WorldWideScience

Sample records for c3 herbaceous ecosystem

  1. Impacts of Extreme Events on Phenology: Drought-Induced Changes in Productivity of Mixed Woody-Herbaceous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, P. M.; Breshears, D. D.; White, A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Ecosystem responses to key climate drivers are reflected in phenological dynamics such as the timing and degree of "greenup" that integrate responses over spatial scales from individual plants to ecosystems. This integration is clearest in ecosystems dominated by a single species or life form, such as seasonally dynamic grasslands or more temporally constant evergreen forests. Yet many ecosystems have substantial contribution of cover from both herbaceous and woody evergreen plants. Responses of mixed woody- herbaceous ecosystems to climate are of increasing concern due to their extensive nature, the potential for such systems to yield more complex responses than those dominated by a single life form, and projections that extreme climate and weather events will increase in frequency and intensity with global warming. We present responses of a mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystem type to an extreme event: regional scale piñon pine mortality following an extended drought and the subsequent herbaceous greenup following the first wet period after the drought. This example highlights how reductions in greenness of the slower, more stable evergreen woody component can rapidly be offset by increases associated with resources made available to the relatively more responsive herbaceous component. We hypothesize that such two-phase phenological responses to extreme events are characteristic of many mixed woody-herbaceous ecosystems.

  2. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CO2 in a temperate herbaceous peatland in the Sanjiang Plain of northeast China

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    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Song, Changchun; Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Guo, Yuedong; Zhang, Xinhow; Wang, Jiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Northern peatlands contain a considerable share of the terrestrial carbon pool, which will be affected by future climatic variability. Using the static chamber technique, we investigated ecosystem respiration and soil respiration over two growing seasons (2012 and 2013) in a Carex lasiocarpa-dominated peatland in the Sanjiang Plain in China. We synchronously monitored the environmental factors controlling CO2 fluxes. Ecosystem respiration during these two growing seasons ranged from 33.3 to 506.7 mg CO2–C m−2 h−1. Through step-wise regression, variations in soil temperature at 10 cm depth alone explained 73.7% of the observed variance in log10(ER). The mean Q10 values ranged from 2.1 to 2.9 depending on the choice of depth where soil temperature was measured. The Q10 value at the 10 cm depth (2.9) appears to be a good representation for herbaceous peatland in the Sanjiang Plain when applying field-estimation based Q10values to current terrestrial ecosystem models due to the most optimized regression coefficient (63.2%). Soil respiration amounted to 57% of ecosystem respiration and played a major role in peatland carbon balance in our study. Emphasis on ecosystem respiration from temperate peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain will improve our basic understanding of carbon exchange between peatland ecosystem and the atmosphere.

  3. Recreational transformation of the herbaceous layer in an urban forest ecosystem of Central Podolia

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    O. I. Blinkova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of recreational activities on herbaceous cover of forests on the example of an urban environment in Central Podolia. The features of changes in environmental conditions of ecotypes of an urban forest have been shown through the systematic, biomorphological and ecomorphic structure of the herbaceous cover, the ratio of ecological groups, changes in type of ecological strategy of species, assessment of ecological fractions valences, and phytodiversity. We found 78 species of vascular plants. The most diverse families are Asteraceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. The biomorphological range of phytodiversity of the intensive recreational zone is characterized by a high proportion of adventive and ruderal species, dominance of vegetative mobile species, forming of monodominant groups and disturbed distribution of all spectrum types for coenotic morphs. Perennial hemicryptophytes dominate in the spectrum of life forms. The share of therophytes increased along the gradient of recreational transformation. Unrosellate herbal plants dominate in the structure of aboveground shoots and leaf placement, plants that don’t have special modifications dominate in the structures of underground shoots. Helophytes dominated in the analysis of heliomorphic plants. Mesophytes dominated almost everywhere. The share of hydrocontrastophobes increased with a gradual removal from places of recreation. Changes in acidomorphic and nitromorphic structures of plants were not found. Types of transitional groups of ecological strategies, including CR-, CS-, and CRS-strategies prevailed. The share of patiens diminished. Exsplerents from all types of primary ecological strategies dominated. Analysis of ecological valence fractions showed that species of hemi-euryvalent and euryvalent fractions dominate among hydromorphs, hemi-euryvalent species dominate among ecogroups of scale variability humidification of soil, hemystenovalences species dominate among

  4. Effects of Ontogeny on δ13C of Plant- and Soil-Respired CO2 and on Respiratory Carbon Fractionation in C3 Herbaceous Species.

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    Yann Salmon

    Full Text Available Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (δ13C of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the δ13C of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence. Ontogeny-related changes in δ13C of leaf- and soil-respired CO2 and 13C/12C fractionation in respiration (ΔR were species-dependent and up to 7‰, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in δ13C of respired CO2 and ΔR with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the aboveground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower ΔR values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in 13C were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.

  5. Effects of Ontogeny on δ13C of Plant- and Soil-Respired CO2 and on Respiratory Carbon Fractionation in C3 Herbaceous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Yann; Buchmann, Nina; Barnard, Romain L

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge gaps regarding potential ontogeny and plant species identity effects on carbon isotope fractionation might lead to misinterpretations of carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of respired CO2, a widely-used integrator of environmental conditions. In monospecific mesocosms grown under controlled conditions, the δ13C of C pools and fluxes and leaf ecophysiological parameters of seven herbaceous species belonging to three functional groups (crops, forage grasses and legumes) were investigated at three ontogenetic stages of their vegetative cycle (young foliage, maximum growth rate, early senescence). Ontogeny-related changes in δ13C of leaf- and soil-respired CO2 and 13C/12C fractionation in respiration (ΔR) were species-dependent and up to 7‰, a magnitude similar to that commonly measured in response to environmental factors. At plant and soil levels, changes in δ13C of respired CO2 and ΔR with ontogeny were related to changes in plant physiological status, likely through ontogeny-driven changes in the C sink to source strength ratio in the aboveground plant compartment. Our data further showed that lower ΔR values (i.e. respired CO2 relatively less depleted in 13C) were observed with decreasing net assimilation. Our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ontogenetic stage and plant community composition in ecological studies using stable carbon isotopes.

  6. Do agrometeorological data improve optical satellite-based estimations of the herbaceous yield in Sahelian semi-arid ecosystems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Hiernaux, Pierre; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    evapotranspiration satellite gridded data to estimate the annual herbaceous yield in the semi-arid areas of Senegal. It showed that a machine-learning model combining FAPAR seasonal metrics with various agrometeorological data provided better estimations of the in situ annual herbaceous yield (R2 = 0.69; RMSE = 483...... kg·DM/ha) than models based exclusively on FAPAR metrics (R2 = 0.63; RMSE = 550 kg·DM/ha) or agrometeorological variables (R2 = 0.55; RMSE = 585 kg·DM/ha). All the models provided reasonable outputs and showed a decrease in the mean annual yield with increasing latitude, together with an increase...

  7. Effects of the arrangement works in the middle Prut meadow upon hydric metabolism in some herbaceous species at natural forest ecosystems

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    ACATRINEI Ligia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present paper is to evidence the major changes in hydric metabolism of some herbaceous species after arrangements works (dessecation, embankment which were made in eighties years. It were analysed the dry matter and water content; chlorophyll and carotenoid content from leaves of dominant species. Also, it has been effect a comparison of the values of the physiological

  8. Functional role of the herbaceous layer in eastern deciduous forest

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    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Barton D. Clinton; Brian D. Kloeppel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the herbaceous layer in regulating ecosystem processes in deciduous forests is generally unknown. We use a manipulative study in a rich, mesophytic cove forest in the southern Appalachians to test the following hypotheses: (i) the herbaceous functional group (HFG) in mesophytic coves accelerates carbon and nutrient cycling, (ii) high litter quality...

  9. Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem

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    Qiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m−2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland.

  10. Facilitative and inhibitory effect of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of six herbaceous species in an early successional old field ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m(-2), litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland.

  11. Assessing tolerance of longleaf pine understory herbaceous plants to herbicide applications in a container nursery

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    D. Paul Jackson; Scott A. Enebak; James West; Drew Hinnant

    2015-01-01

    Renewed efforts in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem restoration has increased interest in the commercial production of understory herbaceous species. Successful establishment of understory herbaceous species is enhanced when using quality nursery-grown plants that have a better chance of survival after outplanting. Nursery growing practices have not been...

  12. Soil and Plant Water Relations Determine Photosynthetic Responses of C3 and C4 Grasses in a Semi‐arid Ecosystem under Elevated CO2

    OpenAIRE

    LECAIN, DANIEL R.; MORGAN, JACK A.; MOSIER, ARVIN R.; NELSON, JIM A.

    2003-01-01

    To model the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 on semi‐arid grasslands, the gas exchange responses of leaves to seasonal changes in soil water, and how they are modified by CO2, must be understood for C3 and C4 species that grow in the same area. In this study, open‐top chambers were used to investigate the photosynthetic and stomatal responses of Pascopyrum smithii (C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4) grown at 360 (ambient CO2) and 720 µmol mol–1 CO2 (elevated CO2) in a semi‐arid shortgrass s...

  13. Attempting to restore herbaceous understories in Wyoming big sagebrush communities with mowing and seeding

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    Shrub steppe communities with depleted perennial herbaceous understories need to be restored to increase resilience, provide quality wildlife habitat, and improve ecosystem function. Mowing has been applied to Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle &Young) steppe...

  14. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

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    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  15. On the global relationships between photosynthetic water-use efficiency, leaf mass per unit area and atmospheric demand in woody and herbaceous plants

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    Letts, M. G.; Fox, T. A.; Gulias, J.; Galmes, J.; Hikosaka, K.; Wright, I.; Flexas, J.; Awada, T.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Tobita, H.

    2013-12-01

    A global dataset was compiled including woody and herbaceous C3 species from forest, Mediterranean and grassland-shrubland ecosystems, to elucidate the dependency of photosynthetic water-use efficiency on vapour pressure deficit (D) and leaf traits. Mean leaf mass per unit area (LMA) was lower and mass-based leaf nitrogen content (Nmass) was higher in herbaceous species. Higher mean stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E) and net CO2 assimilation rate under light saturating conditions (Amax) were observed in herbs, but photosynthetic and intrinsic water-use efficiencies (WUE = Amax/E and WUEi = Amax/gs) were lower than in woody plants. Woody species maintained stricter stomatal regulation of water loss at low D, resulting in a steeper positive and linear relationship between log D and log E. Herbaceous species possessed very high gs at low D, resulting in higher ratio of substomatal to atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ci/ca) and E, but lower WUE and WUEi than woody plants, despite higher Amax. The lower WUE and higher rates of gas exchange were most pronounced in herbs with low LMA and high Nmass. Photosynthetic water use also differed between species from grassland-shrubland and Mediterranean or forest environments. Water-use efficiency showed no relationship with either D or LMA in grassland-shrubland species, but showed a negative relationship with D in forest and chaparral. The distinct photosynthetic water-use of woody and herbaceous plants is consistent with the opportunistic growth strategy of herbs and the more conservative growth strategy of woody species. Further research is recommended to examine the implications of these functional group and ecosystem differences in the contexts of climate and atmospheric change.

  16. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

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    J. Firn; J.L. Moore; A.S. MacDougall; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; J. HilleRisLambers; S. Harpole; E.E. Cleland; C.S. Brown; J.M.H. Knops; S.M. Prober; D.A. Pyke; K.A. Farrell; J.D. Bakker; L.R. O’Halloran; P.B. Adler; S.L. Collins; C.M. D’Antonio; M.J. Crawley; E.M. Wolkovich; K.J. La Pierre; B.A. Melbourne; Y. Hautier; J.W. Morgan; A.D.B. Leakey; A.D. Kay; R.L. McCulley; K.F. Davies; C.J. Stevens; C.J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at...

  17. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  18. Effects of different elevated CO2 concentrations on chlorophyll contents, gas exchange, water use efficiency, and PSII activity on C3 and C4 cereal crops in a closed artificial ecosystem.

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    Wang, Minjuan; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Hui, Liu; Guanghui, Liu; Liu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Although terrestrial CO2 concentrations [CO2] are not expected to reach 1000 μmol mol(-1) (or ppm) for many decades, CO2 levels in closed systems such as growth chambers and greenhouses can easily exceed this concentration. CO2 levels in life support systems (LSS) in space can exceed 10,000 ppm (1 %). In order to understand how photosynthesis in C4 plants may respond to elevated CO2, it is necessary to determine if leaves of closed artificial ecosystem grown plants have a fully developed C4 photosynthetic apparatus, and whether or not photosynthesis in these leaves is more responsive to elevated [CO2] than leaves of C3 plants. To address this issue, we evaluated the response of gas exchange, water use efficiency, and photosynthetic efficiency of PSII by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., 'Heihe35') of a typical C3 plant and maize (Zea mays L., 'Susheng') of C4 plant under four CO2 concentrations (500, 1000, 3000, and 5000 ppm), which were grown under controlled environmental conditions of Lunar Palace 1. The results showed that photosynthetic pigment by the C3 plants of soybean was more sensitive to elevated [CO2] below 3000 ppm than the C4 plants of maize. Elevated [CO2] to 1000 ppm induced a higher initial photosynthetic rate, while super-elevated [CO2] appeared to negate such initial growth promotion for C3 plants. The C4 plant had the highest ETR, φPSII, and qP under 500-3000 ppm [CO2], but then decreased substantially at 5000 ppm [CO2] for both species. Therefore, photosynthetic down-regulation and a decrease in photosynthetic electron transport occurred by both species in response to super-elevated [CO2] at 3000 and 5000 ppm. Accordingly, plants can be selected for and adapt to the efficient use of elevated CO2 concentration in LSS.

  19. Towards reconstructing herbaceous biome dynamics and associated precipitation in Africa: insights from the classification of grass morphological traits

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    Pasturel, Marine; Alexandre, Anne; Novello, Alice; Moctar Dieye, Amadou; Wele, Abdoulaye; Paradis, Laure; Hely, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Inter-tropical herbaceous ecosystems occupy a 1/5th of terrestrial surface, a half of the African continent, and are expected to extend in the next decades. Dynamic of these ecosystems is simulated with poor accuracy by Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). One of the bias results from the fact that the diversity of the grass layer dominating these herbaceous ecosystems is poorly taken into account. Mean annual precipitation and the length of the dry season are the main constrains of the dynamics of these ecosystems. Conversely, changes in vegetation affect the water cycle. Inaccuracy in herbaceous ecosystem simulation thus impacts simulations of the water cycle (including precipitation) and vice versa. In order to increase our knowledge of the relationships between grass morphological traits, taxonomy, biomes and climatic niches in Western and South Africa, a 3-step methodology was followed: i) values of culm height, leaf length and width of dominant grass species from Senegal were gathered from flora and clustered using the Partition Around Medoids (PAM) method; ii) trait group ability to sign climatic domains and biomes was assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests; iii) genericity and robustness of the trait groups were evaluated through their application to Chadian and South African botanical datasets. Results show that 8 grass trait groups are present either in Senegal, Chad or South Africa. These 8 trait groups are distributed along mean annual precipitation and dry season length gradients. The combination of three of them allow to discriminate mean annual precipitation domains (1000 mm) and herbaceous biomes (steppes, savannas, South African grasslands and Nama-Karoo). With these results in hand, grass Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the DGMV LPJ-GUESS will be re-parameterized and particular attention will be given to the herbaceous biomass assigned to each grass trait group. Simultaneously, relationships between grass trait groups and phytolith vegetation

  20. Human complement component C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N

    1985-01-01

    The two common genetic variants of human C3, C3 S and C3 F, were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two variants was conserved after purification, and by isoelect......The two common genetic variants of human C3, C3 S and C3 F, were purified and characterized by SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and amino acid analysis. The difference in electrophoretic mobility between the two variants was conserved after purification......, and by isoelectric focusing of the hemolytically active proteins, pI values of 5.86 and 5.81 were determined for C3 S and C3 F, respectively. Any difference in amino acid composition was too small to be detected by amino acid analysis, and the two proteins had the same molecular weight as determined by SDS-PAGE....

  1. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Li Lin; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Rosa del C. Ortiz; Yang Liu; Kun-Li Xiang; Sheng-Xiang Yu; Yao-Wu Xing; Zhi-Duan Chen

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We...

  2. The effect of herbaceous species removal, fire and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) on soil water availability in sagebrush steppe

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    Alison Whittaker; Bruce Roundy; Jeanne Chambers; Susan Meyer; Robert Blank; Stanley Kitchen; John Korfmacher

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has been continually expanding in the sagebrush steppe ecosystem. There has been very little research that examines why cheatgrass is able to invade these communities. To determine the effects of herbaceous vegetation removal and fire on available water for cheatgrass invasion, as well as...

  3. Herbaceous plants as filters: Immobilization of particulates along urban street corridors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo; Säumel, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is considered to be the most serious threat to human health. Plants provide ecosystem services in urban areas, including reducing levels of PM by providing a surface for deposition and immobilization. While previous studies have mostly addressed woody species, we focus on herbaceous roadside vegetation and assess the role of species traits such as leaf surface roughness or hairiness for the immobilization of PM. We found that PM deposition patterns on plant surfaces reflect site-specific traffic densities and that strong differences in particulate deposition are present among species. The amount of immobilized PM differed according to particle type and size and was related to specific plant species traits. Our study suggests that herbaceous vegetation immobilizes a significant amount of the air pollutants relevant to human health and that increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration and thus healthier conditions along street corridors. -- Highlights: • We assessed PM immobilization by common urban herbaceous roadside species. • PM deposition was related to traffic density and plant species traits. • Amount of PM deposited differed according to particle type and size. • Increasing biodiversity of roadside vegetation supports air filtration. -- Herbaceous urban roadside vegetation immobilizes particulate matter relevant to human health, thus supporting healthier conditions next to busy roads

  4. Responses of high-elevation herbaceous plant assemblages to low glacial CO₂ concentrations revealed by fossil marmot (Marmota) teeth.

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    McLean, Bryan S; Ward, Joy K; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric CO2 cycles of the Quaternary likely imposed major constraints on the physiology and growth of C3 plants worldwide. However, the measured record of this remains both geographically and taxonomically sparse. We present the first reconstruction of physiological responses in a late Quaternary high-elevation herbaceous plant community from the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We used a novel proxy-fossilized tooth enamel of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)-which we developed using detailed isotopic analysis of modern individuals. Calculated C isotopic discrimination (Δ) of alpine plants was nearly 2 ‰ lower prior to the Last Glacial Maximum than at present, a response almost identical to that of nonherbaceous taxa from lower elevations. However, initial shifts in Δ aligned most closely with the onset of the late Pleistocene bipolar temperature "seesaw" rather than CO2 increase, indicating unique limitations on glacial-age high-elevation plants may have existed due to both low temperatures and low CO2. Further development of system-specific faunal proxies can help to clarify this and other plant- and ecosystem-level responses to past environmental change.

  5. Determination of the Proportion of Total Soil Extracellular Acid Phosphomonoesterase (E.C. 3.1.3.2 Activity Represented by Roots in the Soil of Different Forest Ecosystems

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    Klement Rejsek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new method for determining the root-derived extracellular acid phosphomonoesterase (EAPM activity fraction within the total EAPM activity of soil. EAPM activity was determined for roots, organic and mineral soil. Samples were collected using paired PVC cylinders, inserted to a depth of 15 cm, within seven selected forest stands. Root-derived EAPM formed between 4 and18% of the total EAPM activity of soil from forests of differing maturity. A new approach, presented in this work, enables separation of root-derived EAPM activity from total soil EAPM. Separation of root-derived EAPM from soil provides a better understanding of its role in P-cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The method presented in this work is a first step towards the separation of root- and microbe-derived EAPM in soils, which are thought to possess different kinetic properties and different sensitivity to environmental change.

  6. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

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    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  7. Impacts of environmental factors on the climbing behaviors of herbaceous stem-twiners.

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    Hu, Liang; Chen, Youfang; Liu, Meicun

    2017-11-01

    The curvature of the helical trajectory formed by herbaceous stem-twiners has been hypothesized to be constant on uniformly sized cylindrical supports and remains constant on different supports varying in diameter. However, experimental studies on the constant curvature hypothesis have been very limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis in a series of experiments on five herbaceous stem-twiners ( Ipomoea triloba , Ipomoea nil , Phaseolus vulgaris , Vigna unguiculata, and Mikania micrantha ). We investigated how internode characteristics (curvature [β], diameter [ d ], and length [ L ]) and success rate (SR) of twining shoots would be affected by support thickness ( D ), temperature ( T ), illumination, and support inclination. The results showed that: (1) the SR of tested species decreased, but d increased with increasing support thickness. The β of the twining shoots on erect cylindrical poles was not constant, but it decreased with increasing d or support thickness. (2) The SR of tested species was not obviously reduced under low-temperature conditions, but their β was significantly higher and d significantly lower when temperature was more than 5°C lower. (3) The SR , d, and L of two tested Ipomoea species significantly declined, but β increased under 50% shading stress. (4) The curvatures of upper semicycles of I. triloba shoots on 45° inclined supports were not significantly different from curvatures of those shoots climb on erect supports, whereas the curvatures of lower semicycles were 40%-72% higher than curvatures of upper semicycles. Synthesis : Our study illustrates that stem curvatures of a certain herbaceous stem-twiners are not constant, but rather vary in response to external support, temperature, and illumination conditions. We speculate that herbaceous stem-twiners positively adapt to wide-diameter supports by thickening their stems and by reducing their twining curvatures. This insight helps us better understand climbing processes and

  8. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

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    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  9. Woody-Herbaceous Species Coexistence in Mulga Hillslopes: Modelling Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The fundamental processes underlying the coexistence of woody and herbaceous species in arid and semi-arid areas have been a topic of intense research during the last few decades. Experimental and modelling studies have both supported and disputed alternative hypotheses explaining this phenomenon. Vegetation models including the key processes that drive coexistence can be used to understand vegetation pattern dynamics and structure under current climate conditions, and to predict changes under future conditions. Here we present work done towards linking the observations to modelling. The model captures woody-herbaceous coexistence along a rainfall gradient characteristic of typical conditions on Mulga ecosystems in Australia. The dynamic vegetation model simulates the spatial dynamics of overland flow, soil moisture and vegetation growth of two species. It incorporates key mechanisms for coexistence and pattern formation, including facilitation by evaporation reduction through shading, and infiltration feedbacks, local and non-local seed dispersal, competition for water uptake. Model outcomes, obtained including diflerent mechanisms, are qualitatively compared to typical vegetation cover patterns in the Australian Mulga bioregion where bush fire is very infrequent and the fate of vegetation cover is mostly determined by intra- and interspecies interactions. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the dynamics of such ecosystems, we identify main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the dynamic vegetation models. We show that a realistic parameterization of the model leads to results which are aligned with the observations reported in the literature. At the lower end of the rainfall gradient woody species coexist with herbaceous species within a sparse banded pattern, while at higher rainfall woody species tend to dominate the landscape.

  10. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    House, JI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available -form communities, the novel, complex, nonlinear behaviour of mixed tree-grass systems cannot be accounted for by simply studying or modelling woody and herbaceous components independently. A more robust understanding requires addressing three fundamental conundrums...

