert; Rekeň, Viktor; Juříček, Ludvík; Zummerová, Anežka; Kováč, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The question of handgun use in a city or densely populated aglomerations requires a highly practical level of solution to this issue, though with the knowledge of theoretical presumptions of wound ballistics of ricochet projectiles. The application of wound ballistics into the practice of a forensic pathologist, as well as a surgeon or a traumatologist, enables a good understanding of the dynamics of projectile penetration through anatomic structures of the human body. In forensic assessment, gunshot wounds of limbs are relatively frequent cases. By the integration of wound ballistics principles into the research of gunshot wounds, it is also possible to establish, whether the projectile entered into the anatomic structures under direct trajectory steadily or whether through the course of its trajectory, before reaching the human body, it firstly contacted a particular object in the space, i. e. whether the injury could have been caused by a ricochet projectile. In connection with unclear gunshot wounds and their morphological image, it is necessary to consider the possibility of the effects of a ricochet projectile, especially when persons are injured accidentally. The daily practice of the officers of the Police Corps of the Slovak Republic essentially enhances the necessity of being informed about the behaviour of parametrically designated ricochet projectiles in a ballistic experiment with the use of a model of a built-up area in a town, with typical materials and surfaces of objects in between and a model of a human limb part as a potential target of an uncontrolled ricochet projectile. The proposed design of the situation is undoubtedly of an enormous significance, even when forensically evaluating the morphological consequences of ricochet projectiles. By the application of results of such experiments and their final comparison, when different types of projectiles are used, it is also possible to contribute to the experts groundwork in the process of

  1. Measurement of Low Level Explosives Reaction in Gauged Multi-Dimensional Steven Impact Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, A M; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Chidester, S K; Garza, R G; Swizter, L L

    2001-05-31

    The Steven Test was developed to determine relative impact sensitivity of metal encased solid high explosives and also be amenable to two-dimensional modeling. Low level reaction thresholds occur at impact velocities below those required for shock initiation. To assist in understanding this test, multi-dimensional gauge techniques utilizing carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges were used to measure pressure and event times. Carbon resistor gauges indicated late time low level reactions 200-540 {micro}s after projectile impact, creating 0.39-2.00 kb peak shocks centered in PBX 9501 explosives discs and a 0.60 kb peak shock in a LX-04 disk. Steven Test modeling results, based on ignition and growth criteria, are presented for two PBX 9501 scenarios: one with projectile impact velocity just under threshold (51 m/s) and one with projectile impact velocity just over threshold (55 m/s). Modeling results are presented and compared to experimental data.

  2. Recent Precision Experiments with Exotic Nuclei Produced with Uranium Projectiles and Experimental Prospects at Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissel H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision experiments with relativistic fragments separated in-flight require special experimentalmethods to overcome the inherent large emittance from the creation in nuclear reactions and atomic interactions in matter. At GSI relativistic exotic nuclei have been produced via uranium projectile fragmentation and fission and investigated with the inflight separator FRS directly, or in combination with either the storage-cooler ring ESR or the FRS Ion Catcher. 1000 A·MeV 238U ions were used to create 60 new neutron-rich isotopes separated and identified with the FRS to measure their production cross sections. In another experimental campaign the fragments were separated in flight and injected into the storage-cooler ring ESR for accurate mass and lifetime measurements. In these experimentswe have obtained accurate new mass values analyzed via a novel method which has reduced the systematic errors for both Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS and for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS. Pioneering experiments have been carried out with the FRS Ion Catcher consisting of three experimental components, the dispersive magnetic system of the FRS with a monoenergetic and a homogeneous degrader, a cryogenic stopping cell filled with pure helium and a multiple-reflection time-of flight mass separator. The FRS Ion Catcher enables high precision spectroscopy experiments with eV to keV exotic nuclides. Results from these different FRS experiments are presented in this overview together with prospects for the next-generation facility Super-FRS. The novel features of the Super-FRS compared with the present FRS will be discussed in addition.

  3. Recent Precision Experiments with Exotic Nuclei Produced with Uranium Projectiles and Experimental Prospects at Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, H.; Chen, L.; Dickel, T.; Farinon, F.; Dillmann, I.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Mukha, I.; Münzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.; Patyk, Z.; Pietri, S.; Plass, W. R.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkler, M.

    2014-03-01

    Precision experiments with relativistic fragments separated in-flight require special experimentalmethods to overcome the inherent large emittance from the creation in nuclear reactions and atomic interactions in matter. At GSI relativistic exotic nuclei have been produced via uranium projectile fragmentation and fission and investigated with the inflight separator FRS directly, or in combination with either the storage-cooler ring ESR or the FRS Ion Catcher. 1000 A·MeV 238U ions were used to create 60 new neutron-rich isotopes separated and identified with the FRS to measure their production cross sections. In another experimental campaign the fragments were separated in flight and injected into the storage-cooler ring ESR for accurate mass and lifetime measurements. In these experimentswe have obtained accurate new mass values analyzed via a novel method which has reduced the systematic errors for both Schottky Mass Spectrometry (SMS) and for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS). Pioneering experiments have been carried out with the FRS Ion Catcher consisting of three experimental components, the dispersive magnetic system of the FRS with a monoenergetic and a homogeneous degrader, a cryogenic stopping cell filled with pure helium and a multiple-reflection time-of flight mass separator. The FRS Ion Catcher enables high precision spectroscopy experiments with eV to keV exotic nuclides. Results from these different FRS experiments are presented in this overview together with prospects for the next-generation facility Super-FRS. The novel features of the Super-FRS compared with the present FRS will be discussed in addition.

  4. The study of quasi-projectiles produced in Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions: excitation energy and spin; Etude des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions Ni+Ni et Ni+Au: energie d'excitation et spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, A

    2003-02-01

    During the collision between the projectile and the target nuclei in the intermediate energy regime (E < 100 MeV/nucleon) two excited nuclei are mainly observed in the exit channel, the quasi projectile (QP) and the quasi target. They disintegrate by particle emission. However, this binary picture is perturbed by the emission of particles and light fragments with velocities intermediate between the projectile velocity and the target one, all along the interaction (midrapidity component). This work aim to determine the excitation energy and the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of quasi-projectiles produced in the Ni+Ni and Ni+Au collisions at 52 and 90 MeV/nucleon. The excitation energy is deduced from the kinematical characteristics of particles emitted by the quasi-projectile. They have to be separated from midrapidity particles. Three different scenarios have been used for this purpose. The spin of the quasi-projectile has been extracted from the experimental data by mean of proton and alpha particles multiplicities emitted by the QP in the Ni+Au at 52 MeV/nucleon reaction. The results have been compared to the predictions of a theoretical model based on nucleon transfers. Their evolution is qualitatively reproduced as a function of the violence of the collision. (author)

  5. Estimating Burst Swim Speeds and Jumping Characteristics of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Using Video Analyses and Principles of Projectile Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Applying principles of projectile physics to a subset of those fish (N=4), burst speeds were estimated as 7.78- 9.74 m/s, angle of leap as 44-70º, and...rectilinear and boundary layer flow. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 27:226–230. ERDC/TN ANSRP-16-2 September 2016 11 Hunn, J. B., and W. D. Youngs...1980. Role of physical barriers in the control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37(11):2118–2122

  6. Geometrical aspects of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemarsson, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Lantz, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). The Svedberg Laboratory

    2003-04-01

    A black-disc model combined with accurate matter densities has been used for an investigation of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles. A simple relation is derived between the energy dependence of the reaction cross sections and the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A comparison is also made of the reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He for six different nuclei {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 58,60}Ni and {sup 208}Pb.

  7. Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.

  8. Isomer Spectroscopy Using Relativistic Projectile Fragmentation at the N=Z Line for A{approx}80->90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Garnsworthy, A.B. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 (United States); Pietri, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2007-05-01

    The preliminary results from the RISING Stopped Beam Isomer Campaign are presented, with specific focus on results of the initial experiment to investigate isomeric decays along the N=Z line around A{approx}80-90 following the projectile fragmentation of a {sup 107}Ag primary beam at an energy of 750 MeV per nucleon. A description of the technical aspects behind the design of the RISING array is presented, together with evidence for previously unreported isomeric decays in {sup 87,88}Tc and the N=Z nuclei Nb4182 and Tc4386.

  9. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  10. Electromagnetic dissociation of 3.7 A GeV sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 2 sup 8 Si projectiles in nuclear emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Jilany, M A

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents exhaustively the results of the electromagnetic dissociation of 3.7 A GeV sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 2 sup 8 Si projectiles in nuclear emulsion. The reaction mechanism involved in the electromagnetic collisions and the virtual photon spectra are discussed in the framework of the classical model of Weizsaecker and Williams. The number of electromagnetic interactions, the mean free paths, the production cross sections, the charge spectra of projectile fragments and the decay modes of the visible channels are analyzed and their dependences on the projectile charge and the incident energy are investigated. The present values are obtained in systematic agreement with those found experimentally and theoretically. The emission of a single hydrogen isotope is the dominant process in all samples and shows a similar energy spectrum. The relative rate as a function of the threshold energy for various reaction channels are parameterized in terms of an exponential function.

  11. High-speed impact of the metal projectile on the barrier containing porous corundum-based ceramics with chemically active filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischenko, Alexander; Afanas'eva, Svetlana; Belov, Nikolai; Blinov, Vasiliy; Burkin, Vladimir; Korolkov, Leonid; Rogaev, Konstantin; Khabibullin, Marat; Yugov, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a calculation-experimental study on high-speed interaction of the metal projectile with a combined barrier made of porous corundum-based ceramics filled with chemically active composition (sulfur, nitrate of potash) in the wide range of speeds. A mathematical behavior model of porous corundum-based ceramics with chemically active filler is developed within the scope of mechanics of continuous media taking into account the energy embedding from a possible chemical reaction between a projectile metal and filler at high-speed impact. Essential embedding of inlet heat is not observed in the considered range of impact speeds (2.5 … 8 km/s).

  12. A study on stimulation of DC high voltage power of LCC series parallel resonant in projectile velocity measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dong-dong; Gu, Jin-liang; Luo, Hong-e.; Xia, Yan

    2017-10-01

    According to specific requirements of the X-ray machine system for measuring velocity of outfield projectile, a DC high voltage power supply system is designed for the high voltage or the smaller current. The system comprises: a series resonant circuit is selected as a full-bridge inverter circuit; a high-frequency zero-current soft switching of a high-voltage power supply is realized by PWM output by STM32; a nanocrystalline alloy transformer is chosen as a high-frequency booster transformer; and the related parameters of an LCC series-parallel resonant are determined according to the preset parameters of the transformer. The concrete method includes: a LCC series parallel resonant circuit and a voltage doubling circuit are stimulated by using MULTISM and MATLAB; selecting an optimal solution and an optimal parameter of all parts after stimulation analysis; and finally verifying the correctness of the parameter by stimulation of the whole system. Through stimulation analysis, the output voltage of the series-parallel resonant circuit gets to 10KV in 28s: then passing through the voltage doubling circuit, the output voltage gets to 120KV in one hour. According to the system, the wave range of the output voltage is so small as to provide the stable X-ray supply for the X-ray machine for measuring velocity of outfield projectile. It is fast in charging and high in efficiency.

  13. Impossible Neanderthals? Making string, throwing projectiles and catching small game during Marine Isotope Stage 4 (Abri du Maras, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bruce L.; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Daujeard, Camille; Fernandes, Paul; Béarez, Philippe; Desclaux, Emmanuel; Chacon Navarro, Maria Gema; Puaud, Simon; Gallotti, Rosalia

    2013-12-01

    Neanderthal behavior is often described in one of two contradictory ways: 1) Neanderthals were behaviorally inflexible and specialized in large game hunting or 2) Neanderthals exhibited a wide range of behaviors and exploited a wide range of resources including plants and small, fast game. Using stone tool residue analysis with supporting information from zooarchaeology, we provide evidence that at the Abri du Maras, Ardèche, France, Neanderthals were behaviorally flexible at the beginning of MIS 4. Here, Neanderthals exploited a wide range of resources including large mammals, fish, ducks, raptors, rabbits, mushrooms, plants, and wood. Twisted fibers on stone tools provide evidence of making string or cordage. Using a variety of lines of evidence, we show the presence of stone projectile tips, possibly used in complex projectile technology. This evidence shows a level of behavioral variability that is often denied to Neanderthals. Furthermore, it sheds light on perishable materials and resources that are not often recovered which should be considered more fully in reconstructions of Neanderthal behavior.

  14. Rate capability of a cryogenic stopping cell for uranium projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M. P.; Rink, A.-K.; Dickel, T.; Haettner, E.; Heiße, F.; Plaß, W. R.; Purushothaman, S.; Amjad, F.; Ayet San Andrés, S.; Bergmann, J.; Blum, D.; Dendooven, P.; Diwisch, M.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Greiner, F.; Hornung, C.; Jesch, C.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Lang, J.; Lippert, W.; Miskun, I.; Moore, I. D.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pietri, S.; Pfützner, M.; Pohjalainen, I.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.

