Sample records for c4 photosynthetic pathway

  1. Overproduction of C4 photosynthetic enzymes in transgenic rice plants: an approach to introduce the C4-like photosynthetic pathway into rice. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yojiro; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Chisato; Fukuda, Takuya; Tamai, Tesshu; Lee, Kwanghong; Sudoh, Sizue; Tsuchida, Hiroko; Sasaki, Haruto; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Miyao, Mitsue


    Four enzymes, namely, the maize C(4)-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), the maize C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), the sorghum NADP-malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the rice C(3)-specific NADP-malic enzyme (ME), were overproduced in the mesophyll cells of rice plants independently or in combination. Overproduction individually of PPDK, MDH or ME did not affect the rate of photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation, while in the case of PEPC it was slightly reduced. The reduction in CO(2) assimilation in PEPC overproduction lines remained unaffected by overproduction of PPDK, ME or a combination of both, however it was significantly restored by the combined overproduction of PPDK, ME, and MDH to reach levels comparable to or slightly higher than that of non-transgenic rice. The extent of the restoration of CO(2) assimilation, however, was more marked at higher CO(2) concentrations, an indication that overproduction of the four enzymes in combination did not act to concentrate CO(2) inside the chloroplast. Transgenic rice plants overproducing the four enzymes showed slight stunting. Comparison of transformants overproducing different combinations of enzymes indicated that overproduction of PEPC together with ME was responsible for stunting, and that overproduction of MDH had some mitigating effects. Possible mechanisms underlying these phenotypic effects, as well as possibilities and limitations of introducing the C(4)-like photosynthetic pathway into C(3) plants, are discussed.

  2. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P


    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate.

  3. Water relations traits of C4 grasses depend on phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and habitat water availability (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Osborne, Colin P.


    The repeated evolution of C4 photosynthesis in independent lineages has resulted in distinct biogeographical distributions in different phylogenetic lineages and the variants of C4 photosynthesis. However, most previous studies have only considered C3/C4 differences without considering phylogeny, C4 subtype, or habitat characteristics. We hypothesized that independent lineages of C4 grasses have structural and physiological traits that adapt them to environments with differing water availability. We measured 40 traits of 33 species from two major C4 grass lineages in a common glasshouse environment. Chloridoideae species were shorter, with narrower and longer leaves, smaller but denser stomata, and faster curling leaves than Panicoideae species, but overall differences in leaf hydraulic and gas exchange traits between the two lineages were weak. Chloridoideae species had two different ways to reach higher drought resistance potential than Panicoideae; NAD-ME species used water saving, whereas PCK species used osmotic adjustment. These patterns could be explained by the interactions of lineage×C4 subtype and lineage×habitat water availability in affected traits. Specifically, phylogeny tended to have a stronger influence on structural traits, and C4 subtype had more important effects on physiological traits. Although hydraulic traits did not differ consistently between lineages, they showed strong covariation and relationships with leaf structure. Thus, phylogenetic lineage, photosynthetic pathway, and adaptation to habitat water availability act together to influence the leaf water relations traits of C4 grasses. This work expands our understanding of ecophysiology in major C4 grass lineages, with implications for explaining their regional and global distributions in relation to climate. PMID:25504656

  4. Evolution of the C(4) photosynthetic mechanism: are there really three C(4) acid decarboxylation types? (United States)

    Furbank, Robert T


    Some of the most productive plants on the planet use a variant of photosynthesis known as the C(4) pathway. This photosynthetic mechanism uses a biochemical pump to concentrate CO(2) to levels up to 10-fold atmospheric in specialized cells of the leaf where Rubisco, the primary enzyme of C(3) photosynthesis, is located. The basic biochemical pathways underlying this process, discovered more than 40 years ago, have been extensively studied and, based on these pathways, C(4) plants have been subdivided into two broad groups according to the species of C(4) acid produced in the mesophyll cells and into three groups according to the enzyme used to decarboxylate C(4) acids in the bundle sheath to release CO(2). Recent molecular, biochemical, and physiological data indicate that these three decarboxylation types may not be rigidly genetically determined, that the possibility of flexibility between the pathways exists and that this may potentially be both developmentally and environmentally controlled. This evidence is synthesized here and the implications for C(4) engineering discussed.

  5. Photosynthetic diversity meets biodiversity: the C4 plant example. (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Stata, Matt


    Physiological diversification reflects adaptation for specific environmental challenges. As the major physiological process that provides plants with carbon and energy, photosynthesis is under strong evolutionary selection that gives rise to variability in nearly all parts of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we discuss how plants, notably those using C4 photosynthesis, diversified in response to environmental challenges imposed by declining atmospheric CO2 content in recent geological time. This reduction in atmospheric CO2 increases the rate of photorespiration and reduces photosynthetic efficiency. While plants have evolved numerous mechanisms to compensate for low CO2, the most effective are the carbon concentration mechanisms of C4, C2, and CAM photosynthesis; and the pumping of dissolved inorganic carbon, mainly by algae. C4 photosynthesis enables plants to dominate warm, dry and often salinized habitats, and to colonize areas that are too stressful for most plant groups. Because C4 lineages generally lack arborescence, they cannot form forests. Hence, where they predominate, C4 plants create a different landscape than would occur if C3 plants were to predominate. These landscapes (mostly grasslands and savannahs) present unique selection environments that promoted the diversification of animal guilds able to graze upon the C4 vegetation. Thus, the rise of C4 photosynthesis has made a significant contribution to the origin of numerous biomes in the modern biosphere.

  6. Comparative cell-specific transcriptomics reveals differentiation of C4 photosynthesis pathways in switchgrass and other C4 lineages. (United States)

    Rao, Xiaolan; Lu, Nan; Li, Guifen; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A


    Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific molecular features of M and BS cells from separate C4 subtypes of independent lineages remain to be determined. We here provide an M/BS cell type-specific transcriptome data set from the monocot NAD-ME subtype switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). A comparative transcriptomics approach was then applied to compare the M/BS mRNA profiles of switchgrass, monocot NADP-ME subtype C4 plants maize and Setaria viridis, and dicot NAD-ME subtype Cleome gynandra. We evaluated the convergence in the transcript abundance of core components in C4 photosynthesis and transcription factors to establish Kranz anatomy, as well as gene distribution of biological functions, in these four independent C4 lineages. We also estimated the divergence between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis in the two cell types within C4 species, including differences in genes encoding decarboxylating enzymes, aminotransferases, and metabolite transporters, and differences in the cell-specific functional enrichment of RNA regulation and protein biogenesis/homeostasis. We suggest that C4 plants of independent lineages in both monocots and dicots underwent convergent evolution to establish C4 photosynthesis, while distinct C4 subtypes also underwent divergent processes for the optimization of M and BS cell co-ordination. The comprehensive data sets in our study provide a basis for further research on evolution of C4 species.

  7. High temperature acclimation of C4 photosynthesis is linked to changes in photosynthetic biochemistry. (United States)

    Dwyer, Simon A; Ghannoum, Oula; Nicotra, Adrienne; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    With average global temperatures predicted to increase over the next century, it is important to understand the extent and mechanisms of C4 photosynthetic acclimation to modest increases in growth temperature. To this end, we compared the photosynthetic responses of two C4 grasses (Panicum coloratum and Cenchrus ciliaris) and one C4 dicot (Flaveria bidentis) to growth at moderate (25/20 degrees C, day/night) or high (35/30 degrees C, day/night) temperatures. In all three C4 species, CO2 assimilation rates (A) underwent significant thermal acclimation, such that when compared at growth temperatures, A increased less than what would be expected given the strong response of A to short-term changes in leaf temperature. Thermal photosynthetic acclimation was further manifested by an increase in the temperature optima of A, and a decrease in leaf nitrogen content and leaf mass per area in the high- relative to the moderate-temperature-grown plants. Reduced photosynthetic capacity at the higher growth temperature was underpinned by selective changes in photosynthetic components. Plants grown at the higher temperature had lower amounts of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and cytochrome f and activity of carbonic anhydrase. The activities of photosystem II (PSII) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were not affected by growth temperature. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of F. bidentis showed a corresponding decrease in the quantum yield of PSII (phi(PSII)) and an increase in non-photochemical quenching (phi(NPQ)). It is concluded that through these biochemical changes, C4 plants maintain the balance between the various photosynthetic components at each growth temperature, despite the differing temperature dependence of each process. As such, at higher temperatures photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency increases more than A. Our results suggest C4 plants will show only modest changes in photosynthetic rates in response to changes in growth temperature

  8. Direct and selective small-molecule inhibition of photosynthetic PEP carboxylase: New approach to combat C4 weeds in arable crops. (United States)

    Paulus, Judith Katharina; Förster, Kerstin; Groth, Georg


    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme of C4 photosynthesis. Besides, non-photosynthetic isoforms of PEPC are found in bacteria and all types of plants, although not in animals or fungi. A single residue in the allosteric feedback inhibitor site of PEPC was shown to adjust the affinity of the photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic isoforms for feedback inhibition by metabolites of the C4 pathway. Here, we applied computational screening and biochemical analyses to identify molecules that selectively inhibit C4 PEPC, but have no effect on the activity of non-photosynthetic PEPCs. We found two types of selective inhibitors, catechins and quinoxalines. Binding constants in the lower μM range and a strong preference for C4 PEPC qualify the quinoxaline compounds as potential selective herbicides to combat C4 weeds.

  9. Fire ecology of C3 and C4 grasses depends on evolutionary history and frequency of burning but not photosynthetic type. (United States)

    Ripley, Brad; Visser, Vernon; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Archibald, Sally; Martin, Tarryn; Osborne, Colin


    Grasses using the C4 photosynthetic pathway dominate frequently burned savannas, where the pathway is hypothesized to be adaptive. However, independent C4 lineages also sort among different fire environments. Adaptations to fire may thus depend on evolutionary history, which could be as important as the possession of the C4 photosynthetic pathway for life in these environments. Here, using a comparative pot experiment and controlled burn, we examined C3 and C4 grasses belonging to four lineages from the same regional flora, and asked the following questions: Do lineages differ in their responses to fire, are responses consistent between photosynthetic types, and are responses related to fire frequency in natural habitats? We found that in the C4 Andropogoneae lineage, frost killed a large proportion of aboveground biomass and produced a large dry fuel load, which meant that only a small fraction of the living tissue was lost in the fire. C3 species from the Paniceae and Danthonioideae lineages generated smaller fuel loads and lost more living biomass, while species from the C4 lineage Aristida generated the smallest fuel loads and lost the most living tissue. Regrowth after the fire was more rapid and complete in the C4 Andropogoneae and C3 Paniceae, but incomplete and slower in the C3 Danthonioideae and C4 Aristida. Rapid recovery was associated with high photosynthetic rates, high specific leaf area, delayed flowering, and frequent fires in natural habitats. Results demonstrated that phylogenetic lineage was more important than photosynthetic type in determining the fire response of these grasses and that fire responses were related to the frequency that natural habitats burned.

  10. Hydrogen isotopic differences between C3 and C4 land plant lipids: consequences of compartmentation in C4 photosynthetic chemistry and C3 photorespiration. (United States)

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Hocart, Charles H; Gessler, Arthur; Farquhar, Graham D


    The (2) H/(1) H ratio of carbon-bound H in biolipids holds potential for probing plant lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. The biochemical mechanism underlying the isotopic differences between lipids from C3 and C4 plants is still poorly understood. GC-pyrolysis-IRMS (gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry) measurement of the (2) H/(1) H ratio of leaf lipids from controlled and field grown plants indicates that the biochemical isotopic fractionation (ε(2) Hlipid_biochem ) differed between C3 and C4 plants in a pathway-dependent manner: ε(2) HC4  > ε(2) HC3 for the acetogenic pathway, ε(2) HC4  photorespiration in C4 M and BS cells both result in C4 M chloroplastic pyruvate - the precursor for acetogenic pathway - being more depleted in (2) H relative to pyruvate in C3 cells. In addition, compartmentation in C4 plants also results in (i) the transferable H of NADPH being enriched in (2) H in C4 M chloroplasts compared with that in C3 chloroplasts for the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway pathway and (ii) pyruvate relatively (2) H-enriched being used for the mevalonic acid pathway in the cytosol of BS cells in comparison with that in C3 cells.

  11. Deriving C4 photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence using an Excel tool: theory and practice. (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard


    The higher photosynthetic potential of C4 plants has led to extensive research over the past 50 years, including C4 -dominated natural biomes, crops such as maize, or for evaluating the transfer of C4 traits into C3 lineages. Photosynthetic gas exchange can be measured in air or in a 2% Oxygen mixture using readily available commercial gas exchange and modulated PSII fluorescence systems. Interpretation of these data, however, requires an understanding (or the development) of various modelling approaches, which limit the use by non-specialists. In this paper we present an accessible summary of the theory behind the analysis and derivation of C4 photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel Fitting Tool (EFT), making rigorous C4 data analysis accessible to a broader audience. Outputs include those defining C4 photochemical and biochemical efficiency, the rate of photorespiration, bundle sheath conductance to CO2 diffusion and the in vivo biochemical constants for PEP carboxylase. The EFT compares several methodological variants proposed by different investigators, allowing users to choose the level of complexity required to interpret data. We provide a complete analysis of gas exchange data on maize (as a model C4 organism and key global crop) to illustrate the approaches, their analysis and interpretation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characterization of photosynthesis, photoinhibition and the activities of C4 pathway enzymes in a superhigh-yield rice,Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 卢从明; 张其德; 郝迺斌; 戈巧英; 董凤琴; 白克智; 匡廷云


    Characteristics of photosynthetic gas exchange, photoinhibition and C4 pathway enzyme activities in both flag leaves and lemma were compared between a superhigh-yield rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrid, Liangyoupeijiu and a traditional rice hybrid, Shanyou63. Liangyoupeijiu had a similar light saturated assimilation rate (Asat) to Shanyou63, but a much higher apparent quantum yield (AQY), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and quantum yield of CO2 fixation (φCO2). Liangyoupeijiu also showed a higher resistance to photoinhibition and higher non-radiative energy dissipation associated with the xanthophyll cycle than Shanyou63 when subjected to strong light. In addition, Liangyoupeijiu had higher activities of the C4 pathway enzymes in both flag leaves and lemmas than Shanyou63. These results indicate that higher light and CO2 use efficiency, higher resistance to photoinhibition and C4 pathway in both flag leaf and lemma may contribute to the higher yield of the superhigh-yield rice hybrid, Liangyoupeijiu.

  13. Effect of Soil Drought on C4 Photosynthetic Enzyme Activities of Flag Leaf and Ear in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ai-li; WANG Zhi-min; ZHAI Zhi-xi; GONG Yuan-shi


    The activities of RuBPC and C4 photosynthetic enzymes in ear and flag leaf blade were examinedin wheat. The results showed that photosynthesis of ear was less sensitive to soil drought than that of flag leaf,and decrease of CO2 assimilation in flag leaf blade with water stress was more than that in ear. Compared withflag leaf, ear organs(awn, glume and lemma) had higher C4 enzyme activities and lower RuBPC activity. Un-der moderate water-stress, the increase of C4 enzyme activities was induced, and the increase was higher in earthan in flag leaf. Under severe water-stress, relatively higher C4 enzyme activities were still maintained in ear,rather than that in flag leaf. It suggests that high activities of C4 enzymes in ear may contribute to its high tol-erance of photosynthesis to water-stress.

  14. Photosynthetic light response of the C4 grasses Brachiaria brizantha and B. humidicola under shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias-Filho Moacyr Bernardino


    Full Text Available Forage grasses in tropical pastures can be subjected to considerable diurnal and seasonal reductions in available light. To evaluate the physiological behavior of the tropical forage grasses Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and B. humidicola to low light, the photosynthetic light response and chlorophyll contents of these species were compared for plants grown outdoors, on natural soil, in pots, in full sunlight and those shaded to 30 % of full sunlight, over a 30-day period. Both species showed the ability to adjust their photosynthetic behavior in response to shade. Photosynthetic capacity and light compensation point were lower for shade plants of both species, while apparent quantum yield was unaffected by the light regime. Dark respiration and chlorophyll a:b ratio were significantly reduced by shading only in B. humidicola. B. humidicola could be relatively more adapted to succeed, at least temporarily, in light-limited environments.

  15. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants. (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder


    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate.

  16. Photosynthetic Features of Transgenic Rice Expressing Sorghum C4 Type NADP-ME%转高粱C4型NADP-ME基因水稻植株的光合生理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟伟; 周劲松; 张方; 吴乃虎


    NADP-苹果酸酶(NADP-ME)是C4型植物C4光合途径的一个分离得到了编码高梁(Sorghum vuklgare L.)C4型NADP-ME的全长cDNA.该cDNA全长为2 139 bp,其开放可读框为1 911bp,共编码636个氨基酸和一个终止密码子(GenBank登录号为AY274836).利用农杆菌介导的转化系统将其转入水稻品种"农垦58".经Southern杂交、Northern杂交和酶活性检测表明,高粱C4型NADP-ME可以在水稻中有效表达,酶活性可被提高1~7倍.对转基因水稻进行光合生理检测表明,转NADP-ME基因水稻CO2交换特征没有明显改变,但是在中午强光条件下光抑制加剧.%The gene encoding sorghum NADP malic enzyme, which plays a key role in C4 photosynthetic pathway, was isolated by RT-PCR and cDNA library screening. The 2 139 bp cDNA sequence obtained includes a 1 911-bp open reading frame that encodes 636 amino acids and a terminating codon (GenBank accession number: AY274836). It was then introduced into Nongken 58, a rice variety, using an Agrobacteriummediated system. Southern hybridization, Northern hybridization and enzyme activity determination all confirmed the effective expression of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) C4 type NADP-ME in rice, with the enzyme activity being elevated 1-7 folds. However, no appreciable change was demonstrated in carbon assimilation of the transgenic rice though increased photoinhibition was noted under high light intensity.

  17. Are changes in sulfate assimilation pathway needed for evolution of C4 photosynthesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Christine Weckopp


    Full Text Available C4 photosynthesis characteristically features a cell-specific localization of enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation in bundle sheath cells or mesophyll cells. Interestingly, enzymes of sulfur assimilation are also specifically present in bundle sheath cells of maize and many other C4 species. This localization, however, could not be confirmed in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. It was, therefore, concluded that the bundle sheath localization of sulfate assimilation occurs only in C4 monocots. However, recently the sulfate assimilation pathway was found coordinately enriched in bundle sheath cells of Arabidopsis, opening new questions about the significance of such cell-specific localization of the pathway. In addition, next generation sequencing revealed expression gradients of many genes from C3 to C4 species and mathematical modelling proposed a sequence of adaptations during the evolutionary path from C3 to C4. Indeed, such gradient, with higher expression of genes for sulfate reduction in C4 species, has been observed within the genus Flaveria. These new tools provide the basis for reexamining the intriguing question of compartmentalization of sulfur assimilation. Therefore, this review summarizes the findings on spatial separation of sulfur assimilation in C4 plants and Arabidopsis, assesses the information on sulfur assimilation provided by the recent transcriptomics data and discusses their possible impact on understanding this interesting feature of plant sulfur metabolism to find out whether changes in sulfate assimilation are part of a general evolutionary trajectory towards C4 photosynthesis.

  18. Are changes in sulfate assimilation pathway needed for evolution of C4 photosynthesis? (United States)

    Weckopp, Silke C; Kopriva, Stanislav


    C4 photosynthesis characteristically features a cell-specific localization of enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation in bundle sheath cells (BSC) or mesophyll cells. Interestingly, enzymes of sulfur assimilation are also specifically present in BSC of maize and many other C4 species. This localization, however, could not be confirmed in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. It was, therefore, concluded that the bundle sheath localization of sulfate assimilation occurs only in C4 monocots. However, recently the sulfate assimilation pathway was found coordinately enriched in BSC of Arabidopsis, opening new questions about the significance of such cell-specific localization of the pathway. In addition, next generation sequencing revealed expression gradients of many genes from C3 to C4 species and mathematical modeling proposed a sequence of adaptations during the evolutionary path from C3 to C4. Indeed, such gradient, with higher expression of genes for sulfate reduction in C4 species, has been observed within the genus Flaveria. These new tools provide the basis for reexamining the intriguing question of compartmentalization of sulfur assimilation. Therefore, this review summarizes the findings on spatial separation of sulfur assimilation in C4 plants and Arabidopsis, assesses the information on sulfur assimilation provided by the recent transcriptomics data and discusses their possible impact on understanding this interesting feature of plant sulfur metabolism to find out whether changes in sulfate assimilation are part of a general evolutionary trajectory toward C4 photosynthesis.

  19. Seasonal and inter-annual photosynthetic response of representative C4 species to soil water content and leaf nitrogen concentration across a tropical seasonal floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Wohland, P.; Wolski, P.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.


    We examined the seasonal and inter-annual variation of leaf-level photosynthetic characteristics of three C4 perennial species, Cyperus articulatus, Panicum repens and Imperata cylindrica, and their response to environmental variables, to determine comparative physiological responses of plants repre

  20. Influence of light and nitrogen on the photosynthetic efficiency in the C4 plant Miscanthus × giganteus. (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Stutz, Samantha S; Gandin, Anthony; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Cousins, Asaph B


    There are numerous studies describing how growth conditions influence the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis. However, it remains unclear how changes in the biochemical capacity versus leaf anatomy drives this acclimation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how growth light and nitrogen availability influence leaf anatomy, biochemistry and the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus × giganteus. There was an increase in the mesophyll cell wall surface area but not cell well thickness in the high-light (HL) compared to the low-light (LL) grown plants suggesting a higher mesophyll conductance in the HL plants, which also had greater photosynthetic capacity. Additionally, the HL plants had greater surface area and thickness of bundle-sheath cell walls compared to LL plants, suggesting limited differences in bundle-sheath CO2 conductance because the increased area was offset by thicker cell walls. The gas exchange estimates of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) activity were significantly less than the in vitro PEPc activity, suggesting limited substrate availability in the leaf due to low mesophyll CO2 conductance. Finally, leakiness was similar across all growth conditions and generally did not change under the different measurement light conditions. However, differences in the stable isotope composition of leaf material did not correlate with leakiness indicating that dry matter isotope measurements are not a good proxy for leakiness. Taken together, these data suggest that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Miscanthus is robust under low-light and limited nitrogen growth conditions, and that the observed changes in leaf anatomy and biochemistry likely help to maintain this efficiency.

  1. Electron transfer pathway analysis in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Kitoh-Nishioka, Hirotaka


    A new computational scheme to analyze electron transfer (ET) pathways in large biomolecules is presented with applications to ETs in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It consists of a linear combination of fragment molecular orbitals and an electron tunneling current analysis, which enables an efficient first-principles analysis of ET pathways in large biomolecules. The scheme has been applied to the ET from menaquinone to ubiquinone via nonheme iron complex in bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. It has revealed that not only the central Fe$^{2+}$ ion but also particular histidine ligands are involved in the ET pathways in such a way to mitigate perturbations that can be caused by metal ion substitution and depletion, which elucidates the experimentally observed insensitivity of the ET rate to these perturbations.

  2. Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Zaman Nouri


    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4, type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress.

  3. A mechanistic model for the photosynthesis-light response based on the photosynthetic electron transport of photosystem II in C3 and C4 species. (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao; Suggett, David J; Robakowski, Piotr; Kang, Hua-Jing


    A new mechanistic model of the photosynthesis-light response is developed based on photosynthetic electron transport via photosystem II (PSII) to specifically describe light-harvesting characteristics and associated biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecules. This model parameterizes 'core' characteristics not only of the light response but also of difficult to measure physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecules in plants. Application of the model to two C3 and two C4 species grown under the same conditions demonstrated that the model reproduced extremely well (r(2) > 0.992) the light response trends of both electron transport and CO2 uptake. In all cases, the effective absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules decreased with increasing light intensity, demonstrating novel operation of a key mechanism for plants to avoid high light damage. In parameterizing these previously difficult to measure characteristics of light harvesting in higher plants, the model provides a new means to understand the mechanistic processes underpinning variability of CO2 uptake, for example, photosynthetic down-regulation or reversible photoinhibition induced by high light and photoprotection. However, an important next step is validating this parameterization, possibly through application to less structurally complex organisms such as single-celled algae.

  4. Structural Basis for the Function of Complement Component C4 within the Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sofia; Kidmose, Rune Thomas; Petersen, Steen Vang;


    Complement component C4 is a central protein in the classical and lectin pathways within the complement system. During activation of complement, its major fragment C4b becomes covalently attached to the surface of pathogens and altered self-tissue, where it acts as an opsonin marking the surface...... for removal. Moreover, C4b provides a platform for assembly of the proteolytically active convertases that mediate downstream complement activation by cleavage of C3 and C5. In this article, we present the crystal and solution structures of the 195-kDa C4b. Our results provide the molecular details...... of substrate recognition. We propose an overall molecular model for the classical pathway C5 convertase in complex with C5, suggesting that C3b increases the affinity for the substrate by inducing conformational changes in C4b rather than a direct interaction with C5. C4b-specific features revealed by our...

  5. Mosaic origin of the heme biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes. (United States)

    Oborník, Miroslav; Green, Beverley R


    Heme biosynthesis represents one of the most essential metabolic pathways in living organisms, providing the precursors for cytochrome prosthetic groups, photosynthetic pigments, and vitamin B(12). Using genomic data, we have compared the heme pathway in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae to those of green algae and higher plants, as well as to those of heterotrophic eukaryotes (fungi, apicomplexans, and animals). Phylogenetic analyses showed the mosaic character of this pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Although most of the algal and plant enzymes showed the expected plastid (cyanobacterial) origin, at least one of them (porphobilinogen deaminase) appears to have a mitochondrial (alpha-proteobacterial) origin. Another enzyme, glutamyl-tRNA synthase, obviously originated in the eukaryotic nucleus. Because all the plastid-targeted sequences consistently form a well-supported cluster, this suggests that genes were either transferred from the primary endosymbiont (cyanobacteria) to the primary host nucleus shortly after the primary endosymbiotic event or replaced with genes from other sources at an equally early time, i.e., before the formation of three primary plastid lineages. The one striking exception to this pattern is ferrochelatase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step to heme and bilin pigments. In this case, two red algal sequences do not cluster either with the other plastid sequences or with cyanobacterial sequences and appear to have a proteobacterial origin like that of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Although the heterokonts also acquired their plastid via secondary endosymbiosis from a red alga, the diatom has a typical plastid-cyanobacterial ferrochelatase. We have not found any remnants of the plastidlike heme pathway in the nonphotosynthetic heterokonts Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae.

  6. Effects of mannitol induced osmotic stress on proline accumulation, pigment degradation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters in C3 rice and C4 sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriyan CHA-UM; Souvanh THADAVONG; Chalermpol KIRDMANEE


    Osmotic stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which inhibit growth and development in both the vegetative and reproductive stages of many plant species. The aim of this investigation was to compare the biochemical and physiological responses in C3 rice and C4 sorghum to water deficit. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC) and total carotenoid (Cx+c) contents in both rice and sorghum seedlings under osmotic stress were adversely affected, related to increasing osmotic pressure in the culture media. In addition, the chlorophyll's fluorescence parameters and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, leading to growth reduction. Also, a positive correlation was found between physiological and biochemical data, while proline accumulation showed a negative relationship. The Chlb, Pn and fresh weight were maintained better in osmotic-stressed (-1.205 MPa) C4 sorghum seedlings than those in C3 rice seedlings. The growth and physiological responses of C3 rice and C4 sorghum decreased depending on the plant species, the osmotic pressure in the media and their interactions. Pigment content and Pn ability in C4 sorghum grown under mannitol-induced osmotic stress increased to a greater degree than in C3 rice, resulting in maintenance of growth.

  7. Structural Basis for the Function of Complement Component C4 within the Classical and Lectin Pathways of Complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sofia; Kidmose, Rune Thomas; Petersen, Steen Vang;


    Complement component C4 is a central protein in the classical and lectin pathways within the complement system. During activation of complement, its major fragment C4b becomes covalently attached to the surface of pathogens and altered self-tissue, where it acts as an opsonin marking the surface...... for removal. Moreover, C4b provides a platform for assembly of the proteolytically active convertases that mediate downstream complement activation by cleavage of C3 and C5. In this article, we present the crystal and solution structures of the 195-kDa C4b. Our results provide the molecular details...

  8. A multi-pathway model for Photosynthetic reaction center

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Yi, X X


    Charge separation in light-harvesting complexes occurs in a pair of tightly coupled chlorophylls at the heart of photosynthetic reaction centers of both plants and bacteria. Recently it has been shown that quantum coherence can, in principle, enhance the efficiency of a solar cell, working like a quantum heat engine (QHE). Here, we propose a biological quantum heat engine (BQHE) motivated by Photosystem {\\rm II} reaction center (PS{\\rm II} RC) to describe the charge separation. Our model mainly considers two charge-separation pathways more than that in the published literature. The two pathways can interfere via cross-couplings and work together to enhance the charge-separation yields. We explore how these cross-couplings increase the current and voltage of the charge separation and discuss the advantages of multiple pathways in terms of current and power. The robustness of the BQHE against the charge recombination in natural PS{\\rm II} RC and dephasing induced by environments is also explored, and extension ...

  9. Photosynthetic Genes and Genes Associated with the C4 Trait in Maize Are Characterized by a Unique Class of Highly Regulated Histone Acetylation Peaks on Upstream Promoters. (United States)

    Perduns, Renke; Horst-Niessen, Ina; Peterhansel, Christoph


    Histone modifications contribute to gene regulation in eukaryotes. We analyzed genome-wide histone H3 Lysine (Lys) 4 trimethylation and histone H3 Lys 9 acetylation (two modifications typically associated with active genes) in meristematic cells at the base and expanded cells in the blade of the maize (Zea mays) leaf. These data were compared with transcript levels of associated genes. For individual genes, regulations (fold changes) of histone modifications and transcript levels were much better correlated than absolute intensities. When focusing on regulated histone modification sites, we identified highly regulated secondary H3 Lys 9 acetylation peaks on upstream promoters (regulated secondary upstream peaks [R-SUPs]) on 10% of all genes. R-SUPs were more often found on genes that were up-regulated toward the blade than on down-regulated genes and specifically, photosynthetic genes. Among those genes, we identified six genes encoding enzymes of the C4 cycle and a significant enrichment of genes associated with the C4 trait derived from transcriptomic studies. On the DNA level, R-SUPs are frequently associated with ethylene-responsive elements. Based on these data, we suggest coevolution of epigenetic promoter elements during the establishment of C4 photosynthesis.

  10. Photosynthetic discrimination drives seasonal variations in the δ13C value of soil-respired CO2 in mixed C3-C4 ecosystems from central New Mexico (United States)

    Breecker, D. O.; Sharp, Z. D.; McFadden, L. D.; Litvak, M. E.


    Understanding the processes responsible for variations in the carbon isotope composition of soil-respired CO2 (δ13Cr) is important in studies of ecophysiology, decomposition, pedogenesis and ecosystem to global scale CO2 isotope mass balances. In this paper, we discuss explanations for large seasonal variations in δ13Cr values observed in soils from the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. One soil from each of the following four biomes was studied: Plains Grassland, Piñon-Juniper Woodland, Great Basin Shrubland (GBS) and Chihuahuan Desert Shrubland (CDS). Soil organic matter (SOM) content is higher in the woodland soil (1.2% by mass) than in the grassland and shrubland soils, which have low concentrations of SOM (0.05-0.4%). The vegetation in each soil is a mixture of C3 and C4 plants, although Larrea tridentata (C3) constitutes > 90% of vegetative cover at the CDS site. Soil gas samples were collected monthly between September 2006 and May 2008 from belowground (5-100 cm depth) and were analyzed for the concentration and carbon isotope composition of soil pore space CO2. These measurements were used to calculate the average depth of CO2 production (zavg) and δ13Cr in each soil. This approach is useful for studying seasonal variations of respiration at depth in soils as opposed to surface CO2 flux measurements which are better suited for short timescale, transient state, shallow respiration studies. Winter/summer δ13Cr values (‰ vs. VPDB) were -23.5/-16.5, -24.1/-20.4, -26.9/-19.5, -29.5/-21.6 for the grassland, woodland, GBS and CDS, respectively. Values of zavg varied between 20 cm and > 2 m and were unrelated to δ13Cr (r2 2 m during the winter and dry part of the summer, respectively. Taken together, five observations suggest that photosynthetic discrimination rather than other processes is primarily responsible for the large seasonal variation in δ13Cr values: 1) δ13Cr values correlate well with vapor pressure deficit, which is

  11. Engineering rTCA pathway and C4-dicarboxylate transporter for L-malic acid production. (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Wang, Yuancai; Dong, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Guipeng; Liu, Liming


    L-Malic acid is an important component of a vast array of food additives, antioxidants, disincrustants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Here, we presented a pathway optimization strategy and a transporter modification approach to reconstruct the L-malic acid biosynthesis pathway and transport system, respectively. First, pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malate dehydrogenase (mdh) from Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae were combinatorially overexpressed to construct the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) pathway for L-malic acid biosynthesis. Second, the L-malic acid transporter (Spmae) from Schizosaccharomyces pombe was engineered by removing the ubiquitination motification to enhance the L-malic acid efflux system. Finally, the L-malic acid pathway was optimized by controlling gene expression levels, and the final L-malic acid concentration, yield, and productivity were up to 30.25 g L(-1), 0.30 g g(-1), and 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1) in the resulting strain W4209 with CaCO3 as a neutralizing agent, respectively. In addition, these corresponding parameters of pyruvic acid remained at 30.75 g L(-1), 0.31 g g(-1), and 0.32 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The metabolic engineering strategy used here will be useful for efficient production of L-malic acid and other chemicals.

  12. Ecohydrological responses of dense canopies to environmental variability: 1. Interplay between vertical structure and photosynthetic pathway (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Liang, X.-Z.; Sivapalan, M.


    Vegetation acclimation to changing climate, in particular elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), has been observed to include modifications to the biochemical and ecophysiological functioning of leaves and the structural components of the canopy. These responses have the potential to significantly modify plant carbon uptake and surface energy partitioning, and have been attributed with large-scale changes in surface hydrology over recent decades. While the aggregated effects of vegetation acclimation can be pronounced, they often result from subtle changes in canopy properties that require the resolution of physical, biochemical and ecophysiological processes through the canopy for accurate estimation. In this paper, the first of two, a multilayer canopy-soil-root system model developed to capture the emergent vegetation responses to environmental change is presented. The model incorporates both C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, and resolves the vertical radiation, thermal, and environmental regimes within the canopy. The tight coupling between leaf ecophysiological functioning and energy balance determines vegetation responses to climate states and perturbations, which are modulated by soil moisture states through the depth of the root system. The model is validated for three growing seasons each for soybean (C3) and maize (C4) using eddy-covariance fluxes of CO2, latent, and sensible heat collected at the Bondville (Illinois) Ameriflux tower site. The data set provides an opportunity to examine the role of important environmental drivers and model skill in capturing variability in canopy-atmosphere exchange. Vertical variation in radiative states and scalar fluxes over a mean diurnal cycle are examined to understand the role of canopy structure on the patterns of absorbed radiation and scalar flux magnitudes and the consequent differences in sunlit and shaded source/sink locations through the canopies. An analysis is made of the impact of

  13. Elementary Energy Transfer Pathways in Allochromatium vinosum Photosynthetic Membranes. (United States)

    Lüer, Larry; Carey, Anne-Marie; Henry, Sarah; Maiuri, Margherita; Hacking, Kirsty; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Cogdell, Richard J


    Allochromatium vinosum (formerly Chromatium vinosum) purple bacteria are known to adapt their light-harvesting strategy during growth according to environmental factors such as temperature and average light intensity. Under low light illumination or low ambient temperature conditions, most of the LH2 complexes in the photosynthetic membranes form a B820 exciton with reduced spectral overlap with LH1. To elucidate the reason for this light and temperature adaptation of the LH2 electronic structure, we performed broadband femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength in A. vinosum membranes. A target analysis of the acquired data yielded individual rate constants for all relevant elementary energy transfer (ET) processes. We found that the ET dynamics in high-light-grown membranes was well described by a homogeneous model, with forward and backward rate constants independent of the pump wavelength. Thus, the overall B800→B850→B890→ Reaction Center ET cascade is well described by simple triexponential kinetics. In the low-light-grown membranes, we found that the elementary backward transfer rate constant from B890 to B820 was strongly reduced compared with the corresponding constant from B890 to B850 in high-light-grown samples. The ET dynamics of low-light-grown membranes was strongly dependent on the pump wavelength, clearly showing that the excitation memory is not lost throughout the exciton lifetime. The observed pump energy dependence of the forward and backward ET rate constants suggests exciton diffusion via B850→ B850 transfer steps, making the overall ET dynamics nonexponential. Our results show that disorder plays a crucial role in our understanding of low-light adaptation in A. vinosum.

  14. Salt tolerance evolves more frequently in C4 grass lineages. (United States)

    Bromham, L; Bennett, T H


    Salt tolerance has evolved many times in the grass family, and yet few cereal crops are salt tolerant. Why has it been so difficult to develop crops tolerant of saline soils when salt tolerance has evolved so frequently in nature? One possible explanation is that some grass lineages have traits that predispose them to developing salt tolerance and that without these background traits, salt tolerance is harder to achieve. One candidate background trait is photosynthetic pathway, which has also been remarkably labile in grasses. At least 22 independent origins of the C4 photosynthetic pathway have been suggested to occur within the grass family. It is possible that the evolution of C4 photosynthesis aids exploitation of saline environments, because it reduces transpiration, increases water-use efficiency and limits the uptake of toxic ions. But the observed link between the evolution of C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance could simply be due to biases in phylogenetic distribution of halophytes or C4 species. Here, we use a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the association between photosynthetic pathway and salt tolerance in the grass family Poaceae. We find that salt tolerance is significantly more likely to occur in lineages with C4 photosynthesis than in C3 lineages. We discuss the possible links between C4 photosynthesis and salt tolerance and consider the limitations of inferring the direction of causality of this relationship.

  15. Photorespiration connects C3 and C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo


    C4 plants evolved independently more than 60 times from C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis is a complex trait and its evolution from the ancestral C3 photosynthetic pathway involved the modification of the leaf anatomy and the leaf physiology accompanied by changes in the expression of thousands of genes. Under high temperature, high light, and the current CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, the C4 pathway is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis because it increases the CO2 concentration around the major CO2 fixating enzyme Rubisco. The oxygenase reaction and, accordingly, photorespiration are largely suppressed. In the present review we describe a scenario for C4 evolution that not only includes the avoidance of photorespiration as the major driving force for C4 evolution but also highlights the relevance of changes in the expression of photorespiratory genes in inducing and establishing important phases on the path from C3 to C4.

  16. Solution Structures of Complement C2 and its C4 Complexes Propose Pathway Specific Mechanisms for Control and Activation of the Complement Proconvertases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sofia; Jensen, Jan Kristian; Andersen, Gregers Rom


    The lectin (LP) and classical (CP) pathways are two of the three main activation cascades of the complement system. These pathways start with recognition of different pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns and include identical steps of proteolytic activation of complement component C4...

  17. Coevolution of plastid genomes and transcript processing pathways in photosynthetic alveolates


    Dorrell, Richard G.


    Following their endosymbiotic uptake, plastids undergo profound changes to genome content and to their associated biochemistry. I have investigated how evolutionary transitions in plastid genomes may impact on biochemical pathways associated with plastid gene expression, focusing on the highly unusual plastids found in one group of eukaryotes, the alveolates. The principal photosynthetic alveolate lineage is the dinoflagellate algae. Most dinoflagellate species harbour unusual plastids derive...

  18. The Paleo-ecology of C4 Evolution (United States)

    Sage, R. F.; Khoshravesh, R.


    Molecular clock analysis of extant plant lineages consistently place the earliest appearance of the C4 photosynthetic pathway in the mid-to-late Oligocene, coincident with a decline in atmospheric CO2 and a spread of dry environments. Most of the approximately 70 known lineages of C4 photosynthesis, however, evolved over the subsequent 23 million years since the Oligocene. Examination of living C3-C4 intermediate species, and close C3 relatives of modern C4 lineages, indicate that the C4 pathway evolved in regions of high heat and episodic drought and/or salinity, usually in the drier ends of the monsoon belts of the subtropics. Soils associated with transitional species are typically sandy, rocky, or salinized, and have low vegetation density, which in combination with high air temperature allows for high surface heat loads that warm leaves to near 45°C. Under such conditions in low CO2 atmospheres, the rate of photorespiration is very high and would greatly impair C3 photosynthesis and establish conditions favoring C4 evolution. However, studies with modern taxa do not address whether the extreme habitats proposed to facilitate C4 evolution were actually present at the time when the C4 pathway evolved in any given lineage. Here, we examine the paleo-record to evaluate the environmental conditions present in the C4 centres of origin when the respective transitions from C3 to C4 photosynthesis are estimated to have occurred.

  19. Colonization of native Andean grasses by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Puna: a matter of altitude, host photosynthetic pathway and host life cycles. (United States)

    Lugo, Mónica A; Negritto, María A; Jofré, Mariana; Anton, Ana; Galetto, Leonardo


    The relationships of altitude, host life cycle (annual or perennial) and photosynthetic pathway (C(3) or C(4) ) with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) root colonization were analysed in 35 species of Andean grasses. The study area is located in north-western Argentina along altitudinal sites within the Puna biogeographical region. Twenty-one sites from 3320 to 4314 m were sampled. Thirty-five grasses were collected, and the AM root colonization was quantified. We used multivariate analyses to test emerging patterns in these species by considering the plant traits and variables of AM colonization. Pearson's correlations were carried out to evaluate the specific relationships between some variables. Most grasses were associated with AM, but the colonization percentages were low in both C(3) and C(4) grasses. Nevertheless, the AM root colonization clearly decreased as the altitude increased. This distinctive pattern among different species was also observed between some of the populations of the same species sampled throughout the sites. An inverse relationship between altitude and AM colonization was found in this Southern Hemisphere Andean system. The effect of altitude on AM colonization seems to be more related to the grasses' photosynthetic pathway than to life cycles. This study represents the first report for this biogeographical region.

  20. 氮素水平对转C4光合基因水稻花期剑叶PSⅡ荧光特性的影响%Responses of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics to Nitrogen in Flag Leaves of C4 Photosynthetic Enzymes Transgenic Rice during the Reproductive Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓东; 李霞; 郭士伟; 陈平波


    There was close relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthetic capability. C4 photo-synthetic gene transgenic rice had higher light use efficiency and CO2 assimilation compared to traditional C3 rice cultivars. However, whether nitrogen had influence on photosynthesis of these transgenic rice cultivars was unknown Chlorophyll fluorescence can reflect intrinsic characteristics using fast measurement without any damage to leaves, and is usually used as probe of photosynthesis. In the present study, the pepc (PC) ,ppdk (PK)and pepc + ppdk (CK) transgenic rice plants were used as experimental materials with their wild type Kitaaki( WT) to investigate the responses of photosynthetic characteristics to different nitrogen levels in C4 photosynthetic gene transgenic rice at the late reproductive stage. Changes in SPAD values, morphological parameters were measured in flag leaves of four cultivars under different nitrogen levels. The analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic curves and some related parameters were also done under three nitrogen levels(0. 7 mmol/L N-1/4N low nitrogen,3 mmol/L N-1N control, 6 mmol/L N-2N high nitrogen)at the late reproductive stage using fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic technology, in order to explore the effects of nitrogen on photosystem Ⅱ ( PS Ⅱ ) function of C4 photosynthetic gene transgenic rice flag leaves. The results showed that 1/4N treatment increased root length,decreased plant height,leaf area and chlorophyll contents of flag leaves in all cultivars, while 2N treatment increased leaf area and chlorophyll contents. C4 photosynthetic gene transgenic plants exposed to 1/4N treatment had higher chlorophyll contents, and PC had longest root length and largest leaf area of flag leaves, which indicated that they had more morphological advantage under 1/4N treatment than wild type. The fluorescence O-J-I-P curves changes were found in all cultivars under 1/4N treatment. The K phase (at 300 μs) increased and C

  1. Can the progressive increase of C4 bundle sheath leakiness at low PFD be explained by incomplete suppression of photorespiration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromdijk, J.; Griffiths, H.; Schepers, H.E.


    The ability to concentrate CO2 around Rubisco allows C-4 crops to suppress photorespiration. However, as phosphoenolpyruvate regeneration requires ATP, the energetic efficiency of the C-4 pathway at low photosynthetic flux densities (PFD) becomes a balancing act between primary fixation and concentr

  2. Effects on Photosynthetic and Fluorescence Characteristics under Treatments of ABA,BA or DPI in the Transgenic Rice with Over-Expression C4 pepc Gene%ABA、BA及DPI对高表达玉米C4 pepc基因的水稻光合特性及叶绿素荧光特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 任承钢


    In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism on the high photosynthetic efficiency in phosphoe-nolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) transgenic rice plants,PEPC transgenic rice plant (PC) and untransformed rice plant,Kitaake (WT) were used as the study materials in pot experiments. With method of reagents inhale from petiole cut,reagents such as abscisic acid (ABA),n-butanol (BA) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) were applied in the rice plants at the 7th day after flowering. The photosynthetic and fluorescence characteristics,PEPC activities,pepc gene transcription level,and protein expression of all materials were measured. The results showed that,(1) compared with ABA treatment in PC,the net photosynthetic rates (Pn) of PC after DPI or BA treatment exhibited the similar trends,which increased first and then decreased. Pa of PC after BA treatment increased by 131.6% within 0.5 h,due to the increase of stomatal conductance. (2) ABA,BA and DPI had no significant effects on FJFm of the tested materials. Furthermore,when compared with the WT,PC under different treatments maintained a relatively higher qP. (3) PEPC activity of PC was significantly inhibited by 26% after the BA treatment,while that of PC under DPI was induced to increase by 48%. There are no significant effects on those of WT. Furthermore,the analysis of western blot and RT-PCR bands showed that PEPC protein and gene expression of the tested rice plants did not change significantly after these treatments,which indicated that above changes of PC could be no relativity with pepc gene transcription and protein translation.%为阐明水稻高表达玉米C4型磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶基因(C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase,C4 pepc)出现高光效的分子机理,以盆栽转C4 pepc水稻(PC)及野生型Kitaake (WT)为材料,花后7d茎吸入脱落酸(abscisic acid,ABA),正丁醇(n-butanol,BA)及氯化二亚苯基碘(diphenyleneiodonium,DPI),考察其对叶片光合特性及酶活性等影响.结果表明:(1

  3. Robust Control of PEP Formation Rate in the Carbon Fixation Pathway of C4 Plants by a Bi-functional Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Yuval


    Full Text Available Abstract Background C4 plants such as corn and sugarcane assimilate atmospheric CO2 into biomass by means of the C4 carbon fixation pathway. We asked how PEP formation rate, a key step in the carbon fixation pathway, might work at a precise rate, regulated by light, despite fluctuations in substrate and enzyme levels constituting and regulating this process. Results We present a putative mechanism for robustness in C4 carbon fixation, involving a key enzyme in the pathway, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK, which is regulated by a bifunctional enzyme, Regulatory Protein (RP. The robust mechanism is based on avidity of the bifunctional enzyme RP to its multimeric substrate PPDK, and on a product-inhibition feedback loop that couples the system output to the activity of the bifunctional regulator. The model provides an explanation for several unusual biochemical characteristics of the system and predicts that the system's output, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP formation rate, is insensitive to fluctuations in enzyme levels (PPDK and RP, substrate levels (ATP and pyruvate and the catalytic rate of PPDK, while remaining sensitive to the system's input (light levels. Conclusions The presented PPDK mechanism is a new way to achieve robustness using product inhibition as a feedback loop on a bifunctional regulatory enzyme. This mechanism exhibits robustness to protein and metabolite levels as well as to catalytic rate changes. At the same time, the output of the system remains tuned to input levels.

  4. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady history of C4 grasses. (United States)

    Edwards, Erika J; Smith, Stephen A


    Grasslands cover more than 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and their rise to dominance is one of the most dramatic events of biome evolution in Earth history. Grasses possess two main photosynthetic pathways: the C(3) pathway that is typical of most plants and a specialized C(4) pathway that minimizes photorespiration and thus increases photosynthetic performance in high-temperature and/or low-CO(2) environments. C(4) grasses dominate tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas, and C(3) grasses dominate the world's cooler temperate grassland regions. This striking pattern has been attributed to C(4) physiology, with the implication that the evolution of the pathway enabled C(4) grasses to persist in warmer climates than their C(3) relatives. We combined geospatial and molecular sequence data from two public archives to produce a 1,230-taxon phylogeny of the grasses with accompanying climate data for all species, extracted from more than 1.1 million herbarium specimens. Here we show that grasses are ancestrally a warm-adapted clade and that C(4) evolution was not correlated with shifts between temperate and tropical biomes. Instead, 18 of 20 inferred C(4) origins were correlated with marked reductions in mean annual precipitation. These changes are consistent with a shift out of tropical forest environments and into tropical woodland/savanna systems. We conclude that C(4) evolution in grasses coincided largely with migration out of the understory and into open-canopy environments. Furthermore, we argue that the evolution of cold tolerance in certain C(3) lineages is an overlooked innovation that has profoundly influenced the patterning of grassland communities across the globe.

  5. Photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways in Zostera marina and three Florida seagrasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, S.; Wetzel, R.G.


    The photosynthetic carbon fixation pathways of four seagrass species, Zostera marina L. from Alaska and Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, Syringodium filiforme Kutz. and Halodule wrightii Aschers. from the Gulf of Mexico, were investigated with a /sup 14/C pulse-chase technique. All species were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type. However, Thalassia and Halodule had higher initial incorporation rates into organic acids than is typical for terrestrial C/sub 3/ plants. Of 11 seagrass species investigated thus far for C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ metabolism using this technique, 10 were found to be principally of the C/sub 3/ type while only one exhibited C/sub 4/ metabolism.

  6. C-type cytochromes in the photosynthetic electron transfer pathways in green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria. (United States)

    Azai, Chihiro; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Itoh, Shigeru; Oh-oka, Hirozo


    Green sulfur bacteria and heliobacteria are strictly anaerobic phototrophs that have homodimeric type 1 reaction center complexes. Within these complexes, highly reducing substances are produced through an initial charge separation followed by electron transfer reactions driven by light energy absorption. In order to attain efficient energy conversion, it is important for the photooxidized reaction center to be rapidly rereduced. Green sulfur bacteria utilize reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (sulfide, thiosulfate, and/or sulfur) as electron sources for their anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. Membrane-bound and soluble cytochromes c play essential roles in the supply of electrons from sulfur oxidation pathways to the P840 reaction center. In the case of gram-positive heliobacteria, the photooxidized P800 reaction center is rereduced by cytochrome c-553 (PetJ) whose N-terminal cysteine residue is modified with fatty acid chains anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane.