  11. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  12. The Importance of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "The C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards will soon be released under the title "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: State Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and Lead Writer was NCSS member Kathy…

  13. A Revised Mechanism for the Activation of Complement C3 to C3b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg102. In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg102–Glu1032 salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg102-Glu1032 salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg102) and disease-linked C3F (Gly102) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. PMID:25488663

  14. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  15. PREDICTING FIELD PERFORMANCE OF HERBACEOUS SPECIES FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of these short-term experiments coupled with ecological knowledge of the nine herbaceous plant species tested suggest that several species may by successful in on-site remediation of perchlorate. The two wetland species which appear to be most suitable for field experimen...

  16. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  17. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  18. Functional leaf attributes predict litter decomposition rate in herbaceous plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J. H C; Thompson, K.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that functional attributes of living leaves provide a basis for predicting the decomposition rate of leaf litter. The data were obtained from standardized screening tests on 38 British herbaceous species. Graminoid monocots had physically tougher leaves with higher silicon

  19. Herbaceous weed control in loblolly pine plantations using flazasulfuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; Jimmie L. Yeiser

    2015-01-01

    A total of 13 treatments were applied at four sites (two in Mississippi and two in Texas) to evaluate the efficacy of flazasulfuron applied alone or in mixtures for providing control of herbaceous weeds. All sites were newly established loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. Plots were evaluated monthly until 180 days after treatment. No phytotoxicity on pine...

  20. Test of two methods for determining herbaceous yield and botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Above-ground herbaceous yield was estimated using the comparative yield method to win + 10% (p < 0,05) of the harvested mean using 150 harvested and 600 rated quadrats of 50 x 50 cm. The number of quadrats can be substantially reduced by improved observer rating. Using the dry mass rank method and 240 ...

  1. The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of tree thinning on the establishment of herbaceous plants in a semi-arid savanna of southern Africa. GN Smit, FG Rethman. Abstract. The investigation was conducted on an area covered by a dense stand of Colophospermum mopane. Seven plots (65 m × 180 m) were subjected to different intensities of tree ...

  2. Current concepts in C3 glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement component 3 glomerulopathy (C3G is a recently defined entity comprising of dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. The key histological feature is the presence of isolated C3 deposits without immunoglobulins. Often masqueradng as some of the common glomerulonephritides this is a prototype disorder occurring from dysregulated alternate complement pathway with recently identified genetic defects and autoantibodies. We review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnostic and treatment strategies.

  3. Influence of tree cover on herbaceous layer development and carbon and water fluxes in a Portuguese cork-oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Mosena, Alexander; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra Cristina; Pereira, Joao Santos; Werner, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    Facilitation and competition between different vegetation layers may have a large impact on small-scale vegetation development. We propose that this should not only influence overall herbaceous layer yield but also species distribution and understory longevity, and hence the ecosystems carbon uptake capacity especially during spring. We analyzed the effects of trees on microclimate and soil properties (water and nitrate content) as well as the development of an herbaceous community layer regarding species composition, aboveground biomass and net water and carbon fluxes in a cork-oak woodland in Portugal, between April and November 2011. The presence of trees caused a significant reduction in photosynthetic active radiation of 35 mol m-2 d-1 and in soil temperature of 5 °C from April to October. At the same time differences in species composition between experimental plots located in open areas and directly below trees could be observed: species composition and abundance of functional groups became increasingly different between locations from mid April onwards. During late spring drought adapted native forbs had significantly higher cover and biomass in the open area while cover and biomass of grasses and nitrogen fixing forbs was highest under the trees. Further, evapotranspiration and net carbon exchange decreased significantly stronger under the tree crowns compared to the open during late spring and the die back of herbaceous plants occurred earlier and faster under trees. This was most likely caused by interspecific competition for water between trees and herbaceous plants, despite the more favorable microclimate conditions under the trees during the onset of summer drought.

  4. Mechanisms of herbaceous vegetation restoration successions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Lubov

    2017-04-01

    less suitable for later species. The fourth model of neutrality corresponds to the succession, considered as a population process, with the change of species populations of different life cycles and different ecological-phytocenotic types of strategies. Often this model applies only to the formation of the species composition but quantitative ratios between the species are caused by a weakened manifestation of favored, inhibiting or tolerance effects. All the mechanisms together provide the plant communities development from the beginning stages to the end due to system feedbacks (positive and negative). In the first stages of succession the ecosystem is able to resume quickly, indicating a fairly high resilience, which means the movement to a climax is constantly decreasing. The trend is opposite for self-sustainability or stability. In the early stages of succession, its value is low enough - the systems are very sensitive to external influences, responding to them with increased dynamism. The resident resistance is continuously growing with species increasing. As you get closer to menopause, the ecosystem becomes more sensitive to the effects of some catastrophic environmental factors, which means that with ongoing stable growth the factor of ecosystem rigidity going to a climax apparently even begins to decrease.

  5. Root dynamics in an artificially constructed regenerating longleaf pine ecosystem are affected by atmospheric CO(2) enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, S G.; Davis, M A.; Mitchell, R J.; Prior, S A.; Boykin, D L.; Rogers, H H.; Runion, G B.

    2001-08-01

    Differential responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration exhibited by different plant functional types may alter competition for above- and belowground resources in a higher CO(2) world. Because C allocation to roots is often favored over C allocation to shoots in plants grown with CO(2) enrichment, belowground function of forest ecosystems may change significantly. We established an outdoor facility to examine the effects of elevated CO(2) on root dynamics in artificially constructed communities of five early successional forest species: (1) a C(3) evergreen conifer (longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.); (2) a C(4) monocotyledonous bunch grass (wiregrass, Aristida stricta Michx.); (3) a C(3) broadleaf tree (sand post oak, Quercus margaretta); (4) a C(3) perennial herbaceous legume (rattlebox, Crotalaria rotundifolia Walt. ex Gemel); and (5) an herbaceous C(3) dicotyledonous perennial (butterfly weed, Asclepias tuberosa L.). These species are common associates in early successional longleaf pine savannahs throughout the southeastern USA and represent species that differ in life-form, growth habit, physiology, and symbiotic relationships. A combination of minirhizotrons and soil coring was used to examine temporal and spatial rooting dynamics from October 1998 to October 1999. CO(2)-enriched plots exhibited 35% higher standing root crop length, 37% greater root length production per day, and 47% greater root length mortality per day. These variables, however, were enhanced by CO(2) enrichment only at the 10-30 cm depth. Relative root turnover (flux/standing crop) was unchanged by elevated CO(2). Sixteen months after planting, root biomass of pine was 62% higher in elevated compared to ambient CO(2) plots. Conversely, the combined biomass of rattlebox, wiregrass, and butterfly weed was 28% greater in ambient compared to high CO(2) plots. There was no difference in root biomass of oaks after 16 months of exposure to elevated CO(2). Using root and shoot

  6. C3a Enhances the Formation of Intestinal Organoids through C3aR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsumoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available C3a is important in the regulation of the immune response as well as in the development of organ inflammation and injury. Furthermore, C3a contributes to liver regeneration but its role in intestinal stem cell function has not been studied. We hypothesized that C3a is important for intestinal repair and regeneration. Intestinal organoid formation, a measure of stem cell capacity, was significantly limited in C3-deficient and C3a receptor (C3aR 1-deficient mice while C3a promoted the growth of organoids from normal mice by supporting Wnt-signaling but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Similarly, the presence of C3a in media enhanced the expression of the intestinal stem cell marker leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 and of the cell proliferation marker Ki67 in organoids formed from C3-deficient but not from C3aR1-deficient mice. Using Lgr5.egfp mice we showed significant expression of C3 in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells whereas C3aR1 was expressed on the surface of various intestinal cells. C3 and C3aR1 expression was induced in intestinal crypts in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, C3aR1-deficient mice displayed ischemia/reperfusion injury comparable to control mice. These data suggest that C3a through interaction with C3aR1 enhances stem cell expansion and organoid formation and as such may have a role in intestinal regeneration.

  7. Influences of image resolution on herbaceous root morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zeyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root images of four herbaceous species (including Plantago virginica,Solidago canadensis,Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus were obtained by using EPSON V7000 scanner with different resolutions.Root morphological parameters including root length,diameter,volume and area were determined by using a WinRhizo root analyzing software.The results show a distinct influence of image resolution on root morphological parameter.For different herbaceous species,the optimal resolutions of root images,which would produce an acceptable precision with relative short time,vary with different species.For example,a resolution of 200 dpi was recommended for the root images of Plantago virginica and S.Canadensis, while 400 dpi for Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus.

  8. Ecophysiological responses of two herbaceous species to prescribed burning, alone or in combination with overstory thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Boerner, Ralph E J; Rebbeck, Joanne

    2007-05-01

    The oak-rich deciduous forests of the central Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America have changed significantly since the onset of effective fire suppression early in the 20th century. Those changes have resulted in progressively decreasing light and nutrient supplies to herbaceous perennial understory species. Application of ecological restoration treatments such as reintroduction of frequent dormant-season fire and overstory thinning to pre-suppression density often increase light, soil temperature and moisture, and short-term nutrient availability to pre-suppression levels. To persist in this environment, perennial understory herbs must be able to acclimate phenotypically to the very different resource supply combinations present with and without fire suppression. As part of a larger study of the response of the long-lived herbaceous perennials Desmodium nudiflorum and Panicum boscii to ecosystem restoration treatments in Ohio mixed-oak forests, this study examined the ecophysiological effects of prescribed burning (B) and the combination of burning and thinning (T + B) in mixed-oak forests in southern Ohio. Control (C) plants had significantly lower maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)) than those in the treated plots. The enhancement of A(max) averaged 26.7% and 52.7% in the B and T + B treatments, respectively. Plants from the T + B plots had higher quantum yield, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency than B and C plants. B plants had greater intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) than plants in the C or T + B treatments. Light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), and "dark" respiration (DR) did not differ among treatments. Photosynthetic parameters did vary significantly between the species, but no significant treatment × species interactions were detected. Our results support the hypothesis that prescribed burning, especially when combined with overstory thinning, in these perennial herbs can result in

  9. Decomposition of aboveground biomass of a herbaceous wetland stand

    OpenAIRE

    KLIMOVIČOVÁ, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The master?s thesis is part of the project GA ČR č. P504/11/1151- Role of plants in the greenhouse gas budget of a sedge fen. This thesis deals with the decomposition of aboveground vegetation in a herbaceous wetland. The decomposition rate was established on the flooded part of the Wet Meadows near Třeboň. The rate of the decomposition processes was evaluated using the litter-bag method. Mesh bags filled with dry plant matter were located in the vicinity of the automatic meteorological stati...

  10. conformational complexity of complement component C3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the immune system and critical for the elimination of pathogens. In mammals the complement system consists of an intricate set of about 35 soluble and cell-surface plasma proteins. Central to complement is component C3, a large protein of 1,641 residues.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: C3 glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harris CL, Holers VM, Johnson S, Lavin PJ, Medjeral-Thomas N, Paul Morgan B, Nast CC, Noel LH, Peters DK, Rodríguez de Córdoba S, Servais A, Sethi S, Song WC, Tamburini P, Thurman JM, Zavros M, Cook HT. C3 glomerulopathy: consensus report. Kidney Int. 2013 ...

  12. The Development of the C3 Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Susan Griffin, executive director of NCSS, was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that initiated and guided the development of "The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards", which will soon be released. In this interview with "Social Education", Susan explains how the…

  13. Examination of the combustion conditions of herbaceous biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemmelveisz, K.; Szucs, I.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [Department of Combustion Technology and Thermal Energy, University of Miskolc (Hungary); Eddings, E.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Power generation from biomass is a fairly new area, and boilers that utilize various types of biomass have in many cases experienced serious problems with slagging, fouling and corrosion of boiler tubes. Mineral matter in these fuels can deposit on the heat-exchanger surfaces in the boiler and generate an insulating layer, which will significantly reduce the degree of heat-transfer from flue gas to water and steam. Our investigations were focused on the slag characteristics of different kinds of herbaceous biomass fuels. Since there is usually a reducing atmosphere present in the direct combustion zone of modern low-NO{sub x} firing systems, it is important to study mineral matter transformation of burned fuel residues in a reducing atmosphere. An excellent device for this type of study is the electric-resistance heated Bunte-Baum softening temperature testing instrument, which was used in this work. Ash chemical composition was analyzed via flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the microstructure of ash was determined using a scanning electron microscope. Crystalline compounds of the ashes were identified by using X-ray powder diffraction. This paper provides an overview of results on the combustion and slag characteristics of herbaceous biomass fuels. The results include chemical compositions, morphology and softening properties of these fuels, with special attention to switch grass and sunflower seed shell. (author)

  14. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamers, Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobson, Jacob [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mohammad, Roni [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  15. An Improved Estimation of Regional Fractional Woody/Herbaceous Cover Using Combined Satellite Data and High-Quality Training Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping vegetation cover is critical for understanding and monitoring ecosystem functions in semi-arid biomes. As existing estimates tend to underestimate the woody cover in areas with dry deciduous shrubland and woodland, we present an approach to improve the regional estimation of woody and herbaceous fractional cover in the East Asia steppe. This developed approach uses Random Forest models by combining multiple remote sensing data—training samples derived from high-resolution image in a tailored spatial sampling and model inputs composed of specific metrics from MODIS sensor and ancillary variables including topographic, bioclimatic, and land surface information. We emphasize that effective spatial sampling, high-quality classification, and adequate geospatial information are important prerequisites of establishing appropriate model inputs and achieving high-quality training samples. This study suggests that the optimal models improve estimation accuracy (NMSE 0.47 for woody and 0.64 for herbaceous plants and show a consistent agreement with field observations. Compared with existing woody estimate product, the proposed woody cover estimation can delineate regions with subshrubs and shrubs, showing an improved capability of capturing spatialized detail of vegetation signals. This approach can be applicable over sizable semi-arid areas such as temperate steppes, savannas, and prairies.

  16. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  17. Variation in herbaceous vegetation and soil moisture under treated and untreated oneseed juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector Ramirez; Alexander Fernald; Andres Cibils; Michelle Morris; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Clearing oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) may make more water available for aquifer recharge or herbaceous vegetation growth, but the effects of tree treatment on soil moisture dynamics are not fully understood. This study investigated juniper treatment effects on understory herbaceous vegetation concurrently with soil moisture dynamics using vegetation sampling...

  18. Diversity of herbaceous plants and bacterial communities regulates soil resistome across forest biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Singh, Brajesh K; Liu, Yu-Rong; Chen, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Jing; He, Ji-Zheng

    2018-04-24

    Antibiotic resistance is ancient and prevalent in natural ecosystems and evolved long before the utilization of synthetic antibiotics started, but factors influencing the large-scale distribution patterns of natural antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) remain largely unknown. Here, a large-scale investigation over 4000 km was performed to profile soil ARGs, plant communities and bacterial communities from 300 quadrats across five forest biomes with minimal human impact. We detected diverse and abundant ARGs in forests, including over 160 genes conferring resistance to eight major categories of antibiotics. The diversity of ARGs was strongly and positively correlated with the diversity of bacteria, herbaceous plants and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The ARG composition was strongly correlated with the taxonomic structure of bacteria and herbs. Consistent with this strong correlation, structural equation modelling demonstrated that the positive effects of bacterial and herb communities on ARG patterns were maintained even when simultaneously accounting for multiple drivers (climate, spatial predictors and edaphic factors). These findings suggest a paradigm that the interactions between aboveground and belowground communities shape the large-scale distribution of soil resistomes, providing new knowledge for tackling the emerging environmental antibiotic resistance. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-06-02

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

  1. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  2. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  3. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  4. Self-association and domain rearrangements between complement C3 and C3u provide insight into the activation mechanism of C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    Component C3 is the central protein of the complement system. During complement activation, the thioester group in C3 is slowly hydrolysed to form C3u, then the presence of C3u enables the rapid conversion of C3 into functionally active C3b. C3u shows functional similarities to C3b. To clarify this mechanism, the self-association properties and solution structures of C3 and C3u were determined using analytical ultracentrifugation and X-ray scattering. Sedimentation coefficients identified two different dimerization events in both proteins. A fast dimerization was observed in 50 mM NaCl but not in 137 mM NaCl. Low amounts of a slow dimerization was observed for C3u and C3 in both buffers. The X-ray radius of gyration RG values were unchanged for both C3 and C3u in 137 mM NaCl, but depend on concentration in 50 mM NaCl. The C3 crystal structure gave good X-ray fits for C3 in 137 mM NaCl. By randomization of the TED (thioester-containing domain)/CUB (for complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains in the C3b crystal structure, X-ray fits showed that the TED/CUB domains in C3u are extended and differ from the more compact arrangement of C3b. This TED/CUB conformation is intermediate between those of C3 and C3b. The greater exposure of the TED domain in C3u (which possesses the hydrolysed reactive thioester) accounts for the greater self-association of C3u in low-salt conditions. This conformational variability of the TED/CUB domains would facilitate their interactions with a broad range of antigenic surfaces. The second dimerization of C3 and C3u may correspond to a dimer observed in one of the crystal structures of C3b.

  5. Facilitation by a Spiny Shrub on a Rhizomatous Clonal Herbaceous in Thicketization-Grassland in Northern China: Increased Soil Resources or Shelter from Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saixiyala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with protection from herbivores, acting as ‘shelters’. The interaction between pre-dominated clonal herbaceous plants and encroaching shrubs remains unclear in thicketization-grassland under grazing pressure. We hypothesized that clonal herbaceous plants can be facilitated by encroached shrubs as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ and/or as an ‘increased soil resources’ under grazing pressure. To test this hypothesis, a total of 60 quadrats were chosen in a thicket-grassland in northern China that was previously dominated by Leymus chinensis and was encroached upon by the spiny leguminous plant Caragana intermedia. The soil and plant traits beneath and outside the shrub canopies were sampled, investigated and contrasted with an enclosure. The soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen and soil water content were significantly higher in the soil beneath the shrub canopies than in the soil outside the canopies. L. chinensis beneath the shrub canopies had significantly higher plant height, single shoot biomass, leaf length and width than outside the shrub canopies. There were no significantly differences between plant growth in enclosure and outside the shrub canopies. These results suggested that under grazing pressure in a grassland undergoing thicketization, the growth of the rhizomatous clonal herbaceous plant L. chinensis was facilitated by the spiny shrub C. intermedia as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ more than through ‘increased soil resources’. We propose that future studies should focus on the community- and ecosystem-level impacts of plant clonality.

  6. Generation of a C3c specific monoclonal antibody and assessment of C3c as a putative inflammatory marker derived from complement factor C3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palarasah, Yaseelan; Skjodt, Karsten; Brandt, Jette

    2010-01-01

    complex (C5b-C9) and quantification of complement split products by precipitation-in-gel techniques (e.g. C3d). We have developed a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) that is able to detect fluid phase C3c without interference from other products generated from the complement component C3. The C3c specific m....... The C3c mAb was confirmed to be C3c specific, as it showed no cross-reactivity with native (un-cleaved) C3, with C3b, iC3b, or with C3d. Also, no significant reaction was observed with C3 fragments in factor I deficient sera or plasma. This antibody forms the basis for the generation of a robust ELISA...... that allows for a quick and reliable evaluation of complement activation and consumption as a marker for inflammatory processes. We established the C3c plasma range in 100 healthy Danish blood donors with a mean of 3.47 μg/ml and a range of 2.12-4.92 μg/ml. We believe that such an antibody might...

  7. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  8. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  9. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  10. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  11. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  12. Management of Herbaceous Seeps and Wet Savannas for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harper, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Wetland communities such as herbaceous seeps and wet savannas occur on military installations throughout the southeastern United States, usually as pockets of wet habitat within a matrix of drier longleaf pine woodlands...

  13. Simkin et al. 2016 PNAS data on herbaceous species richness and associated plot and covariate information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the geographic location (lat/lon) for 15,136 plots, as well as the herbaceous species richness, climate, soil pH, and other variables related...

  14. Herbaceous forage and selection patterns by ungulates across varying herbivore assemblages in a South African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Baumgartner, S.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Grant, C.C.; Getz, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivores generally have strong structural and compositional effects on vegetation, which in turn determines the plant forage species available. We investigated how selected large mammalian herbivore assemblages use and alter herbaceous vegetation structure and composition in a southern African

  15. Evaluation de la diversité floristique en herbacées dans le Parc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. 1. Polygalaceae. Polygala petitiana A. Rich. 1. Portulacaceae. Portulaca quadrifida L. 1. Total. 23. DISCUSSION. Les résultats de cette étude fournissent des informations sur l'état actuel de la végétation herbacée du PNM au Tchad. La végétation herbacée de la zone du.

  16. The cost of silage harvest and transport systems for herbaceous crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.; Downing, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Butler, J. [Butler (James), Tifton, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some of the highest yielding herbaceous biomass crops are thick- stemmed species. Their relatively high moisture content necessitates they be handled and stored as silage rather than hay bales or modules. This paper presents estimated costs of harvesting and transporting herbaceous crops as silage. Costs are based on an engineering- economic approach. Equipment costs are estimated by combining per hour costs with the hours required to complete the operation. Harvest includes severing, chopping, and blowing stalks into a wagon or truck.

  17. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  18. A novel antihuman C3d monoclonal antibody with specificity to the C3d complement split product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole; Vitved, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The complement component C3 and the cleavage products of C3b/iC3b, C3c and C3d are used as biomarkers in clinical diagnostics. Currently, no specific antibodies are able to differentiate C3d from other fragments, although such a distinction could be very valuable considering that they may reflect...... different pathophysiological mechanisms. We have developed a rat antihuman C3d monoclonal antibody with specificity to the end sequence of the N-terminal region of C3d. The antibody can therefore only bind to C3d when it manifests itself as the final end product of cleaved C3. We believe...

  19. Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Gornish

    Full Text Available Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress and active (typically involving planting or seeding restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none to compare the utility of different approaches on restoration success across sites. We found that landform type, percent shade, and summer flow helped explain differences in the understory functional community across all sites. In passively restored sites, grass and forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age, but in actively restored sites forb cover and richness were inversely related to site age. Native cover and richness were lower with passive restoration compared to active restoration. Invasive species cover and richness were not significantly different across sites. Although some of our results suggest that active restoration would best enhance native species in degraded riparian areas, this work also highlights some of the context-dependency that has been found to mediate restoration outcomes. For example, since the effects of passive restoration can be quite rapid, this approach might be more useful than active restoration in situations where rapid dominance of pioneer species is required to arrest major soil loss through erosion. As a result, we caution against labeling one restoration technique as better than another. Managers should identify ideal restoration outcomes in the context of historic and current site characteristics (as well as a range of acceptable alternative states and choose restoration approaches that best facilitate the achievement of revegetation goals.

  20. Defining the complement biomarker profile of c3 glomerulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Nester, Carla M; Martin, Bertha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) applies to a group of renal diseases defined by a specific renal biopsy finding: a dominant pattern of C3 fragment deposition on immunofluorescence. The primary pathogenic mechanism involves abnormal control of the alternative complement pathway......, although a full description of the disease spectrum remains to be determined. This study sought to validate and define the association of complement dysregulation with C3G and to determine whether specific complement pathway abnormalities could inform disease definition. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS......, & MEASUREMENTS: This study included 34 patients with C3G (17 with C3 glomerulonephritis [C3GN] and 17 with dense deposit disease [DDD]) diagnosed between 2008 and 2013 selected from the C3G Registry. Control samples (n=100) were recruited from regional blood drives. Nineteen complement biomarkers were assayed...

  1. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  2. Effects of radiation, litterfall and throughfall on herbaceous biomass production in oak woodlands of Southern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.; Sa, C.; Madeira, M.; Gazarini, L.