    2016-06-01

    At the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS at FAIR, projectile and fission fragments will be produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight, energy-bunched, slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) filled with ultra-pure He gas. The fragments are extracted from the stopping cell using a combination of DC and RF electric fields and gas flow. A prototype CSC for the LEB has been developed and successfully commissioned at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI. Ionization of He buffer gas atoms during the stopping of energetic ions creates a region of high space charge in the stopping cell. The space charge decreases the extraction efficiency of stopping cells since the high amount of charge distorts the applied DC electric drag fields. Thus the understanding of space charge effects is of great importance to make full use of the high yields at future RIB facilities such as the Super-FRS at FAIR. For this purpose a detailed study of space charge effects in the CSC was performed using experiments and simulations. The dependence of the extraction efficiency, the extraction time and the temporal ion extraction profile on the intensity of the impinging beam and the electric field strength was studied for two different 238 U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u and separated with the FRS. Good agreement between experiments and simulations was found.

  15. Angular distributions of light projectile fragments in deep inelastic Pb+Em interactions at 160 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Yu A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E E; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Yu; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; El-Chenawi, K F; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S I A; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Lepekhin, F G; Levitskaya, O V; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Röper, M D; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Seliverstov, D M; Simonov, B B; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Söderström, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, V; Vokal, S; Vrláková, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emulsion was exposed at CERN by the lead projectile at 160 A GeV. The angles between any pair of fragments with Z=2-4 have been measured in the emulsion plane for the events which did not contain heavy fragments. The constant characterizing the normal angle ( phi ) distribution of the fragment momentum projection onto the emulsion plane with respect to initial projectile momentum p/sub 0/ is found to be sigma /sub phi /=(0.37+or-0.02) mrad. Corresponding value sigma /sub 0/=(121+or-6) MeV/c of nucleon momentum distribution in the lead nucleus coincides with that expected from Fermi momentum distribution for this nucleus. The peak in the pair-angle distribution of double-charged fragments, /sup 8/Be to 2 alpha , is presented for the region of small angles (<0.1 mrad). The fraction of alpha -particles coming from the decay of the ground state /sup 8/Be is found to be (13+or-2)601130f their whole number. (14 refs).

  16. Interactions of $^{16}$O Projectile and its Fragments in Nuclear Emulsion at about 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure the multiplicity ``$ n _{s} $'' and pseudo-rapidity ``$\\eta$'' of the shower particles ($\\beta$~$\\geq$~0.7) produced in different types of collisions (peripheral, semi-central and central), of $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S in nuclear emulsions. The multiplicities and angular distributions of both the grey ``$ n _{g} $'' (mainly due to knock- on and recoil protons), and black ``$ n _{b} $'' (slow evaporated target fragments) particles, and the inter-correlation between them are studied. \\\\ \\\\ The yield, charge and angular distributions of produced relativistic projectile fragments P.F.S., for $ Z _{P} . _{F} . $ $\\geq$~2 are measured and their interactions in emulsions are investigated. \\\\ \\\\ The study of the mean free paths for the projectile fragments with Z $\\geq$ 3 produced from 200~A~GeV $^{16}$ 0 interactions were performed, which show the absence of the anomalous phenomena. \\\\ \\\\ The possible production of zero-spin light neutral scaler bosons and pseudoscaler bosons from...

  17. Evaluation of Obturator and Sealing Cuff Properties for the M865 Training Projectile with Comparison to Ballistic Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppel, C

    1999-01-01

    The nylon obturation and RTV sealing cuff for the M865 training round were evaluated to identity potential sources of ballistic variability associated with the material properties and material processing...

  18. Projectile and Circular Motion: A Model Four-Week Unit of Study for a High School Physics Class Using Physics Courseware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigel, Joan; And Others

    A self-paced program designed to integrate the use of computers and physics courseware into the regular classroom environment is offered for physics high school teachers in this module on projectile and circular motion. A diversity of instructional strategies including lectures, demonstrations, videotapes, computer simulations, laboratories, and…

  19. Effect of the cluster angular momentum J and the projectile orbital momentum L on capture probability and postcollision dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Massimo

    2009-09-28

    In this work, collisions between rotating atomic clusters composed of Lennard-Jones (LJ(n)) particles and an identical projectile have been investigated by means of trajectory simulations as a function of the cluster angular momentum J and internal energy E, and for different values of the projectile impact parameter b and relative velocity v(p). As expected, the collision (P(c)(b)) and capture [or sticking P(s)(b)] probabilities are found to decay below unity for values of b larger than the average surface radius of the cluster, with dP/db being strongly dependent on v(p). Both P(c)(b) and P(s)(b), however, appear to be largely insensitive to the modulus of the cluster angular momentum |J| and only weakly dependent on E for collisions involving target clusters with a lifetime tau>100 ps. The latter findings are interpreted as indicating the absence of strong changes in the structure of the target as a function of |J| and E. The comparison between the dissociation lifetime (tau(dyn)) of the postcapture complexes (LJ(n+1)(*)) obtained continuing trajectories after monomer capture and the one computed from the fragmentation of statistically prepared clusters (tau(stat)) supports the validity of a two-step capture-dissociation model; similarly, the comparison between the average amount of energy exchanged during trajectories (DeltaE(dyn)) in the process LJ(n)+LJ-->LJ(n+1)(*)-->LJ(n)+LJ and the one predicted by statistical simulations (DeltaE(stat)) suggests a fast statistical energy redistribution in the collisional complex even for very short tau(dyn) (e.g., 40 ps). In the case of projectiles aimed at the edge of the cluster [(grazing collisions, P(c)(b)trajectories indicate the presence of ballistic dynamics and of a weak energy exchange (DeltaE(coll)

  20. Interaction of aluminum projectiles with quartz sand in impact experiments: Formation of khatyrkite (CuAl2) and reduction of SiO2 to Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Christopher; Stöffler, Dieter; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-11-01

    We analyzed the interaction of spherical, 6.36-mm-diameter, Cu-bearing aluminum projectiles with quartz sand targets in hypervelocity impact experiments performed at NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range. Impact velocities and inferred peak shock pressures varied between 5.9 and 6.5 km/s and ∼41 and 48 GPa, respectively. Shocked particles (;impact melt particles;) coated with thin crusts of molten projectile material were recovered from the floors of the ca. 33-cm-diameter craters and the respective ejecta blankets. Through petrographic and chemical (optical microscopy, FE-EMPA, SEM-EDX, and XRF) analysis we show that these particles have a layered structure manifested in distinct layers of decreasing shock metamorphism. These can be characterized by the following physical and chemical reactions and alteration products: (i) complete melting and subsequent recrystallization of the projectile, forming a distinct crystallization texture in the fused metal crust; (ii) projectile-target mixing, involving a redox reaction between Cu-bearing Al alloy und SiO2, leading to formation of khatyrkite (CuAl2), Al2O3 melt, euhedral silicon crystals, and spherical droplets of silicon; (iii) melting of quartz to lechatelierite and formation of planar deformation features in relic quartz grains; and (iv) shock lithification of quartz grains with fracturing of grains, grain-boundary melting, planar deformation features, and complete loss of porosity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of khatyrkite formed experimentally in hypervelocity impact experiments. These results have implications for the understanding of a similar redox reaction between Al-Cu metal and siliceous impact melt recently postulated for the Khatyrka CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Moreover, these results bear on the processes that lead to layers of regolith on the surfaces of planetary bodies without atmospheres, such as asteroids in the main belt (e.g., 4 Vesta), and on the Moon. Specifically, impacts of mm

  1. In situ flash X-ray observation of projectile penetration processes and crater cavity growth in porous gypsum target analogous to low-density asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Arakawa, Masahiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Fujita, Yukihiro; Kadono, Toshihiko

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies of impact craters formed on low-density asteroids led to the proposal of a new crater formation mechanism dominated by pore collapse and compaction. Thus, it is important to study the crater formation process associated with the projectile penetration on porous cohesive targets. Laboratory impact experiments were conducted for a porous gypsum target with porosity of 50%, and flash X-rays were used to visualize the interior of the target for in situ observation of crater formation and projectile penetration. Spherical projectiles made of three different materials, stainless steel, aluminum, and nylon were impacted at 1.9-2.4 km/s (low-velocity impact) and 5.6-6.4 km/s (high-velocity impact) by using a two-stage light-gas gun. Two imaging plates were used to take two X-ray images at a different delay time from the impact moment for one shot. Two types of crater cavity shape were found on the porous gypsum target, that is, penetration holes or hemispherical cavities, depending on the projectile size and density, and the impact velocity. The drag coefficient of a projectile was determined by measuring the penetration depth changing with time, and we found that it was closely related to the crater cavity shape: it was about 0.9 for a penetration hole, while it was 2.3-3.9 for a hemispherical cavity. This large value for a hemispherical cavity could have been caused by the deformation or the disruption of the projectile. The cratering efficiency, ρtVcr(t)/mp, was found to have a power law relationship to the scaling time for crater growth, πt = vit/rp, where vi is the impact velocity, rp is the projectile radius, and t is the time after the impact, and all data for stainless steel and aluminum projectiles merged completely and could be fitted by a power-law equation of ρtVcr(t)/mp=2.69×10-1πt1.10. Furthermore, the scaled crater volume, πV = Vcr_finalρt/mp, where Vcr_final is the final crater cavity volume, ρt is the target density, and mp is the

  2. On the drop-weight testing of alumina/aluminum laminated composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1997) either by using DWT or real ballistic tests using 0·3 cal armour piercing projectiles. In this study, DWT of alumina/aluminum laminated composites of varying areal density with respect to area and lamination combinations was conducted to investigate their response to low velocity impact. In addition, macro- and ...

  3. Water Ice Radiolytic O2, H2, and H2O2 Yields for Any Projectile Species, Energy, or Temperature: A Model for Icy Astrophysical Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Plainaki, C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Raut, U.

    2017-10-01

    O2, H2, and H2O2 radiolysis from water ice is pervasive on icy astrophysical bodies, but the lack of a self-consistent, quantitative model of the yields of these water products versus irradiation projectile species and energy has been an obstacle to estimating the radiolytic oxidant sources to the surfaces and exospheres of these objects. A major challenge is the wide variation of O2 radiolysis yields between laboratory experiments, ranging over 4 orders of magnitude from 5 × 10-7 to 5 × 10-3 molecules/eV for different particles and energies. We revisit decades of laboratory data to solve this long-standing puzzle, finding an inverse projectile range dependence in the O2 yields, due to preferential O2 formation from an 30 Å thick oxygenated surface layer. Highly penetrating projectile ions and electrons with ranges ≳30 Å are therefore less efficient at producing O2 than slow/heavy ions and low-energy electrons (≲ 400 eV) which deposit most energy near the surface. Unlike O2, the H2O2 yields from penetrating projectiles fall within a comparatively narrow range of (0.1-6) × 10-3 molecules/eV and do not depend on range, suggesting that H2O2 forms deep in the ice uniformly along the projectile track, e.g., by reactions of OH radicals. We develop an analytical model for O2, H2, and H2O2 yields from pure water ice for electrons and singly charged ions of any mass and energy and apply the model to estimate possible O2 source rates on several icy satellites. The yields are upper limits for icy bodies on which surface impurities may be present.

  4. Detection of atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt projectiles using an x-ray charged coupled device camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Bouneau, S.; Genolini, B.; Grave, X.; Nguyen, K.; Le Gailliard, C.; Rosier, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Feraud, G.; Friha, H. [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d' Orsay, INP-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Villier, B. [Hamamatsu Photonics (France)

    2011-10-15

    We show that an x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) may be used as a particle detector for atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt (MeV) projectiles of around a few hundred keV per atomic mass unit. For atomic species, spectroscopic properties in kinetic energy measurements (i.e., linearity and energy resolution) are found to be close to those currently obtained with implanted or surface barrier silicon particle detectors. For molecular species, in order to increase the maximum kinetic energy detection limit, we propose to put a thin foil in front of the CCD. This foil breaks up the molecules into atoms and spreads the charges over many CCD pixels and therefore avoiding saturation effects. This opens new perspectives in high velocity molecular dissociation studies with accelerator facilities.

  5. Influence of yawing force frequency on angular motion and ballistic characteristics of a dual-spin projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A roll-decoupled course correction fuze with canards can improve the hit accuracy of conventional unguided ammunitions. The fuze increases accuracy by reducing the effect of angular and translational motion produced by the cyclical yawing forces applied on the projectile. In order to investigate the influence of yawing forces on angular motion, a theoretical solution of the total yaw angle function with the cyclical yawing forces is deduced utilizing the 7 degrees of freedom (7-DOF model designed for this calculation. Furthermore, a detailed simulation is carried out to determine the influence rules of yawing force on angular motion. The calculated results illustrate that, when the rotational speed of the forward part is close to the initial turning rate, the total yaw angle increases and the flight range decreases sharply. Moreover, a yawing force at an appropriate frequency is able to correct the gun azimuth and elevation perturbation to some extent.