  7. 干旱胁迫下调节ATP的含量对提高转玉米C4型pepc水稻光合速率的影响%Effect of regulating ATP on improving photosynthetic rate of transgenic rice with overexpressing maize C4 pepc under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍垲; 陆巍; 李霞


    ATP,来维持净光合速率的稳定。%C4-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene (C4-pepc) plays a key role in C4 photosynthesis by catalyzing initial fixation of CO2 in C4 plants. To determine whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP) limits photosynthetic rate of transgenic rice plant with over-expressing maize C4-pepc, the second upper leaves of non-transgenic rice (WT) and transgenic rice with over-expressing maize C4-pepc (PC) were sprayed with 2 mmol·L−1 NaHSO3, 100 µmol·L−1 3-(3′,4′-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 10 µmol·L−1 oligomycin at 5−6 leaf blade seedling stage under 20%(m/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000) treatment. Then the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), PEPC activity, ATP content andΦPS∐of PC and WT rice plants measured in the next morning. The results showed that 2 mmol·L−1 NaHSO3 enhanced Pn of the upper leaves of PC and WT rice seedlings without PEG-6000 treatment. However, the 100 µmol·L−1 DCMU and 10 µmol·L−1 oligomycin decreased Pn of the upper leaves of PC and WT rice seedlings without PEG-6000 treatment. Treatment with 2 mmol·L−1 NaHSO3 increased Gs and Ci of WT rice leaves but decreased Gs and Ci of PC rice leaves. While treatment with 100 µmol·L−1 DCMU increased Ci of PC and WT rice leaves, it decreased Gs of PC and WT rice leaves. PEG-6000 treatment decreased Pn of the upper leaves in PC and WT plants under different treatments. However, PEG-6000 treatment combined with 2 mmol·L−1 NaHSO3 solution spray retarded the decrease in Pn. Then PEG-6000 treatment combined with DCMU and oligomycin sprays increased the rate of Pn decline. After 8 hours of 20% PEG-6000 treatment combined with different solutions, Gs of PC rice leaves remained unchanged while Pn of PC rice leaves changed obviously. The results further showed that ATP content, PEPC activity andΦPS∐ content in rice leaves changed obviously under different

  8. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Ludwig, Martha


    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  9. The c4h, tat, hppr and hppd genes prompted engineering of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

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    Ying Xiao

    Full Text Available Rational engineering to produce biologically active plant compounds has been greatly impeded by our poor understanding of the regulatory and metabolic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of these compounds. Here we capitalized on our previously described gene-to-metabolite network in order to engineer rosmarinic acid (RA biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial RA and lithospermic acid B (LAB in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Results showed their production was greatly elevated by (1 overexpression of single gene, including cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (c4h, tyrosine aminotransferase (tat, and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reductase (hppr, (2 overexpression of both tat and hppr, and (3 suppression of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd. Co-expression of tat/hppr produced the most abundant RA (906 mg/liter and LAB (992 mg/liter, which were 4.3 and 3.2-fold more than in their wild-type (wt counterparts respectively. And the value of RA concentration was also higher than that reported before, that produced by means of nutrient medium optimization or elicitor treatment. It is the first report of boosting RA and LAB biosynthesis through genetic manipulation, providing an effective approach for their large-scale commercial production by using hairy root culture systems as bioreactors.

  10. Water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency of C(3) -C(4) intermediate species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae). (United States)

    Vogan, Patrick J; Sage, Rowan F


    Plants using the C(4) pathway of carbon metabolism are marked by greater photosynthetic water and nitrogen-use efficiencies (PWUE and PNUE, respectively) than C(3) species, but it is unclear to what extent this is the case in C(3) -C(4) intermediate species. In this study, we examined the PWUE and PNUE of 14 species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae), including two C(3) , three C(4) and nine C(3) -C(4) species, the latter containing a gradient of C(4) -cycle activities (as determined by initial fixation of (14) C into C-4 acids). We found that PWUE, PNUE, leaf ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content and intercellular CO(2) concentration in air (C(i) ) do not change gradually with C(4) -cycle activity. These traits were not significantly different between C(3) species and C(3) -C(4) species with less than 50% C(4) -cycle activity. C(4) -like intermediates with greater than 65% C(4) -cycle activity were not significantly different from plants with fully expressed C(4) photosynthesis. These results indicate that a gradual increase in C(4) -cycle activity has not resulted in a gradual change in PWUE, PNUE, intercellular CO(2) concentration and leaf Rubisco content towards C(4) levels in the intermediate species. Rather, these traits arose in a stepwise manner during the evolutionary transition to the C(4) -like intermediates, which are contained in two different clades within Flaveria.

  11. Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.


    The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

  12. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Navid, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial

  13. Macro-Climatic Distribution Limits Show Both Niche Expansion and Niche Specialization among C4 Panicoids. (United States)

    Aagesen, Lone; Biganzoli, Fernando; Bena, Julia; Godoy-Bürki, Ana C; Reinheimer, Renata; Zuloaga, Fernando O


    Grasses are ancestrally tropical understory species whose current dominance in warm open habitats is linked to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. C4 grasses maintain high rates of photosynthesis in warm and water stressed environments, and the syndrome is considered to induce niche shifts into these habitats while adaptation to cold ones may be compromised. Global biogeographic analyses of C4 grasses have, however, concentrated on diversity patterns, while paying little attention to distributional limits. Using phylogenetic contrast analyses, we compared macro-climatic distribution limits among ~1300 grasses from the subfamily Panicoideae, which includes 4/5 of the known photosynthetic transitions in grasses. We explored whether evolution of C4 photosynthesis correlates with niche expansions, niche changes, or stasis at subfamily level and within the two tribes Paniceae and Paspaleae. We compared the climatic extremes of growing season temperatures, aridity, and mean temperatures of the coldest months. We found support for all the known biogeographic distribution patterns of C4 species, these patterns were, however, formed both by niche expansion and niche changes. The only ubiquitous response to a change in the photosynthetic pathway within Panicoideae was a niche expansion of the C4 species into regions with higher growing season temperatures, but without a withdrawal from the inherited climate niche. Other patterns varied among the tribes, as macro-climatic niche evolution in the American tribe Paspaleae differed from the pattern supported in the globally distributed tribe Paniceae and at family level.

  14. Emergence and transmission pathways of rapidly evolving evolutionary branch C4a strains of human enterovirus 71 in the Central Plain of China.

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    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD occurred repeatedly in the Central Plain of China (Shandong, Anhui, and Henan provinces from 2007 until now. These epidemics have increased in size and severity each year and are a major public health concern in mainland China. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree was constructed based on the complete VP1 sequences of HEV71 isolates. These analyses showed that the HFMD epidemic in the Central Plain of China was caused by at least 5 chains of HEV71 transmission and that the virus continued to circulate and evolve over the winter seasons between outbreaks. Between 1998 and 2010, there were 2 stages of HEV71 circulation in mainland China, with a shift from evolutionary branch C4b to C4a in 2003-2004. The evolution rate of C4a HEV71 was 4.99×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, faster than the mean of all HEV71 genotypes. The most recent common ancestor estimates for the Chinese clusters dated to October 1994 and November 1993 for the C4a and C4b evolutionary branches, respectively. Compared with all C4a HEV71 strains, a nucleotide substitution in all C4b HEV71 genome (A to C reversion at nt2503 in the VP1 coding region, which caused amino acid substitution of VP1-10: Gln to His had reverted. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that C4a HEV71 strains introduced into the Central Plain of China are responsible for the recent outbreaks. The relationships among HEV71 isolates determined from the combined sequence and epidemiological data reveal the underlying seasonal dynamics of HEV71 circulation. At least 5 HEV71 lineages circulated in the Central Plain of China from 2007 to 2009, and the Shandong and Anhui lineages were found to have passed through a genetic bottleneck during the low-transmission winter season.

  15. Influence of C4 null alleles on C4 activation in systemic lupus erythematosus.


    Briggs, D C; Senaldi, G; Isenberg, D A; Welsh, K I; Vergani, D.


    Deficiencies of early components of the classical complement pathway are known to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). C4 null alleles, C4A Q0 and C4B Q0, are prime candidates for the major histocompatibility complex associated factor which determines susceptibility to SLE. There is poor correlation, however, between the presence of low concentrations of C4 and possession of C4 null alleles, and thus the basis of the association between C4A Q0, C4B Q0 and SLE remains obscure...

  16. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides (United States)

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.


    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2‧,3‧,4‧,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2‧,3‧,4‧-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15–45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme.

  17. Discrete redox signaling pathways regulate photosynthetic light-harvesting and chloroplast gene transcription.

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    John F Allen

    Full Text Available In photosynthesis in chloroplasts, two related regulatory processes balance the actions of photosystems I and II. These processes are short-term, post-translational redistribution of light-harvesting capacity, and long-term adjustment of photosystem stoichiometry initiated by control of chloroplast DNA transcription. Both responses are initiated by changes in the redox state of the electron carrier, plastoquinone, which connects the two photosystems. Chloroplast Sensor Kinase (CSK is a regulator of transcription of chloroplast genes for reaction centres of the two photosystems, and a sensor of plastoquinone redox state. We asked whether CSK is also involved in regulation of absorbed light energy distribution by phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHC II. Chloroplast thylakoid membranes isolated from a CSK T-DNA insertion mutant and from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit similar light- and redox-induced (32P-labelling of LHC II and changes in 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra, while room-temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission transients from Arabidopsis leaves are perturbed by inactivation of CSK. The results indicate indirect, pleiotropic effects of reaction centre gene transcription on regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting in vivo. A single, direct redox signal is transmitted separately to discrete transcriptional and post-translational branches of an integrated cytoplasmic regulatory system.

  18. Evolutionary physiology: the extent of C4 and CAM photosynthesis in the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia of the Portulacaceae. (United States)

    Guralnick, Lonnie J; Cline, Amanda; Smith, Monica; Sage, Rowan F


    The Portulacaceae is one of the few terrestrial plant families known to have both C(4) and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. There may be multiple origins of the evolution of CAM within the Portulacaceae but the only clear evidence of C(4) photosynthesis is found in members of the genus Portulaca. In the Portulaca, CAM succulent tissue is overlaid with the C(4) tissue in a unique fashion where both pathways are operating simultaneously. Earlier reports have shown that the clade containing the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia may also contain C(4) photosynthetic species similar to the Portulaca, which would indicate multiple origins of C(4) photosynthesis within the family. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the true photosynthetic nature of these genera. An initial survey of the carbon isotope composition of the Anacampseros ranged from -12.6 per thousand to -24.0 per thousand, indicating very little CAM activity in some species, with other values close to the C(4) range. Anacampseros (=Grahamia) australiana which had been previously identified as a C(4) species had a carbon isotope composition value of -24.0 per thousand, which is more indicative of a C(3) species with a slight contribution of CAM activity. Other Anacampseros species with C(4)-like values have been shown to be CAM plants. The initial isotope analysis of the Grahamia species gave values in the range of -27.1 per thousand to -23.6 per thousand, placing the Grahamia species well towards the C(3) photosynthetic range. Further physiological studies indicated increased night-time CO(2) uptake with imposition of water stress, associated with a large diurnal acid fluctuation and a marked increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. This showed that the Grahamia species are actually facultative CAM plants despite their C(3)-like carbon isotope values. The results indicate that the Grahamia and Anacampseros species do not utilize the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. This is the first

  19. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age. (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M


    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution.

  20. Photosynthesis of C3, C3-C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3-C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l(-1)) and glacial (180 μl l(-1)) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3-C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3-C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3-C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3-C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3-C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments.

  1. Plasticity of metabolic networks and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis (United States)

    Bogart, Eli; Myers, Chris


    Over 50 groups of plants have independently developed a common mechanism (C4 photosynthesis) for increasing the efficiency of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation. Understanding the high degree of evolvability of the C4 system could offer useful guidance for attempts to introduce it artificially to other plants. Previously, the nonlinear relationship between carbon dioxide levels and rates of carbon assimilation and photorespiration has prevented the application of genome-scale metabolic models to the problem of the evolution of the pathway. We apply a nonlinear optimization method to find feasible flux distributions in a plant metabolic model, allowing us to explore the plasticity of the metabolic network and characterize the fitness landscape of the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis.

  2. Phenotypic landscape inference reveals multiple evolutionary paths to C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Williams, Ben P; Johnston, Iain G; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M


    C4 photosynthesis has independently evolved from the ancestral C3 pathway in at least 60 plant lineages, but, as with other complex traits, how it evolved is unclear. Here we show that the polyphyletic appearance of C4 photosynthesis is associated with diverse and flexible evolutionary paths that group into four major trajectories. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 lineages containing species that use C3, C4, or intermediate C3-C4 forms of photosynthesis to parameterise a 16-dimensional phenotypic landscape. We then developed and experimentally verified a novel Bayesian approach based on a hidden Markov model that predicts how the C4 phenotype evolved. The alternative evolutionary histories underlying the appearance of C4 photosynthesis were determined by ancestral lineage and initial phenotypic alterations unrelated to photosynthesis. We conclude that the order of C4 trait acquisition is flexible and driven by non-photosynthetic drivers. This flexibility will have facilitated the convergent evolution of this complex trait. DOI:

  3. Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses. (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P


    Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species.

  4. Cross species selection scans identify components of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Studer, Anthony J; Schnable, James C; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P


    C4 photosynthesis is perhaps one of the best examples of convergent adaptive evolution with over 25 independent origins in the grasses (Poaceae) alone. The availability of high quality grass genome sequences presents new opportunities to explore the mechanisms underlying this complex trait using evolutionary biology-based approaches. In this study, we performed genome-wide cross-species selection scans in C4 lineages to facilitate discovery of C4 genes. The study was enabled by the well conserved collinearity of grass genomes and the recently sequenced genome of a C3 panicoid grass, Dichanthelium oligosanthes This method, in contrast to previous studies, does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the genes that contribute to biochemical or anatomical innovations associated with C4 photosynthesis. We identified a list of 88 candidate genes that include both known and potentially novel components of the C4 pathway. This set includes the carbon shuttle enzymes pyruvate, phosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and NADP malic enzyme as well as several predicted transporter proteins that likely play an essential role in promoting the flux of metabolites between the bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Importantly, this approach demonstrates the application of fundamental molecular evolution principles to dissect the genetic basis of a complex photosynthetic adaptation in plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the output of the selection scans can be combined with expression data to provide additional power to prioritize candidate gene lists and suggest novel opportunities for pathway engineering.

  5. C4 photosynthesis promoted species diversification during the Miocene grassland expansion.

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    Elizabeth L Spriggs

    Full Text Available Identifying how organismal attributes and environmental change affect lineage diversification is essential to our understanding of biodiversity. With the largest phylogeny yet compiled for grasses, we present an example of a key physiological innovation that promoted high diversification rates. C4 photosynthesis, a complex suite of traits that improves photosynthetic efficiency under conditions of drought, high temperatures, and low atmospheric CO2, has evolved repeatedly in one lineage of grasses and was consistently associated with elevated diversification rates. In most cases there was a significant lag time between the origin of the pathway and subsequent radiations, suggesting that the 'C4 effect' is complex and derives from the interplay of the C4 syndrome with other factors. We also identified comparable radiations occurring during the same time period in C3 Pooid grasses, a diverse, cold-adapted grassland lineage that has never evolved C4 photosynthesis. The mid to late Miocene was an especially important period of both C3 and C4 grass diversification, coincident with the global development of extensive, open biomes in both warm and cool climates. As is likely true for most "key innovations", the C4 effect is context dependent and only relevant within a particular organismal background and when particular ecological opportunities became available.

  6. NDH-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow Around Photosystem I is Crucial for C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Noriko; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Ko; Tazoe, Youshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Sato, Fumihiko; Endo, Tsuyoshi


    C4 photosynthesis exhibits efficient CO2 assimilation in ambient air by concentrating CO2 around ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) through a metabolic pathway called the C4 cycle. It has been suggested that cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI mediated by chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH), an alternative pathway of photosynthetic electron transport (PET), plays a crucial role in C4 photosynthesis, although the contribution of NDH-mediated CEF is small in C3 photosynthesis. Here, we generated NDH-suppressed transformants of a C4 plant, Flaveria bidentis, and showed that the NDH-suppressed plants grow poorly, especially under low-light conditions. CO2 assimilation rates were consistently decreased in the NDH-suppressed plants under low and medium light intensities. Measurements of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl fluorescence, the oxidation state of the reaction center of PSI (P700) and the electrochromic shift (ECS) of pigment absorbance indicated that proton translocation across the thylakoid membrane is impaired in the NDH-suppressed plants. Since proton translocation across the thylakoid membrane induces ATP production, these results suggest that NDH-mediated CEF plays a role in the supply of ATP which is required for C4 photosynthesis. Such a role is more crucial when the light that is available for photosynthesis is limited and the energy production by PET becomes rate-determining for C4 photosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that the physiological contribution of NDH-mediated CEF is greater in C4 photosynthesis than in C3 photosynthesis, suggesting that the mechanism of PET in C4 photosynthesis has changed from that in C3 photosynthesis accompanying the changes in the mechanism of CO2 assimilation.

  7. Bundle-sheath leakiness in C4 photosynthesis: a careful balancing act between CO2 concentration and assimilation. (United States)

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Ubierna, Nerea; Cousins, Asaph B; Griffiths, Howard


    Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are generally characterized by high productivity, especially in environmental conditions favouring photorespiration. In comparison with the ancestral C3 pathway, the biochemical and anatomical modifications of the C4 pathway allow spatial separation of primary carbon acquisition in mesophyll cells and subsequent assimilation in bundle-sheath cells. The CO2-concentrating C4 cycle has to operate in close coordination with CO2 reduction via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle in order to keep the C4 pathway energetically efficient. The gradient in CO2 concentration between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells facilitates diffusive leakage of CO2. This rate of bundle-sheath CO2 leakage relative to the rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylation (termed leakiness) has been used to probe the balance between C4 carbon acquisition and subsequent reduction as a result of environmental perturbations. When doing so, the correct choice of equations to derive leakiness from stable carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) during gas exchange is critical to avoid biased results. Leakiness responses to photon flux density, either short-term (during measurements) or long-term (during growth and development), can have important implications for C4 performance in understorey light conditions. However, recent reports show leakiness to be subject to considerable acclimation. Additionally, the recent discovery of two decarboxylating C4 cycles operating in parallel in Zea mays suggests that flexibility in the transported C4 acid and associated decarboxylase could also aid in maintaining C4/CBB balance in a changing environment. In this paper, we review improvements in methodology to estimate leakiness, synthesize reports on bundle-sheath leakiness, discuss different interpretations, and highlight areas where future research is necessary.

  8. iTRAQ-based analysis of developmental dynamics in the soybean leaf proteome reveals pathways associated with leaf photosynthetic rate. (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Zhang, Jianan; Liu, Duan; Yin, Changcheng; Wang, Fengmin; Chen, Pengyin; Chen, Hao; Ma, Jinbing; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Mengchen


    Photosynthetic rate which acts as a vital limiting factor largely affects the potential of soybean production, especially during the senescence phase. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlying the change of photosynthetic rate during the developmental process of soybean leaves remain unclear. In this study, we compared the protein dynamics during the developmental process of leaves between the soybean cultivar Hobbit and the high-photosynthetic rate cultivar JD 17 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) method. A total number of 1269 proteins were detected in the leaves of these two cultivars at three different developmental stages. These proteins were classified into nine expression patterns depending on the expression levels at different developmental stages, and the proteins in each pattern were also further classified into three large groups and 20 small groups depending on the protein functions. Only 3.05-6.53 % of the detected proteins presented a differential expression pattern between these two cultivars. Enrichment factor analysis indicated that proteins involved in photosynthesis composed an important category. The expressions of photosynthesis-related proteins were also further confirmed by western blotting. Together, our results suggested that the reduction in photosynthetic rate as well as chloroplast activity and composition during the developmental process was a highly regulated and complex process which involved a serial of proteins that function as potential candidates to be targeted by biotechnological approaches for the improvement of photosynthetic rate and production.

  9. The chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway as a tool to minimize chlorophyll antenna size and maximize photosynthetic productivity. (United States)

    Kirst, Henning; Melis, Anastasios


    The concept of the Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna (TLA) size, as a tool by which to maximize sunlight utilization and photosynthetic productivity in microalgal mass cultures or high-density plant canopies, is discussed. TLA technology is known to improve sunlight-to-product energy conversion efficiencies and is hereby exemplified by photosynthetic productivity estimates of wild type and a TLA strain under simulated mass culture conditions. Recent advances in the generation of TLA-type mutants by targeting genes of the chloroplast signal-recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway, affecting the thylakoid membrane assembly of light-harvesting proteins, are also summarized. Two distinct CpSRP assembly pathways are recognized, one entailing post-translational, the other a co-translational mechanism. Differences between the post-translational and co-translational integration mechanisms are outlined, as these pertain to the CpSRP-mediated assembly of thylakoid membrane protein complexes in higher plants and green microalgae. The applicability of the CpSRP pathway genes in efforts to generate TLA-type strains with enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency in photosynthesis is evaluated.

  10. PSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians. (United States)

    Roberty, Stéphane; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Franck, Fabrice; Cardol, Pierre


    Photosynthetic organisms have developed various photoprotective mechanisms to cope with exposure to high light intensities. In photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians, the nature and relative amplitude of these regulatory mechanisms are a matter of debate. In our study, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEF) to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction), the mitochondrial respiration and the Photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron flow were investigated in strains belonging to three clades (A1, B1 and F1) of Symbiodinium. Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained under identical environmental conditions, and measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). A light- and O2 -dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This electron transfer chain involves PSII and PSI and is insensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial activity and carbon fixation. We demonstrate that in all strains, the Mehler reaction responsible for photoreduction of oxygen by the PSI under high light, is the main AEF at the onset and at the steady state of photosynthesis. This sustained photosynthetic AEF under high light intensities acts as a photoprotective mechanism and leads to an increase of the ATP/NADPH ratio.

  11. Glyphosate Resistance of C3 and C4 Weeds under Rising Atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Fernando, Nimesha; Manalil, Sudheesh; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Seneweera, Saman


    The present paper reviews current knowledge on how changes of plant metabolism under elevated CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can affect the development of the glyphosate resistance of C3 and C4 weeds. Among the chemical herbicides, glyphosate, which is a non-selective and post-emergence herbicide, is currently the most widely used herbicide in global agriculture. As a consequence, glyphosate resistant weeds, particularly in major field crops, are a widespread problem and are becoming a significant challenge to future global food production. Of particular interest here it is known that the biochemical processes involved in photosynthetic pathways of C3 and C4 plants are different, which may have relevance to their competitive development under changing environmental conditions. It has already been shown that plant anatomical, morphological, and physiological changes under e[CO2] can be different, based on (i) the plant's functional group, (ii) the available soil nutrients, and (iii) the governing water status. In this respect, C3 species are likely to have a major developmental advantage under a CO2 rich atmosphere, by being able to capitalize on the overall stimulatory effect of e[CO2]. For example, many tropical weed grass species fix CO2 from the atmosphere via the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which is a complex anatomical and biochemical variant of the C3 pathway. Thus, based on our current knowledge of CO2 fixing, it would appear obvious that the development of a glyphosate-resistant mechanism would be easier under an e[CO2] in C3 weeds which have a simpler photosynthetic pathway, than for C4 weeds. However, notwithstanding this logical argument, a better understanding of the biochemical, genetic, and molecular measures by which plants develop glyphosate resistance and how e[CO2] affects these measures will be important before attempting to innovate sustainable technology to manage the glyphosate-resistant evolution of weeds under e[CO2]. Such information will be of

  12. Site-specific and compensatory mutations imply unexpected pathways for proton delivery to the QB binding site of the photosynthetic reaction center. (United States)

    Hanson, D K; Tiede, D M; Nance, S L; Chang, C H; Schiffer, M


    In photosynthetic reaction centers, a quinone molecule, QB, is the terminal acceptor in light-induced electron transfer. The protonatable residues Glu-L212 and Asp-L213 have been implicated in the binding of QB and in proton transfer to QB anions generated by electron transfer from the primary quinone QA. Here we report the details of the construction of the Ala-L212/Ala-L213 double mutant strain by site-specific mutagenesis and show that its photosynthetic incompetence is due to an inability to deliver protons to the QB anions. We also report the isolation and biophysical characterization of a collection of revertant and suppressor strains that have regained the photosynthetic phenotype. The compensatory mutations that restore function are diverse and show that neither Glu-L212 nor Asp-L213 is essential for efficient light-induced electron or proton transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus. Second-site mutations, located within the QB binding pocket or at more distant sites, can compensate for mutations at L212 and L213 to restore photocompetence. Acquisition of a single negatively charged residue (at position L213, across the binding pocket at position L225, or outside the pocket at M43) or loss of a positively charged residue (at position M231) is sufficient to restore proton transfer activity to the complex. The proton transport pathways in the suppressor strains cannot, in principle, be identical to that of the wild type. The apparent mutability of this pathway suggests that the reaction center can serve as a model system to study the structural basis of protein-mediated proton transport. PMID:8105468

  13. Effect of uncoupler on assembly pathway for pigment-binding protein of bacterial photosynthetic membranes. [Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierstein, R.; Drews, G.


    The uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used to investigate membrane protein assembly in the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. As found for Escherichia coli and mitochondrial proteins, assembly across the bacterial photosynthetic membranes was sensitive to CCCP. At uncoupler concentrations which were sufficient to block the export of the periplasmic cytochrome c/sub 2/ and an outer membrane protein, the integration of pigment-binding protein into the photosynthetic apparatus was abolished. The unassembled protein was detected on the inner surface of the intracytoplasmic membrane. After inactivation of CCCP, accumulated protein continued insertion into the membrane. The data suggest that after binding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane (i), translocation of protein into a transmembrane orientation takes place (ii), which is a prerequisite for the formation of a functional pigment-protein complex (iii).

  14. Human C4 haplotypes with duplicated C4A or C4B.


    Raum, D; Awdeh, Z; Anderson, J.; Strong, L; Granados, J.; Teran, L; Giblett, E; Yunis, E J; Alper, C A


    In the course of study of families for the sixth chromosome markers HLA-A, C, B, D/DR, BF, and C2, the two loci for C4, C4A, and C4B, and glyoxalase I, we encountered five examples of probable duplication of one or the other of the two loci for C4. In one of these, both parents and one sib expressed two different structural genes for C4B, one sib expressed one, and one sib expressed none, suggesting that two C4B alleles were carried on a single haplotype: HLA-A2, B7, DR3, BFS1, C2C, C4A2, C4B...

  15. Photosynthesis of C3, C3–C4, and C4 grasses at glacial CO2 (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Sharwood, Robert E.; Tissue, David T.; Ghannoum, Oula


    Most physiology comparisons of C3 and C4 plants are made under current or elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 which do not reflect the low CO2 environment under which C4 photosynthesis has evolved. Accordingly, photosynthetic nitrogen (PNUE) and water (PWUE) use efficiency, and the activity of the photosynthetic carboxylases [Rubisco and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)] and decarboxylases [NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK)] were compared in eight C4 grasses with NAD-ME, PCK, and NADP-ME subtypes, one C3 grass, and one C3–C4 grass grown under ambient (400 μl l–1) and glacial (180 μl l–1) CO2. Glacial CO2 caused a smaller reduction of photosynthesis and a greater increase of stomatal conductance in C4 relative to C3 and C3–C4 species. Panicum bisulcatum (C3) acclimated to glacial [CO2] by doubling Rubisco activity, while Rubisco was unchanged in Panicum milioides (C3–C4), possibly due to its high leaf N and Rubisco contents. Glacial CO2 up-regulated Rubisco and PEPC activities in concert for several C4 grasses, while NADP-ME and PEP-CK activities were unchanged, reflecting the high control exerted by the carboxylases relative to the decarboxylases on the efficiency of C4 metabolism. Despite having larger stomatal conductance at glacial CO2, C4 species maintained greater PWUE and PNUE relative to C3–C4 and C3 species due to higher photosynthetic rates. Relative to other C4 subtypes, NAD-ME and PEP-CK grasses had the highest PWUE and PNUE, respectively; relative to C3, the C3–C4 grass had higher PWUE and similar PNUE at glacial CO2. Biomass accumulation was reduced by glacial CO2 in the C3 grass relative to the C3–C4 grass, while biomass was less reduced in NAD-ME grasses compared with NADP-ME and PCK grasses. Under glacial CO2, high resource use efficiency offers a key evolutionary advantage for the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis in water- and nutrient-limited environments. PMID:24723409

  16. Responses of carbon isotope discrimination in C4 plant to variable N and water supply (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Shenggong


    Understanding variations and underlying mechanisms of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in C4 species is critical for predicting the effects of change in C3/C4 ratio of plant community on ecosystem processes and functionning. However, little is known about the effects of soil resource gradients on Δ of C4 plants. To address Δ responses to drought and nitrogen supply, the leaf carbon isotope composition, bundle sheath leakiness (BLS), and leaf gas exchange (A, gs, Ci/Ca) were measured on Cleistogenes squarrosa, a dominant C4 species in the Inner Mongolia grassland. C. squarrosa were grown in controlled-environment pots from seed under a combination of water and N supply. High N availability and drought stimulated photosynthetic rate (A) and further decreased the ratio of internal and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ci/Ca) through increasing leaf N content. BLS was higher under high N supply and was unchanged by drought. There was significant interaction between N and water supply to affect BLS and Ci/Ca. Δ was negatively related to Ci/Ca and was positively related to BLS. Tradeoff between the responses of BLS and Ci/Ca to changing environmental conditions kept leaf Δ relatively stable, which was also supported by a field N addition experiment. Our results suggested leaf Δ of C4 plant was unchanged under variable water and N environment conditions although the operating efficiency of C4 pathway and CO2 concentration in photosynthesis were changed. Our findings have implications for predicting the change of C3/C4 ratio of plant community and understanding ecosystem processes and functionning.

  17. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J


    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change.

  18. Progress in the remote sensing of C3 and C4 grass species aboveground biomass over time and space (United States)

    Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy


    The remote sensing of grass aboveground biomass (AGB) has gained considerable attention, with substantial research being conducted in the past decades. Of significant importance is their photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4), which epitomizes a fundamental eco-physiological distinction of grasses functional types. With advances in technology and the availability of remotely sensed data at different spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions, coupled with the need for detailed information on vegetation condition, the monitoring of C3 and C4 grasses AGB has received renewed attention, especially in the light of global climate change, biodiversity and, most importantly, food security. This paper provides a detailed survey on the progress of remote sensing application in determining C3 and C4 grass species AGB. Importantly, the importance of species functional type is highlighted in conjunction with the availability and applicability of different remote sensing datasets, with refined resolutions, which provide an opportunity to monitor C3 and C4 grasses AGB. While some progress has been made, this review has revealed the need for further remote sensing studies to model the seasonal (cyclical) variability, as well as long-term AGB changes in C3 and C4 grasses, in the face of climate change and food security. Moreover, the findings of this study have shown the significance of shifting towards the application of advanced statistical models, to further improve C3 and C4 grasses AGB estimation accuracy.

  19. Engineering of a modular and synthetic phosphoketolase pathway for photosynthetic production of acetone from CO2 in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 under light and aerobic condition. (United States)

    Chwa, Jun-Won; Kim, Wook Jin; Sim, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min


    Capture and conversion of CO2 to valuable chemicals is intended to answer global challenges on environmental issues, climate change and energy security. Engineered cyanobacteria have been enabled to produce industry-relevant chemicals from CO2 . However, the final products from cyanobacteria have often been mixed with fermented metabolites during dark fermentation. In this study, our engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 enabled continuous conversion of CO2 to volatile acetone as sole product. This process occurred during lighted, aerobic culture via both ATP-driven malonyl-CoA synthesis pathway and heterologous phosphoketolase (PHK)-phosphotransacetylase (Pta) pathway. Because of strong correlations between the metabolic pathways of acetate and acetone, supplying the acetyl-CoA directly from CO2 in the engineered strain, led to sole production of acetone (22.48 mg/L ± 1.00) without changing nutritional constraints, and without an anaerobic shift. Our engineered S. elongatus strains, designed for acetone production, could be modified to create biosolar cell factories for sustainable photosynthetic production of acetyl-CoA-derived biochemicals.

  20. Preference for C4 shade grasses increases hatchling performance in the butterfly, Bicyclus safitza. (United States)

    Nokelainen, Ossi; Ripley, Brad S; van Bergen, Erik; Osborne, Colin P; Brakefield, Paul M


    The Miocene radiation of C4 grasses under high-temperature and low ambient CO 2 levels occurred alongside the transformation of a largely forested landscape into savanna. This inevitably changed the host plant regime of herbivores, and the simultaneous diversification of many consumer lineages, including Bicyclus butterflies in Africa, suggests that the radiations of grasses and grazers may be evolutionary linked. We examined mechanisms for this plant-herbivore interaction with the grass-feeding Bicyclus safitza in South Africa. In a controlled environment, we tested oviposition preference and hatchling performance on local grasses with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways that grow either in open or shaded habitats. We predicted preference for C3 plants due to a hypothesized lower processing cost and higher palatability to herbivores. In contrast, we found that females preferred C4 shade grasses rather than either C4 grasses from open habitats or C3 grasses. The oviposition preference broadly followed hatchling performance, although hatchling survival was equally good on C4 or C3 shade grasses. This finding was explained by leaf toughness; shade grasses were softer than grasses from open habitats. Field monitoring revealed a preference of adults for shaded habitats, and stable isotope analysis of field-sampled individuals confirmed their preference for C4 grasses as host plants. Our findings suggest that plant-herbivore interactions can influence the direction of selection in a grass-feeding butterfly. Based on this work, we postulate future research to test whether these interactions more generally contribute to radiations in herbivorous insects via expansions into new, unexploited ecological niches.

  1. Carbon isotopes and water use efficiency in C4 plants. (United States)

    Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Cousins, Asaph B


    Drought is a major agricultural problem worldwide. Therefore, selection for increased water use efficiency (WUE) in food and biofuel crop species will be an important trait in plant breeding programs. The leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)Cleaf) has been suggested to serve as a rapid and effective high throughput phenotyping method for WUE in both C3 and C4 species. This is because WUE, leaf carbon discrimination (Δ(13)Cleaf), and δ(13)Cleaf are correlated through their relationships with intercellular to ambient CO2 partial pressures (Ci/Ca). However, in C4 plants, changing environmental conditions may influence photosynthetic efficiency (bundle-sheath leakiness) and post-photosynthetic fractionation that will potentially alter the relationship between δ(13)Cleaf and Ci/Ca. Here we discuss how these factors influence the relationship between δ(13)Cleaf and WUE, and the potential of using δ(13)Cleaf as a meaningful proxy for WUE.

  2. Thermochemistry of disputed soot formation intermediates C4H3 and C4H5 (United States)

    Wheeler, Steven E.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, Henry F.


    Accurate isomeric energy differences and standard enthalpies of formation for disputed intermediates in soot formation, C4H3 and C4H5, have been determined through systematic extrapolations of ab initio energies. Electron correlation has been included through second-order Z-averaged perturbation theory (ZAPT2), and spin-restricted, open-shell coupled-cluster methods through triple excitations [ROCCSD, ROCCSD(T), and ROCCSDT] utilizing the correlation-consistent hierarchy of basis sets, cc-pVXZ (X=D, T, Q, 5, and 6), followed by extrapolations to the complete basis set limit via the focal point method of Allen and co-workers. Reference geometries were fully optimized at the ROCCSD(T) level with a TZ(2d1f,2p1d) basis set. Our analysis finds that the resonance-stabilized i-C4H3 and i-C4H5 isomers lie 11.8 and 10.7 kcal mol-1 below E-n-C4H3 and E-n-C4H5, respectively, several kcal mol-1 (more, less) than reported in recent (diffusion Monte Carlo, B3LYP density-functional) studies. Moreover, in these systems Gaussian-3 (G3) theory suffers from large spin contamination in electronic wave functions, poor reference geometries, and anomalous vibrational frequencies, but fortuitous cancellation of these sizable errors leads to isomerization energies apparently accurate to 1 kcal mol-1. Using focal-point extrapolations for isodesmic reactions, we determine the enthalpies of formation (ΔfH0∘) for i-C4H3, Z-n-C4H3, E-n-C4H3, i-C4H5, Z-n-C4H5, and E-n-C4H5 to be 119.0, 130.8, 130.8, 78.4, 89.7, and 89.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. These definitive values remove any remaining uncertainty surrounding the thermochemistry of these isomers in combustion models, allowing for better assessment of whether even-carbon pathways contribute to soot formation.

  3. Balanced {C_4, C_5}-Quatrefoil Systems


    USHIO, Kazuhiko


    In graph theory, the decomposition problems of graphs are very important topics. Various types of decompositions of many graphs can be seen in the literature of gaph theory. We give the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a balanced {C_4, C_5}-quatrefoil decomposition of K_n for each of (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_4)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_4, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_4, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, (C_4, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil, and (C_5, C_5, C_5, C_5)-quatrefoil. These decompositions...

  4. Differential expressed genes of p53 signaling pathway in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and C4-2 screened by microarray technology%基因芯片筛选LNCaP与C4-2细胞中P53信号通路相关差异表达基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金桂花; 王丽娟; 朱青; 周侠; 李萌; 白娥


    目的 运用基因芯片筛选雄激素依赖性前列腺癌细胞系LNCaP与雄激素非依赖性前列腺癌细胞系C4-2中p53信号通路相关差异表达基因,寻找去势抵抗性前列腺癌的可能发生机制.方法 体外培养前列腺癌细胞系LN-CaP和C4-2,TRIzol试剂提取两种细胞的总RNA并纯化,按Agilent芯片说明对总RNA进行杂交,所得荧光信号采用Aligent Scanner、Imagene和Genespring软件进行分析和显示.结果 以LNCaP为对照,C4-2细胞中3组均表达差异的基因共417个,上调基因301个,下调基因116个.KEGG转录域覆盖率分析显示,差异表达基因中与p53信号通路相关的占9.3%;p53信号通路中表达差异的基因分别为ATR、p21、CDK4/6、CyclinE、Gadd45、PIGs、CytC、IGF-BP3、TSP1、p53R2、Sestrins和CyclinG,其中p21、CDK4/6、CyclinE的表达差异最显著.结论 筛选出在LNCaP和C4-2细胞系p53信号通路中差异表达基因12个,其中p21、CDK4/6、CyclinE可能参与了CRPC的发生发展,为进一步研究前列腺癌的进展机制奠定了基础.

  5. An evaluation of association between common variants in C4BPB/C4BPA genes and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Wang, Shuihong; Lu, Houquan; Ni, Jianliang; Zhang, Jiangtao; Tang, Wenxin; Lu, Weihong; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Chen


    Epidemiological studies have indicated that both maternal bacterial and viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of schizophrenia among offspring, but to date there is not clear explanation for this increased risk. Previously, the decreased C4b-binding protein (C4BP), a potent circulating soluble inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, was reported to be associated with risk of schizophrenia. Here, we analyzed 4 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C4BPB and 5 SNPs of C4BPA in a group of 556 schizophrenia patients and a matched group of 610 healthy controls to see if the genes C4BPB and C4BPA, which encode C4BP, may confer a susceptibility to schizophrenia. Comparing the genotype and allele frequencies of those SNPs between cases and controls, we found no association between the C4BPB/C4BPA variants and schizophrenia. Our results provided preliminary evidence that C4BPB/C4BPA may not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia among Han Chinese. Further genetic studies from large-scale population are required to obtain more conclusive results.

  6. Photorespiration and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Sage, Tammy L; Kocacinar, Ferit


    C(4) photosynthesis is one of the most convergent evolutionary phenomena in the biological world, with at least 66 independent origins. Evidence from these lineages consistently indicates that the C(4) pathway is the end result of a series of evolutionary modifications to recover photorespired CO(2) in environments where RuBisCO oxygenation is high. Phylogenetically informed research indicates that the repositioning of mitochondria in the bundle sheath is one of the earliest steps in C(4) evolution, as it may establish a single-celled mechanism to scavenge photorespired CO(2) produced in the bundle sheath cells. Elaboration of this mechanism leads to the two-celled photorespiratory concentration mechanism known as C(2) photosynthesis (commonly observed in C(3)-C(4) intermediate species) and then to C(4) photosynthesis following the upregulation of a C(4) metabolic cycle.

  7. Progress on photosynthetic carbon metabolism types in marine macroalgae%大型海藻光合碳代谢类型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As a part of marine algae, marine macroalgae, whose edible and medicinal values are widely applied, participate in global CO2 and O2 turnover through photosynthesis. Therefore, when viewed from ecology as well as economics, the process of photosynthetic CO2 fixation and metabolism in marine macroalgae is of great significance. Up to the present, metabonomics and enzymology researches on photosynthetic carbon metabolism in marine macroalgae have proved the existence of the PEPCK-or PEPC-type C4 pathway as well as the CAM pathway in addition to the C3 pathway, although the integrality of the pathways is still unknown. Moreover, the results of photosynthetic gas exchange indicate that the photosynthetic carbon metabolism pathway in macroalgae performs the C4-like type on the whole. This situation resembles some terrestrial C3 plants with additional C4 pathway. Therefore, researches on photosynthetic carbon metabolism pathways in macroalgae remain to be explored in depth in the future.%作为海洋藻类的一部分,大型海藻通过光合作用参与了海洋对全球CO2和O2的周转,其食用和药用价值也得到了广泛应用。因此无论从生态还是经济角度来看,研究大型海藻通过光合作用对CO2进行固定和代谢的过程都具有重要意义。到目前为止,世界上对大型海藻光合碳代谢途径的研究从代谢组学和酶学角度证明了大型海藻体内除了C3途径外,还同时存在不能确定完整与否的PEPCK或PEPC类型的C4途径或CAM途径;光合气体交换的结果显示其光合碳代谢途径从整体上表现出类似C4(C4-like)类型。这种情况与一些体内存在C4途径的陆生C3植物相似。因此大型海藻光合碳代谢途径仍然有待深入研究。

  8. Photosynthetic fuel for heterologous enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo


    , competition from native pathways and inefficient electron transfer rates present major obstacles, which limit the productivity of heterologous reactions coupled to photosynthesis. We discuss specific approaches to address these bottlenecks and ensure high productivity of such enzymes in a photosynthetic...... of reducing power. Recent work on the metabolic engineering of photosynthetic organisms has shown that the electron carriers such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin can be used to couple heterologous enzymes to photosynthetic reducing power. Because these proteins have a plethora of interaction partners and rely...... on electrostatically steered complex formation, they form productive electron transfer complexes with non-native enzymes. A handful of examples demonstrate channeling of photosynthetic electrons to drive the activity of heterologous enzymes, and these focus mainly on hydrogenases and cytochrome P450s. However...

  9. Hydrogen peroxide regulated photosynthesis in C4-pepc transgenic rice. (United States)

    Ren, C G; Li, X; Liu, X L; Wei, X D; Dai, C C


    In this study, we investigated the photosynthetic physiological basis in 'PC' transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.), showing high-level expression of the gene encoding C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc), by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The C4-PEPC gene (pepc) from maize in the transgenic rice plants was checked by PCR. Comparison of yield components and photosynthetic indices between PC and untransformed wild-type (WT) plants indicated that increased yield in PC was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate and higher activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Both PC and WT plants were treated with 1 mmol L(-1) abscisic acid (ABA), 0.04% 1-butanol (BA), 2 mmol L(-1) neomycin (NS), or 2 mmol L(-1) diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) to investigate the relationship between photosynthesis and levels of H2O2 and phosphatidic acid. In both PC and WT, ABA induced H2O2 generation and simultaneous decrease in stomatal conductance (g(s)). PC plants treated with BA showed decreased H2O2 content and strongly increased g(s) within 2 h of treatment. Similar results were observed in response to DPI treatment in PC. However, WT did not observe the decrease of H2O2 during the treatments of BA and DPI. The reduced H2O2 content in PC caused by BA treatment differed to that induced by DPI because BA did not inhibit NADPH oxidase activities. While BA induced a larger PEPC activity in PC, and higher catalase activity as well. These results indicated that the regulation of endogenous H2O2 metabolism of PC could be helpful for enhancing photosynthetic capability.

  10. Adaptation responses in C4 photosynthesis of maize under salinity. (United States)

    Omoto, Eiji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka; Miyake, Hiroshi


    The effect of salinity on C(4) photosynthesis was examined in leaves of maize, a NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) type C(4) species. Potted plants with the fourth leaf blade fully developed were treated with 3% NaCl solution for 5d. Under salt treatment, the activities of pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH), which are derived mainly from mesophyll cells, increased, whereas those of NADP-ME and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, which are derived mainly from bundle sheath cells (BSCs), decreased. Immunocytochemical studies by electron microscopy revealed that PPDK protein increased, while the content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein decreased under salinity. In salt-treated plants, the photosynthetic metabolites malate, pyruvate and starch decreased by 40, 89 and 81%, respectively. Gas-exchange analysis revealed that the net photosynthetic rate, the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and the intercellular CO(2) concentration decreased strongly in salt-treated plants. The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) in these plants was significantly lower than that in control. These findings suggest that the decrease in photosynthetic metabolites under salinity was induced by a reduction in gas-exchange. Moreover, in addition to the decrease in g(s), the decrease in enzyme activities in BSCs was responsible for the decline of C(4) photosynthesis. The increase of PPDK, PEPCase, NADP-MDH, and NAD-MDH activities and the decrease of NADP-ME activity are interpreted as adaptation responses to salinity.

  11. Evolution of carbonic anhydrase in C4 plants. (United States)

    Ludwig, Martha


    During the evolution of C4 photosynthesis, the intracellular location with most carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has changed. In Flaveria, the loss of the sequence encoding a chloroplast transit peptide from an ancestral C3 CA ortholog confined the C4 isoform to the mesophyll cell cytosol. Recent studies indicate that sequence elements and histone modifications controlling the expression of C4-associated CAs were likely present in the C3 ancestral chromatin, enabling the evolution of the C4 pathway. Almost complete abolishment of maize CA activity yields no obvious phenotype at ambient CO2 levels. This contrasts with results for Flaveria CA mutants, and has opened discussion on the role of CA in the C4 carbon concentrating mechanism.

  12. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska


    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  13. Variations in carbon isotope ratios of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JiaZhu; WANG GuoAn; LIU XianZhao; HAN JiaMao; LIU Min; LIU XiaoJuan


    Variations in carbon isotopic ratios (δ~(13)C) of C_3 plants and distribution of C_4 plants were investigated along an altitudinal transect on the eastern slope of Mount Gongga,and the environmental effects on them were discussed,it is shown that plants with C_4 photosynthetic pathway mainly occur at altitudes below 2100 m a.a.l.,suggesting that the low summer temperature is responsible for the distributional pattern.In addition,δ~(13)C of C_3 plants increases with elevation at the region above 2000 m a.s.l,with the characteristics of humid climate,and the increase rate in δ~(13)C for C_3 plants is about 1.3‰ per kilometer.Temperature determines the altitudinal trend of δ~(13)C.

  14. Elements required for an efficient NADP-malic enzyme type C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Long, Stephen P; Zhu, Xin-Guang


    C4 photosynthesis has higher light, nitrogen, and water use efficiencies than C3 photosynthesis. Although the basic anatomical, cellular, and biochemical features of C4 photosynthesis are well understood, the quantitative significance of each element of C4 photosynthesis to the high photosynthetic efficiency are not well defined. Here, we addressed this question by developing and using a systems model of C4 photosynthesis, which includes not only the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch synthesis, sucrose synthesis, C4 shuttle, and CO₂ leakage, but also photorespiration and metabolite transport between the bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells. The model effectively simulated the CO₂ uptake rates, and the changes of metabolite concentrations under varied CO₂ and light levels. Analyses show that triose phosphate transport and CO₂ leakage can help maintain a high photosynthetic rate by balancing ATP and NADPH amounts in bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells. Finally, we used the model to define the optimal enzyme properties and a blueprint for C4 engineering. As such, this model provides a theoretical framework for guiding C4 engineering and studying C4 photosynthesis in general.

  15. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua


    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  16. Analysis of gene sequences indicates that quantity not quality of chloroplast small HSPs improves thermotolerance in C4 and CAM plants. (United States)

    Shakeel, Samina N; Ul Haq, Noor; Heckathorn, Scott; Luthe, D S


    Chloroplast-localized small heat-shock proteins (Cp-sHSP) protect Photosystem II and thylakoid membranes during heat and other stresses, and Cp-sHSP production levels are related to plant thermotolerance. However, to date, a paucity of Cp-sHSP sequences from C4 or CAM species, or from other extremely heat-tolerant species, has precluded an examination to determine if Cp-sHSP genes or proteins might differ among plants with photosynthetic pathways or between heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant species. To investigate this, we isolated and characterized novel Cp-sHSP genes in four plant species: two moderately heat-tolerant C4 species, Spartina alterniflora (monocot) and Amaranthus retroflexus (eudicot), and two very heat-tolerant CAM species, Agave americana (monocot) and Ferocactus wislizenii (eudicot) (respective genes: SasHSP27.12, ArsHSP26.43, AasHSP26.85 and FwsHSP27.52) by PCR-based genome walking and cDNA RACE. Analysis of these Cp-sHSPs has confirmed the presence of conserved domains common to previously examined species. As expected, the transit peptide was found to be the most variable part of these proteins. Promoter analysis of these genes revealed differences in CAM versus C3 and C4 species that were independent of a general difference between monocots and eudicots observed for the entire protein. Heat-induced gene and protein expression indicated that Cp-sHSP protein levels were correlated with thermotolerance of photosynthetic electron transport, and that in most cases protein and transcript levels were correlated. Thus, available evidence indicates little variation in the amino acid sequence of Cp-sHSP mature proteins between heat-sensitive and -tolerant species, but that variation in Cp-sHSP protein production is related to heat tolerance or photosynthetic pathway (CAM vs. C3 and C4) and is driven by promoter differences. Key message We isolated and characterized four novel Cp-sHSP genes with promoters from wild plants, analysis has shown qualitative

  17. Genotypic diversity of complement component C4 does not predict kidney transplant outcome. (United States)

    Wahrmann, Markus; Döhler, Bernd; Ruhenstroth, Andrea; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Exner, Markus; Rees, Andrew J; Böhmig, Georg A


    Gene copy number of complement component C4, which varies among individuals, may determine the intrinsic strength of the classical complement pathway. Presuming a major role of complement as an effector in transplant rejection, we hypothesized that C4 genetic diversity may partially explain the variation in allograft outcomes. This retrospective study included 1969 deceased-donor kidney transplants randomly selected from the Collaborative Transplant Study DNA bank. We determined recipient and donor gene copy number of total C4, C4 isotypes (C4A and C4B), and C4 gene length variants (C4L and C4S) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Groups defined according to recipient C4 gene copy number (low, intermediate, and high) had similar 10-year allograft survival. Genotypic groups showed comparable rates of graft dysfunction, treatment for rejection, immunological graft loss, hospitalization for infection, malignant disease, and death. Similarly, separate analyses of C4A, C4B, C4L, and C4S; combined evaluation of donor and recipient C4 genotype; or analysis of recipients with higher risk for rejection did not reveal considerable outcome effects. In conclusion, we did not demonstrate that C4 gene copy number associates with transplant outcome, and we found no evidence that the resulting variation in the strength of classical complement activation influences susceptibility to rejection.

  18. Carbon isotope discrimination as a tool to explore C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    von Caemmerer, Susanne; Ghannoum, Oula; Pengelly, Jasper J L; Cousins, Asaph B


    Photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination is a non-destructive tool for investigating C4 metabolism. Tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy provides new opportunities for making rapid, concurrent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination and CO2 assimilation over a range of environmental conditions, and this has facilitated the use of carbon isotope discrimination as a probe of C4 metabolism. In spite of the significant progress made in recent years, understanding how photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination measured concurrently with gas exchange relates to carbon isotope composition of leaf and plant dry matter remains a challenge that requires resolution if this technique is to be successfully applied as a screening tool in crop breeding and phylogenetic research. In this review, we update our understanding of the factors and assumptions that underlie variations in photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination in C4 leaves. Closing the main gaps in our understanding of carbon isotope discrimination during C4 photosynthesis may help advance research aimed at developing higher productivity and efficiency in key C4 food, feed, and biofuel crops.