    2002-01-01

    Micro climatic characteristics (soil moisture, and air and soil temperature) were monitored both under and outside the influence of Quercus rotundifolia canopy. The influence of tree cover on biomass production of herbaceous vegetation was studied through the simulation of the physical and chemical effects associated to the tree canopy (radiation, litterfall, throughfall). Treatments were: control (T), radiation shortage (RR), application of leaf litter (F), application of leaflitter and radiation shortage (FRR) , application of throughfall (N) and application of throughfall and radiation shortage (NRR). Most of the times, and especially in winter, soil temperature was higher in areas not influenced by the canopies than in those under their influence. Soil moisture tended to decrease faster in the areas outside the canopy influence. Mean annual biomass production of the herbaceous vegetation was 159.5, 145.8, 132.2, 126.66, 134.9 and 173.1 g m2, respectively, in treatments C, RR, F, FRR, N and NRR. The N, P, K, Mg, Mn and Ca concentrations in the herbaceous biomass were generally higher in the shaded treatments. When the amount of nutrients accumulated in the herbaceous vegetation biomass was expressed on an area basis, the highest values were observed for treatment with throughfall application and radiation shortage. Besides the possible effects of the micro climatic characteristics, differences with respect to herbaceous vegetation production may be explained by the presence of litterfall, as well as by the nutrients present in the throughfall solution [pt

  3. Diagnosis of vegetation recovery within herbaceous sub-systems in the West African Sahel Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, J.; Hanan, N. P.; Prihodko, L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Ji, W.; Ross, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    The West African Sahel (WAS) region is an extensive water limited environment that features a delicate balance of herbaceous and woody vegetation sub systems. These play an important role in the cycling of carbon while also supporting the dominant agro-pastoral human activities in the region. Quantifying the temporal trends in vegetation with regard to these two systems is therefore very important in assessing resource sustainability and food security. In water limited areas, rainfall is a primary driver of vegetation productivity and past watershed scale studies in the WAS region have shown that increase in the slope of the productivity-to-rainfall relationship is indicative of increasing cover and density of herbaceous plants. Given the importance of grazing resources to the region, we perform a wall-to-wall pixel based analysis of changing short-term vegetation sensitivity to changing annual rainfall (hereafter referred to as dS) to examine temporal trends in herbaceous vegetation health. Results indicate that 43% of the Sahelian region has experienced changes (P Western and Central Mali and South Western Niger. Positive dS is indicative of herbaceous vegetation recovery, in response to changing management and rainfall conditions that promote long-term herbaceous community recovery following degradation during the 1970-1980s droughts.

  4. Contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy throughout the seasons under different nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Migliavacca, M.; Perez-Priego, O.; Luo, Y.; Moreno, G.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Reichstein, M.

    2017-12-01

    In semi-arid savanna type ecosystems, the carbon and water cycle are closely related to each other. Water availability is the main driver for the development and phenology of the vegetation, especially for annual plants. Depending on tree density, nutrient availability and species the contribution of the tree- and the herbaceous layer to ecosystem fluxes can vary substantially. We present data from an ecosystem scale nutrient manipulation experiment within a Mediterranean savanna type ecosystem which is used for cattle. The footprint areas of two out of three ecosystem eddy co-variance (EC) towers were fertilized with nitrogen (NT) and nitrogen plus phosphorous (NPT) while the third one served as the control tower (CT). At each ecosystem EC-tower an additional herbaceous layer tower was installed that only sampled fluxes from the herbaceous layer. Under certain assumptions flux differences between the ecosystem EC and the herbaceous layer EC systems can be considered as the contribution of the trees to the ecosystem fluxes. Based on phenology of the herbaceous layer estimated through green-chromatic-coordinates from digital imagery the year was separated into spring, senescence, regreening, and winter. The focus of the analysis is (i) the evaluation of the method and how it works throughout the different seasons and (ii) the quantification of the contribution of trees and grasses to ecosystem fluxes of water, carbon, and energy under different environmental conditions and nutrient stoichiometry. The contribution of the trees to total ecosystem fluxes is variable in time. Especially, during the beginning of the senescence period high evapotranspiration rates and largest carbon uptake are measured while the contribution to sensible heat fluxes is largest during the end of the summer. During the regreening and winter the contribution of ET is relatively constant around 0.25 mm d-1. During the peak of the greenness ET and carbon flux of the herbaceous EC tower are

  5. Anaphylatoxin C3a induced mediator release from mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrscher, R.; Hugli, T.E.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigated the biochemical and functional consequences of the binding of highly purified human C3a to isolated rat serosal mast cells. C3a caused a dose-dependent (1-30 μM), noncytotoxic release of up to 64% (+/- 7 SEM) of the mast cell histamine content. C3a (10μM) increased 45 Ca ++ uptake 8.2- fold (+/- 2.2 SEM) above unstimulated control values within 10 minutes. Arachidonyl-diacylglycerol and arachidonyl-monoacylglycerol levels increased significantly within 2 minutes after C3a (10 μM) stimulation. Turnover of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine were increased within 15 minutes. In contrast to antigen, C3a stimulation (10 μM) was not enhanced by exogenous phosphatidylserine, and was not inhibited by ethanol (100 μmM). C3a suppressed arachidonic acid (AA) release to 38% (+/- 9 SEM) below baseline, and did not cause PGD 2 formation. C3a and the desarginine form of C3a caused identical responses in all experiments. These studies indicate that C3a stimulation activates mast cell preformed mediator release in a manner very similar to antigen-IgE stimulation, but C3a suppresses free AA levels and does not stimulate PGD 2 synthesis

  6. Synthesis and characterization of "1"3C_3-tristearin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hangyu; Lin Lin; Li Lei; Chen Dazhou

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient synthesis of "1"3C_3 labeled triglycerides of stearic acids from "1"3C_3-glycerol and stearic acids, by immobilized lipase-catalyzed in solvent-free medium was described. The structure of the product were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectra (MS). The results showed that triglycerides of stearic acids contained three "1"3C atoms. The isotope abundance of "1"3C_3-tristearin was more than 99% and the yield was 80% of "1"3C_3-tristearin through calculation. Chemical purity (> 98%) was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (authors)

  7. Mannan-binding lectin activates C3 and the

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, B.; Martensson, U.; Weintraub, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lectin pathway activation of C3 is known to involve target recognition by mannan-binding lectin (MBL) or ficolins and generation of classical pathway C3 convertase via cleavage of C4 and C2 by MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2). We investigated C3 activation in C2-deficient human sera...... and in sera with other defined defects of complement to assess other mechanisms through which MBL might recruit complement. The capacity of serum to support C3 deposition was examined by ELISA using microtiter plates coated with O antigen-specific oligosaccharides derived from Salmonella typhimurium, S...

  8. 12 CFR 563c.3 - Qualification of public accountant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification of public accountant. 563c.3... REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.3 Qualification of public accountant. (See also 17 CFR 210.2-01.) The term “qualified public accountant” means a certified public accountant or licensed...

  9. DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF ISOLATED HERBACEOUS WETLAND CONDITION IN FLORIDA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic, epiphytic, and phytoplanktonic diatoms, as well as soil and water physical-chemical parameters, were sampled from 70 small (~1 ha) isolated depressional herbaceous wetlands located along a gradient of human disturbance in peninsular Florida to: 1) compare assemblage str...

  10. Herbaceous vegetation in thinned and defoliated forest stands in north central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. L. C. Fosbroke; D. Feicht; R. M. Muzika

    1995-01-01

    Herbaceous vegetation was inventoried in 1992 and 1993 in eight Appalachian mixed hardwood stands ( 50% basal area/acre in oak species) in north central West Virginia. Vegetation was sampled on 20 6-foot radius plots per stand twice each growing season (once during late spring to sample spring ephemeral...

  11. Facilitation between woody and herbaceous plants that associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veresoglou, Stavros D; Wulf, Monika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2017-02-01

    In late-successional environments, low in available nutrient such as the forest understory, herbaceous plant individuals depend strongly on their mycorrhizal associates for survival. We tested whether in temperate European forests arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) woody plants might facilitate the establishment of AM herbaceous plants in agreement with the mycorrhizal mediation hypothesis. We used a dataset spanning over 400 vegetation plots in the Weser-Elbe region (northwest Germany). Mycorrhizal status information was obtained from published resources, and Ellenberg indicator values were used to infer environmental data. We carried out tests for both relative richness and relative abundance of herbaceous plants. We found that the subset of herbaceous individuals that associated with AM profited when there was a high cover of AM woody plants. These relationships were retained when we accounted for environmental filtering effects using path analysis. Our findings build on the existing literature highlighting the prominent role of mycorrhiza as a coexistence mechanism in plant communities. From a nature conservation point of view, it may be possible to promote functional diversity in the forest understory through introducing AM woody trees in stands when absent.

  12. Evaluating subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on shortleaf pine planted in retired farm land

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Kushla

    2010-01-01

    In March 2005, shortleaf pine was planted on retired fields of the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station in Holly Springs. The objectives were to evaluate subsoiling and herbaceous weed control on first year seedling stocking, survival, and size. First year seedling measurements were made on stocking, survival, and size. Only results for first year...

  13. Eleventh-year response of loblolly pine and competing vegetation to woody and herbaceous plant control on a Georgia flatwoods site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Zutter; James H. Miller

    1998-01-01

    Through 11 growing seasons, growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) increased after control of herbaceous, woody, or both herbaceous and woody vegetation (total control) for the first 3 years after planting on a bedded site in the Georgia coastal flatwoods. Gains in stand volume index from controlling either herbaceous or woody vegetation alone were approximately two-...

  14. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  15. Herbaceous land plants as a renewable energy source for Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G

    1980-01-01

    Herbaceous tropical plants are a renewable energy source of major importance to many tropical nations. They convert the radiant energy of sunlight to chemical energy, which is stored in plant tissues (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) and fermentable solids (sugars, starches). Because all tropical plants do this - even those commonly regarded as weeds - they constitute an inexpensive, renewable, and domestic alternative to foreign fossil energy. The vast majority of herbaceous tropical plants have never been cultivated for food, fiber, or energy. A major screening program would be needed to identify superior species and the most effective roles they can play in a domestic energy industry. Other herbaceous plants, such as sugarcane and tropical forage grasses, have been cultivated for centuries as agricultural commodities. As energy crops, important revisions in management will be needed to maximize their energy yield. Two broad groups of herbaceous plants are seen to have an immediate potential for reducing Puerto Rico's reliance on imported fossil fuels: the tropical grasses (of which sugarcane is the dominant member) and the tropical legumes. Managed for its maximum growth potential, sugarcane is an excellent source of boiler fuel, fermentation substrates, cellulosic feedstocks, and the sweetener sucrose. Other tropical grasses store relatively little extractable sugar while equaling or moderately surpassing sugarcane in yield of cellulosic dry matter. The latter might soon become an economical source of fermentation substrates. Certain legume species are also very effective producers of biomass. Herbaceous tropical legumes are perceived as a potential source of biological nitrogen for energy crops unable to utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere.

  16. Skipping of exon 27 in C3 gene compromises TED domain and results in complete human C3 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Fraga, Tatiana Rodrigues; Lucatelli, Juliana Faggion; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Isaac, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    Primary deficiency of complement C3 is rare and usually associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. In this work, we investigated the molecular basis of complete C3 deficiency in a Brazilian 9-year old female patient with a family history of consanguinity. Hemolytic assays revealed complete lack of complement-mediated hemolytic activity in the patient's serum. While levels of the complement regulatory proteins Factor I, Factor H and Factor B were normal in the patient's and family members' sera, complement C3 levels were undetectable in the patient's serum and were reduced by at least 50% in the sera of the patient's parents and brother. Additionally, no C3 could be observed in the patient's plasma and cell culture supernatants by Western blot. We also observed that patient's skin fibroblasts stimulated with Escherichia coli LPS were unable to secrete C3, which might be accumulated within the cells before being intracellularly degraded. Sequencing analysis of the patient's C3 cDNA revealed a genetic mutation responsible for the complete skipping of exon 27, resulting in the loss of 99 nucleotides (3450-3549) located in the TED domain. Sequencing of the intronic region between the exons 26 and 27 of the C3 gene (nucleotides 6690313-6690961) showed a nucleotide exchange (T→C) at position 6690626 located in a splicing donor site, resulting in the complete skipping of exon 27 in the C3 mRNA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  18. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  19. Influence of Lithium Carbonate on C3A Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium salts, known to ameliorate the effects of alkali-silica reaction, can make significant effects on cement setting. However, the mechanism of effects on cement hydration, especially the hydration of C3A which is critical for initial setting time of cement, is rarely reported. In this study, the development of pH value of pore solution, conductivity, thermodynamics, and mineralogical composition during hydration of C3A with or without Li2CO3 are investigated. The results demonstrate that Li2CO3 promotes C3A hydration through high alkalinity, due to higher activity of lithium ion than that of calcium ion in the solution and carbonation of C3A hydration products resulted from Li2CO3. Li2CO3 favors the C3A hydration in C3A-CaSO4·2H2O-Ca(OH2-H2O hydration system and affects the mineralogical variation of the ettringite phase(s.

  20. C3b/iC3b deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae is not affected by HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hyams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infection in both HIV positive patients and those with complement deficiencies. We hypothesised that HIV positive individuals might exhibit reduced opsonisation of pneumococcus with complement due to reduced levels of S. pneumoniae specific IgG. We discovered no difference in C3 deposition on S. pneumoniae between HIV positive or negative individuals, and furthermore C3 deposition remained unchanged as HIV progressed towards AIDS. We found no correlation between C3 deposition on S. pneumoniae and CD4 cell count in HIV infected individuals. Hence we have demonstrated no failure of complement immunity in HIV positive patients.

  1. Eculizumab for dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Smith, Richard J; Barile, Gaetano R; Zhang, Yuzhou; Heher, Eliot C; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Canetta, Pietro A; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-05-01

    The principle defect in dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis is hyperactivity of the alternative complement pathway. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to C5 to prevent formation of the membrane attack complex, may prove beneficial. In this open-label, proof of concept efficacy and safety study, six subjects with dense deposit disease or C3 glomerulonephritis were treated with eculizumab every other week for 1 year. All had proteinuria >1 g/d and/or AKI at enrollment. Subjects underwent biopsy before enrollment and repeat biopsy at the 1-year mark. The subjects included three patients with dense deposit disease (including one patient with recurrent dense deposit disease in allograft) and three patients with C3 glomerulonephritis (including two patients with recurrent C3 glomerulonephritis in allograft). Genetic and complement function testing revealed a mutation in CFH and MCP in one subject each, C3 nephritic factor in three subjects, and elevated levels of serum membrane attack complex in three subjects. After 12 months, two subjects showed significantly reduced serum creatinine, one subject achieved marked reduction in proteinuria, and one subject had stable laboratory parameters but histopathologic improvements. Elevated serum membrane attack complex levels normalized on therapy and paralleled improvements in creatinine and proteinuria. Clinical and histopathologic data suggest a response to eculizumab in some but not all subjects with dense deposit disease and C3 glomerulonephritis. Elevation of serum membrane attack complex before treatment may predict response. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup of dense deposit disease/C3 glomerulonephritis patients in whom eculizumab therapy can be considered.

  2. Thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry study of woody residues and an herbaceous biomass crop using PCA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, C.J.; Velo, E.; Puigjaner, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, G2, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, Budapest 1525 (Hungary)

    2007-10-15

    The devolatilization behaviour of pine and beech wood from carpentry residuals and an herbaceous product from an energy plantation (artichoke thistle) was investigated by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The effect of three pre-treatments, hot-water washing, ethanol extraction and their combination, was also studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to help in the evaluation of the large data set of results. The characteristics of the thermal decomposition of the herbaceous crop are considerably different from that of the woody biomass samples. The evolution profiles of some characteristic pyrolysis products revealed that the thermal behaviour of wood and thistle is still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic ions and extractive compounds, although the macromolecular components of the samples decompose at similar temperatures. With the help of the PCA calculations, the effect of the different pre-treatments on the production of the main pyrolysis products was evidenced. (author)

  3. Feeding habits of Carabidae (Coleoptera associated with herbaceous plants and the phenology of coloured cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Henrique da Matta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae are recognized as polyphagous predators and important natural enemies of insect pests. However, little is known about the feeding habits of these beetles. In this work, we determine the types of food content in the digestive tracts of nine species of Carabidae associated with herbaceous plants and different growth stages of coloured cotton. The food contents were evaluated for beetles associated with the coloured cotton cv. BRS verde, Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch., adjacent to weed plants and the flowering herbaceous plants (FHPs Lobularia maritima (L., Tagetes erecta L., and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. The digestive tract analysis indicated various types of diets and related arthropods for Abaris basistriata, Galerita brasiliensis, Scarites sp., Selenophorus alternans, Selenophorus discopunctatus and Tetracha brasiliensis. The carabids were considered to be polyphagous predators, feeding on different types of prey.

  4. Evaluation quantitative et qualitative de la strate herbacée du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude s'insère dans le cadre de la compréhension de l'apport de la strate herbacée dans une formation de Quercus rotundifolia L. utilisée par un cheptel dont l'importance socio-économique pour la population est vitale. Le défrichement, moyen pratique d'accroître la production fourragère en milieu forestier, est ...

  5. 127 Evaluation quantitative et qualitative de la strate herbacée du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilsateur

    Résumé. Cette étude s'insère dans le cadre de la compréhension de l'apport de la strate herbacée dans une formation de Quercus rotundifolia L. utilisée par un cheptel dont l'importance socio-économique pour la population est vitale. Le défrichement, moyen pratique d'accroître la production fourragère en milieu forestier ...

  6. Use of Plant Growth Regulators to Improve Branching of Herbaceous Perennial Liners

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Mara Celeste

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PGRs to improve branching during production of herbaceous perennial liners and finished plants. The effects of benzyladenine (BA) on the branching and root and shoot growth of Agastache Clayt. Ex Gronov. 'Purple Hazeâ , Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & A. Gray 'Siskiyou Pink', Lavandula à intermedia Emeric ex Loisel. 'Provence', Leucanthemum à superbum (Bergmans ex J.W. Ingram) Bergmans ex Kent. 'Snowcap', and Salvia à sylv...

  7. Assessing radiation exposure of herbaceous plant species at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimullina, Elina; Antonova, Elena; Pozolotina, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is a result of the Mayak Production Association accident that occurred in 1957 in Russia. Radiological assessment improves the interpretation of biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore a modeling approach was used to estimate dose rates on Leonurus quinquelobatus, Silene latifolia, Stellaria graminea and Bromus inermis. Soil-to-organism transfer parameter values are delivered from empirical data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs soil and vegetative plant mass activity concentrations. External and internal whole-body dose rates were calculated using deterministic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2 and R and D 128/SP1a) and probabilistic (The ERICA Tool-Tier 3) methods. The total dose rate for herbs was under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. The total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. Based on these data, it can be concluded that herbaceous plant populations currently exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area. -- Highlights: • A modeling approach (The ERICA Tool-Tier 2, Tier 3 and R and D 128/SP1a) was used to estimate dose rates for herbs growing in the wild at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace. • The highest levels of anthropogenic radiation exposure were determined for herbs at Impact EURT sites. • Total absorbed dose rates increased 43–110 times (Tier 3) for different herbaceous plant species along the pollution gradient. • Total dose rate per plant organism for herbs is under 100 μGy h −1 at the most polluted site. Currently herbaceous plant populations exist under low-level chronic exposure at the EURT area

  8. Large herbivores maintain termite-caused differences in herbaceous species diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okullo, Paul; Moe, Stein R

    2012-09-01

    Termites and large herbivores affect African savanna plant communities. Both functional groups are also important for nutrient redistribution across the landscape. We conducted an experiment to study how termites and large herbivores, alone and in combination, affect herbaceous species diversity patterns in an African savanna. Herbaceous vegetation on large vegetated Macrotermes mounds (with and without large herbivores) and on adjacent savanna areas (with and without large herbivores) was monitored over three years in Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. We found substantial differences in species richness, alpha diversity, evenness, and stability between termite mound herbaceous vegetation and adjacent savanna vegetation. Within months of fencing, levels of species richness, evenness, and stability were no longer significantly different between savanna and mounds. However, fencing reduced the cumulative number of species, particularly for forbs, of which 48% of the species were lost. Fencing increased the beta diversity (dissimilarity among plots) on the resource-poor (in terms of both nutrients and soil moisture) savanna areas, while it did not significantly affect beta diversity on the resource-rich termite mounds. While termites cause substantial heterogeneity in savanna vegetation, large herbivores further amplify these differences by reducing beta diversity on the savanna areas. Large herbivores are, however, responsible for the maintenance of a large number of forbs at the landscape level. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying the effects of termites and large herbivores on savanna plant communities scale up to shape community structure and dynamics at a landscape level.

  9. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  10. Seedling Composition and Facilitative Effects of the Herbaceous Layer in a Monsoon-Affected Forest in Nanjenshan, Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Wei Fan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree seedlings play an important role in forest regeneration. To understand the factors that control seedling establishment, we (1 compared the composition patterns of tree seedlings and their corresponding overstories, (2 examined the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors and (3 evaluated the interaction (competition or facilitation between seedlings and herbaceous layer in a wind-stressed forest in Nanjenshan, southern Taiwan. In the study plot, seedling abundance of canopy, subcanopy and shrub species (with true leaves and < 1 cm diameter at breast height and coverage of herbaceous species (including herbaceous species, climbers and tree ferns ≤ ca. 1 m in height were investigated on three transects with a total of 180 contiguous 5 × 5 m quadrats. Clustering classification and ordination methods were used to reveal the tree seedling composition patterns and the relationships between seedling composition and environmental factors. Correlation coefficients were computed between herbaceous coverage and seedling abundance among herb-seedling species pairs and between tall (≥ 1 m high/short (< 0.5 m high herbs and seedlings pairs to test the herb-seedling interaction. The spatial distribution of tree seedlings presented a perfect match to the overstory vegetation pattern. There was a strong relationship among seedling composition, herbaceous composition and topographic features, especially exposure to monsoon winds. Because of the absence of strong correlations between herbaceous structure/species and seedling abundances, the strong linkage in spatial patterns between seedling and herbaceous compositions suggests that certain plant species in the study plot have similar responses to the monsoon exposure. Our results also indicated that seedlings < 1 cm in diameter were strongly influenced by wind stress, similar to the response of the overstory composition, and that the facilitative/competitive effects of the

  11. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    David Helman; Itamar M. Lensky; Naama Tessler; Yagil Osem

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen) and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral) vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI ...

  12. Atypical Plasmacytic Proliferation in a Case of C3 Glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Elfituri MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old Hispanic female underwent evaluation of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. The patient denied fever, edema, and gross hematuria. Urinalysis showed mild proteinuria, and a urine microscopic examination revealed red blood cells. Screening tests for glomerulonephritis revealed a low C3 and negative ANA, ASO, DNAse-B, and ANCA. Histological examination of a renal biopsy specimen showed glomeruli with endocapillary proliferation, a predominant C3 deposition in the capillary loops by immunofluorescence, and electron dense deposits in the mesangium, paramesangium, and capillary walls by electron microscopy consistent with a diagnosis of C3 glomerulopathy. An interstitial plasmacytosis was also present with focal clustering of plasma cells, which were found to be kappa light chain restricted by in situ hybridization suggestive of a clonal proliferation. One can speculate that these plasma cells may be directly responsible for the renal pathology that was seen.