  6. Recent Results from Frs Experiments with Exotic Nuclei Produced with Uranium Projectiles and Perspectives with the Super-Frs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissel, H.; Chen, L.; Dickel, T.; Farinon, F.; Dillmann, I.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Mukha, I.; Münzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.; Patyk, Z.; Pietri, S.; Plass, W. R.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkler, M.

    2013-06-01

    Relativistic exotic nuclei have been produced via uranium projectile fragmentation and fission and investigated with the in-flight separator FRS directly, or in combination with either the storage-cooler ring ESR or the FRS Ion Catcher. 60 neutron-rich isotopes have been discovered in the element range from Nd to Pt and their production cross sections have been measured. In another experimental campaign the fragments were separated in flight and injected into the storage-cooler ring ESR for accurate mass and lifetime measurements. Pioneering experiments have been carried out with the FRS Ion Catcher. Results from these different FRS experiments will be presented in this overview together with perspectives for the next-generation facility Super-FRS.

  7. Highly conductive ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon by irradiation with 30 MeV C{sub 60} projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauser, J [Hochschule Harz, University of Applied Sciences, 38855 Wernigerode (Germany); Nix, A-K; Gehrke, H-G; Hofsaess, H [II Institute of Physics, University of Goettingen, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Trautmann, C [Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Weidinger, A, E-mail: jkrauser@hs-harz.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Electrically conducting ion tracks are produced when high-energy heavy ions pass through a layer of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). The tracks are embedded in the insulating ta-C matrix and have a diameter of about 8 nm. Earlier studies showed that the electrical currents through individual tracks produced with Au and U projectiles exhibit rather large track-to-track fluctuations. In striking contrast, 30 MeV C{sub 60} cluster ions are shown to generate conducting tracks of very narrow conductivity distributions. Their current-versus-voltage curves are linear at room temperature. We also investigated ta-C films doped with B, N, Cu and Fe at a concentration of 1 or 2 at.%. In particular, Cu- and Fe-doped samples show increased ion track conductivity.

  8. Neural Network Approach for Estimation of Penetration Depth in Concrete Targets by Ogive-nose Steel Projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite the availability of large number of empirical and semi-empirical models, the problem of penetration depth prediction for concrete targets has remained inconclusive partly due to the complexity of the phenomenon involved and partly because of the limitations of the statistical regression employed. Conventional statistical analysis is now being replaced in many fields by the alternative approach of neural networks. Neural networks have advantages over statistical models like their data-driven nature, model-free form of predictions, and tolerance to data errors. The objective of this study is to reanalyze the data for the prediction of penetration depth by employing the technique of neural networks with a view towards seeing if better predictions are possible. The data used in the analysis pertains to the ogive-nose steel projectiles on concrete targets and the neural network models result in very low errors and high correlation coefficients as compared to the regression based models.

  9. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... by investigating the "transport factor" beta, the energy spectrum of directly ejected recoil electrons and the evolution of ionic charge state inside solids. Estimates of the energy-loss fraction leading to electron emission and the effective charges of the ions near the surface allow a quantitative description...... that the concept of the preequilibrium near-surface stopping S* can be applied successfully to describe the dependence of the ion-induced electron yields on the projectile atomic number Z(P) and on the charge states q(i) of the incoming ions. We discuss the implementation of this concept into Schou's transport...

  10. Mass measurements of {sup 238}U-projectile fragments for the first time with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Jens

    2016-07-01

    Mass measurements of short-lived uranium projectile fragments were performed for the first time with a Multiple-Reflexion-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS). A major part of this doctoral work was a novel development of a data analysis method for the MR-TOF-MS mass measurements of exotic nuclei at the fragment separator FRS at GSI. The developed method was successfully applied to the data obtained from two pilot experiments with the MR-TOF-MS at the FRS in 2012 and 2014. A substantial upgrade of the experimental setup of the MR-TOF-MS was also performed in the frame work of this doctoral thesis after the first run. In the experiments projectile fragments were created with 1000 MeV/u {sup 238}U ions in a Be/Nb target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS. The exotic nuclei were spatially separated, energy bunched and slowed down with the ion-optical system of the FRS combined with monoenergetic and homogeneous degraders. At the final focal plane of the FRS the fragments were completely slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) filled with 3-5 mg/cm{sup 2} pure helium gas. The exotic nuclei were fast extracted from the CSC to enable mass measurements of very short-lived fragments with the MR-TOF-MS. The achievement of this goal was successfully demonstrated with the mass measurement of {sup 220}Ra ions with a half-life of 17.9 ms and 11 detected events. The mass measurements of the isobars {sup 211}Fr, {sup 211}Po and {sup 211}Rn have clearly demonstrated the scientific potential of the MR-TOF-MS for the investigation of exotic nuclei and the power of the data analysis system. Difficult measurements with overlapping mass distributions with only a few counts in the measured spectra were the challenge for the new data analysis method based on the maximum likelihood method. The drifts during the measurements were corrected with the developed time-resolved calibration method. After the improvements of the setup as a consequence of

  11. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. IX. Mechanical Properties of Dust Aggregates Probed by a Solid-projectile Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic characterization of mechanical properties of dust aggregates has been one of the most important problems to quantitatively discuss the dust growth in protoplanetary disks. We experimentally investigate the dynamic properties of dust aggregates by low-speed (≤slant 3.2 m s-1) impacts of solid projectiles. Spherical impactors made of glass, steel, or lead are dropped onto a dust aggregate with a packing fraction of ϕ = 0.35 under vacuum conditions. The impact results in cratering or fragmentation of the dust aggregate, depending on the impact energy. The crater shape can be approximated by a spherical segment and no ejecta are observed. To understand the underlying physics of impacts into dust aggregates, the motion of the solid projectile is acquired by a high-speed camera. Using the obtained position data of the impactor, we analyze the drag-force law and dynamic pressure induced by the impact. We find that there are two characteristic strengths. One is defined by the ratio between impact energy and crater volume and is ≃120 kPa. The other strength indicates the fragmentation threshold of dynamic pressure and is ≃10 kPa. The former characterizes the apparent plastic deformation and is consistent with the drag force responsible for impactor deceleration. The latter corresponds to the dynamic tensile strength to create cracks. Using these results, a simple model for the compaction and fragmentation threshold of dust aggregates is proposed. In addition, the comparison of drag-force laws for dust aggregates and loose granular matter reveals the similarities and differences between the two materials.

  12. SIMS Studies of Allende Projectiles Fired into Stardust-type Aluminum Foils at 6 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Peter; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Floss, Christine; Leitner, Jan; Marhas, Kuljeet; Horz, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    We have explored the feasibility of C-, N-, and O-isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS and of elemental abundance determinations by TOF-SIMS on residues of Allende projectiles that impacted Stardust-type aluminum foils in the laboratory at 6 km/s. These investigations are part of a consortium study aimed at providing the foundation for the characterization of matter associated with micro-craters that were produced during the encounter of the Stardust space probe with comet 81P/Wild 2. Eleven experimental impact craters were studied by NanoSIMS and eighteen by TOF-SIMS. Crater sizes were between 3 and 190 microns. The NanoSIMS measurements have shown that the crater morphology has only a minor effect on spatial resolution and on instrumental mass fractionation. The achievable spatial resolution is always better than 200 nm, and C- and O-isotopic ratios can be measured with a precision of several percent at a scale of several 100 nm, the typical size of presolar grains. This clearly demonstrates that presolar matter, provided it survives the impact into the aluminum foil partly intact, is recognizable even if embedded in material of Solar System origin. TOF-SIMS studies are restricted to materials from the crater rim. The element ratios of the major rockforming elements in the Allende projectiles are well characterized by the TOF-SIMS measurements, indicating that fractionation of those elements during impact can be expected to be negligible. This permits information on the type of impactor material to be obtained. For any more detailed assignments to specific chondrite groups, however, information on the abundances of the light elements, especially C, is crucial.

  13. Fragmentation of nuclei as a function of centrality of collision in interactions of gold projectiles at 10.6 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W. E-mail: wladyslaw.wolter@ifj.edu.pl; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K

    2001-10-22

    We have studied the fragmentation of light (C/N/O) and heavy (Ag/Br) nuclei of emulsion in collisions with gold projectiles at 10.6 A GeV and the fragmentation of these gold nuclei in collisions with hydrogen, (C/N/O) and (Ag/Br) nuclei. The analysis was restricted to the investigation of the number of fragments and in some cases the total charge of fragments as a function of the centrality of collisions with nuclei of different masses. We observe a decrease in the number of target fragments with increasing centrality for interactions of projectiles with masses comparable or greater than the mass of the target nucleus. As the collision becomes more central a significant number of participating protons from the target nucleus get enough momentum to become relativistic due to intranuclear interactions. These results have been compared with the predictions of the RQMD model.

  14. Research on critical behaviour during fragmentation of the projectile in the Xe+Sn (at 50 MeV/A) reaction; Recherche d`un comportement critique dans la fragmentation du projectile dans la reaction Xe+Sn a 50 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.

    1995-03-01

    The study of moments of fragments charge distributions produced in heavy ions collisions can give us evidence of a critical behavior of nuclear matter which could explain the multifragmentation pattern. From an experimental point of view, in order to perform this capabilities of the INDRA detector has made it possible to identify all these particles and to reconstruct the initial projectile-like fragment coming from binary collisions in the reaction Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/A. We have selected events where the initial projectile-like fragments keep their entire charge in a large range of excitation energy. The study of these fragment`s characteristics show clearly a change in the deexcitation pattern. The evolution of moments of the fragment charge distributions has been reproduced within a percolation model, in this sense we can interpreter this change in the deexcitation pattern as a function of the initial projectile-like fragment`s size shows the existence of finite-size effects. However, the signature of a phase transition remains independent on the projectile-like fragment`s size. (author). 74 refs., 58 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. In–out asymmetry in the interaction of a charged projectile traversing a vacuum–metal interface in an oblique trajectory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasoni, J.L. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), R8402AGP S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), R8402AGP S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Segui, S. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), R8402AGP S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Barrachina, R.O. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), R8402AGP S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), R8402AGP S. C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we analyze the interaction of moving charged particles with plasmons in a semi-infinite material. For planar surfaces, and in the frame of a semiclassical dielectric formulation, we analyze the differences and similarities that arise when we compare incoming and outgoing trajectories in oblique incidence. We describe an oscillatory structure that only appears in the bulk contribution to the energy lost by an incoming projectile, and analyze how this in–out asymmetry depends of the angle of incidence.

  16. Flash X-ray cinematography analysis of dwell and penetration of small caliber projectiles with three types of SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Strassburger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of ceramic composite armor it is essential to know the mechanisms during each phase of the projectile–target interaction and their influence on the penetration resistance. Since the view on the crater zone and the tip of a projectile penetrating a ceramic is rapidly getting obscured by damaged material, a flash X-ray technique has to be applied in order to visualize projectile penetration. For this purpose, usually several flash X-ray tubes are arranged around the target and the radiographs are recorded on film. At EMI a flash X-ray imaging method has been developed, which provides up to eight flash radiographs in one experiment. A multi-anode 450 kV flash X-ray tube is utilized with this method. The radiation transmitted through the target is then detected on a fluorescent screen. The fluorescent screen converts the radiograph into an image in the visible wavelength range, which is photographed by means of a high-speed camera. This technique has been applied to visualize and analyze the penetration of 7.62 mm AP projectiles into three different types of SiC ceramics. Two commercial SiC grades and MICASIC (Metal Infiltrated Carbon derived SiC, a C-SiSiC ceramic developed by DLR, have been studied. The influences, not only of the ceramic but also the backing material, on dwell time and projectile erosion have been studied. Penetration curves have been determined and their relevance to the ballistic resistance is discussed.

  17. Energetic Residues and Crater Geometries from the Firing of 120-mm High-Explosive Mortar Projectiles into Eagle River Flats, June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    method, but with three new randomly chosen starting points. Figure 5. Sampling of 200 m × 200 m cell. Each point was cleared with a metal detector for...propellant burn was visible (despite the blackened surface produced by the June burn (Fig. 3e). Because of the uncertainty of the exact location of the...detect a metallic signal, indicating that the projectile penetrated several meters. Analysis for Comp B Residue No high-explosives residues were

  18. The neuroanatomy of vomiting in man: association of projectile vomiting with a solitary metastasis in the lateral tegmentum of the pons and the middle cerebellar peduncle.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, P C; Bernat, J L

    1985-01-01

    Animal studies have indicated a "vomiting center" situated in the dorsal portion of the lateral reticular formation of the medulla at the level of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus. There is also a chemoreceptor trigger zone in the floor of the fourth ventricle in the area postrema which influences the vomiting center. A 63 year old man with a three year history of metastatic malignant melanoma presented with nausea, projectile vomiting, gait ataxia and diplopia associated with horizontal and v...