  19. Bundle Sheath Leakiness and Light Limitation during C-4 Leaf and Canopy CO2 Uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromdijk, J.; Schepers, H.E.; Albanito, F.; Fitton, N.; Carroll, F.; Jones, M.B.; Finnan, J.; Lanigan, G.J.; Griffiths, H.


    Perennial species with the C-4 pathway hold promise for biomass-based energy sources. We have explored the extent that CO2 uptake of such species may be limited by light in a temperate climate. One energetic cost of the C-4 pathway is the leakiness (phi) of bundle sheath tissues, whereby a variable

  20. Turnover of δ13C replacement of diets with different photosynthetic, cycles eggs in japanese quails eggs (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Emygdio Mendes Pimenta


    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the turnover of 13C by replacing the C3 photosynthetic pathway diet to C4 and C4 to C3 in eggs of japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica using the technique of stable isotopes. Two hundred and sixteen japanese quail, 50 days old, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments in six replications, in an experimental period of 48 days, were used. Prior to 50 days of age, half of quails consumed diet based on C4 plants (corn and the other half based on C3 plants (rice, both containing meat meal and bone meal. There was replacement of those diets during the experimental period,  C3 based diet to C4 and C4 to  C3. A total of six eggs were collected from each treatment per day, according the quails age: 50, 51, 52, 54, 57, 60, 64, 68, 73, 78, 85, 91 and 98 days. To determine the turnover rate, the exponential model of isotopic dilution was employed. The experimental time of 48 days was enough for the total turnover in the eggs, with the incorporation of 99% of the carbon atoms of the new diet. The incorporation speed was slower when replacing diets were from C3 to C4 than C4 to  C3, which can be explained by bromatological differences of the ingredients.

  1. Differential positioning of chloroplasts in C4 mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. (United States)

    Maai, Eri; Miyake, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka


    Chloroplast photorelocation movement is extensively studied in C3 but not C4 plants. C4 plants have 2 types of photosynthetic cells: mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Mesophyll chloroplasts are randomly distributed along cell walls, whereas bundle sheath chloroplasts are located close to the vascular tissues or mesophyll cells depending on the plant species. The cell-specific C 4 chloroplast arrangement is established during cell maturation, and is maintained throughout the life of the cell. However, only mesophyll chloroplasts can change their positions in response to environmental stresses. The migration pattern is unique to C4 plants and differs from that of C3 chloroplasts. In this mini-review, we highlight the cell-specific disposition of chloroplasts in C4 plants and discuss the possible physiological significances.

  2. The evolutionary ecology of C4 plants. (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Osborne, Colin P


    C4 photosynthesis is a physiological syndrome resulting from multiple anatomical and biochemical components, which function together to increase the CO2 concentration around Rubisco and reduce photorespiration. It evolved independently multiple times and C4 plants now dominate many biomes, especially in the tropics and subtropics. The C4 syndrome comes in many flavours, with numerous phenotypic realizations of C4 physiology and diverse ecological strategies. In this work, we analyse the events that happened in a C3 context and enabled C4 physiology in the descendants, those that generated the C4 physiology, and those that happened in a C4 background and opened novel ecological niches. Throughout the manuscript, we evaluate the biochemical and physiological evidence in a phylogenetic context, which demonstrates the importance of contingency in evolutionary trajectories and shows how these constrained the realized phenotype. We then discuss the physiological innovations that allowed C4 plants to escape these constraints for two important dimensions of the ecological niche--growth rates and distribution along climatic gradients. This review shows that a comprehensive understanding of C4 plant ecology can be achieved by accounting for evolutionary processes spread over millions of years, including the ancestral condition, functional convergence via independent evolutionary trajectories, and physiological diversification.

  3. 29 CFR 2560.502c-4 - Civil penalties under section 502(c)(4). (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties under section 502(c)(4). 2560.502c-4... under section 502(c)(4). (a) In general. (1) Pursuant to the authority granted the Secretary under section 502(c)(4) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (the Act),...

  4. The Road to C4 Photosynthesis: Evolution of a Complex Trait via Intermediary States. (United States)

    Schlüter, Urte; Weber, Andreas P M


    C4 photosynthesis enables high photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency as well as high nitrogen and water use efficiencies. Given the multitude of biochemical, structural and molecular changes in comparison with C3 photosynthesis, it appears unlikely that such a complex trait would evolve in a single step. C4 photosynthesis is therefore believed to have evolved from the ancestral C3 state via intermediary stages. Consequently, the identification and detailed characterization of plant species representing transitory states between C3 and C4 is important for the reconstruction of the sequence of evolutionary events, especially since C4 evolution occurred in very different phylogenetic backgrounds. There is also significant interest in engineering of C4 or at least C4-like elements into C3 crop plants. A detailed and mechanistic understanding of C3-C4 intermediates is likely to provide guidance for the experimental design of such approaches. Here we provide an overview on the most relevant results obtained on C3-C4 intermediates to date. Recent knowledge gains in this field will be described in more detail. We thereby concentrate especially on biochemical and physiological work. Finally, we will provide a perspective and outlook on the continued importance of research on C3-C4 intermediates.

  5. Small Businesses & PEO C4I (United States)


    Integrated, Tested and Certified 2) Aligned to Reduce Variance A-36 Platform Baseline ECR Process Reduce Variance in C4I Baselines Platform CM C4I Builds and...Platform Training Hosting Environment Basic Services Ship Control User Groups COICOICOICOI COI Acquisition Requirements Navy Technical Reference Model 10

  6. Panicum milioides (C(3)-C(4)) does not have improved water or nitrogen economies relative to C(3) and C(4) congeners exposed to industrial-age climate change. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    The physiological implications of C(3)-C(4) photosynthesis were investigated using closely related Panicum species exposed to industrial-age climate change. Panicum bisulcatum (C(3)), P. milioides (C(3)-C(4)), and P. coloratum (C(4)) were grown in a glasshouse at three CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2)]: 280, 400, and 650 μl l(-1)) and two air temperatures [ambient (27/19 °C day/night) and ambient + 4 °C] for 12 weeks. Under current ambient [CO(2)] and temperature, the C(3)-C(4) species had higher photosynthetic rates and lower stomatal limitation and electron cost of photosynthesis relative to the C(3) species. These photosynthetic advantages did not improve leaf- or plant-level water (WUE) or nitrogen (NUE) use efficiencies of the C(3)-C(4) relative to the C(3) Panicum species. In contrast, the C(4) species had higher photosynthetic rates and WUE but similar NUE to the C(3) species. Increasing [CO(2)] mainly stimulated photosynthesis of the C(3) and C(3)-C(4) species, while high temperature had no or negative effects on photosynthesis of the Panicum species. Under ambient temperature, increasing [CO(2)] enhanced the biomass of the C(3) species only. Under high temperature, increasing [CO(2)] enhanced the biomass of the C(3) and C(3)-C(4) species to the same extent, indicating increased CO(2) limitation in the C(3)-C(4) intermediate at high temperature. Growth [CO(2)] and temperature had complex interactive effects, but did not alter the ranking of key physiological parameters amongst the Panicum species. In conclusion, the ability of C(3)-C(4) intermediate species partially to recycle photorespired CO(2) did not improve WUE or NUE relative to congeneric C(3) or C(4) species grown under varying [CO(2)] and temperature conditions.

  7. One decade after the discovery of single-cell C4 species in terrestrial plants: what did we learn about the minimal requirements of C4 photosynthesis? (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard M; Offermann, Sascha


    Until about 10 years ago the general accepted textbook knowledge was that terrestrial C4 photosynthesis requires separation of photosynthetic functions into two specialized cell types, the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells forming the distinctive Kranz anatomy typical for C4 plants. This paradigm has been broken with the discovery of Suaeda aralocaspica, a chenopod from central Asia, performing C4 photosynthesis within individual chlorenchyma cells. Since then, three more single-cell C4 (SCC4) species have been discovered in the genus Bienertia. They are interesting not only because of their unusual mode of photosynthesis but also present a puzzle for cell biologists. In these species, two morphological and biochemical specialized types of chloroplasts develop within individual chlorenchyma cells, a situation that has never been observed in plants before. Here we review recent literature concerning the biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of SCC4 photosynthesis. Particularly, we focus on what has been learned in relation to the following questions: How does the specialized morphology required for the operation of SCC4 develop and is there a C3 intermediate type of photosynthesis during development? What is the degree of specialization between the two chloroplast types and how does this compare to the chloroplasts of Kranz C4 species? How do nucleus-encoded proteins that are targeted to chloroplasts accumulate differentially in the two chloroplast types and how efficient is the CO2 concentrating mechanism in SCC4 species compared to the Kranz C4 forms?

  8. Can miscanthus C4 photosynthesis compete with festulolium C3 photosynthesis in a temperate climate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann


    Miscanthus, a perennial grass with C4 photosynthesis, is regarded as a promising energy crop due to its high biomass productivity. Compared with other C4 species, most miscanthus genotypes have high cold tolerances at 14 °C. However, in temperate climates, temperatures below 14 °C are common...... at each temperature level and still maintained photosynthesis after growing for a longer period at 6/4 °C. Only two of five measured miscanthus genotypes increased photosynthesis immediately after the temperature was raised again. The photosynthetic capacity of festulolium was significantly higher at 10...

  9. Temperature response of photosynthesis in C3, C4, and CAM plants: temperature acclimation and temperature adaptation. (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Hikosaka, Kouki; Way, Danielle A


    Most plants show considerable capacity to adjust their photosynthetic characteristics to their growth temperatures (temperature acclimation). The most typical case is a shift in the optimum temperature for photosynthesis, which can maximize the photosynthetic rate at the growth temperature. These plastic adjustments can allow plants to photosynthesize more efficiently at their new growth temperatures. In this review article, we summarize the basic differences in photosynthetic reactions in C3, C4, and CAM plants. We review the current understanding of the temperature responses of C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis, and then discuss the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis in each photosynthetic type. Finally, we use the published data to evaluate the extent of photosynthetic temperature acclimation in higher plants, and analyze which plant groups (i.e., photosynthetic types and functional types) have a greater inherent ability for photosynthetic acclimation to temperature than others, since there have been reported interspecific variations in this ability. We found that the inherent ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis was different: (1) among C3, C4, and CAM species; and (2) among functional types within C3 plants. C3 plants generally had a greater ability for temperature acclimation of photosynthesis across a broad temperature range, CAM plants acclimated day and night photosynthetic process differentially to temperature, and C4 plants was adapted to warm environments. Moreover, within C3 species, evergreen woody plants and perennial herbaceous plants showed greater temperature homeostasis of photosynthesis (i.e., the photosynthetic rate at high-growth temperature divided by that at low-growth temperature was close to 1.0) than deciduous woody plants and annual herbaceous plants, indicating that photosynthetic acclimation would be particularly important in perennial, long-lived species that

  10. Transcriptome comparisons shed light on the pre-condition and potential barrier for C4 photosynthesis evolution in eudicots. (United States)

    Tao, Yimin; Lyu, Ming-Ju Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang


    C4 photosynthesis evolved independently from C3 photosynthesis in more than 60 lineages. Most of the C4 lineages are clustered together in the order Poales and the order Caryophyllales while many other angiosperm orders do not have C4 species, suggesting the existence of biological pre-conditions in the ancestral C3 species that facilitate the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in these lineages. To explore pre-adaptations for C4 photosynthesis evolution, we classified C4 lineages into the C4-poor and the C4-rich groups based on the percentage of C4 species in different genera and conducted a comprehensive comparison on the transcriptomic changes between the non-C4 species from the C4-poor and the C4-rich groups. Results show that species in the C4-rich group showed higher expression of genes related to oxidoreductase activity, light reaction components, terpene synthesis, secondary cell synthesis, C4 cycle related genes and genes related to nucleotide metabolism and senescence. In contrast, C4-poor group showed up-regulation of a PEP/Pi translocator, genes related to signaling pathway, stress response, defense response and plant hormone metabolism (ethylene and brassinosteroid). The implications of these transcriptomic differences between the C4-rich and C4-poor groups to C4 evolution are discussed.

  11. Human pentraxin 3 binds to the complement regulator c4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Braunschweig

    Full Text Available The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is a soluble recognition molecule with multiple functions including innate immune defense against certain microbes and the clearance of apoptotic cells. PTX3 interacts with recognition molecules of the classical and lectin complement pathways and thus initiates complement activation. In addition, binding of PTX3 to the alternative complement pathway regulator factor H was shown. Here, we show that PTX3 binds to the classical and lectin pathway regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP. A PTX3-binding site was identified within short consensus repeats 1-3 of the C4BP α-chain. PTX3 did not interfere with the cofactor activity of C4BP in the fluid phase and C4BP maintained its complement regulatory activity when bound to PTX3 on surfaces. While C4BP and factor H did not compete for PTX3 binding, the interaction of C4BP with PTX3 was inhibited by C1q and by L-ficolin. PTX3 bound to human fibroblast- and endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrices and recruited functionally active C4BP to these surfaces. Whereas PTX3 enhanced the activation of the classical/lectin pathway and caused enhanced C3 deposition on extracellular matrix, deposition of terminal pathway components and the generation of the inflammatory mediator C5a were not increased. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced the binding of C4BP to late apoptotic cells, which resulted in an increased rate of inactivation of cell surface bound C4b and a reduction in the deposition of C5b-9. Thus, in addition to complement activators, PTX3 interacts with complement inhibitors including C4BP. This balanced interaction on extracellular matrix and on apoptotic cells may prevent excessive local complement activation that would otherwise lead to inflammation and host tissue damage.

  12. Real-time PCR quantification of human complement C4A and C4B genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fust George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fourth component of human complement (C4, an essential factor of the innate immunity, is represented as two isoforms (C4A and C4B in the genome. Although these genes differ only in 5 nucleotides, the encoded C4A and C4B proteins are functionally different. Based on phenotypic determination, unbalanced production of C4A and C4B is associated with several diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, several autoimmune diseases, moreover with higher morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and increased susceptibility for bacterial infections. Despite of this major clinical relevance, only low throughput, time and labor intensive methods have been used so far for the quantification of C4A and C4B genes. Results A novel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR technique was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of the C4A and C4B genes applying a duplex, TaqMan based methodology. The reliable, single-step analysis provides the determination of the copy number of the C4A and C4B genes applying a wide range of DNA template concentration (0.3–300 ng genomic DNA. The developed qPCR was applied to determine C4A and C4B gene dosages in a healthy Hungarian population (N = 118. The obtained data were compared to the results of an earlier study of the same population. Moreover a set of 33 samples were analyzed by two independent methods. No significant difference was observed between the gene dosages determined by the employed techniques demonstrating the reliability of the novel qPCR methodology. A Microsoft Excel worksheet and a DOS executable are also provided for simple and automated evaluation of the measured data. Conclusion This report describes a novel real-time PCR method for single-step quantification of C4A and C4B genes. The developed technique could facilitate studies investigating disease association of different C4 isotypes.

  13. The differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis: more than decarboxylating enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao


    Full Text Available As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco. C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME. The multiple polygenetic origins of these subtypes raise questions about the association of C4 variation between biochemical subtypes and diverse lineages. This review addresses the differences in evolutionary scenario, leaf anatomy, and especially C4 metabolic flow, C4 transporters and cell-specific function deduced from recently reported cell-specific transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic analyses of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. Current omic analysis has revealed the extent to which component abundances differ between the two biochemical subtypes, leading to a better understanding of C4 photosynthetic mechanisms in NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes.

  14. The Differences between NAD-ME and NADP-ME Subtypes of C4 Photosynthesis: More than Decarboxylating Enzymes (United States)

    Rao, Xiaolan; Dixon, Richard A.


    As an adaptation to changing climatic conditions that caused high rates of photorespiration, C4 plants have evolved to display higher photosynthetic efficiency than C3 plants under elevated temperature, high light intensities, and drought. The C4 plants independently evolved more than 60 times in 19 families of angiosperms to establish similar but not uniform C4 mechanisms to concentrate CO2 around the carboxylating enzyme Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase). C4 photosynthesis is divided into at least two basic biochemical subtypes based on the primary decarboxylating enzymes, NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The multiple polygenetic origins of these subtypes raise questions about the association of C4 variation between biochemical subtypes and diverse lineages. This review addresses the differences in evolutionary scenario, leaf anatomy, and especially C4 metabolic flow, C4 transporters, and cell-specific function deduced from recently reported cell-specific transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolic analyses of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes. Current omic analysis has revealed the extent to which component abundances differ between the two biochemical subtypes, leading to a better understanding of C4 photosynthetic mechanisms in NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes.

  15. C# 4.0 in a Nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph


    What people are saying about C# 4.0 in a Nutshell "C# 4.0 in a Nutshell is one of the few books I keep on my desk as a quick reference. It is a book I recommend."--Scott Guthrie, Corporate Vice President, .NET Developer Platform, Microsoft Corporation "A must-read for a concise but thorough examination of the parallel programming features in the .NET Framework 4."--Stephen Toub, Parallel Computing Platform Program Manager, Microsoft "This wonderful book is a great reference for developers of all levels."-- Chris Burrows, C# Compiler Team, Microsoft When you have questions about how to u

  16. Synergistic inhibition of the intrinsic factor X activation by protein S and C4b-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.


    The complement protein C4b-binding protein plays an important role in the regulation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. C4b-binding protein can bind to protein S, thereby inhibiting the cofactor activity of protein S for activated protein C. In this report, we describe a new role for C4b-bindin

  17. On the smell of Composition C-4. (United States)

    Kranz, William; Kitts, Kelley; Strange, Nicholas; Cummins, Joshua; Lotspeich, Erica; Goodpaster, John


    In efforts to locate hidden explosives, humans have had few allies as valuable as the explosives-detecting canine. The unrivaled sensitivity and selectivity of the canine nose have combined to make these animals an attractive choice for law enforcement, military, and private security applications. Although the efficacy of trained detector dogs is well-established, the question of which chemical compounds are responsible for causing a dog to recognize a particular odor and alert to it remains a subject of debate for several explosive formulations--including, perhaps most notably, Composition C-4. Previous studies have indicated that cyclohexanone, 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol are the chemicals that may cause canines to alert to C-4. This has led to the suggestion that these substances could be used as a substitute for genuine C-4 in the training, testing, and maintenance of explosives-detecting canines. In this paper, we present an alternative view. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we have discovered that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol off-gasses not only from C-4, but also from benign sources, such as the common plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; as well as several plasticized items common to our everyday world, including PVC tile, PVC pipe, electrical tape, and credit cards. This observation may potentially discourage the use of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol for training purposes. We also present the results of our own canine field trials focused on the detection of C-4. Through the use of contingency tables and statistical testing, we demonstrate the failure of trained law enforcement dogs in our study to respond in any significant way to these potential odor compounds.

  18. Phylogenomics of C(4) photosynthesis in sedges (Cyperaceae): multiple appearances and genetic convergence. (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Muasya, A Muthama; Russier, Flavien; Roalson, Eric H; Salamin, Nicolas; Christin, Pascal-Antoine


    C(4) photosynthesis is an adaptive trait conferring an advantage in warm and open habitats. It originated multiple times and is currently reported in 18 plant families. It has been recently shown that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme of the C(4) pathway, evolved through numerous independent but convergent genetic changes in grasses (Poaceae). To compare the genetics of multiple C(4) origins on a broader scale, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the C(4) pathway in sedges (Cyperaceae), the second most species-rich C(4) family. A sedge phylogeny based on two plastome genes (rbcL and ndhF) has previously identified six fully C(4) clades. Here, a relaxed molecular clock was used to calibrate this tree and showed that the first C(4) acquisition occurred in this family between 19.6 and 10.1 Ma. According to analyses of PEPC-encoding genes (ppc), at least five distinct C(4) origins are present in sedges. Two C(4) Eleocharis species, which were unrelated in the plastid phylogeny, acquired their C(4)-specific PEPC genes from a single source, probably through reticulate evolution or a horizontal transfer event. Acquisitions of C(4) PEPC in sedges have been driven by positive selection on at least 16 codons (3.5% of the studied gene segment). These sites underwent parallel genetic changes across the five sedge C(4) origins. Five of these sites underwent identical changes also in grass and eudicot C(4) lineages, indicating that genetic convergence is most important within families but that identical genetic changes occurred even among distantly related taxa. These lines of evidence give new insights into the constraints that govern molecular evolution.

  19. Climate-driven C4 plant distributions in China: divergence in C4 taxa (United States)

    Wang, Renzhong; Ma, Linna


    There have been debates on the driving factors of C4 plant expansion, such as PCO2 decline in the late Micocene and warmer climate and precipitation at large-scale modern ecosystems. These disputes are mainly due to the lack of direct evidence and extensive data analysis. Here we use mass flora data to explore the driving factors of C4 distribution and divergent patterns for different C4 taxa at continental scale in China. The results display that it is mean annual climate variables driving C4 distribution at present-day vegetation. Mean annual temperature is the critical restriction of total C4 plants and the precipitation gradients seem to have much less impact. Grass and sedge C4 plants are largely restricted to mean annual temperature and precipitation respectively, while Chenopod C4 plants are strongly restricted by aridity in China. Separate regression analysis can succeed to detect divergences of climate distribution patterns of C4 taxa at global scale.

  20. The C-4 Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bonicalzi, R M; Colaresi, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N E; Fuller, E S; Hai, M; Hossbach, T W; Kos, M S; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Reid, D J; VanDevender, B A; Wiseman, C; Yocum, K M


    We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.

  1. The C-4 dark matter experiment (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Collar, J. I.; Colaresi, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N. E.; Fuller, E. S.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, T. W.; Kos, M. S.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Reid, D. J.; VanDevender, B. A.; Wiseman, C.; Yocum, K. M.


    We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.

  2. Interactions of C4 subtype metabolic activities and transport in maize are revealed through the characterization of DCT2 mutants (United States)

    C4 photosynthesis is an elaborate set of metabolic pathways that utilize specialized anatomical and biochemical adaptations to concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO. The activities of the C4 pathways are coordinated between two specialized leaf cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS), and rely hea...

  3. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)


    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  4. [Species-dependence of the pattern of plant photosynthetic rate response to light intensity transition from saturating to limiting one]. (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Xu, Da-Quan


    By observing the photosynthetic responses of leaves to changes in light intensity and CO(2) concentration it was found that among the more than 50 plant species examined 32 species and 25 species showed respectively the V pattern and L pattern of the photosynthetic response to light intensity transition from saturating to limiting one (Figs.1 and 2 and Table 1). The pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition is species-dependent but not leaf developmental stage-dependent (Fig.3). The species-dependence was not related to classification in taxonomy because the photosynthetic response might display the two different patterns (V and L) in plants of the same family, for example, rice and wheat (Gramineae), soybean and peanut (Leguminosae). It seemed to be related to the pathway of photosynthetic carbon assimilation because all of the C(4) plants examined (maize, green bristlegrass and thorny amaranth) displayed the L pattern. It might be related to light environment where the plants originated. The V pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition was often observed in some plants grown in shade habitats, for example, sweet viburnum and Japan fatsia, while the L pattern was frequently observed in those plants grown in sunny habitats, for example, ginkgo and cotton. Furthermore, the ratio of electron transport rate to carboxylation rate in vivo measured at limiting light was far higher in the V pattern plants (mostly higher than 10) than in the L pattern plants (mostly lower than 5), but the ratio measured at saturating light had no significant difference between the two kinds of plants (Table 2). These results can be explained in part by that the V pattern plant species have larger light-harvesting complex (LHCII) and at saturating light the reversible dissociation of some LHCIIs from PSII reaction center complex occurs. The pattern of photosynthetic response to light intensity transition and the ratio of electron transport rate

  5. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity. (United States)

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R


    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light.

  6. Starch Accumulation in the Bundle Sheaths of C3 Plants: A Possible Pre-Condition for C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroshi


    C4 plants have evolved >60 times from their C3 ancestors. C4 photosynthesis requires a set of closely co-ordinated anatomical and biochemical characteristics. However, it is now recognized that the evolution of C4 plants requires fewer changes than had ever been considered, because of the genetic, biochemical and anatomical pre-conditions of C3 ancestors that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis. Therefore, the pre-conditions in C3 plants are now being actively investigated to clarify the evolutionary trajectory from C3 to C4 plants and to engineer C4 traits efficiently into C3 crops. In the present mini review, the anatomical characteristics of C3 and C4 plants are briefly reviewed and the importance of the bundle sheath for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is described. For example, while the bundle sheath of C3 rice plants accumulates large amounts of starch in the developing leaf blade and at the lamina joint of the mature leaf, the starch sheath function is also observed during leaf development in starch accumulator grasses regardless of photosynthetic type. The starch sheath function of C3 plants is therefore also implicated as a possible pre-condition for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The phylogenetic relationships between the types of storage carbohydrates and of photosynthesis need to be clarified in the future.

  7. Molecular cloning of C4-specific Ppc gene of sorghum and its high level expression in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fang; CHI Wei; WANG Qiang; ZHANG Qide; WU Naihu


    In order to improve the carbon-assimilation ability of C3 plants, we isolated a C4-specific photosynthetic enzyme gene, Ppc (encode phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, PEPCase) from the genome of the C4 plant, sorghum, and transformed rice with it. As shown by sequence analysis, the gene is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and the full-length transcript is 5989 bp long. A recombinant expression vector, p1301PEPC, was constructed by inserting the gene into a plasmid vector, pCAMBIA1301, which was then transformed into two japonica rice varieties, Nongken 58 and Zhonghua 10, using an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. PCR analysis, activity measurement of PEPCase, and protein-, RNA- and DNA-based hybridization all confirmed the successful integration of the C4-specific Ppc gene into the nuclear genome of rice and its high level expression. Physiological studies revealed the photosynthetic features characterizing C4 plants such as marked lowering of CO2 compensation point and photorespiration rate, and improved carboxylation efficiency. This study provides useful experimental materialsand opens up new avenues for further studies on improving photosynthetic efficiency of elite varieties of rice.

  8. Identification of C4 photosynthesis metabolism and regulatory-associated genes in Eleocharis vivipara by SSH. (United States)

    Chen, Taiyu; Ye, Rongjian; Fan, Xiaolei; Li, Xianghua; Lin, Yongjun


    This is the first effort to investigate the candidate genes involved in kranz developmental regulation and C(4) metabolic fluxes in Eleocharis vivipara, which is a leafless freshwater amphibious plant and possesses a distinct culms anatomy structure and photosynthetic pattern in contrasting environments. A terrestrial specific SSH library was constructed to investigate the genes involved in kranz anatomy developmental regulation and C(4) metabolic fluxes. A total of 73 ESTs and 56 unigenes in 384 clones were identified by array hybridization and sequencing. In total, 50 unigenes had homologous genes in the databases of rice and Arabidopsis. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that most of the genes were accumulated in terrestrial culms and ABA-induced culms. The C(4) marker genes were stably accumulated during the culms development process in terrestrial culms. With respect to C(3) culms, C(4) photosynthesis metabolism consumed much more transporters and translocators related to ion metabolism, organic acids and carbohydrate metabolism, phosphate metabolism, amino acids metabolism, and lipids metabolism. Additionally, ten regulatory genes including five transcription factors, four receptor-like proteins, and one BURP protein were identified. These regulatory genes, which co-accumulated with the culms developmental stages, may play important roles in culms structure developmental regulation, bundle sheath chloroplast maturation, and environmental response. These results shed new light on the C(4) metabolic fluxes, environmental response, and anatomy structure developmental regulation in E. vivipara.

  9. C4 bioenergy crops for cool climates, with special emphasis on perennial C4 grasses. (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; de Melo Peixoto, Murilo; Friesen, Patrick; Deen, Bill


    There is much interest in cultivating C4 perennial plants in northern climates where there is an abundance of land and a potential large market for biofuels. C4 feedstocks can exhibit superior yields to C3 alternatives during the long warm days of summer at high latitude, but their summer success depends on an ability to tolerate deep winter cold, spring frosts, and early growth-season chill. Here, we review cold tolerance limits in C4 perennial grasses. Dozens of C4 species are known from high latitudes to 63 °N and elevations up to 5200 m, demonstrating that C4 plants can adapt to cold climates. Of the three leading C4 grasses being considered for bioenergy production in cold climates--Miscanthus spp., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)--all are tolerant of cool temperatures (10-15 °C), but only cordgrass tolerates hard spring frosts. All three species overwinter as dormant rhizomes. In the productive Miscanthus×giganteus hybrids, exposure to temperatures below -3 °C to -7 °C will kill overwintering rhizomes, while for upland switchgrass and cordgrass, rhizomes survive exposure to temperatures above -20 °C to -24 °C. Cordgrass emerges earlier than switchgrass and M. giganteus genotypes, but lacks the Miscanthus growth potential once warmer days of late spring arrive. To enable C4-based bioenergy production in colder climates, breeding priorities should emphasize improved cold tolerance of M.×giganteus, and enhanced productivity of switchgrass and cordgrass. This should be feasible in the near future, because wild populations of each species exhibit a diverse range of cold tolerance and growth capabilities.

  10. Tocopherol functions in photosynthetic organisms. (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; DellaPenna, Dean


    During the past decade, the genes required for tocopherol (vitamin E) synthesis in plants and cyanobacteria have been identified. A series of mutants in which specific pathway steps are disrupted have been generated, providing new insights into tocopherol functions in photosynthetic organisms. Tocopherols are essential for controlling non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation during seed dormancy and seedling germination. Their absence results in elevated levels of malondialdehyde and phytoprostanes, and in inappropriate activation of plant defense responses. Surprisingly, tocopherol deficiency in mature leaves has limited consequences under most abiotic stresses, including high intensity light stress. The cell wall development of phloem transfer cells under cold conditions is, however, severely impaired in mature leaves of tocopherol-deficient mutants, indicating that tocopherols are required for proper adaptation of phloem loading at low temperatures.

  11. From proto-Kranz to C4 Kranz: building the bridge to C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana; Sage, Tammy L


    In this review, we examine how the specialized "Kranz" anatomy of C4 photosynthesis evolved from C3 ancestors. Kranz anatomy refers to the wreath-like structural traits that compartmentalize the biochemistry of C4 photosynthesis and enables the concentration of CO2 around Rubisco. A simplified version of Kranz anatomy is also present in the species that utilize C2 photosynthesis, where a photorespiratory glycine shuttle concentrates CO2 into an inner bundle-sheath-like compartment surrounding the vascular tissue. C2 Kranz is considered to be an intermediate stage in the evolutionary development of C4 Kranz, based on the intermediate branching position of C2 species in 14 evolutionary lineages of C4 photosynthesis. In the best-supported model of C4 evolution, Kranz anatomy in C2 species evolved from C3 ancestors with enlarged bundle sheath cells and high vein density. Four independent lineages have been identified where C3 sister species of C2 plants exhibit an increase in organelle numbers in the bundle sheath and enlarged bundle sheath cells. Notably, in all of these species, there is a pronounced shift of mitochondria to the inner bundle sheath wall, forming an incipient version of the C2 type of Kranz anatomy. This incipient version of C2 Kranz anatomy is termed proto-Kranz, and is proposed to scavenge photorespiratory CO2. By doing so, it may provide fitness benefits in hot environments, and thus represent a critical first stage of the evolution of both the C2 and C4 forms of Kranz anatomy.

  12. Renal AA amyloidosis in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal


    Full Text Available Hereditary complete C4 deficiency has until now been reported in 30 cases only. A disturbed clearance of immune- complexes probably predisposes these individuals to systemic lupus erythematosus, other immune- complex diseases and recurrent microbial infections. We present here a 20- year- old female with hereditary complete C4 deficiency. Renal biopsy demonstrated renal AA amyloidosis. This unique case further substantiates that deficiency of classical pathway components predisposes to the development of recurrent microbial infections and that the patients may develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, in clinical practice, the nephrotic syndrome occurring in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency should lead to the suspicion of renal AA amyloidosis.

  13. Interaction of C4-binding protein with cell-bound C4b. A quantitative analysis of binding and the role of C4-binding protein in proteolysis of cell-bound C4b



    Purified C4-binding protein (C4-bp) was shown to bind to cell-bound C4b by radioactive tracer techniques. With EAC4 bearing greater than 3,000 C4b-molecules/cell, the number of C4-bp molecules bound was directly proportional to the number of C4b molecule on the cell surface; EAC4 bearing less than 3,000 C4b-molecules/cell bound a very small amount of C4-bp. Scatchard analysis of binding of C4-bp indicated an equilibrium constant of 4.6 X 10(8) L/M and a maximum of 0.43 C4-bp molecules bound p...

  14. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi


    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  15. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production. (United States)

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P


    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value.

  16. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree. (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M


    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age.

  17. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments in the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina. (United States)

    Kovács, Akos T; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L


    A pigment mutant strain of the purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS was isolated by plasposon mutagenesis. Nineteen open reading frame, most of which are thought to be genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll, and the photosynthetic reaction center, were identified surrounding the plasposon in a 22-kb-long chromosomal locus. The general arrangement of the photosynthetic genes was similar to that in other purple photosynthetic bacteria; however, the locations of a few genes occurring in this region were unusual. Most of the gene products showed the highest similarity to the corresponding proteins in Rubrivivax gelatinosus. The plasposon was inserted into the crtD gene, likely inactivating crtC as well, and the carotenoid composition of the mutant strain corresponded to the aborted spirilloxanthin pathway. Homologous and heterologous complementation experiments indicated a conserved function of CrtC and CrtD in the purple photosynthetic bacteria. The crtDC and crtE genes were shown to be regulated by oxygen, and a role of CrtJ in aerobic repression was suggested.

  18. Olefins production from C4 stream; Producao de olefinas a partir de corrente C4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Julia A.; Feltran, Marina B.; Becker, Patricia Luiza; Rocha, Priscila L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The petrochemical sector in Brazil has been growing in terms of investment and expansion of production capacity, due to increased demand for thermoplastic products. However, the offer of basic petrochemical raw materials obtained by conventional routes is not following this increasing demand which stimulates the search for new competitive technologies. Moreover, there is the opportunity to use low value added C4 streams from FCC process that are available in the Brazilian refineries, for the production of petrochemicals. Several possibilities of C4 stream use to produce butadienes, MTBE, maleic anhydride, ethylene and propylene have been discussed in this work. The production of propylene seems to be the most economically attractive option in Brazil, since its offer will not keep up with the growth in its demand, according to ABIQUIM forecasts. Therefore some propylene production technologies from C4 streams - steam cracking, metathesis and selective cracking - have been evaluated considering their basic characteristics and applications. The goal of this study is to provide preliminary information to support future project evaluations of petrochemical/refinery integration, through comparative analysis of these technologies. (author)

  19. Mesophyll Chloroplast Investment in C3, C4 and C2 Species of the Genus Flaveria. (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Hoffmann, Natalie; Covshoff, Sarah; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Sage, Rowan F


    The mesophyll (M) cells of C4 plants contain fewer chloroplasts than observed in related C3 plants; however, it is uncertain where along the evolutionary transition from C3 to C4 that the reduction in M chloroplast number occurs. Using 18 species in the genus Flaveria, which contains C3, C4 and a range of C3-C4 intermediate species, we examined changes in chloroplast number and size per M cell, and positioning of chloroplasts relative to the M cell periphery. Chloroplast number and coverage of the M cell periphery declined in proportion to increasing strength of C4 metabolism in Flaveria, while chloroplast size increased with increasing C4 cycle strength. These changes increase cytosolic exposure to the cell periphery which could enhance diffusion of inorganic carbon to phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a cytosolic enzyme. Analysis of the transcriptome from juvenile leaves of nine Flaveria species showed that the transcript abundance of four genes involved in plastid biogenesis-FtsZ1, FtsZ2, DRP5B and PARC6-was negatively correlated with variation in C4 cycle strength and positively correlated with M chloroplast number per planar cell area. Chloroplast size was negatively correlated with abundance of FtsZ1, FtsZ2 and PARC6 transcripts. These results indicate that natural selection targeted the proteins of the contractile ring assembly to effect the reduction in chloroplast numbers in the M cells of C4 Flaveria species. If so, efforts to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 plants might evaluate whether inducing transcriptome changes similar to those observed in Flaveria could reduce M chloroplast numbers, and thus introduce a trait that appears essential for efficient C4 function.

  20. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms


    Paulina Kuczynska; Malgorzata Jemiola-Rzeminska; Kazimierz Strzalka


    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  1. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro


    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  2. Complement components C2, C3, and C4 (C4A and C4B) and BF polymorphisms in populations of the Indian subcontinent. (United States)

    Ad'hiah, A H; Papiha, S S


    Genetic polymorphisms of the complement components (five loci: C2, C3, C4A, C4B, and BF) have been investigated in the Telugu-speaking Hindu population of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, and the Bangali-speaking Muslim population of Dacca, Bangladesh. The available data are compared to understand the genetic variation of complement components in populations of the Indian subcontinent. The C3*F and BF*F alleles show wide frequency variations in different ethnic groups of India. The range of variation in the C3*F allele is intermediate between European whites and southeast Asian populations, whereas the BF*F allele places the Indian frequencies between European whites and African blacks. This is the first population study to investigate the C2 and C4 (C4A and C4B) polymorphisms in two distinct groups of the Indian subcontinent. For the C2 polymorphism only the C2*B variant allele was observed, and its frequency was slightly higher than in European populations. In both populations the C4A and C4B loci were highly polymorphic, with a high frequency of the null alleles C4A*QO and C4B*QO, which may account for the greater susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases in populations of South Asia.

  3. 19 CFR 142.49 - Deletion of C-4 Code. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deletion of C-4 Code. 142.49 Section 142.49... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Line Release § 142.49 Deletion of C-4 Code. (a) By Customs. A port director may temporarily or permanently delete an entry filer's C-4 Code without providing the...

  4. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  5. Combined C4d and CD3 immunostaining predicts immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, B.; Henriques, C.; Matos, A. C.; Daha, M. R.; Pestana, M.; Seelen, M.


    A number of molecules have been shown recently to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN). Among these, we have selected C4d (complement lectin pathway involvement), CD3 (T cell marker, traducing interstitial inflammation), transglutaminase 2 (TGase

  6. Mass spectral analysis of C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acid derivatives. (United States)

    Lawless, J. G.; Chadha, M. S.


    Diagnostic criteria are obtained for the distinction of alpha, beta, gamma, and N-methyl isomers of the C3 and C4 aliphatic amino acids, using mass spectral analysis of the derivatives of these acids. The use of deuterium labeling has helped in the understanding of certain fragmentation pathways.

  7. The Photosynthetic Cycle (United States)

    Calvin, Melvin


    A cyclic sequence of transformations, including the carboxylation of RuDP (ribulose diphosphate) and its re-formation, has been deduced as the route for the creation of reduced carbon compounds in photosynthetic organisms. With the demonstration of RuDP as substrate for the carboxylation in a cell-free system, each of the reactions has now been carried out independently in vitro. Further purification of this last enzyme system has confirmed the deduction that the carboxylation of RuDP leads directly to the two molecules of PGA (phosphoglyceric acid) involving an internal dismutation and suggesting the name "carboxydismutase" for the enzyme. As a consequence of this knowledge of each of the steps in the photosynthetic CO{sub 2} reduction cycle, it is possible to define the reagent requirements to maintain it. The net requirement for the reduction of one molecule of CO{sub 2} is four equivalents of [H]and three molecules of ATP (adenine triphosphate). These must ultimately be supplied by the photochemical reaction. Some possible ways in which this may be accomplished are discussed.

  8. Two forward genetic screens for vein density mutants in sorghum converge on a cytochrome P450 gene in the brassinosteroid pathway. (United States)

    Rizal, Govinda; Thakur, Vivek; Dionora, Jacqueline; Karki, Shanta; Wanchana, Samart; Acebron, Kelvin; Larazo, Nikki; Garcia, Richard; Mabilangan, Abigail; Montecillo, Florencia; Danila, Florence; Mogul, Reychelle; Pablico, Paquito; Leung, Hei; Langdale, Jane A; Sheehy, John; Kelly, Steven; Quick, William Paul


    The specification of vascular patterning in plants has interested plant biologists for many years. In the last decade a new context has emerged for this interest. Specifically, recent proposals to engineer C(4) traits into C(3) plants such as rice require an understanding of how the distinctive venation pattern in the leaves of C(4) plants is determined. High vein density with Kranz anatomy, whereby photosynthetic cells are arranged in encircling layers around vascular bundles, is one of the major traits that differentiate C(4) species from C(3) species. To identify genetic factors that specify C(4) leaf anatomy, we generated ethyl methanesulfonate- and γ-ray-mutagenized populations of the C(4) species sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and screened for lines with reduced vein density. Two mutations were identified that conferred low vein density. Both mutations segregated in backcrossed F(2) populations as homozygous recessive alleles. Bulk segregant analysis using next-generation sequencing revealed that, in both cases, the mutant phenotype was associated with mutations in the CYP90D2 gene, which encodes an enzyme in the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway. Lack of complementation in allelism tests confirmed this result. These data indicate that the brassinosteroid pathway promotes high vein density in the sorghum leaf, and suggest that differences between C(4) and C(3) leaf anatomy may arise in part through differential activity of this pathway in the two leaf types.

  9. Photosynthetic system in Blastochloris viridis revisited. (United States)

    Konorty, Marina; Brumfeld, Vlad; Vermeglio, Andre; Kahana, Nava; Medalia, Ohad; Minsky, Abraham


    The bacterium Blastochloris viridis carries one of the simplest photosynthetic systems, which includes a single light-harvesting complex that surrounds the reaction center, membrane soluble quinones, and a soluble periplasmic protein cytochrome c(2) that shuttle between the reaction center and the bc(1) complex and act as electron carriers, as well as the ATP synthase. The close arrangement of the photosynthetic membranes in Bl. viridis, along with the extremely tight arrangement of the photosystems within these membranes, raises a fundamental question about the diffusion of the electron carriers. To address this issue, we analyzed the structure and response of the Bl. viridis photosynthetic system to various light conditions, by using a combination of electron microscopy, whole-cell cryotomography, and spectroscopic methods. We demonstrate that in response to high light intensities, the ratio of both cytochrome c(2) and bc(1) complexes to the reaction centers is increased. The shorter membrane stacks, along with the notion that the bc(1) complex is located at the highly curved edges of these stacks, result in a smaller average distance between the reaction centers and the bc(1) complexes, leading to shorter pathways of cytochrome c(2) between the two complexes. Under anaerobic conditions, the slow diffusion rate is further mitigated by keeping most of the quinone pool reduced, resulting in a concentration gradient of quinols that allows for a constant supply of theses electron carriers to the bc(1) complex.

  10. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity. (United States)

    Scoffoni, Christine; Chatelet, David S; Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Rawls, Michael; Donoghue, Michael J; Edwards, Erika J; Sack, Lawren


    Clarifying the evolution and mechanisms for photosynthetic productivity is a key to both improving crops and understanding plant evolution and habitat distributions. Current theory recognizes a role for the hydraulics of water transport as a potential determinant of photosynthetic productivity based on comparative data across disparate species. However, there has never been rigorous support for the maintenance of this relationship during an evolutionary radiation. We tested this theory for 30 species of Viburnum, diverse in leaf shape and photosynthetic anatomy, grown in a common garden. We found strong support for a fundamental requirement for leaf hydraulic capacity (Kleaf) in determining photosynthetic capacity (Amax), as these traits diversified across this lineage in tight coordination, with their proportionality modulated by the climate experienced in the species' range. Variation in Kleaf arose from differences in venation architecture that influenced xylem and especially outside-xylem flow pathways. These findings substantiate an evolutionary basis for the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic physiology across species, and their co-dependence on climate, establishing a fundamental role for water transport in the evolution of the photosynthetic rate.

  11. Hydrogen photoproduction by use of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic systems. (United States)

    Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Nagata, Toshi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    Hydrogen can be important clean fuel for future. Among different technologies for hydrogen production, oxygenic natural and artificial photosyntheses using direct photochemistry in synthetic complexes have a great potential to produce hydrogen, since both use clean and cheap sources: water and solar energy. Artificial photosynthesis is one way to produce hydrogen from water using sunlight by employing biomimetic complexes. However, splitting of water into protons and oxygen is energetically demanding and chemically difficult. In oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms such as algae and cyanobacteria, water is split into electrons and protons, which during primary photosynthetic process are redirected by photosynthetic electron transport chain, and ferredoxin, to the hydrogen-producing enzymes hydrogenase or nitrogenase. By these enzymes, e- and H+ recombine and form gaseous hydrogen. Biohydrogen activity of hydrogenase can be very high but it is extremely sensitive to photosynthetic O2. In contrast, nitrogenase is insensitive to O2, but has lower activity. At the moment, the efficiency of biohydrogen production is low. However, theoretical expectations suggest that the rates of photon conversion efficiency for H2 bioproduction can be high enough (>10%). Our review examines the main pathways of H2 photoproduction by using of photosynthetic organisms and biomimetic photosynthetic systems.

  12. Vibrational Properties of Body-Centered Tetragonal C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhen-Long; YOU Jing-Han; ZHAO Yuan-Yuan; WANG Hui


    Body-centered tetragonal C4 (bct C4) is a new form of crystalline sp3 carbon, which is found to be transparent, dynamically stable at zero pressure and more stable than graphite beyond 18.6 GPa.Symmetry analysis of the vibrational modes of bct C4 at Brillouin zone center is performed, Raman and infrared active modes are identified.The analysis results show that, different from cubic diamond and hexagonal diamond, there is an infrared active mode in bct C4.Based on first-principle method within the local density approximation, vibrational frequencies, Born effective charge tensors, and infrared absorption intensity of bct C4 are obtained.The vibrational modes of bct C4 are presented and compared with those of cubic diamond and hexagonal diamond in detail.

  13. The influence of light quality on C4 photosynthesis under steady-state conditions in Zea mays and Miscanthus×giganteus: changes in rates of photosynthesis but not the efficiency of the CO2 concentrating mechanism. (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Cousins, Asaph B


    Differences in light quality penetration within a leaf and absorption by the photosystems alter rates of CO(2) assimilation in C(3) plants. It is also expected that light quality will have a profound impact on C(4) photosynthesis due to disrupted coordination of the C(4) and C(3) cycles. To test this hypothesis, we measured leaf gas exchange, (13) CO(2) discrimination (Δ(13) C), photosynthetic metabolite pools and Rubisco activation state in Zea mays and Miscanthus × giganteus under steady-state red, green, blue and white light. Photosynthetic rates, quantum yield of CO(2) assimilation, and maximum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity were significantly lower under blue light than white, red and green light in both species. However, similar leakiness under all light treatments suggests the C(4) and C(3) cycles were coordinated to maintain the photosynthetic efficiency. Measurements of photosynthetic metabolite pools also suggest coordination of C(4) and C(3) cycles across light treatments. The energy limitation under blue light affected both C(4) and C(3) cycles, as we observed a reduction in C(4) pumping of CO(2) into bundle-sheath cells and a limitation in the conversion of C(3) metabolite phosphoglycerate to triose phosphate. Overall, light quality affects rates of CO(2) assimilation, but not the efficiency of CO(2) concentrating mechanism.

  14. Multiscale photosynthetic exciton transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, A K; Stace, T M; 10.1038/nphys2332


    Photosynthetic light harvesting provides a natural blueprint for bioengineered and biomimetic solar energy and light detection technologies. Recent evidence suggests some individual light harvesting protein complexes (LHCs) and LHC subunits efficiently transfer excitons towards chemical reaction centers (RCs) via an interplay between excitonic quantum coherence, resonant protein vibrations, and thermal decoherence. The role of coherence in vivo is unclear however, where excitons are transferred through multi-LHC/RC aggregates over distances typically large compared with intra-LHC scales. Here we assess the possibility of long-range coherent transfer in a simple chromophore network with disordered site and transfer coupling energies. Through renormalization we find that, surprisingly, decoherence is diminished at larger scales, and long-range coherence is facilitated by chromophoric clustering. Conversely, static disorder in the site energies grows with length scale, forcing localization. Our results suggest s...

  15. Evaluation of Serum Complement C3 and C4 Levels as biomarkers for Systemic Lupus Erythromatosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Muhammad Shaldoum*, Yousra Refaey Abdo Mohammed, Naglaa Mohamed El Wakeel and Abeer Saad Gawish


    .Conclusions: Patients showed different degrees of oral and systemic manifestations, which exacerbate and become acute with decreased level of complement C4 and instability of C3 level. Accordingly, the low level of C4 was associated with the development and exacerbation of SLE. Increased C3 levels is solely due to activity through the alternative pathway in SLE patients

  16. Initial events during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in C3 species of Flaveria. (United States)

    Sage, Tammy L; Busch, Florian A; Johnson, Daniel C; Friesen, Patrick C; Stinson, Corey R; Stata, Matt; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Rahman, Beshar A; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Sage, Rowan F


    The evolution of C4 photosynthesis in many taxa involves the establishment of a two-celled photorespiratory CO2 pump, termed C2 photosynthesis. How C3 species evolved C2 metabolism is critical to understanding the initial phases of C4 plant evolution. To evaluate early events in C4 evolution, we compared leaf anatomy, ultrastructure, and gas-exchange responses of closely related C3 and C2 species of Flaveria, a model genus for C4 evolution. We hypothesized that Flaveria pringlei and Flaveria robusta, two C3 species that are most closely related to the C2 Flaveria species, would show rudimentary characteristics of C2 physiology. Compared with less-related C3 species, bundle sheath (BS) cells of F. pringlei and F. robusta had more mitochondria and chloroplasts, larger mitochondria, and proportionally more of these organelles located along the inner cell periphery. These patterns were similar, although generally less in magnitude, than those observed in the C2 species Flaveria angustifolia and Flaveria sonorensis. In F. pringlei and F. robusta, the CO2 compensation point of photosynthesis was slightly lower than in the less-related C3 species, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. This could occur because of enhanced refixation of photorespired CO2 by the centripetally positioned organelles in the BS cells. If the phylogenetic positions of F. pringlei and F. robusta reflect ancestral states, these results support a hypothesis that increased numbers of centripetally located organelles initiated a metabolic scavenging of photorespired CO2 within the BS. This could have facilitated the formation of a glycine shuttle between mesophyll and BS cells that characterizes C2 photosynthesis.

  17. Characterization of the Minimum Energy Paths for the Ring Closure Reactions of C4H3 with Acetylene (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.


    The ring closure reaction of C4H3 with acetylene to give phenyl radical is one proposed mechanism for the formation of the first aromatic ring in hydrocarbon combustion. There are two low-lying isomers of C4H3; 1-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (n-C4H3) and 2-dehydro-buta-l-ene-3-yne (iso-C4H3). It has been proposed that only n-C4H3 reacts with acetylene to give phenyl radical, and since iso-C4H3 is more stable than n-C4H3, formation of phenyl radical by this mechanism is unlikely. We report restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) plus singles and doubles configuration interaction calculations with a Davidson's correction (RHF+1+2+Q) using the Dunning correlation consistent polarized valence double zeta basis set (cc-pVDZ) for stationary point structures along the reaction pathway for the reactions of n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 with acetylene. n-C4H3 plus acetylene (9.4) has a small entrance channel barrier (17.7) (all energetics in parentheses are in kcal/mol with respect to iso-C4H3 plus acetylene) and the subsequent closure steps leading to phenyl radical (-91.9) are downhill with respect to the entrance channel barrier. Iso-C4H3 Plus acetylene also has an entrance channel barrier (14.9) and there is a downhill pathway to 1-dehydro-fulvene (-55.0). 1-dehydro-fulvene can rearrange to 6-dehydro-fulvene (-60.3) by a 1,3-hydrogen shift over a barrier (4.0), which is still below the entrance channel barrier, from which rearrangement to phenyl radical can occur by a downhill pathway. Thus, both n-C4H3 and iso-C4H3 can react with acetylene to give phenyl radical with small barriers.