  13. C3 and C4 biomass allocation responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen: contrasting resource capture strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.P.; Langley, J.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Plants alter biomass allocation to optimize resource capture. Plant strategy for resource capture may have important implications in intertidal marshes, where soil nitrogen (N) levels and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are changing. We conducted a factorial manipulation of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and ambient + 340 ppm) and soil N (ambient and ambient + 25 g m-2 year-1) in an intertidal marsh composed of common North Atlantic C3 and C4 species. Estimation of C3 stem turnover was used to adjust aboveground C3 productivity, and fine root productivity was partitioned into C3-C4 functional groups by isotopic analysis. The results suggest that the plants follow resource capture theory. The C3 species increased aboveground productivity under the added N and elevated CO2 treatment (P 2 alone. C3 fine root production decreased with added N (P 2 (P = 0.0481). The C4 species increased growth under high N availability both above- and belowground, but that stimulation was diminished under elevated CO2. The results suggest that the marsh vegetation allocates biomass according to resource capture at the individual plant level rather than for optimal ecosystem viability in regards to biomass influence over the processes that maintain soil surface elevation in equilibrium with sea level.

  14. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  15. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  16. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  17. Screening for C3 deficiency in newborns using microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Janzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dried blood spot samples (DBSS from newborns are widely used in neonatal screening for selected metabolic diseases and diagnostic possibilities for additional disorders are continuously being evaluated. Primary immunodeficiency disorders comprise a group of more than one hundred diseases, several of which are fatal early in life. Yet, a majority of the patients are not diagnosed due to lack of high-throughput screening methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have previously developed a system using reverse phase protein microarrays for analysis of IgA levels in serum samples. In this study, we extended the applicability of the method to include determination of complement component C3 levels in eluates from DBSS collected at birth. Normal levels of C3 were readily detected in 269 DBSS from healthy newborns, while no C3 was detected in sera and DBSS from C3 deficient patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that patients with deficiencies of specific serum proteins can be identified by analysis of DBSS using reverse phase protein microarrays.

  18. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  19. C3 Epimerization of Glucose, via Regioselective Oxidation and Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jumde, Varsha R.; Eisink, Niek N. H. M.; Witte, Martin D.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidation can single out the secondary hydroxyl group at C3 in glucose, circumventing the more readily accessible hydroxyl at C6 and the more reactive anomeric hydroxyl. Oxidation followed by reduction results in either allose or allitol, each a rare sugar that is important in

  20. Evaluation of EGM 2008 and EIGEN-6C3stat \

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, J.; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Bezděk, Aleš

    -, č. 5 (2015), s. 3-12 ISSN 1810-8555 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ)(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field evaluation * EGM 2008 * EIGEN-6C3stat Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of Cr7C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, D.; Kreissig, U.; Mertens, R.; Schneider, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the Cr 7 C 3 phase by means of ab initio calculations and found covalent-ionic Cr-C-Cr chains in a metallic matrix. Furthermore, the structure of thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering, is shown to be in good agreement with our theoretical prediction

  2. Regioselective synthesis of C3 alkylated and arylated benzothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrives, Harry J.; Fernández-Salas, José A.; Hedtke, Christin; Pulis, Alexander P.; Procter, David J.

    2017-03-01

    Benzothiophenes are heterocyclic constituents of important molecules relevant to society, including those with the potential to meet modern medical challenges. The construction of molecules would be vastly more efficient if carbon-hydrogen bonds, found in all organic molecules, can be directly converted into carbon-carbon bonds. In the case of elaborating benzothiophenes, functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds at carbon-number 3 (C3) is markedly more demanding than at C2 due to issues of regioselectivity (C3 versus C2), and the requirement of high temperatures, precious metals and the installation of superfluous directing groups. Herein, we demonstrate that synthetically unexplored but readily accessible benzothiophene S-oxides serve as novel precursors for C3-functionalized benzothiophenes. Employing an interrupted Pummerer reaction to capture and then deliver phenol and silane coupling partners, we have discovered a directing group-free method that delivers C3-arylated and -alkylated benzothiophenes with complete regioselectivity, under metal-free and mild conditions.

  3. A revised mechanism for the activation of complement C3 to C3b: a molecular explanation of a disease-associated polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Nan, Ruodan; Li, Keying; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J

    2015-01-23

    The solution structure of complement C3b is crucial for the understanding of complement activation and regulation. C3b is generated by the removal of C3a from C3. Hydrolysis of the C3 thioester produces C3u, an analog of C3b. C3b cleavage results in C3c and C3d (thioester-containing domain; TED). To resolve functional questions in relation to C3b and C3u, analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray and neutron scattering studies were used with C3, C3b, C3u, C3c, and C3d, using the wild-type allotype with Arg(102). In 50 mm NaCl buffer, atomistic scattering modeling showed that both C3b and C3u adopted a compact structure, similar to the C3b crystal structure in which its TED and macroglobulin 1 (MG1) domains were connected through the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge. In physiological 137 mm NaCl, scattering modeling showed that C3b and C3u were both extended in structure, with the TED and MG1 domains now separated by up to 6 nm. The importance of the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge was determined using surface plasmon resonance to monitor the binding of wild-type C3d(E1032) and mutant C3d(A1032) to immobilized C3c. The mutant did not bind, whereas the wild-type form did. The high conformational variability of TED in C3b in physiological buffer showed that C3b is more reactive than previously thought. Because the Arg(102)-Glu(1032) salt bridge is essential for the C3b-Factor H complex during the regulatory control of C3b, the known clinical associations of the major C3S (Arg(102)) and disease-linked C3F (Gly(102)) allotypes of C3b were experimentally explained for the first time. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  5. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M; Franck, C M

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF 6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF 6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF 6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C 3 F 8 . Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases. (paper)

  6. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C3F8) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C3F8. Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases.

  7. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress - A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Kim, Kiyoon; Krishnamoorthy, Ramasamy; Walitang, Denver; Sundaram, Subbiah; Joe, Manoharan M; Selvakumar, Gopal; Hu, Shuijin; Oh, Sang-Hyon; Sa, Tongmin

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i) identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii) identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4) and plant functional groups, (iii) soil texture and level of salinity and (iv) experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field). Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC 8 ds/m) saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus irregularis had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K) uptake. However, it showed negative effects in sodium (Na

  8. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  9. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  10. MONITORING PHENOLOGY OF FLOODPLAIN GRASSLAND AND HERBACEOUS VEGETATION WITH UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. van Iersel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects, which aim at improved flood safety and increased ecological value, have resulted in more heterogeneous vegetation. However, they also resulted in increasing hydraulic roughness, which leads to higher flood water levels during peak discharges. Due to allowance of vegetation development and succession, both ecological and hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain change more rapidly over time. Monitoring of floodplain vegetation has become essential to document and evaluate the changing floodplain characteristics and associated functioning. Extraction of characteristics of low vegetation using single-epoch remote sensing data, however, remains challenging. The aim of this study was to (1 evaluate the performance of multi-temporal, high-spatial-resolution UAV imagery for extracting temporal vegetation height profiles of grassland and herbaceous vegetation in floodplains and (2 to assess the relation between height development and NDVI changes. Vegetation height was measured six times during one year in 28 field plots within a single floodplain. UAV true-colour and false-colour imagery of the floodplain were recorded coincidently with each field survey. We found that: (1 the vertical accuracy of UAV normalized digital surface models (nDSMs is sufficiently high to obtain temporal height profiles of low vegetation over a growing season, (2 vegetation height can be estimated from the time series of nDSMs, with the highest accuracy found for combined imagery from February and November (RMSE = 29-42 cm, (3 temporal relations between NDVI and observed vegetation height show different hysteresis behaviour for grassland and herbaceous vegetation. These results show the high potential of using UAV imagery for increasing grassland and herbaceous vegetation classification accuracy.

  11. Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. as an Alternative Source of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA have been proven to possess many biological activities, and much attention is focused on the search for plants which are rich in OA and UA. In this report, the OA and UA accumulation characteristics were investigated in 47 cultivars of Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. and were followed in three cultivars over different developmental stages as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. OA and UA levels in leaves and stems demonstrated an overall upward trend from May 1 to September 15 except for UA in the leaves of “Hong Feng”. The maximum values of OA and UA in leaves of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 852.98, 575.60, 290.48 μg/g FW and 924.94, 827.36, 432.67 μg/g FW, respectively. The maximum values of OA and UA in stems of “Yangfei Chu Yu”, “Fen Zhu Pan” and “Hong Feng” were 359.28, 90.49, 43.90 μg/g FW and 326.86, 82.25, 56.63 μg/g FW, respectively. OA and UA contents in leaves of 47 different herbaceous peony cultivars ranged from 66.73–618.12 and 36.23–665.14 μg/g FW, respectively, with average values of 171.62 and 227.57 μg/g FW, respectively. The results suggested that the aboveground parts of herbaceous peony may be used as an alternative source of OA and UA for medicinal purposes in addition to its ornamental purposes.

  12. Herbaceous Legume Encroachment Reduces Grass Productivity and Density in Arid Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Wagner

    Full Text Available Worldwide savannas and arid grasslands are mainly used for livestock grazing, providing livelihood to over a billion people. While normally dominated by perennial C4 grasses, these rangelands are increasingly affected by the massive spread of native, mainly woody legumes. The consequences are often a repression of grass cover and productivity, leading to a reduced carrying capacity. While such encroachment by woody plants has been extensively researched, studies on similar processes involving herbaceous species are rare. We studied the impact of a sustained and massive spread of the native herbaceous legume Crotalaria podocarpa in Namibia's escarpment region on the locally dominant fodder grasses Stipagrostis ciliata and Stipagrostis uniplumis. We measured tussock densities, biomass production of individual tussocks and tussock dormancy state of Stipagrostis on ten 10 m x 10 m plots affected and ten similarly-sized plots unaffected by C. podocarpa over eight consecutive years and under different seasonal rainfalls and estimated the potential relative productivity of the land. We found the percentage of active Stipagrostis tussocks and the biomass production of individual tussocks to increase asymptotically with higher seasonal rainfall reaching a maximum around 300 mm while the land's relative productivity under average local rainfall conditions reached only 40% of its potential. Crotalaria podocarpa encroachment had no effect on the proportion of productive grass tussocks, but reduced he productivity of individual Stipagrostis tussocks by a third. This effect of C. podocarpa on grass productivity was immediate and direct and was not compensated for by above-average rainfall. Besides this immediate effect, over time, the density of grass tussocks declined by more than 50% in areas encroached by C. podocarpa further and lastingly reducing the lands carrying capacity. The effects of C. podocarpa on grass productivity hereby resemble those of woody

  13. The evolution and appearance of C3 duplications in fish originate an exclusive teleost c3 gene form with anti-inflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Forn-Cuní

    Full Text Available The complement system acts as a first line of defense and promotes organism homeostasis by modulating the fates of diverse physiological processes. Multiple copies of component genes have been previously identified in fish, suggesting a key role for this system in aquatic organisms. Herein, we confirm the presence of three different previously reported complement c3 genes (c3.1, c3.2, c3.3 and identify five additional c3 genes (c3.4, c3.5, c3.6, c3.7, c3.8 in the zebrafish genome. Additionally, we evaluate the mRNA expression levels of the different c3 genes during ontogeny and in different tissues under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, while reconciling the phylogenetic tree with the fish species tree, we uncovered an event of c3 duplication common to all teleost fishes that gave rise to an exclusive c3 paralog (c3.7 and c3.8. These paralogs showed a distinct ability to regulate neutrophil migration in response to injury compared with the other c3 genes and may play a role in maintaining the balance between inflammatory and homeostatic processes in zebrafish.

  14. Impact of herbaceous vegetation on the enzymatic activity of coal mining wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanczyk, D

    1980-01-01

    Differences in the enzymatic activity of reclaimed and crude dump wastes after coal mining were investigated. Due to the increased activity of six investigated enzymes (dehydrogenase, catalase, saccharase, BETA-glucosidase, urease and asparaginase), a favourable impact of herbaceous vegetation on the biological activation of the breeding-ground was noticed. Particularly in the case of sacharase and BETA-glucosidase, an increase of the enzymatic activity at a rate of several times or even more than ten times speaks not only for an adequate increase of the metabolic rate of carbohydrates but also for specific properties of the habitat which favours an adsorption of these enzymes. (6 refs.) (In Polish)

  15. Reclamation to native forest ecosystems in the oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, S.

    1996-01-01

    Suncor's reclamation goal is to achieve maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems with capability equivalent to their pre-disturbed condition. Ecosystem re-establishment includes the following steps: (1) soil reconstruction, (2) revegetation, and (3) growth of primary vegetation communities. To assess the sustainability of re-established ecosystems, vegetation and soil characteristics are monitored each year. This method of reclamation and tree planting results in a diverse herbaceous cover developing within a year of soil amendment application, providing erosion protection along with a source of cover and food for wildlife. Results to date have proven to be very positive, since reconstructed soils have been shown to be equivalent to or better than original soils. Also, reclamation sites are developing into sustainable ecological units comparable to nearby natural forest areas

  16. Zinc-induced Self-association of Complement C3b and Factor H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ruodan; Tetchner, Stuart; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Pao, Po-Jung; Gor, Jayesh; Lengyel, Imre; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits that are a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration contain both C3b and millimolar levels of zinc. C3 is the central protein of complement, whereas C3u is formed by the spontaneous hydrolysis of the thioester bridge in C3. During activation, C3 is cleaved to form active C3b, then C3b is inactivated by Factor I and Factor H to form the C3c and C3d fragments. The interaction of zinc with C3 was quantified using analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray scattering. C3, C3u, and C3b associated strongly in >100 μm zinc, whereas C3c and C3d showed weak association. With zinc, C3 forms soluble oligomers, whereas C3u and C3b precipitate. We conclude that the C3, C3u, and C3b association with zinc depended on the relative positions of C3d and C3c in each protein. Computational predictions showed that putative weak zinc binding sites with different capacities exist in all five proteins, in agreement with experiments. Factor H forms large oligomers in >10 μm zinc. In contrast to C3b or Factor H alone, the solubility of the central C3b-Factor H complex was much reduced at 60 μm zinc and even more so at >100 μm zinc. The removal of the C3b-Factor H complex by zinc explains the reduced C3u/C3b inactivation rates by zinc. Zinc-induced precipitation may contribute to the initial development of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits in the retina as well as reducing the progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration in higher risk patients. PMID:23661701

  17. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  18. Controls on Ecosystem and Root Respiration in an Alaskan Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, N. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Harden, J. W.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal ecosystems cover 14% of the vegetated surface on earth and account for 25-30% of the world’s soil carbon (C), mainly due to large carbon stocks in deep peat and frozen soil layers. While peatlands have served as historical sinks of carbon, global climate change may trigger re-release of C to the atmosphere and may turn these ecosystems into net C sources. Rates of C release from a peatland are determined by regional climate and local biotic and abiotic factors such as vegetation cover, thaw depth, and peat thickness. Soil CO2 fluxes are driven by both autotrophic (plant) respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration. Thus, changes in plant and microbial activity in the soil will impact CO2 emissions from peatlands. In this study, we explored environmental and vegetation controls on ecosystem respiration and root respiration in a variety of wetland sites. The study was conducted at the Alaskan Peatland Experiment (APEX; www.uoguelph.ca/APEX) sites in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest located 35 km southwest of Fairbanks Alaska. We measured ecosystem respiration, root respiration, and monitored a suite of environmental variables along a vegetation and soil moisture gradient including a black spruce stand with permafrost, a shrubby site with permafrost, a tussock grass site, and a herbaceous open rich fen. Within the rich fen, we have been conducting water table manipulations including a control, lowered, and raised water table treatment. In each of our sites, we measured total ecosystem respiration using static chambers and root respiration by harvesting roots from the uppermost 20 cm and placing them in a root cuvette to obtain a root flux. Ecosystem respiration (ER) on a μmol/m2/sec basis varied across sites. Water table was a significant predictor of ER at the lowered manipulation site and temperature was a strong predictor at the control site in the rich fen. Water table and temperature were both significant predictors of ER at the raised

  19. Mycorrhizal Symbiotic Efficiency on C3 and C4 Plants under Salinity Stress – A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of C3 and C4 plant species could acclimatize and grow under the impact of salinity stress. Symbiotic relationship between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are widespread and are well known to ameliorate the influence of salinity stress on agro-ecosystem. In the present study, we sought to understand the phenomenon of variability on AMF symbiotic relationship on saline stress amelioration in C3 and C4 plants. Thus, the objective was to compare varied mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship between C3 and C4 plants in saline conditions. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, we conducted a random effects models meta-analysis across 60 published studies. An effect size was calculated as the difference in mycorrhizal responses between the AMF inoculated plants and its corresponding control under saline conditions. Responses were compared between (i identity of AMF species and AMF inoculation, (ii identity of host plants (C3 vs. C4 and plant functional groups, (iii soil texture and level of salinity and (iv experimental condition (greenhouse vs. field. Results indicate that both C3 and C4 plants under saline condition responded positively to AMF inoculation, thereby overcoming the predicted effects of symbiotic efficiency. Although C3 and C4 plants showed positive effects under low (EC8 ds/m saline conditions, C3 plants showed significant effects for mycorrhizal inoculation over C4 plants. Among the plant types, C4 annual and perennial plants, C4 herbs and C4 dicot had a significant effect over other counterparts. Between single and mixed AMF inoculants, single inoculants Rhizophagus intraradices had a positive effect on C3 plants whereas Funneliformis mosseae had a positive effect on C4 plants than other species. In all of the observed studies, mycorrhizal inoculation showed positive effects on shoot, root and total biomass, and in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (K uptake. However, it showed negative effects in

  20. Some Routes in Forming C3Hn+ Ions and Deuterated Variants under Interstellar Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Igor; Gerlich, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on hydrogenation and deuteration of C 3 + , C3H+ and C 3 H 2 + in collisions with H2 and HD have been performed from room temperature down to 15 K using a 22-pole ion-trap. At room temperature C 3 + reacts slowly with H2 but the reactivity increases with decreasing temperature. It has been shown that the association reaction C 3 + + H 2 → C 3 H 2 + + hν can compete with the exothermic reaction C 3 + + H 2 → C 3 H + + H. In collisions of C 3 + with HD, formation of C3D+ is slightly favored over C3H+ formation. A pronounced competition between various channels has been detected for deuterated variants of the C3H+ + H2 system. Most surprising is that formation of C3HD+ is over one hundred times faster then formation of C 3 H 2 + in collisions of C3H+ and HD. An tentative explanation is that the H-HD exchange takes place via an open-chain H2CCCH+ intermediate. Reactions of C 3 H 2 + and C 3 H 3 + with H2 are very slow. The formation of C3H2D+ or C 3 HD 2 + and finally C3HD via dissociative recombination has been discussed. The reaction C 3 H 3 + + HD → C 3 H 2 D + + H 2 can be ignored in astrochemical models since the reaction rate at 15 K is very small; however, quite efficient routes have been found starting from C 3 + and proceeding via deuterated C3H+ to C 3 H 2 + and C 3 H 3 + . The new reaction rate coefficients are recommended to be included in astrophysical databases. Nonetheless it is still unclear how to explain the large abundance of C3H2 and larger hydrocarbons and their deuterated variants observed in cold interstellar clouds

  1. The effect of technogenic emissions on the heavy metals accumulation by herbaceous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Victor; Minkina, Tatiana; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Burachevskaya, Marina; Sushkova, Svetlana; Poluektov, Evgeniy; Antonenko, Elena; Kumacheva, Valentina

    2018-02-07

    The effect of technogenic emissions on the input of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Ni into plants from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families has been studied. Soil and plant contamination by anthropogenic emissions from industrial enterprises leads the decreasing of crop quality; therefore, the monitoring investigation of plants and soils acquires special importance. The herbaceous plants may be used as bioindicators for main environmental changes. It was found that the high level of anthropogenic load related to atmospheric emissions from the power plant favors the heavy metal (HM) accumulation in herbaceous plants. Contamination with Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni was revealed in plants growing near the power plant. Heavy metals arrive to plants from the soil in the form of mobile compounds. Plant family is one of the main factors affecting the HM distribution in the above- and underground parts of plants. Plants from the Poaceae family accumulate less chemical elements in their aboveground parts than the Asteraceae plants. Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Artemisia austriaca are HM accumulators. For assessing the stability of plants under contamination with HMs, metal accumulation by plants from soil (the bioconcentration factor) and metal phytoavailability from plants above- and underground parts (the acropetal coefficient) were calculated. According to the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values, Poaceae species are most resistant to technogenic contamination with HMs. The translocation factor highest values were found for Tanacetum vulgare; the lowest bioconcentration factor values were typical for Poa pratensis.

  2. Herbaceous Angiosperms Are Not More Vulnerable to Drought-Induced Embolism Than Angiosperm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Delmas, Chloé E L; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Cochard, Hervé; Jansen, Steven; Chauvin, Thibaud; Doria, Larissa Chacon; Del Arco, Marcelino; Delzon, Sylvain

    2016-10-01

    The water transport pipeline in herbs is assumed to be more vulnerable to drought than in trees due to the formation of frequent embolisms (gas bubbles), which could be removed by the occurrence of root pressure, especially in grasses. Here, we studied hydraulic failure in herbaceous angiosperms by measuring the pressure inducing 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P 50 ) in stems of 26 species, mainly European grasses (Poaceae). Our measurements show a large range in P 50 from -0.5 to -7.5 MPa, which overlaps with 94% of the woody angiosperm species in a worldwide, published data set and which strongly correlates with an aridity index. Moreover, the P 50 values obtained were substantially more negative than the midday water potentials for five grass species monitored throughout the entire growing season, suggesting that embolism formation and repair are not routine and mainly occur under water deficits. These results show that both herbs and trees share the ability to withstand very negative water potentials without considerable embolism formation in their xylem conduits during drought stress. In addition, structure-function trade-offs in grass stems reveal that more resistant species are more lignified, which was confirmed for herbaceous and closely related woody species of the daisy group (Asteraceae). Our findings could imply that herbs with more lignified stems will become more abundant in future grasslands under more frequent and severe droughts, potentially resulting in lower forage digestibility. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. EASTERN DODDER (CUSCUTA MONOGYNA VAHL.) SEED GERMINATION AFFECTED BY SOME HERBACEOUS DISTILLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassaghi, M; Hassannejad, S

    2015-01-01

    Eastern dodder (Cuscuta monogyna Vahl.) is one of the noxious parasitic weeds that infected many ornamental trees in green spaces and gardens. Our purpose is to find natural inhibitors for prevention of its seed germination. In order to reach this aim, laboratory studies were conducted by using of herbaceous distillates of Dracocephalum moldavica, Nasturtium officinalis, Malva neglecta, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Rosa damascene, Ziziphora tenuior, and Urtica dioica on seed germination of C. monogyna. Z. tenuior distillate stimulated C. monogyna seed germination, whereas others reduced this parasitic weed's seed germination. D. moldavica caused maximum inhibition on weed seed germination. Seedling growth of C. monogyna was more affected than its seed germination. All of these herbaceous distillates reduced C. monogyna seedling length so that the latter decreased from 28.2 mm in distilled water to 4.5, 3.97, 3.85, 3.67, 3.1, 2.87, 2.57, 1.9, and 1.17 in M. pulegium, M. piperita, F. officinalis, Z. tenuior, N. officinalis, M. neglecta, R. damascene, U. dioica and D. moldavica, respectively. By using these medicinal plants distillates instead of herbicides, the parasitic weed seedling length and host plant infection will reduce.