  19. Projectile Roll Dynamics and Control With a Low-Cost Skid-to-Turn Maneuver System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    test articles were mounted as shown in figure 2 in a shock facility. The experimental shock setup is a plate instrumented with a reference...accelerometer and the article under test, which is constrained to one-dimensional translation. The instrumented plate is accelerated from rest by releasing an...77843 1 ROSE-HULMAN INST OF TECHLGY SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENG B BURCHETT TERRE HAUTE IN 47803 ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND 5 COMMANDER

  20. Excitation function for the production of 262Bh (Z = 107) in theodd-Z projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn, n)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folden III, C.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Schwantes, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Zielinski, P.M.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2005-05-16

    The excitation function for production of 262Bh in the odd-Z-projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn,n) has been measured at three projectile energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, 33 decay chains originating from 262Bh and 2 decay chains originating from 261Bh were observed. The measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. The maximum cross section of 540 +180 - 150 pb is observed at a lab-frame center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV and is more than fives times larger than that expected based on previously reported results for production of 262Bh in the analogous even-Z-projectile reaction 209Bi(54Cr,n). Our results indicate that the optimum beam energy in one-neutron-out heavy-ion fusion reactions can be estimated simply using the ''Optimum Energy Rule'' proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski.

  1. German Explosive Ordnance (Projectiles and Projectile Fuzes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-03-01

    under the anvil in the base of the primer. The cap contains: 24.6 percent mercury fulminate . 37.6 percent potassium chlorate. 29.6 percent...the base below a brass anvil. The cap consists of: 21 percent mercury fulminate . 40.3 percent potassium chlorate. 37.8 percent antimony sulphide...chloride. 16.7 percent mercury fulminate . 43.4 percent antimony sulphide. 10.8 percent abrasives. ACTION. The firing pin hits the rear of the

  2. Study of uranium dioxyde sputtering induced by multicharged heavy ions at low and very low kinetic energy: projectile charge effect; Etude de la pulverisation du dioxyde d'uranium induite par des ions lourds multicharges de basse et tres basse energie cinetique; effet de la charge du projectile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranger, F

    2003-12-01

    Ion beam irradiation of a solid can lead to the emission of neutral or ionized atoms, molecules or clusters from the surface. This comes as a result of the atomic motion in the vicinity of the surface, induced by the transfer of the projectile energy. Then, the study of the sputtering process appears as a means to get a better understanding of the excited matter state around the projectile trajectory. In the case of slow multicharged ions, a strong electronic excitation can be achieved by the projectile neutralization above the solid surface and / or its deexcitation below the surface. Parallel to this, the slowing down of such ions is essentially related to elastic collision with the target atoms. The study of the effect of the initial charge state of slow multicharged ions, in the sputtering process, has been carried out by measuring the absolute angular distributions of emission of uranium atoms from a uranium dioxide surface. The experiments have been performed in two steps. First, the emitted particles are collected onto a substrate during irradiation. Secondly, the surface of the collectors is analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). This method allows the characterization of the emission of neutrals, which are the vast majority of the sputtered particles. The results obtained provide an access to the evolution of the sputtering process as a function of xenon projectile ions charge state. The measurements have been performed over a wide kinetic energy range, from 81 down to 1.5 keV. This allowed a clear separation of the contribution of the kinetic energy and initial projectile charge state to the sputtering phenomenon. (author)

  3. Ballistic penetration test results for Ductal and ultra-high performance concrete samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (KTech)

    2010-03-01

    This document provides detailed test results of ballistic impact experiments performed on several types of high performance concrete. These tests were performed at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research Facility using a 50 caliber powder gun to study penetration resistance of concrete samples. This document provides test results for ballistic impact experiments performed on two types of concrete samples, (1) Ductal{reg_sign} concrete is a fiber reinforced high performance concrete patented by Lafarge Group and (2) ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) produced in-house by DoD. These tests were performed as part of a research demonstration project overseen by USACE and ERDC, at the Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamic Applied Research (STAR) facility. Ballistic penetration tests were performed on a single stage research powder gun of 50 caliber bore using a full metal jacket M33 ball projectile with a nominal velocity of 914 m/s (3000 ft/s). Testing was observed by Beverly DiPaolo from ERDC-GSL. In all, 31 tests were performed to achieve the test objectives which were: (1) recovery of concrete test specimens for post mortem analysis and characterization at outside labs, (2) measurement of projectile impact velocity and post-penetration residual velocity from electronic and radiographic techniques and, (3) high-speed photography of the projectile prior to impact, impact and exit of the rear surface of the concrete construct, and (4) summarize the results.

  4. Localization of firearm projectiles in the human body using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Barbosa, C.

    2004-06-01

    A technique had been previously developed, based on magnetic field measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device sensor, to localize in three dimensions steel needles lost in the human body. In all six cases that were treated until now, the technique allowed easy surgical localization of the needles with high accuracy. The technique decreases, by a large factor, the surgery time for foreign body extraction, and also reduces the generally high odds of failure. The method is accurate, noninvasive, and innocuous, and with clear clinical importance. Despite the importance of needle localization, the most prevalent foreign body in the modern society is the firearm projectile (bullet), generally composed of lead, a paramagnetic material, thus not presenting a remanent magnetic field as steel needles do. On the other hand, since lead is a good conductor, eddy current detection techniques can be employed, by applying an alternating magnetic field with the aid of excitation coils. The primary field induces eddy currents on the lead, which in turn generate a secondary magnetic field that can be detected by a magnetometer, and give information about position and volume of the conducting foreign body. In this article we present a theoretical study for the development of a localization technique for lead bullets inside the human body. Initially, we present a model for the secondary magnetic field generated by the bullet, given a known applied field. After that, we study possible excitation systems, and propose a localization algorithm based on the detected magnetic field.

  5. Sputtering of octatetraene by 15 keV C{sub 60} projectiles: Comparison of reactive interatomic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanski, Michal; Maciazek, Dawid; Golunski, Mikolaj; Postawa, Zbigniew, E-mail: zbigniew.postawa@uj.edu.pl

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Probing the effect of interatomic potentials on sputtering of an octatetraene sample. • Problems with charge calculations are observed during cluster impact for ReaxFF. • COMB3 leads to a very low sputtering yield due to abrupt energy dissipation. • AIREBO is computationally the most efficient, while ReaxFF is more accurate. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics computer simulations have been used to probe the effect of the AIREBO, ReaxFF and COMB3 interatomic potentials on sputtering of an organic sample composed of octatetraene molecules. The system is bombarded by a 15 keV C{sub 60} projectile at normal incidence. The effect of the applied force fields on the total time of simulation, the calculated sputtering yield and the angular distribution of sputtered particles is investigated and discussed. It has been found that caution should be taken when simulating particles ejection from nonhomogeneous systems that undergo significant fragmentation described by the ReaxFF. In this case, the charge state of many particles is improper due to an inadequacy of a procedure used for calculating partial charges on atoms in molecules for conditions present during sputtering. A two-step simulation procedure is proposed to minimize the effect of this deficiency. There is also a possible problem with the COMB3 potential, at least at conditions present during cluster impact, as its results are very different from AIREBO or ReaxFF.

  6. Calculations on the threshold anomaly of weakly bound projectiles with Sao Paulo and Woods-Saxon polarization potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Camacho, A; Aguilera, E F; Martinez-Quiroz, E [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Gomes, P R S; Lubian, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminenese, Avenida Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, cep 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L F, E-mail: arturo.gomez@inin.gob.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, R.J., cep 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    A thorough study of the energy dependence of the nuclear optical potential in reactions involving the weakly bound projectiles {sup 8}B, {sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li on the target {sup 58}Ni and {sup 9}Be on {sup 27}Al is carried out by performing a {chi}{sup 2}-analysis of recent measurements of elastic scattering cross sections for energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. For this purpose two different potential types are used: the double folding Sao Paulo potential and the Woods-Saxon potential. The calculations performed for the energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the polarization potentials show that these potentials besides satisfying the dispersion relation, for some nuclear systems the uncertainties on the energy dependence of the polarization potentials allow to conclude that these systems present a behavior consistent with the Breakup Theshold Anomaly. In other cases, due to the large uncertainties, it is not possible to make a definitive conclusion about the anomalies.

  7. Observer-based adaptive sliding mode backstepping output-feedback DSC for spin-stabilized canard-controlled projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchuan SHEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a complete nonlinear controller design for a class of spin-stabilized canard-controlled projectiles. Uniformly ultimate boundedness and tracking are achieved, exploiting a heavily coupled, bounded uncertain and highly nonlinear model of longitudinal and lateral dynamics. In order to estimate unmeasurable states, an observer is proposed for an augmented multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO nonlinear system with an adaptive sliding mode term against the disturbances. Under the frame of a backstepping design, an adaptive sliding mode output-feedback dynamic surface control (DSC approach is derived recursively by virtue of the estimated states. The DSC technique is adopted to overcome the problem of “explosion of complexity” and relieve the stress of the guidance loop. It is proven that all signals of the MIMO closed-loop system, including the observer and controller, are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the tracking errors converge to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results for the observer and controller are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Effects of metal nanoparticles on the secondary ion yields of a model alkane molecule upon atomic and polyatomic projectiles in secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Nimer; Heile, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bertrand, Patrick; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2008-08-15

    A model alkane molecule, triacontane, is used to assess the effects of condensed gold and silver nanoparticles on the molecular ion yields upon atomic (Ga(+) and In(+)) and polyatomic (C60(+) and Bi3(+)) ion bombardment in metal-assisted secondary ion mass spectrometry (MetA-SIMS). Molecular films spin-coated on silicon were metallized using a sputter-coater system, in order to deposit controlled quantities of gold and silver on the surface (from 0 to 15 nm equivalent thickness). The effects of gold and silver islets condensed on triacontane are also compared to the situation of thin triacontane overlayers on metallic substrates (gold and silver). The results focus primarily on the measured yields of quasi-molecular ions, such as (M - H)(+) and (2M - 2H)(+), and metal-cationized molecules, such as (M + Au)(+) and (M + Ag)(+), as a function of the quantity of metal on the surface. They confirm the absence of a simple rule to explain the secondary ion yield improvement in MetA-SIMS. The behavior is strongly dependent on the specific projectile/metal couple used for the experiment. Under atomic bombardment (Ga(+), In(+)), the characteristic ion yields an increase with the gold dose up to approximately 6 nm equivalent thickness. The yield enhancement factor between gold-metallized and pristine samples can be as large as approximately 70 (for (M - H)(+) under Ga(+) bombardment; 10 nm of Au). In contrast, with cluster projectiles such as Bi3(+) and C60(+), the presence of gold and silver leads to a dramatic molecular ion yield decrease. Cluster projectiles prove to be beneficial for triacontane overlayers spin-coated on silicon or metal substrates (Au, Ag) but not in the situation of MetA-SIMS. The fundamental difference of behavior between atomic and cluster primary ions is tentatively explained by arguments involving the different energy deposition mechanisms of these projectiles. Our results also show that Au and Ag nanoparticles do not induce the same behavior in Met

  9. Vooronderzoek Meetuitrusting Snelheid Projectiel (Feasibility Study for a Measuring System Velocity Projectile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    warden berekend. De FF1’ is een algoritme waarmee relatief snel de frequentie-inhoud van een signaal wardt berekend. De inverse transforinatie (IFFT...A87KL055, THE TEST DEPARTMENT OF THE ROYAL NETHERLANDS ARMY COMMISSIONED A FEASIBILITY STUDY INTO A POSSIBLE SET-UP FOR MEASURING THE EXTERNA BALLISTIC

  10. Battlefield Dust from Exploding Munitions: Contribution by Cratering from Artillery and Mortar Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    paragraph 25.) (See Joachim and D)avis ,083); Rooke (1983); Williams and Lebron (in preparation)). Miscellaneous Sites Panama Canal studies 37. The...Mason, James B., and Durst, Bartley P. 1984. "Results of Fort Carson, Colorado Terrain Dust Obscuration Tests Using Explosives," Mis- cellaneous Paper No...EL-84-6, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Long, Katherine S., Mason, James B., Williams, Randall R., and Davis, Roger E

  11. Fabrication and testing of prestressed composite rotor blade spar specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, D.

    1974-01-01

    Prestressed composite spar specimens were fabricated and evaluated by crack propagation and ballistic penetration tests. The crack propagation tests on flawed specimens showed that the prestressed composite spar construction significantly suppresses crack growth. Damage from three high velocity 30 caliber projectile hits was confined to three small holes in the ballistic test specimen. No fragmentation or crack propagation was observed indicating good ballistic damage resistance. Rotor attachment approaches and improved structural performance configurations were identified. Design theory was verified by tests. The prestressed composite spar configuration consisted of a compressively prestressed high strength ARDEFORM 301 stainless steel liner overwrapped with pretensioned S-994 fiberglass.

  12. FAA Development of Reliable Modeling Methodologies for Fan Blade Out Containment Analysis. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the ballistic impact testing that was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade out events in fabric containment systems. The ballistic impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar 49 (E.I. DuPont Nemours and Company) and Zylon AS (Toyobo Co., Ltd.) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases the tests were designed such that the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models for predicting the response of fabrics under conditions simulating those of a jet engine blade release situations. In addition some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different materials.