  18. On the Origin of C4H and CH3OH in Protostellar Envelopes (United States)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Charnley, Steven B.; Cordiner, Martin A.


    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We present here observations of C4H and CH3OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C4H and CH3OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C4H and CH3OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C4H and CH3OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH3OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high (˜70-100 K) temperatures and the C4H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH4 molecules have been liberated from ices. These results provide insight in the differentiation between hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry in embedded protostars. Based on observations with the Kitt Peak 12 m telescope telescope and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The Kitt Peak 12 m telescope is operated by the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), Steward Observatory, University of Arizona. APEX is a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.

  19. On the origin of C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH in protostellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Cordiner, Martin A


    The formation pathways of different types of organic molecules in protostellar envelopes and other regions of star formation are subjects of intense current interest. We here present observations of C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH, tracing two distinct groups of interstellar organic molecules, toward 16 protostars in the Ophiuchus and Corona Australis molecular clouds. Together with observations in the literature, we present C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH data from single-dish observations of 40 embedded protostars. We find no correlation between the C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH column densities in this large sample. Based on this lack of correlation, a difference in line profiles between C$_4$H and CH$_3$OH, and previous interferometric observations of similar sources, we propose that the emission from these two molecules is spatially separated, with the CH$_3$OH tracing gas that has been transiently heated to high ($\\sim$70-100 K) temperatures, and the C$_4$H tracing the cooler large-scale envelope where CH$_4$ molecules have been liberat...

  20. The roles of phosphorylation and SHAGGY-like protein kinases in geminivirus C4 protein induced hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Mills-Lujan

    Full Text Available Even though plant cells are highly plastic, plants only develop hyperplasia under very specific abiotic and biotic stresses, such as when exposed to pathogens like Beet curly top virus (BCTV. The C4 protein of BCTV is sufficient to induce hyperplasia and alter Arabidopsis development. It was previously shown that C4 interacts with two Arabidopsis Shaggy-like protein kinases, AtSK21 and 23, which are negative regulators of brassinosteroid (BR hormone signaling. Here we show that the C4 protein interacts with five additional AtSK family members. Bikinin, a competitive inhibitor of the seven AtSK family members that interact with C4, induced hyperplasia similar to that induced by the C4 protein. The Ser49 residue of C4 was found to be critical for C4 function, since: 1 mutagenesis of Ser49 to Ala abolished the C4-induced phenotype, abolished C4/AtSK interactions, and resulted in a mutant protein that failed to induce changes in the BR signaling pathway; 2 Ser49 is phosphorylated in planta; and 3 plant-encoded AtSKs must be catalytically active to interact with C4. A C4 N-myristoylation site mutant that does not localize to the plasma membrane and does not induce a phenotype, retained the ability to bind AtSKs. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma membrane associated C4 interacts with and co-opts multiple AtSKs to promote its own phosphorylation and activation to subsequently compromise cell cycle control.

  1. The effects of salinity on photosynthesis and growth of the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae). (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Cousins, Asaph B; Offermann, Sascha; Okita, Thomas W; Edwards, Gerald E


    Recent research on the photosynthetic mechanisms of plant species in the Chenopodiaceae family revealed that three species, including Bienertia sinuspersici, can carry out C(4) photosynthesis within individual photosynthetic cells, through the development of two cytoplasmic domains having dimorphic chloroplasts. These unusual single-cell C(4) species grow in semi-arid saline conditions and have semi-terete succulent leaves. The effects of salinity on growth and photosynthesis of B. sinuspersici were studied. The results show that NaCl is not required for development of the single-cell C(4) system. There is a large enhancement of growth in culture with 50-200 mM NaCl, while there is severe inhibition at 400 mM NaCl. With increasing salinity, the carbon isotope values (δ(13)C) of leaves increased from -17.3(o)/(oo) (C(4)-like) without NaCl to -14.6(o)/(oo) (C(4)) with 200 mM NaCl, possibly due to increased capture of CO(2) from the C(4) cycle by Rubisco and reduced leakiness. Compared to growth without NaCl, leaves of plants grown under saline conditions were much larger (~2 fold) and more succulent, and the leaf solute levels increased up to ~2000 mmol kg solvent(-1). Photosynthesis on an incident leaf area basis (CO(2) saturated rates, and carboxylation efficiency under limiting CO(2)) and stomatal conductance declined with increasing salinity. On a leaf area basis, there was some decline in Rubisco content with increasing salinity up to 200 mM NaCl, but there was a marked increase in the levels of pyruvate, Pi dikinase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (possibly in response to sensitivity of these enzymes and C(4) cycle function to increasing salinity). The decline in photosynthesis on a leaf area basis was compensated for on a per leaf basis, up to 200 mM NaCl, by the increase in leaf size. The influence of salinity on plant development and the C(4) system in Bienertia is discussed.

  2. Functional characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. (United States)

    Oger, Elodie; Ghignone, Stefano; Campagnac, Estelle; Fontaine, Joël; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lanfranco, Luisa


    Sterols are crucial components of eukaryotic membranes that control membrane fluidity and permeability. They play an important role in cell signaling, polarity and sorting. Since many steps in the pathway are essential, sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBI) are widely used as antifungal agents. This work reports the identification and the characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), the first gene involved in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, so far described from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The sequence, called GintSMO, shows a primary structure, a hydrophobicity profile and a pattern of histidine-rich motifs which are typical of C-4 methyl sterol oxidases. The complementation assay in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain demonstrates that GintSMO encodes a functional SMO. Changes in GintSMO transcript levels and in the amount of the sterol precursor squalene were observed in in vitro grown extraradical structures exposed to the fenpropimorph SBI fungicide.

  3. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species. (United States)

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12-21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75-100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis.

  4. The rise of C4 grassland ecosystems, a climate puzzle (United States)

    Henderson, A.; Fox, D.; Freeman, K. H.


    The expansion of grasslands was one of the most profound ecological changes in the Cenozoic. Understanding the history of forest to grassland transitions, and the development of C4 grasslands in particular, is critical for understanding the relationship between land surface climate feedbacks, seasonality, and temperature. Modern distributions and ecological experiments demonstrate a strong correlation between C4 biogeography and high growing season temperatures and precipitation, as well as low pCO2 concentrations. The rise of C4 grasses in North America, as documented by carbonate nodule and mammal teeth δ13C values, began during a warm period with relatively stable pCO2 in the late Miocene. Surprisingly, C4 grasses continued to expand and then rose to dominance in the Great Plains as climates progressively cooled, moisture availability increased, and ice sheets formed further north on the continent. To understand this seemingly paradoxical scenario, we need constraints on the rate and character of increasing abundances of C4 vegetation. To this end, we use molecular and isotopic tools from terrestrial plant leaf wax n-alkanes extracted from carbonate nodules in the Meade Basin, Kansas and sites in Texas for the past 12 Ma. These records offer site-specific reconstructions tied directly to vegetation source. We compare our results to published continental-scale reconstructions of n-alkanes from the Mississippi River drainage basin and to climate records. From the distribution of C27 to C33 n-alkane abundances and patterns in δ13C values, we infer that C4 grasses coexisted with patches of C3 vegetation, including both grasses and trees. C4 grasses increasingly dominated the landscape, reaching modern abundances as ice sheets were reaching their southern limit in North America. Our results confirm that C4 grasslands emerged under cool and wet conditions, something we would not predict based on modern analogues, raising questions about our understanding of the

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Kirjavainen

    Full Text Available Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and Ail. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-antigen (O-ag and outer core (OC do not contribute directly to complement resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible mechanism whereby Y. enterocolitica could inhibit the antibody-mediated classical pathway of complement activation. We show that Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 bind C4b-binding protein (C4bp, an inhibitor of both the classical and lectin pathways of complement. To identify the C4bp receptors on Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 surface, a set of mutants expressing YadA, Ail, O-ag, and OC in different combinations was tested for the ability to bind C4bp. The studies showed that both YadA and Ail acted as C4bp receptors. Ail-mediated C4bp binding, however, was blocked by the O-ag and OC, and could be observed only with mutants lacking these LPS structures. C4bp bound to Y. enterocolitica was functionally active and participated in the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. These findings show that Y. enterocolitica uses two proteins, YadA and Ail, to bind C4bp. Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host.

  6. Isomerisation of c4-c6 aldoses with zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses to their corresponding C4-C6 ketoses. In particular, the invention concerns isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses over solid zeolite catalysts free of any metals other than aluminum, in the presence of suitable solvent(s) at suitable elevated...... temperatures. C6 and C5 aldose sugars such as glucose and xylose, which are available in large amounts from biomass precursors, are isomerized to fructose and xylulose respectively, in a one or two-step process over inexpensive commercially available zeolite catalysts, containing aluminum as the only metal...

  7. Process Design for Separating C4 Mixtures by Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 陈标华; 李建伟


    C4 components are useful in industry and should be separated as individuals. A new process was proposed to separate them by extractive distillation, with the advantages of low equipment investment, energy consumption and liquid load in the columns. One principle to improve the extractive distillation process was put forward. Moreover, the analysis of operation state of the new process was done. There were eight operation states found for the whole process, but only one operation state was desirable. This work provides a way to effectively separate C4 mixtures and helps the reasonable utilization of C4 resource.

  8. C4.5 programs for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Quinlan, J Ross


    Classifier systems play a major role in machine learning and knowledge-based systems, and Ross Quinlan's work on ID3 and C4.5 is widely acknowledged to have made some of the most significant contributions to their development. This book is a complete guide to the C4.5 system as implemented in C for the UNIX environment. It contains a comprehensive guide to the system's use , the source code (about 8,800 lines), and implementation notes. The source code and sample datasets are also available for download (see below). C4.5 starts with large sets of cases belonging to known classes. The cases,

  9. Modelling metabolic evolution on phenotypic fitness landscapes: a case study on C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Heckmann, David


    How did the complex metabolic systems we observe today evolve through adaptive evolution? The fitness landscape is the theoretical framework to answer this question. Since experimental data on natural fitness landscapes is scarce, computational models are a valuable tool to predict landscape topologies and evolutionary trajectories. Careful assumptions about the genetic and phenotypic features of the system under study can simplify the design of such models significantly. The analysis of C4 photosynthesis evolution provides an example for accurate predictions based on the phenotypic fitness landscape of a complex metabolic trait. The C4 pathway evolved multiple times from the ancestral C3 pathway and models predict a smooth 'Mount Fuji' landscape accordingly. The modelled phenotypic landscape implies evolutionary trajectories that agree with data on modern intermediate species, indicating that evolution can be predicted based on the phenotypic fitness landscape. Future directions will have to include structural changes of metabolic fitness landscape structure with changing environments. This will not only answer important evolutionary questions about reversibility of metabolic traits, but also suggest strategies to increase crop yields by engineering the C4 pathway into C3 plants.

  10. Dissecting the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. From structures and genes to catalytic mechanism. (United States)

    Rahier, Alain


    Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. This review focuses on the sterol C-4 demethylation process in higher plants. An intriguing aspect in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of sterol precursors in plants is that it does not occur consecutively as it does in yeast and animals, but is interrupted by several enzymatic steps. Each C-4 demethylation step involves the sequential participation of three individual enzymatic reactions including a sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), a 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase (3βHSD/D) and a 3-ketosteroid reductase (SR). The distant location of the two C-4 demethylations in the sterol pathway requires distinct SMOs with respective substrate specificity. Combination of genetic and molecular enzymological approaches allowed a thorough identification and functional characterization of two distinct families of SMOs genes and two 3βHSD/D genes. For the latter, these studies provided the first molecularly and functionally characterized HSDs from a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family in plants, and the first data on 3-D molecular interactions of an enzyme of the postoxidosqualene cyclase sterol biosynthetic pathway with its substrate in animals, yeast and higher plants. Characterization of these three new components involved in C-4 demethylation participates to the completion of the molecular inventory of sterol synthesis in higher plants.

  11. Diurnal and Seasonal Variation in the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf- and Root- respired CO2 in C3 and C4 Species (United States)

    Sun, W.; Resco, V.; Chen, S.; Williams, D. G.


    The carbon isotope signature of leaf (δ13Cl) and root (δ13Cr) dark- respired CO2 records and integrates short-term metabolic changes. Plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic metabolism are expected to differ in diurnal and seasonal patterns in δ13Cl and δ13Cr because of differences in photorespiration, isotopic fractionation at metabolic branch points and allocation patterns. A thorough understanding of the environmental and metabolic controls on δ13Cl and δ13Cr is necessary to interpret the δ13C of ecosystem respired CO2 and partition the CO2 efflux into autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration sources. We measured δ13Cl in two C3 tree species (Prosopis velutina and Celtis reticulata), a C3 herb (Viguiera dentata) and a C4 grass (Sporobolus wrightii), and δ13Cr in P. velutina and S. wrightii in a semiarid savanna in southeastern Arizona, USA. δ13Cl during the dry pre-monsoon period was relatively enriched in 13C during daytime periods and became depleted in 13C at night relative to daytime values for all species with the exception of S. wrightii, the C4 grass. δ13Cl in S. wrightii was strongly influenced by seasonal differences in water availability with a larger diurnal amplitude in δ13Cl (8.2 +/- 0.6‰) during the wet monsoon period compared to that in the dry pre-monsoon period (4.4 +/- 0.4‰). The δ13C values of starch and lipid fractions remained constant over diurnal periods within the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. For C3 species, δ13Cl and δ13C of the cumulative, flux-weighted photosynthate pool estimated from gas exchange were strongly positively correlated, suggesting that progressive 13C-enrichment of leaf-respired CO2 during the daytime period resulted from changes in the δ13C signature of respiratory substrates associated with short-term changes in photosynthetic 13C discrimination. Rapid decreases in δ13Cl following the daytime period was likely caused by decreases in the ratio of PDH:acetyl-CoA oxidation rather than by a shift in

  12. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ort, Donald R; Yuan, Joshua S


    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced 'drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to 'disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  13. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS


    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  14. C4d staining as immunohistochemical marker in inflammatory myopathies. (United States)

    Pytel, Peter


    The diagnosis of an inflammatory myopathy is often established based on basic histologic studies. Additional immunohistochemical studies are sometimes required to support the diagnosis and the classification of inflammatory myopathies. Staining for major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC1) often shows increased sarcolemmal labeling in inflammatory myopathies. Endomysial capillary staining C5b-9 (membrane attack complex) is a feature that is reported as frequently associated with dermatomyositis. Immunohistochemical staining for C4d is widely used for various applications including the assessment of antibody-mediated rejection after solid organ transplantation. In the context of dermatomyositis, C4d staining has been described in skin biopsies but not in muscle biopsies. A total of 32 muscle biopsy specimens were examined. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were reviewed, and immunohistochemical studies for MHC1, C5b-9, and C4d were conducted. The staining observed for C5b-9 and C4d was compared. Overall, the staining pattern for C4d mirrored the one observed for C5b-9 in the examined muscle biopsy specimens. There was high and statistically significant (P<0.0001) correlation between the staining seen with these 2 antibodies. Both antibodies labeled the cytoplasm of degenerating necrotic myofibers. In addition, both antibodies showed distinct endomysial capillary labeling in a subset of dermatomyositis. Areas with perifascicular atrophy often exhibited the most prominent vascular labeling for C4d and C5b-9. In conclusion, C4d and C5b-9 show similar expression patterns in muscle biopsies of patients with inflammatory myopathies and both highlight the presence of vascular labeling associated with dermatomyositis. C4d antibodies are widely used and may offer an alternative for C5b-9 staining.

  15. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4 is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4, Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4, and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L, LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L, and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L. These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4.

  16. Enhanced tolerance to drought in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4 photosynthesis enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Fei; Gu; Ming; Qiu; Jian-Chang; Yang


    Maize-specific pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase(PPDK) was overexpressed in rice independently or in combination with the maize C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PCK). The wild-type(WT) cultivar Kitaake and transgenic plants were evaluated in independent field and tank experiments. Three soil moisture treatments,well-watered(WW), moderate drought(MD) and severe drought(SD), were imposed from 9d post-anthesis till maturity. Leaf physiological and biochemical traits, root activities,biomass, grain yield, and yield components in the untransformed WT and two transgenic rice lines(PPDK and PCK) were systematically studied. Compared with the WT, both transgenic rice lines showed increased leaf photosynthetic rate: by 20%–40% under WW, by45%–60% under MD, and by 80%–120% under SD. The transgenic plants produced 16.1%,20.2% and 20.0% higher grain yields than WT under the WW, MD and SD treatments,respectively. Under the same soil moisture treatments, activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) and carbonic anhydrase(CA) in transgenic plants were 3–5-fold higher than those in WT plants. Compared with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, activities of PEPC and CA were less reduced under both MD and SD treatments. The transgenic plants also showed higher leaf water content, stomatal conductance, transpiration efficiency, and root oxidation activity and a stronger active oxygen scavenging system than the WT under all soil moisture treatments, especially MD and SD. The results suggest that drought tolerance is greatly enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4photosynthesis enzymes. This study was performed under natural conditions and normal planting density to evaluate yield advantages on a field basis. It may open a new avenue to droughttolerance breeding via overexpression of C4enzymes in rice.

  17. Enhanced tolerance to drought in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4 photosynthesis enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Fei Gu


    Full Text Available Maize-specific pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK was overexpressed in rice independently or in combination with the maize C4-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PCK. The wild-type (WT cultivar Kitaake and transgenic plants were evaluated in independent field and tank experiments. Three soil moisture treatments, well-watered (WW, moderate drought (MD and severe drought (SD, were imposed from 9 d post-anthesis till maturity. Leaf physiological and biochemical traits, root activities, biomass, grain yield, and yield components in the untransformed WT and two transgenic rice lines (PPDK and PCK were systematically studied. Compared with the WT, both transgenic rice lines showed increased leaf photosynthetic rate: by 20%–40% under WW, by 45%–60% under MD, and by 80%–120% under SD. The transgenic plants produced 16.1%, 20.2% and 20.0% higher grain yields than WT under the WW, MD and SD treatments, respectively. Under the same soil moisture treatments, activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and carbonic anhydrase (CA in transgenic plants were 3–5-fold higher than those in WT plants. Compared with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, activities of PEPC and CA were less reduced under both MD and SD treatments. The transgenic plants also showed higher leaf water content, stomatal conductance, transpiration efficiency, and root oxidation activity and a stronger active oxygen scavenging system than the WT under all soil moisture treatments, especially MD and SD. The results suggest that drought tolerance is greatly enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing C4 photosynthesis enzymes. This study was performed under natural conditions and normal planting density to evaluate yield advantages on a field basis. It may open a new avenue to drought-tolerance breeding via overexpression of C4 enzymes in rice.

  18. Adaptive evolvement of information age C4ISR structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushi Lan; Kebo Deng; Shaojie Mao; Heng Wang; Kan Yi; Ming Lei


    Command, control, communication, computing, intel-ligence, surveil ance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) in information age is a complex system whose structure always changes ac-tively or passively during the warfare. Therefore, it is important to optimize the structure, especial y in ambiguous and quick-tempo modern warfare. This paper proposes an adaptive evolvement mechanism for the C4ISR structure to survive the changeable warfare. Firstly, the information age C4ISR structure is defined and modeled based on the complex network theory. Secondly, taking the observe, orient, decide and act (OODA) model into consideration, four kinds of loops in the C4ISR structure are pro-posed and their coefficient of networked effects (CNE) is further defined. Then, the adaptive evolvement mechanisms of the four kinds of loops are presented respectively. Final y, taking the joint air-defense C4ISR as an example, simulation experiments are im-plemented, which validate the evolvement mechanism and show that the information age C4ISR structure has some characteristics of smal-world network and scale-free network.

  19. Function and Regulation of the C4-Dicarboxylate Transporters in Campylobacter jejuni (United States)

    Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; van de Lest, Chris H. A.; van Dijk, Linda; van Putten, Jos P. M.


    C4-dicarboxylates are important molecules for the human pathogen C.jejuni, as they are used as carbon and electron acceptor molecules, as sugars cannot be utilized by this microaerophilic organism. Based on the genome analysis, C. jejuni may possess five different C4–dicarboxylate transporters: DctA, DcuA, DcuB, and two homologs of DcuC. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of various C4–dicarboxylate transporters in C. jejuni. Transcription of the dctA and dcuC homologs is constitutive, while dcuA and dcuB are both directly regulated by the two-component RacR/RacS system in response to limited oxygen availability and the presence of nitrate. The DctA transporter is the only C4-dicarboxylate transporter to allow C. jejuni to grow on C4-carbon sources such as aspartate, fumarate, and succinate at high oxygen levels (10% O2) and is indispensable for the uptake of succinate from the medium under these conditions. Both DcuA and DcuB can sequester aspartate from the medium under low-oxygen conditions (0.3% O2). However, under these conditions, DcuB is the only transporter to secrete succinate to the environment. Under low-oxygen conditions, nitrate prevents the secretion of succinate to the environment and was able to overrule the phenotype of the C4-transporter mutants, indicating that the activity of the aspartate–fumarate–succinate pathway in C. jejuni is strongly reduced by the addition of nitrate in the medium. PMID:28223978


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGShu-Lin; BENKun-Long; LIANGZhi-Guo


    LDH--C4 is a sperm specific lactic dehydrogcnase in mammals and human, and is consid ered as a model molecule for contraceptive vaccine research. Significant contraceptive effects were observed in female mice, rabbits and baboons immunized with purified

  1. Functional recruitment of human complement inhibitor C4B-binding protein to outer membrane protein Rck of Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek K Ho

    Full Text Available Resistance to complement mediated killing, or serum resistance, is a common trait of pathogenic bacteria. Rck is a 17 kDa outer membrane protein encoded on the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. When expressed in either E. coli or S. enterica Typhimurium, Rck confers LPS-independent serum resistance as well as the ability to bind to and invade mammalian cells. Having recently shown that Rck binds the inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement, factor H (fH, we hypothesized that Rck can also bind the inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways, C4b-binding protein (C4BP. Using flow cytometry and direct binding assays, we demonstrate that E. coli expressing Rck binds C4BP from heat-inactivated serum and by using the purified protein. No binding was detected in the absence of Rck expression. C4BP bound to Rck is functional, as we observed factor I-mediated cleavage of C4b in cofactor assays. In competition assays, binding of radiolabeled C4BP to Rck was reduced by increasing concentrations of unlabeled protein. No effect was observed by increasing heparin or salt concentrations, suggesting mainly non-ionic interactions. Reduced binding of C4BP mutants lacking complement control protein domains (CCPs 7 or 8 was observed compared to wt C4BP, suggesting that these CCPs are involved in Rck binding. While these findings are restricted to Rck expression in E. coli, these data suggest that C4BP binding may be an additional mechanism of Rck-mediated complement resistance.

  2. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value photosynthetic function. Most of the genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  3. Total synthesis of tubulysin U and its C-4 epimer. (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-dong; Dong, Chang-ming; Chen, Jian; Ding, Ya-hui; Liu, Qi; Ma, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Yue


    The Tup fragments of tubulysins were synthesized with a tandem reaction as the key step, and unexpected diastereoselectivity was observed in the first Grignard addition stage. The coupling of the enolate of a thiazolyl ketone with chiral sulfinimines furnished the backbone of the Tuv fragment with over 100:1 d.r. and high yield. Thus, tubulysin U and C-4 epi-tubulysin U were prepared in a highly selective and efficient manner. The results of the MTT assay furthermore indicated that C-4 epi-tubulysin U maintained significant growth inhibition activities against several cancer cell lines.

  4. Applicability of Virtual Environments as C4ISR Displays (United States)


    simulator sickness questionnaire (ssq): A method for quantifying simulator sickness. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3(3):203ff. Ergonomie ...Displays Thomas Alexander FGAN - Research Institute for Communication, Information Processing, and Ergonomics Wachtberg, Germany Ergonomie und...Führungssysteme FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR KOMMUNIKATION, INFORMATIONSVERARBEITUNG UND ERGONOMIE 1 FGAN Applicability of Virtual Environments as C4ISR Displays

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijde, van der R.T.; Alvim Kamei, C.L.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Vermerris, W.; Dolstra, O.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.


    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potent

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C4XA-2OG1B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C4XA-2OG1B 1C4X 2OG1 A B ---TVEIIEKRFPSGT---LASHALVAGDPQSPAVVLLH...EEEEEEE HHHHHHHHHHHHH 0 1C4X... A 1C4XA FPSGT---LASHA ...645107269287 4.700198173522949 1 1C4X... A 1C4XA

  7. Heterosis of maize photosynthetic performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; DING Zaisong; LI Lianlu; WANG Meiyun; ZHAO Ming


    Four maize inbred lines with different photosyn-thetic rates and their two hybrids were used as test materials,and the diurnal variations of their photosynthesis parameters in the silking stage were measured to study the heterosis of photosynthetic performance.Results showed that net photo-synthetic rate (In),transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) all presented an obvious single-peaked curve in a day,with the peak values occurring at 10:00-12:00,12:00,10:00-12:00 a.m.,respectively,while water use efficiency (WUE) had a"V"type variant trend,with the lowest value appearing at 12:00.The diurnal variation of Pn and Tr was correlated markedly with Gs,suggesting that Gs played an important role in regulating the diurnal variation of Pn and Tr,and Pn,Tr and Gs had a higher heterosis in the afternoon than in the morning,while the WUE was in reverse,indicating that maize hybrid had higher resistance to the high temperature and dehydration in the afternoon,which provided a new path to select varieties with a high net photosynthetic rate.

  8. Primary photosynthetic processes: from supercomplex to leaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broess, K.


    This thesis describes fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on photosynthetic complexes that cover the primary photosynthetic processes, from the absorption of light by photosynthetic pigments to a charge separation (CS) in the reaction center (RC). Fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful tool in phot

  9. Carbon nanoscroll from C4H/C4F-type graphene superlattice: MD and MM simulation insights. (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Xue, Qingzhong; Tao, Yehan; Li, Xiaofang; Wu, Tiantian; Jin, Yakang; Zhang, Zhongyang


    Morphology manipulation opens up a new avenue for controlling and tailoring the functional properties of graphene, enabling the exploration of graphene-based nanomaterials. Through mixing single-side-hydrogenated graphene (C4H) with fluorinated graphene (C4F) on one single sheet, the C4H/C4F-type graphene superlattices can self-scroll at room temperature. We demonstrate using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations that different proportions, sizes, directions of hydrogenation and fluorination, and geometry of graphene have a great influence on the self-scrolling of superlattices into a variety of well-defined carbon nanoscrolls (CNSs), thus providing a controllable approach to tune their structures. Based on molecular mechanics (MM) simulations, the CNSs bear more than eight times the radial pressure than that of their multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) counterparts, and an excellent radial elasticity of CNSs is also shown. Compared with conventional CNSs, these novel CNSs are endowed with more ample and flexible heterogeneous structures due to the on-demand hydrogenation and fluorination. Besides, this work provides a feasible route to achieve the necessary electronic and optical changes to be applied in graphene device applications.

  10. The coordination of C4 photosynthesis and the CO2-concentrating mechanism in maize and Miscanthus x giganteus in response to transient changes in light quality. (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Ubierna, Nerea; Ma, Jian-Ying; Walker, Berkley J; Kramer, David M; Cousins, Asaph B


    Unequal absorption of photons between photosystems I and II, and between bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells, are likely to affect the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in C4 plants. Under steady-state conditions, it is expected that the biochemical distribution of energy (ATP and NADPH) and photosynthetic metabolite concentrations will adjust to maintain the efficiency of C4 photosynthesis through the coordination of the C3 (Calvin-Benson-Bassham) and C4 (CO2 pump) cycles. However, under transient conditions, changes in light quality will likely alter the coordination of the C3 and C4 cycles, influencing rates of CO2 assimilation and decreasing the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism. To test these hypotheses, we measured leaf gas exchange, leaf discrimination, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrochromatic shift, photosynthetic metabolite pools, and chloroplast movement in maize (Zea mays) and Miscanthus × giganteus following transitional changes in light quality. In both species, the rate of net CO2 assimilation responded quickly to changes in light treatments, with lower rates of net CO2 assimilation under blue light compared with red, green, and blue light, red light, and green light. Under steady state, the efficiency of CO2-concentrating mechanisms was similar; however, transient changes affected the coordination of C3 and C4 cycles in M. giganteus but to a lesser extent in maize. The species differences in the ability to coordinate the activities of C3 and C4 cycles appear to be related to differences in the response of cyclic electron flux around photosystem I and potentially chloroplast rearrangement in response to changes in light quality.

  11. Biochemical bases for the biogeography of C3/C4 grasses and implications for changing distributions since the last glacial maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collatz, G.J. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clark, J.S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Berry, J.A. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Differential distributions of C3 and C4 grass taxa correlate with geographic and climatic factors. A simple model based on the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic quantum yield of C3 plants and the lack of response of the C4 quantum yield to temperature is used to predict the global distribution of C4 grasses at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate. The model predicts a cross over temperature at which the quantum yield responses intersect; at temperatures above the cross over point C4 grasses are favored over C3. The cross over temperature is about 22{degrees}C at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Using this criterion an accurate 1x1 degree map of C4 grass dominance over C3 grasses is produced from climatological mean monthly temperatures. Accuracy is improved by considering the co-occurrence of sufficient rainfall for growth during the months warm enough for C4 dominance. Rising temperatures and CO2 concentrations since the last glacial maximum (LGM) are expected to have an impact on past C4 grass distributions. We have used climate generated by the NCAR CCM to predict the extent of climatic regions favoring C4 over C3 since the LGM. Though low temperatures favor C3 photosynthesis, the low CO2 concentrations in the past more than off-set this effect. The extent of C4 favorable climates are predicted to have been greater during the LGM and have shrunk since then. The model does not take into account important biotic factors such as competition for light and herbivory or abiotic factors such as fire frequency that can affect the dominance of grasslands over other vegetation types.

  12. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions. (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J


    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  13. Automated mapping of explosives particles in composition C-4 fingerprints. (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Coleman, Jessica L; Cho, Inho


    A method is described to perform automated mapping of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) particles in C-4 fingerprints. The method employs polarized light microscopy and image analysis to map the entire fingerprint and the distribution of RDX particles. This method can be used to evaluate a large number of fingerprints to aid in the development of threat libraries that can be used to determine performance requirements of explosive trace detectors. A series of 50 C-4 fingerprints were characterized, and results show that the number of particles varies significantly from print to print, and within a print. The particle size distributions can be used to estimate the mass of RDX in the fingerprint. These estimates were found to be within +/-26% relative of the results obtained from dissolution gas chromatography/micro-electron capture detection for four of six prints, which is quite encouraging for a particle counting approach. By evaluating the average mass and frequency of particles with respect to size for this series of fingerprints, we conclude that particles 10-20 microm in diameter could be targeted to improve detection of traces of C-4 explosives.

  14. Anticancer effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidins on human colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youn-Jung Kim; Hae-Jeong Park; Seo-Hyun Yoon; Mi-Ja Kim; Kang-Hyun Leem; Joo-Ho Chung; Hye-Kyung Kim


    AIM: Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), natural polyphenolic compounds found in plants, are known to have antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. We investigated whether the anti-cancer effects of the OPC are induced by apoptosis on human colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C4.METHODS: Colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C4 was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cytotoxic effect of OPC was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenylt-etrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To find out the apoptotic cell death, 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining,terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed.RESULTS: In this study, cytotoxic effect of OPC on SNUC4 cells appeared in a dose-dependent manner. OPC treatment (100 μg/mL) revealed typical morphological apoptotic features. Additionally OPC treatment (100 μg/mL)increased level of BAX and CASPASE-3, and decreased level of BCL-2 mRNA expression. Caspase-3 enzyme activity was also significantly increased by treatment of OPC (100 μg/mL) compared with control.CONCLUSION: These data indicate that OPC caused cell death by apoptosis through caspase pathways on human colorectal cancer cell line, SNU-C4.

  15. A high throughput gas exchange screen for determining rates of photorespiration or regulation of C4 activity. (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Burgess, Steven J; Griffiths, Howard; Hibberd, Julian M


    Large-scale research programmes seeking to characterize the C4 pathway have a requirement for a simple, high throughput screen that quantifies photorespiratory activity in C3 and C4 model systems. At present, approaches rely on model-fitting to assimilatory responses (A/C i curves, PSII quantum yield) or real-time carbon isotope discrimination, which are complicated and time-consuming. Here we present a method, and the associated theory, to determine the effectiveness of the C4 carboxylation, carbon concentration mechanism (CCM) by assessing the responsiveness of V O/V C, the ratio of RuBisCO oxygenase to carboxylase activity, upon transfer to low O2. This determination compares concurrent gas exchange and pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence under ambient and low O2, using widely available equipment. Run time for the procedure can take as little as 6 minutes if plants are pre-adapted. The responsiveness of V O/V C is derived for typical C3 (tobacco, rice, wheat) and C4 (maize, Miscanthus, cleome) plants, and compared with full C3 and C4 model systems. We also undertake sensitivity analyses to determine the impact of R LIGHT (respiration in the light) and the effectiveness of the light saturating pulse used by fluorescence systems. The results show that the method can readily resolve variations in photorespiratory activity between C3 and C4 plants and could be used to rapidly screen large numbers of mutants or transformants in high throughput studies.

  16. Inactivation of C4orf26 in toothless placental mammals. (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Starrett, James; Morin, Phillip A; Lanzetti, Agnese; Hayashi, Cheryl; Gatesy, John


    Previous studies have reported inactivated copies of six enamel-related genes (AMBN, AMEL, AMTN, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20) and one dentin-related gene (DSPP) in one or more toothless vertebrates and/or vertebrates with enamelless teeth, thereby providing evidence that these genes are enamel or tooth-specific with respect to their critical functions that are maintained by natural selection. Here, we employ available genome sequences for edentulous and enamelless mammals to evaluate the enamel specificity of four genes (WDR72, SLC24A4, FAM83H, C4orf26) that have been implicated in amelogenesis imperfecta, a condition in which proper enamel formation is abrogated during tooth development. Coding sequences for WDR72, SCL24A4, and FAM83H are intact in four edentulous taxa (Chinese pangolin, three baleen whales) and three taxa (aardvark, nine-banded armadillo, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth) with enamelless teeth, suggesting that these genes have critical functions beyond their involvement in tooth development. By contrast, genomic data for C4orf26 reveal inactivating mutations in pangolin and bowhead whale as well as evidence for deletion of this gene in two minke whale species. Hybridization capture of exonic regions and PCR screens provide evidence for inactivation of C4orf26 in eight additional baleen whale species. However, C4orf26 is intact in all three species with enamelless teeth that were surveyed, as well as in 95 additional mammalian species with enamel-capped teeth. Estimates of selection intensity suggest that dN/dS ratios on branches leading to taxa with enamelless teeth are similar to the dN/dS ratio on branches leading to taxa with enamel-capped teeth. Based on these results, we conclude that C4orf26 is tooth-specific, but not enamel-specific, with respect to its essential functions that are maintained by natural selection. A caveat is that an alternative splice site variant, which translates exon 3 in a different reading frame, is putatively functional in

  17. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, L.H.


    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  18. Quantum oscillatory exciton migration in photosynthetic reaction centers. (United States)

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul


    The harvesting of solar energy and its conversion to chemical energy is essential for all forms of life. The primary photon absorption, transport, and charge separation events, which trigger a chain of chemical reactions, take place in membrane-bound photosynthetic complexes. Whether quantum effects, stemming from entanglement of chromophores, persist in the energy transport at room temperature, despite the rapid decoherence effects caused by environment fluctuations, is under current active debate. If confirmed, these may explain the high efficiency of light harvesting and open up numerous applications to quantum computing and information processing. We present simulations of the photosynthetic reaction center of photosystem II that clearly establish oscillatory energy transport at room temperature originating from interference of quantum pathways. These signatures of quantum transport may be observed by two dimensional coherent optical spectroscopy.

  19. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde


    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  20. Involvement of C4 allotypes in the pathogenesis of human diseases O envolvimento dos alótipos de C4 na patogênese das doenças humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Sueco Tibana Samano


    Full Text Available The complement system is an important humoral defense mechanism that plays a relevant role against microbial agents, inflammatory response control, and immunocomplex clearance. Classical complement pathway activation is antibody-dependent. The C4 component participates in the initial step of activation, and C4 expression is determined by 2 pairs of allotypes: C4A and C4B. Deficiencies in C4 allotypes have been associated with several diseases. The aim of the present review is evaluate the reported data in the literature regarding specific C4A and C4B deficiencies and characterize their clinical relevance. We searched the MEDLINE and LILACS databases. Papers referring to total C4 deficiency without allotype evaluation and case reports of primary C4 deficiency were not included. Deficiencies in C4 allotypes have been associated with Mycobacterium leprae infection, erythema nodosum, systemic sclerosis with anti-topoisomerase I antibodies, intermediate congenital adrenal hyperplasia with DR5 genotype, diabetes mellitus type 1 with DR3,4 genotype, and diabetes mellitus with antibodies against islet cells. C4 allotype deficiency is also related to C4B deficiency and autoimmune-associated diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, or diseases with an autoimmune component, such as autism. Some reports associate C4A with thyroiditis after delivery as well as limited and systemic sclerosis without anti-topoisomerase I antibodies. However, the studies with C4A and C4B have been concentrated in isolated populations, and some of the studies could not be reproduced by other authors.O sistema complemento constitui um importante sistema de defesa humoral, exercendo papel relevante na resposta contra agentes microbianos, no controle da resposta inflamatória e na depuração de imunocomplexos. A ativação da via clássica é dependente da formação do complexo antígeno-anticorpo. O componente C4 do complemento participa da etapa inicial de ativa

  1. Bondage Numbers of C4 Bundles over a Cycle Cn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Young Sohn


    Full Text Available Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. Graph bundles have been applied in computer architecture and communication networks. The bondage number is an important parameter for measuring the vulnerability and stability of the network domination under link failure. The bondage number b(G of a graph G is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the domination number. In this paper, we show that the bondage number of every C4 bundles over a cycle Cn  (n≥4 is equal to 4.

  2. Theoretical study of radiative electron attachment to CN, C2H, and C4H radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Douguet, Nicolas; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Orel, Ann E; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav


    A first-principle theoretical approach to study the process of radiative electron attachment is developed and applied to the negative molecular ions CN$^-$, C$_4$H$^-$, and C$_2$H$^-$. Among these anions, the first two have already been observed in the interstellar space. Cross sections and rate coefficients for formation of these ions by radiative electron attachment to the corresponding neutral radicals are calculated. For completeness of the theoretical approach, two pathways for the process have been considered: (i) A direct pathway, in which the electron in collision with the molecule spontaneously emits a photon and forms a negative ion in one of the lowest vibrational levels, and (ii) an indirect, or two-step pathway, in which the electron is initially captured through non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling into a vibrationally resonant excited state of the anion, which then stabilizes by radiative decay. We develop a general model to describe the second pathway and show that its contribution to the formation o...

  3. Transit peptide elements mediate selective protein targeting to two different types of chloroplasts in the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici (United States)

    Wimmer, Diana; Bohnhorst, Philipp; Shekhar, Vinay; Hwang, Inhwan; Offermann, Sascha


    Bienertia sinuspersici is a terrestrial plant that performs C4 photosynthesis within individual cells through operating a carbon concentrating mechanism between different subcellular domains including two types of chloroplasts. It is currently unknown how differentiation of two highly specialized chloroplasts within the same cell occurs as no similar cases have been reported. Here we show that this differentiation in photosynthetic cells of B. sinuspersici is enabled by a transit peptide (TP) mediated selective protein targeting mechanism. Mutations in the TPs cause loss of selectivity but not general loss of chloroplast import, indicating the mechanism operates by specifically blocking protein accumulation in one chloroplast type. Hybrid studies indicate that this selectivity is transferable to transit peptides of plants which perform C4 by cooperative function of chloroplasts between two photosynthetic cells. Codon swap experiments as well as introducing an artificial bait mRNA show that RNA affects are not crucial for the sorting process. In summary, our analysis shows how the mechanism of subcellular targeting to form two types of chloroplast within the same cell can be achieved. This information is not only crucial for understanding single-cell C4 photosynthesis; it provides new insights in control of subcellular protein targeting in cell biology. PMID:28112241

  4. Variations in nitrogen use efficiency reflect the biochemical subtype while variations in water use efficiency reflect the evolutionary lineage of C4 grasses at inter-glacial CO2. (United States)

    Pinto, Harshini; Powell, Jeff R; Sharwood, Robert E; Tissue, David T; Ghannoum, Oula


    C4 photosynthesis evolved multiple times in diverse lineages. Most physiological studies comparing C4 plants were not conducted at the low atmospheric CO2 prevailing during their evolution. Here, 24 C4 grasses belonging to three biochemical subtypes [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide malic enzyme (NAD-ME), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate malic enzyme (NADP-ME)] and six major evolutionary lineages were grown under ambient (400 μL L(-1) ) and inter-glacial (280 μL L(-1) ) CO2 . We hypothesized that nitrogen-related and water-related physiological traits are associated with subtypes and lineages, respectively. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were constrained by the shared lineage, while variation in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf N per area, plant dry mass and plant water use efficiency were influenced by the subtype. Subtype and lineage were equally important for explaining variations in photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE). CO2 treatment impacted most parameters. Overall, higher LMA and leaf N distinguished the Chloridoideae/NAD-ME group, while NADP-ME and PCK grasses were distinguished by higher PNUE regardless of lineage. Plants were characterized by high photosynthesis and PWUE when grown at ambient CO2 and by high conductance at inter-glacial CO2 . In conclusion, the evolutionary and biochemical diversity among C4 grasses was aligned with discernible leaf physiology, but it remains unknown whether these traits represent ecophysiological adaptation.

  5. Evolutionary Convergence of Cell-Specific Gene Expression in Independent Lineages of C4 Grasses1[W][OPEN (United States)

    John, Christopher R.; Smith-Unna, Richard D.; Woodfield, Helen; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M.


    Leaves of almost all C4 lineages separate the reactions of photosynthesis into the mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The extent to which messenger RNA profiles of M and BS cells from independent C4 lineages resemble each other is not known. To address this, we conducted deep sequencing of RNA isolated from the M and BS of Setaria viridis and compared these data with publicly available information from maize (Zea mays). This revealed a high correlation (r = 0.89) between the relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins of the core C4 pathway in M and BS cells in these species, indicating significant convergence in transcript accumulation in these evolutionarily independent C4 lineages. We also found that the vast majority of genes encoding proteins of the C4 cycle in S. viridis are syntenic to homologs used by maize. In both lineages, 122 and 212 homologous transcription factors were preferentially expressed in the M and BS, respectively. Sixteen shared regulators of chloroplast biogenesis were identified, 14 of which were syntenic homologs in maize and S. viridis. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a third C4 grass, we found that 82% of these trans-factors were also differentially expressed in either M or BS cells. Taken together, these data provide, to our knowledge, the first quantification of convergence in transcript abundance in the M and BS cells from independent lineages of C4 grasses. Furthermore, the repeated recruitment of syntenic homologs from large gene families strongly implies that parallel evolution of both structural genes and trans-factors underpins the polyphyletic evolution of this highly complex trait in the monocotyledons. PMID:24676859

  6. A specific assay for quantification of human C4c by use of an anti-C4c monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilely, Katrine; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Nielsen, Christian;


    and samples from factor I deficient patients. The specificity of the mAb was further evaluated by immunoprecipitation techniques and by analysis of eluted fragments of C4 after immunoaffinity chromatography. The anti-C4c mAb was confirmed to be C4c specific, as it showed no cross-reactivity with native (un...

  7. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W


    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  8. Senescence, dormancy and tillering in perennial C4 grasses. (United States)

    Sarath, Gautam; Baird, Lisa M; Mitchell, Robert B


    Perennial, temperate, C4 grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus have been tabbed as sources of herbaceous biomass for the production of green fuels and chemicals based on a number of positive agronomic traits. Although there is important literature on the management of these species for biomass production on marginal lands, numerous aspects of their biology are as yet unexplored at the molecular level. Perenniality, a key agronomic trait, is a function of plant dormancy and winter survival of the below-ground parts of the plants. These include the crowns, rhizomes and meristems that will produce tillers. Maintaining meristem viability is critical for the continued survival of the plants. Plant tillers emerge from the dormant crown and rhizome meristems at the start of the growing period in the spring, progress through a phase of vegetative growth, followed by flowering and eventually undergo senescence. There is nutrient mobilization from the aerial portions of the plant to the crowns and rhizomes during tiller senescence. Signals arising from the shoots and from the environment can be expected to be integrated as the plants enter into dormancy. Plant senescence and dormancy have been well studied in several dicot species and offer a potential framework to understand these processes in temperate C4 perennial grasses. The availability of latitudinally adapted populations for switchgrass presents an opportunity to dissect molecular mechanisms that can impact senescence, dormancy and winter survival. Given the large increase in genomic and other resources for switchgrass, it is anticipated that projected molecular studies with switchgrass will have a broader impact on related species.

  9. Light-enhanced dark respiration in leaves, isolated cells and protoplasts of various types of C4 plants. (United States)

    Parys, Eugeniusz; Jastrzebski, Hubert


    The rate of respiratory CO2 evolution from the leaves of Zea mays, Panicum miliaceum, and Panicum maximum, representing NADP-ME, NAD-ME, and PEP-CK types of C4 plants, respectively, was increased by approximately two to four times after a period of photosynthesis. This light-enhanced dark respiration (LEDR) was a function of net photosynthetic rate specific to plant species, and was depressed by 1% O2. When malate, aspartate, oxaloacetate or glycine solution at 50 mM concentration was introduced into the leaves instead of water, the rate of LEDR was enhanced, far less in Z. mays (by 10-25%) than in P. miliaceum (by 25-35%) or P. maximum (by 40-75%). The enhancement of LEDR under glycine was relatively stable over a period of 1 h, whereas the remaining metabolites caused its decrease following a transient increase. The metabolites reduced the net photosynthesis rate in the two Panicum species, but not in Z. mays, where this process was stimulated by glycine. The bundle sheath cells from P. miliaceum exhibited a higher rate of LEDR than those of Z. mays and P. maximum. Glycine had no effect on the respiration rate of the cells, but malate increased in cells of Z. mays and P. miliaceum by about 50% and 30%, respectively. With the exception of aspartate, which stimulated both the O2 evolution and O2 uptake in P. maximum, the remaining metabolites reduced photosynthetic O2 evolution from bundle sheath cells in Panicun species. The net O2 exchange in illuminated cells of Z. mays did not respond to CO2 or metabolites. Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Z. mays and P. miliaceum, and bundle sheath protoplasts of Z. mays, which are unable to fix CO2 photosynthetically, also produced LEDR, but the mesophyll protoplasts, compared with bundle sheath protoplasts, required twice the time of illumination to obtain the maximal rate. The results suggest that the substrates for LEDR in C4 plants are generated during a period of illumination not only via the Calvin cycle reactions, but

  10. Evaluation of a Detailed Reaction Mechanism for Partial and Total Oxidation of C1 - C4 Alkanes


    Quiceno González, Raúl


    In the present work a chemical kinetic mechanism was developed, suitable for modeling combustion and partial oxidation processes of C1 – C4 alkanes. The gas-phase kinetic mechanism describes intermediate and high temperature chemistry. Accordingly, the formation and evolution of important intermediate gas-phase species: Olefins and oxygenates were described in terms of different pathways typical at those temperature regimes. A previously developed mechanism suitable for high temperature condi...

  11. Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae). (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E


    C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis.

  12. Photosynthetic light reactions at the gold interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, Muhammad


    In the project described in this thesis we studied a simple bio-electronic device for solar energy conversion by surface-assembly of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes on a bare gold-electrode. Optical excitation of the photosynthetic pigments gives rise to charge separation in the so-called r

  13. Study on C4AF Crystal Structure by EBSD%利用EBSD研究C4AF的晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田键; 徐海军; 危涛; 高慧娟; 王金地; 赵晓宇; 贺金


    The crystal structure in C4AF was studied by EBSD, and related data of C4AF crystal studied and got by Bertaut, et al. Sagnieres in the inorganic crystal structure database were referenced, a C4AF crystal electron backscatter scattering diffraction crystallographic database file was established. EBSD phase identification test of sample was done, C4AF was the main crystal phase, and the database file could be used to calibrate backscattered Kikuchi diffraction pattern of C4AF sample very well via EBSD test analysis and inspection. According to cell parameters, space group and atomic coordinates for C4AF, three-dimensional model of C4AF crystal structure was also built.%利用EBSD研究C4AF的晶体结构,参考无机晶体结构数据库中,Bertaut等研究得出的C4AF相关数据,建立C4AF晶体的EBSD晶体学数据库文件.对样品进行EBSD相鉴定测试,其主晶相为C4AF.并结合EBSD测试分析检验,该数据库文件可以很好地标定C4AF样品的背散射菊池衍射图像.根据C4AF的晶胞参数、空间群及原子坐标建立了C4AF的三维晶体结构模型.

  14. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang


    Full Text Available Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs, is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented.

  15. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald


    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  16. Complete genome analysis of the C4 subgenotype strains of enterovirus 71: predominant recombination C4 viruses persistently circulating in China for 14 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is a well-known phenomenon for enteroviruses. To investigate the genetic characterization and the potential recombination of enterovirus 71 (EV71 circulating in China, we determined the 16 complete genome sequences of EV71 isolated from Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD patients during the large scale outbreak and non-outbreak years since 1998 in China. The full length genome sequences of 16 Chinese EV71 in present study were aligned with 186 genome sequences of EV71 available from GenBank, including 104 China mainland and 82 international sequences, covering the time period of 1970-2011. The oldest strains of each subgenotype of EV71 and prototype strains of HEV-A were included to do the phylogenetic and Simplot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all Chinese strains were clustered into C4 subgenotype of EV71, except for HuB/CHN/2009 clustered into A and Xiamen/CHN/2009 clustered into B5 subgenotype. Most of C4 EV71 were clustered into 2 predominant evolutionary branches: C4b and C4a evolutionary brunches. Our comprehensive recombination analysis showed the evidence of genome recombination of subgenotype C4 (including C4a and C4b sequences between structural genes from genotype C EV71 and non-structural genes from the prototype strains of CAV16, 14 and 4, but the evidence of intratypic recombination between C4 strains and B subgenotype was not enough strong. This intertypic recombination C4 viruses were first seen in 1998 and became the predominant endemic viruses circulating in China mainland for at least 14 years. A shift between C4a and C4b evolutionary brunches of C4 recombination viruses were observed, and C4a viruses have been associated with large scale nationwide HFMD outbreak with higher morbidity and mortality since 2007.