  4. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.

    1999-11-24

    To perform a statistically rigorous meta-analysis of research results on the response by herbaceous vegetation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, a multiparameter database of responses was compiled from the published literature. Seventy-eight independent CO{sub 2}-enrichment studies, covering 53 species and 26 response parameters, reported mean response, sample size, and variance of the response (either as standard deviation or standard error). An additional 43 studies, covering 25 species and 6 response parameters, did not report variances. This numeric data package accompanies the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center's (CDIAC's) NDP-072, which provides similar information for woody vegetation. This numeric data package contains a 30-field data set of CO{sub 2}-exposure experiment responses by herbaceous plants (as both a flat ASCII file and a spreadsheet file), files listing the references to the CO{sub 2}-exposure experiments and specific comments relevant to the data in the data sets, and this documentation file (which includes SAS{reg_sign} and Fortran codes to read the ASCII data file). The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from CDIAC.

  5. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  6. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystem on Sardinia under past and future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Historical human influences (e.g., deforestation, urbanization) further altered these ecosystems. Sardinia island is a representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. Two contrasting case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin (1700 km2). The first site is a typical grassland on an alluvial plan valley (soil depth > 2m) while the second is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation species (mainly wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous) that grow in a soil bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured (soil depth 15 - 40 cm). In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by the eddy correlation technique while soil moisture was continuously estimated with water content reflectometers, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) was estimated. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics; 3) evaluate the impact of past and future climate change scenarios on the two contrasting ecosystems. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model that couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM) has been used. Historical meteorological data are available from 1922 and hydro-meteorological scenarios are then generated using a weather generator. The VDM-LSM model predict soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated

  7. Differentiations with regard to space and time of the herbaceous layer of pine and oak forests in Berlin (West) suffering from acidified soil. Raeumliche und zeitliche Differenzierungen der Krautschicht bodensaurer Kiefern-Traubeneichenwaelder in Berlin (West)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidling, W.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the multidisciplinary research project 'Forest ecosystems near agglomerations' carried out at the Technical University of Berlin, modifications of the herbaceous layer were investigated with regard to different spaces and times. Available results on factors of light, water, and nutrients, and regarding biotic, climatic, and logging-dependent disturbances of investigated stands were complemented by phytosociological, stand-sociological, population-biological and light-climatic investigations in experimental sites covering 400 m{sup 2} each. Here the direct relationship between relative light consumption and the closedness of the herbaceous layer could be confirmed. Cluster analyses of floristic similarity showed good agreement with floral-statistics and ecological parameters and correlations to the growth of trees and to the pH value of the upper soil. The expected zoning of vegetation near the stems of trees was confirmed. The stability of populations in relation to time seems to be a function of weather-dependent variations of nitrogen mineralization rates. The repetition of vegetation surveys from the fifties shows a stronger growth of more shadow-tolerant vegetation because of a now denser tree canopy and shrubbery. (JH).

  8. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  9. Synthesis of C3/C1-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mihoubi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A broad biological screening of the natural alkaloid N-methylisosalsoline (2 extracted from Hammada scoparia leaves against a panel of human and parasitic proteases revealed an interesting activity profile of 2 towards human 20S proteasome. This outcome suggests that the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline skeleton may be exploited as a template for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this article, we report the synthesis and chemical characterization of a new series of isosalsoline-type alkaloids (10–11 with variations at N2 and C3 positions with respect to the natural Compound 2, obtained by a synthetic strategy that involves the Bischler-Napieralski cyclization. The substrate for the condensation to the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, i.e., a functionalized β-arylethyl amine, was obtained through an original double reduction of nitroalkene. The synthetic strategy can be directed to the construction of highly substituted and functionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.

  10. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. IX. C3 chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E; Higuchi, H; Ganapathy, R; Morgan, J W [Chicago Univ., Ill. (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.

    1976-09-01

    Four C3V chondrites (Grosnaja, Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano) and three C30 chondrites (Felic, Kainsaz, and Lance) were analyzed by radiochemical neutron activation for 17 trace elements. Both classes show a typical chondritic step pattern, reflecting loss of volatiles during chondrule formation. Elements condensing above 1300 K (U, Re, Ir, Ni) are present in essentially C1 chondrite proportions, while moderately volatile elements condensing between 1300 K and 800 K (Ge, Rb, Ag) are depleted by a factor of 0.44. However, elements condensing below 700 K (S, Cs, Bi, Tl, Br, Se, Te, In, Cd) are depleted to a still greater degree, and more so in the Ornans subclass (factor of 0.24, except Cd 0.007) than in the Vigarano subclass (factor of 0.29). This additional depletion may be due to a slight (less than 3-fold) dust-gas fractionation, by settling of dust to the median plane of the solar nebula. Among other chondrite classes, ordinary chondrites show a similar depletion, but C2 chondrites do not. Possibly the undepleted meteorites formed in one of the convection zones of the nebula predicted by Cameron and Pine, whereas the depleted meteorites formed in a quiescent region. The condensation of chalocophile elements as a function of H/sub 2/S partial pressure is discussed, in an attempt to explain the drastic difference in Cd abundance between the two subclasses. It appears that the H/sub 2/S/H/sub 2/ ratio is the key variable. C30's seem to have condensed in a region where enough metallic Fe was present to buffer the H/sub 2/S pressure, while C3V's condensed in a more oxidized region, where H/sub 2/S was in excess. Accretion temperatures, for an assumed nebular pressure of 10/sup -5/ atm, were between 415 and 430 K for C30's and less than 440 K for CeV's.

  11. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  12. Study of the unimolecular decompositions of the (C3H6)+2 and (c-C3H6)+2 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.; Ono, Y.; Linn, S.H.; Ng, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The major product channels identified in the unimolecular decompositions ofC 3 H + 6 xC 3 H 6 and c-C 3 H + 6 xc-C 3 H 6 in the total energy [neutral (C 3 H 6 ) 2 or (c-C 3 H 6 ) 2 heat of formation plus excitation energy] range of approx.230--450 kcal/mol are C 3 H + 7 +C 3 H 5 , C 4 H + 7 +C 2 H 5 , C 4 H + 8 +C 2 H 4 , and C 5 H + 9 +CH 3 . The measured appearance energy for C 4 H + 7 (9.54 +- 0.04 eV) from (C 3 H 6 ) 2 is equal to the thermochemical threshold for the formation of C 4 H + 7 +C 2 H 5 from (C 3 H 6 ) 2 , indicating that the exit potential energy barrier for the ion--molecule reaction C 3 H + 6 +C 3 H 6 →C 4 H + 7 +C 2 H 5 is negligible. There is evidence that the formations of C 4 H + 7 +C 2 H 4 +H from (C 3 H 6 ) + 2 and (c-C 3 H 6 ) + 2 also proceed with high probabilities when they are energetically allowed. The variations of the relative abundances for C 4 H + 7 ,C 4 H + 8 , and C 5 H + 9 from (C 3 H 6 ) + 2 and (c-C 3 H 6 ) + 2 as a function of ionizing photon energy are in qualitative agreement, suggesting that (C 3 H 6 ) + 2 and (c-C 3 H 6 ) + 2 rearrange to similar C 6 H + 12 isomers prior to fragmentation. The fact that C 6 H + 11 is found to be a primary ion from the unimolecular decomposition of (c-C 3 H 6 ) + 2 but not (C 3 H 6 ) + 2 supports the conclusion that the distribution of C 6 H + 12 collision complexes involved in the C 3 H + 6 +C 3 H 6 reactions is different from that in the cyclopropane ion--molecule reactions

  13. Herbaceous Plants for Climate Adaptation and Intensely Developed Urban Sites In Northern Europe: A Case Study From the Eastern Romanian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöman Henrik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the increasingly compact city, services currently provided for in parks will in future be compressed into smaller green unit-structures, often associated with paved surfaces. Left-over spaces in urban environments, such as traffic roundabouts and strips along paths, roads and other corridors, will be important in the future city in order to deliver different eco-system services, especially stormwater management. It is therefore essential to start now to develop the knowledge and experience needed to create sustainable plantings for these sites. This paper presents the findings of a field survey in eastern Romania that sought to identify potential species for urban paved plantings in the Scandinavian region (northern Europe. The research approach is rooted in the hypothesis that studies of natural vegetation systems and habitats where plants are exposed to environmental conditions similar to those in inner-city environments can: 1 identify new or non-traditional species and genotypes adapted to urban environments; and 2 supply information and knowledge about their use potential concerning growth, flowering, life form, etc. In total, 117 different herbaceous species, all of which experience water stress regimes comparable to those in urban paved sites in Scandinavia. The initial information obtained from this field survey present a base of knowledge of which species that have a future potential for use in urban environment, which is of great importance in the following work within this project instead of testing species randomly without this knowledge of the species tolerance and performance in similar habitats.

  14. Hydration reactions in pastes C3S+C3A+CaSO4.2aq+H20 at 25°C.I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, W.A.; Stein, H.N.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    A characteristic retardation of the hydration of C3A is found in pastes C3S+C3A+CaSO4.2aq+H2O of weight ratios 1:3:z:4 at certain values of z, when sulphate concentration becomes insufficient for monosulphate formation. This retardation is ascribed to precipitation of amorphous Al(OH)3, when C3A

  15. Taxonomic revision and distribution of herbaceous Paramollugo (Molluginaceae in the Eastern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Sukhorukov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paramollugo with the type species Paramollugo nudicaulis (≡Mollugo nudicaulis has recently been described after molecular investigations. Here we report two new endemic Malagasy species: Paramollugo simulans and P. elliotii, and transfer a forgotten New Caledonian endemic Mollugo digyna to Paramollugo (P. digyna. Consequently, the number of Paramollugo species in the Eastern Hemisphere is increased from three to six. Almost all genus representatives (except P. nudicaulis, which has a wide distribution in Southern Asia, Arabia and tropical Africa are endemic to Madagascar, Somalia, or New Caledonia. Since the type of seed coat ornamentation is crucial for species delimitation, a diagnostic key with new taxonomically significant carpological characters and other new traits is provided for all the herbaceous Paramollugo. The distribution patterns of P. nudicaulis s.str., P. simulans and P. elliotii are presented.

  16. Evaluation of the Relative Merits of Herbaceous and Woody Crops for Use in Tunable Thermochemical Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon-Hyun [Ceres, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Martinalbo, Ilya [Choren USA, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the work and findings of the grant work conducted from January 2009 until September 2011 under the collaboration between Ceres, Inc. and Choren USA, LLC. This DOE-funded project involves a head-to-head comparison of two types of dedicated energy crops in the context of a commercial gasification conversion process. The main goal of the project was to gain a better understanding of the differences in feedstock composition between herbaceous and woody species, and how these differences may impact a commercial gasification process. In this work, switchgrass was employed as a model herbaceous energy crop, and willow as a model short-rotation woody crop. Both crops are species native to the U.S. with significant potential to contribute to U.S. goals for renewable liquid fuel production, as outlined in the DOE Billion Ton Update (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/billion_ton_update.html, 2011). In some areas of the U.S., switching between woody and herbaceous feedstocks or blending of the two may be necessary to keep a large-scale gasifier operating near capacity year round. Based on laboratory tests and process simulations it has been successfully shown that suitable high yielding switchgrass and willow varieties exist that meet the feedstock specifications for large scale entrained flow biomass gasification. This data provides the foundation for better understanding how to use both materials in thermochemical processes. It has been shown that both switchgrass and willow varieties have comparable ranges of higher heating value, BTU content and indistinguishable hydrogen/carbon ratios. Benefits of switchgrass, and other herbaceous feedstocks, include its low moisture content, which reduce energy inputs and costs for drying feedstock. Compared to the typical feedstock currently being used in the Carbo-V® process, switchgrass has a higher ash content, combined with a lower ash melting temperature. Whether or not this may cause inefficiencies in the

  17. Evaluation of nodulation and nitrogen fixing potentials of some herbaceous legumes in inland valley soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayorbor, T. B.; Addai, I. K.; Lawson, I. Y. D.; Dogbe, W.; Djagbletey, D.

    2006-01-01

    A screening experiment was conducted to evaluate the nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biomass production of eleven herbaceous legumes in three soil series mainly used for rice production in the Guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. This study was carried out with a view to fully exploiting the potential of N-fixating legumes as a supplement to inorganic N-fertilizers in rice-based cropping systems. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant samples were harvested at flowering for nodule count, biomass production and N-fixation. The study revealed that the mucuna and crotalaria species were the best nitrogen fixers and biomass producers. For increased yields of rice in the study area, these legumes require more intensive field study for their integration into the rice-based cropping systems. (au)

  18. Effects of Dichrostachys cinerea (l. Wight & Arn (Fabaceae on herbaceous species in a semi-arid rangeland in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Mudzengi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic alteration of an environment and other disturbance regimes may enable the expansion of some native species into new geographical areas, a phenomenon observed with Dichrostachys cinerea. Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. The same attributes were studied in five uninvaded sites adjacent to, and equal in size to each invaded site. Forty herbaceous species were identified in the area. There were significant differences (P < 0.05 noted in species richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper, plant vigour, and species diversities between invaded and uninvaded sites, with uninvaded sites recording higher values than invaded sites. Altitude, erosion and the edaphic variables pH, N, P and K, which were included as explanatory variables, also differed significantly (P<0.05 between invaded and uninvaded sites. Of the 30 D. cinerea invaded plots established for herbaceous species assessments, 26 were positively correlated with altitude, erosion, pH, P, N and K. It is imperative to find ways of managing D. cinerea in order to reduce its adverse effects on herbaceous species.

  19. Cutting and resprouting of Detarium microcarpum and herbaceous forage availability in a semiarid environment in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Blijdorp, R.R.S.; Slingerland, M.

    1998-01-01

    The tree-shrub savanna ‘Forêt Classée de Nazinon’ (Burkina Faso) is submitted to a management of grazing and rotational cutting of Detarium microcarpum. This species resprouts after cutting. In order to investigate whether this silvopastoral land use system is sustainable, aboveground herbaceous

  20. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  1. Effets du pâturage sur la biomasse herbacée et sur des paramètres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that grazing decreases significantly herbaceous aboveground biomass (but not root biomass). However, grazing does not impact soil chemical and biological parameters, except for soil basal respiration that increases significantly in grazing situation. Thus, after 18 months of exclosure, we detect very little ...

  2. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  3. A Phenology-Based Method for Monitoring Woody and Herbaceous Vegetation in Mediterranean Forests from NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Helman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient method for monitoring woody (i.e., evergreen and herbaceous (i.e., ephemeral vegetation in Mediterranean forests at a sub pixel scale from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. The method is based on the distinct development periods of those vegetation components. In the dry season, herbaceous vegetation is absent or completely dry in Mediterranean forests. Thus the mean NDVI in the dry season was attributed to the woody vegetation (NDVIW. A constant NDVI value was assumed for soil background during this period. In the wet season, changes in NDVI were attributed to the development of ephemeral herbaceous vegetation in the forest floor and its maximum value to the peak green cover (NDVIH. NDVIW and NDVIH agreed well with field estimates of leaf area index and fraction of vegetation cover in two differently structured Mediterranean forests. To further assess the method’s assumptions, understory NDVI was retrieved form MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data and compared with NDVIH. After calibration, leaf area index and woody and herbaceous vegetation covers were assessed for those forests. Applicability for pre- and post-fire monitoring is presented as a potential use of this method for forest management in Mediterranean-climate regions.

  4. Selection and characterization of coal mine autochthonous rhizobia for the inoculation of herbaceous legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anabel González; de Moura, Ginaini Doin; Binati, Renato Leal; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier Inês; Londoño, Diana Morales; Mamede, Ana Carolina Peixoto; da Silva, Emanuela Pille; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-09-01

    Coal open pit mining in the South of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) was inappropriately developed, affecting approximately 6.700 ha. Re-vegetation is an alternative for the recovery of these areas. Furthermore, the use of herbaceous legumes inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria is motivated due to the difficulty implementing a vegetation cover in these areas, mainly due to low nutrient availability. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, among 16 autochthonous rhizobia isolated from the coal mining areas, those with the greatest potential to increase growth of the herbaceous legumes Vicia sativa and Calopogonium mucunoides. Tests were conducted in greenhouse containing 17 inoculation treatments (16 autochthonous rhizobia + Brazilian recommended strain for each plant species), plus two treatments without inoculation (with and without mineral nitrogen). After 60 days, nodulation, growth, N uptake, and symbiotic efficiency were evaluated. Isolates characterization was assessed by the production of indole acetic acid, ACC deaminase, siderophores, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. The classification of the isolates was performed by 16 S rDNA gene sequencing. Only isolates UFSC-M4 and UFSC-M8 were able to nodulate C. mucunoides. Among rhizobia capable of nodulating V. sativa, only UFSC-M8 was considered efficient. It was found the presence of more than one growth-promoting attributes in the same organism, and isolate UFSC-M8 presented all of them. Isolates were classified as belonging to Rhizobium, Burkholderia and Curtobacterium. The results suggest the inoculation of Vicia sativa with strain UFSC-M8, classified as Rhizobium sp., as a promising alternative for the revegetation of coal mining degraded areas.

  5. Spatial partitioning of water use by herbaceous and woody lifeforms in semiarid woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies of soil moisture, plant water uptake, and community composition in semiarid regions have focused on differences with depth in the soil profile, yet there are many reasons to expect that moisture also varies with the presence or absence of woody vegetation. Plant and soil moisture relationships for three dominant species in a semiarid woodland, Bouteloua gracilis, Juniperus monosperma, and Pinus edulis, were studied for 1.5 years. Soil moisture varied by type of plant cover as well as by depth. Plant water potential and conductance differed among species and was related to spatial variability in soil moisture. Water potential for blue grama was most correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer of intercanopies; juniper water potential was highly correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer beneath tree canopies of either species, and pinyon water potential was only weakly correlated with soil moisture in the 15-30 cm depth interval beneath pinyons. Pinyons had consistently greater maximum conductance rates than junipers, even though pinyon conductance was more sensitive to reductions in soil moisture. The results from this study indicate that horizontal differences in the soil moisture profile associated with type of plant cover may be as important as differences in depth for predicting plant-water relationships. A simple model was hypothesized for predicting community composition of three lifeforms: Herbaceous plants, shallow-rooted woody plants, and deeper-rooted woody plants. Distributions of roots of each lifeform and plant-available water were defined with respect to four soil compartments that distinguish upper vs. lower and canopy vs. intercanopy soil regions. The model predicts that multiple combinations of herbaceous and woody biomass can exist at a site and was qualitatively consistent with field data from a climatic gradient

  6. Inefficient binding of IgM immune complexes to erythrocyte C3b-C4b receptors (CR1) and weak incorporation of C3b-iC3b into the complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kávai, M; Rasmussen, J M; Baatrup, G

    1988-01-01

    , but the binding was low (2-3%) when compared to the binding of the corresponding IgG-IC (50-60%). Solid phase IC were prepared by coating microwells with heat-aggregated bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by incubation with rabbit IgM anti-BSA antibody. The IC were reacted with human serum at 37 degrees C....... The binding of C3b-iC3b was determined by use of biotinylated F(ab')2 antibodies to C3b-C3c and avidin-coupled alkaline phosphatase. The incorporation of C3b-iC3b into solid-phase IgM-IC increased when increasing amounts of IgM antibody were reacted with the antigen. The binding reaction was slow, reaching...

  7. C3: A Collaborative Web Framework for NASA Earth Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foughty, E.; Fattarsi, C.; Hardoyo, C.; Kluck, D.; Wang, L.; Matthews, B.; Das, K.; Srivastava, A.; Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a new collaboration platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing. NEX combines NASA advanced supercomputing resources, Earth system modeling, workflow management, NASA remote sensing data archives, and a collaborative communication platform to deliver a complete work environment in which users can explore and analyze large datasets, run modeling codes, collaborate on new or existing projects, and quickly share results among the Earth science communities. NEX is designed primarily for use by the NASA Earth science community to address scientific grand challenges. The NEX web portal component provides an on-line collaborative environment for sharing of Eearth science models, data, analysis tools and scientific results by researchers. In addition, the NEX portal also serves as a knowledge network that allows researchers to connect and collaborate based on the research they are involved in, specific geographic area of interest, field of study, etc. Features of the NEX web portal include: Member profiles, resource sharing (data sets, algorithms, models, publications), communication tools (commenting, messaging, social tagging), project tools (wikis, blogs) and more. The NEX web portal is built on the proven technologies and policies of DASHlink.arc.nasa.gov, (one of NASA's first science social media websites). The core component of the web portal is a C3 framework, which was built using Django and which is being deployed as a common framework for a number of collaborative sites throughout NASA.

  8. Colonization of a Deglaciated Moraine: Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Uptake and Release from C3 and CAM Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Varolo

    Full Text Available Current glacier retreat makes vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. As a result, carbon (C is accumulated in the soil, in a negative feedback to climate change. Little is known about the effective C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities influences CO2 fluxes.On the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy we measured over two growing seasons the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of a typical grassland, dominated by the C3 Festuca halleri All., and a community dominated by the CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. Using transparent and opaque chambers, with air temperature as the driver, we partitioned NEE to calculate Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE. In addition, soil and vegetation samples were collected from the same sites to estimate the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB.The two communities showed contrasting GEE but similar Reco patterns, and as a result they were significantly different in NEE during the period measured. The grassland acted as a C sink, with a total cumulated value of -46.4±35.5 g C m-2 NEE, while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source, with 31.9±22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the different NEE, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation of the two plant communities (1770±130 for F. halleri and 2080±230 g C m-2 for S. montanum, suggesting that processes often neglected, like lateral flows and winter respiration, can have a similar relevance as NEE in the determination of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance.