  13. The challenges in developing a finite element injury model of the neck to predict the penetration of explosively propelled projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Johno; Newbery, T; Pope, D; Midwinter, M J

    2014-09-01

    Neck injuries sustained by UK service personnel serving on current operations from explosively propelled fragments result in significant mortality and long-term morbidity. Many of these injuries could potentially have been prevented had the soldiers been wearing their issued neck collars at the time of injury. The aim of this research is to develop an accurate method of predicting the resultant damage to cervical neurovascular structures from explosively propelled fragments. A finite element numerical model has been developed based on an anatomically accurate, anthropometrically representative 3D mathematical mesh of cervical neurovascular structures. Currently, the model simulates the passage of a fragment simulating projectile through all anatomical components of the neck using material models based upon 20% ballistic gelatin on the simplification that all tissue types act like homogenous muscle. The material models used to define the properties of each element within the model will be sequentially replaced by ones specific to each individual tissue within an anatomical structure. However, the cumulative effect of so many additional variables will necessitate experimental validation against both animal models and post-mortem human subjects to improve the credibility of any predictions made by the model. We believe this approach will in the future have the potential to enable objective comparisons between the mitigative effects of different body armour systems to be made with resultant time and financial savings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Study of the peripheral projectile-like fragments from the reaction {sup 129}Xe on {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, {sup 139}La and {sup 165}Ho, at E/A = 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Russ, D.E.; Madani, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    There are several reaction mechanisms identified for peripheral heavy-ion collisions. For low bombarding energies (E/A {approx} 10 MeV) the predominant reaction channel is the deep-inelastic reaction mechanism. In this process, the projectile and target form a rotating binary system, interchanging nucleons and angular momentum until they separate. At higher bombarding energies (E/A {approx} 50 to 100 MeV) incomplete fusion is thought to be the prevailing reaction channel. In this type of interaction part of the projectile merges with the target during the collision. Finally, for energies greater than 100 MeV/A, the main reaction channel is characterized by the formation of a highly-excited separate fragment (fireball) produced during the overlap between the projectile and the target. The data set studied was from an experiment designed to characterize the projectile-like products of the {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Cu, {sup 139}La, and {sup 165}Ho reactions at E/A = 50 MeV, which was performed at the Michigan State University Super Cyclotron Laboratory (MSU-NSCL). The Maryland Forward Array (MFA), was used to measure projectile-like fragments in coincidence with target-like fragments and light-charge particles in the MSU 4{pi} detector.

  15. NUCLEAR AND HEAVY ION PHYSICS: Comparison between global phenomenological and microscopic optical potentials for proton as projectile below 100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hua; Liang, Chun-Tian; Cai, Chong-Hai

    2009-06-01

    For 112 target nuclei (52 elements) with proton as projectile, we calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions, as well as the χ2 values for 16 kinds of proton optical model potentials: two sets of phenomenological global optical potentials and the microscopic optical potentials proposed by Shen et al for 14 sets of Skyrme force parameters: GS1-6, SBJS, SKM, SGI-II, SKa-b, SG0I-II. We find that for obtaining the proton microscopic optical potential based on the nuclear matter approach with Skyrme force, SGI, SKa and SKb are the three sets of optimal Skyrme force parameters.

  16. Measurement of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 59}Ni by accelerator mass spectrometry using characteristic projectile x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, J.E.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Marchetti, A.A. [and others

    1996-05-01

    The long-lived isotopes of nickel ({sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni) have current and potential use in a number of applications including cosmic radiation studies, biomedical tracing, characterization of low-level radioactive wastes, and neutron dosimetry. Methods are being developed at LLNL for the routine detection of these isotopes by AMS. One intended application is in Hiroshima dosimetry. The reaction {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni has been identified as one of a small number of reactions which might be used for the direct determination of the fast neutron fluence emitted by the Hiroshima bomb. AMS measurement of {sup 63}Ni(t{sub 1/2} = 100 y) requires the chemical removal of {sup 63}Cu, which is a stable isobar of {sup 63}Ni. Following the electrochemical separation of Ni from gram-sized copper samples, the Cu concentration is further lowered to < 2 x 10{sup -8} (Cu/Ni) using the reaction of Ni with carbon monoxide to form the gas Ni(CO){sub 4}. The Ni(CO){sub 4} is thermally decomposed directly in sample holders for measurement by AMS. After analysis in the AMS spectrometer, the ions are identified using characteristic projectile x-rays, allowing further rejection of remaining {sup 63}Cu. In a demonstration experiment, {sup 63}Ni was measured in Cu wires (2-20 g) which had been exposed to neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. We successfully measured {sup 63}Ni at levels necessary for the measurement of Cu samples exposed near the Hiroshima hypocenter. For the demonstration samples, the Cu content was chemically reduced by a factor of 10{sup 12} with quantitative retention of {sup 63}Ni. Detection sensitivity (3{sigma}) was {approximately}20 fg {sup 63}Ni in 1 mg Ni carrier ({sup 63}Ni/Ni {approx} 2 x 10{sup -11}). Significant improvements in sensitivity are expected with planned incremental changes in the methods. Preliminary results indicate that a similar sensitivity is achievable for {sup 59}Ni (t{sub 1/2} = 10{sup 5} y).

  17. Questions for Parents to Ask about School Adaptations. PHP-c91

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A child with a disability who has an Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Section 504 Accommodation Plan may need extra help and support to participate in school. It takes thoughtful planning to choose adaptations, based on a child's disability, to help the child learn or have access to learning. Appropriate accommodations vary with…

  18. Optimization of $^{178m2}$/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV using STAPRE and ALICE code simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirischuk, V I; Khomenkov, V P; Strilchuk, N V; Zheltonozhskij, V A

    2004-01-01

    /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in different spallation reactions with protons, alpha particles and neutrons at projectile energies up to 100 MeV has been analyzed using both STAPRE and ALICE code simulations. The STAPRE code was used to calculate the isomeric ratios, while the ALICE code was used to simulate the excitation functions of the respective ground states. A number of spallation reactions have been compared taking into account not only /sup 178m2 /Hf isomer productivity but also, first, the isomeric ratios calculated by the STAPRE code; second, the accumulation of the most undesirable Hf isotopes and isomers, such as /sup 172/Hf, /sup 175 /Hf, and /sup 179m/Hf; and, third, the production of other admixtures and by-products that could degrade the quality of the produced /sup 178m2/Hf isomer sources, including all stable Hf isotopes as well. Possibilities and ways of optimizing /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV are discussed. This can be consi...

  19. Projectile-like fragments from {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Cu reactions at E/A = 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, D.E.; Mignerey, A.C.; Garcia-Solis, E.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The bombarding of heavy nuclei with energetic heavy projectiles has been one of the most important experimental tools for nuclear science. At low beam energies, (E/A) beam <10 MeV, the reactions appear to be dominated by mean field consideration. At higher beam energies, (E/A) beams > 100 MeV, these mean field effects are less important and nucleon-nucleon interactions dominate. Within the intermediate energy region, the situation is less clear because of both the mean field and nucleon-nucleon effects contribute. There is no consensus on the theoretical treatment of nuclear reaction in the intermediate energy regime and statistical, dynamical, and hybrid models have been used with limited success. Previous studies of {sup 136}Xe + {sup 209}Bi at E/A = 28 MeV carried out at Michigan State University (MSU) have been well described by a damped reaction mechanism. On the other hand, {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Cu at E/A = 50 MeV also at MSU has been compared with a hybrid model with reasonable success. In order to see a transition from a damped reaction mechanism to more fragmentation-like processes, an experiment was carried out at MSU using {sup 129}Xe beams at E/A = 30, 40, 50, and 60 MeV. The targets were Cu, Sc, and Au. The current study only looks at the projectile-like fragments (PLF) detected in the Maryland Forward Array (MFA).

  20. Systematic experimental survey on projectile fragmentation and fission induced in collisions of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enquist, T.; Benlliure, J.; Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bernas, M.; Tassan-Got, L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Volant, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA); Boeckstiegel, C.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Dufour, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France)

    1999-03-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission, induced in collisions of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV with lead, have systematically been studied. A complete survey on the isotopic production cross sections of all elements between vanadium (Z = 23) and rhenium (Z = 75) down to a cross section of 0.1 mb is given. About 600 isotopes produced in fragmentation and about 600 isotopes produced in fission were identified in the GSI fragment separator FRS from magnetic rigidities, time-of-flight values, and the energy loss in an ionisation chamber. In addition, the velocity distributions of all these reaction products have been mapped, and the products are unambiguously attributed to the different reaction mechanisms due to their kinematical properties. The results are compared with empirical systematics and previous data. The velocity of the fragments obtained in the fission process by the Coulomb repulsion allows to reconstruct the TKE-value of the break-up and to identify the atomic number of the fissioning nucleus in hot fission. The mean velocities of light projectile fragments were found to be higher than the beam velocity. (orig.) 41 refs.

  1. Determination of the solid angle and response function of a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens for Auger electrons emitted from long lived projectile states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, S; Madesis, I; Dimitriou, A; Laoutaris, A; Zouros, T J M; Benis, E P

    2015-04-01

    We present SIMION 8.1 Monte Carlo type simulations of the response function and detection solid angle for long lived Auger states (lifetime τ ∼ 10(-9) - 10(-5) s) recorded by a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens and position sensitive detector used for high resolution Auger spectroscopy of ion beams. Also included in these simulations for the first time are kinematic effects particular to Auger emission from fast moving projectile ions such as line broadening and solid angle limitations allowing for a more accurate and realistic line shape modeling. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with measured electron line shapes of both long lived 1s2s2p(4)P and prompt Auger projectile states formed by electron capture in collisions of 25.3 MeV F(7+) with H2 and 12.0 MeV C(4+) with Ne recorded at 0° to the beam direction. These results are important for the accurate evaluation of the 1s2s2p (4)P/(2)P ratio of K-Auger cross sections whose observed non-statistical production by electron capture into He-like ions, recently a field of interesting interpretations, awaits further resolution.

  2. Nano-biolistics: a method of biolistic transfection of cells and tissues using a gene gun with novel nanometer-sized projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lummis Sarah CR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biolistic transfection is proving an increasingly popular method of incorporating DNA or RNA into cells that are difficult to transfect using traditional methods. The technique routinely uses 'microparticles', which are ~1 μm diameter projectiles, fired into tissues using pressurised gas. These microparticles are efficient at delivering DNA into cells, but cannot efficiently transfect small cells and may cause significant tissue damage, thus limiting their potential usefulness. Here we describe the use of 40 nm diameter projectiles - nanoparticles - in biolistic transfections to determine if they are a suitable alternative to microparticles. Results Examination of transfection efficiencies in HEK293 cells, using a range of conditions including different DNA concentrations and different preparation procedures, reveals similar behaviour of microparticles and nanoparticles. The use of nanoparticles, however, resulted in ~30% fewer damaged HEK293 cells following transfection. Biolistic transfection of mouse ear tissue revealed similar depth penetration for the two types of particles, and also showed that 20% in microparticle-transfected samples. Visualising details of small cellular structures was also considerably enhanced when using nanoparticles. Conclusions We conclude that nanoparticles are as efficient for biolistic transfection as microparticles, and are more appropriate for use in small cells, when examining cellular structures and/or where tissue damage is a problem.

  3. Explicit Finite Element Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabric for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems, Phase II. Part 2; Ballistic Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilock, D. M.; Pereira, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the ballistic impact testing that was conducted to provide validation data for the development of numerical models of blade-out events in fabric containment systems. The ballistic impact response of two different fiber materials - Kevlar(TradeName) 49 and Zylon(TradeName) AS (as spun) was studied by firing metal projectiles into dry woven fabric specimens using a gas gun. The shape, mass, orientation, and velocity of the projectile were varied and recorded. In most cases, the tests were designed so the projectile would perforate the specimen, allowing measurement of the energy absorbed by the fabric. The results for both Zylon and Kevlar presented here represent a useful set of data for the purposes of establishing and validating numerical models to predict the response of fabrics under conditions that simulate those of a jet engine blade-release situation. In addition, some useful empirical observations were made regarding the effects of projectile orientation and the relative performance of the different fabric materials.

  4. Projectile Follower System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    about 1 ms; but, the exposure time can be much briefer, which is often the case. Since the relative motion between the image and the film is very low...HALSTEAD, "The Flight Follower - a Device for the Cinematography of Objects in Rapid Transitional Flight’, 6th International Congress High Speed...Photography, Hague, 1962. 3. Fuller, P.W.W., ’The Flight Follower - a Device for Cinematography ef Objects in Rapid Transitional Flight’, RARDE Paper presented

  5. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray gun in the present day, however, shows that these weapons are still present. The possibility that one might be used to spray a charge of cyanide is still very real, especially as it would not be very difficult for an informed amateur to produce homemade toxic ammunition by adapting existing civil or military cartridges.