  17. High C3 photosynthetic capacity and high intrinsic water use efficiency underlies the high productivity of the bioenergy grass Arundo donax. (United States)

    Webster, Richard J; Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes; McGrath, Justin; Leakey, Andrew D B; Siebke, Katharina; Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir; Bonnage, Steve; Peloe, Tony; Lawson, Tracy; Long, Stephen P


    Arundo donax has attracted interest as a potential bioenergy crop due to a high apparent productivity. It uses C3 photosynthesis yet appears competitive with C4 grass biomass feedstock's and grows in warm conditions where C4 species might be expected to be that productive. Despite this there has been no systematic study of leaf photosynthetic properties. This study determines photosynthetic and photorespiratory parameters for leaves in a natural stand of A. donax growing in southern Portugal. We hypothesise that A. donax has a high photosynthetic potential in high and low light, stomatal limitation to be small and intrinsic water use efficiency unusually low. High photosynthetic rates in A. donax resulted from a high capacity for both maximum Rubisco (Vc,max 117 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate limited carboxylation rate (Jmax 213 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) under light-saturated conditions. Maximum quantum yield for light-limited CO2 assimilation was also high relative to other C3 species. Photorespiratory losses were similar to other C3 species under the conditions of measurement (25%), while stomatal limitation was high (0.25) resulting in a high intrinsic water use efficiency. Overall the photosynthetic capacity of A. donax is high compared to other C3 species, and comparable to C4 bioenergy grasses.

  18. [Effects of light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut seedling leaves]. (United States)

    Yan, Meng-Meng; Wang, Ming-Lun; Wang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Yue-Fu; Zhao, Chang-Xing


    This study explored the effects of different light quality on photosynthetic pigment contents and photosynthetic characteristics of peanut (Qinhua 6) seedling leaves. The results showed that, compared with natural light, blue light (445-470 nm) could significantly improve the specific leaf area (SLA), chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content of peanut seedlings. Meanwhile, the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were higher, the intercellular CO2 content was lower, and the photosynthetic efficiency was improved significantly under blue light. Red light (610-660 nm) could improve the chlorophyll content significantly, and reduce SLA, chlorophyll a/b value and carotenoid content, with a lower photosynthetic efficiency than natural light. Green light (515-520 nm) and yellow light (590-595 nm) were not conducive to photosynthetic pigment accumulation of leaves, and significantly inhibited leaf photosynthesis of peanut seedlings.

  19. Increased expression of a novel splice variant of the complement component 4 (C4A) gene in mastitis-infected dairy cattle. (United States)

    Yang, Y; Huang, J M; Ju, Z H; Li, Q L; Zhou, L; Li, R L; Li, J B; Shi, F X; Zhong, J F; Wang, C F


    The complement system helps in the direct lysis of invading pathogens and modulates phagocytic, humoral and cellular immune responses. Complement 4 is a critical component in complement activity and protection against many bacterial pathogens because it is essential to classical and lectin activation pathways. We used reverse transcription and PCR to investigate alternative splicing and expression of the complement component 4 (C4A) gene in Chinese Holstein cattle. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. A novel splice variant involving intron 10 was identified, which we named C4A-AS. To examine how C4A gene activity is affected by bovine mastitis, six Chinese Holstein cattle were divided into healthy (non-mastitic) and Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitic groups. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the C4A-complete and C4A-AS transcripts are expressed at significantly different levels in healthy cows, while there were no significant differences in the mastitic group (P = 0.257). Expression of C4A-AS increased significantly when mastitis developed. We also examined the expression of C4A-complete and C4A-AS in several tissues (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, tongue, and muscle). The two transcripts were expressed in all of these tissues but there were no significant differences in expression between healthy and mastitic cows. We therefore conclude that the C4A-complete transcript is the main transcript under normal physiological conditions, while C4A-AS is augmented when mastitis develops.

  20. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein. (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae


    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices.

  1. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.


    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  2. The adaptive response of lichens to mercury exposure involves changes in the photosynthetic machinery. (United States)

    Nicolardi, Valentina; Cai, Giampiero; Parrotta, Luigi; Puglia, Michele; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gaggi, Carlo


    Lichens are an excellent model to study the bioaccumulation of heavy metals but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms occurring during bioaccumulation. We investigated the changes of the lichen proteome during exposure to constant concentrations of mercury. We found that most of changes involves proteins of the photosynthetic pathway, such as the chloroplastic photosystem I reaction center subunit II, the oxygen-evolving protein and the chloroplastic ATP synthase β-subunit. This suggests that photosynthesis is a target of the toxic effects of mercury. These findings are also supported by changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b, and β-carotene). Alterations to the photosynthetic machinery also reflect on the structure of thylakoid membranes of algal cells. Response of lichens to mercury also involves stress-related proteins (such as Hsp70) but not cytoskeletal proteins. Results suggest that lichens adapt to mercury exposure by changing the metabolic production of energy.

  3. Carbon Assimilation Pathways, Water Relationships and Plant Ecology. (United States)

    Etherington, John R.


    Discusses between-species variation in adaptation of the photosynthetic mechanism to cope with wide fluctuations of environmental water regime. Describes models for water conservation in plants and the role of photorespiration in the evolution of the different pathways. (CW)

  4. Traces of strong selective pressures in the genomes of C4 grasses. (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine


    C4 photosynthesis is nature's response to CO2 limitations, and evolved recurrently in several groups of plants. To identify genes related to C4 photosynthesis, Huang et al. looked for evidence of past episodes of adaptive evolution in the genomes of C4 grasses. They identified a large number of candidate genes that evolved under divergent selection, indicating that, besides alterations to expression patterns, the history of C4 involved strong selection on protein-coding sequences.

  5. Substitution of a single amino acid (aspartic acid for histidine) converts the functional activity of human complement C4B to C4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.C.; Fathallah, D.M.; Bergamaschini, L.; Alicot, E.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Isenman, D.E. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))


    The C4B isotype of the fourth component of human complement (C4) displays 3- to 4-fold greater hemolytic activity than does its other isotype C4A. This correlates with differences in their covalent binding efficiencies to erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement C1. C4A binds to a greater extent when C1 is on IgG immune aggregates. The differences in covalent binding properties correlate only with amino acid changes between residues 1101 and 1106 (pro-C4 numbering)-namely, Pro-1101, Cys-1102, Leu-1105, and Asp-1106 in C4A and Leu-1101, Ser-1102, Ile-1105, and His-1106 in C4B, which are located in the C4d region of the {alpha} chain. To more precisely identify the residues that are important for the functional differences, C4A-C4B hybrid proteins were constructed by using recombinant DNA techniques. Comparison of these by hemolytic assay and binding to IgG aggregates showed that the single substitution of aspartic acid for histidine at position 1106 largely accounted for the change in functional activity and nature of the chemical bond formed. Surprisingly, substitution of a neutral residue, alanine, for histidine at position 1106 resulted in an increase in binding to immune aggregates without subsequent reduction in the hemolytic activity. This result strongly suggests that position 1106 is not catalytic as previously proposed but interacts sterically/electrostatically with potential acceptor sites and serves to select binding sites on potential acceptor molecules.

  6. Copper Causes Regiospecific Formation of C4F8-Containing Six-Membered Rings and their Defluorination/Aromatization to C4F4-Containing Rings in Triphenylene/1,4-C4F8I2 Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippy, Kerry C.; Bukovsky, Eric V.; Clikeman, Tyler T.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Hou, Gao-Lei; Wang, Xue B.; Popov, Alexey; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.


    The presence of Cu in reactions of triphenylene (TRPH) and 1,4-C4F8I2 at 360 °C led to regiospecific substitution of TRPH ortho C(β) atoms to form C4F8-containing rings, completely suppressing substitution on C(α) atoms. In addition, Cu caused selective reductive-defluorination/aromatization (RD/A) to form C4F4- containing aromatic rings. Without Cu, the reactions of TRPH and 1,4- C4F8I2 were not regiospecific and no RD/A was observed. These results, supported by DFT calculations, are the first examples of Cupromoted (i) regiospecific perfluoroannulation, (ii) preparative C–F activation, and (iii) RD/A. HPLC-purified products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature PES, and 1H/19F NMR.

  7. 26 CFR 1.662(c)-4 - Illustration of the provisions of sections 661 and 662. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of sections 661 and 662. 1.662(c)-4 Section 1.662(c)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Which Distribute Corpus § 1.662(c)-4 Illustration of the provisions of sections 661 and 662....

  8. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-4 - Illustration of the provisions of sections 651 and 652. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of sections 651 and 652. 1.652(c)-4 Section 1.652(c)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....652(c)-4 Illustration of the provisions of sections 651 and 652. The rules applicable to a...

  9. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses (United States)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  10. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets. (United States)

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C


    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  11. Anatomía del tejido fotosintético de diez taxa de Opuntia establecidos en el secano árido mediterráneo de Chile Anatomy of the photosynthetic tissue in ten taxa of Opuntia established to the mediterranean arid zone of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la exposición de cladodios a la radiación en la anatomía del tejido fotosintético de 10 taxa de Opuntia, (plantas con metabolismo ácido crasuláceo, CAM establecidos en al secano árido de la IV Región de Chile. A nivel del tejido epidérmico se evaluó el grosor de la cutícula, la densidad de estomas y las dimensiones de células oclusivas. En el tejido fotosintetico, se evaluo las dimensiones celulares con el objeto de estimar la superficie de paredes celulares expuestas al intercambio gaseoso por unidad de tejido fotosintético, relación conocida como Ames/A. Los resultados señalan grandes dimensiones celulares y baja densidad estomática, lo que determina un número reducido de estomas por unidad de superficie en relación a especies de otras vías metabólicas (C3 y C4. La comparación entre taxones, muestra diferencias significativas en la relación de áreas Ames/A, parámetro estrechamente relacionado a la capacidad fotosintética. Estas características anatómicas y sus modificaciones en combinación con el metabolismo CAM, contribuyen a su adaptación a condiciones de pluviometría limitadaThe anatomy of the photosynthetic tissue and the effect of cladode exposure to radiation was studied in ten taxa of Opuntia, plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, established in the dry lands of the IV Region of Chile. At the epidermic level the cuticle thickness, stomatal frequency, and dimension of guard cells were evaluated. In the photosynthetic tissue, cell dimensions were determined in order to estimate the area of cell walls exposed to gaseous exchange per unit of photosynthetic tissue (A mes/ A. The results indicate large cell dimensions and low stomata frequency which results in a reduced number of stomata per unit area in relation to species with other metabolic pathways (C3 and C4, The comparison between taxa shows significant differences in the relation of Ames/A areas, a parameter closely

  12. C4 ISR Architecture Design Based on UML%基于 UML 方法的 C4 ISR 体系结构设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    System architecture design technology is very important for system manufacture .This paper studies products of C4 ISR architecture and their interrelationship in system architecture .Then principles ,ways and contents of design of C4 ISR architecture are given out .This paper proposes design method of C4 ISR architecture based on UML ,and then completes analysis and design architecture of C4 ISR .%系统体系结构设计技术研究对于系统的研制开发有着极为重要的意义。分析研究了 C4 ISR 体系结构的产品集和相互关系,给出了 C4 ISR 体系结构设计的原则、思路和设计内容。提出了基于 UML 方法的 C4 ISR 体系结构设计方法,完成了体系架构分析和设计。

  13. Investigation of complement C4A and C4B deficiency in schizophrenia.%精神分裂症与补体第四成份C4A及C4B基因缺陷关联性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毅昌; 陈家强; 张良诚; 蔡教壁; 伍新尧


    Objective  To assess the association between the gene of complement C4A, C4B deficiency and schizophrenia. Methods 192 patients with schizophrenia and 142 healthy controls were tested with the amplification restriction fragment length polymorphism (Amp-RFLP) technique.Results The frequency of C4AQ0/C4AQ0 homozygote was higher in the patient group than in the control group (χ2=8.54, P<0.01). The relative risk (RR) of C4AQ0/C4AQ0 homozygote for schizophrenia was 6.8. There was no increased frequency of C4B deficiency in patients with schizophrenia (χ2=0.11, P>0.05, RR=0.73).Conclusions These results indicate that there is a positive association between complement C4A dificiency and schizophrenia. Moreover, our study did not support a widespread association between a deficiency in complement component C4B and schizophrenia.%目的探讨补体第四成份C4A、C4B基因缺陷与精神分裂症的相关性。方法采用Amp-RFLP(amplification restriction fragment length polymorphism)方法,对192例精神分裂症患者和142例健康对照组样本补体第四成份C4A、C4B基因缺陷的相关性进行研究。结果精神分裂症患者与补体第四成份C4A基因缺陷纯合子C4AQ0/C4AQ0的发病率显著高于对照组(χ2=8.54,P<0.01),关联强度RR值为6.8。精神分裂症患者与补体第四成份C4B基因缺陷纯合子C4BQ0/C4BQ0的发病率与对照组进行比较无显著差异性(χ2=0.11,P>0.05),关联强度RR值为0.73。结论本实验结果提示补体第四成份C4A基因缺陷纯合子与精神分裂症有密切相关性。

  14. Photoelectrochemical cells based on photosynthetic systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Voloshin


    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a process which converts light energy into energy contained in the chemical bonds of organic compounds by photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll (Chl a, b, c, d, f or bacteriochlorophyll. It occurs in phototrophic organisms, which include higher plants and many types of photosynthetic bacteria, including cyanobacteria. In the case of the oxygenic photosynthesis, water is a donor of both electrons and protons, and solar radiation serves as inexhaustible source of energy. Efficiency of energy conversion in the primary processes of photosynthesis is close to 100%. Therefore, for many years photosynthesis has attracted the attention of researchers and designers looking for alternative energy systems as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly pathways of energy conversion. The latest advances in the design of optimal solar cells include the creation of converters based on thylakoid membranes, photosystems, and whole cells of cyanobacteria immobilized on nanostructured electrode (gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2. The mode of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis has a great potential as a source of renewable energy while it is sustainable and environmentally safety as well. Application of pigments such as Chl f and Chl d (unlike Chl a and Chl b, by absorbing the far red and near infrared region of the spectrum (in the range 700-750 nm, will allow to increase the efficiency of such light transforming systems. This review article presents the last achievements in the field of energy photoconverters based on photosynthetic systems.

  15. An assessment of the capacity for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase to contribute to C4 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E


    Three C4 acid decarboxylases, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) were recruited from C3 plants to support C4 photosynthesis. In Poaceae, there are established lineages having PEPCK type species, and some NADP-ME lineages in which PEPCK contributes to C4. Besides family Poaceae, recently PEPCK has been reported to function in C4 photosynthesis in eudicot species including Cleome gynandra (Cleomaceae), Trianthema portulacastrum and Zaleya pentandra (Aizoaceae). We evaluated PEPCK by enzyme assay and western blots in representatives of Poaceae, Aizoaceae, Cleomaceae, and Chenopodiaceae compared to that in the PEPCK type C4 grass Spartina anglica. Eragrostis nutans was identified as the first NAD-ME type C4 grass having substantial amounts of PEPCK. In the eudicots, including C. gynandra, Cleome angustifolia, T. portulacastrum, Z. pentandra, and nine C4 members of family Chenopodiaceae (which has the most C4 species and diversity in forms among eudicot families), amounts of PEPCK were generally very low (barely detectable up to 4% of that in S. anglica). Based on these results, C4 species can be classified biochemically according to the dominant decarboxylase recruited for C4 function; and, Poaceae remains the only family in which PEPCK is known to have a significant role in C4 photosynthesis.

  16. 萃取精馏分离C4的过程设计%Process Design for Separating C4 Mixtures by Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 陈标华; 李建伟


    C4 components are useful in industry and should be separated as individuals. A new process wasproposed to separate them by extractive distillation, with the advantages of low equipment investment, energyconsumption and liquid load in the columns. One principle to improve the extractive distillation process was putforward. Moreover, the analysis of operation state of the new process was done. There were eight operation statesfound for the whole process, but only one operation state was desirable. This work provides a way to effectivelyseparate C4 mixtures and helps the reasonable utilization of C4 resource.

  17. Engineering cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production of 3-hydroxybutyrate directly from CO2. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Pugh, Shawn; Nielsen, David R; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R


    (S)- and (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) are precursors to synthesize the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and many fine chemicals. To date, however, their production has been restricted to petroleum-based chemical industry and sugar-based microbial fermentation, limiting its sustainability and economical feasibility. With the ability to fix CO2 photosynthetically, cyanobacteria have attracted increasing interest as a biosynthesis platform to produce fuels and chemicals from alternative renewable resources. To this end, synthesis metabolic pathways have been constructed and optimized in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to photosynthetically produce (S)- and (R)-3HB directly from CO2. Both types of 3HB molecules were produced and readily secreted from Synechocystis cells without over-expression of transporters. Additional inactivation of the competing pathway by deleting slr1829 and slr1830 (encoding PHB polymerase) from the Synechocystis genome further promoted the 3HB production. Up to 533.4mg/L 3HB has been produced after photosynthetic cultivation of the engineered cyanobacterium Synechocystis TABd for 21 days. Further analysis indicated that the phosphate consumption during the photoautrophic growth and the concomitant elevated acetyl-CoA pool acted as a key driving force for 3HB biosynthesis in Synechocystis. For the first time, the study has demonstrated the feasibility of photosynthetic production of (S)- and (R)-3HB directly from sunlight and CO2.

  18. The acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature in the C3 -C4 intermediate Salsola divaricata: induction of high respiratory CO2 release under low temperature. (United States)

    Gandin, Anthony; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Voznesenskaya, Elena V; Edwards, Gerald E; Cousins, Asaph B


    Photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) intermediates reduces carbon loss by photorespiration through refixing photorespired CO(2) within bundle sheath cells. This is beneficial under warm temperatures where rates of photorespiration are high; however, it is unknown how photosynthesis in C(3) -C(4) plants acclimates to growth under cold conditions. Therefore, the cold tolerance of the C(3) -C(4) Salsola divaricata was tested to determine whether it reverts to C(3) photosynthesis when grown under low temperatures. Plants were grown under cold (15/10 °C), moderate (25/18 °C) or hot (35/25 °C) day/night temperatures and analysed to determine how photosynthesis, respiration and C(3) -C(4) features acclimate to these growth conditions. The CO(2) compensation point and net rates of CO(2) assimilation in cold-grown plants changed dramatically when measured in response to temperature. However, this was not due to the loss of C(3) -C(4) intermediacy, but rather to a large increase in mitochondrial respiration supported primarily by the non-phosphorylating alternative oxidative pathway (AOP) and, to a lesser degree, the cytochrome oxidative pathway (COP). The increase in respiration and AOP capacity in cold-grown plants likely protects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and photodamage in chloroplasts by consuming excess reductant via the alternative mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain.

  19. Toward a photosynthetic microbial platform for terpenoid engineering. (United States)

    Davies, Fiona K; Jinkerson, Robert E; Posewitz, Matthew C


    Plant terpenoids are among the most diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds known, and several are used in contemporary consumer products. Terpene synthase enzymes catalyze complex rearrangements of carbon skeleton precursors to yield thousands of unique chemical structures that range in size from the simplest five carbon isoprene unit to the long polymers of rubber. Such chemical diversity has established plant terpenoids as valuable commodity chemicals with applications in the pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. More recently, terpenoids have received attention as a renewable alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and as the building blocks of synthetic biopolymers. However, the current plant- and petrochemical-based supplies of commodity terpenoids have major limitations. Photosynthetic microorganisms provide an opportunity to generate terpenoids in a renewable manner, employing a single consolidated host organism that is able to use solar energy, H2O and CO2 as the primary inputs for terpenoid biosynthesis. Advances in synthetic biology have seen important breakthroughs in microbial terpenoid engineering, traditionally via fermentative pathways in yeast and Escherichia coli. This review draws on the knowledge obtained from heterotrophic microbial engineering to propose strategies for the development of microbial photosynthetic platforms for industrial terpenoid production. The importance of utilizing the wealth of genetic information provided by nature to unravel the regulatory mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is highlighted.

  20. Synthesis of C-4-Substituted Steviol Derivatives and Their Inhibitory Effects against Hepatitis B Virus. (United States)

    Lin, Shwu-Jiuan; Su, Ta-Chi; Chu, Chin-Nan; Chang, Yi-Chih; Yang, Li-Ming; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn


    ent-13-Hydroxykaur-16-ene-19-N-butylureide (6) was one of 33 synthesized C-4-substituted steviol derivatives that were evaluated for their effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion. The IC50 (16.9 μM) and SI (57.7) values for inhibiting HBV DNA replication of compound 6 were greater than those of the reference compound, lamivudine (3-TC; IC50: 107.5 μM; SI: 22.0). Thus, the anti-HBV mechanism of 6 was investigated, and it specifically inhibited viral gene expression and reduced viral DNA levels, as well as potently attenuated all of the viral promoter activity of HBV-expressing Huh7 cells. Examination of cellular signaling pathways found that 6 inhibited the activities of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB- and activator protein (AP)-1 element-containing promoters, but had no effects on AP-2 or interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoters in HBV-expressing cells. Meanwhile, it significantly eliminated NF-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling-related protein levels and inhibited their phosphorylation in HBV-transfected Huh7 cells. The inhibitory potency of 6 against HBV DNA replication was reversed by cotransfecting the NF-κB p65 expression plasmid. Using the MAPK-specific activator anisomycin also reversed the inhibitory effect of 6 on viral DNA replication. The present findings suggest that the anti-HBV mechanism of 6 is partly mediated through the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  1. Acceleration of C1~C4 and AFM Observation of the Tracks of C1~C4 in CR-39

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Utilizing the 200 type intensive current cesium sputter ion source of HI-13 tandem and changing themagnetic field of the injector magnet, carbon cluster negative ions C1-~C4- were extracted for graphitepellet. Current intensities of C1-~C4- were 8.0, 7.6, 0.9 and 1.3μA, respectively. The change of charge

  2. Promotion of Cyclic Electron Transport Around Photosystem I with the Development of C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Taniguchi, Yukimi Y


    C4 photosynthesis is present in approximately 7,500 species classified into 19 families, including monocots and eudicots. In the majority of documented cases, a two-celled CO2-concentrating system that uses a metabolic cycle of four-carbon compounds is employed. C4 photosynthesis repeatedly evolved from C3 photosynthesis, possibly driven by the survival advantages it bestows in the hot, often dry, and nutrient-poor soils of the tropics and subtropics. The development of the C4 metabolic cycle greatly increased the ATP demand in chloroplasts during the evolution of malic enzyme-type C4 photosynthesis, and the additional ATP required for C4 metabolism may be produced by the cyclic electron transport around PSI. Recent studies have revealed the nature of cyclic electron transport and the elevation of its components during C4 evolution. In this review, we discuss the energy requirements of C3 and C4 photosynthesis, the current model of cyclic electron transport around PSI and how cyclic electron transport is promoted during C4 evolution using studies on the genus Flaveria, which contains a number of closely related C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.

  3. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses. (United States)

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K


    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  4. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses (United States)

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G.; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P.; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R.; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W.; Nielsen, Lars K.


    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  5. Complement-activated oligodendroglia: a new pathogenic entity identified by immunostaining with antibodies to human complement proteins C3d and C4d. (United States)

    Yamada, T; Akiyama, H; McGeer, P L


    Clusters of oligodendroglial fibers were identified immunohistochemically in human brain tissue with antibodies to the complement proteins C3d and C4d in several neurological disorders. These included Pick's, Huntington's, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive supranuclear palsy and Shy-Drager syndrome. These complement-activated oligodendroglia occurred in selected areas of gray and white matter. They were rarely observed in control tissue. Immunogold electron microscopy established that the C4d antibody was attached to degenerating myelin sheaths. These data indicate attachment of classical complement pathway proteins to selective oligodendroglia in several neurological disorders.

  6. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J


    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  7. Vibration-assisted resonance in photosynthetic excitation energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Irish, E K; Lovett, B W


    Coherent quantum energy transfer, as observed in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, is inhibited by energetic disorder. While this difficulty can be overcome to some extent by the addition of environmental noise, it has recently has begun to be appreciated that discrete intra- and/or intermolecular vibrational modes may play an important role in quantum dynamics. We present a microscopic mechanism by which intramolecular vibrational modes create resonant energy transfer pathways, enhancing the efficiency of both coherent and dephasing-assisted transfer. The principles of this vibration-assisted resonance are illustrated in a simple model based on one energy-transfer branch of the well-characterised Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. Despite its simplicity, this model captures the interplay between strong electronic coupling that produces delocalised exciton states and resonance-enhanced weak coupling to local vibrational modes. Analytical and numerical results show that intramolecular vibrations can enhance...

  8. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation (United States)

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.


    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.

  9. 简析 C4烷烃开发利用%The Analysis of Development and Utilization of C4 Hydrocarbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A variety of processing plans which chose C 4 hydrocarbon as feed was prepared in order to solve the problem of enterprises which were in short supply of C 4 olefin resources.The comparable analysis between competitive of products, general situation of market , technical advantages and the investment profit of variety of processing plans showed the optimal method for C 4 processing.The analysis showed that the utilization of C 4 hydrocarbon would become development trend in C 4 deep processing.Producing MTBE with isobutane dehydrogenating had the advantages of mature technology and rich in economic benefits.Isobutylen co -oxidation of PO/MTBE benefited a lot , but needed to comprehensive considering with capacity of warehouse and wharf situation.%针对C4加工企业烯烃原料短缺问题,提出以碳四烷烃为原料的多种工艺路线,通过对比各工艺路线的产品竞争性、市场情况、技术特点及经济性,分析认为C4烷烃的开发利用将会成为碳四深加工的发展方向,异丁烷脱氢生产MTBE工艺技术成熟,是异丁烷深加工的良好工艺路线;建设具备一定规模的异丁烷脱氢生产MTBE装置经济效益显著。异丁烷共氧化产PO/MTBE工艺投资回报收益高,但需结合企业码头、储运等实际情况实际情况作详细的评估。

  10. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  11. Identification of radiolytic products of [C4mim][PF6] underγ-irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖银勇; 徐敏; 彭静; 李久强; 翟茂林; 吴国忠


    The trace water-soluble radiolytic products of neat 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4mim][PF6]) were identified by analysing water-washed samples of γ-irradiated ionic liquids. HF and difluorophosphinic acid were confirmed as the main radiolytic products of [C4mim][PF6], and their radiation chemical yields were quantified by 19F NMR (G(F−)=0.14 µmol/J, G(HOP(O)F2)=0.053 µmol/J). Com-pared to [C4mim][NTf2], [C4mim][PF6] shows better radiation stability.

  12. Genetic enablers underlying the clustered evolutionary origins of C4 photosynthesis in angiosperms. (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Mónica; Osborne, Colin P; Edwards, Erika J


    The evolutionary accessibility of novel adaptations varies among lineages, depending in part on the genetic elements present in each group. However, the factors determining the evolutionary potential of closely related genes remain largely unknown. In plants, CO2-concentrating mechanisms such as C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis have evolved numerous times in distantly related groups of species, and constitute excellent systems to study constraints and enablers of evolution. It has been previously shown for multiple proteins that grasses preferentially co-opted the same gene lineage for C4 photosynthesis, when multiple copies were present. In this work, we use comparative transcriptomics to show that this bias also exists within Caryophyllales, a distantly related group with multiple C4 origins. However, the bias is not the same as in grasses and, when all angiosperms are considered jointly, the number of distinct gene lineages co-opted is not smaller than that expected by chance. These results show that most gene lineages present in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots produced gene descendants that were recruited into C4 photosynthesis, but that C4-suitability changed during the diversification of angiosperms. When selective pressures drove C4 evolution, some copies were preferentially co-opted, probably because they already possessed C4-like expression patterns. However, the identity of these C4-suitable genes varies among clades of angiosperms, and C4 phenotypes in distant angiosperm groups thus represent genuinely independent realizations, based on different genetic precursors.

  13. Ultrafast fluorescence of photosynthetic crystals and light-harvesting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van B.F.


    This thesis focuses on the study of photosynthetic pigment protein complexes using time resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy often requires attaching fluorescent labels to the proteins under investigation. With photosynthetic proteins this is not necessary, because these prote

  14. Nonlinear optical absorption of photosynthetic pigment molecules in leaves. (United States)

    Ye, Zi-Piao


    A mathematical formulation of the relationship between optical absorption coefficient of photosynthetic pigment molecules and light intensity was developed. It showed that physical parameters of photosynthetic pigment molecule (i.e., light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecule, its average lifetime in the excited state, total photosynthetic pigment molecules, the statistical weight, or degeneracy of energy level of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the ground state and in the excited state) influenced on both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules. Moreover, it also showed that both the light absorption coefficient and effective light absorption cross-section of photosynthetic pigment molecules were not constant, they decreased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing. The occupation numbers of photosynthetic pigment molecules in the excited states increased nonlinearly with light intensity increasing.

  15. C4 Rice: Are We Ready For The Challenge? A Historical Perspective%C4水稻,我们的新挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李圆圆; 张慧; 朱新广


    自从上个世纪60年代末C4光合途径发现以来,人们对工程改造现有C3粮食作物使之具有C4光合能力进行了大量努力.目前,大量分子、生理和基因组水平研究的进展和证据表明,该目标将可能在10~15年之内实现.本综述结合目前国际C4研究的现状,详述了该领域目前所涉各项研究内容的理论依据.我们首先总结过去的经典杂交实验,然后论证新一代测序技术与C4光合研究模式系统狐尾草(Setaria viridis)的发展极大的促进了我们对C4光合特征遗传发育相关基因的发现与鉴定.最后,我们强调虽然C4光合工程改造的研究目前已在世界各国大规模展开,但其最终成功仍有赖于不同国家研究基金及私立慈善基金的大力和长期共同资助.%The world is entering an age when the increased demand'for food production require s substantial en hancement of the crop productivity.Ever since the discovery of C4 photosynthesis inthe late 1960s,attempts of engineering the current major staple crops to perform C4 photosynthesis have never stopped.Unfortunately,relatively little success has been achieved so far,which has created tremendous doubt in research community and policy makers alike regarding whether it is in the end possible to engineer C3..crops to perform C4 photo synthesis.Paramount of evidences with the rapid advances in the next generation sequencing technologies and new approaches in genetic engineering suggest the C4 engineering is a tangible goal.In this review,we discussed the rationales behind current major research activities.We begin by summarizing previous genetic stud ies through crossing.We further demonstrate that the combination of the next generation sequencing technology and a new model species for C4 photosynthesis research Setaria viridis will tremendously expedite our discov ery of key genes controlling C4 development.Finally,we emphasize that though the C4 engineering has gained major momentum

  16. C3-C4 intermediacy in grasses: organelle enrichment and distribution, glycine decarboxylase expression, and the rise of C2 photosynthesis. (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Roxana; Stinson, Corey R; Stata, Matt; Busch, Florian A; Sage, Rowan F; Ludwig, Martha; Sage, Tammy L


    Photorespiratory glycine shuttling and decarboxylation in bundle sheath (BS) cells exhibited by C2 species is proposed to be the evolutionary bridge to C4 photosynthesis in eudicots. To evaluate this in grasses, we compare anatomy, cellular localization of glycine decarboxylase (GDC), and photosynthetic physiology of a suspected C2 grass, Homolepis aturensis, with these traits in known C2 grasses, Neurachne minor and Steinchisma hians, and C3 S laxum that is sister to S hians We also use publicly available genome and RNA-sequencing data to examine the evolution of GDC subunits and enhance our understanding of the evolution of BS-specific GDC expression in C2 and C4 grasses. Our results confirm the identity of H aturensis as a C2 species; GDC is confined predominantly to the organelle-enriched BS cells in H aturensis and S hians and to mestome sheath cells of N minor Phylogenetic analyses and data obtained from immunodetection of the P-subunit of GDC are consistent with the hypothesis that the BS dominant levels of GDC in C2 and C4 species are due to changes in expression of a single GLDP gene in M and BS cells. All BS mitochondria and peroxisomes and most chloroplasts in H aturensis and S hians are situated centripetally in a pattern identical to C2 eudicots. In S laxum, which has C3-like gas exchange patterns, mitochondria and peroxisomes are positioned centripetally as they are in S hians This subcellular phenotype, also present in eudicots, is posited to initiate a facilitation cascade leading to C2 and C4 photosynthesis.

  17. Natural strategies for photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croce, R.; Amerongen, van H.


    Photosynthetic organisms are crucial for life on Earth as they provide food and oxygen and are at the basis of most energy resources. They have a large variety of light-harvesting strategies that allow them to live nearly everywhere where sunlight can penetrate. They have adapted their pigmentation

  18. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli. (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang


    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens.

  19. Mechanism of photoprotection in photosynthetic proteins


    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška


    Nonphotochemical quenching is an important protective mechanism of photosynthetic proteins against excessive irradiation. In this work, isolation of native light harvesting antennae from alga Chromera velia was optimized using methods of sucrose density centrifugation, isoelectric focusing, ion exchange chromatography and gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the ability of light harvesting antennae to trigger nonphotochemical quenching was studied in vivo and in vitro.

  20. Comparative Genomic Study of the Thioredoxin Family in Photosynthetic Organisms with Emphasis on Populus trichocarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamel Chibani; Gunnar Wingsle; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Nicolas Rouhier


    The recent genome sequencing of Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera, two models of woody plants, of Sorghum bicolor, a model of monocot using C4 metabolism, and of the moss Physcomitrella patens, together with the availability of photosynthetic organism genomes allows performance of a comparative genomic study with organisms having different ways of life, reproduction modes, biological traits, and physiologies. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiq-uitous proteins involved in the reduction of disulfide bridges in a variety of target enzymes present in all sub-cellular compartments and involved in many biochemical reactions. The genes coding for these enzymes have been identified in these newly sequenced genomes and annotated. The gene content, organization and distribution were compared to other photosynthetic organisms, leading to a refined classification. This analysis revealed that higher plants and bryo-phytes have a more complex family compared to algae and cyanobacteria and to non-photosynthetic organisms, since poplar exhibits 49 genes coding for typical and atypical thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductases, namely one-third more than monocots such as Oryza sativa and S. bicolor. The higher number of Trxs in poplar is partially explained by gene duplication in the Trx m, h, and nucleoredoxin classes. Particular attention was paid to poplar genes with emphasis on Trx-like classes called Clot, thioredoxin-like, thioredoxins of the lilium type and nucleoredoxins, which were not described in depth in previous genomic studies.

  1. Molecular Design of Separating C4 by Extractive Distillation with ACN%ACN萃取精馏分离C4的分子设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 王洪有; 段占庭; 周荣琪




    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In view of evidence suggesting vitiligo is an autoimmune disease, we investigated whether vitiligo is associated with inherited deficiencies of the fourth (C4) and second (C2) component of complement and with certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Analysis of functional activities of C4 and C2 in s

  3. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  4. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(4)-1 - Method of accounting. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of accounting. 1.381(c)(4)-1 Section 1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(4)-1 Method of accounting. (a... section 381(a) applies, an acquiring corporation shall use the same method of accounting used by...

  5. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei


    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1C4TC-1DPCA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1C4TC-1DPCA 1C4T 1DPC C A -----------ARSEKRVP----RKRVAERLLEAKNSTA...> ARG CA 109 VAL CA 154 ALA CA 140 1DPC... A 1DPCA IEEVPMTRLMQIGA GLU CA 181 1DPC A 1DPC... TYR CA 237 HIS CA 284 ASN CA 217 1DPC

  7. The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria. (United States)

    Mallmann, Julia; Heckmann, David; Bräutigam, Andrea; Lercher, Martin J; Weber, Andreas P M; Westhoff, Peter; Gowik, Udo


    C4 photosynthesis represents a most remarkable case of convergent evolution of a complex trait, which includes the reprogramming of the expression patterns of thousands of genes. Anatomical, physiological, and phylogenetic and analyses as well as computational modeling indicate that the establishment of a photorespiratory carbon pump (termed C2 photosynthesis) is a prerequisite for the evolution of C4. However, a mechanistic model explaining the tight connection between the evolution of C4 and C2 photosynthesis is currently lacking. Here we address this question through comparative transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of closely related C3, C3-C4, and C4 species, combined with Flux Balance Analysis constrained through a mechanistic model of carbon fixation. We show that C2 photosynthesis creates a misbalance in nitrogen metabolism between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Rebalancing nitrogen metabolism requires anaplerotic reactions that resemble at least parts of a basic C4 cycle. Our findings thus show how C2 photosynthesis represents a pre-adaptation for the C4 system, where the evolution of the C2 system establishes important C4 components as a side effect.

  8. Increased complement C4d deposition at the maternal-fetal interface in unexplained recurrent miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, Tess; Cohen, Danielle; Swings, Godelieve M J S; Veraar, Kimberly; Claas, Frans H J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M


    C4d is a footprint of antibody-mediated classical complement activation, and has evolved as a useful diagnostic marker of antibody-mediated rejection. It is unknown if complement activation, as reflected by C4d deposition plays a role in unexplained recurrent miscarriage. In a case-control study pro

  9. Comparison of aerobic and photosynthetic Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, Stephen J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Zeng, Xiaohua; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Dominguez, Migual; Tavano, Christine; Monroe, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Samuel; Donohue, Timothy; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.


    Proteomes from aerobic and photosynthetic grown Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 cell cultures were characterized using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with an accurate mass and elution time (AMT) tag approach. Roughly 8000 high quality peptides were detected that represented 1,445 gene products and 34% of the predicted proteins. The identified proteins corresponded primarily to open reading frames (ORFs) contained within the two chromosomal elements of this bacterium, but a significant number were also observed from ORFs associated with 5 naturally occurring plasmids. Data mining of peptides revealed a number of proteins uniquely detected within the photosynthetic cell culture. Proteins observed in both aerobic respiratory and photosynthetic grown cultures were analyzed semi-quantitatively by comparing their estimated abundances to provide insights into bioenergetic models for aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. Additional emphasis was placed on gene products annotated as hypothetical to gain information as to their potential roles within these two growth conditions. Where possible, transcriptome data for R. sphaeroides obtained under the same culture conditions were compared with these results. This comparative study demonstrated the applicability of the AMT tag approach for high-throughput proteomic analyses of pathways associated with the photosynthetic lifestyle.

  10. Analysis of data mining classification by comparison of C4.5 and ID algorithms (United States)

    Sudrajat, R.; Irianingsih, I.; Krisnawan, D.


    The rapid development of information technology, triggered by the intensive use of information technology. For example, data mining widely used in investment. Many techniques that can be used assisting in investment, the method that used for classification is decision tree. Decision tree has a variety of algorithms, such as C4.5 and ID3. Both algorithms can generate different models for similar data sets and different accuracy. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provide accuracy are 87.16% and 99.83% and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 89.69%. C4.5 and ID3 algorithms with discrete data provides 520 and 598 customers and C4.5 algorithm with numerical data is 546 customers. From the analysis of the both algorithm it can classified quite well because error rate less than 15%.

  11. A compendium of temperature responses of Rubisco kinetic traits: variability among and within photosynthetic groups and impacts on photosynthesis modeling. (United States)

    Galmés, Jeroni; Hermida-Carrera, Carmen; Laanisto, Lauri; Niinemets, Ülo


    The present study provides a synthesis of the in vitro and in vivo temperature responses of Rubisco Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (Kc) and O2 (Ko), specificity factor (Sc,o) and maximum carboxylase turnover rate (kcatc) for 49 species from all the main photosynthetic kingdoms of life. Novel correction routines were developed for in vitro data to remove the effects of study-to-study differences in Rubisco assays. The compilation revealed differences in the energy of activation (∆Ha) of Rubisco kinetics between higher plants and other photosynthetic groups, although photosynthetic bacteria and algae were under-represented and very few species have been investigated so far. Within plants, the variation in Rubisco temperature responses was related to species' climate and photosynthetic mechanism, with differences in ∆Ha for kcatc among C3 plants from cool and warm environments, and in ∆Ha for kcatc and Kc among C3 and C4 plants. A negative correlation was observed among ∆Ha for Sc/o and species' growth temperature for all data pooled, supporting the convergent adjustment of the temperature sensitivity of Rubisco kinetics to species' thermal history. Simulations of the influence of varying temperature dependences of Rubisco kinetics on Rubisco-limited photosynthesis suggested improved photosynthetic performance of C3 plants from cool habitats at lower temperatures, and C3 plants from warm habitats at higher temperatures, especially at higher CO2 concentration. Thus, variation in Rubisco kinetics for different groups of photosynthetic organisms might need consideration to improve prediction of photosynthesis in future climates. Comparisons between in vitro and in vivo data revealed common trends, but also highlighted a large variability among both types of Rubisco kinetics currently used to simulate photosynthesis, emphasizing the need for more experimental work to fill in the gaps in Rubisco datasets and improve scaling from enzyme kinetics to realized

  12. C4b-binding protein is present in affected areas of myocardial infarction during the acute inflammatory phase and covers a larger area than C3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leendert A Trouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During myocardial infarction reduced blood flow in the heart muscle results in cell death. These dying/dead cells have been reported to bind several plasma proteins such as IgM and C-reactive protein (CRP. In the present study we investigated whether fluid-phase complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein (C4BP would also bind to the infarcted heart tissue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Initial studies using immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays for several cardiovascular disorders indicated that C4BP can be found in heart tissue in several cardiac diseases but that it is most abundantly found in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This condition was studied in more detail by analyzing the time window and extent of C4BP positivity. The binding of C4BP correlates to the same locations as C3b, a marker known to correlate to the patterns of IgM and CRP staining. Based on criteria that describe the time after infarction we were able to pinpoint that C4BP binding is a relatively early marker of tissue damage in myocardial infarction with a peak of binding between 12 hours and 5 days subsequent to AMI, the phase in which infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes in the heart is the most extensive. CONCLUSIONS: C4BP, an important fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation binds to jeopardized cardiomyocytes early after AMI and co-localizes to other well known markers such as C3b.

  13. Photosynthetic characteristics of PEPC transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ With the rapid development of molecular biological technology,transfering foreign genes into crops has become an increasing routine,and making it possible to induce the genes encoding C4 photosynthesis enzyme into C3 plants.

  14. Confrontational C4ISR Simulation Training System Based on High Level Architecture%基于HLA的对抗性C4ISR仿真训练系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云龙; 姚芬


    A design of command,control, communication, and computer, intelligence, surveil- lance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) simulation training system is proposed for supporting the con- frontational training. Equal C4ISR simulation and distributed force generation systems are provid- ed a man in loop simulation training environment. In the environment is constructed, researchers can play as commanders of both sides for conducting confrontational exercises.%提出了一种能够支持时抗性训练的C^4ISR仿真训练系统设计方案,并通过为参试人员提供对等的红蓝双方C^4ISR仿真系统以及分布式兵力生成系统构建了一个“人在回路”的仿真训练环境。该环境中的参试人员可以分别扮演红蓝双方的指挥人员,开展对等的对抗性训练。

  15. Differential positioning of C4 mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts: aggregative movement of C4 mesophyll chloroplasts in response to environmental stresses. (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Michio; Sugiyama, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka


    In C(4) plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts are randomly distributed along the cell walls, while bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts are typically located in either a centripetal or centrifugal position. We investigated whether these intracellular positions are affected by environmental stresses. When mature leaves of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) were exposed to extremely high intensity light, most M chloroplasts aggregatively re-distributed to the BS side, whereas the intracellular arrangement of BS chloroplasts was unaffected. Compared with the homologous light-avoidance movement of M chloroplasts in C(3) plants, it requires extremely high light (3,000-4,000 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and responds more slowly (distinctive movement observed in 1 h). The high light-induced movement of M chloroplasts was also observed in maize (Zea mays), another C(4) species, but with a distinct pattern of redistribution along the sides of anticlinal walls, analogous to C(3) plants. The aggregative movement of M chloroplasts occurred at normal light intensities (250-500 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) in response to environmental stresses, such as drought, salinity and hyperosmosis. Moreover, the re-arrangement of M chloroplasts was observed in field-grown C(4) plants when exposed to mid-day sunlight, but also under midsummer drought conditions. The migration of M chloroplasts was controlled by actin filaments and also induced in a light-dependent fashion upon incubation with ABA, which may be the physiological signal transducer. Together these results suggest that M and BS cells of C(4) plants have different mechanisms controlling intracellular chloroplast positioning, and that the aggregative movement of C(4) M chloroplasts is thought to be a protective response under environmental stress conditions.

  16. Measurement of bubble velocity using Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Wang; Ying Zhou; Haifeng Ji; Zhiyao Huang; Haiqing Li


    The feasibility of applying Capacitively Coupled Contactless Conductivity Detection (C4D) technique to measurement of bubble velocity in gas-liquid two-phase flow in millimeter-scale pipe is investigated.And,a new method,which combines the C4D technique and the principle of cross-correlation velocity measurement,is proposed for the measurement of bubble velocity.This research includes two parts.First,based on the principle of C4D,a new five-electrode C4D sensor is developed.Then,with two conductivity signals obtained by the C4D sensor,the velocity measurement of bubble is implemented according to the principle of cross-correlation.The research results indicate that the C4D technique is highly effective and anticipates a broad potential in the field of two-phase flow.Experimental results show that the fiveelectrode C4D sensor is suitable for measuring the velocity of single bubbles with a relative error of less than 5%.

  17. Complement split products c3a and c4a in chronic lyme disease. (United States)

    Stricker, R B; Savely, V R; Motanya, N C; Giclas, P C


    Complement split products C3a and C4a are reportedly elevated in patients with acute Lyme disease. We have now examined these immunologic markers in patients with chronic Lyme disease compared to appropriate disease controls. The study population consisted of 29 healthy controls, 445 patients with chronic Lyme disease, 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and six patients with AIDS. The Lyme disease patients were divided according to predominant musculoskeletal symptoms (324 patients) or predominant neurologic symptoms (121 patients). C3a and C4a levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. All patients with chronic Lyme disease and AIDS had normal C3a levels compared to controls, whereas patients with SLE had significantly increased levels of this marker. Patients with predominant musculoskeletal symptoms of Lyme disease and AIDS patients had significantly increased levels of C4a compared to either controls, patients with predominant neurologic symptoms of Lyme disease or SLE patients. Response to antibiotic therapy in chronic Lyme disease was associated with a significant decrease in the C4a level, whereas lack of response was associated with a significant increase in this marker. In contrast, AIDS patients had persistently increased C4a levels despite antiretroviral therapy. Lyme patients with positive single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans had significantly lower C4a levels compared to Lyme patients with normal SPECT scan results. Patients with predominant musculoskeletal symptoms of Lyme disease have normal C3a and increased C4a levels. This pattern differs from the increase in both markers seen in acute Lyme disease, and C4a changes correlate with the response to therapy in chronic Lyme disease. C4a appears to be a valuable immunologic marker in patients with persistent symptoms of Lyme disease.

  18. From museums to genomics: old herbarium specimens shed light on a C3 to C4 transition. (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Lhuillier, Emeline; Lauzeral, Christine; Coissac, Eric; Vorontsova, Maria S


    Collections of specimens held by natural history museums are invaluable material for biodiversity inventory and evolutionary studies, with specimens accumulated over 300 years readily available for sampling. Unfortunately, most museum specimens yield low-quality DNA. Recent advances in sequencing technologies, so called next-generation sequencing, are revolutionizing phylogenetic investigations at a deep level. Here, the Illumina technology (HiSeq) was used on herbarium specimens of Sartidia (subfamily Aristidoideae, Poaceae), a small African-Malagasy grass lineage (six species) characteristic of wooded savannas, which is the C3 sister group of Stipagrostis, an important C4 genus from Africa and SW Asia. Complete chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal sequences were assembled for two Sartidia species, one of which (S. perrieri) is only known from a single specimen collected in Madagascar 100 years ago. Partial sequences of a few single-copy genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (ppc) and malic enzymes (nadpme) were also assembled. Based on these data, the phylogenetic position of Malagasy Sartidia in the subfamily Aristidoideae was investigated and the biogeographical history of this genus was analysed with full species sampling. The evolutionary history of two genes for C4 photosynthesis (ppc-aL1b and nadpme-IV) in the group was also investigated. The gene encoding the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate caroxylase of Stipagrostis is absent from S. dewinteri suggesting that it is not essential in C3 members of the group, which might have favoured its recruitment into a new metabolic pathway. Altogether, the inclusion of historical museum specimens in phylogenomic analyses of biodiversity opens new avenues for evolutionary studies.

  19. Electron attachment properties of c-C4F8O in different environments (United States)

    Chachereau, A.; Fedor, J.; Janečková, R.; Kočišek, J.; Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.


    The electron attachment properties of octafluorotetrahydrofuran (c-C4F8O) are investigated using two complementary experimental setups. The attachment and ionization cross sections of c-C4F8O are measured using an electron beam experiment. The effective ionization rate coefficient, electron drift velocity and electron diffusion coefficient in c-C4F8O diluted to concentrations lower than 0.6% in the buffer gases N2, CO2 and Ar, are measured using a pulsed Townsend experiment. A kinetic model is proposed, which combines the results of the two experiments.

  20. Carbon isotope ratios of C4 plants in loess areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of 89 C4 plant samples were determined from the loess area in North China. δ13C values vary between -10.5‰ and -14.6‰ with a mean of -12.6‰. Along a precipitation gradient from the semi-moist area to the semiarid area, then to the arid area, the δ13C values of C4 plants show a slight decreasing trend. The δ13C values of C4 plants in the dry season are found lower than those in the wet season. These trends are opposite to those observed for C3 species.

  1. Interrelations between C4 Ketogenesis, C5 Ketogenesis, and Anaplerosis in the Perfused Rat Liver*


    Deng, Shuang; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Roe, Charles R.; Brunengraber, Henri


    We investigated the interrelations between C4 ketogenesis (production of β-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate), C5 ketogenesis (production of β-hydroxypentanoate + β-ketopentanoate), and anaplerosis in isolated rat livers perfused with 13C-labeled octanoate, heptanoate, or propionate. Mass isotopomer analysis of C4 and C5 ketone bodies and of related acyl-CoA esters reveal that C4 and C5 ketogenesis share the same pool of acetyl-CoA. Although the uptake of octanoate and heptanoate by the liver ar...

  2. Correlated interaction fluctuations in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Vlaming, Sebastiaan M


    The functioning and efficiency of natural photosynthetic complexes is strongly influenced by their embedding in a noisy protein environment, which can even serve to enhance the transport efficiency. Interactions with the environment induce fluctuations of the transition energies of and interactions between the chlorophyll molecules, and due to the fact that different fluctuations will partially be caused by the same environmental factors, correlations between the various fluctuations will occur. We argue that fluctuations of the interactions should in general not be neglected, as these have a considerable impact on population transfer rates, decoherence rates and the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes. Furthermore, while correlations between transition energy fluctuations have been studied, we provide the first quantitative study of the effect of correlations between interaction fluctuations and transition energy fluctuations, and of correlations between the various interaction fluctuations. It is shown t...

  3. Photosynthetic rates of citronella and lemongrass. (United States)

    Herath, H M; Ormrod, D P


    Ten selections of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus [L.] Rendle) were grown at 32/27, 27/21, or 15/10 C day/night temperatures, and plants from three populations of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus [D.C.] Stapf from Japan or Sri Lanka and Cymbopogon flexuosus [D.C.] Stapf from India) were grown at 8- or 15-hour photoperiods. Net photosynthetic rates of mature leaves were measured in a controlled environment at 25 C and 260 microeinsteins per meter(2) per second. Rates declined with increasing leaf age, and from the tip to the base of the leaf blade. Rates for citronella leaves grown at 15/10 C were extremely low for all selections. Highest rates of net photosynthesis were recorded for four selections grown at 27/21 C and for two selections grown at 32/27 C. Lemongrass grown at 8-hour photoperiod had higher photosynthetic rates than that grown at 15-hour photoperiod.