  9. Colonization of a Deglaciated Moraine: Contrasting Patterns of Carbon Uptake and Release from C3 and CAM Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavini, Massimo; Zerbe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current glacier retreat makes vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. As a result, carbon (C) is accumulated in the soil, in a negative feedback to climate change. Little is known about the effective C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities influences CO2 fluxes. Methods On the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) we measured over two growing seasons the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of a typical grassland, dominated by the C3 Festuca halleri All., and a community dominated by the CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. Using transparent and opaque chambers, with air temperature as the driver, we partitioned NEE to calculate Ecosystem Respiration (Reco) and Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE). In addition, soil and vegetation samples were collected from the same sites to estimate the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB). Results The two communities showed contrasting GEE but similar Reco patterns, and as a result they were significantly different in NEE during the period measured. The grassland acted as a C sink, with a total cumulated value of -46.4±35.5 g C m-2 NEE, while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source, with 31.9±22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the different NEE, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation of the two plant communities (1770±130 for F. halleri and 2080±230 g C m-2 for S. montanum), suggesting that processes often neglected, like lateral flows and winter respiration, can have a similar relevance as NEE in the determination of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance. PMID:28033605

  10. Reclaiming native forest ecosystems in the oilsands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, S.

    1997-01-01

    Suncor Energy's land reclamation objectives were reviewed. The general objective is to construct waste dumps and tailings impoundment structures in such a way that they can be transformed into stable landforms with maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems that have at least the same capability to support life as they had during their pre-disturbed condition. In the case of Suncor's current and proposed oilsands mining, this means returning the land to upland forest for the most part. Some of the reclaimed land will become wetlands with some open water areas. Current reclamation and tree planting methods result in a diverse herbaceous cover developing within a year of soil amendment application. These vegetative communities are capable of providing erosion protection, as well as serving as a source of food and cover for wildlife, and generally meeting the reclamation goal of maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems

  11. Climate Change Communicators: The C3E3 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. More than 60 students participated in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  12. C3 glomerulonephritis and dense deposit disease share a similar disease course in a large United States cohort of patients with C3 glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Santoriello, Dominick; Avasare, Rupali S; Regunathan-Shenk, Renu; Canetta, Pietro A; Ahn, Wooin; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Marasa, Maddalena; Rosenstiel, Paul E; Herlitz, Leal C; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D; Appel, Gerald B

    2018-04-01

    C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN) and dense deposit disease comprise the two classes of C3 glomerulopathy. Studies from Europe and Asia have aided our understanding of this recently defined disorder, but whether these data apply to a diverse United States patient population remains unclear. We, therefore, reviewed clinical and histopathological data, including generation of a C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index to score biopsy activity and chronicity, to determine predictors of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 111 patients (approximately 35% non-white) with C3 glomerulopathy: 87 with C3GN and 24 with dense deposit disease. Complement-associated gene variants and autoantibodies were detected in 24% and 35% of screened patients, respectively. Our C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index denoted higher activity in patients with C3GN and higher chronicity in patients with dense deposit disease. Over an average of 72 months of follow-up, remission occurred in 38% of patients with C3GN and 25% of patients with dense deposit disease. Progression to late-stage CKD and ESRD was common, with no differences between C3GN (39%) and dense deposit disease (42%). In multivariable models, the strongest predictors for progression were estimated glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis (clinical variables model) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (histopathology variables model). Using our C3 Glomerulopathy Histologic Index, both total activity and total chronicity scores emerged as the strongest predictors of progression. Thus, in a large, diverse American cohort of patients with C3 glomerulopathy, there is a high rate of progression to CKD and ESRD with no differences between C3GN and dense deposit disease. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C(4) -C(3) semi-arid vegetation transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    Globally, many drylands are experiencing the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. These changes in ecosystem structure and processes can result in increased sediment and nutrient fluxes due to fluvial erosion. As these changes are often accompanied by a shift from C(4) to C(3) vegetation with characteristic δ(13) C values, stable isotope analysis provides a promising mechanism for tracing these fluxes. Input vegetation, surface sediment and fluvially eroded sediment samples were collected across two contrasting C(4) -C(3) dryland vegetation transitions in New Mexico, USA. Isotope ratio mass spectrometric analyses were performed using a Carlo Erba NA2000 analyser interfaced to a SerCon 20-22 isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine bulk δ(13) C values. Stable isotope analyses of contemporary input vegetation and surface sediments over the monitored transitions showed significant differences (p fluvially eroded sediment from each of the sites, with no significant variation between surface sediment and eroded sediment values. The significant differences in bulk δ(13) C values between sites were dependent on vegetation input. Importantly, these values were robustly expressed in fluvially eroded sediments, suggesting that stable isotope analysis is suitable for tracing sediment fluxes. Due to the prevalent nature of these dryland vegetation transitions in the USA and globally, further development of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided a valuable tool for enhanced understanding of functional changes in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Compositions of isolated forsterites in Ornans (C3O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Luminescing forsterite with FeO between 0.25 and 2.0 wt% occurs as cores of isolated grains and within an Fe-rich porphyritic chondrule in the Ornans (C3O) carbonaceous chondrite. The color variation of the cathodoluminescence depends on the relative intensity of a red emission caused by Cr and a blue emission most intense when transition metal impurities are at the lowest levels. For Ornans forsterite, the blue emission is quenched by Fe t 0.75 wt% and the red at 2.0 wt%. Compositional profiles from core to rim of five isolated forsterites show details of Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Fe zoning with respect to position and cathodoluminescence color. FeO shows normal zoning within the core of the five grains, reaching values of 0.75 wt%, at which point rapid enrichment in FeO occurs, reaching FeO values of 20-30 wt% at the grain edge. Titanium and Al are linearly correlated but show erratic changes within each grain; TiO 2 ranges from 500 to 600 ppmw in the core to 100 ppmw in the rim; Al 2 O 3 varies from 0.6 wt% in the core to below 0.1 wt% in the rim; CaO is near constant at 0.70 wt% within the blue luminescing core and below 0.4 wt% in the rim; Sc 2 O 3 is present in two grains up to 130 ppmw; V 2 O 3 shows 500 ppmw at the core and 100 ppmw at the rim. Evidence is presented for growth of euhedral forsterite either from a liquid or gas, subsequent fracturing, precipitation of Fe-metal, and growth of progressively more Fe-rich rims. Diffusion has affected these grains to give halos around metal and diffuse CL boundaries in some crystallographic directions. Some forsterite grains have been incorporated into an Fe-rich assemblage to form chondrules which retain evidence of their origin in the form of these relic grains

  15. The Complement C3a-C3aR Axis Promotes Development of Thoracic Aortic Dissection via Regulation of MMP2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weihong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xuerui; Piao, Chunmei; Ma, Youcai; Qiu, Shulan; Jia, Lixin; Chen, Boya; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Wenjian; Zheng, Shuai; Liu, Chang; Dai, Nan; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia; Song, Wen-Chao; Du, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), once ruptured, is devastating to patients, and no effective pharmaceutical therapy is available. Anaphylatoxins released by complement activation are involved in a variety of diseases. However, the role of the complement system in TAD is unknown. We found that plasma levels of C3a, C4a, and C5a were significantly increased in patients with TAD. Elevated circulating C3a levels were also detected in the developmental process of mouse TAD, which was induced by β-aminopropionitrile monofumarate (BAPN) treatment, with enhanced expression of C1q and properdin in mouse dissected aortas. These findings indicated activation of classical and alternative complement pathways. Further, expression of C3aR was obviously increased in smooth muscle cells of human and mouse dissected aortas, and knockout of C3aR notably inhibited BAPN-induced formation and rupture of TAD in mice. C3aR antagonist administered pre- and post-BAPN treatment attenuated the development of TAD. We found that C3aR knockout decreased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) expression in BAPN-treated mice. Additionally, recombinant C3a stimulation enhanced MMP2 expression and activation in smooth muscle cells that were subjected to mechanical stretch. Finally, we generated MMP2-knockdown mice by in vivo MMP2 short hairpin RNA delivery using recombinant adeno-associated virus and found that MMP2 deficiency significantly reduced the formation of TAD. Therefore, our study suggests that the C3a - C3aR axis contributes to the development of TAD via regulation of MMP2 expression. Targeting the C3a-C3aR axis may represent a strategy for inhibiting the formation of TAD. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  17. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families. We recorded six new occurrences for Brazil, two for the northern Brazilian region and 21 for Roraima state. These new occurrences, added to the other species listed here, highlight the floristic similarity between the study site and the Guiana Shield, an adjacent phytogeographical unit and geologically related to the origin of white-sand savannas.

  18. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. Inflorescence Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Ge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673 as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926 after calcium applications.

  19. Promise of combined hydrothermal/chemical and mechanical refining for pretreatment of woody and herbaceous biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Dien, Bruce S; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Production of advanced biofuels from woody and herbaceous feedstocks is moving into commercialization. Biomass needs to be pretreated to overcome the physicochemical properties of biomass that hinder enzyme accessibility, impeding the conversion of the plant cell walls to fermentable sugars. Pretreatment also remains one of the most costly unit operations in the process and among the most critical because it is the source of chemicals that inhibit enzymes and microorganisms and largely determines enzyme loading and sugar yields. Pretreatments are categorized into hydrothermal (aqueous)/chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments, and the mechanistic details of which are briefly outlined in this review. To leverage the synergistic effects of different pretreatment methods, conducting two or more pretreatments consecutively has gained attention. Especially, combining hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining, a type of physical pretreatment, has the potential to be applied to an industrial plant. Here, the effects of the combined pretreatment (combined hydrothermal/chemical pretreatment and mechanical refining) on energy consumption, physical structure, sugar yields, and enzyme dosage are summarized.

  20. Traits and climate are associated with first flowering day in herbaceous species along elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Solveig Franziska; König, Patrizia; Menzel, Annette; Migliavacca, Mirco; Ewald, Jörg; Römermann, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Phenological responses to changing temperatures are known as "fingerprints of climate change," yet these reactions are highly species specific. To assess whether different plant characteristics are related to these species-specific responses in flowering phenology, we observed the first flowering day (FFD) of ten herbaceous species along two elevational gradients, representing temperature gradients. On the same populations, we measured traits being associated with (1) plant performance (specific leaf area), (2) leaf biochemistry (leaf C, N, P, K, and Mg content), and (3) water-use efficiency (stomatal pore area index and stable carbon isotopes concentration). We found that as elevation increased, FFD was delayed for all species with a highly species-specific rate. Populations at higher elevations needed less temperature accumulation to start flowering than populations of the same species at lower elevations. Surprisingly, traits explained a higher proportion of variance in the phenological data than elevation. Earlier flowering was associated with higher water-use efficiency, higher leaf C, and lower leaf P content. In addition to that, the intensity of shifts in FFD was related to leaf N and K. These results propose that traits have a high potential in explaining phenological variations, which even surpassed the effect of temperature changes in our study. Therefore, they have a high potential to be included in future analyses studying the effects of climate change and will help to improve predictions of vegetation changes.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on vegetative and reproductive phenology of herbaceous species of northern deciduous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of 38 herbaceous species of northern deciduous forests and forest roads were observed for 5 years, before (1970 and 1971), during (1972), and after (1973 and 1974) gamma irradiation. During the preirradiation years the occurrence of key vegetative and reproductive phenophases was very uniform throughout the area. This uniformity was upset by irradiation. In 1972 signs of senescence appeared earlier in most plants of the high-radiation zone (greater than or equal to 300 r/day) than in those outside that zone. In 1973 initiation of growth and completion of leaf growth of most plants was delayed by several weeks in the high-radiation zone. In both years the length of growing season was significantly shortened; this was also reflected in reduced biomass production. Vegetative development of surviving plants normalized in 1974. In 1972 flowering of forest herbs (which as a group flower early in the spring) was not affected by radiation, but that of summer-flowering logging-road herbs was delayed because the critical radiation doses were reached at that time. In 1973 all five flowering phenophases of the logging-road herbs were delayed about 3 weeks in the high-radiation zone. Normalization of reproductive phenophases became evident in 1974

  2. Remote Sensing-based estimates of herbaceous aboveground biomass on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, R.; Chen, J.; Kim, Y.; Ouyang, Z.; Park, H.; Shao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Grasslands comprise most of the land area on the Mongolian Plateau, which includes Mongolia (MG), and the province of Inner Mongolia (IM). Substantial land cover/use change in the recent past, driven by a combination of post-liberalization, socio-economic changes as well as extreme climatic events has resulted in degradation of grasslands in structure and function, for e.g., their carbon sequestration ability. Hence there is a need for precise estimation of above-ground biomass (AGB). In this study, we collected surface reflectance spectra from field radiometry and quadrats and line transects, which include percentage of ground cover, vegetation height, above ground biomass, and species richness, during the growing season, between the periods, 2006-2011 in IM and 2011-2015 in MG. The field sampling was stratified by the dominant vegetation types on the plateau, including the meadow steppe, typical steppe, and the desert steppe. These sampling data were used as training and validation data for developing and testing predictive models for total herbaceous vegetation, and AGB, using Landsat and MODIS-surface reflectance bands and derived vegetation indices optimized for low cover conditions. Our results show that the independent ground sampling data were significantly correlated with remotely sensed estimates. In addition to providing measures of carbon sequestration to the community, these predictive models offer decision makers and rangeland managers the ability to accurately monitor grassland dynamics, control livestock stocking rates in these remote and extensive grasslands.

  3. Responses of herbaceous plants to urban air pollution: Effects on growth, phenology and leaf surface characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honour, Sarah L.; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Ashenden, Trevor W.; Cape, J. Neil; Power, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust emissions are a dominant feature of urban environments and are widely believed to have detrimental effects on plants. The effects of diesel exhaust emissions on 12 herbaceous species were studied with respect to growth, flower development, leaf senescence and leaf surface wax characteristics. A diesel generator was used to produce concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) representative of urban conditions, in solardome chambers. Annual mean NO x concentrations ranged from 77 nl l -l to 98 nl l -1 , with NO:NO 2 ratios of 1.4-2.2, providing a good experimental simulation of polluted roadside environments. Pollutant exposure resulted in species-specific changes in growth and phenology, with a consistent trend for accelerated senescence and delayed flowering. Leaf surface characteristics were also affected; contact angle measurements indicated changes in surface wax structure following pollutant exposure. The study demonstrated clearly the potential for realistic levels of vehicle exhaust pollution to have direct adverse effects on urban vegetation. - Fumigation experiments demonstrate adverse effects of exhaust emissions on urban vegetation

  4. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  5. Effects of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) on vegetation. I. Herbaceous plants PAN injury symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Iijima, T.; Oodaira, T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of exposure experiments were conducted in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber equipped with artificial light apparatus, using PAN synthesized from ultraviolet irradiation of ethyl nitrite vapor in oxygen. Exposures of 6 approx. 16 hours and 10 pphm PAN caused serious damage like caving with glazing or bronzing in caved lesions to the lower surface of younger leaves. Leaves of white-flowered petunia were found to be most sensitive to PAN and were damaged even by a 3 pphm exposure. Microscopic examinations showed that the PAN characteristically caused injuries of spongy cells and that these cells collapsed and turned brown. Leaf injury symptoms on herbaceous plants caused by synthesized PAN in the exposure experiments were found to be quite similar to those seen in the field under high oxidant emergence. Therefore, it seems that the said type of injuries to leaf beet, kidney bean, and head lettuce observed in the field were caused by PAN. 21 references. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Phenology of selected herbaceous species of northern Wisconsin deciduous forests and forest roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.

    1977-01-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenophases were observed from 1970 to 1974 on 30 native and 8 introduced herbaceous species growing under deciduous forests and on an abandoned logging road in the Enterprise Radiation Forest in northern Wisconsin. Forest herbs started growing in the same order each year, but logging-road herbs varied. Growth initiation was more variable in the early-starting than in the late-starting species. In most years logging-road herbs started growth a few days earlier than forest herbs. Initiation of flowering of the 38 species was bimodal, culminating around mid-May for forest species and around mid-July for logging-road species. In general, the annual start of flowering varied less than the start of vegetative growth. Duration of flowering of most species was variable, however. Seed ripening times varied strikingly among species, ranging from 11 days for Taraxacum officinale to 101 days for Iris versicolor. Seeds of forest herbs took longer to ripen than those of logging-road species. On the basis of growth initiation of the 6 earliest species, spring arrival in 1970 to 1974 differed by 26 days and appeared to be related to snow disappearance. The growing season of most species paralleled cumulative current-year (May--July) and last-year (August--September) precipitation. Multiple regression analyses between precipitation and average length of growing season explained 87 percent of the total variation for forest herbs and 69 percent of that for logging-road herbs

  7. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  8. Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    ER D C TR -0 9- 10 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in...Program ERDC TR-09-10 December 2009 Phytoremediation of Composition-B Derived TNT and RDX in Herbaceous Plant-vegetated and Bare Lysimeters Elly P. H...for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC TR-09-10 ii Abstract: This report describes a study in which phytoremediation of

  9. Floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park, Roraima, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Suzana Maria; Barbosa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho; Bittrich, Volker; do Amaral, Maria do Carmo Estanislau

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viru? National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, ?buritizais? and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herb...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1d - Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfactory Subordination...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-1d Satisfactory Subordination Agreements (Appendix D to 17 CFR 240.15c3-1). (a) Introduction. (1) This Appendix sets forth minimum and non-exclusive requirements for satisfactory...

  11. Effect of Single Selection Method on Woody and Herbaceous Plant Biodiversity in Khalil-Mahale Forest, Behshahr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the role of forest management in tree diversity, regeneration and vegetation in control and managed parcels of series No. 1 of forestry plan in Khalil-Mahale, Behshahr. Thirty samples with an area of 1000 m2 were systematically and randomly taken with a 100 × 75 m grid in both parcels. In each plot, tree number and species type were recorded. In order to study the vegetation, five micro-plots (1 m2, one in the center and four others in four main directions (half radius from the center of the plot were taken in each plot. The type and percentage of herbaceous species were recorded in each microplot. To count the regeneration in the center of the main plot, circular sample plots with an area of 100 m2 were used. To study and compare the biodiversity in the two plots and to calculate the richness and evenness, the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices, Margalef and Menhinic indices and the Pilo index were used, respectively, using PAST software. The results showed that the number of plant species was more in managed plots. The biodiversity of woody and herbaceous plants richness indices and regeneration of tree species were higher in managed plots. In fact, the results showed that forest management using single selection method had different effects on woody species regeneration and diversity of herbaceous and tree species.

  12. THE CANOPY EFFECTS OF Prosopis juliflora (DC. AND Acacia tortilis (HAYNE TREES ON HERBACEOUS PLANTS SPECIES AND SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN NJEMPS FLATS, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Kahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The canopy effects of an exotic and indigenous tree species on soil properties and understorey herbaceous plant species were investigated on the Njemps Flats, Baringo district, Kenya. Samples of soil and herbaceous plant species were obtained within the canopies of systematically selected P. juliflora (exotic and A. tortilis (indigenous trees, and from adjacent open areas. Standing biomass, frequency and cover of understorey plant species were significantly (P

  13. Rural herbaceous plant diversity under different land uses in North Zhejiang Province%浙北地区不同土地利用下乡村草本层植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 张建锋; 陈光才; 汪庆兵; 王丽; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    该文以浙江省安吉县两个典型乡村—繅舍村和赋石村为例,选取公园、农耕区、河道、人工林地四种不同土地利用类型,用Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、Sorensen指数为标识多样性的指标,分析不同生境下草本植物多样性差异。结果表明:乡村生境中共记录物种162种,分属47科123属,其中禾本科与菊科物种数占总数的31.48%;农耕区生境的Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数最高,分别为2.76和0.91,农耕区与河道的Sorensen指数最高为0.57。从农耕区、河道、公园到林地生境,草本物种多样性整体呈减小趋势。另外,发现人工绿化措施会导致草本物种减少,如从种植水稻单一作物到复合作物,草本层植物随之改变。单一稻田与复合种植区比较,草本植物主要的科属组成无明显变化,莎草科、菊科、禾本科植物仍占主体;但草本植物群落主要物种组成发生变化,稻田转变成农耕区后,牛筋草、黑麦草,碎米荠、小飞蓬、喜旱莲子草成为草本层群落主要构成植物,水竹叶覆盖度减少,小飞蓬和喜旱莲子草的覆盖度增加。此外,还发现4种生境中共有喜旱莲子草、加拿大一枝黄花、土荆芥三种入侵物种,但未能对本土物种构成显著影响。这表明不同土地利用方式会严重影响草本群落物种组成及物种多样性;土地利用方式的变化,会引起草本植物主要群落构成发生改变;土地利用类型的多样化有利于本土草本物种多样性生存。该研究结果有助于为城镇化进程中保护乡村植物多样性、加速推进美丽中国建设提供技术支撑。%Local plants were important for ecosystem diversity, of which herbaceous plants took a great account. In the article Fushi Village and Saoshe Village in Zhejiang Province were taken as test plots, where land use systems were di-vided into four artificial habits such as artificial forest, gardens, rivers

  14. The Oncor Geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Handbook of Data Reduction Procedures, Workbooks, and Exchange Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This Handbook of Data Reduction Procedures, Workbooks, and Exchange Templates is designed to support the Oncor geodatabase for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). The following data categories are covered: water-surface elevation and temperature, sediment accretion rate, photo points, herbaceous wetland vegetation cover, tree plots and site summaries, fish catch and density, fish size, fish diet, fish prey, and Chinook salmon genetic stock identification. The handbook is intended for use by scientists collecting monitoring and research data for the CEERP. The ultimate goal of Oncor is to provide quality, easily accessible, geospatial data for synthesis and evaluation of the collective performance of CEERP ecosystem restoration actions at a program scale.

  15. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Kamal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The C3 component of complement tends to be reduced in cirrhosis and patients with reduced ascitic fluid C3 concentration and reduced opsonic activities have been shown to be predisposed to SBP. Aim of the work: To compare the level of ascitic fluid C3 concentration in cirrhotic patients with and without ...

  16. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of [ 14 C]methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little [ 14 C]methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers

  17. Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Liquid Robotics Wave Glider, Honey Badger (G3), 2015, C3. C3 board number 8215 (not coated) appears as board_id=32, task_id=23. C3 board number 771 (coated) appears...

  18. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees, contractors...

  19. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(3)-1 - Capital loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital loss carryovers. 1.381(c)(3)-1 Section 1.381(c)(3)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(3)-1 Capital loss carryovers. (a...

  20. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  1. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  2. Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations for the Past 350 Myr Modeled from the δ13C of C3 Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, L.; Breecker, D.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the systematic collection of long-term d13C records from marine sediments, but no such isotopic compilation exists for C3 land plants. Consequently, we gathered a meta-data base of 8003 plant-derived δ13C values (ISOORG) from various carbon sources binned into 5 myr time steps. The results of this investigation were reported in a recent publication showing that most δ13C sources co-vary with ten CIEs during the last 400 myr. For this paper we culled ISOORG to produce ISOORG16-H that contains 7025 plant-derived δ13C values from paleo-moist environments to reflect secular controls on the δ13C of C3 plants. We then constructed atmospheric pO2 curves for the past 350 myr using prior experimental work showing a direct relationship between the Δ13C of C3 plants and pO2 concentration. Periods of hyperoxia (25-30% pO2) were identified from 300-250, 225-190, and 110-105 myr, and intervals of hypoxia (10-15% pO2) from 350-345, 245-230, and 185-115 myr. During the last 150 myr, pO2 stabilized at 17-24% except for a notable positive excursion from 110-105 myr. Hyperoxia, apparently from widespread carbon burial, supports the notion of insect gigantism during the Late Paleozoic. Hypoxia during the early Triassic correlates with the coal gap following the collapse of Paleozoic ecosystems. Rising pO2 in the late Triassic seems to reflect renewed carbon burial from reorganization of Mesozoic ecosystems. The middle Mesozoic is characterized by low pO2 during an intense greenhouse interval, with ambient conditions ensuing thereafter possibly linked to carbon burial from the radiation of angiosperms. pO2 concentrations >14% suggest wildfires persisted through the study interval except possibly at 160 and 140 myr. Intervals of low pO2 concentration were likely accompanied by lower atmospheric pressure and higher temperatures, particularly from 245-230 myr and 180-120 myr. Our O2 reconstructions conform with GEOCARBSULF, but not with proxy

  3. Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Wang, Tiehui; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Hansen, John D.; Li, Jun; Matlapudi, Anjun; Secombes, Christopher J.; Tort, Lluis; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.

  4. Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merle Ööpik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socio-economic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.