  6. Projectiel Fotografie (Projectile Photography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    200 mm). Lichtsterkte :1 : 4.5. Diafragma : 22. Tegelijkertijd is een camera in gebruik genomen van EEV PHOTON, type P46580. Deze camera is van het... Diafragma -instelling was 5.6. Met beide laatstgenoemde camerasystemen zou het mogelijk zijn om opnanien bij daglicht te, maken met gebruikmaking van een...De belichtingstijd was 20 ms en de flitsduur Ips Diafragma 5.6. Fig 5:Deze foto is opgenonme met eeo FAIRCHILD 3000 camera met fiberstud en cen

  7. Archeological Testing at Four Sites on the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    buried at a depth around 70 cm bgs. Zea mavs pollen was found in the pollen samples taken from the test units. Charcoal produced conventional radiocarbon...2-meter-wide dog leash samples. The recovered artifacts include a projectile point base, an endscraper, a sandstone mano, a black pebble fragment, a...included only the male half, and one female half was recovered. Seven of these snaps have letters or designs imprinted on them. The head of one large

  8. Thermal imaging during ballistic testing of armour materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    During the interaction between a projectile and a target material the kinetic energy of the projectile is transferred into elastic and plastic deformation of both the projectile and target materials. Using a rigid penetrator the loss in kinetic energy is fully converted into energy absorbed by the

  9. Direct mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{86}$Kr projectile fragments and the persistence of neutron magic number $N$ = 32 in Sc isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xing; Zhang, Yu-hu; Xu, Hu-shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-lin; Litvinov, Yuri A; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Sun, Bao-hua; Yuan, You-jin; Xia, Jia-wen; Yang, Jian-cheng; Blaum, KLaus; Chen, Rui-jiu; Chen, Xiang-cheng; Fu, Chao-yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-guo; Huang, Wen-jia; Liu, Da-wei; Lam, Yi-hua; Ma, Xin-wen; Mao, Rui-shi; Uesaka, T; Xiao, Guo-ging; Xing, Yuan-ming; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-liang; Zhao, Hong-wei; Zhao, Tie-cheneg; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-long

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{86}$Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of $^{52-54}$Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, $^{53}$Sc and $^{54}$Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number $N$ = 32 in Sc isotopes.

  10. Direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments and the persistence of neutron magic number N=32 in Sc isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Xu, Hu-Shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-Lin; Yuri, A. Litvinov; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Bao-Hua; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Klaus, Blaum; Chen, Rui-Jiu; Chen, Xiang-Cheng; Fu, Chao-Yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Huang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Da-Wei; Lam, Yi-Hua; Ma, Xin-Wen; Mao, Rui-Shi; Uesaka, T.; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xing, Yuan-Ming; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-Long

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of 52-54Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, 53Sc and 54Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number N=32 in Sc isotopes. Supported by 973 Program of China (2013CB834401), the NSFC (U1232208, U1432125, 11205205, 11035007) and the Helmholtz-CAS Joint Research Group (HCJRG-108)

  11. Experimental and theoretical study for the production of 51Cr using p, d, 3He and 4He projectiles on V, Ti and Cr targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solieman, A. H. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Ditroi, F.; Saleh, Z. A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of 51Cr (T1/2 = 27.7 d) have been studied experimentally through the reaction of proton and 3He on natV and natTi targets respectively by using a variable energy cyclotrons. Reaction cross sections were obtained at different energies using the stacked-foil technique. High resolution gamma ray spectrometers were used for measuring the γ-ray spectra. Comparison between the present experimental results and the previously reported data has been carried out and discussed. The possibility of producing 51Cr with reasonable yield using different projectiles and different natural targets was studied and reported. Excitation functions for the reactions of proton, deuteron, 3He and 4He particles on natural vanadium, titanium and chromium targets have been evaluated using two theoretical codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.1. The recommended cross-sections and the integral yields as well were obtained.

  12. On the study of ricochet and penetration in sand, water and gelatin by spheres, 7.62 mm APM2, and 25 mm projectiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the ricochet and penetration behavior in sand, water and gelatin by steel spheres, 7.62 mm APM2 and 25 mm projectiles. A threshold impact angle (critical angle exists beyond which ricochet cannot occur. The Autodyn simulation code with the smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH method and Impetus Afea Solver with the corpuscular model are used and the results are compared with experimental and analytical results. The resistance force in sand for spheres was proportional to a term quadratic in velocity plus a term linear in velocity. The drag coefficient for the quadratic term was 0.65. The Autodyn and Impetus Afea codes simulate too large penetration due to the lack of a linear velocity resistance force. Critical ricochet angles were consistent with analytical results in the literature. In ballistic gelatin at velocities of 50–850 m/s a drag coefficient of 0.30 fits the high speed camera recordings if a linear velocity resistance term is included. However, only a quadratic velocity resistance force with drag coefficient that varies with the Reynolds number also fits the measurements. The simulation of a sphere in water with Autodyn showed too large drag coefficient. The 7.62 mm APM2 core simulations in sand fit reasonable well for both codes. The 25 mm projectile ricochet simulations in sand show consistency with the high speed camera recordings. Computer time was reduced by one to two orders of magnitudes when applying the Impetus Afea Solver compared to Autodyn code due to the use of the graphics processing units (GPU.

  13. Report on the development of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.J. Jensen

    2009-03-01

    Experiments are needed to locate phase boundaries and to provide both Hugoniot data and off-Hugoniot data (such as principle isentrope, refreezing, dynamic strength, etc.) achieved through complex loading paths. The objective of the current work was to de- velop a large bore (3.5 inch or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities exceeding 2 km/s for impact experiments. A total of 24 ex- periments were performed to measure the projectile velocity, breech strain, and projectile tilt to demonstrate the performance of the gun up to the maximum breech capacity of 16 pounds of propellant. Physics experiments using a multislug method were performed to obtain sound speed and Hugoniot for shocked cerium metal and to demonstrate the ability of the large bore gun to conduct well-defined, plate-impact experiments. In addition, six experiments were performed on the prototype containment system to examine the ability of the launcher and containment system to withstand the impact event and contain the propellant gases and impact debris postshot. The data presented here were essential for qualification of the launcher for experiments to be conducted at the U1a complex of the Nevada Test Site.

  14. Ion-by-ion measurements of backward secondary electron emission of carbon foils under impact of MeV H{sup +}, H{sup 0}, H{sup -} and H{sup +}{sub 2} projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.; Fallavier, M.; Kirsch, R.; Poizat, J.C.; Remillieux, J.; Vidovic, Z.

    1996-07-01

    This study compares the backward electron emission from carbon surfaces bombarded by H sup +, H sup 0, H sup -, and H sup + sub 2 projectiles of the same velocity. A coincidence ion-by-ion spectrometry has been used to obtain not only the average electron yields but also the emission statistics. Compared energy dependences of electron emission due to H sup + and H sup 0 projectiles help to specify the role of an incident electron of H sup 0. For H sup -, and H sup + sub 2, the equality of electron yields above 500 keV / u supports the idea that backward emission is due to distant collisions. (D.L.). 16 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Experimental and Computational Results of a Maneuverable Power-Law Elliptic Cross-Section Projectile at Supersonic Speeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bertin, John

    2001-01-01

    ...) at the Aerodynamic Research Center (ARC) at the U.S. Air Force Academy. Flow visualization data were also obtained in the form of Schlieren photographs and surface oil-flow patterns during these test programs...

  16. Unambiguous identification and investigation of uranium projectile fragments. Discovery of 63 new neutron-rich isotopes in the element range 61≤Z≤78 at the FRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinon, Fabio

    2011-10-15

    The research of exotic, short-lived nuclei is a main contribution of modern nuclear physics to improve the knowledge of the strong interaction and to understand the synthesis of elements in stellar media. Nature is still ahead of the laboratories since in the astrophysical r-process very neutron-rich nuclides are continuously created which we just barely reach or which still have to be discovered. For this challenge new powerful accelerators and experimental tools have been developed to expand the frontiers of discovered nuclides. Besides a high intensity primary beam efficient and very sensitive in-flight separators are needed to access new nuclides in this field. To exploit the full discovery potential also the applied particle detectors and especially the unambiguous identification have to be steadily improved and extended in the experiments. In the presented work Uranium projectile fragmentation and fission have been used to discover new neutron-rich nuclides in the Z-range above 60 at the FRS. In this region of heavy nuclides most radioactive beam facilities have clearly strong limitations.

  17. g factor measurements of {mu}s isomeric states in neutron-rich nuclei around {sup 68}Ni produced in projectile-fragmentation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Neyens, G. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Hass, M. [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Balabanski, D.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bingham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Borcea, C. [IFIN, PO Box MG6, 76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Coulier, N. [University of Leuven, IKS, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Coussement, R. [University of Leuven, IKS, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Daugas, J.M. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); France, G. de [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Santos, F. de Oliveira [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Grawe, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Grzywacz, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lewitowicz, M.; Matea, I. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Mach, H. [Department of Radiation Sciences, ISV, Uppsala University, S-61182 Nykoeping (Sweden); Page, R.D. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pfuetzner, M.; Sawicka, M. [IEP, Warsaw University, Ho z-dot a 69, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Sobolev, Yu.G. [FLNR-JINR, Department of Physics, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Podolyak, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Rykaczewski, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Physics Div., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smirnova, N.A.; Stanoiu, M. [GANIL, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Teughels, S.; Vyvey, K. [Univ. of Leuven, IKS, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-12-01

    We report the first g factor measurement on microsecond isomers of neutron-rich nuclei produced in projectile-fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies. The nuclides in the vicinity of {sup 68}Ni were produced and spin oriented following the fragmentation of a {sup 76}Ge, 61.4 MeV u{sup -1} beam at GANIL. The LISE spectrometer was used to select the nuclei of interest. The time-dependent perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) method was applied in combination with the heavy-ion-gamma correlation technique to measure the g factors of {sup 69m}Cu (J{sup {pi}}=13/2{sup +}, T{sub 1/2}=350 ns) and {sup 67m}Ni (J{sup {pi}}=9/2{sup +}, T{sub 1/2}=13.3 {mu}s). Specific details of the experimental technique and the comparison of the results vertical bar g({sup 69m}Cu) vertical bar = 0.225(25) and vertical bar g({sup 67m}Ni) vertical bar = 0.125(6) with theoretical calculations are discussed. These results provide another indication of the importance of proton excitations across the Z=28 shell gap.

  18. Investigation of Mach-number effects on roll moment of wrap-around-fin projectiles using thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, A. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Excellence in Energy Conversion (CEEC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. Email: aazimi@mehr.sharif.edu; Fazeli, H. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Excellence in Energy Conversion (CEEC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]|[Malek-Ashtar Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farhanieh, B. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre of Excellence in Energy Conversion (CEEC), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, the investigation of Mach-number effects on roll moment of wrap-around-fin projectiles is numerically simulated using a multi-zone approach and the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. For computation of the three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow, averaged thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in the generalized coordinate system have been solved with an efficient finite-difference factored algorithm of the Beam and Warming. For the turbulent flowfield computations, the well-known isotropic two-layer algebraic eddy viscosity called Baldwin-Lomax model has been used. The case study is a secant-ogive-cylinder configuration with four 34{sup o} swept wrap-around fins at the end of body. To demonstrate the effect of Mach number on aerodynamics coefficients, the aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration including axial force and roll moment for free-stream Mach numbers 1.6-5.0 are presented. In addition, these coefficients are compared with those of the experimental measurements at zero angle of attack and the above Mach numbers, and show good agreement. (author)

  19. On the physics of momentum in ballistics: can the human body be displaced or knocked down by a small arms projectile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, B; Kneubuehl, B P

    1996-01-01

    Shooting incidents are often portrayed as resulting in a sometimes violent backwards displacement of the victim. This opinion is also not infrequently held by expert witnesses. The physical force responsible for this would be momentum (mass x velocity). The physics of momentum in ballistic injury is explained in detail. The maximum momentum transferred from different small arms projectiles including large calibre rifles and a 12-gauge shotgun only results in a backwards motion of a 80 kg target body of 0.01-0.18 m/s, which is negligible compared to the velocity of a pedestrian (1-2 m/s). Furthermore, counterbalance is constantly maintained by neurophysiological reflexes. So the effect of the momentum transferred from the missile is virtually zero and there is no backwards motion of the person shot. Empirical evidence verifying these calculations can be obtained from hunting big game, from human gunshot victims and from a video documentary demonstrating the lack of any backwards motion of a person wearing body armour after hits from a centre fire rifle. So the alleged backwards hurling of a person shot is nothing but a myth which should be refuted not only because it is incorrect but also because it can result in miscarriages of justice.

  20. Charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions with a carbon foil: Dependence on the foil thickness and projectile atomic number

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y; Muramatsu, M; Murakami, T; Yamada, S; Kobayashi, C; Kageyama, Y; Miyoshi, T; Ogawa, H; Nakabushi, H; Fujimoto, T; Miyata, T; Sano, Y

    2003-01-01

    We measured the charge fraction of 6.0 MeV/n heavy ions (C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe and Cu) with a carbon foil at the NIRS-HIMAC injector. At this energy they are stripped with a carbon foil before being injected into two synchrotron rings with a maximum energy of 800 MeV/n. In order to find the foil thickness (D sub E) at which an equilibrium charge state distribution occurs, and to study the dependence of the D sub E -values on the projectile atomic number, we measured the exit charge fractions for foil thicknesses of between 10 and 350 mu g/cm sup 2. The results showed that the D sub E -values are 21.5, 62.0, 162, 346, 121, 143 mu g/cm sup 2 for C, Ne, Si, Ar, Fe, Cu, respectively. The fraction of Ar sup 1 sup 8 sup + ions was actually improved to 33% at 320 mu g/cm sup 2 from approx 15% at 100 mu g/cm sup 2. For Fe and Cu ions, the D sub E -values were found to be only 121 and 143 mu g/cm sup 2; there is a large gap between Ar and Fe, which is related to the differences in the ratio of the binding energy of the K-...