  4. Precise identification of photosynthetic glycerolipids in microalga Tetraselmis chuii by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HaWing; YAN XiaoJun; Xu JiLin; ZHOU ChengXu


    Precise structural identification of photosynthetic polar glycerolipids in microalga Tetraselmis chuii has been established using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray ionizationQuadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) by direct analysis of the total lipids extract. The mass spectrometry was performed in reflective time-of-flight using electron spraying ionization in both positive and negative modes. The structural determination was based on the characteristic product ions yielded by different glycerolipids under ESI-MS/MS mode, and co firmed the molecular species by the carboxylate anions produced by glycerolipids in the negative mode. As a result, more than 40 lipid molecular species, including 11 monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG), 7 digalactosyldiacylglyoerols (DGDG), 16 sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), and 9 phosphatidylglycerols (PG), were detected in Tetraselmis ohuii, which had never been identified before in this mioroalga. Furthermore, some intact lipid molecules with hydroxylated fatty acids that could not be detected by the traditional GO-MS method were found this time, providing novel information for the photosynthetic lipidome of Tetraselmis chuii. Comparative studies on fatty acids at the sn-2 position showed that SQDG and MGDG are dominantly biosynthesized through the prokaryotic pathway, PG is a typically mixed biosynthetic pathway, while DGDG is somewhat peculiar with C14:0 and C16:0 at its sn-2 position. This method could provide a full structural profile of intact photosynthetic lipid molecular species, which may be applied to study the physiological and ecological functions of lipid by monitoring their individual changes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs


    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/2/2003 through 4/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are progressing with long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are completing final preparations for pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 are included.

  6. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.


    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  7. Nonclassical energy transfer in photosynthetic FMO complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramavicius Vytautas


    Full Text Available Excitation energy transfer in a photosynthetic FMO complex has been simulated using the stochastic Schrödinger equation. Fluctuating chromophore transition energies are simulated from the quantum correlation function which allows to properly include the finite temperature. The resulting excitation dynamics shows fast thermalization of chromophore occupations into proper thermal equilibrium. The relaxation process is characterized by entropy dynamics, which shows nonclassical behavior.

  8. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Many photosynthetic characteristics of three plum varieties were studied with a infrared CO2 analyzer. Results showed that plums belong to light-loving species,having a relative high light compensation point (75~ 80μmol · m-2 · s-1 ), In natural light range from none to 1400μmol · m-2s-1PAR,the light response curve of plum as a hyperbo and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in leavs increased with PA elevation. Pn of plum tree was 20 to 22.50mg CO2 · dm-1 · h-1 at 1380μmol · m-2 · s-1 PAR,indicating that plum was typi cal C3-type fruit tree. Diurnal change in Pn was a bimoal curve with the highest photosynthetic rate arising at about 10:00 a. m. indicated the clear“none-rest”characteristic in plum leaves. Among three varieties. SuiLi3 had the shortest“none-rest“time followed by JiLin6 and NuXinLi. Seasonal change in Pn was a bi modal curve with the first period of high Pn in late June and the second in late August. Pn in leaves decreased visibly in period of drought in Spring and Summer.

  9. Promotion of Photosynthesis of Transgenic Rice Plant with Overexpressing C4 pepc from Maize under Low Concentration NO%低浓度NO对高表达转玉米C4型pepc水稻光合的促进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平波; 李霞


    In order to reveal the relationship between physiological difference and high photosynthetic efficiency in C3 plant with high expression C4pepc, the transgenic rice with high expression of maize C4 pepc (PC) and the untransformed rice plant Kitaake ( WT) were used as the material plants. The up-second leaves of the rice plants were used to treat by root system during the booting stage. After the treatments of the different concentrations of NO donor, NO synthesis inhibitors and related signal related reagents as well as in the dark for 12 h, the effects of NO on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , stomatal conductance (Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (C{) of the test material leaves were measured. The results showed that; Pn of WT and PC increased by 20. 8% and 10.7% , respectively under the treatments of 200 μmol · L-1 SNP( Sodium nitroprusside) and 1 mmol · L-1 L-Arg (L-Arginine) , which was significantly different(P <0.05) ; However, with increasing the concentrations of SNP and L-Arg, the Pn, Gs and Ci of two rice plants were gradually suppressed. Compared with PC, the Pn of WT was significantly inhibited (p <0. 05) , but the changes of Gs and C; were opposite; When treated by 200 μmol · L -1 SNP and 1 mmol · L -1 L-Arg as well as SA ( salicylic acid) for the test materials, the changes of Pn, Gs and Ct were similar with those under high concentrations of NO donors treatment; Under united 6 mmol · L-1 EGTA of Ca2 + chelator treatment, compared with the PC, the Pn of WT was significantly inhibited at the level (P <0. 01 ) , that Ci was opposite (p <0. 05). Correlation analysis showed that; The correlationship between the Pn and the Gs in PC was less than that of WT, the determination coefficients were 0. 654 9 and 0. 773 5 ; However, The correlationship between the Pn and the Ci in PC was larger than that of WT, the determination coefficients were 0. 466 5 and 0.419 6, which implied that there might be different way of the regulation of

  10. Rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the explosive bouquet compounds associated with C-4 explosives (United States)

    Clasp, Trocia N.; Johnson, Tiffani; Sullivan, Michael N.; Reeve, Scott W.


    The explosive material known as Composition C4, or simply C4, is an RDX based military grade explosive. RDX itself possesses a negligible vapor pressure at room temperature suggesting it is not a good target for conventional instruments designed to detect vapor phase chemical compounds. Recent research with canines has indicated that a better approach for detecting explosive vapors such as C4 is to focus on a characteristic mixture of impurities associated with the material. These characteristic mixtures of impurity vapors are referred to by canine researchers as the explosive bouquet and are fairly unique to the specific energetic material. In this paper, we will examine and report rotationally resolved infrared spectral signatures for the known compounds comprising the explosive bouquet for C4 based explosives including isobutylene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone.

  11. Commercial Practice on Technology for High- Temperature Cracking of C4 Fraction to Increase Propylene Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Darong; Zhang Zhigang


    This article refers to the results of small-scale and commercial tests on high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit to increase the propylene yield. The bench tests revealed that the conversion rate of C4 fraction during high-temperature cracking reached 37.38 % and propylene yield was equal to 15.60 % with the conversion rate of C4 olefins equating around 50%. The results of commercial application showed that adoption of the technology for high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit had led to an increase of propylene yield by 2.16 % with no remarkable changes in the yields and properties of other products.

  12. Chronic effects of the ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] towards the microalga Scenedesmus quadricauda. (United States)

    Deng, Yun; Beadham, Ian; Wu, Jie; Chen, Xiao-Di; Hu, Lan; Gu, Jun


    Chronic effects of the ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] (mp 73 °C) towards the microalga, Scenedesmus quadricauda were studied by flow cytometry, monitoring multiple endpoints of cell density, esterase activity, membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species and chlorophyll fluorescence. Toxicity was clearly in evidence, and although increased esterase activity indicated hormesis during initial exposure to [C4mim][Cl], inhibition of both esterase activity and chlorophyll fluorescence became apparent after 3 days. Cell density was also decreased by culturing with [C4mim][Cl], but this effect was clearly concentration-dependent and only became significant during the second half of the experiment. In contrast, [C4mim][Cl] had only a modest effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caused little damage to cell membranes.

  13. Discovery of C4 species at high altitude in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Luo; L(U) Houyuan; WU Naiqin; CHU Duo; HAN Jiamao; WU Yuhu; WU Haibin; GU Zhaoyan


    Plant specimens are collected from the areas between latitude 27°42'N and 40°57'N, and longitude 88°93'E and 103°24'E, with an altitudinal range from 2210 to 5050 m above the sea level in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The stable carbon isotope analysis indicates that two of Chenopodiaceae and six of Poaceae in the samples are C4 plants. Four of the C4 plants are found in 11 spots with altitudes above 3800 m,and Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Arundinella yunnanensis and Orinus thoroldii are present in six spots above 4000 m, even up to 4520 m. At low CO2 partial pressure, that sufficient energy of high light improving C4 plant's tolerance of low temperature and precipitations concentrating in growing season probably are favorable for C4 plants growing at high altitude in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  14. COBP and Its Effect on Evaluation of C4ISR System%COBP方法及其在C4ISR系统评价中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鹏; 刘俊先; 袁卫卫


    COBP(NATO Code of Best Practice for C2 Assessment)是北大西洋公约组织近期用来指导C4ISR系统效能评估的最新理论成果,本文首先对其主要部分进行了总结,详细阐述了它的评估过程,接下来给出了外军应用COBP方法进行C4ISR系统评估的一个应用实例,最后比较了COBP方法与其他系统效能评估框架的异同,总结指出COBP方法对我军指挥自动化系统评估的借鉴意义.

  15. Sydnone C-4 heteroarylation with an indolizine ring via Chichibabin indolizine synthesis. (United States)

    Albota, Florin; Caira, Mino R; Draghici, Constantin; Dumitrascu, Florea; Dumitrescu, Denisa E


    The synthesis of sydnones heteroarylated at C-4 with an indolizine was achieved by Chichibabin (Tschitschibabin) indolizine synthesis starting from the corresponding sydnone-N-pyridinium bromides. The latter compounds were also transformed to sydnone-indolizines connected through a keto group at the C-4 position by refluxing them in 1,2-epoxybutane with an activated alkyne. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis.

  16. C4齐聚物及其加氢产物的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛慧峰; 笪敏峰; 赵家林


    The components in C4 oligmer and its hydrogenated product were separated on capillary columns. The methods including retention time, chemical reaction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-infrared spectrmetry were used to identify the components. The content of component was calculated by area normalization.The comparative analysis of C8 hydrocarbons in C4 oligmer and its hydrogenated product shows that the results are obviously different due to different conditions of hydrogenation.

  17. 苦荞肉桂酸羟化酶基因(FtC4H)的克隆及其UV-B胁迫下的组织表达%Cloning of Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase Gene(C4H) from Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tararicum) and Its Tissue-specific Expression under UV-B Stress during Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿翰; 袁梦求; 李双江; 赵海霞; 陈惠; 李成磊; 吴琦


    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the second enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in plant, and its expression level affects the contents of many secondary metabolites such as flavonoid and lignin. In order to learn more about the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids biosynthesis, a cDNA encoding C4H was cloned through the methods of RT-PCR and RACE from tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tararicum). The results showed that the FtC4H cDNA with 1 515 bp in foil-length encoded 504 amino acids including all the active sites of C4H. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression level of FtC4H was improved in both cotyledon and hypocotyl (P<0.05) under UV-B stress. Statistical analysis indicated that both of the expression levels of FtC4H in the cotyledon and hypocotyl were significantly associated with the flavonoid contents in the relative tissues, and their correlation coefficients were 0.945 and 0.768, respectively. Our results can provide useful information to understand the relationship between expression level of FtC4H and flavoniod content induced by environmental factors in tartary buckwheat. Further more, this study indicated that FtC4H can be a new candidate target gene for developing high flavoniod tartary buckwheat by secondary metabolic engineering.%肉桂酸羟化酶(C4H)是植物苯丙烷代谢通路中的第二个酶,该酶在植物细胞中的含量可以影响木质素和黄酮类物质的合成等多条代谢支路.为进一步揭示苦荞黄酮合成的分子机制,对苦荞C4H基因的全长序列进行克隆.本研究采用RT-PCR和RACE技术从苦荞(Fagop yrum tararic um)花蕾中克隆得到一个肉桂酸羟化酶基因的全长cDNA (FtC4H).结果表明,FtC4H基因的ORF全长为1 515 bp,编码504个氨基酸,具有C4H的所有活性位点.利用半定量RT-PCR分析了苦荞芽期UV-B胁迫前后子叶和胚轴中FtC4H的表达量变化,同时比较其总黄酮含量变化,统计学分析表明,UV-B胁迫显著提高了FtC4H

  18. Enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic rice over-expressing of maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene via NO and Ca(2+). (United States)

    Qian, Baoyun; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaolong; Chen, Pingbo; Ren, Chengang; Dai, Chuanchao


    We determined the effects of endogenous nitric oxide and Ca(2+) on photosynthesis and gene expression in transgenic rice plants (PC) over-expressing the maize C4pepc gene, which encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) under drought. In this study, seedlings were subjected to PEG 6000 treatments using PC and wild type (WT; Kitaake). The results showed that, compared with WT, PC had higher relative water content (RWC) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under drought. During a 2-day re-watering treatment, Pn recovered faster in PC than in WT. Further analyses showed that, under the drought treatment, the amount of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased in WT mainly via NADPH oxidase. While in PC, the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) content increased via nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase on day 2 of the drought treatment and day 1 of the re-watering treatment. After 2 days of drought treatment, PC also showed higher PEPC activity, calcium content, phospholipase D (PLD) activity, C4-pepc and NAC6 transcript levels, and protein kinase activity as compared with PC without treatment. These changes did not occur in WT. Correlation analysis also proved NO associated with these indicators in PC. Based on these results, there was a particular molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in PC. The mechanism is related to the signaling processes via NO and Ca(2+) involving the protein kinase and the transcription factor, resulted in up-regulation of PEPC activity and its gene expression, such as C4pepc. Some genes encode antioxidant system, cu/zn-sod as well, which promote antioxidant system to clear MDA and superoxide anion radical, thereby conferring drought tolerance.

  19. Comparative proteomics of chloroplasts envelopes from bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts reveals novel membrane proteins with a possible role in C4-related metabolite fluxes and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana eManandhar-Shrestha


    Full Text Available As the world population grows, our need for food increases drastically. Limited amounts of arable land lead to a competition between food and fuel crops, while changes in the global climate may impact future crop yields. Thus, a second green revolution will need a better understanding of the processes essential for plant growth and development. One approach toward the solution of this problem is to better understand regulatory and transport processes in C4 plants. C4 plants display an up to 10-fold higher apparent CO2 assimilation and higher yields while maintaining high water use efficiency. This requires differential regulation of mesophyll (M and bundle sheath (BS chloroplast development as well as higher metabolic fluxes of photosynthetic intermediates between cells and across chloroplast envelopes. While previous analyses of overall chloroplast membranes have yielded significant insight, our comparative proteomics approach using enriched BS and M chloroplast envelopes of Zea mays allowed us to identify 37 proteins of unknown function that have not been seen in these earlier studies. We identified 280 proteins, 84% of which are known/predicted to be present in chloroplasts (cp. 74% have a known or predicted membrane association. 21 membrane proteins were 2-15 times more abundant in BS cells, while 36 proteins were more abundant in M cp envelopes. These proteins could represent additional candidates of proteins essential for development or metabolite transport processes in C4 plants. RT-PCR confirmed differential expression of thirteen candidate genes. Cp association was confirmed using GFP labeling. Genes for a PIC-like protein and an ER-AP-like protein show an early transient increase in gene expression during the transition to light. In addition, PIC gene expression is increased in the immature part of the leaf and was lower in the fully developed parts of the leaf, suggesting a need for/incorporation of the protein during chloroplast

  20. Was photosynthetic RuBisCO recruited by acquisitive evolution from RuBisCO-like proteins involved in sulfur metabolism? (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroki; Danchin, Antoine; Yokota, Akiho


    Genome analyses have revealed that the genomes of non-photosynthetic bacteria including Bacillus subtilis code for proteins similar to the large subunit of RuBisCO (called RuBisCO-like protein (RLP)). This raises a fundamental question as to their functional relationship to photosynthetic RuBisCO. Recently, we identified the RLP of B. subtilis as the 2,3-diketo-5-methylthiopentyl-1-phosphate enolase in the methionine salvage pathway. In this mini-review, we suggest functional and evolutionary links between B. subtilis RLP and photosynthetic RuBisCO. Furthermore, we propose that photosynthetic RuBisCOs evolved from RLPs similar to that found in B. subtilis.

  1. Reconstructing C3 and C4 vegetation cover using n-alkane carbon isotope ratios in recent lake sediments from Cameroon, Western Central Africa (United States)

    Garcin, Yannick; Schefuß, Enno; Schwab, Valérie F.; Garreta, Vincent; Gleixner, Gerd; Vincens, Annie; Todou, Gilbert; Séné, Olivier; Onana, Jean-Michel; Achoundong, Gaston; Sachse, Dirk


    Trees and shrubs in tropical Africa use the C3 cycle as a carbon fixation pathway during photosynthesis, while grasses and sedges mostly use the C4 cycle. Leaf-wax lipids from sedimentary archives such as the long-chain n-alkanes (e.g., n-C27 to n-C33) inherit carbon isotope ratios that are representative of the carbon fixation pathway. Therefore, n-alkane δ13C values are often used to reconstruct past C3/C4 composition of vegetation, assuming that the relative proportions of C3 and C4 leaf waxes reflect the relative proportions of C3 and C4 plants. We have compared the δ13C values of n-alkanes from modern C3 and C4 plants with previously published values from recent lake sediments and provide a framework for estimating the fractional contribution (areal-based) of C3 vegetation cover (fC3) represented by these sedimentary archives. Samples were collected in Cameroon, across a latitudinal transect that accommodates a wide range of climate zones and vegetation types, as reflected in the progressive northward replacement of C3-dominated rain forest by C4-dominated savanna. The C3 plants analysed were characterised by substantially higher abundances of n-C29 alkanes and by substantially lower abundances of n-C33 alkanes than the C4 plants. Furthermore, the sedimentary δ13C values of n-C29 and n-C31 alkanes from recent lake sediments in Cameroon (-37.4‰ to -26.5‰) were generally within the range of δ13C values for C3 plants, even when from sites where C4 plants dominated the catchment vegetation. In such cases simple linear mixing models fail to accurately reconstruct the relative proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation cover when using the δ13C values of sedimentary n-alkanes, overestimating the proportion of C3 vegetation, likely as a consequence of the differences in plant wax production, preservation, transport, and/or deposition between C3 and C4 plants. We therefore tested a set of non-linear binary mixing models using δ13C values from both C3 and C4

  2. C4d immunoreactivity of intraoperative zero-hour biopsy in renal allograft. (United States)

    Lee, C; Park, J H; Suh, J H; Kim, H W; Moon, K C


    C4d deposition in the peritubular capillaries is known to be correlated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in renal allografts. An intraoperative zero-hour biopsy during transplantation is considered an indicator to indirectly determine the status of the donor kidney. In this study, we investigated the relationship between C4d immunoreactivity of intraoperative zero-hour biopsy in renal allograft, thought to be due to donor condition, and acute rejection episodes during follow-up. We collected 147 renal transplantation cases examining intraoperative zero-hour biopsy with C4d immunohistochemical staining. All cases were from the Seoul National University Hospital between 2010 and 2011. Of the 147 cases, 24 (16.3%) showed strong C4d staining in the glomeruli, 38 (25.9%) showed weak staining, and the remainder (57.8%) showed negative staining. Nine cases (6.1%) showed positive C4d staining in the arterioles, and the remainder (93.9%) were negative. There were no significant differences between acute T-cell-mediated rejection and acute AMR episodes in the renal allograft specimens during follow-up according to the glomerular or arteriolar C4d immunoreactivity of the intraoperative zero-hour biopsy specimens.

  3. Aromatization of Huabei C4 liquefied petroleum gas%华北C4液化气芳构化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. In vitro antiproliferative characteristics of flavonoids and diazepam on SNU-C4 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jae-Tae; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho Won; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ha, Jeoung-Hee


    The need for beneficial use of sedatives in oncologic patients is increasing. Therefore, in this study, antiproliferative characteristics of herbal and synthetic sedatives were examined in vitro in SNU-C4 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Apigenin (50% inhibition concentration, IC(50) = 1.8 +/- 0.5 microM) and diazepam (IC(50) = 7.0 +/- 0.5 microM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition of SNU-C4 cancer cell survival. Efficacy of cancer cell survival inhibition by apigenin and diazepam was much lower than that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a known chemotherapeutic drug. However, 10(-6) M concentration of apigenin and diazepam potentiated 5-FU-induced cytotoxicity. In SNU-C4 cells, 10(-6) M concentrations of diazepam, flumazenil (Ro15-1788), Ro5-4864, or PK11195, all ligands for central- or peripheral-type benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors, inhibited cell survival like the flavonoid apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) and fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). Also like the plant flavonoids, treatment with 10(-6) M concentration of diazepam for 3 days hardly affect the peripheral-type BZD receptor (PBR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and inhibited glucose utilization of SNU-C4 cells. Treatment with flavonoids or diazepam for 6 days upregulated PBR mRNA expression and cell cytotoxicity of SNU-C4 cells. Furthermore, treatment with 10(-6) M concentration of apigenin, a natural sedative material originating from traditional herbs, positively modulated BZD-induced antiproliferative cytotoxicity in SNU-C4 cells. Overall, the in vitro antiproliferative activity on SNU-C4 cancer cells of herbal sedatives, such as apigenin, plus additive enhancement of synthetic BZD- and 5-FU-induced antiproliferative activities, were shown. In conclusion, this study provides experimental basis for advanced trial in the future.

  5. Capillary Deposition of Complement C4d and C3d in Chinese Renal Allograft Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lv


    Full Text Available Background. C3d is a product of both the classic and the alternative complement cascades; however, few studies have addressed the role of C3d in renal biopsies and its relationship with long-term graft survival rate is not very clear. Methods. 94 patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were included in the study. We investigated the associations between histological findings, clinical examinations, and outcome. Results. The overall prevalence for C4dPTC and C3dPTC was 42.6% and 29.8%. There was a significant association between C3dPTC and C4dPTC (P<0.001. C3dPTC and C4dPTC were related with histological types (P=0.024 and P<0.001, resp.. The long-term survival rate for C4dPTC positive transplants was lower than that of C4dPTC negative transplants, but it was not statistic significant in our study (P=0.150. The survival rate of C3dPTC positive group was much lower than the negative group (P=0.014. Patients with double positives for C4dPTC and C3dPTC exhibited the lowest survival rate significantly different from those of the C3dPTC only and C4dPTC only groups (P=0.01 and P=0.0037. Conclusions. This longitudinal cohort study has demonstrated that C3d deposition in the PTC was closely related to renal dysfunction and pathological changes.

  6. Multiscale Analysis and Optimisation of Photosynthetic Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ringsmuth, Andrew K


    This work asks how light harvesting in photosynthetic systems can be optimised for economically scalable, sustainable energy production. Hierarchy theory is introduced as a system-analysis and optimisation tool better able to handle multiscale, multiprocess complexities in photosynthetic energetics compared with standard linear-process analysis. Within this framework, new insights are given into relationships between composition, structure and energetics at the scale of the thylakoid membrane, and also into how components at different scales cooperate under functional objectives of the whole photosynthetic system. Combining these reductionistic and holistic analyses creates a platform for modelling multiscale-optimal, idealised photosynthetic systems in silico.

  7. The Remote Control Car Based on PSoC4%基于PSoC4的遥控小车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金绍敏; 张震


    "The remote control car Based on PSoC4"is a production company Cypress and ARM development board set PSoC4 motor drive modules, power management module , PSoC4 control module , Bluetooth serial communication module is based . L298N motor driver chip module uses a motor to drive the 4-way , 2-way connection Enable PWM wave signal from the control board , the four input termination power module 4 GND ports ( four output terminals tap four motors one pole , the other pole motor connected to the power supply module+5 V);power management module uses the LM2940-5.0 chip to convert 12V to 5V , 12V power supply for motor drive module , 5V for Bluetooth module , a motor power poles , etc.;master module using the MDK-editing program , and then downloaded to the control board , to achieve the interaction of hardware and software;Bluetooth serial communication module is the use of a needle inserted FBT06_LPDB Bluetooth module for serial communication with the control board , while communicating with the android phone; android control terminal module has to turn on Bluetooth , search for Bluetooth , control car functions. Users can control the car 's movement through the android control terminal,the user needs to implement some features and services .%“基于PSoC4的蓝牙控制小车”是一个基于Cypress与ARM公司生产的PSoC4开发板的集电机驱动模块、电源管理模块、PSoC4主控模块、蓝牙串口通信模块。电机驱动模块使用一个L298N芯片来驱动4路电机,使能端连接2路来自主控板的PWM波信号,4个输入端接电源模块的4个GND端口(4个输出端分接4个电机的一极,电机的另一极接电源模块的+5V);电源管理模块使用了LM2940-5.0芯片进行12V到5V的转换,12V用于电机驱动模块的供电,5V用于蓝牙模块、电机一极等的供电;主控模块采用了MDK编辑程序,然后下载到主控板,实现硬件与软件的交互;蓝牙串口通信模块则是采用了FBT06

  8. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: a rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor? (United States)

    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Olivieri, Anna; Angerhofer, Norman; Gandini, Francesca; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Semino, Ornella; Woodward, Scott R; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio


    Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

  9. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)


    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  10. Simulation of photosynthetic production using neural network (United States)

    Kmet, Tibor; Kmetova, Maria


    This paper deals with neural network based optimal control synthesis for solving optimal control problems with control and state constraints and discrete time delay. The optimal control problem is transcribed into nonlinear programming problem which is implemented with adaptive critic neural network. This approach is applicable to a wide class of nonlinear systems. The proposed simulation methods is illustrated by the optimal control problem of photosynthetic production described by discrete time delay differential equations. Results show that adaptive critic based systematic approach holds promise for obtaining the optimal control with control and state constraints.

  11. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae. (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo


    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  12. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance (United States)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David


    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 μm thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  13. Minimal (C4,K4;7)-P-graphs%极小(C4,K4;7)-平面图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph is a graph with order n,which does not contain a subgraph isomorphic to H1 ,and its complement has no subgraph isomorphic to H2 .G is a minimal (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph,if G is an (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph and G′obtained by deleting any one edge from G is not an (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph.In this paper,the minimal (C4 ,K4;7 )-P-graphs are given.%若平面图G没有与H1同构的子图,且G珔没有与H2同构的子图,则G称为(H1,H2)-平面图。(H1,H2;n)-平面图表示n阶的(H1,H2)-平面图。若G是(H1,H2;n)-平面图,去掉G的任意一条边,都不再是(H1,H2;n)-平面图,则G称为极小(H1,H2;n)-平面图。本文给出了所有的极小(C4,K4;7)-平面图,有助于证明PR(C4,K8)。

  14. Optimizing Antenna Size to Maximize Photosynthetic Efficiency (United States)

    The theoretical upper limit for the operational efficiency of plant photosynthesis has been estimated from a detailed stepwise analysis of the biophysical and biochemical subprocesses to be about 4.6% for C3 and 6.0% C4 plants. The highest short term efficiencies observed for plants in the field, as...

  15. Developmental role of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes during adventitious rooting of Juglans regia L. microshoots. (United States)

    Cheniany, Monireh; Ganjeali, Ali


    Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase play important role in the phenylpropanoid pathway, which produces many biologically important secondary metabolites participating in normal plant development. Flavonol quercetin is the main representant of these compounds that has been identified in numerous Juglans spp. In this survey, the developmental expression patterns of PAL and C4H genes during in vitro rooting of two walnut cultivars 'Sunland' and 'Howard' was examined by RT-PCR. To understand the potential role in rooting, the changing pattern of endogenous content of quercetin was also analyzed by HPLC. The 'Sunland' with better capacity to root had more quercetin content during the "inductive phase" of rooting than 'Howard'. In each cultivar, the level of PAL transcripts showed the same behavior with the changing patterns of quercetin during root formation of microshoots. The positive correlation between the changes of quercetin and PAL-mRNA indicated that PAL gene may have an immediate effect on flavonoid pathway metabolites including quercetin. Although the behavioral change of C4H expression was similar in both cultivars during root formation (with significantly more level for 'Howard'), it was not coincide with the changes of quercerin concentrations. Our results showed that C4H function is important for the normal development, but its transcriptional regulation does not correlate with quercetin as an efficient phenolic compound for walnut rhizogenesis.

  16. Eugenol--the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells. (United States)

    Raghavenra, H; Diwakr, B T; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A


    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory conditions in humans. PMNL cells recruited at the site of inflammation, release inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes, proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Among these, leukotrienes are implicated in pathophysiology of allergic and inflammatory disorders like asthma, allergic rhinitis, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the key enzyme in biosynthetic pathway of leukotrienes. Our earlier studies showed that spice phenolic active principles significantly inhibit 5-LO enzyme in human PMNLs. In this study we have further characterized the inhibitory mechanism of eugenol, the active principle of spice-clove on 5-LO enzyme and also its effect on leukotriene C((4)) (LTC(4)). Substrate dependent enzyme kinetics showed that the inhibitory effect of eugenol on 5-LO was of a non-competitive nature. Further, eugenol was found to significantly inhibit the formation of LTC(4) in calcium ionophore A23187 and arachidonic acid (AA) stimulated PMNL cells. These data clearly suggest that eugenol inhibits 5-LO by non-competitive mechanism and also inhibits formation of LTC(4) in human PMNL cells and thus may have beneficial role in modulating 5-LO pathway in human PMNL cells.

  17. Photosynthetic water oxidation: insights from manganese model chemistry. (United States)

    Young, Karin J; Brennan, Bradley J; Tagore, Ranitendranath; Brudvig, Gary W


    Catalysts for light-driven water oxidation are a critical component for development of solar fuels technology. The multielectron redox chemistry required for this process has been successfully deployed on a global scale in natural photosynthesis by green plants and cyanobacteria using photosystem II (PSII). PSII employs a conserved, cuboidal Mn4CaOX cluster called the O2-evolving complex (OEC) that offers inspiration for artificial O2-evolution catalysts. In this Account, we describe our work on manganese model chemistry relevant to PSII, particularly the functional model [Mn(III/IV)2(terpy)2(μ-O)2(OH2)2](NO3)3 complex (terpy = 2,2';6',2″-terpyridine), a mixed-valent di-μ-oxo Mn dimer with two terminal aqua ligands. In the presence of oxo-donor oxidants such as HSO5(-), this complex evolves O2 by two pathways, one of which incorporates solvent water in an O-O bond-forming reaction. Deactivation pathways of this catalyst include comproportionation to form an inactive Mn(IV)Mn(IV) dimer and also degradation to MnO2, a consequence of ligand loss when the oxidation state of the complex is reduced to labile Mn(II) upon release of O2. The catalyst's versatility has been shown by its continued catalytic activity after direct binding to the semiconductor titanium dioxide. In addition, after binding to the surface of TiO2 via a chromophoric linker, the catalyst can be oxidized by a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism, mimicking the natural PSII process. Model oxomanganese complexes have also aided in interpreting biophysical and computational studies on PSII. In particular, the μ-oxo exchange rates of the Mn-terpy dimer have been instrumental in establishing that the time scale for μ-oxo exchange of high-valent oxomanganese complexes with terminal water ligands is slower than O2 evolution in the natural photosynthetic system. Furthermore, computational studies on the Mn-terpy dimer and the OEC point to similar Mn(IV)-oxyl intermediates in the O-O bond

  18. Collective magnetic excitations of C4-symmetric magnetic states in iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Scherer, Daniel D.; Eremin, Ilya; Andersen, Brian M.


    We study the collective magnetic excitations of the recently discovered C4-symmetric spin-density-wave states of iron-based superconductors with particular emphasis on their orbital character based on an itinerant multiorbital approach. This is important since the C4-symmetric spin-density-wave states exist only at moderate interaction strengths where damping effects from a coupling to the continuum of particle-hole excitations strongly modify the shape of the excitation spectra compared to predictions based on a local moment picture. We uncover a distinct orbital polarization inherent to magnetic excitations in C4-symmetric states, which provide a route to identify the different commensurate magnetic states appearing in the continuously updated phase diagram of the iron-pnictide family.

  19. Influence of Nucleating Agent on the Formation of C4A3S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huiling; XIE Junlin; ZHANG Shu; XU Qi


    The reference test methods are carried out parallelly,by means of chemical analysis,X-ray diffraction,differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry,scanning electron microscopy and polarized optical microscope to study the formation of C4A3S in the presence and absence of nucleating agent.The results show that nucleating agent with high calcium and low heat consumption as tricalcium silicate (C3S) promotes the formation of C4A3S and increases desulfurization degree obviously.During calcining raw meals doped with C3S,the grain sizes of C4A3S are larger compared with that without C3S.And at the same calcining level,the mass loss and the heat consumption belonged to CaCO3 decomposition is reduced.

  20. Al4SiC4 wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pedesseau


    Full Text Available New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al4SiC4. A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al4SiC4 material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al4SiC4 material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Highly reactive belite and calcium sulphoaluminate as well as monosulphate mix were prepared from nano-materials at lower temperatures ~1250°C. The crystal size of these materials was 25, 16 and 27 nm as determined from the X-ray analysis. The sulphoaluminate belite cement is a recent type of cement prepared at lower temperature with good properties. The aim of the present work is to synthesize C4A3S̄, monosulphate mix C4AS̄ and active belite β-C2S. The hydration mechanism was studied by XRD and DSC techniques as well as by the determination of chemically combined water contents of cement pastes with curing time. The results reveal that ettringite is first formed hydrates in the monosulphate mix, which then converted into monosulphate hydrates. The results of DSC and XRD are in good agreement with those of combined water contents. On the other side, the rate of hydration of active belite increases linearly from 3 up to 90 days, whereas, the traditional belite hydrates increase with lower rate up to 90 days, due to the thermodynamic stability structure of traditional belite.

  2. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R


    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  3. C# 4, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, with Visual Studio 2010 jump start

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Christian; Stephens, Rod; Hanselman, Scott; Glynn, Jay; Rader, Devin; Watson, Karli; Skinner, Morgan


    This Wrox Blox is a value-packed resource to help experienced .NETdevelopers learn the new .NET release. It is excerpted from theWrox books: Professional C# 4 and .NET 4, Professional ASP.NET4, and WPF Programmer's Reference by Christian Nagel,Bill Evjen, Scott Hanselman, and Rod Stephens, and includes morethan 100 print book pages drawn from these three key titles. It isan excellent resource to help .NET developers get up to speed faston .NET 4, C# 4.0, ASP.NET 4, and WPF, providing all theinformation needed to program with the important new features,including: C# Dynamic Types and Par

  4. Dynamic and quasi-static measurements of C-4 and primasheet P1000 explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Darla G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Luca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Steven N [SNL


    We have measured dynamic and quasi-static mechanical properties of C-4 and Primasheet P1000 explosive materials to provide input data for modeling efforts. Primasheet P1000 is a pentaerythritol tetranitrate-based rubberized explosive. C-4 is a RDX-based moldable explosive. Dynamic measurements included acoustic and split-Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Quasi-static testing was done in compression on load frames and on a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Split-Hopkinson and quasi-static tests were done at five temperatures from -50 C to 50 C. Acoustic velocities were measured at, above, and below room temperature.

  5. Isolation of dimorphic chloroplasts from the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung Shiu-Cheung


    Full Text Available Abstract Three terrestrial plants are known to perform C4 photosynthesis without the dual-cell system by partitioning two distinct types of chloroplasts in separate cytoplasmic compartments. We report herein a protocol for isolating the dimorphic chloroplasts from Bienertia sinuspersici. Hypo-osmotically lysed protoplasts under our defined conditions released intact compartments containing the central chloroplasts and intact vacuoles with adhering peripheral chloroplasts. Following Percoll step gradient purification both chloroplast preparations demonstrated high homogeneities as evaluated from the relative abundance of respective protein markers. This protocol will open novel research directions toward understanding the mechanism of single-cell C4 photosynthesis.

  6. The C4 clustering algorithm: Clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert; Reichart, Dan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Annis, James; McKay, Timothy; Bahcall, Neta; Bernardi, Mariangela; Boehringer,; Connolly, Andrew; Goto, Tomo; Kniazev, Alexie; Lamb, Donald; Postman, Marc; Schneider, Donald; Sheth, Ravi; Voges, Wolfgang; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Portsmouth U.,


    We present the ''C4 Cluster Catalog'', a new sample of 748 clusters of galaxies identified in the spectroscopic sample of the Second Data Release (DR2) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The C4 cluster-finding algorithm identifies clusters as overdensities in a seven-dimensional position and color space, thus minimizing projection effects that have plagued previous optical cluster selection. The present C4 catalog covers {approx}2600 square degrees of sky and ranges in redshift from z = 0.02 to z = 0.17. The mean cluster membership is 36 galaxies (with redshifts) brighter than r = 17.7, but the catalog includes a range of systems, from groups containing 10 members to massive clusters with over 200 cluster members with redshifts. The catalog provides a large number of measured cluster properties including sky location, mean redshift, galaxy membership, summed r-band optical luminosity (L{sub r}), velocity dispersion, as well as quantitative measures of substructure and the surrounding large-scale environment. We use new, multi-color mock SDSS galaxy catalogs, empirically constructed from the {Lambda}CDM Hubble Volume (HV) Sky Survey output, to investigate the sensitivity of the C4 catalog to the various algorithm parameters (detection threshold, choice of passbands and search aperture), as well as to quantify the purity and completeness of the C4 cluster catalog. These mock catalogs indicate that the C4 catalog is {approx_equal}90% complete and 95% pure above M{sub 200} = 1 x 10{sup 14} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} and within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the SDSS DR2 data, we show that the C4 algorithm finds 98% of X-ray identified clusters and 90% of Abell clusters within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the mock galaxy catalogs and the full HV dark matter simulations, we show that the L{sub r} of a cluster is a more robust estimator of the halo mass (M{sub 200}) than the galaxy line-of-sight velocity dispersion or the richness of the cluster

  7. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.


    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  8. Investigating the association between photosynthetic efficiency and generation of biophotoelectricity in autotrophic microbial fuel cells (United States)

    Ciniciato, Gustavo P. M. K.; Ng, Fong-Lee; Phang, Siew-Moi; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Fisher, Adrian C.; Yunus, Kamran; Periasamy, Vengadesh


    Microbial fuel cells operating with autotrophic microorganisms are known as biophotovoltaic devices. It represents a great opportunity for environmentally-friendly power generation using the energy of the sunlight. The efficiency of electricity generation in this novel system is however low. This is partially reflected by the poor understanding of the bioelectrochemical mechanisms behind the electron transfer from these microorganisms to the electrode surface. In this work, we propose a combination of electrochemical and fluorescence techniques, giving emphasis to the pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence. The combination of these two techniques allow us to obtain information that can assist in understanding the electrical response obtained from the generation of electricity through the intrinsic properties related to the photosynthetic efficiency that can be obtained from the fluorescence emitted. These were achieved quantitatively by means of observed changes in four photosynthetic parameters with the bioanode generating electricity. These are the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), alpha (α), light saturation coefficient (Ek) and maximum rate of electron transfer (rETRm). The relationship between the increases in the current density collected by the bioanode to the decrease of the rETRm values in the photosynthetic pathway for the two microorganisms was also discussed.

  9. A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.


    Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

  10. Effect of aluminum on cellular division and photosynthetic electron transport in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila. (United States)

    Perreault, François; Dewez, David; Fortin, Claude; Juneau, Philippe; Diallo, Amirou; Popovic, Radovan


    The present study investigated aluminum's effect on cellular division and the photosynthetic processes in Euglena gracilis and Chlamydomonas acidophila at pH 3.0, at which Al is present mostly as Al(3+), AlSO(4) (+), and Al(SO(4))(2) (-). These algal species were exposed to 100, 188, and 740 microM Al, and after 24 h cell-bound Al was significantly different from control only for the highest concentration tested. However, very different effects of Al on algal cellular division, biomass per cell, and photosynthetic activity were found. Aluminum stimulated cell division but decreased at some level biomass per cell in C. acidophila. Primary photochemistry of photosynthesis, as Photosystem II quantum yield, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical activity were slightly affected. However, for E. gracilis, under the same conditions, Al did not show a stimulating effect on cellular division or photosynthetic activity. Primary photochemical activity was diminished, and energy dissipation via nonphotochemical pathways was strongly increased. Therefore, when Al is highly available in aquatic ecosystems, these effects may indicate very different response mechanisms that are dependent on algal species.

  11. Molecular Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Nonsulfur Purple Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabita, Fred Robert [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanism by which a transcriptional activator protein affects CO2 fixation (cbb) gene expression in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria, with special emphasis to Rhodobacter sphaeroides and with comparison to Rhodopseudomonas palustris. These studies culminated in several publications which indicated that additional regulators interact with the master regulator CbbR in both R. sphaeroides and R. palustris. In addition, the interactive control of the carbon and nitrogen assimilatory pathways was studied and unique regulatory signals were discovered.

  12. Engineered photosynthetic bacteria, method of manufacture of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laible, Philip D.; Snyder, Seth W.


    The invention provides for a novel type of biofuel; a method for cleaving anchors from photosynthetic organisms; and a method for producing biofuels using photosynthetic organisms, the method comprising identifying photosynthesis co-factors and their anchors in the organisms; modifying the organisms to increase production of the anchors; accumulating biomass of the organisms in growth media; and harvesting the anchors.

  13. Mesophyll cells of C4 plants have fewer chloroplasts than those of closely related C3 plants. (United States)

    Stata, Matt; Sage, Tammy L; Rennie, Troy D; Khoshravesh, Roxana; Sultmanis, Stefanie; Khaikin, Yannay; Ludwig, Martha; Sage, Rowan F


    The evolution of C(4) photosynthesis from C(3) ancestors eliminates ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation in the mesophyll (M) cell chloroplast while activating phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation in the cytosol. These changes may lead to fewer chloroplasts and different chloroplast positioning within M cells. To evaluate these possibilities, we compared chloroplast number, size and position in M cells of closely related C(3), C(3) -C(4) intermediate and C(4) species from 12 lineages of C(4) evolution. All C(3) species had more chloroplasts per M cell area than their C(4) relatives in high-light growth conditions. C(3) species also had higher chloroplast coverage of the M cell periphery than C(4) species, particularly opposite intercellular air spaces. In M cells from 10 of the 12 C(4) lineages, a greater fraction of the chloroplast envelope was pulled away from the plasmalemma in the C(4) species than their C(3) relatives. C(3) -C(4) intermediate species generally exhibited similar patterns as their C(3) relatives. We interpret these results to reflect adaptive shifts that facilitate efficient C(4) function by enhancing diffusive access to the site of primary carbon fixation in the cytosol. Fewer chloroplasts in C(4) M cells would also reduce shading of the bundle sheath chloroplasts, which also generate energy required by C(4) photosynthesis.

  14. C4.4A gene ablation is compatible with normal epidermal development and causes modest overt phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Füchtbauer, Annette


    of C4.4A in normal physiology and cancer progression. The unchallenged C4.4A-deficient mice were viable, fertile, born in a normal Mendelian distribution and, surprisingly, displayed normal development of squamous epithelia. The C4.4A-deficient mice were, nonetheless, significantly lighter than...

  15. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with C3-monocarboxylates and C4-dicarboxylates (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with C4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and C3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplement...

  16. C4 plant expansion since the late Miocene and the evolution of Asian summer monsoon (United States)

    Wu, H.; Guo, Z.; Guiot, J.; Yu, Y.; Ge, J.; Zhang, Y.; Peng, S.


    A dramatic expansion of C4 plant distribution occurred in the South Asia during the late Miocene and in the East Asia during the Pliocene period, with broad spatial and temporal variations. Although the event is well documented, whether subsequent expansions were caused by a decreased atmospheric CO2 concentration or climate change is a contentious issue. In this study, we used an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach that accounts for the physiological responses of C3 and C4 plants to quantitatively reconstruct the paleoclimate in the Siwalik of South Asia and in the Loess Plateau of East Asia, based on pollen and carbon isotope data. We also studied the sensitivity of the C3 and C4 plants to changes in the climate and the atmospheric CO2 concentration. We suggest that the expansion of the C4 plant distribution since the late Miocene was unlikely caused by reduced CO2 levels alone. The expansion may have been primarily triggered by regional aridification, and seasonal analysis revealed that this climate shift mainly attributed to the summer rainfall decrease. Our findings suggest that this abrupt ecological shift mainly resulted from the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon, which may related to the decrease of SST in the tropic since the late Miocene.

  17. Thermomagnetic analysis of meteorites, 3. C3 and C4 chondrites (United States)

    Herndon, J.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Larson, E.E.; Watson, D.E.


    Thermomagnetic analysis was made on samples of all known C3 and C4 chondrites in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. Considerable variation was noted in the occurrence of magnetic minerals, comparable to the variation observed earlier in the C2 chondrites. Magnetite was found as the only major magnetic phase in samples of only three C3 chondrites (2-4 wt.%) and the Karoonda C4 chondrite (7.7 wt.%). The magnetite content of these three C3 chondrites is only about one-third that observed in the C1 and C2 chondrites which were found to contain magnetite as the only magnetic phase. Five C3 chondrites were observed to undergo chemical change during heating, producing magnetite: this behavior is characteristic of troilite oxidation. Upper limits on initial magnetite content of about 1-9% were established for these meteorites. Samples of the remaining five C3 chondrites and the Coolidge C4 chondrite were found to contain both magnetite and metallic iron. In two samples, iron containing ???2% Ni was observed, while in the other four, the iron contained 6-8 wt.% Ni. In addition to containing both magnetite and iron metal, three of these samples reacted during heating to form additional magnetite. Variations in the magnetic mineralogy and, hence by inference bulk mineralogy, of C3 and C4 chondrites indicate a more complex genesis than is evident from whole-rock elemental abundance patterns. ?? 1976.

  18. Derivation of Candidates for the Combat Casualty Critical Care (C4) Database (United States)


    MILITARY MEDICINE, 179, 4:370, 2014 Derivation of Candidates for the Combat Casualty Critical Care (C4) Database Maj Ian J. Stewart, USAF MC*; Col...Trauma Nurs 2008; 15: 181–4. 13. Hunt JP, Cherr GS, Hunter C, et al: Accuracy of administrative data in trauma: splenic injuries as an example. J

  19. 17 CFR 240.14c-4 - Presentation of information in information statement. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of information in... Section 14(c) § 240.14c-4 Presentation of information in information statement. (a) The information... type except that to the extent necessary for convenient presentation, financial statements and...

  20. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie


    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C4F8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. CxFy (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C4F8 reaction set used in the model. The C4F8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  1. Biochemical Characterization of the C-4-Dicarboxylate Transporter DctA from Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Maarten; Detert Oude Weme, Ruud; Duurkens, Ria H.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan


    Bacterial secondary transporters of the DctA family mediate ion-coupled uptake of C-4-dicarboxylates. Here, we have expressed the DctA homologue from Bacillus subtilis in the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Transport of dicarboxylates in vitro in isolated membrane vesicles was assayed. W

  2. C4N2 ice in Titan’s atmosphere: reality or myth? (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. M.


    Voyager 1 IRIS detected a spectral emission feature at 478 cm-1 in Titan’s atmosphere at high northern latitudes. Now one Titan year later we rediscovered it in Cassini CIRS limb spectra at 70°N. Thus far the feature has always been associated with the lower polar stratosphere during early northern spring. No known trace organic vapor in Titan’s atmosphere has a spectral feature at 478 cm-1, and the only known or suspected condensate that does is C4N2 ice. However, the C4N2 ν8 and ν9 vapor features at 472 cm-1 and 108 cm-1, respectively, have never been observed in Titan’s atmosphere, leading to a C4N2 vapor upper limit at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than equilibrium with the ice phase would suggest. In this study we analyze the spectral shapes and strengths of the 478 cm-1 feature in the IRIS and CIRS data sets in an effort to determine particle sizes, mole fractions, and vertical distributions of the putative condensate cloud responsible for the feature, and then discuss the pros and cons of its identify with C4N2 ice.

  3. Clinical significance of C4d in SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Danielle


    This thesis describes the clinical significance of thebiomarker C4d, a split product of the complement system, in several manifestations of systemic autoimmunediseases such as SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome. The findings in this thesis suggest that this biomarker might be of use in unraveling dis

  4. A Unique Model Platform for C4 Plant Systems and Synthetic Biology (United States)


    agrobacterium mediated transformation 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF...successful agrobacterium mediated transformation 15. SUBJECT TERMS synthetic biology, Systems Biology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...were obtained suggesting successful agrobacterium mediated transformation. Introduction: C4 plants such as sugarcane, maize and sorghum are more

  5. Identification of intermediates leading to chloroform and C-4 diacids in the chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Erkelens, Corrie; Galan, L.


    The chlorination of terrestrial humic acid was studied at pH 7. 2 with varying chlorine to carbon ratios. The principal products are chloroform, di- and trichloroacetic acid, and chlorinated C-4 diacids. At a high chlorine dose many new chlorination products were detected, among them chlorinated aro

  6. Electron transfer patterns of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Schmidt, L.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;


    We report kinetic data for the two-step electron transfer (ET) oxidation and reduction of the two-domain di-heme redox protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome (cyt) c(4) by [Co(bipy)(3)](2- 3-) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Following earlier reports, the data accord with both bi- and tri-exponential ...

  7. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra. (United States)

    Banić, Tihomir; Banić, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bilić, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavić, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Kokić, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko


    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft.

  8. Can chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus be transferred to sugarcane? (United States)

    The goal of this study was to investigate if chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis in Miscanthus can be transferred to sugarcane. Net leaf CO2 uptake (Asat) and the maximum operating efficiency of photosystem II ('PSII) were measured in warm conditions (25 °C/20 °C), and then during and following ...

  9. Interrelations between C4 ketogenesis, C5 ketogenesis, and anaplerosis in the perfused rat liver. (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Roe, Charles R; Brunengraber, Henri


    We investigated the interrelations between C(4) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxybutyrate + acetoacetate), C(5) ketogenesis (production of beta-hydroxypentanoate + beta-ketopentanoate), and anaplerosis in isolated rat livers perfused with (13)C-labeled octanoate, heptanoate, or propionate. Mass isotopomer analysis of C(4) and C(5) ketone bodies and of related acyl-CoA esters reveal that C(4) and C(5) ketogenesis share the same pool of acetyl-CoA. Although the uptake of octanoate and heptanoate by the liver are similar, the rate of C(5) ketogenesis from heptanoate is much lower than the rate of C(4) ketogenesis from octanoate. This results from the channeling of the propionyl moiety of heptanoate into anaplerosis of the citric acid cycle. C(5) ketogenesis from propionate is virtually nil because acetoacyl-CoA thiolase does not favor the formation of beta-ketopentanoyl-CoA from propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. Anaplerosis and gluconeogenesis from heptanoate are inhibited by octanoate. The data have implications for the design of diets for the treatment of long chain fatty acid oxidation disorders, such as the triheptanoin-based diet.

  10. The superfamily of C3b/C4b-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Ogata, R T


    The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commenci......, which have more limited homology with the repetitive regions in this family. All available data indicate that multiple gene duplications and exon shuffling have been important features in the divergence of this family of proteins with the 60-amino-acid repeat.......The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commencing...... at the amino-terminal end of each molecule. Two other complement components, C1r and C1s, have two of these repeating units in the carboxy-terminal region of their noncatalytic A chains. Three noncomplement proteins, beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I), the interleukin 2 receptor (IL 2 receptor), and the b chain...

  11. Evaluating Defense Architecture Frameworks for C4I System Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Alghamdi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I Systems provided situational awareness about operational environment and supported in decision making and directed to operative environment. These systems had been used by various agencies like defense, police, investigation, road, rail, airports, oil and gas related department. However, the increase use of C4I system had made it more important and attractive. Consequently interest in design and development of C4I system had increased among the researchers. Many defense industry frameworks were available but the problem was a suitable selection of a framework in design and development of C4I system. Approach: This study described the concepts, tool and methodology being used for evaluation analysis of different frameworks by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results: We had compared different defense industry frameworks like Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF, Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework (MODAF and NATO Architecture Framework (NAF and found that AHP is fairly good tool in terms of analysis. Conclusion: Different defense industry frameworks such as DODAF, MODAF and NAF had been evaluated and compared using AHP.