  5. Complement C3 gene: Expression characterization and innate immune response in razor clam Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Maoxiao; Niu, Donghong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Zhiyi; Li, Jiale

    2016-08-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) is central to the complement system, playing an important role in immune defense, immune regulation and immune pathology. Several C3 genes have been characterized in invertebrates but very few in shellfish. The C3 gene was identified from the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta, referred to here as Sc-C3. It was found to be highly homologous with the C3 gene of Ruditapes decussatus. All eight model motifs of the C3 gene were found to be included in the thiolester bond and the C345C region. Sc-C3 was widely expressed in all healthy tissues with expression being highest in hemolymph. A significant difference in expression was revealed at the umbo larvae development stage. The expression of Sc-C3 was highly regulated in the hemolymph and liver, with a distinct response pattern being noted after a challenge with Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus. It is therefore suggested that a complicated and unique response pathway may be present in S. constricta. Further, serum of S. constricta containing Sc-C3 was extracted. This was activated by LPS or bacterium for verification for function. The more obvious immune function of Sc-C3 was described as an effective membrane rupture in hemocyte cells of rabbit, V. parahemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum. Thus, Sc-C3 plays an essential role in the immune defense of S. constricta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are soils in urban ecosystems compacted? A citywide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2011-10-23

    Soil compaction adversely influences most terrestrial ecosystem services on which humans depend. This global problem, affecting over 68 million ha of agricultural land alone, is a major driver of soil erosion, increases flood frequency and reduces groundwater recharge. Agricultural soil compaction has been intensively studied, but there are no systematic studies investigating the extent of compaction in urban ecosystems, despite the repercussions for ecosystem function. Urban areas are the fastest growing land-use type globally, and are often assumed to have highly compacted soils with compromised functionality. Here, we use bulk density (BD) measurements, taken to 14 cm depth at a citywide scale, to compare the extent of surface soil compaction between different urban greenspace classes and agricultural soils. Urban soils had a wider BD range than agricultural soils, but were significantly less compacted, with 12 per cent lower mean BD to 7 cm depth. Urban soil BD was lowest under trees and shrubs and highest under herbaceous vegetation (e.g. lawns). BD values were similar to many semi-natural habitats, particularly those underlying woody vegetation. These results establish that, across a typical UK city, urban soils were in better physical condition than agricultural soils and can contribute to ecosystem service provision.

  7. CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in C3 but not C4 plants and slows growth under nitrate in C3 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arnold J; Asensio, Jose Salvador Rubaio; Randall, Lesley; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B; Carlisle, Eli A

    2012-02-01

    The CO2 concentration in Earth's atmosphere may double during this century. Plant responses to such an increase depend strongly on their nitrogen status, but the reasons have been uncertain. Here, we assessed shoot nitrate assimilation into amino acids via the shift in shoot CO2 and O2 fluxes when plants received nitrate instead of ammonium as a nitrogen source (deltaAQ). Shoot nitrate assimilation became negligible with increasing CO2 in a taxonomically diverse group of eight C3 plant species, was relatively insensitive to CO2 in three C4 species, and showed an intermediate sensitivity in two C3-C4 intermediate species. We then examined the influence of CO2 level and ammonium vs. nitrate nutrition on growth, assessed in terms of changes in fresh mass, of several C3 species and a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Elevated CO2 (720 micromol CO2/mol of all gases present) stimulated growth or had no effect in the five C3 species tested when they received ammonium as a nitrogen source but inhibited growth or had no effect if they received nitrate. Under nitrate, two C3 species grew faster at sub-ambient (approximately 310 micromol/mol) than elevated CO2. A CAM species grew faster at ambient than elevated or sub-ambient CO2 under either ammonium or nitrate nutrition. This study establishes that CO2 enrichment inhibits shoot nitrate assimilation in a wide variety of C3 plants and that this phenomenon can have a profound effect on their growth. This indicates that shoot nitrate assimilation provides an important contribution to the nitrate assimilation of an entire C3 plant. Thus, rising CO2 and its effects on shoot nitrate assimilation may influence the distribution of C3 plant species.

  8. Nqrs Data for C3H2Cl10N2PSb[C3HCl4N2P·Cl6HSb](Subst. No. 0601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C3H2Cl10N2PSb [C3HCl4N2P·Cl6HSb] (Subst. No. 0601)

  9. Despite phylogenetic effects, C3-C4 lineages bridge the ecological gap to C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Marjorie R; Christin, Pascal-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    C 4 photosynthesis is a physiological innovation involving several anatomical and biochemical components that emerged recurrently in flowering plants. This complex trait evolved via a series of physiological intermediates, broadly termed 'C 3 -C 4 ', which have been widely studied to understand C 4 origins. While this research program has focused on biochemistry, physiology, and anatomy, the ecology of these intermediates remains largely unexplored. Here, we use global occurrence data and local habitat descriptions to characterize the niches of multiple C 3 -C 4 lineages, as well as their close C 3 and C 4 relatives. While C 3 -C 4 taxa tend to occur in warm climates, their abiotic niches are spread along other dimensions, making it impossible to define a universal C 3 -C 4 niche. Phylogeny-based comparisons suggest that, despite shifts associated with photosynthetic types, the precipitation component of the C 3 -C 4 niche is particularly lineage specific, being highly correlated with that of closely related C 3 and C 4 taxa. Our large-scale analyses suggest that C 3 -C 4 lineages converged toward warm habitats, which may have facilitated the transition to C 4 photosynthesis, effectively bridging the ecological gap between C 3 and C 4 plants. The intermediates retained some precipitation aspects of their C 3 ancestors' habitat, and likely transmitted them to their C 4 descendants, contributing to the diversity among C 4 lineages seen today. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Reduced herbivory during simulated ENSO rainy events increases native herbaceous plants in semiarid Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, R.; Gutierrez, J.R.; Holmgren, M.; Squeo, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have profound consequences for the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Since increased climate variability is expected to favour the invasive success of exotic species, we conducted a field experiment to study the effects that simulated rainy ENSO events in

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate consumer diets in forested and herbaceous wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani N. Taylor; Darold P. Batzer

    2010-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates have important functional roles in wetland ecosystems, but these roles are not always well understood. This study assessed which foods invertebrate consumers assimilate within a set of wetland habitats. During 2006 and 2007, non-Tanypodinae chironomid larvae and select crustaceans (Crangonyx amphipods, Caecidotea isopods, Simocephalus cladocerans)...

  12. Growth and nutrient content of herbaceous seedlings associated with biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Pendleton; B. K. Pendleton; G. L. Howard; S. D. Warren

    2003-01-01

    Biological soil crusts of arid and semiarid lands contribute significantly to ecosystem stability by means of soil stabilization, nitrogen fixation, and improved growth and establishment of vascular plant species. In this study, we examined growth and nutrient content of Bromus tectorum, Elymus elymoides, Gaillardia pulchella, and Sphaeralcea munroana grown in soil...

  13. Demonstration of a specific C3a receptor on guinea pig platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea pig platelets reportedly contain receptors specific for the anaphylatoxin C3a based on both ligand-binding studies and functional responses. A portion of the human 125I-C3a that binds to guinea pig platelets is competitively displaced by excess unlabeled C3a; however, the majority of ligand uptake was nonspecific. Uptake of 125I-C3a by guinea pig platelets is maximal in 1 min, and stimulation of guinea pig platelets by thrombin, ADP, or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 showed little influence on binding of the ligand. Scatchard analysis indicated that approximately 1200 binding sites for C3a exist per cell with an estimated Kd of 8 x 10(-10) M. Human C3a des Arg also binds to guinea pig platelets, but Scatchard analysis indicated that no specific binding occurred. Because the ligand-binding studies were complicated by high levels of nonspecific uptake, we attempted to chemically cross-link the C3a molecule to a specific component on the platelet surface. Cross-linkage of 125I-C3a to guinea pig platelets with bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate revealed radioactive complexes at 105,000 and 115,000 m.w. on SDS-PAGE gels by autoradiographic analysis. In the presence of excess unlabeled C3a, complex formation was inhibited. No cross-linkage could be demonstrated between the inactive 125I-C3a des Arg and the putative C3a-R on guinea pig platelets. Human C3a, but not C3a des Arg induces serotonin release and aggregation of the guinea pig platelets. Human C3a was unable to induce either serotonin release or promote aggregation of human platelets. Uptake of human 125I-C3a by human platelets was not saturable, and Scatchard analysis was inconclusive. Attempts to cross-link 125I-C3a to components on the surface of human platelets also failed to reveal a ligand-receptor complex. Therefore, we conclude that guinea pig platelets have specific surface receptors to C3a and that human platelets appear devoid of receptors to the anaphylatoxin

  14. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  15. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  16. Factors contributing to the recalcitrance of herbaceous dicotyledons (forbs) to enzymatic deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Dina; Angelos, Evan R; Mukhopadhyay, Achira; Womboldt, Alec; Borrusch, Melissa S; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-04-05

    Many different feedstocks are under consideration for the practical production of biofuels from lignocellulosic materials. The best choice under any particular combination of economic, agronomic, and environmental conditions depends on multiple factors. The use of old fields, restored prairie, or marginal lands to grow biofuel feedstocks offers several potential benefits including minimal agronomic inputs, reduced competition with food production, and high biodiversity. However, a major component of such landscapes is often herbaceous dicotyledonous plants, also known as forbs. The potential and obstacles of using forbs as biofuel feedstocks compared to the more frequently considered grasses and woody plants are poorly understood. The factors that contribute to the yield of fermentable sugars from four representative forbs were studied in comparison with corn stover. The forbs chosen for the study were lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album), goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), and Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota). These plants are taxonomically diverse, widely distributed in northern temperate regions including the continental United States, and are weedy but not invasive. All of the forbs had lower total glucose (Glc) content from all sources (cell walls, sucrose, starch, glucosides, and free Glc) compared to corn stover (range 16.2 to 23.0% on a dry weight basis compared to 39.2% for corn stover). When digested with commercial enzyme mixtures after alkaline pretreatment, yields of Glc as a percentage of total Glc were lower for the forbs compared to corn stover. Enzyme inhibition by water-extractable compounds was not a significant contributor to the lower yields. Based on experiments with optimized cocktails of pure glycosyl hydrolases, enzyme imbalance probably accounted for much of the lower yields. Addition of xyloglucanase and α-xylosidase, two enzymes targeting Glc-containing polysaccharides that are more abundant in dicotyledonous

  17. The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper evaluates both the ideas and empirical evidence pertaining to the control of species density in herbaceous plant communities. While most theoretical discussions of species density have emphasized the importance of habitat productivity and disturbance regimes, many other factors (e.g. species pools, plant litter accumulation, plant morphology) have been proposed to be important. A review of literature presenting observations on the density of species in small plots (in the vicinity of a few square meters or less), as well as experimental studies, suggests several generalizations: (1) Available data are consistent with an underlying unimodal relationship between species density and total community biomass. While variance in species density is often poorly explained by predictor variables, there is strong evidence that high levels of community biomass are antagonistic to high species density. (2) Community biomass is just one of several factors affecting variations in species density. Multivariate analyses typically explain more than twice as much variance in species density as can be explained by community biomass alone. (3) Disturbance has important and sometimes complex effects on species density. In general, the evidence is consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis but exceptions exist and effects can be complex. (4) Gradients in the species pool can have important influences on patterns of species density. Evidence is mounting that a considerable amount of the observed variability in species density within a landscape or region may result from environmental effects on the species pool. (5) Several additional factors deserve greater consideration, including time lags, species composition, plant morphology, plant density and soil microbial effects. Based on the available evidence, a conceptual model of the primary factors controlling species density is presented here. This model suggests that species density is controlled by the effects of

  18. Couverts herbacés pérennes et enjeux environnementaux (en particulier eutrophisation) : atouts et limites

    OpenAIRE

    Vertes, Francoise; Benoit, Marc; Dorioz, Jean Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Outre des fonctions de production, les prairies assurent diverses fonctions environnementales dont la protection de la qualité des eaux et des sols. Dans quelle mesure et à quelles conditions ces fonctions non productives sont elles assurées par les couverts herbacés pérennes ? Après la présentation des principaux processus impliqués dans les cycles de l'azote et du phosphore, les moyens de limiter les pertes en N et P sont rappelés, à l'échelle de la parcelle, de l'exploitation et du bassin ...

  19. The radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C3 on AHH-1 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Husheng; Cai, Jianming; Huang, Yuecheng; Cui, Jianguo; Liu, Hanchen; Sun, Ding; Zhao, Fang; Dong, Junru; Li, Bailong

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radioprotective effects of carboxy fullerene C 3 on AHH-1 cell and it's prospective as a novel radioprotectant. Materials and Methods: Carboxy fullerene C 3 was prepared by chemical synthesis and trypan blue rejection test was performed to detect its cytotoxicity to AHH-1 cell. Then different concentration of C 3 was used to treat AHH-1 cells after radiated with 60 Coγ ray. Annexin-V/PI staining and flow cytometry assay were applied to assess the cell proliferation and apoptosis after irradiation. Results: C 3 showed little toxicity to AHH-1 cells with little change of trypan blue rejection rate during the drug concentration range 0-400 mg/L (P>0.05). We found in this study C 3 had good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell radiated with 1-8 Gy γ-ray. When the concentration was 10 mg/L, C 3 showed protection effects to AHH-1 cell irradiated with 4 Gy γ -ray, which was enhanced with increase of C 3 concentration. When the final concentration reached 200-400 mg/L, the cell survival rate after irradiation was similar to that of non-irradiated control cells(P >0.05). And the irradiation induced apoptosis and death rate were significantly lower than that of single radiation group cells(P 3 were time-dependant, and the best protection effects were observed when the C 3 was administered before irradiation (0-24 h). Conclusion: Carboxy fullerene C 3 has good radioprotective effects to AHH-1 cell, which is dose-dependent, and the higher concentration of C 3 is, the better protective effects it shows. In the effective drug concentration range of this study, C 3 do little harm on the survival rate of AHH-1 cell, which suggest that C 3 as a novel promising radioprotectant deserve to be further investigated. (author)

  20. C3 polymorphism in a Danish cystic fibrosis population and its possible association with antibody response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, P O; Høiby, N; Morling, N

    1978-01-01

    The C3 types of human serum are reported for a material of 113 Danish cystic fibrosis patients, age 0-30 years. The frequency of the C3F gene was 0.2832 which was significantly higher (p less than 0.0005) than the frequency found in a control group of 224 healthy babies (C3F = 0.1585). It also di...

  1. Structural insight into the recognition of complement C3 activation products by integrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajic, Goran

    2015-01-01

    fragment C3a called anaphylatoxin. Complement leads to opsonization as the proteolytic fragment C3b becomes covalently linked to the activator surface through a reactive thioester. Self-surfaces are protected by complement regulators, whereas complement activation vividly amplifies on pathogens...... and their clearance by dendritic cells is mediated by αMβ2. The central molecule in my project, αMβ2 integrin, recognizes many diverse ligands including iC3b, but the molecular basis for such recognition was lacking. During my PhD I have obtained a major breakthrough in the dissection of iC3b interaction with αMβ2. I...

  2. Two Novel C3N4 Phases: Structural, Mechanical and Electronic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We systematically studied the physical properties of a novel superhard (t-C3N4 and a novel hard (m-C3N4 C3N4 allotrope. Detailed theoretical studies of the structural properties, elastic properties, density of states, and mechanical properties of these two C3N4 phases were carried out using first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants and the hardness revealed that t-C3N4 is ultra-incompressible and superhard, with a high bulk modulus of 375 GPa and a high hardness of 80 GPa. m-C3N4 and t-C3N4 both exhibit large anisotropy with respect to Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus. Moreover, m-C3N4 is a quasi-direct-bandgap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.522 eV, and t-C3N4 is also a quasi-direct-band-gap semiconductor, with a band gap of 4.210 eV, with the HSE06 functional.

  3. S-25-hydroxyvitamin D and C3-epimers in pregnancy and infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier Mydtskov, Nanne; Lykkedegn, Sine; Fruekilde, Palle Back Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) may be complicated by the less active or in-active vitamin D metabolite C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (C3-epimer). We aimed to explore the relationship between s-C3-epimer and s-25(OH)D and other determinants and describe the longitudinal course of ...... correlated to s-25(OH)D, season, maternal vitamin D supplementation, maternal and infant age. The C3-epimer fraction was only of clinical importance in early infancy, where it could lead to misclassification of the vitamin D status.......BACKGROUND: Analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) may be complicated by the less active or in-active vitamin D metabolite C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (C3-epimer). We aimed to explore the relationship between s-C3-epimer and s-25(OH)D and other determinants and describe the longitudinal course...... correlated with s-25(OH)D (all time points, pvitamin D supplementation at some time points. The C3-epimer fraction fluctuated between adjacent time points. By cosinor analyses, a season-dependent sinusoidal pattern for s-25(OH)D and C3-epimer fraction...

  4. Elimination of C3 as the Bond-Neff depression opacity source in Hr 774

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The pseudocontinuum of C 3 has been proposed by Fix as the source of the Bond-Neff depression in HR 774. In such a case the strongest rotational lines of the 4050 A vibrational band of C 3 should be clearly evident at high dispersion. A 2.2 A mm -1 plate of HR 774 is examined in the 4050--4060 A region where the strongest lines should form. The absence of C 3 rotational lines indicates that C 3 cannot be the major contributor to the Bond-Neff depression in HR 774

  5. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C-3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H; VanBerkel, Y; Baxter, R; DenHertog, J; Dijkstra, P; Gifford, RM; Griffin, KL; Roumet, C; Roy, J

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO2, These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings, Both average responses

  6. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Berkel, Y. van; Baxter, B.; Hertog, J. den; Dijkstra, P.; Gifford, R.M.; Griffin, K.L.; Roumet, C.; Roy, J.; Wong, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂. These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings. Both average

  7. Water use patterns of co-occurring C3 and C4 shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemuerbieke, Bahejiayinaer; Min, Xiao-Jun; Zang, Yong-Xin; Xing, Peng; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2018-09-01

    In water-limited ecosystems, spatial and temporal partitioning of water sources is an important mechanism that facilitates plant survival and lessens the competition intensity of co-existing plants. Insights into species-specific root functional plasticity and differences in the water sources of co-existing plants under changing water conditions can aid in accurate prediction of the response of desert ecosystems to future climate change. We used stable isotopes of soil water, groundwater and xylem water to determine the seasonal and inter- and intraspecific differences variations in the water sources of six C 3 and C 4 shrubs in the Gurbantonggut desert. We also measured the stem water potentials to determine the water stress levels of each species under varying water conditions. The studied shrubs exhibited similar seasonal water uptake patterns, i.e., all shrubs extracted shallow soil water recharged by snowmelt water during early spring and reverted to deeper water sources during dry summer periods, indicating that all of the studied shrubs have dimorphic root systems that enable them to obtain water sources that differ in space and time. Species in the C 4 shrub community exhibited differences in seasonal water absorption and water status due to differences in topography and rooting depth, demonstrating divergent adaptations to water availability and water stress. Haloxylon ammodendron and T. ramosissima in the C 3 /C 4 mixed community were similar in terms of seasonal water extraction but differed with respect to water potential, which indicated that plant water status is controlled by both root functioning and shoot eco-physiological traits. The two Tamarix species in the C 3 shrub community were similar in terms of water uptake and water status, which suggests functional convergence of the root system and physiological performance under same soil water conditions. In different communities, Haloxylon ammodendron differed in terms of summer water extraction

  8. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  9. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  10. The Coupling of Ecosystem Productivity and Water Availability in Dryland Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    Land cover and climatic change will alter biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide depending, in part, on feedbacks between biotic activity and water availability. Eddy covariance observations allow us to estimate ecosystem-scale productivity and respiration, and these datasets are now becoming sufficiently mature to advance understanding of these ecohydrological interactions. Here we use a network of sites in semiarid western North America representing gradients of water availability and functional plant type. We examine how precipitation (P) controls evapotranspiration (ET), net ecosystem production (NEP), and its component fluxes of ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem production (GEP). Despite the high variability in seasonal and annual precipitation timing and amounts that we expect to influence ecosystem function, we find persistent overall relationships between P or ET and the fluxes of NEP, Reco and GEP across the network, indicating a commonality and resilience in ecosystem soil and plant response to water availability. But we also observe several important site differences such as prior seasonal legacy effects on subsequent fluxes which vary depending on dominant plant functional type. For example, multiyear droughts, episodic cool-season droughts, and hard winter freezes seem to affect the herbaceous species differently than the woody ones. Nevertheless, the overall, strong coupling between hydrologic and ecologic processes at these sites bolsters our ability to predict the response of dryland ecosystems to future precipitation change.

  11. Effects of grazing and fire on herbaceous species in the Bolivian Altiplano

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Lita Beatriz Patty

    2012-01-01

    High mountain rangelands had been under human land use for millennia in most parts of the world. Traditional land care systems led to highly diverse and stable ecosystems. As these traditions fade and population pressure rises, these grassland systems become overgrazed, lose carrying capacity and biodiversity and become eroded. Semi-arid high elevation pastures in tropical and subtropical regions are particularly endangered. This PhD project aimed at assessing the plant invento...

  12. Storage of the complement components C4, C3, and C 3-activator in the human liver as PAS-negative globular hyaline bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, W; Riedel, H; Trautmann, B; Justus, J; Hiemann, D

    1982-01-01

    Liver biopsies of a 58-year-old clinically healthy patient with a hepatomegaly and intracisternal PAS-negative globular hyaline bodies were immunofluorescent-optically examined for the content of the complement components C 1 q, C 4, C 9, C 1-inactivator, C 3-activator. Further examinations were performed for fibrinogen, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE, L-chain (type chi and lambda), alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-fetoprotein, alpha 1- and alpha 2-glycoprotein, cholinesterase, ceruloplasmin, myoglobin, hemopexin, HBsAg and HBsAg. Th inclusion bodies reacted with antisera against the complement components C 4, C 3 and C 3-activator, as also identified by double immunofluorescence. Probably this is a disturbance of the protein metabolism of the liver cell with abnormal complement storage in the presence of normal total complement and normal complement components in the serum.

  13. STUDY ON POLYMRIZED C3N4 FILM BY DYAMICSCATALYTIC AGENT METHOD%动态催化聚合C3N4膜的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑瑄; 刘仲阳; 张大忠; 孙官清; 罗伯诚

    2001-01-01

    The C3N4 film on Al2O3 formed by dynamic catalytic at low energy Ar+ ion sputtering C3H6N6 + Ni target. The ratio of nitroge atoms to carbon in the films is 4:3. C(ls) peakes for graphite, diamond and C≡N not have observed, above results are obtained by XPS. The main peak appears at 1275cm- 1 in the Raman spectrum. Resuits of SEM cant observed that sample is consist of cluter type crystal, but is no needle type. The colour is yellow but is no white. The experimental result indicated films consist of inorganic cavalent solid carbon nitride. The results from XRF observed sample contain Fe and Ni elements. It has been illustrated that Fe and Ni responsible for one C3N4 polymerization.