  1. Experimental and theoretical study for the production of {sup 51}Cr using p, d, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He projectiles on V, Ti and Cr targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solieman, A.H.M.; Al-Abyad, M. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Ditroi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Saleh, Z.A., E-mail: zeinabamer@gmail.com [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Physics Department, NRC, AEA, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)

    2016-01-01

    Production of {sup 51}Cr (T{sub 1/2} = 27.7 d) have been studied experimentally through the reaction of proton and {sup 3}He on {sup nat}V and {sup nat}Ti targets respectively by using a variable energy cyclotrons. Reaction cross sections were obtained at different energies using the stacked-foil technique. High resolution gamma ray spectrometers were used for measuring the γ-ray spectra. Comparison between the present experimental results and the previously reported data has been carried out and discussed. The possibility of producing {sup 51}Cr with reasonable yield using different projectiles and different natural targets was studied and reported. Excitation functions for the reactions of proton, deuteron, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He particles on natural vanadium, titanium and chromium targets have been evaluated using two theoretical codes TALYS-1.6 and EMPIRE-3.1. The recommended cross-sections and the integral yields as well were obtained.

  2. Cannon Wear and Erosion Science and Technology Objective Program (STO) 155-mm Projectile Rotating Band/Obturation for Extended Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    models and body engraving models have been developed to aid in the design of new bands. Welding techniques and parameters for soft iron, nickel, MONEL...sticker test 21 TABLES 1 Candidate materials for rotating bands 7 2 Characterization of as- welded and fired bands 8 3 Mass properties...muzzle velocity (increased spin and frictional heating), poor obturation, and bore surface effects caused rapid heating and melting of the copper band

  3. Tip Deflection Determination of a Barrel for the Effect of an Accelerating Projectile Before Firing Using Finite Element and Artificial Neural Network Combined Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Koç

    Full Text Available Abstract For realistic applications, design and control engineers have limited modelling options in dealing with some vibration problems that hold many nonlinearity such as non-uniform geometry, variable velocity loadings, indefinite damping cases, etc. For these reasons numerous time consuming experimental studies at high costs must be done for determining the actual behaviour such nonlinear systems. However, using advantages of multiple computational methods like Finite Element Method (FEM together with an Artificial Intelligence (ANN, many complicated engineering problems can be handled and solved to some extent. This study, proposes a new collective method to deal with the nonlinear vibrations of the barrels in order to fulfil accurate shooting expectancy. Using known analytical methods, in practical, to determine dynamic behaviour of the barrel beam is not possible for all conditions of firing that include numerous varieties of ammunition for different purposes, and each projectile of different ammunition has different mass and exit velocity. In order to cover all cases this study proposes a new method that combines a precise FEM with ANN, and can be used for determining the exact dynamic behaviour of a barrel for some cases and then for precisely predicting the behaviour for all other possible cases of firing. In this study, the whole nonlinear behaviour of an antiaircraft barrel were obtained with 3.5% accuracy errors by ANN trained by FEM using calculated analysis results of ammunitions for a particular range. The proposed FEM-ANN combined method can be very useful for design and control engineers in design and control of barrels in order to compensate the effect of nonlinear vibrations of a barrel for achieving a higher shooting accuracy; and can reduce high-cost experimental works.

  4. Relativistic exotic nuclei as projectile beams. New perspectives of studies on the properties of nuclei; Relativistische exotische Kerne als Projektilstrahlen. Neue Perspektiven zum Studium der Kerneigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissel, H.

    1997-03-01

    Examinations of the production cross-sections and the kinematics permitted refinement of model concepts of the peripheral reactions in exotic nuclei at energies from 100 to 1000 A MeV. Due to the strong selectivity and resolution achieved it was possible to discover a large number of novel isotopes at the fragment separator FRS, despite the relatively low projectile beam intensities of the SIS. The two twice magic nuclei found, Ni 78 and Sn 100, are particularly interesting, as they could not be measured so far with other experimental systems. Fission of relativistic uranium ions proved to be a particularly successful process yielding many medium-heavy, neutron-rich nuclei. Insight into the structure of light neutron halos could be improved. The superlarge spatial dimensions of the nuclear halos is discussed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen der Produktionsquerschnitte und der Kinematik fuehr ten zu einer Verfeinerung der Modellvorstellungen der peripheren Kernr eaktionen an exotischen Kernen bei Energien im Bereich von 100- 1000 A MeV. Die hohe Selektivitaet und Aufloesung waren die Voraussetzung, da ss schon bei den vergleichsweise niedrigen Projektilstrahlintensitaete n des SIS eine grosse Anzahl von neuen Isotopen am Fragmentseparator F RS entdeckt werden konnten. Besonders erwaehnenswert sind die beiden d oppelt magischen Kerne Ni 78 und Sn 100, die mit anderen experimentel len Anlagen vorher nicht zugaenglich waren.Die Spaltung relativistisch er Uranionen hat sich als eine besonders ergiebige Quelle fuer mittels chwere neutronenreiche Kerne erwiesen. Die Kenntnisse der Struktur lei chter Neutronen- Halokerne konnten erweitert werden. Die uebergrosse r aeumliche Ausdehnung der Halokerne wurde aufgezeigt.

  5. Investigation of hypersonic ramjet propulsion cycles using a ram accelerator test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Chew, G.; De Turenne, J. A.; Dunmire, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental research on hypersonic propulsion using a ram accelerator test facility is presented. The gasdynamics of the ram accelerator has been studied experimentally in a 38-mm bore facility over the Mach number range of 2.5 to 8.5, using methane- and ethylene-based propellant mixtures. Three different propulsive modes, centered on the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) detonation speed of the combustible gas, have been experimentally observed. Projectiles have been accelerated smoothly from velocities below to above the C-J speed within a single propellant mixture.

  6. On the Influence of Fracture Criterion on Perforation of High-Strength Steel Plates Subjected to Armour Piercing Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tria Djalel Eddine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł przedstawia numeryczne badania wpływu kryterium pekania materiału na perforacje płyt ze stali pancernej 30PM pociskiem przeciwpancernym 7,6251 mm. Dokonano oceny czterech modeli pekania materiałów plastycznych w celu wyboru najbardziej odpowiedniego z nich. W artykule wykorzystano zmodyfikowany model konstytutywny Johnsona-Cooka (MJC sprzezony z jednym czterech kryteriów pekania: kryterium MJC, kryterium Cockrofta-Lathama (CL, kryterium maksymalnego naprezenia stycznego i kryterium stałego granicznego odkształcenia. Zastosowano trójwymiarowy algorytm w opisie Lagrange’a, zawierajacy zarówno skonczone elementy jak i czastki, z automatyczna konwersja zniekształconych elementów w bezsiatkowe czastki. Wyniki symulacji numerycznej oceniono na postawie porównania z wynikami doswiadczen. Model pekania MJC, sformułowany w przestrzeni trójosiowosci naprezenia i równowaznego odkształcenia plastycznego, pozwolił przewidziec realistycznie obraz pekania materiału i wartosci predkosci resztkowych pocisków. Jednakze wyniki badan wykazały, ze równiez jednoparametrowy model CL, dla którego kalibracji wystarczy jeden prosty test materiałowy, daje porównywalne wyniki z kryterium MJC. Stwierdzono, ze kryterium maksymalnego naprezenia stycznego niepoprawnie opisuje proces tworzenia sie korka. Równiez kryterium stałej wartosci odkształcenia granicznego nie moze byc uzyte do scharakteryzowania procesu niszczenia materiału.

  7. Department of the Navy Amended FY 1992/FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimates. R,D,T, and E Descriptive Summaries Submitted to Congress January 1992. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    analysis effort. d. (U) conduct Phase XX contact management ADN sea trial demonstration. e. (u) Complete test and installation of LJLC mechanical and...Model ( ADN ) specifications, and transition of the performance model to the ADN contractor. UNCIASSFIED 493 UNCLASS D FT 1993 RDT&Z, NAVY DZSCRIPTIV3...ead Improvements which vili become part of the projected Advanced Rocket system ( ARn ) and the 2SHA Advanced Multipurpose Projectile (AMP) which will

  8. Determination of the excitation energy and angular momentum of the quasi-projectiles produced in the heavy ion collisions Xe + Sn; Determination de l'energie d'excitation et du moment angulaire des quasi-projectiles produits dans les collisions d'ions lourds Xe + Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genouin-Duhamel, Emmanuel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 Caen (France)

    1999-04-08

    This work is a contribution to the study of properties of hot nuclei formed in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. It is shown that most of the reaction cross section is associated with binary dissipative collisions, accompanied by the production of particles from a region between the two reaction partners. This study is focussed on excitation energy and angular momentum of projectile-like fragment (PLF) in {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn reactions from 25 to 50 MeV per nucleon. Several methods are used to characterize hot nuclei (velocity, charge, mass and excitation energy). All these methods are compared between them and indicate that high energies are deposited in the nuclei during collision (it may exceed the nucleus binding energy). The angular momentum transferred into intrinsic spin to PLF in the peripheral collisions has been deduced from angular distributions and kinetic energies of the emitted light charged particles (atomic number smaller ar equal to 2). Both methods agree qualitatively. The spin values decrease with the violence of the collision. These values correspond to values averaged over the whole deexcitation chain of nuclei. The predictions of transport models reproduce qualitatively the most peripheral collisions and suggest that high spins are transferred to PLF (from 30 to 50 {Dirac_h}). Larger angular momentum values are observed at the lowest incident energy. The time hierarchy in the evaporation process and the role of mid-rapidity emission are also discussed.

  9. Benchmarking of calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections using the 3-D, MC codes PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, MCNPX_HI, and NUCFRG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Niita, K.; Sato, T.; Townsend, L.; Farmer, C.; Pinsky, L.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Gomes, I.

    several particle and heavy-ion MC transport codes exist, e.g. Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development of Space (HETC-HEDS), SHIELD-HIT, GEANT4, FLUKA, MARS, and MCNPX. In this paper, we present an extensive benchmarking of the calculated projectile fragmentation cross-sections from the reactions of 300-1000MeV/u28Si, 40Ar, and 56Fe on polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, and copper targets (relevant to space radioprotection) using PHITS, FLUKA, HETC-HEDS, and MCNPX, against measurements. The influence of the different models used in the different transport codes on the calculated results is also discussed. Some measured cross-sections are also compared to the calculated cross-sections using NUCFRG2, which are incorporated in the 1-dimensional, deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN.

  10. Design and Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.; Arnold, William a.; Dorer, James D.; Watson, William R/.

    2009-01-01

    Triaxial braid composite materials are beginning to be used in fan cases for commercial gas turbine engines. The primary benefit for the use of composite materials is reduced weight and the associated reduction in fuel consumption. However, there are also cost benefits in some applications. This paper presents a description of the braided composite materials and discusses aspects of the braiding process that can be utilized for efficient fabrication of composite cases. The paper also presents an approach that was developed for evaluating the braided composite materials and composite fan cases in a ballistic impact laboratory. Impact of composite panels with a soft projectile is used for materials evaluation. Impact of composite fan cases with fan blades or blade-like projectiles is used to evaluate containment capability. A post-impact structural load test is used to evaluate the capability of the impacted fan case to survive dynamic loads during engine spool down. Validation of these new test methods is demonstrated by comparison with results of engine blade-out tests.

  11. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  12. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2002-06-28

    The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

  13. 155-mm M795 Aerofuze Test at the KOFA Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, 19 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Monday, May 18, 2015, at gun location GP19-1 at YPG, a John Douglas Associates Decommutator/Breakout Box (JDA DECOM/BOB) was set up in the...DECOM lock was established and relayed to the gun crew before the round was screwed onto the projectile, which was the second M795 spotter round...during the 1BB test. The round was fired approximately 3:09 min later, and the signal lock was retained throughout 51 sec of flight until impact

  14. Ballistic Impact Testing of Aluminum 2024 and Titanium 6Al-4V for Material Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Emmerling, William C.; Altobelli, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is underway to develop a consistent set of material property and impact test data, and failure analysis, for a variety of materials that can be used to develop improved impact failure and deformation models. Unique features of this set of data are that all material property information and impact test results are obtained using identical materials, the test methods and procedures are extensively documented and all of the raw data is available. This report describes ballistic impact testing which has been conducted on aluminum (Al) 2024 and titanium (Ti) 6Al-4vanadium (V) sheet and plate samples of different thicknesses and with different types of projectiles, one a regular cylinder and one with a more complex geometry incorporating features representative of a jet engine fan blade.