  12. Combining C(4) D and MS as a dual detection approach for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Beutner, Andrea; Cunha, Rafael Rodrigues; Richter, Eduardo Mathias; Matysik, Frank-Michael


    The hyphenation of two detectors in combination with separation techniques is a powerful tool to enhance the analytical information. In this work, we present for the first time the coupling of two important detectors for capillary electrophoresis (CE), namely capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4) D) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The elaborated experimental protocol took into account the requirements of separation aspects and the compatibility with both detectors. ESI-TOF-MS requires background electrolytes (BGE) containing only volatile components such as ammonium acetate or formate. These, however, exhibit a rather high conductivity, which is disadvantageous for C(4) D. Thus, the selection of the BGE in an appropriate concentration was undertaken for the determination of various phenolic compounds serving as a model system. The chosen BGE was a 10 mM ammonium acetate/ammonia buffer with a pH of 9. This BGE was a compromise concerning the detection performance of both detectors. The LODs for m-cresol, m- and p-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol were 3.1 μM (C(4) D), 0.8 μM (MS), 0.8 μM (MS), and 1.5 μM (MS), respectively. Moreover, the overall separation efficiency was excellent illustrating that detector-induced band broadening can be neglected in the CE-C(4) D/MS system. The analytical characteristics for the determination of phenolic compounds show the suitability of this dual detection approach and demonstrate the complementary use of C(4) D and MS detection.

  13. Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey. (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; Somerton, Kerry; Rogers, Pamela; Cox, Julie


    Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) of some New Zealand Manuka honeys show that they often fail the internationally recognised Association of Official Analytical Chemists sugar test (AOAC method 998.12) which detects added C(4) sugar, although these honeys are from unadulterated sources. Failure of these high value products is detrimental to the New Zealand honey industry, not only in lost export revenue, but also in brand and market reputation damage. The standard AOAC test compares the carbon isotope value of the whole honey and corresponding protein isolated from the same honey. Differences between whole honey and protein delta(13)C values should not be greater than +1.0 per thousand, as it indicates the possibility of adulteration with syrups or sugars from C(4) plants such as high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar.We have determined that during the standard AOAC method, pollen and other insoluble components are isolated with the flocculated protein. These non-protein components have isotope values which are considerably different from those of the pure protein, and can shift the apparent delta(13)C value of protein further away from the delta(13)C value of the whole honey, giving a false positive result for added C(4) sugar. To eliminate a false positive C(4) sugar test for Manuka honey, prior removal of pollen and other insoluble material from the honey is necessary to ensure that only the pure protein is isolated. This will enable a true comparison between whole honey and protein delta(13)C isotopes. Furthermore, we strongly suggest this modification to the AOAC method be universally adopted for all honey C(4) sugar tests.

  14. Expression of the intact C4 type pepc gene cloned from maize in transgenic winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuqing; ZHANG Xiaodong; LIANG Rongqi; ZHANG Liquan; YANG Fengping; CAO Mingqing


    Maize intact C4-pepc gene was amplified through LA-PCR and successfully sub-cloned into modified vector pGreen0029 to form a stable expression construct named as Pbac214 (12 kb), which contains CaMV 35S promoter driven bar gene as selection marker. Comparing the cloned DNA sequences (6.7 kb) with published maize C4-pepc gene (GenBank accession E17154) sequences, the identity of DNA sequence alignment is 98.96%. There are only 49 differences between these two intact DNA sequences, of which 13 occur in the region of promoter, 18 in introns, and 18 in exons. The homology of Mrna sequence alignment is 99.38%, and the putative amino acids sequence identity is 99.38%. There are only 15 differences between these two Mrna, and these differences bring 4 sites mutant on the putative amino acids of PEPC protein. Through biolistic bombardment of PDS1000/He system, expression vector Pbac214 has been transformed into winter wheat. Southern blotting results show that the intact C4-pepc gene has been integrated into genome of winter wheat. SDS-PAGE analysis of leaf soluble protein in transgenic wheat showed that the intact C4-pepc gene was well transcribed, spliced and translated as in maize. The enzyme activity of leaf PEPC in transgenic wheat has been detected. The activities of leaf PEPC increased over 3-5 times in some transgenic plants. The data of photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of transgenic wheat flag leaves showed that the C4-pepc gene can increase the photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of transgenic wheat.

  15. Angiosperm n-alkane distribution patterns and the geologic record of C4 grassland evolution (United States)

    Henderson, A.; Graham, H. V.; Patzkowsky, M.; Fox, D. L.; Freeman, K. H.


    n-Alkane average chain-length (ACL) patterns vary regionally with community composition and climate. To clarify the influence of phylogenetic and community patterns, we compiled and analyzed a global database of published n-alkane abundance for n-C27 to C35 homologs in modern plant specimens (n=205). ACL for waxes in C4 non-woody plants are longer than for woody plants, suggesting ACL can serve as an indicator of the three-dimensional structure of local vegetation. Further, these findings suggest compound-specific isotopic data for longer alkane homologs (C31, C33, C35) will proportionately represent non-woody vegetation and isotope measurements of C29 are more representative of woody vegetation. Thus, the combination of ACL and carbon isotope compositions should allow us to disentangle C3 woody, C3 non-woody, and C4 non-woody signals in terrestrial paleorecords. Application of this approach to the geologic record of Miocene C4 grassland expansion in the US Great Plains and the Siwaliks in Pakistan illustrate two very different transition scenarios. Alkane-specific isotopic data indicate C4 grasslands appeared 2.5 Ma in the Great Plains and 6.5 Ma in the Siwaliks, and ACL analysis indicates that this transition involved the replacement of woody vegetation in the US and the replacement of C3 grasses in Pakistan. Our analysis illustrates that, consistent with differences in the timing of C4 grassland, the drivers of change were likely not the same in these regions. Oxygen isotope records suggest that the more recent transition in the Great Plains was associated with climate cooling and possibly changes in disturbance regimes and that the transition in the Siwaliks was likely associated with warming and drying.

  16. Small mammal tooth enamel carbon isotope record of C4 grasses in late Neogene China (United States)

    Arppe, Laura; Kaakinen, Anu; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Fortelius, Mikael


    The spatiotemporal pattern of the late Cenozoic spread of C4 vegetation is an important indicator of environmental change that is intertwined with the uplift of the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau, and the development of the East Asian monsoons. To explore the spread of C4 vegetation in China and shed new light on regional climatic evolution, we measured δ13C values of more than 200 small mammal teeth (primarily rodents and lagomorphs) using a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach. Small mammals are highly sensitive indicators of their environment because they have limited spatial ranges and because they have minimal time-averaging of carbon isotope signatures of dietary components. The specimens originate from four classic Late Miocene fossil localities, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Lingtai, and Ertemte, along a southwest-northeast transect from Yunnan Province to Inner Mongolia. In Yunnan (Lufeng, Yuanmou) and on the Loess Plateau (Lingtai), the small mammal δ13C values record nearly pure C3 ecosystems, and mixed but C3-based ecosystems, respectively, in agreement with previous studies based on carbon isotopes of large herbivores and soil carbonates. In Inner Mongolia, the micromammalian tooth enamel δ13C record picks up the presence of C4 vegetation where large mammal samples do not, indicating a mixed yet C3-dominated ecosystem at ~ 6 Ma. As a whole, the results support a scenario of northward increasing C4 grass abundance in a pattern that mirrors northward decreasing precipitation of the summer monsoon system. The results highlight differences between large and small mammals as indicators of C4 vegetation in ancient ecosystems, particularly the ability of small mammal δ13C values to detect the presence of minor components of the vegetation structure.

  17. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  18. Epitaxial Stabilization between Intermetallic and Carbide Domains in the Structures of Mn16SiC4 and Mn17Si2C4. (United States)

    Fredrickson, Rie T; Guo, Yiming; Fredrickson, Daniel C


    The concept of frustration between competing geometrical or bonding motifs is frequently evoked in explaining complex phenomena in the structures and properties of materials. This idea is of particular importance for metallic systems, where frustration forms the basis for the design of metallic glasses, a source of diverse magnetic phenomena, and a rationale for the existence of intermetallics with giant unit cells containing thousands of atoms. Unlike soft materials, however, where conflicts can be synthetically encoded in the molecular structure, staging frustration in the metallic state is challenging due to the ease of macroscopic segregation of incompatible components. In this Article, we illustrate one approach for inducing the intergrowth of incompatible bonding motifs with the synthesis and characterization of two new intermetallic carbides: Mn16SiC4 (mC42) and Mn17Si2C4 (mP46). Similar to the phases Mn5SiC and Mn8Si2C in the Mn-Si-C system, these compounds appear as intergrowths of Mn3C and tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) regions reminiscent of Mn-rich Mn-Si phases. The nearly complete spatial segregation of Mn-Si (intermetallic) and Mn-C (carbide) interactions in these structures can be understood from the differing geometrical requirements of C and Si. Rather than macroscopically separating into distinct phases, though, the two bonding types are tightly interwoven, with most Mn atoms being on the interfaces. DFT chemical pressure analysis reveals a driving force stabilizing these interfaces: the major local pressures acting between the Mn atoms in the Mn-Si and Mn-C systems are of opposite signs. Joining the intermetallic and carbide domains together then provides substantial relief to these local pressures, an effect we term epitaxial stabilization.

  19. Faster Rubisco Is the Key to Superior Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in NADP-Malic Enzyme Relative to NAD-Malic Enzyme C4 Grasses1 (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R.; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T. John; Conroy, Jann P.; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (kcat; 3.8 versus 5.7 s−1 at 25°C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)−1 in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster kcat. PMID:15665246

  20. Faster Rubisco is the key to superior nitrogen-use efficiency in NADP-malic enzyme relative to NAD-malic enzyme C4 grasses. (United States)

    Ghannoum, Oula; Evans, John R; Chow, Wah Soon; Andrews, T John; Conroy, Jann P; von Caemmerer, Susanne


    In 27 C4 grasses grown under adequate or deficient nitrogen (N) supplies, N-use efficiency at the photosynthetic (assimilation rate per unit leaf N) and whole-plant (dry mass per total leaf N) level was greater in NADP-malic enzyme (ME) than NAD-ME species. This was due to lower N content in NADP-ME than NAD-ME leaves because neither assimilation rates nor plant dry mass differed significantly between the two C4 subtypes. Relative to NAD-ME, NADP-ME leaves had greater in vivo (assimilation rate per Rubisco catalytic sites) and in vitro Rubisco turnover rates (k(cat); 3.8 versus 5.7 s(-1) at 25 degrees C). The two parameters were linearly related. In 2 NAD-ME (Panicum miliaceum and Panicum coloratum) and 2 NADP-ME (Sorghum bicolor and Cenchrus ciliaris) grasses, 30% of leaf N was allocated to thylakoids and 5% to 9% to amino acids and nitrate. Soluble protein represented a smaller fraction of leaf N in NADP-ME (41%) than in NAD-ME (53%) leaves, of which Rubisco accounted for one-seventh. Soluble protein averaged 7 and 10 g (mmol chlorophyll)(-1) in NADP-ME and NAD-ME leaves, respectively. The majority (65%) of leaf N and chlorophyll was found in the mesophyll of NADP-ME and bundle sheath of NAD-ME leaves. The mesophyll-bundle sheath distribution of functional thylakoid complexes (photosystems I and II and cytochrome f) varied among species, with a tendency to be mostly located in the mesophyll. In conclusion, superior N-use efficiency of NADP-ME relative to NAD-ME grasses was achieved with less leaf N, soluble protein, and Rubisco having a faster k(cat).

  1. Quantum yield variation across the three pathways of photosynthesis: not yet out of the dark. (United States)

    Skillman, John B


    The convergent quantum yield hypothesis (CQY) assumes that thermodynamics and natural selection jointly limit variation in the maximum energetic efficiency of photosynthesis in low light under otherwise specified conditions (e.g. temperature and CO(2) concentration). A literature survey of photosynthetic quantum yield (phi) studies in terrestrial plants from C(3), C(4), and CAM photosynthetic types was conducted to test the CQY hypothesis. Broad variation in phi values from C(3) plants could partially be explained by accounting for whether the measuring conditions were permissive or restrictive for photorespiration. Assimilatory quotients (AQ), calculated from the CO(2) phi:O(2) phi ratios, indicated that 49% and 29% of absorbed light energy was allocated to carbon fixation and photorespiration in C(3) plants, respectively. The unexplained remainder (22%) may represent diversion to various other energy-demanding processes (e.g. starch synthesis, nitrogen assimilation). Individual and cumulative effects of these other processes on photosynthetic efficiency are poorly quantified. In C(4) plants, little variation in phi values was observed, consistent with the fact that C(4) plants exhibit little photorespiration. As before, AQ values indicate that 22% of absorbed light energy cannot be accounted for by carbon fixation in C(4) plants. Among all three photosynthetic types, the phi of photosynthesis in CAM plants is the least studied, appears to be highly variable, and may present the greatest challenge to the CQY hypothesis. The high amount of energy diverted to processes other than carbon fixation in C(3) and C(4) plants and the poor characterization of photosynthetic efficiency in CAM plants are significant deficiencies in our otherwise robust understanding of the energetics of terrestrial photoautotrophy.

  2. Antenna organization in green photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, R.E.


    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the unique antenna system found in the green photosynthetic bacteria. The antenna system in these organisms is contained within a vesicle known as a chlorosome, which is attached to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Additional antenna pigments and reaction centers are contained in integral membrane proteins. Energy absorbed by the bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) pigments in the chlorosome is transferred via a baseplate'' array of BChl a antenna pigments into the membrane and to the reaction center. A schematic model of chlorosome structure is shown. This project is aimed at increasing our understanding of the organization of the pigments in the chlorosome and how the antenna system functions.

  3. Photosynthetic machineries in nano-systems. (United States)

    Nagy, László; Magyar, Melinda; Szabó, Tibor; Hajdu, Kata; Giotta, Livia; Dorogi, Márta; Milano, Francesco


    Photosynthetic reaction centres are membrane-spanning proteins, found in several classes of autotroph organisms, where a photoinduced charge separation and stabilization takes place with a quantum efficiency close to unity. The protein remains stable and fully functional also when extracted and purified in detergents thereby biotechnological applications are possible, for example, assembling it in nano-structures or in optoelectronic systems. Several types of bionanocomposite materials have been assembled by using reaction centres and different carrier matrices for different purposes in the field of light energy conversion (e.g., photovoltaics) or biosensing (e.g., for specific detection of pesticides). In this review we will summarize the current status of knowledge, the kinds of applications available and the difficulties to be overcome in the different applications. We will also show possible research directions for the close future in this specific field.

  4. Photosynthetic reaction centers/ITO hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Tibor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Bencsik, Gabor [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Magyar, Melinda [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Visy, Csaba [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gingl, Zoltan [Department of Technical Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Krisztina; Varo, Gyoergy [Institute of Biophysics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Biological Research Center, Szeged (Hungary); Hajdu, Kata; Kozak, Gabor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Laszlo, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)


    Photosynthetic reaction center proteins purified from Rhodobacter sphaeroides purple bacterium were deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive oxide, and the photochemical/-physical properties of the composite were investigated. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that the RC was active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the ITO. The electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytine absorption at 771 nm showed an increased electric field perturbation around this chromophore on the surface of ITO compared to the one measured in solution. This absorption change is associated with the charge-compensating relaxation events inside the protein. Similar life time, but smaller magnitude of this absorption change was measured on the surface of borosilicate glass. The light induced change in the conductivity of the composite as a function of the concentration showed the typical sigmoid saturation characteristics unlike if the photochemically inactive chlorophyll was layered on the ITO. In this later case the light induced change in the conductivity was oppositely proportional to the chlorophyll concentration due to the thermal dissipation of the excitation energy. The sensitivity of the measurement is very high; few picomole RC can change the light induced resistance of the composite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photosynthetic reaction center/ITO nanocomposite has been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite showed photochemical/-physical activity with very high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This new type of material can be a good model of optoelectronic devices.

  5. C4.4A gene ablation is compatible with normal epidermal development and causes modest overt phenotypes (United States)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Füchtbauer, Annette; Hansen, Gert Helge; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Persson, Morten; Engelholm, Lars Henning; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Di Meo, Ivano; Lund, Ida Katrine; Holst, Birgitte; Kjaer, Andreas; Lærum, Ole Didrik; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Ploug, Michael


    C4.4A is a modular glycolipid-anchored Ly6/uPAR/α-neurotoxin multidomain protein that exhibits a prominent membrane-associated expression in stratified squamous epithelia. C4.4A is also expressed in various solid cancer lesions, where high expression levels often are correlated to poor prognosis. Circumstantial evidence suggests a role for C4.4A in cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, but a well-defined biological function is currently unknown. In the present study, we have generated and characterized the first C4.4A-deficient mouse line to gain insight into the functional significance of C4.4A in normal physiology and cancer progression. The unchallenged C4.4A-deficient mice were viable, fertile, born in a normal Mendelian distribution and, surprisingly, displayed normal development of squamous epithelia. The C4.4A-deficient mice were, nonetheless, significantly lighter than littermate controls predominantly due to differences in fat mass. Congenital C4.4A deficiency delayed migration of keratinocytes enclosing incisional skin wounds in male mice. In chemically induced bladder carcinomas, C4.4A deficiency attenuated the incidence of invasive lesions despite having no effect on total tumour burden. This new C4.4A-deficient mouse line provides a useful platform for future studies on functional aspects of C4.4A in tumour cell invasion in vivo. PMID:27169360

  6. Clinical and pathological correlations of C4d immunostaining and its infl uence on the outcome of kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Nowotny Carpio


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: C4d is a marker of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR in kidney allografts, although cellular rejection also have C4d deposits. OBJECTIVE: To correlate C4d expression with clinico-pathological parameters and graft outcomes at three years. METHODS: One hundred forty six renal transplantation recipients with graft biopsies by indication were included. C4d staining was performed by paraffin-immunohistochemistry. Graft function and survival were measured, and predictive variables of the outcome were determined by multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: C4d staining was detected in 48 (31% biopsies, of which 23 (14.7% had diffuse and 25 (16% focal distribution. Pre-transplantation panel reactive antibodies (%PRA class I and II were significantly higher in C4d positive patients as compared to those C4d negative. Both glomerulitis and pericapillaritis were associated to C4d (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively. The presence of C4d in biopsies diagnosed as no rejection (NR, acute cellular rejection (ACR or interstitial fibrosis/ tubular atrophy (IF/TA did not impact graft function or survival. Compared to NR, ACR and IF/TA C4d-, patients with ABMR C4d+ had the worst graft survival over 3 years (p = 0.034, but there was no difference between ABMR versus NR, ACR and IF/TA that were C4d positive (p = 0.10. In Cox regression, graft function at biopsy and high %PRA levels were predictors of graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed that C4d staining in kidney graft biopsies is a clinically useful marker of ABMR, with well defined clinical and pathological correlations. The impact of C4d deposition in other histologic diagnoses deserves further investigation.

  7. Precise identification of photosynthetic glycerolipids in microalga Tetraselmis chuii by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Precise structural identification of photosynthetic polar glycerolipids in microalga Tetraselmis chuii has been established using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray ionization-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) by direct analysis of the total lipids extract. The mass spectrometry was performed in reflective time-of-flight using electron spraying ionization in both positive and negative modes. The structural determination was based on the char-acteristic product ions yielded by different glycerolipids under ESI-MS/MS mode, and confirmed the molecular species by the carboxylate anions produced by glycerolipids in the negative mode. As a result, more than 40 lipid molecular species, including 11 monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG), 7 digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG), 16 sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG), and 9 phosphatidyl-glycerols (PG), were detected in Tetraselmis chuii, which had never been identified before in this mi-croalga. Furthermore, some intact lipid molecules with hydroxylated fatty acids that could not be de-tected by the traditional GC-MS method were found this time, providing novel information for the pho-tosynthetic lipidome of Tetraselmis chuii. Comparative studies on fatty acids at the sn-2 position showed that SQDG and MGDG are dominantly biosynthesized through the prokaryotic pathway, PG is a typically mixed biosynthetic pathway, while DGDG is somewhat peculiar with C14:0 and C16:0 at its sn-2 position. This method could provide a full structural profile of intact photosynthetic lipid molecular species, which may be applied to study the physiological and ecological functions of lipid by monitor-ing their individual changes.

  8. Threshold Studies on TNT, Composition B, and C-4 Explosives Using the Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F


    Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT, Comp B, and C-4 in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, or C-4 explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives.

  9. Promotor polymorphisms in leukotriene C4 synthase and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Sillesen, H.


    .8(1.4 to 5.7) for -1072 AA versus GG genotype, 0.6(0.4 to 0.9) for -444 CC versus AA genotype, 2.5(1.2 to 5.4) for combined AA-AA versus GG-AA genotype, and 0.6(0.4 to 0.9) for combined GG-CC versus GG-AA genotype. Genotype did not associate with risk of deep venous thrombosis or severe carotid...... atherosclerosis, or with levels of platelets and coagulation factors. CONCLUSIONS: Leukotriene C(4) synthase -1072 AA genotype predict increased risk, whereas -444 CC genotype predict decreased risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease.......OBJECTIVE: Cysteinyl leukotrienes are involved in inflammation and possibly in early carotid atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that the -444 A/C and -1072 G/A polymorphisms of the leukotriene C(4) synthase associate with risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We...

  10. A review on biomass production from C4 grasses: yield and quality for end-use. (United States)

    Tubeileh, Ashraf; Rennie, Timothy J; Goss, Michael J


    With a dry biomass production exceeding 40Mgha(-1) in many environments, Miscanthus spp. is the most productive perennial C4 grass species thanks to five advantages over North American prairie tallgrasses. However, miscanthus has a slower nutrient remobilization system, resulting in higher nutrient concentrations at harvest. Perennial C4 grasses benefit from soil microbial associations, reducing their nutrient needs. For combustion purposes, grasses with low moisture content, high lignin and low nutrients are desired. For ethanol, preferred feedstock will have lower lignin, higher sugars, starch, or cellulose/hemicellulose depending on the conversion method. Species with high stem-to-leaf ratio provide better biofuel conversion efficiency and quality. Recently-developed transgenic switchgrass lines have much higher ethanol yields and lower transformation costs. Further selection and breeding are needed to optimize biomass quality and nutrient cycling.

  11. C4.4A as a biomarker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric


    The high prevalence and mortality of lung cancer, together with a poor 5-year survival of only approximately 15%, emphasize the need for prognostic and predictive factors to improve patient treatment. C4.4A, a member of the Ly6/uPAR family of membrane proteins, qualifies as such a potential...... informative biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. Under normal physiological conditions, it is primarily expressed in suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia. Consequently, it is absent from healthy bronchial and alveolar tissue, but nevertheless appears at early stages in the progression...... to invasive carcinomas of the lung, i.e., in bronchial hyperplasia/metaplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. In the stages leading to pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, expression is sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas, and this pertains to the normal presence of C4.4A...

  12. Leukotriene C4 production by murine mast cells: evidence of a role for extracellular leukotriene A4. (United States)

    Dahinden, C A; Clancy, R M; Gross, M; Chiller, J M; Hugli, T E


    The glutathione-containing leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a major mediator of smooth muscle contraction and is released by mast cells when antigen interacts with cell-bound IgE. Antigen-stimulated mast cells undergo phospholipase activation. We report a pathway of LTC4 production by mast cells that does not require phospholipase activation but depends on the interaction of activated neutrophils with unstimulated mast cells, using as an intermediate extracellular leukotriene A4 (LTA4). The epoxide LTA4 is released by neutrophils and, together with leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, constitutes the major lipoxygenase metabolites found in supernatants of stimulated neutrophils. Five minutes after activation of neutrophils by calcium ionophore A23187 we measured 136 pmol of extracellular LTA4 per 10(7) neutrophils (range 40-300, n = 7) by trapping the epoxide with alcohols. Therefore, we conclude that LTA4 is not just an intracellular leukotriene precursor but is released as a lipoxygenase metabolite. LTA4 is known to be stabilized by albumin and is efficiently converted by mast cells into LTC4 even at low LTA4 concentrations. The LTA4 complexed to albumin is converted into LTC4 rapidly and completely within 10-15 min. More than 50% of the LTA4 presented to mast cells is metabolized to LTC4 at concentrations of LTA4 between 0.2 and 2 nmol of LTA4 per 10(7) mast cells. This observation establishes a potential physiologic role for extracellular LTA4. Therefore, interactions between various cell types that release or utilize LTA4 may provide an important metabolic pathway for the production of leukotrienes.

  13. Electrophile-integrating Smiles rearrangement provides previously inaccessible C4'-O-alkyl heptamethine cyanine fluorophores. (United States)

    Nani, Roger R; Shaum, James B; Gorka, Alexander P; Schnermann, Martin J


    New synthetic methods to rapidly access useful fluorophores are needed to advance modern molecular imaging techniques. A new variant of the classical Smiles rearrangement is reported that enables the efficient synthesis of previously inaccessible C4'-O-alkyl heptamethine cyanines. The key reaction involves N- to O-transposition with selective electrophile incorporation on nitrogen. A representative fluorophore exhibits excellent resistance to thiol nucleophiles, undergoes productive bioconjugation, and can be used in near-IR fluorescence imaging applications.

  14. I-WFM for Real-Time C4I Process Management (United States)


    Library Core Object Services Java-based Process Composition GUI Process Design and Analysis Java-based Process Analysis GUI Java-based Process... process analysis (PERT Critical Path, deadlock/livelock analysis with Petri Nets, synchronization matrix) • collaboration support C4ISR APPLICATIONS...location knowledge engineering; b) process definition; c) verification; d) visualization with “drill down” and “roll up;” and e) process analysis in

  15. C4ISR项目前30项排行榜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glenn; W.; Goodman; 邓大松(编译)



  16. Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus, sub-genotype C4 in northern Australian Indigenous populations. (United States)

    Littlejohn, M; Davies, J; Yuen, L; Edwards, R; Sozzi, T; Jackson, K; Cowie, B; Tong, S; Davis, J; Locarnini, S


    Indigenous Australians experience a significant health burden from chronic hepatitis B infection; however, the strain of hepatitis B virus (HBV) found among Indigenous Australians has not been well characterized. Blood samples were collected from 65 Indigenous Australians with chronic HBV infection from across the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV from these samples revealed that 100% of the isolates were genotype C, sub-genotype C4, expressing the serotype ayw3. This strain is a divergent group within the HBV/C genotype, and has only been described in Indigenous Australians. Evidence of recombination was suggested by discordant phylogenetic clustering of the C4 sequences when comparing the full genome to the surface region and confirmed by recombination analysis which showed the surface gene region to be most closely related to genotype J, while the remaining regions of the genome were most similar to genotype C sequences. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of multiple mutations that have been linked with more rapid liver disease progression and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. These mutations were detected in the majority of sequences examined. Variants associated with vaccine failure were detected as the predominant viral quasi-species in 3/35 samples. In summary, the HBV C4 variant found in this population has a high potential to cause advanced liver disease and to escape vaccination programs. Further in vitro functional and natural history studies are warranted in order to determine the clinical and public health consequences of infection with the HBV C4 variant in these communities.

  17. The characteristic clinical symptoms of C-4 radiculopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. (United States)

    Katsumi, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi; Watanabe, Kei; Hirano, Toru; Ohashi, Masayuki; Endo, Naoto


    Cervical radiculopathy of the C2-4 spinal nerves is a rare condition and is poorly documented in terms of clinical symptoms, hindering its detection during initial patient screening based on imaging diagnostics. The authors describe in detail the clinical symptoms and successful surgical treatment of a patient diagnosed with isolated C-4 radiculopathy. This 41-year-old man suffered from sleep disturbance because of pain behind the right ear, along the right clavicle, and at the back of his neck on the right side. The Jackson and Spurling tests were positive, with pain radiating to the area behind the patient's ear. Unlike in cases of radiculopathy involving the C5-8 spinal nerves, no loss of upper-extremity motor function was seen. Magnetic resonance imaging showed foraminal stenosis at the C3-4 level on the right side, and multiplanar reconstruction CT revealed a beak-type ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the foraminal region at the same level. In the absence of intracranial lesions or spinal cord compressive lesions, the positive Jackson and Spurling tests and the C3-4 foraminal stenosis were indicative of isolated C-4 radiculopathy. Microscopic foraminotomy was performed at the C3-4 vertebral level and the ossified lesion was resected. The patient's symptoms completely resolved immediately after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to describe the symptomatic features of isolated C-4 radiculopathy, in a case in which the diagnosis has been confirmed by both radiological findings and surgical outcome. Based on this case study, the authors conclude that the characteristic symptoms of C-4 radiculopathy are the presence of pain behind the ear and in the clavicular region in the absence of upper-limb involvement.

  18. Structural modifications at the C-4 position strongly affect the glucuronidation of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarins. (United States)

    Xia, Yang-Liu; Ge, Guang-Bo; Wang, Ping; Liang, Si-Cheng; He, Yu-Qi; Ning, Jing; Qian, Xing-Kai; Li, Yan; Yang, Ling


    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and its C-4 derivatives have multiple pharmacologic activities, but the poor metabolic stability of these catechols has severely restricted their application in the clinic. Glucuronidation plays important roles in catechols elimination, although thus far the effects of structural modifications on the metabolic selectivity and the catalytic efficacy of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes remain unclear. This study was aimed at exploring the structure-glucuronidation relationship of esculetin and its C-4 derivatives, including 4-methyl esculetin, 4-phenyl esculetin, and 4-hydroxymethyl esculetin as well as 4-acetic acid esculetin. It was achieved by identifying the main human UGTs responsible for the different reactions and by careful characterization of the reactions kinetics. These catechols, with the exception of 4-acetic acid esculetin, are selectively metabolized to the corresponding 7-O-glucuronides. UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 are the two major UGTs involved in the 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-methyl esculetin and esculetin. UGT1A6 was the major contributor for 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-hydroxymethyl esculetin, and UGT1A9 played a significant role in the 7-O-glucuronidation of 4-phenyl esculetin. The results of the kinetic analyses revealed that the Km values of the compounds, in both UGT1A9 and human liver microsomes, decreased with increasing hydrophobicity of the C-4 substitutions. The outcome of this was that C-4 hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups on 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin exhibited contrasting effects on UGT affinity. All of these findings provide helpful guidance for further structural modification of 6,7-dihydroxycoumarins with improved metabolic stability.

  19. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318. c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon, making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr−1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt and C2F6 (~4 ppt. Although a number of potential sources of c-C4F8 have been reported, including the electronics and semi-conductor industries, there remains a large discrepancy in the atmospheric budget. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007 emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr−1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986–2005 represent less than 1% of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  20. Long-term tropospheric trend of octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8 or PFC-318

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available Air samples collected at Cape Grim, Tasmania between 1978 and 2008 and during a series of more recent aircraft sampling programmes have been analysed to determine the atmospheric abundance and trend of octafluorocyclobutane (-C4F8 or PFC-318. c-C4F8 has an atmospheric lifetime in excess of 3000 yr and a global warming potential (GWP of 10 300 (100 yr time horizon, making it one of the most potent greenhouse gases detected in the atmosphere to date. The abundance of c-C4F8 in the Southern Hemisphere has risen from 0.35 ppt in 1978 to 1.2 ppt in 2010, and is currently increasing at a rate of around 0.03 ppt yr−1. It is the third most abundant perfluorocarbon (PFC in the present day atmosphere, behind CF4 (~75 ppt and C2F6 (~4 ppt. The origin of c-C4F8 is unclear. Using a 2-D global model to derive top-down global emissions based on the Cape Grim measurements yields a recent (2007 emission rate of around 1.1 Gg yr−1 and a cumulative emission up to and including 2007 of 38.1 Gg. Emissions reported on the EDGAR emissions database for the period 1986–2005 represent less than 1 % of the top-down emissions for the same period, which suggests there is a large unaccounted for source of this compound. It is also apparent that the magnitude of this source has varied considerably over the past 30 yr, declining sharply in the late 1980s before increasing again in the mid-1990s.

  1. C4ISR Architecture Working Group (AWG), Architecture Framework Version 2.0. (United States)


    interoperability in terms of the PAID paradigm. The LISI Reference Model also provides automated methods for conducting interoperability assessments and for...performance measures on an annual basis. The C4ISR Architecture Framework provides uniform methods for describing information systems and their performance...96 4.3.3 Levels of Information Systems Interoperability ( LISI ) 4-97 4.3.4 Universal Joint Task List (UJTL) 4-98 4.3.5 Joint Operational Architecture

  2. Superhydrophobic treatment using atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma for buoyancy improvement (United States)

    Noh, Sooryun; Moon, A.-Young; Moon, Se Youn


    A superhydrophobic miniature boat was fabricated with aluminum alloy plates treated with atmospheric-pressure helium (He)/octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) plasma using 13.56 MHz rf power. When only 0.13% C4F8 was added to He gas, the contact angle of the surface increased to 140° and the surface showed superhydrophobic properties. On the basis of chemical and morphological analyses, fluorinated functional groups (CF, CF2, and CF3) and nano-/micro-sized particles were detected on the Al surface. These features brought about superhydrophobicity similar to the lotus effect. While the miniature boat, assembled with plasma-treated plates, was immersed in water, a layer of air (i.e., a plastron) surrounded the superhydrophobic surfaces. This effect contributed to the development of a 4.7% increase in buoyancy. In addition, the superhydrophobic properties lasted for two months under the submerged condition. These results demonstrate that treatment with atmospheric-pressure He/C4F8 plasma is a promising method of improving the load capacity and antifouling properties, and reducing the friction of marine ships through a fast and low-cost superhydrophobic treatment process.

  3. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William


    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels.

  4. Increasing leaf vein density by mutagenesis: laying the foundations for C4 rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo B Feldman

    Full Text Available A high leaf vein density is both an essential feature of C4 photosynthesis and a foundation trait to C4 evolution, ensuring the optimal proportion and proximity of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells for permitting the rapid exchange of photosynthates. Two rice mutant populations, a deletion mutant library with a cv. IR64 background (12,470 lines and a T-DNA insertion mutant library with a cv. Tainung 67 background (10,830 lines, were screened for increases in vein density. A high throughput method with handheld microscopes was developed and its accuracy was supported by more rigorous microscopy analysis. Eight lines with significantly increased leaf vein densities were identified to be used as genetic stock for the global C4 Rice Consortium. The candidate population was shown to include both shared and independent mutations and so more than one gene controlled the high vein density phenotype. The high vein density trait was found to be linked to a narrow leaf width trait but the linkage was incomplete. The more genetically robust narrow leaf width trait was proposed to be used as a reliable phenotypic marker for finding high vein density variants in rice in future screens.

  5. C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland. (United States)

    Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R; Pendall, Elise; Blumenthal, Dana M; Kimball, Bruce A; Carrillo, Yolima; Williams, David G; Heisler-White, Jana; Dijkstra, Feike A; West, Mark


    Global warming is predicted to induce desiccation in many world regions through increases in evaporative demand. Rising CO(2) may counter that trend by improving plant water-use efficiency. However, it is not clear how important this CO(2)-enhanced water use efficiency might be in offsetting warming-induced desiccation because higher CO(2) also leads to higher plant biomass, and therefore greater transpirational surface. Furthermore, although warming is predicted to favour warm-season, C(4) grasses, rising CO(2) should favour C(3), or cool-season plants. Here we show in a semi-arid grassland that elevated CO(2) can completely reverse the desiccating effects of moderate warming. Although enrichment of air to 600 p.p.m.v. CO(2) increased soil water content (SWC), 1.5/3.0 °C day/night warming resulted in desiccation, such that combined CO(2) enrichment and warming had no effect on SWC relative to control plots. As predicted, elevated CO(2) favoured C(3) grasses and enhanced stand productivity, whereas warming favoured C(4) grasses. Combined warming and CO(2) enrichment stimulated above-ground growth of C(4) grasses in 2 of 3 years when soil moisture most limited plant productivity. The results indicate that in a warmer, CO(2)-enriched world, both SWC and productivity in semi-arid grasslands may be higher than previously expected.

  6. Contrasting strategies to cope with drought conditions by two tropical forage C4 grasses (United States)

    Cardoso, Juan Andrés; Pineda, Marcela; Jiménez, Juan de la Cruz; Vergara, Manuel Fernando; Rao, Idupulapati M.


    Drought severely limits forage productivity of C4 grasses across the tropics. The avoidance of water deficit by increasing the capacity for water uptake or by controlling water loss are common responses in forage C4 grasses. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato II are tropical C4 grasses used for livestock production due to their reputed resistance to drought conditions. However, there is scant information on the mechanisms used by these grasses to overcome water-limited conditions. Therefore, assessments of cumulative transpired water, shoot growth, leaf rolling, leaf gas exchange, dry mass production and a number of morpho-physiological traits were recorded over a period of 21 days under well-watered or drought conditions. Drought reduced shoot dry mass of both grasses by 35 %, yet each grass exhibited contrasting strategies to cope with water shortage. Napier grass transpired most available water by the end of the drought treatment, whereas a significant amount of water was still available for Mulato II. Napier grass maintained carbon assimilation until the soil was fairly dry, whereas Mulato II restricted water loss by early stomatal closure at relatively wet soil conditions. Our results suggest that Napier grass exhibits a ‘water-spending’ behaviour that might be targeted to areas with intermittent drought stress, whereas Mulato II displays a ‘water-saving’ nature that could be directed to areas with longer dry periods. PMID:26333827

  7. Searching for Dark Matter with the CoGeNT and C-4 Detectors (United States)

    Kos, Mark


    Recently published CoGeNT data shows an excess of events at energies below 1.2 keV. The excess at low energies is compatible with light-WIMP nucleon scattering. While it is hard to imagine a background model to explain the spectral and temporal characteristics of the CoGeNT data, a thorough simulation of the external backgrounds is needed to quantify their contribution. In this analysis we simulate both external cavern neutrons and muon induced spallation events inside the CoGeNT shielding. We also model radioactive backgrounds from the shielding materials. The resulting background distributions are compared with the CoGeNT data and we discuss how closely the backgrounds resemble the CoGeNT data. We also discuss plans for the next larger generation of CoGeNT, C4. We will discuss the expected WIMP sensitivity of C4 and contrast to current dark matter experiments. We will also show how we plan to improve upon the CoGeNT design to lower the backgrounds for C4.

  8. Amygdalin inhibits genes related to cell cycle in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hae-Jeong Park; Sung-Vin Yim; Joo-Ho Chung; Seon-Pyo Hong; Seo-Hyun Yoon; Long-Shan Han; Long-Tai Zheng; Kyung-Hee Jung; Yoon-Kyung Uhm; Je-Hyun Lee; Ji-Seon Jeong; Woo-Sang Joo


    AIM: The genes were divided into seven categories according to biological function; apoptosis-reiated, immune response-related, signal transduction-related, cell cyclerelated, cell growth-related, stress response-related and transcription-related genes.METHODS: We compared the gene expression profiles of SNU-C4 cells between amygdalin-treated (5 mg/mL,24 h) and non-treated groups using cDNA microarray analysis. We selected genes downregulated in cDNA microarray and investigated mRNA levels of the genes by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Microarray showed that amygdalin downregulated especially genes belonging to cell cycle category: exonuclease 1 (EXO1), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F, member 2 (ABCF2), MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE114), topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1), and FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1). RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA levels of these genes were also decreased by amygdalin treatment in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that amygdalin have an anticancer effect via downregulation of cell cycle-related genes in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells,and might be used for therapeutic anticancer drug.

  9. Laboratory detection of the C3N an C4H free radicals (United States)

    Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Thaddeus, P.; Kawamura, H.


    The millimeter-wave spectra of the linear carbon chain free radicals C3N and C4H, first identified in IRC + 10216 and hitherto observed only in a few astronomical sources, have been detected with a Zeeman-modulated spectrometer in laboratory glow discharges through low pressure flowing mixtures of N2 + HC3N and He + HCCH, respectively. Four successive rotational transitions between 168 and 198 GHz have been measured for C3N, and five rotational transitions between 143 and 200 GHz for C4H; each is a well-resolved spin doublet owing to the unpaired electron present in both species. Precise values for the rotational, centrifugal distortion, and spin doubling constants have been obtained, which, with hyperfine constants derived from observations of the lower rotational transitions in the astronomical source TMC 1, allow all the rotational transitions of C3N and C4H at frequencies less than 300 GHz to be calculated to an absolute accuracy exceeding 1 ppm.

  10. Pasteurella pneumotropica Evades the Human Complement System by Acquisition of the Complement Regulators Factor H and C4BP (United States)

    Sahagún-Ruiz, Alfredo; Granados Martinez, Adriana Patricia; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Castiblanco Valencia, Mónica Marcela; Barbosa, Angela Silva; Isaac, Lourdes


    Pasteurella pneumotropica is an opportunist Gram negative bacterium responsible for rodent pasteurellosis that affects upper respiratory, reproductive and digestive tracts of mammals. In animal care facilities the presence of P. pneumotropica causes severe to lethal infection in immunodeficient mice, being also a potential source for human contamination. Indeed, occupational exposure is one of the main causes of human infection by P. pneumotropica. The clinical presentation of the disease includes subcutaneous abscesses, respiratory tract colonization and systemic infections. Given the ability of P. pneumotropica to fully disseminate in the organism, it is quite relevant to study the role of the complement system to control the infection as well as the possible evasion mechanisms involved in bacterial survival. Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. We observed that host regulatory complement C4BP and Factor H bind to the surface of P. pneumotropica, controlling the activation pathways regulating the formation and maintenance of C3-convertases. These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. PMID:25347183

  11. New insight into the spatiotemporal variability and source apportionments of C1-C4 alkyl nitrates in Hong Kong (United States)

    Ling, Zhenhao; Guo, Hai; Simpson, Isobel Jane; Saunders, Sandra Maria; Lam, Sean Ho Man; Lyu, Xiaopu; Blake, Donald Ray


    C1-C4 alkyl nitrates (RONO2) were measured concurrently at a mountain site, Tai Mo Shan (TMS), and an urban site, Tsuen Wan (TW), at the base of the same mountain in Hong Kong from September to November 2010. Although the levels of parent hydrocarbons were much lower at TMS (p Pearl River delta (PRD) region. In contrast to TW, the alkyl nitrate levels measured at TMS mainly resulted from the photooxidation of the parent hydrocarbons at TW during mesoscale circulation, i.e., valley breezes, corresponding to 52-86 % of the alkyl nitrate levels at TMS. Furthermore, regional transport from the inland PRD region made significant contributions to the levels of alkyl nitrates (˜ 58-82 %) at TMS in the non-meso scenario, resulting in similar levels of alkyl nitrates observed at the two sites. The simulation of secondary formation pathways using a photochemical box model found that the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) with nitric oxide (NO) dominated the formation of RONO2 at both sites, and the formation of alkyl nitrates contributed negatively to O3 production, with average reduction rates of 4.1 and 4.7 pptv pptv-1 at TMS and TW, respectively.

  12. Temperature Effects on the Growth Rates and Photosynthetic Activities of Symbiodinium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiastuti Karim


    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp., especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F at elevated temperature (33 °C. We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin. The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature, but Fv/Fm decreased only slightly. These strains may reallocate energy from growth to the repair of damaged photosynthetic machineries or protection pathways. Alternatively, since recoveries of photo-damaged PSII at 33 °C were modest in strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, thermal stressing of other metabolic pathways may have reduced growth rates in these two strains. This possibility should be explored in future research efforts.

  13. Radiation effects on hydrophobic ionic liquid [C4mim][NTf2] during extraction of strontium ions. (United States)

    Yuan, Liyong; Peng, Jing; Xu, Ling; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan


    The applications of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in separation of high level radioactive nuclides demand a comprehensive knowledge of the stability and metal ion extraction of RTILs under radiation. Herein, we assessed the influence of gamma-irradiation on the [C(4)mim][NTf(2)]-based extraction system, where [C(4)mim](+) is 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium and [NTf(2)](-) is bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, by solvent extraction of Sr(2+) using irradiated [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] in combination with dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6). It was found that the degree of extraction for Sr(2+) from water to irradiated [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] decreased compared with that to unirradiated [C(4)mim][NTf(2)], and the decrement enhanced obviously with increasing dose. NMR spectroscopic probe analysis revealed the formation of acids during irradiation of [C(4)mim][NTf(2)]. The decrease of Sr(2+) partitioning in irradiated [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] is attributed to the competition between H(+) with Sr(2+) to interact with DCH18C6. Accordingly, washing irradiated [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] with water gives a simple way of ionic liquid recycling. Furthermore, the degree of extraction for Sr(2+) from 3 mol.L(-1) nitric acid solution to [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] is independent of the irradiation of [C(4)mim][NTf(2)] since the amount of the radiation-generated H(+) is negligible in such a high acidic solution.

  14. Properties and nucleotide se- quence of linear plasmid-like DNA pC4 from mitochondria of Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Four kinds of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs, designated pC1, pC2, pC3 and pC4, were detected in Cucumis sativus Jinyan No. 4. The electron microscopy ob- servation showed that pC4 was linear conformation. Complete sequence of pC4 was cloned into pUC19 with E. coli JM109 as host. Sequence analysis revealed that pC4 was 370 bp long, the shortest one among all the reported mitochondrial plasmid-like DNAs. pC4 was AT rich. It contained terminal direct repeat sequence (35 bp in length) as well as many short direct and inverted repeats. ORFs in pC4 were short. pC4 was found to be homologous to nuclear DNAs, but lack homology with main mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs. pC4-homologous sequence also occurred in nuclear genome of Jinyan No. 7 which contained no mito- chondrial plasmid-like DNAs. The hybridization pattern of Jinyan No. 7 was slightly different from that of Jinyan No. 4. This suggested that pC4 occurred at the forepart of Cucumis sativus species divergence and integrated into the nuclear genome, and the pC4-homologous sequence in nucleus varied during species diverging.

  15. CT image digital measurement and clinical significance of C4 -C6 anterior fixed parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaohe; LI Zhijun; GAO Shang


    Objective:To measure C3-C5 anterior fixed parametersment for the segmental anterior fixation surgery. Methods:The examination of the cervical spine in patients with CT imaging data were randomly selected from January 2009 - December 2012 , C4 - C6 cervical no lesions in 35 cases of imaging data were selected (20 males and 5 females , 25 to 50 years old, average 41. 2 years) ,The image data were rebuilded and measured di-ameter by Mimics 16. 01 software, vertebral body height, vertebrae transverse process hole diameter and diameter around, the left and right sides of the horizontal distance between the flange hole inside, left and right sides of the axis of the pedicle and sagittal axis and the horizontal axis angle and length were measured. Results and conclu-sion:the vertebral body diameter of C4-C6, (26. 67±0. 25) mm gradually increased to (32. 89±0. 12) mm, an-terior and posterior diameter of C4 -C6 ,(6. 89±0. 12) mm gradually increased to (8. 85±0. 44) mm, comparing differences between different segments were statistical significance;Vertebral body midline sagittal anterior, middle and posterior height from C4 [anterior was (7. 99 ±0. 51) mm, middle was(7. 09±0. 42) mm, posterior was (7. 76±0. 49) mm]. To C6 [anterior was (9. 89±0. 45 mm, middle was (8. 42±0. 75) mm, posterior was (8. 84±0. 26) mm], vertebral bodies were significant difference (P<0. 05); the vertebrae transverse process hole diameter and diameter around anterior and posterior were gradually increased with the increase of the sequence; on both sides of C4~C6 were by transverse process hole inside edge distance ( 25 . 10 ± 0 . 45 ) mm gradually increased to (28. 89±0. 56) mm, comparing differences between different segments were statistical significance;Pedicle axis , the sagittal axis and horizontal axis angle and length were gradually increasing with the increase of the cervical spine ordinal, difference is statistically significant.

  16. Ionothermal synthesis and structural characterization of [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong Wang; Bin Lu; Jingxiang Zhao; Qinghai Cai


    The ionothermal synthesis and spectroscopic, thermal and structural characterization of two new compounds [Cu(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (1) and [Ni(C4H6N2)4]Br2 (2) [(C4H6N2) = N-methylimidazole] are reported. In both 1 and 2, the central metal Cu (or Ni) ion adopts a square planar geometry and is bonded to the N-atoms of four terminal N-methylimidazole ligands.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Swarms Parameters in c-C4F8/CF4 Gas Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-li; XIAO Deng-ming; WANG Yan-an; ZHANG Zhou-sheng


    The swarm parametes for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures, including the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient, drift velocity and mean energy were calculated using Monte-Carlo method with the null collision technique. The overall density-reduced electric field strength could be varied between 150 and 500 Td,while the c-C4F8 content in gas mixtures is varied in the range of 0-100%. The value of the density-normalize deffective ionization coefficient shows a strong dependence on the c-C4F8 content, becoming more electronegative as the content of c-C4F8 is increased. The drift velocity of c-C4F4/CF4 mixtures is more affected by CF4. The calculated limiting field strength for c-C4F8/CF4 mixtures is higher than that of SF6/CF4.

  18. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin


    in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased......The protein C4.4A, a structural homologue of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, is a potential new biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer, with high levels of expression recently shown to correlate to poor survival of adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, C4.4A immunoreactivity...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  19. Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreira, C; Staal, M.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.


    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures

  20. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut


    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystall

  1. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.


    Efficient light to biomass conversion in photobioreactors is crucial for economically feasible microalgae production processes. It has been suggested that photosynthesis is enhanced in short light path photobioreactors by mixing-induced flashing light regimes. In this study, photosynthetic efficienc

  2. Towards autotrophic tissue engineering: Photosynthetic gene therapy for regeneration. (United States)

    Chávez, Myra Noemi; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Hopfner, Ursula; Centeno-Cerdas, Carolina; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Schwarz, Christian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Bono, María Rosa; Allende, Miguel L; Nickelsen, Jörg; Egaña, José Tomás


    The use of artificial tissues in regenerative medicine is limited due to hypoxia. As a strategy to overcome this drawback, we have shown that photosynthetic biomaterials can produce and provide oxygen independently of blood perfusion by generating chimeric animal-plant tissues during dermal regeneration. In this work, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of photosynthetic biomaterials in vivo after engraftment in a fully immunocompetent mouse skin defect model. Further, we show that it is also possible to genetically engineer such photosynthetic scaffolds to deliver other key molecules in addition to oxygen. As a proof-of-concept, biomaterials were loaded with gene modified microalgae expressing the angiogenic recombinant protein VEGF. Survival of the algae, growth factor delivery and regenerative potential were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This work proposes the use of photosynthetic gene therapy in regenerative medicine and provides scientific evidence for the use of engineered microalgae as an alternative to deliver recombinant molecules for gene therapy.

  3. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs


    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  5. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake


    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  6. Quantum measurement corrections to CIDNP in photosynthetic reaction centers


    Kominis, I. K.


    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization is a signature of spin order appearing in many photosynthetic reaction centers. Such polarization, significantly enhanced above thermal equilibrium, is known to result from the nuclear spin sorting inherent in the radical pair mechanism underlying long-lived charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centers. We will here show that the recently understood fundamental quantum dynamics of radical-ion-pair reactions open up a new and comple...