  15. Comparison of experimental and computational results for reverse ballistic tests into foundry core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrington, P.; Norwood, F. R.; Grady, D. E.

    1980-03-01

    A series of nine laboratory-scale penetration tests was conducted in which impact velocity and geometry of the projectile were varied. In all tests, displacement histories were obtained for the penetrator via displacement interferometric techniques. From the data, accelerations were deduced and compared with numerically-calculated accelerations. For the numerical work, the codes PENAP and WONDY were used to model the penetration events. For penetrators with a conical nose, agreement between calculated and measured accelerations could be brought within 15% for all tests, except for one PENAP/test comparison, by introducing a constant coefficient of Coulomb friction of 0.1 at the penetration target interface. For penetrators with an ogival nose, on the other hand, a greater discrepancy was found between calculated and measured results.

  16. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  17. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  18. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  19. Comparative analysis of properties of channels of deuteron and tritium production in {sup 16}Op collisions at a projectile momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olimov, K., E-mail: olimov@uzsci.net [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Physical Technical Institute, Scientific Production Association Physics-Sun (Uzbekistan); Glagolev, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Gulamov, K. G.; Kurbanov, A.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Physical Technical Institute, Scientific Production Association Physics-Sun (Uzbekistan)

    2014-12-15

    The results of a comparative analysis of channels involving the inclusive production of deuterons and tritons in {sup 16}Op collisions at a projectile momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon are presented. The mechanisms governing proton, deuteron, and triton production in the fragmentation of oxygen nuclei are found to be independent. It is shown that the observed proton-multiplicity correlations are associated predominantly with the character of the primary event of a proton-nucleon collision in {sup 16}Op interactions. It is found that, in reactions involving triton production, the contributions of processes leading to an increase in the mean proton multiplicity (n → p + π{sup −} and np → pn) and processes leading to its decrease (p → n + π{sup +}) compensate each other.

  20. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  1. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  2. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  3. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test Monospot Formal Name Infectious Mononucleosis Rapid Test This article was last reviewed on ... Why Get Tested? To detect and help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono) When To Get Tested? When a person, ...

  4. Establishing a Ballistic Test Methodology for Documenting the Containment Capability of Small Gas Turbine Engine Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heady, Joel; Pereira, J. Michael; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Bobula, George A.

    2009-01-01

    A test methodology currently employed for large engines was extended to quantify the ballistic containment capability of a small turboshaft engine compressor case. The approach involved impacting the inside of a compressor case with a compressor blade. A gas gun propelled the blade into the case at energy levels representative of failed compressor blades. The test target was a full compressor case. The aft flange was rigidly attached to a test stand and the forward flange was attached to a main frame to provide accurate boundary conditions. A window machined in the case allowed the projectile to pass through and impact the case wall from the inside with the orientation, direction and speed that would occur in a blade-out event. High-peed, digital-video cameras provided accurate velocity and orientation data. Calibrated cameras and digital image correlation software generated full field displacement and strain information at the back side of the impact point.

  5. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  7. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  8. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  9. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Questions Related Content View Sources Also Known As Mononucleosis Spot Test Mononuclear Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test ...

  10. Measurement of Low Level Explosives Reaction in the Two-Dimensional Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Chidester, S.K.; Garcia, F.; Greenwood, D.W.; Garza, R.

    2000-10-10

    The two-dimensional Steven impact test has been developed to be reproducible and amenable to computer modeling. This test has a hemispherical projectile traveling at tens of m/s impacting a metal cased explosive target. To assist in the understanding of this safety test, two-dimensional shock wave gauge techniques were used to measure the pressures of a few kilobars and times of reactions less than a millisecond. This work is in accord with a long-term goal to develop two-dimensional shock diagnostic techniques that are more than just time of arrival indicators. Experiments were performed where explosives were impacted at levels below shock initiation levels but caused low level reactions. Carbon foil and carbon resistor pressure gauges were used to measure pressures and time of events. The carbon resistor gauges indicate a late time low level reaction at 350 {micro}s after impact of the hemispherical projectile creating 0.5-6 kb peak shocks at the center of PBX 9501 (HMX/Estane/BDNPA-F; 95/2.5/2.5 wt %) explosive discs. The Steven test calculations are based on an ignition and growth criteria and found that the low level reaction occurs at 335 {micro}s, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. Some additional experiments simulating the Steven impact test were done on a gas gun with carbon foil and constantan strain gauges in a PMMA target. Hydrodynamic calculations can be used to evaluate the gauge performance in these experiments and check the lateral strain measurements.

  11. Threshold Studies on TNT, Composition B, and C-4 Explosives Using the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F

    2005-09-26

    Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT, Comp B, and C-4 in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, or C-4 explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives.

  12. Numerical Evaluation of a Light-Gas Gun Facility for Impact Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rahner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests which match the application conditions might be used to properly evaluate materials for specific applications. High velocity impacts can be simulated using light-gas gun facilities, which come in different types and complexities. In this work different setups for a one-stage light-gas gun facility have been numerically analyzed in order to evaluate their suitability for testing materials and composites used as armor protection. A maximal barrel length of 6 m and a maximal reservoir pressure of a standard industrial gas bottle (20 MPa were chosen as limitations. The numerical predictions show that it is not possible to accelerate the projectile directly to the desired velocity with nitrogen, helium, or hydrogen as propellant gas. When using a sabot corresponding to a higher bore diameter, the necessary velocity is achievable with helium and hydrogen gases.

  13. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  14. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age and race What you eat and drink Medicines you take How well you followed pre-test instructions Your doctor may also compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  15. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus ... Site Tests: Albumin , CBC , CMP , Electrolytes , Iron Tests , Lipid Profile , Urinalysis , Prealbumin , Vitamin D , Vitamin B12 and Folate , ...

  16. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is responding to gluten. Unlike antibody testing, the HLA gene testing for celiac disease measures the presence or ... found on the surface of some cells. The HLA gene test for celiac disease can be performed at ...

  17. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: ... Page The Need for Reliable Information on Genetic Testing In 2008, the former Secretary’s Advisory Committee on ...

  18. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  19. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  20. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  1. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  2. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  3. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    1999-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  4. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  5. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  6. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... as spinach, as well as whole grains and nuts. Foods that have dietary fiber are usually also ...

  7. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... hepatic). Copper is found in many foods including nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, shellfish, whole grains, dried fruits, and ...

  8. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury Metanephrines Methotrexate Methylmalonic Acid Mononucleosis (Mono) Test MRSA ... Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Kidney Disease Lactose Intolerance Lead Poisoning Leukemia Liver Disease Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Lupus ...

  9. Bilirubin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bilirubin test in conjunction with other laboratory tests ( alkaline phosphatase , aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase ) when someone shows signs of abnormal liver function. A bilirubin level may be ordered when ...

  10. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. How can ...

  11. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. Should I ...

  12. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Known As T. vaginalis Wet Prep Formal Name Trichomonas vaginalis testing This article was last reviewed on March ... Tested? To diagnose an infection with the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis , which causes the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis When ...

  13. Chymotrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for ...

  14. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  15. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Rubella Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Three-day Measles; 3-day Measles Formal name: Rubella Antibodies, IgM and IgG Related tests: TORCH ; Measles ...

  16. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  17. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... absorbs too much iron, even on a normal diet. How is the sample collected for testing? A ...

  18. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... 50% of the cases of PBC will be discovered before a person has noticeable symptoms. What causes ...

  19. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  20. Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment. These include: allergy screening tests done in supermarkets or drug stores, home testing, applied kinesiology (allergy ... this topic visit the AAAAI Store . Utility navigation Donate Annual meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen counts ...

  1. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine Culture Urine Metanephrines Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests Vitamin K VLDL Cholesterol von Willebrand Factor Warfarin Sensitivity Testing ...

  2. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the blood testing required to obtain a marriage license. What does the test result mean? Adult ... their joints , especially their hands and wrists. Side effects are rarely seen in young children who get ...

  3. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  4. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... ratio is associated with a poorer prognosis . A variety of medications can interfere with VMA testing, but ...

  5. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... for Teens (Ages 13-18) Screening Tests for Young Adults (Ages 19-29) Screening Tests for Adults ( ...

  6. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003432.htm Pregnancy test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A pregnancy test measures a hormone in the body called human ...

  7. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  8. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  9. Test of weak and strong factorization in nucleus-nucleuscollisions atseveral hundred MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Tessa, Chiara; Sihver, Lembit; Zeitlin, Cary; Miller, Jack; Guetersloh, Stephen; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Mancusi, Davide; Iwata,Yoshiuki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2006-06-21

    Total and partial charge-changing cross sections have been measured for argon projectiles at 400 MeV/nucleon in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets; cross sections for hydrogen were also obtained, using a polyethylene target. The validity of weak and strong factorization properties has been investigated for partial charge-changing cross sections; preliminary cross section values obtained for carbon, neon and silicon at 290 and 400 MeV/nucleon and iron at 400 MeV/nucleon, in carbon, aluminum, copper, tin and lead targets have been also used for testing these properties. Two different analysis methods were applied and both indicated that these properties are valid, without any significant difference between weak and strong factorization. The factorization parameters have then been calculated and analyzed in order to find some systematic behavior useful for modeling purposes.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Laminated Rubberized Aramid Armor Plates Resisting .30 Caliber Fragment Simulating Projectile ImpactPlates Resisting .30 Caliber FSP Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel ALANKAYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the survivability for armed forces and police teams, attentive solutions are needed owing to the damage mechanism of fragments that have more kinetic energy than traditional bullets. Nevertheless, determining the damage capability of composite laminates against fragment impact at ballistic velocities is a challenging issue because of the difficulty in determining elastic stiffness of the armor due to the complex damage modes, which can occur in composites through impact phenomenon. Fire tests are generally considered to be the best validation method for procurement transactions of customers. This study presents the effects of impact velocities for rubberized aramid plates on the basis of computerized tomography scans taking into consideration composite failure modes. Additionally, the impact damage of plates at different ballistic velocities is presented, supported by real test reports focusing on the penetrating prevention capability and a predictive equation of ballistic limit velocity for rubberized aramid plates resisting. 30 caliber FSP is developed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7682

  11. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    , destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out....... In this paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  12. Burst Test of the Best Buy Warhead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bender, James

    2001-01-01

    .... It is fired from the Mark 45 cannon or its improved variant. The cargo consists of 143 U.S. Army M-80 grenades. The intended target set is identical to that of the Army's M483 and M864 155-mm projectiles.

  13. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like immunoreactivity; Serum trypsinogen; Immunoreactive trypsin Images Blood test References Forsmark CE. Chronic pancreatitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal ...

  14. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  15. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  16. Runflat Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    the valve cores using a valve core removal tool to simulate a puncture flat. This should be done at the test site, after the tires are warmed up...F), and ideally be as close to the SAE standard temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) as possible. Test conditions should also be dry (no precipitation or

  17. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the bad things that could happen also fuels test anxiety. For example, someone worrying about doing poorly ... are shaking." Just like other types of anxiety, test anxiety can create a bad cycle: The more a person focuses on the negative ...

  18. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Georg [Michigan State University; Morrissey, David [Michigan State University

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called “stopped beams” for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create “stopped beams” techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  19. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...

  20. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... whooping cough); when you have symptoms of a cold and have been exposed to someone with pertussis ...

  1. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... The two most common infections with HSV are "cold sores" affecting the lips and genital herpes. Both ...

  2. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye or brain infection that a health practitioner suspects are due to toxoplasmosis Sample Required? A blood ... to an infection or detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of the parasite in the blood. Testing is ...

  3. RPR test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later stages of the infection. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune ...

  4. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the earlier and later stages. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: HIV Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Systemic lupus erythematosus The body does not always ...

  5. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  6. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV — including ... have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. Depending on your test results, your doctor may ...

  7. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. ...

  8. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... metabolism) in which pyruvate is not converted to lactate. One example is pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. In these cases, pyruvate will accumulate, the ...

  9. Serotonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute myocardial infarction ( heart attack ), cystic fibrosis , and dumping syndrome . The serotonin test is not usually ordered ... Thank you. Contact a Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home ...

  10. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person's talents or future potential. Results of any intelligence test may be culturally biased. The more widely used ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence ... mathematical, analytical, spatial (for example, reading ...

  11. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/print.php?unit_code=87972. Accessed September 2011. See More See Less ...

  12. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...

  13. VLDL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease . This test may be included in a coronary risk profile. ... cholesterol level may be associated with a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. However, VLDL cholesterol level is rarely targeted when treatment for high ...

  14. Test report :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.

  15. Iron Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... not enough iron is taken in from the diet, blood levels will drop; thus, over time, the ...

  16. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... bones. It comes into the body through the diet and is absorbed by the small intestine and ...

  17. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... balance . Phosphorus comes into the body through the diet. It is found in many foods and is ...

  18. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... humid locations and is influenced by the regional diet. It is higher in areas that routinely eat ...

  19. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... but can occur due to an extremely poor diet, malabsorption disorders , or prolonged use of certain antibiotics, ...

  20. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... or trying to get more copper in my diet? In most cases, a regular diet satisfies the ...