  7. Potential role of multiple carbon fixation pathways during lipid accumulation in Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Jacob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a unicellular diatom in the class Bacillariophyceae. The full genome has been sequenced (P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were grown with a nitrate to phosphate ratio of 20:1 (N:P and whole-genome transcripts were monitored over time via RNA-sequence determination. Results The specific Nile Red (NR fluorescence (NR fluorescence per cell increased over time; however, the increase in NR fluorescence was initiated before external nitrate was completely exhausted. Exogenous phosphate was depleted before nitrate, and these results indicated that the depletion of exogenous phosphate might be an early trigger for lipid accumulation that is magnified upon nitrate depletion. As expected, many of the genes associated with nitrate and phosphate utilization were up-expressed. The diatom-specific cyclins cyc7 and cyc10 were down-expressed during the nutrient-deplete state, and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 pathway for photosynthetic carbon reduction were not significantly altered, genes involved in a putative C4 pathway for photosynthetic carbon assimilation were up-expressed as the cells depleted nitrate, phosphate, and exogenous dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC levels. P. tricornutum has multiple, putative carbonic anhydrases, but only two were significantly up-expressed (2-fold and 4-fold at the last time point when exogenous DIC levels had increased after the cessation of growth. Alternative pathways that could utilize HCO3- were also suggested by the gene expression profiles (e.g., putative propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylases. Conclusions The results indicate that P. tricornutum continued carbon dioxide reduction when population growth was arrested and different carbon-concentrating mechanisms were used dependent upon exogenous

  8. Identification and sequence analysis of the Rhizobium meliloti dctA gene encoding the C4-dicarboxylate carrier.


    Engelke, T; Jording, D; Kapp, D.; Pühler, A.


    Transposon Tn5-induced C4-dicarboxylate transport mutants of Rhizobium meliloti 2011 which could be complemented by cosmid pRmSC121 were subdivided into two classes. Class I mutants (RMS37 and RMS938) were defective in symbiotic C4-dicarboxylate transport and in nitrogen fixation. They were mutated in the structural gene dctA, which codes for the C4-dicarboxylate carrier. Class II mutants (RMS11, RMS16, RMS17, RMS24, and RMS31) expressed reduced activity in symbiotic C4-dicarboxylate transpor...

  9. Rice photosynthetic productivity and PSII photochemistry under nonflooded irrigation. (United States)

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu


    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  10. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He


    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  11. Disorder-promoted C4-symmetric magnetic order in iron-based superconductors (United States)

    Hoyer, Mareike; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Levchenko, Alex; Schmalian, Jörg


    In most iron-based superconductors, the transition to the magnetically ordered state is closely linked to a lowering of structural symmetry from tetragonal (C4) to orthorhombic (C2). However, recently, a regime of C4-symmetric magnetic order has been reported in certain hole-doped iron-based superconductors. This novel magnetic ground state can be understood as a double-Q spin density wave characterized by two order parameters M1 and M2 related to each of the two Q vectors. Depending on the relative orientations of the order parameters, either a noncollinear spin-vortex crystal or a nonuniform charge-spin density wave could form. Experimentally, Mössbauer spectroscopy, neutron scattering, and muon spin rotation established the latter as the magnetic configuration of some of these optimally hole-doped iron-based superconductors. Theoretically, low-energy itinerant models do support a transition from single-Q to double-Q magnetic order, but with nearly degenerate spin-vortex crystal and charge-spin density wave states. In fact, extensions of these low-energy models including additional electronic interactions tip the balance in favor of the spin-vortex crystal, in apparent contradiction with the recent experimental findings. In this paper we revisit the phase diagram of magnetic ground states of low-energy multiband models in the presence of weak disorder. We show that impurity scattering not only promotes the transition from C2 to C4-magnetic order, but it also favors the charge-spin density wave over the spin-vortex crystal phase. Additionally, in the single-Q phase, our analysis of the nematic coupling constant in the presence of disorder supports the experimental finding that the splitting between the structural and stripe-magnetic transition is enhanced by disorder.

  12. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.


    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar; Prakash D Chavan


    Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into orga...

  13. Three photosynthetic patterns characterized by cluster analysis of gas exchange data in two rice populations



    Plant photosynthetic rate is affected by stomatal status and internal CO2 carboxylation. Understanding which process determines photosynthetic rate is essential for developing strategies for breeding crops with high photosynthetic efficiency. In this study, we identified different physiological patterns of photosynthetic rate in two different rice populations. Photosynthetic gas exchange parameters were measured during the flowering stage in two rice populations. Clustering and correlation an...

  14. Crystal structure of a four-stranded intercalated DNA: d(C4) (United States)

    Chen, L.; Cai, L.; Zhang, X.; Rich, A.


    The crystal structure of d(C4) solved at 2.3-A resolution reveals a four-stranded molecule composed of two interdigitated or intercalated duplexes. The duplexes are held together by hemiprotonated cytosine-cytosine base pairs and are parallel stranded, but the two duplexes point in opposite directions. The molecule has a slow right-handed twist of 12.4 degrees between covalently linked cytosine base pairs, and the base stacking distance is 3.1 A. This is in general agreement with the NMR studies. A biological role for DNA in this conformation is suggested.

  15. Electron correlation in C (4N+2) carbon rings aromatic vs. dimerized structures

    CERN Document Server

    Torelli, T; Torelli, Tommaso; Mitas, Lubos


    The electronic structure of C_(4N+2) carbon rings exhibits competing many-body effects of Huckel aromaticity, second-order Jahn-Teller and Peierls instability at large sizes. This leads to possible ground state structures with aromatic, bond angle or bond length alternated geometry. Highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo results indicate the existence of a crossover between C_10 and C_14 from bond angle to bond length alternation. The aromatic isomer is always a transition state. The driving mechanism is the second-order Jahn-Teller effect which keeps the gap open at all sizes.

  16. Controlling the Cost of C4I Upgrades on Naval Ships (United States)


    detailed analysis of the financial data on the installation of a number of C4I upgrades that took place sometime in 2000–2008. This chapter begins with a...Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), 2008. This reference is known as the Green Book. 7 Most of the statistical work was done in MS Excel or STATA , and...on these approaches can be found in any statistics or econometrics textbook, such as Greene, 2003. 10 A description of each of the upgrades to each

  17. Sinugyrosanolide A, an unprecedented C-4 norcembranoid, from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia gyrosa. (United States)

    Cheng, Shi-Yie; Shih, Neng-Lang; Chuang, Cheng-Ta; Chiou, Shu-Fen; Yang, Chia-Ning; Wang, Shang-Kwei; Duh, Chang-Yih


    Chemical investigations on the acetone extract of the Formosan soft coral Sinularia gyrosa have obtained a novel C-4 norcembranoid possessing an unprecedented tricyclo[,8)]tetradecane skeleton, namely sinugyrosanolide A. The NMR spectroscopic data of the novel norcembranoid were completely assigned by using a combination of 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY. The cytotoxicities, anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) endonuclease activities and antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro. It showed moderate cytotoxicity against P-388 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia) cancer cell line with an EC50 of 11.8μM.

  18. Renal vascular effects of leukotriene C4 in the isolated perfused kidney of the rat.


    Frölich, J C; Yoshizawa, M.


    1 The vascular effects of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) were investigated in the isolated perfused kidney of the rat. 2 LTC4 (6.4 X 10(-10) to 3.2 X 10(-8) mol kg-1 min-1 given over 5 min) resulted in a prompt, dose-dependent increase in renal vascular resistance in a recirculating system, which lasted for more than 60 min. 3 LTC4 was 10 to 20 fold and 1000 to 2000 fold, respectively, less active on a molar basis than noradrenaline and angiotensin II in eliciting renal vasoconstriction. 4 The vascula...

  19. Estrogen receptors bind to and activate the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter to potentiate HoxC4-mediated activation-induced cytosine deaminase induction, immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination, and somatic hypermutation. (United States)

    Mai, Thach; Zan, Hong; Zhang, Jinsong; Hawkins, J Seth; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo


    Estrogen enhances antibody and autoantibody responses through yet to be defined mechanisms. It has been suggested that estrogen up-regulates the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID), which is critical for antibody class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), through direct activation of this gene. AID, as we have shown, is induced by the HoxC4 homeodomain transcription factor, which binds to a conserved HoxC4/Oct site in the AICDA/Aicda promoter. Here we show that estrogen-estrogen receptor (ER) complexes do not directly activate the AID gene promoter in B cells undergoing CSR. Rather, they bind to three evolutionarily conserved and cooperative estrogen response elements (EREs) we identified in the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter. By binding to these EREs, ERs synergized with CD154 or LPS and IL-4 signaling to up-regulate HoxC4 expression, thereby inducing AID and CSR without affecting B cell proliferation or plasmacytoid differentiation. Estrogen administration in vivo significantly potentiated CSR and SHM in the specific antibody response to the 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten conjugated with chicken γ-globulin. Ablation of HoxC4 (HoxC4(-/-)) abrogated the estrogen-mediated enhancement of AID gene expression and decreased CSR and SHM. Thus, estrogen enhances AID expression by activating the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter and inducing the critical AID gene activator, HoxC4.

  20. Comparison of light-use and water-use efficiency for C3 and C4 species%C3和C4植物光能利用效率和水分利用效率的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子飘; 杨小龙; 康华靖


    This study aims to investigate the response relationship between light-use efficiency ( LUE) , water-use ef-ficiency ( WUE) and light intensity for C3 and C4 plants species. It is an important significance to reveal light-use and water consume of plants. We used LI-6400 Portable Photosynthetic System to measure the leaf gas exchange data of Koelreuteria paniculata, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. Then these data were simulated by a light-response model of LUE and WUE which were developed by a mechanistic model of light-response of photosyn-thesis. These results showed that:(1) the maximum light-use efficiency (LUEmax), maximum water-use efficiency ( WUEmax ) and the corresponding saturation irradiance ( IL-sat for LUEmax ) of K. paniculata and C. annuum were less than that of Z. mays and S. bicolor;(2) the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and saturation irradiance (Isat for Pnmax ) of S. bicolor were less than that of Z. mays, but its LUEmax and WUEmax were more than that of Z. mays. Therefore, LUEmax and WUEmax of K. paniculata and C. annuum for C3 plants are less than that of S. bicolor and Z. mays for C4 plants. However, there is no such tendency in their corresponding saturation irradiances ( i. e. IL-sat and IW-sat ) for four plants.%了解C3和C4植物光能利用效率( LUE)和水分利用效率( WUE)对光的响应关系,对揭示植物的光能利用与需水规律具有重要意义。以栾树( Koelreuteria paniculata)、辣椒( Capsicum annuum)、高粱( Sorghum bicolor)和玉米( Zea mays)为研究对象,用LI-6400光合仪测量了这4种植物的气体交换参数,并利用光响应机理模型所构建的叶片光能和水分利用效率对光的响应模型分别研究了它们的光能和水分利用效率的变化规律。结果表明:(1)栾树和辣椒的最大光能利用效率( LUEmax )和最大水分利用效率( WUEmax )比高粱和玉米低,所对应的饱和光强(IL-sat

  1. Climate and CO2 modulate the C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal in simulated vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jolly


    Full Text Available Climate and atmospheric CO2 effects on the balance between C3 and C4 plants have received conflicting interpretations based on the analysis of carbon isotopic fractionation (δ13C in sediments. But, climate and CO2 effects on the C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal are rarely addressed together. Here, we use a process-based model (BIOME4 to disentangle these effects. We simulated the vegetation response to climate and CO2 atmospheric concentration (pCO2 in two sites in which vegetation changed oppositely, with respect to C3 and C4 plants abundance, during the Last Glacial Maximum to Holocene transition. The C3/C4 balance and δ13C signal were primarily sensitive to temperature and CO2 atmospheric partial pressure. The simulated variations were in agreement with patterns observed in palaeorecords. Water limitation favoured C4 plants in case of large negative deviation in rainfall. Although a global parameter, pCO2 affected the δ13C signal differently from one site to the other because of its effects on the C3/C4 balance and on carbon isotopic fractionation in C3 and C4 plants. Simulated Plant functional types (PFT also differed in their composition and response from one site to the other. The C3/C4 balance involved different competing C3 and C4 PFT, and not homogeneous C3 and C4 poles as often assumed. Process-based vegetation modelling emphasizes the need to account for multiple factors when a palaeo-δ13C signal is used to reconstruct the C3/C4 balance.

  2. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen


    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativaón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  3. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Funk

    Full Text Available Invasive species are expected to cluster on the "high-return" end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Garcia, F


    Steven Impact Tests were performed at low velocity on the explosives TNT (trinitrotolulene), Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, and 1% wax by weight), C-4 (91% RDX, 5.3% Di (2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, 2.1% Polyisobutylene, and 1.6% motor oil by weight) and ANFO (94% ammonium Nitrate with 6% Fuel Oil) in attempts to obtain a threshold for reaction. A 76 mm helium driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles up to approximately 200 m/s in attempts to react (ignite) the explosive samples. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, standard video and high-speed photography were used to characterize the level of any high explosive reaction violence. No bulk reactions were observed in the TNT, Composition B, C-4 or ANFO explosive samples impacted up to velocities in the range of 190-200 m/s. This work will outline the experimental details and discuss the lack of reaction when compared to the reaction thresholds of other common explosives. These results will also be compared to that of the Susan Test and reaction thresholds observed in the common small-scale safety tests such as the drop hammer and friction tests in hopes of drawing a correlation.

  5. Human cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1C4 mediates the sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin. (United States)

    Luo, Lijun; Zhou, Chunyang; Hui, Ying; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh


    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline, has been reported to be excreted in sulfate conjugated form. The current study aimed to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferase(s) (SULT(s)) that is(are) capable of sulfating doxorubicin and its analog epirubicin, and to verify whether sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin may occur under metabolic conditions. A systematic analysis of thirteen known human SULTs, previously cloned, expressed, and purified, revealed SULT1C4 as the only human SULT capable of sulfating doxorubicin and epirubicin. Cultured HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells were labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of different concentrations of doxorubicin or epirubicin. Analysis of spent labeling media showed the generation and release of [(35)S]sulfated doxorubicin and epirubicin by HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the expression of SULT1C4 in both HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. These results provided a molecular basis underlying the previous finding that sulfate-conjugated doxorubicin was excreted in the urine of patients treated with doxorubicin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of natural pozzolana - opoka additive on the hydration of C4AF rich cement and the effects of chloride ions on the hydrates formed. In the samples, 25 % (by weight of the sintered C4AF rich cement and OPC was replaced with pozzolana. The mixtures were hardened for 28 days in water, soaked in a saturated NaCl solution for 3 months at 20°C. It was estimated that under normal conditions, pozzolana additive accelerates the hydration of calcium silicates and initiates the formation of CO32- - AFm in the Brownmillerite rich cement. However, the hydration of Brownmillerite cement with opoka additive is still slower to compare with hydration of Portland cement. Also, opoka decreases total porosity and threshold pore diameter of Brownmillerite cement paste after two days of hydration. After 28 days of hydration threshold pore diameter became smaller even to compare with threshold pore diameter of Portland cement. Opoka additive promotes the formation of Friedel’s salt in Brownmillerite samples treated in saturated NaCl solution, because CO32-–AFm affected by saturated NaCl solution become unstable and takes part in reactions producing Friedel’s salt.

  7. Recent progress on C-4-modified podophyllotoxin analogs as potent antitumor agents. (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Qian; Tian, Jing; Qian, Keduo; Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Liu; Nan, Xiang; Tian, Xuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung


    Podophyllotoxin (PPT), as well as its congeners and derivatives, exhibits pronounced biological activities, especially antineoplastic effects. Its strong inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth led to the development of three of the most highly prescribed anticancer drugs in the world, etoposide, teniposide, and the water-soluble prodrug etoposide phosphate. Their clinical success as well as intriguing mechanism of action stimulated great interest in further modification of PPT for better antitumor activity. The C-4 position has been a major target for structural derivatization aimed at either producing more potent compounds or overcoming drug resistance. Accordingly, numerous PPT derivatives have been prepared via hemisynthesis and important structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations have been identified. Several resulting compounds, including GL-331, TOP-53, and NK611, reached clinical trials. Some excellent reviews on the distribution, sources, applications, synthesis, and SAR of PPT have been published. This review focuses on a second generation of new etoposide-related drugs and provides detailed coverage of the current status and recent development of C-4-modified PPT analogs as anticancer clinical trial candidates.

  8. C4 Plants as Biofuel Feedstocks: Optimising Biomass Production and Feedstock Quality from a Lignocellulosic Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caitlin S.Byrt; Christopher P.L.Grof; Robert T.Furbank


    The main feedstocks for bioethanol are sugarcane (Saccharum offic-inarum) and maize (Zea mays), both of which are C4 grasses, highly efficient at converting solar energy into chemical energy, and both are food crops. As the systems for lignocellulosic bioethanol production become more efficient and cost effective, plant biomass from any source may be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Thus, a move away from using food plants to make fuel is possible, and sources of biomass such as wood from forestry and plant waste from cropping may be used. However, the bioethanol industry will need a continuous and reliable supply of biomass that can be produced at a low cost and with minimal use of water, fertilizer and arable land. As many C4 plants have high light, water and nitrogen use efficiency, as compared with C3 species, they are ideal as feedstock crops. We consider the productivity and resource use of a number of candidate plant species, and discuss biomass 'quality', that is, the composition of the plant cell wall.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs


    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2003 through 1/1/2004. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we have seen very encouraging results from the model scale tests in terms of organism growth rates and we have begun the final tests necessary to meet our project goals. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities--(A) The solar collector is working well and has survived the winter weather. (B) The improved high-flow CRF-2 test system has been used successfully to run several long-term growth tests with periodic harvesting events. The high flow harvesting system performed well. The mass measurement results after a 4-week test show 275% growth over the initial mass loading. This figure would have been higher had there been no leakage and handling losses. Carbon dating of biomass from this test is planned for carbon uptake estimation. The next test will include direct measurement of carbon uptake in addition to organism mass measurements. (C) Qualitative organism growth testing has begun in the pilot scale bioreactor. Some issues with uniformity of organism loading, fluid leakage and evaporation have surfaced and are currently being addressed, and quantitative testing will begin as soon as these problems are resolved. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces--(A) Montana State University (Subcontracted to do organism studies) submitted their final (3-year) project report. An abstract of the report in included in this quarterly report.

  10. Genomic Copy Number Variations of the Complement Component C4B Gene Are Associated With Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, M.B.; Schellevis, R.L.; Boon, C.J.F.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Jong, E.K.


    PURPOSE: Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) has recently been associated to variants in the complement factor H gene. To further investigate the role of the complement system in cCSC, the genomic copy number variations in the complement component 4 gene (C4) were studied. METHODS: C4A a

  11. 40 CFR 721.10103 - Naphtha (Fischer-Tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear. (United States)


    ...-alkane, branched and linear. 721.10103 Section 721.10103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10103 Naphtha (Fischer-Tropsch), C4-11-alkane... substance identified as naphtha (fischer-tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear (PMN P-04-235; CAS...

  12. Measurement of Swarm Parameters of c-C4F8/CO2 and Its Insulation Characteristics Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liu-chun; XIAO Deng-ming; ZHANG Dong; WU Bian-tao


    In c-C4F8 and c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures, the swarm parameters including ionization coefficient, attachment coefficient and effective ionization coefficient were obtained at the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas density between 150-550 Td by the steady-state Townsend (SST) method. Static breakdown voltages at each ratio were also measured at the SST condition. The limiting field strengths were obtained by two methods:computing the density-normalized effective ionization coefficient as a function of the overall density-reduced electric field strength; and measuring static breakdown voltages as a function of the product of gas density and electrode separation. Good agreement was obtained by these two methods, which ensures the correctness of the former method. The limiting field strengths of c-C4F8 and c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures were compared with those ofpure SF6, SF6/CO2 mixtures and pure c-C4Fs. It is found that buffer gas CO2 does not reduce the limiting field strengths of c-C4F8 greatly, the limiting field strengths of c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures are higher than those of SF6/CO2 mixtures or even pure SF6, and so c-C4F8/CO2 mixtures are suggested to be possible substitutes for SF6.

  13. 慢性失功移植肾组织中C4d的表达与意义%Expression and significance of complement split product C4d in chronic function loss renal allograft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚昆; 祝清国; 仇宇; 张川; 刘伟; 高治忠


    x Objective To observe the expression of C4d in renal allograft with chronic function loss and to investigate the relationship of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection and chronic allograft function loss. Methods Twenty-seven renal allografts of chronic graft injury that had been proved by pathology were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and indirect immunofluores-cence was used to observe the deposition of complement split product C4d in peritubular capillaries. The relationship of C4d and transplant-related factors and prognosis of renal allograft were analyzed. Results All of the 27 patients, 55.6% were C4d deposition positive. The patients with C4d positive sharply demonstrated glomerular basement membrane layered and end-arterium incrassation, while C4d deposition negative group primary demonstrated that tubular atrophy, arteriolar intimal fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis. Incidence of presensitization ( PRA > 10% )and acute rejection were higher in patients with C4d positive, and onset of abnormal allograft function were also earlier in these patients than those of C4d deposition negative group (P <0. 05). Conclusion Chronic active antibody-mediated rejection is involved in chronic' renal function loss after the renal transplantation. Deposition of complement split product C4d in peritubular capillaries is very useful in diagnosis and treatment of antibody mediated rejection.%目的 观察慢性失功移植肾组织中C4d的表达,探讨抗体介导的慢性活动性排斥反应与慢性移植肾失功的关系.方法 对本院27例经病理证实为慢性移植物损伤的移植肾组织行免疫组化或间接免疫荧光法检测肾小管周围毛细血管中C4d的沉积,分析C4d沉积与移植相关因素和移植肾预后的关系.结果 27例患者中,C4d阳性率为55.6%.C4d沉积阳性组病理改变以肾小球基底膜分层和动脉内膜增厚为主,C4d沉积阴性组以肾小管萎缩和间质纤维化为主;C4d沉积阳

  14. Self-Assembly Strategies for Integrating Light Harvesting and Charge Separation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (NWU)


    In natural photosynthesis, organisms optimize solar energy conversion through organized assemblies of photofunctional chromophores and catalysts within proteins that provide specifically tailored environments for chemical reactions. As with their natural counterparts, artificial photosynthetic systems for practical solar fuels production must collect light energy, separate charge, and transport charge to catalytic sites where multielectron redox processes will occur. While encouraging progress has been made on each aspect of this complex problem, researchers have not yet developed self-ordering and self-assembling components and the tailored environments necessary to realize a fully-functional artificial system. Previously researchers have used complex, covalent molecular systems comprised of chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors to mimic both the light-harvesting and the charge separation functions of photosynthetic proteins. These systems allow for study of the dependencies of electron transfer rate constants on donor?acceptor distance and orientation, electronic interaction, and the free energy of the reaction. The most useful and informative systems are those in which structural constraints control both the distance and the orientation between the electron donors and acceptors. Self-assembly provides a facile means for organizing large numbers of molecules into supramolecular structures that can bridge length scales from nanometers to macroscopic dimensions. The resulting structures must provide pathways for migration of light excitation energy among antenna chromophores, and from antennas to reaction centers. They also must incorporate charge conduits, that is, molecular 'wires' that can efficiently move electrons and holes between reaction centers and catalytic sites. The central scientific challenge is to develop small, functional building blocks with a minimum number of covalent linkages, which also have the appropriate molecular

  15. Exploring photosynthesis evolution by comparative analysis of metabolic networks between chloroplasts and photosynthetic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts descended from cyanobacteria and have a drastically reduced genome following an endosymbiotic event. Many genes of the ancestral cyanobacterial genome have been transferred to the plant nuclear genome by horizontal gene transfer. However, a selective set of metabolism pathways is maintained in chloroplasts using both chloroplast genome encoded and nuclear genome encoded enzymes. As an organelle specialized for carrying out photosynthesis, does the chloroplast metabolic network have properties adapted for higher efficiency of photosynthesis? We compared metabolic network properties of chloroplasts and prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms, mostly cyanobacteria, based on metabolic maps derived from genome data to identify features of chloroplast network properties that are different from cyanobacteria and to analyze possible functional significance of those features. Results The properties of the entire metabolic network and the sub-network that consists of reactions directly connected to the Calvin Cycle have been analyzed using hypergraph representation. Results showed that the whole metabolic networks in chloroplast and cyanobacteria both possess small-world network properties. Although the number of compounds and reactions in chloroplasts is less than that in cyanobacteria, the chloroplast's metabolic network has longer average path length, a larger diameter, and is Calvin Cycle -centered, indicating an overall less-dense network structure with specific and local high density areas in chloroplasts. Moreover, chloroplast metabolic network exhibits a better modular organization than cyanobacterial ones. Enzymes involved in the same metabolic processes tend to cluster into the same module in chloroplasts. Conclusion In summary, the differences in metabolic network properties may reflect the evolutionary changes during endosymbiosis that led to the improvement of the photosynthesis efficiency in higher plants. Our

  16. Conserved patterns hidden within group A Streptococcus M protein hypervariability recognize human C4b-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffalo, Cosmo Z.; Bahn-Suh, Adrian J.; Hirakis, Sophia P.; Biswas, Tapan; Amaro, Rommie E.; Nizet, Victor; Ghosh, Partho


    No vaccine exists against group A Streptococcus (GAS), a leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. A severe hurdle is the hypervariability of its major antigen, the M protein, with >200 different M types known. Neutralizing antibodies typically recognize M protein hypervariable regions (HVRs) and confer narrow protection. In stark contrast, human C4b-binding protein (C4BP), which is recruited to the GAS surface to block phagocytic killing, interacts with a remarkably large number of M protein HVRs (apparently ∼90%). Such broad recognition is rare, and we discovered a unique mechanism for this through the structure determination of four sequence-diverse M proteins in complexes with C4BP. The structures revealed a uniform and tolerant ‘reading head’ in C4BP, which detected conserved sequence patterns hidden within hypervariability. Our results open up possibilities for rational therapies that target the M–C4BP interaction, and also inform a path towards vaccine design.

  17. Fatty acids induce leukotriene C4 synthesis in macrophages in a fatty acid binding protein-dependent manner. (United States)

    Long, Eric K a; Hellberg, Kristina; Foncea, Rocio; Hertzel, Ann V; Suttles, Jill; Bernlohr, David A


    Obesity results in increased macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue that promotes a chronic low-grade inflammatory state linked to increased fatty acid efflux from adipocytes. Activated macrophages produce a variety of pro-inflammatory lipids such as leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) suggesting the hypothesis that fatty acids may stimulate eicosanoid synthesis. To assess if eicosanoid production increases with obesity, adipose tissue of leptin deficient ob/ob mice was analyzed. In ob/ob mice, LTC4 and 12-HETE levels increased in the visceral (but not subcutaneous) adipose depot while the 5-HETE levels decreased and 15-HETE abundance was unchanged. Since macrophages produce the majority of inflammatory molecules in adipose tissue, treatment of RAW264.7 or primary peritoneal macrophages with free fatty acids led to increased secretion of LTC4 and 5-HETE, but not 12- or 15-HETE. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) facilitate the intracellular trafficking of fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands and in vitro stabilize the LTC4 precursor leukotriene A4 (LTA4) from non-enzymatic hydrolysis. Consistent with a role for FABPs in LTC4 synthesis, treatment of macrophages with HTS01037, a specific FABP inhibitor, resulted in a marked decrease in both basal and fatty acid-stimulated LTC4 secretion but no change in 5-HETE production or 5-lipoxygenase expression. These results indicate that the products of adipocyte lipolysis may stimulate the 5-lipoxygenase pathway leading to FABP-dependent production of LTC4 and contribute to the insulin resistant state.

  18. Herbivore perception decreases photosynthetic carbon-assimilation and reduces stomatal conductance by engaging 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 and cytokinin perception. (United States)

    Meza-Canales, Ivan D; Meldau, Stefan; Zavala, Jorge A; Baldwin, Ian T


    Herbivory-induced changes in photosynthesis have been documented in many plant species, however the complexity of photosynthetic regulation and analysis has thwarted progress in understanding the mechanism involved, particularly those elicited by herbivore-specific elicitors. Here we analyzed the early photosynthetic gas-exchange responses in Nicotiana attenuata plants after wounding and elicitation with Manduca sexta oral-secretions, and the pathways regulating these responses. Elicitation with M. sexta oral-secretions rapidly decreased photosynthetic carbon-assimilation (AC ) in treated and systemic (untreated, vascularly connected) leaves, which were associated with changes in stomatal conductance, rather than with changes in Rubisco activity and RuBP-turnover. Phytohormone profiling and gas-exchange-analysis of oral-secretion-elicited transgenic plants altered in phytohormone regulation, biosynthesis and perception, combined with micrografting techniques, revealed that the local photosynthetic-responses were mediated by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), while the systemic responses involved interactions among jasmonates, cytokinins and abscisic acid signaling mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase 4 (MPK4). The analysis also revealed a role for cytokinins interacting with MPK4 in CO2 -mediated stomatal regulation. Hence oral-secretions, while eliciting jasmonic acid-mediated defense responses, also elicits OPDA-mediated changes in stomatal conductance and AC , an observation illustrating the complexity and economy of the signaling that regulates defense and carbon assimilation pathways in response to herbivore attack.

  19. C-4 Gem-Dimethylated Oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and Their Pharmacological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Fabio


    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  20. C-4 gem-dimethylated oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and their pharmacological activities. (United States)

    Di Fabio, Giovanni; Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Mauro; Giordano, Michele; Zarrelli, Armando


    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  1. Theoretical Studies on Structures and Stabilities of C4H2+ Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying; WAN Su-qin; LIU Hui-ling; HUANG Xu-ri; SUN Chia-chung


    The structures,energies,stabilities and spectroscopies of doublet C4H2+ cations were explored at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p),CCSD(T)/6-311+G(2df,2pd)(single-point),and G3B3 levels.Ten minimum isomers including the chainlike,three-member-ring,and four-member-ring structures are interconverted by means of 15 interconversion transition states.The potential energy surface was investigated.At the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(2df,2pd) and G3B3 levels,the global minimum isomer was found to be a linear HCCCCH.The structures of the stable isomer and its relevant transition state are further optimized at the QCISD/6-311G(d,p) level.The bonding nature and structure of isomer HCCCCH were analyzed.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and antioxidant evaluation of C-4-acetamidophenylcalix[4]pyrogallolarene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abosadiya, Hamza M.; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)


    C-4-acetamidophenylcalix[4]pyrogallolarene was synthesized by an acid catalyzed condensation reaction of pyrogallol with 4-acetamidobenzaldehyde. The compound was characterized by IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray analysis revealed that the molecule crystallized in a triclinic system with space group Pī and the unit cell dimensions a= 12.2948(16) Å, b= 13.4423(17) Å, c= 13.5906(18) Å, α =107.549(4)°, β =102.034(4)°, γ =90.535(4)°, Z= 1 and V= 2088.2(5) Å{sup 3}. The macrocyclic calix adopts a chair (C{sub 2h}) conformation and the molecule is associated with eight DMSO molecules of crystallization. Antioxidant test by DPPH method showed that the compound exhibits good antioxidant activity of about 72%.

  3. Recent developments of C-4 substituted coumarin derivatives as anticancer agents. (United States)

    Dandriyal, Jyoti; Singla, Ramit; Kumar, Manvendra; Jaitak, Vikas


    Cancer is a prominent cause of death in global. Currently, the numbers of drugs that are in clinical practice are having a high prevalence of side effect and multidrug resistance. Researchers have made an attempt to expand a suitable anticancer drug that has no MDR and side effect. Coumarin scaffold became an attractive subject due to their broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Coumarin derivatives extensively explored for anticancer activities as it possesses minimum side effect along with multi-drug reversal activity. Coumarin derivatives can act by various mechanisms on different tumor cell lines depending on substitution pattern of the core structure of coumarin. Substitution on coumarin nucleus leads to the search for more potent compounds. In this review, we have made an effort to give a synthetic strategy for the preparation of C-4 substituted coumarin derivatives as anticancer agents based on their mechanism of action and also discuss the SAR of the most active compound.

  4. Simulation of the reflected blast wave from a C-4 charge (United States)

    Howard, W. Michael; Kuhl, Allen L.; Tringe, Joseph


    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 7 ranges (GR = 0, 5.08, 10.16, 15.24, 20.32, 25.4, and 30.48 cm) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 5 cm), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  5. THz reflection spectroscopy of C-4 explosive and its detection through interferometric imaging (United States)

    Sengupta, Amartya; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Federici, John F.


    In recent times, Terahertz (1 THz = 10 12 cycles/sec and 300 μm in wavelength) spectroscopy has become a promising technique for spectroscopic identification of different materials having contemporary interest. In this study we report a direct measurement of reflection spectra of the explosive C-4, which shows significant absorption around 0.8 THz, using THz time domain spectroscopic techniques. A contrast in reflection of around 8% has also been observed between the neighboring frequencies of 0.7 THz and 0.9 THz. The spectral data have been used to create realistic synthetic images for use in simulations of interferometric detection in a stand-off THz imaging system. The results obtained are analyzed using Artificial Neural Networks for positive identification of the agents with an interferometric array of few linear detectors in near field mode.

  6. FAD C(4a)-hydroxide stabilized in a naturally fused styrene monooxygenase. (United States)

    Tischler, Dirk; Schlömann, Michael; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gassner, George T


    StyA2B represents a new class of styrene monooxygenases that integrates flavin-reductase and styrene-epoxidase activities into a single polypeptide. This naturally-occurring fusion protein offers new avenues for studying and engineering biotechnologically relevant enantioselective biochemical epoxidation reactions. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of StyA2B reported here identify reaction intermediates similar to those reported for the separate reductase and epoxidase components of related two-component systems. Our studies identify substrate epoxidation and elimination of water from the FAD C(4a)-hydroxide as rate-limiting steps in the styrene epoxidation reaction. Efforts directed at accelerating these reaction steps are expected to greatly increase catalytic efficiency and the value of StyA2B as biocatalyst.

  7. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought. (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P


    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4-8.1 mmol mol(-1)) than C3 averages (0.7-6.8 mmol mol(-1)), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses are

  8. Physiological advantages of C4 grasses in the field: a comparative experiment demonstrating the importance of drought (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel H; Ripley, Brad S; Martin, Tarryn; De-Wet, Leigh-Ann; Woodward, F Ian; Osborne, Colin P


    Global climate change is expected to shift regional rainfall patterns, influencing species distributions where they depend on water availability. Comparative studies have demonstrated that C4 grasses inhabit drier habitats than C3 relatives, but that both C3 and C4 photosynthesis are susceptible to drought. However, C4 plants may show advantages in hydraulic performance in dry environments. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation in water availability on leaf physiology, using a common garden experiment in the Eastern Cape of South Africa to compare 12 locally occurring grass species from C4 and C3 sister lineages. Photosynthesis was always higher in the C4 than C3 grasses across every month, but the difference was not statistically significant during the wettest months. Surprisingly, stomatal conductance was typically lower in the C3 than C4 grasses, with the peak monthly average for C3 species being similar to that of C4 leaves. In water-limited, rain-fed plots, the photosynthesis of C4 leaves was between 2.0 and 7.4 μmol m−2 s−1 higher, stomatal conductance almost double, and transpiration 60% higher than for C3 plants. Although C4 average instantaneous water-use efficiencies were higher (2.4–8.1 mmol mol−1) than C3 averages (0.7–6.8 mmol mol−1), differences were not as great as we expected and were statistically significant only as drought became established. Photosynthesis declined earlier during drought among C3 than C4 species, coincident with decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration. Eventual decreases in photosynthesis among C4 plants were linked with declining midday leaf water potentials. However, during the same phase of drought, C3 species showed significant decreases in hydrodynamic gradients that suggested hydraulic failure. Thus, our results indicate that stomatal and hydraulic behaviour during drought enhances the differences in photosynthesis between C4 and C3 species. We suggest that these drought responses

  9. Production of C4 and C5 branched-chain alcohols by engineered Escherichia. coli. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jingliang; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xiao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Cuiyi; He, Minchao; Guo, Ying


    Higher alcohols, longer chain alcohols, contain more than 3 carbon atoms, showed close energy advantages as gasoline, and were considered as the next generation substitution for chemical fuels. Higher alcohol biosynthesis by native microorganisms mainly needs gene expression of heterologous keto acid decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenases. In the present study, branched-chain α-keto acid decarboxylase gene from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CICC 6246 (Kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenases gene from Zymomonas mobilis CICC 41465 (AdhB) were transformed into Escherichia coli for higher alcohol production. SDS-PAGE results showed these two proteins were expressed in the recombinant strains. The resulting strain was incubated in LB medium at 37 °C in Erlenmeyer flasks and much more 3-methyl-1-butanol (104 mg/L) than isobutanol (24 mg/L) was produced. However, in 5 g/L glucose-containing medium, the production of two alcohols was similar, 156 and 161 mg/L for C4 (isobutanol) and C5 (3-methyl-1-butanol) alcohol, respectively. Effects of fermentation factors including temperature, glucose content, and α-keto acid on alcohol production were also investigated. The increase of glucose content and the adding of α-keto acids facilitated the production of C4 and C5 alcohols. The enzyme activities of pure Kivd on α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate were 26.77 and 21.24 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Due to its ability on decarboxylation of α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketoisocaproate, the recombinant E. coli strain showed potential application on isoamyl alcohol and isobutanol production.

  10. Pathogenicity ofKlebsiella pneumonia(KpC4) infecting maize and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Min; HE Yue-qiu; LIN Li; WU Yi-xin; Honhing Ho; HE Peng-fei; LI Guo-zhi; HE Peng-bo; XIONG Guo-ru; YUAN Yuan


    Recently, a new bacterial top rot disease of maize has frequently appeared in many areas of Yunnan Province, China. The pathogen of the disease was identiifed asKlebsiela pneumoniae(KpC4), which is wel known to cause pulmonary and urinary diseases in humans and animals and occasionaly exists as a harmless endophyte in plants. To evaluate the viru-lence of the maize pathogen to maize and mice, we inoculated maize and mice with routine inoculation and intraperitoneal injection respectively according to Koch’s postulates. The results showed that KpC4 and the clinical strainK. pneumoniae 138 (Kp138) were al highly pathogenic to maize and mice and the strain re-isolated from diseased mice also caused typical top rot symptoms on maize by artiifcial inoculation. It is highlighting that a seemingly dedicated human/animal pathogen could cause plant disease. This is the ifrst report ofK. pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen of human/animal , could infect maize and mice. The ifndings serve as an alert to plant, medical and veterinarian scientists regarding a potentialy dangerous bacterial pathogen infecting both plants and animals/humans. The maize plants in the ifeld could serve as a reservoir forK. pneumoniae which might infect animals and probably humans when conditions are favorable. The new ifndings not only are signiifcant in the developing control strategy for the new disease in Yunnan, but also serve as a starting point for further studies on the mechanism of pathogenesis and epidemiology ofK. pneumoniae.

  11. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf]. (United States)

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T


    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  12. Reduced Combustion Mechanism for C1-C4 Hydrocarbons and its Application in CFD Flare Modeling. (United States)

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang


    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, CO, soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with CO2 and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators /regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C2H2, C2H4, C6H6). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma using ANSYS FLUENT software. Non-premixed Probability Density Function (PDF) model and Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model results are discussed. It is also noteworthy that, when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. Implication statement A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C1-C4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with EPA's mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  13. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals photosynthetic LH2 complexes switch between emissive states. (United States)

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S; Wang, Quan; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Moerner, W E


    Photosynthetic organisms flourish under low light intensities by converting photoenergy to chemical energy with near unity quantum efficiency and under high light intensities by safely dissipating excess photoenergy and deleterious photoproducts. The molecular mechanisms balancing these two functions remain incompletely described. One critical barrier to characterizing the mechanisms responsible for these processes is that they occur within proteins whose excited-state properties vary drastically among individual proteins and even within a single protein over time. In ensemble measurements, these excited-state properties appear only as the average value. To overcome this averaging, we investigate the purple bacterial antenna protein light harvesting complex 2 (LH2) from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila at the single-protein level. We use a room-temperature, single-molecule technique, the anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap, to study LH2 in a solution-phase (nonperturbative) environment. By performing simultaneous measurements of fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra of single LH2 complexes, we identify three distinct states and observe transitions occurring among them on a timescale of seconds. Our results reveal that LH2 complexes undergo photoactivated switching to a quenched state, likely by a conformational change, and thermally revert to the ground state. This is a previously unobserved, reversible quenching pathway, and is one mechanism through which photosynthetic organisms can adapt to changes in light intensities.

  14. Translation-independent circadian control of the cell cycle in a unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote. (United States)

    Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Sumiya, Nobuko; Hirooka, Shunsuke; Nakano, Akihiko; Kabeya, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Mami


    Circadian rhythms of cell division have been observed in several lineages of eukaryotes, especially photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. However, the mechanism underlying the circadian regulation of the cell cycle and the nature of the advantage conferred remain unknown. Here, using the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we show that the G1/S regulator RBR-E2F-DP complex links the G1/S transition to circadian rhythms. Time-dependent E2F phosphorylation promotes the G1/S transition during subjective night and this phosphorylation event occurs independently of cell cycle progression, even under continuous dark or when cytosolic translation is inhibited. Constitutive expression of a phospho-mimic of E2F or depletion of RBR unlinks cell cycle progression from circadian rhythms. These transgenic lines are exposed to higher oxidative stress than the wild type. Circadian inhibition of cell cycle progression during the daytime by RBR-E2F-DP pathway likely protects cells from photosynthetic oxidative stress by temporally compartmentalizing photosynthesis and cell cycle progression.

  15. [Effect of magnesium deficiency on photosynthetic physiology and triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris]. (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wei, Chang-Long; Yu, Shui-Yan; Shi, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Guo


    As an excellent biological resource, Chlorella has wide applications for production of biofuel, bioactive substances and water environment restoration. Therefore, it is very important to understand the photosynthetic physiology characteristics of Chlorella. Magnesium ions play an important role in the growth of microalgae, not only the central atom of chlorophyll, but also the cofactor of some key enzyme in the metabolic pathway. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of magnesium deficiency on several photosynthetic and physiological parameters and the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation of the green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, in the photoautotrophic culture process. Chlorella vulgaris biomass, protein, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents decreased by 20%, 43.96%, 27.52% and 28.07% in response to magnesium deficiency, while the total oil content increased by 19.60%. Moreover, magnesium deficiency decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency F(v)/F(m) by 22.54%, but increased the non-photochemical quenching parameters qN. Our results indicated the decline of chlorophyll caused by magnesium, which affected the photosynthesis efficiency, lead to the growth inhibition of Chlorella vulgaris and affected the protein synthesis and increased the triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation.

  16. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and photosynthesis: Fundamentals and applications to photosynthetic light-harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Ishizaki, Akihito [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fleming, Graham R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: 2D electronic spectroscopy, when combined with theoretical approaches, can investigate structure-function relationships in photosynthetic complexes by probing electronic energy transfer and excited state orientations. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} We review theoretical principles and experimental implementation of 2D spectroscopy. {yields} 2DES monitors energy transfer, observes coherence, determines excited state geometry, and compares to homology models. {yields} 2DES reveals structure-function relationships in the Photosystem II supercomplex. - Abstract: In natural light harvesting systems, pigment-protein complexes are able to harvest sunlight with near unity quantum efficiency. These complexes exhibit emergent properties that cannot be simply extrapolated from knowledge of their component parts. In this perspective, we focus on how two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) can provide an incisive tool to probe the electronic, energetic, and spatial landscapes that must be understood to describe photosynthetic light-harvesting. We review the theoretical and experimental principles of 2DES, and demonstrate its application to the study of the Photosystem II supercomplex of green plants. We illustrate several capabilities of 2DES, including monitoring energy transfer pathways, observing excitonic coherence, determining excitonic geometry, and informing on the atomic structure.

  17. C4 photosynthesis evolution in the transitional grass Neurachne: loss of a carbonic anhydrase chloroplast transit peptide. (United States)

    Clayton, Harmony; Saladié, Montserrat; Rolland, Vivien; Sharwood, Robert E; Macfarlane, Terry; Ludwig, Martha


    Neurachne is the only known grass lineage containing closely related C3, C3-C4 intermediate and C4 species, making it an ideal taxon with which to study the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the grasses. To begin dissecting the molecular changes that led to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in this group, the cDNAs encoding four distinct β-carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms were characterized from leaf tissue of Neurachne munroi (C4), N. minor (C3-C4), and N. alopecuroidea (C3). Two genes (CA1 and CA2) each encode two different isoforms: CA1a, CA1b, CA2a and CA2b. Transcript analyses found CA1 mRNAs were significantly more abundant than transcripts from the CA2 gene in the leaves of each species examined, comprising approximately 99% of all β-CA transcripts measured. Localization experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that while CA1b is a cytosolic CA in all three species, the CA1a proteins are differentially localized. The N. alopecuroidea and N. minor CA1a isoforms were imported into chloroplasts of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells whereas N. munroi CA1a localized to the cytosol. Sequence analysis indicated an 11 amino acid deletion in the N-terminus of N. munroi CA1a relative to the C3 and C3-C4 proteins, suggesting chloroplast targeting of CA1a is the ancestral state, and that loss of a functional chloroplast transit peptide in N. munroi CA1a is associated with the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in Neurachne. Remarkably, this mechanism is homoplastic with evolution of the C4-associated CA in the dicotyledonous Flaveria, although the actual mutations in the two lineages differ.

  18. Effects of climate and water balance across grasslands of varying C3 and C4 grass cover (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Munson, Seth M.; Thoma, David P.


    Climate change in grassland ecosystems may lead to divergent shifts in the abundance and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses. Many studies relate mean climate conditions over relatively long time periods to plant cover, but there is still much uncertainty about how the balance of C3and C4 species will be affected by climate at a finer temporal scale than season (individual events to months). We monitored cover at five grassland sites with co-dominant C3 and C4 grass species or only dominant C3 grass species for 6 yr in national parks across the Colorado Plateau region to assess the influence of specific months of climate and water balance on changes in grass cover. C4 grass cover increased and decreased to a larger degree than C3 grass cover with extremely dry and wet consecutive years, but this response varied by ecological site. Climate and water balance explained 10–49% of the inter-annual variability of cover of C3 and C4 grasses at all sites. High precipitation in the spring and in previous year monsoon storms influenced changes in cover of C4 grasses, with measures of water balance in the same months explaining additional variability. C3 grasses in grasslands where they were dominant were influenced primarily by longer periods of climate, while C3 grasses in grasslands where they were co-dominant with C4 grasses were influenced little by climate anomalies at either short or long periods of time. Our results suggest that future changes in spring and summer climate and water balance are likely to affect cover of both C3 and C4 grasses, but cover of C4 grasses may be affected more strongly, and the degree of change will depend on soils and topography where they are growing and the timing of the growing season.

  19. Electronic spectrum and photodissociation chemistry of the linear methyl propargyl cation H2C4H3+ (United States)

    Catani, Katherine J.; Muller, Giel; da Silva, Gabriel; Bieske, Evan J.


    The electronic spectrum of the methyl propargyl cation (2-butyn-1-yl cation, H2C4H3+) is measured over the 230-270 nm range by photodissociating the bare cation and its Ar and N2 tagged complexes in a tandem mass spectrometer. The observed '1A←'1A band system has an origin at 37 753 cm-1 for H2C4H3+ , 37738 cm-1 for H2C4H3+ - Ar, and 37 658 cm-1 for H2C4H3+ - N2. The methyl propargyl cation photodissociates to produce either C2H3++C2H2 (protonated acetylene + acetylene) or H2C4H+ +H2 (protonated diacetylene + dihydrogen). Photodissociation spectra of H2C4H3+ , H2C4H3+ - Ar, and H2C4H3+ - N2 exhibit similar vibronic structure, with a strong progression of spacing 630 cm-1 corresponding to excitation of the C—C stretch mode. Interpretation of the spectra is aided by ground and excited state calculations using time dependent density functional theory at the ωB97X-D/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Ab initio calculations and master equation simulations were used to interpret the dissociation of H2C4H3+ on the ground state manifold. These calculations support the experimentally observed product branching ratios in which acetylene elimination dominates and also suggests that channel switching occurs at higher energies to favor H2 elimination.

  20. Anomalous 13C Isotope Abundances in C3S and C4H Observed toward the Cold Interstellar Cloud, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (United States)

    Sakai, Nami; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Takeshi; Shiba, Shoichi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yasuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi


    We have studied the abundances of the 13C isotopic species of C3S and C4H in the cold molecular cloud, Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (Cyanopolyyne Peak), by radioastronomical observations of their rotational emission lines. The CCCS/13CCCS and CCCS/C13CCS ratios are determined to be >206 and 48 ± 15, respectively. The CC13CS line is identified with the aid of laboratory microwave spectroscopy, and the range of the CCCS/CC13CS ratio is found to be from 30 to 206. The abundances of at least two 13C isotopic species of C3S are thus found to be different. Similarly, it is found that the abundances of the four 13C isotopic species of C4H are not equivalent. The CCCCH/13CCCCH, CCCCH/C13CCCH, CCCCH/CC13CCH, and CCCCH/CCC13CH ratios are evaluated to be 141 ± 44, 97 ± 27, 82 ± 15, and 118 ± 23, respectively. Here the errors denote 3 times the standard deviation. These results will constrain the formation pathways of C3S and C4H, if the nonequivalence is caused during the formation processes of these molecules. The exchange reactions after the formation of these two molecules may also contribute to the nonequivalence. In addition, we have confirmed that the 12C/13C ratio of some species are significantly higher than the interstellar elemental 12C/13C ratio of 60-70. The observations of the 13C isotopic species provide us with rich information on chemical processes in cold interstellar clouds.

  1. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nesterov, Alexander [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Lopez, Gustavo [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Fısica, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  2. Cyanobacteria as photosynthetic biocatalysts: a systems biology perspective. (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Steinn; Nogales, Juan


    The increasing need to replace oil-based products and to address global climate change concerns has triggered considerable interest in photosynthetic microorganisms. Cyanobacteria, in particular, have great potential as biocatalysts for fuels and fine-chemicals. During the last few years the biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria have experienced an unprecedented increase and the use of these photosynthetic organisms for chemical production is becoming a tangible reality. However, the field is still immature and many concerns about the economic feasibility of the biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria remain. In this review we describe recent successes in biofuel and fine-chemical production using cyanobacteria. We discuss the role of the photosynthetic metabolism and highlight the need for systems-level metabolic optimization in order to achieve the true potential of cyanobacterial biocatalysts.

  3. Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems (United States)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc; Sargent, Edward H.; Scholes, Gregory D.


    The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder -- structural and energetic -- and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.

  4. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings. (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I


    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  5. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li


    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  6. Synthesis of C-4 Substituted Amido Nicotine Derivatives via Copper(I)- and (II)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions. (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Enamorado, Monica F; Comins, Daniel L


    The syntheses of seven novel amido nicotine derivatives 12-18 from (S)-nicotine are presented. (S)-Nicotine and (S)-6-chloronicotine derivatives were cross-coupled with the corresponding amides 6-10 at the C-4 position of the pyridine ring via copper(I)-mediated reactions. Derivatives 16-18 were also obtained via copper(II)-mediated reactions from (S)-nicotine containing a C-4 boronic acid pinacol ester group. The optimization of reaction conditions for both routes provided a useful method for preparing C-4 amide-containing nicotine analogs.

  7. Molecular and vibrational structure of the extracellular bacterial signal compound N-butyryl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jimmy; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    The molecular and vibrational structure of the title compound (C