  14. Hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated immunologic control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Pamela S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients are at increased risk for bacterial infections; these studies provide new insight into the role of the host defense complement system in controlling bacterial pathogens in hyperglycemic environments. Methods The interactions of complement C3 with bacteria in elevated glucose were assayed for complement activation to opsonic forms, phagocytosis and bacterial killing. C3 was analyzed in euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions by mass spectrometry to measure glycation and structural differences. Results Elevated glucose inhibited S. aureus activation of C3 and deposition of C3b and iC3b on the bacterial surface. S. aureus-generated C5a and serum-mediated phagocytosis by neutrophils were both decreased in elevated glucose conditions. Interestingly, elevated glucose increased the binding of unactivated C3 to S. aureus, which was reversible on return to normal glucose concentrations. In a model of polymicrobial infection, S. aureus in elevated glucose conditions depleted C3 from serum resulting in decreased complement-mediated killing of E. coli. To investigate the effect of differing glucose concentration on C3 structure and glycation, purified C3 incubated with varying glucose concentrations was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Glycation was limited to the same three lysine residues in both euglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions over one hour, thus glycation could not account for observed changes between glucose conditions. However, surface labeling of C3 with sulfo-NHS-biotin showed significant changes in the surface availability of seven lysine residues in response to increasing glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the tertiary structure of C3 changes in response to hyperglycemic conditions leading to an altered interaction of C3 with bacterial pathogens. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hyperglycemic conditions inhibit C3-mediated complement effectors important in the immunological

  15. C3 rho-inhibitor for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tautzenberger

    Full Text Available The C3 toxins from Clostridium botulinum (C3bot and Clostridium limosum (C3lim as well as C3-derived fusion proteins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages where the C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Rho results in inhibition of Rho-signalling and characteristic morphological changes. Since the fusion toxin C2IN-C3lim was efficiently taken up into and inhibited proliferation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, its effects on RAW 264.7-derived osteoclasts were investigated. C2IN-C3lim was taken up into differentiated osteoclasts and decreased their resorption activity. In undifferentiated RAW 264.7 cells, C2IN-C3lim-treatment significantly decreased their differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by counting the multi-nucleated, TRAP-positive cells. This inhibitory effect was concentration- and time-dependent and most efficient when C2IN-C3lim was applied in the early stage of osteoclast-formation. A single-dose application of C2IN-C3lim at day 0 and its subsequent removal at day 1 reduced the number of osteoclasts in a comparable manner while C2IN-C3lim-application at later time points did not reduce the number of osteoclasts to a comparable degree. Control experiments with an enzymatically inactive C3 protein revealed that the ADP-ribosylation of Rho was essential for the observed effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that Rho-activity is crucial during the early phase of osteoclast-differentiation. Other bone cell types such as pre-osteoblastic cells were not affected by C2IN-C3lim. Due to their cell-type selective and specific mode of action, C3 proteins and C3-fusions might be valuable tools for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast formation and activity, which could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against osteoclast-associated diseases.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic ozonation of organics by g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gaozu; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Laisheng; Lan, Bingyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 is employed as active catalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation system. • The more negative conduction band of g-C 3 N 4 benefits the transfer of electrons. • The synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation is promoted by g-C 3 N 4 . • Enhanced degradation of oxalic acid and biphenol A is achieved via g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 . - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) was employed as the active photocatalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation coupling system in the present study. g-C 3 N 4 was prepared by directly heating thiourea in air at 550 °C. XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis was used to characterize the structure and optical property. Oxalic acid and bisphenol A were selected as model substances for photocatalytic ozonation reactions to evaluate the catalytic ability of g-C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 ). The results showed that the degradation ratio of oxalic acid with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 65.2% higher than the sum of ratio when it was individually decomposed by g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . The TOC removal of biphenol A with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 2.17 times as great as the sum of the ratio when using g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . This improvement was attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation by g-C 3 N 4 . Under visible light irradiation, the photo-generated electrons produced on g-C 3 N 4 facilitated the electrons transfer owing to the more negative conduction band potential (−1.3 V versus NHE). It meant that the photo-generated electrons could be trapped by ozone and reaction with it more easily. Subsequently, the yield of hydroxyl radicals was improved so as to enhance the organics degradation efficiency. This work indicated that metal-free g-C 3 N 4 could be an excellent catalyst for mineralization of organic compounds in waste control

  17. Improving g-C3N4 photocatalysis for NOx removal by Ag nanoparticles decoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Ni, Zilin; Liu, Jie; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were prepared via a facile method for enhanced photocatalytic NO x removal due to surface plasmon resonance of Ag. - Highlights: • The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were prepared using urea as the precursor. • The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO x in air. • The Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 . • The surface plasmon resonance of Ag played a key role in photocatalysis. - Abstract: In order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of pristine g-C 3 N 4 , we prepared g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic performance by Ag nanoparticles decoration using urea as the precursor. It was revealed that the monodispersed Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. The Ag/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites were applied in removal of NO x in air under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the decoration of Ag nanoparticles not only enhanced the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets, but also benefited the oxidation of NO to final products. The increased visible light absorption arising from the surface plasmon resonance of Ag and improved separation and transfer of photoinduced carriers over Ag/g-C 3 N 4 composites were demonstrated by the UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. It was therefore proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag/g-C 3 N 4 composites could be attributed to the extended light response range and enhanced charge separation due to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Circulating C3 levels predict renal and global outcome in patients with renal vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta, Javier; Diaz-Crespo, Francisco; Acevedo, Mercedes; Cavero, Teresa; Guerrero, Carmen; Praga, Manuel; Fernandez-Juarez, Gema

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the crucial role of complement activation in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis. We aimed to assess the association between baseline serum C3 (sC3) levels and long-term outcomes in patients with renal vasculitis. This retrospective study included 111 patients with renal vasculitis from three hospitals who underwent a renal biopsy between 1997 and 2014. Serum levels of C3 were measured at the onset and the study population was divided into three tertiles according to sC3 concentrations (tertile 1 128 mg/dl). Patients with lower sC3 (tertile 1) were compared with those having higher levels of sC3 (tertile 2 and tertile 3). Histological, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded for analysis. The primary end point was the composite of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death from any cause. Lower sC3 levels were associated with a higher need for dialysis and lower response rate to treatment (p = 0.04 and p = 0.007, respectively). Renal and global survival at 1 and 5 years was 53 and 46 % in patients with lower sC3 (tertile 1) compared with 72 and 65 % in patients with higher sC3 (upper two tertiles) (p = 0.04). In a multivariate Cox-regression model, when adjusted by renal function and histopatholologic categories, lower sC3 remained as an independent predictor of ESRD and death (HR, 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1 to 3.4; p = 0.02). Baseline serum C3 levels have an independent prognostic value in predicting long-term renal and global survival in patients with renal vasculitis.

  19. Eculizumab treatment: stochastic occurrence of C3 binding to individual PNH erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Sica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C5 blockade by eculizumab prevents complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. However, C3-bound PNH red blood cells (RBCs, arising in almost all treated patients, may undergo extravascular hemolysis reducing clinical benefits. Despite the uniform deficiency of CD55 and of CD59, there are always two distinct populations of PNH RBCs, with (C3+ and without (C3C3 binding. Methods To investigate this paradox, the phenomenon has been modeled in vitro by incubating RBCs from eculizumab untreated PNH patients with compatible sera containing eculizumab, and by assessing the C3 binding after activation of complement alternative pathway. Results When RBCs from untreated patients were exposed in vitro to activated complement in the context of C5-blockade, there was the prompt appearance of a distinct C3+ PNH RBC population whose size increased with time and also with the rate of complement activation. Eventually, all PNH RBCs become C3+ to the same extent, without differences between old and young (reticulocytes PNH RBCs. Conclusions This study indicates that the distinct (C3+ and C3− PNH RBC populations are not intrinsically different; rather, they result from a stochastic all-or-nothing phenomenon linked to the time-dependent cumulative probability of each individual PNH red cell to be exposed to levels of complement activation able to trigger C3 binding. These findings may envision novel approaches to reduce C3 opsonization and the subsequent extravascular hemolysis in PNH patients on eculizumab.

  20. Management of C2-C3 fracture subluxation by anterior cervical approach and C2-C3 trans-cortical screw placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injuries are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma victims. Upper cervical spine injuries account for about 24% of acute fractures and dislocations and one third of fractures occur at the level of C2, while one half of injuries occur at the C6 or C7 levels. In contrast to this approach we used the transverse cervical, platysma splitting incision at a lower (C3-C4 disc to expose the upper cervical spine particularly lower border of C3 (entry point for the screw.

  1. Trophic relations of Opatrum sabulosum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae with leaves of cultivated and uncultivated species of herbaceous plants under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a quantitative assessment of the consumption of herbaceous plants by Opatrum sabulosum (Linnaeus, 1761 – a highly significant agricultural pest species. We researched the feeding preferences of this pest species with respect to 33 uncultivated and 22 cultivated plant species. This species of darkling beetle feeds on many uncultivated plant species, including those with hairy leaves and bitter milky sap, such as Scabiosa ucrainca (5.21 mg/specimen/24 hours, Euphorbia virgata (3.45, Solanum nigrum (3.32, Centauria scabiosa (2.47, Lamium album (2.41, Aristolochia clematitis (1.76, Chenopodium album (1.73, Arctium lappa (1.51, Asperula odorata (1.20. A high rate of leaf consumption is also characteristic for cultivated species, for example, Perilla nankinensis (5.05 mg/specimen/24 hours, Lycopersicon esculentum (3.75, Tropaeolum majus (3.29, Nicotiana tabacum (2.66, Rumex acetosa (1.96, Beta vulgaris (1.27. O. sabulosum is capable of feeding on plants which are poisonous to cattle. This species of darkling beetle consumes 95.5% of the cultivated and 48.5% of the uncultivated herbaceous plants researched.

  2. Analysis of herbaceous vegetation diversity in a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region (Açude Itans – RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Félix da Silva Costa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous plants represent a significant portion of the biodiversity in the Caatinga and are also found around artificial reservoirs in different habitats. This work studied the diversity and the spatial distribution of herbaceous vegetation in the flood zone of Açude Itans, a reservoir located in Caicó (which has a semiarid climate in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Using the spatial analysis results, the statistical data were stored and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS and a series of thematic maps of the study area were generated. Nine points were sampled in the water/soil ecotone of the reservoir and 142 specimens were collected. Forty-four species were identified and there was a strong presence of weeds and/or ruderal species. The most significant family was Poaceae, with 37 individuals and seven species, followed by Fabaceae, with 31 individuals and ten species. Cucurbitaceae, Plantaginaceae and Portulacaceae were the least representative families. The least diverse sampling site was the transition zone upstream of the reservoir, while the area near the dam was the most diverse.

  3. Herbaceous vegetation restoration potential and soil physical condition in a mountain grazing land of Eastern Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebrewahd Amha Abesha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An existence of information in the form database and full knowledge of grazing land vegetation resources and trend over time is essential for management decisions. This study was conducted in Kiltew -Awelaelo, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia. The study aimed to investigate species composition and diversity of the herbaceous vegetation, and examine the physical soil condition of the grazing lands. A total of 45 quadrats measuring 20m×20m (400m2 were laid out in 15 sample sites from three corresponding land use types (i.e. ten year enclosure, five year enclosure and open grazing land. From each land use type five sites having three quadrats were investigated. Each quadrat was laid out at an interval of 400m in five parallel transects each 200m apart from other. To collect data of herbaceous and soil five randomly located 1m2 area each, was selected and marked, within each 400m2 sample quadrat of sample sites located along the main transect. There was significant (PBracharia sp., Bromus pectinatus, Chloris gayana, Cenchurs cilarias, chloris radiata, Cynodon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria Velutina, Eragrostis teniufolia, Lintonia nutans, Setaria pumila, Seteria verticillate, and Tragus racemosus all occurred frequently forming the major constituents of the sites. Therefore, regeneration from area enclosure can be on advocated practice for grazing lands rehabilitation.

  4. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Silva

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.

  5. Early growth interactions between a mangrove and an herbaceous salt marsh species are not affected by elevated CO2 or drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Stagg, Camille L.; Utomo, Herry S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are likely to influence future distributions of plants and plant community structure in many regions of the world through effects on photosynthetic rates. In recent decades the encroachment of woody mangrove species into herbaceous marshes has been documented along the U.S. northern Gulf of Mexico coast. These species shifts have been attributed primarily to rising sea levels and warming winter temperatures, but the role of elevated CO2 and water availability may become more prominent drivers of species interactions under future climate conditions. Drought has been implicated as a major factor contributing to salt marsh vegetation dieback in this region. In this greenhouse study we examined the effects of CO2 concentration (∼380 ppm, ∼700 ppm) and water regime (drought, saturated, flooded) on early growth of Avicennia germinans, a C3 mangrove species, and Spartina alterniflora, a C4 grass. Plants were grown in monocultures and in a mixed-species assemblage. We found that neither species responded to elevated CO2 over the 10-month duration of the experiment, and there were few interactions between experimental factors. Two effects of water regime were documented: lower A. germinanspneumatophore biomass under drought conditions, and lower belowground biomass under flooded conditions regardless of planting assemblage. Evidence of interspecific interactions was noted. Competition for aboveground resources (e.g., light) was indicated by lower S. alterniflora stem biomass in mixed-species assemblage compared to biomass in S. alterniflora monocultures. Pneumatophore biomass of A. germinans was reduced when grown in monoculture compared to the mixed-species assemblage, indicating competition for belowground resources. These interactions provide insight into how these species may respond following major disturbance events that lead to vegetation dieback. Site variation in propagule availability

  6. Neuroprotective Efficacy of an Aminopropyl Carbazole Derivative P7C3-A20 in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Na; Xu, Tian-Ying; Wang, Xia; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Sai-Long; Wang, Pei; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2016-09-01

    NAMPT is a novel therapeutic target of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a potential NAMPT activator, P7C3-A20, an aminopropyl carbazole derivative, on ischemic stroke. In vitro study, neuron protection effect of P7C3-A20 was investigated by co-incubation with primary neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. In vivo experiment, P7C3-A20 was administrated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats and infarct volume was examined. Lastly, the brain tissue nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels were detected in P7C3-A20 treated normal or MCAO mice. Cell viability, morphology, and Tuj-1 staining confirmed the neuroprotective effect of P7C3-A20 in OGD or OGD/R model. P7C3-A20 administration significantly reduced cerebral infarction in MCAO rats. Moreover, brain NAD levels were elevated both in normal and MCAO mice after P7C3-A20 treatment. P7C3-A20 has neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia. The study contributes to the development of NAMPT activators against ischemic stroke and expands the horizon of the neuroprotective effect of aminopropyl carbazole chemicals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Protective Role of Complement C3 Against Cytokine-Mediated beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, Reinaldo S.; Marroqui, Laura; Grieco, Fabio A.

    2017-01-01

    silencing exacerbates apoptosis under both basal condition and following exposure to cytokines, and it increases chemokine expression upon cytokine treatment. C3 exerts its prosurvival effects via AKT activation and c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition. Exogenously added C3 also protects against cytokine...

  8. C3 and haptoglobin polymorphism in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Vink-Starreveld, M. L.; Jansen, W.; Pronk, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The C3 and haptoglobin phenotype distribution was studied in 60 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. In contrast with earlier reports we did not find any significant association between dementia of the Alzheimer type and certain C3 or haptoglobin phenotypes

  9. Establishing a Research Center: The Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Luke; Urias, Marissa Vasquez; Harris, Frank, III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the establishment of the Minority Male Community College Collaborative (M2C3), a research and practice center at San Diego State University. M2C3 partners with community colleges across the United States to enhance access, achievement, and success among men of color. This chapter begins with a description of the national…

  10. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  11. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Using SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis) to estimate C 3- and C 4-grass abundance in the paleorecord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Scholes, Daniel R.; Joshi, Neeraj; Pearson, Ann

    2008-05-01

    C 3 and C 4 grasses differ greatly in their responses to environmental controls and influences on biogeochemical processes (e.g. water, carbon, and nutrient cycling). Difficulties in distinguishing between these two functional groups of grasses have hindered paleoecological studies of grass-dominated ecosystems. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of individual grains of grass pollen using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer holds promise for improving C 3 and C 4 grass reconstructions. This technique, SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis), has only been evaluated using pollen of known C 3 and C 4 grasses. To test the ability of SPIRAL to reproduce the abundance of C 3 and C 4 grasses on the landscape, we measured δ13C values of > 1500 individual grains of grass pollen isolated from the surface sediments of ten lakes in areas that span a large gradient of C 3- and C 4-grass abundance, as determined from vegetation surveys. Results indicate a strong positive correlation between the δ13C-based estimates of % C 4-grass pollen and the abundance of C 4 grasses on the landscape. The % C 4-grass pollen slightly underestimates the actual abundance of C 4 grasses at sites with high proportions of C 4 grasses, which can be corrected using regression analysis. Comparison of the % C 4-grass pollen with C/N and δ13C measurements of bulk organic matter illustrates the distinct advantages of grass-pollen δ13C as a proxy for distinguishing C 3 and C 4 shifts within the grass family. Thus SPIRAL promises to advance our understanding of grassland ecology and evolution.

  13. Carbon storage potential increases with increasing ratio of C4 to C3 grass cover and soil productivity in restored tallgrass prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesman, Brian J; Kummel, Herika; Jackson, Randall D

    2018-02-01

    Long-term soil carbon (C) storage is essential for reducing CO 2 in the atmosphere. Converting unproductive and environmentally sensitive agricultural lands to grasslands for bioenergy production may enhance C storage. However, a better understanding of the interacting effects of grass functional composition (i.e., relative abundance of C 4 and C 3 grass cover) and soil productivity on C storage will help guide sustainable grassland management. Our objective was to examine the relationship between grass functional composition and potential C storage and how it varies with potential soil productivity. We estimated C inputs from above- and belowground net primary productivity (ANPP and BNPP), and heterotrophic respiration (R H ) to calculate net ecosystem production (NEP), a measure of potential soil C storage, in grassland plots of relatively high- and low-productivity soils spanning a gradient in the ratio of C 4 to C 3 grass cover (C 4 :C 3 ). NEP increased with increasing C 4 :C 3 , but only in potentially productive soils. The positive relationship likely stemmed from increased ANPP, rather than BNPP, which was possibly related to efficient resource-use and physiological/anatomical advantages of C 4 plants. R H was negatively correlated with C 4 :C 3 , possibly because of changes in microclimate or plant-microbe interactions. It is possible that in potentially productive soils, C storage can be enhanced by favoring C 4 over C 3 grasses through increased ANPP and BNPP and reduced R H . Results also suggest that potential C storage gains from C 4 productivity would not be undermined by a corresponding increase in R H .

  14. New template for metal decoration and hydrogen adsorption on graphene-like C3N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Sun Hong; Chen Changfeng

    2009-01-01

    From density functional theory calculations we identify a graphene-like C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 ) as an excellent template for stable and well dispersed decoration of alkali (Li) and 3d transition metal (TM) atoms. The porous sites of g-C 3 N 4 accommodate excessive N lone-pair electrons and promote hybridization between the orbitals of N and the metal atoms. The most stable TM decorations (Ti and Sc) on g-C 3 N 4 exhibit high capacities of hydrogen adsorption with binding energies suitable for mobile applications. These metal decorated g-C 3 N 4 may also prove useful in catalytic and sensing applications for their unique nanoscale structural features unavailable in conventional nano-clusters.

  15. A novel polymorphism of human complement component C3 detected by means of a monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C; Behrendt, N

    1986-01-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody, HAV 4-1, obtained after immunization of a BALB/c mouse with purified C3F, detected a novel genetic polymorphism of human complement component C3 in a simple immunoblotting system. The frequency of HAV 4-1-positive genes was 20.1%. Reactivity of HAV 4-1 was closely...... related to C3F, but certain individuals with the C3F allele did not react with HAV 4-1. Conversely, certain C3S homozygous individuals did react with HAV 4-1. The polymorphism detected by this monoclonal antibody is therefore different from the previously described polymorphism based on charge differences....

  16. The nutritional quality of herbaceous legumes on goats: Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56% are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94% or of A. glabrata (15.19% The fiber (NDF content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37% than in A. pintoi (16.94% or A. glabrata (41.50%. The forage intake was highest (P0.05 between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d or A. glabrata (453 g/d. A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively. The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3% or OM (83.5% were highest (P0.05 between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF

  17. Growth and N2-fixation of Dhaincha C-3/Sorghum C-4 and Dhaincha C-3/Sunflower C-3 intercropping systems using the 15N and 13C natural abundance method technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2007-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha C 3 (Sesbania aculeata Pers), sunflower C 3 (Helianthus annuus L.) and sorghum C 4 (Sorghum bicolor L.) plants grown in monocropping and intercropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield, dry matter production, total N yield, land equivalent ratio (LER), intraspecific competition for soil N uptake, water use efficiency (WUE) and N 2 -fixation using the 15 N natural abundance technique (δ 15 N ). Moreover, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13 C ) was determined to assess factors responsible for crop performance variability in the different cropping systems. Intercropping of sesbania/sorghum showed greater efficiency over monocropping in producing dry matter, during the entire growth period, as indicated by the LERs (>1); whereas, the efficiency of producing dry matter in the sesbania /sunflower intercropping was similar to that in the monocropping system (LER=1). Moreover, sorghum plants (C 4 ) was more competitive than sesbania (C 3 ) for soil N uptake; whereas, sesbania seemed to be more competitive than its associated sunflower (C 3 ). N uptake in the mixed stand of sesbania/sorghum was improved due to the increase in soil N uptake by the component sorghum and the higher root nodule activity of component sesbania without affecting the amount of N 2 fixed. In both cropping systems, sesbania plants fixed almost the same amount of N 2 (an average of 105 kg N/ha) although the number of rows in the mixed stand was 2/3 of that in the pure stand. This gives an advantage of the intercropping over sole cropping system with regards to N 2 -fixation. 13 C discrimination in plant materials was found to be affected by plant species and the cropping system. Factors affected Δ13 C in plants grown in the mixed stand relative to solely grown crops are discussed.(author)

  18. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  19. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  20. Boron-Catalyzed C3-Polymerization of ω-2-Methyl Allylarsonium Ylide and Its C3/C1 Copolymers with Dimethylsulfoxonium Methylide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2016-03-01

    A novel arsonium ylide, ω-2-methylallylarsonium ylide, was synthesized and used as monomer for polyhomologation with triethyborane as initiator. It was found that the terminal methyl group leads to C3 polymerization. Furthermore, the copolyhomologation of arsonium ylide with dimethylsulfoxonium methylide is reported for the first time. (Chemical Equation Presented). © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  1. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  2. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  3. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  4. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  5. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  6. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  7. Nonstructural carbon dynamics are best predicted by the combination of photosynthesis and plant hydraulics during both bark beetle induced mortality and herbaceous plant response to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Guadagno, C.; Peckham, S. D.; Pendall, E.; Borkhuu, B.; Aston, T.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Yarkhunova, Y.; Weinig, C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that nonstructural carbon (NSC) provides both a signal and consequence of water stress in plants. The dynamics of NSC are likely not solely a result of the balance of photosynthesis and respiration (carbon starvation hypothesis) but also the availability of NSC for plant functions due to hydraulic condition. Further, plant hydraulics regulates photosynthesis both directly through stomatal conductance and indirectly through leaf water status control over leaf biochemistry. To test these hypotheses concerning NSC in response to a wide variety of plant perturbations, we used a model that combines leaf biochemical controls over photosynthesis (Farquhar model) with dynamic plant hydraulic conductance (Sperry model). This model (Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator; TREES) simulates the dynamics of NSC through a carbon budget approach that responds to plant hydraulic status. We tested TREES on two dramatically different datasets. The first dataset is from lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce trees dying from bark beetles that carry blue-stain fungi which block xylem and cause hydraulic failure. The second data set is from Brassica rapa, a small herbaceous plant whose accessions are used in a variety of crops. The Brassica rapa plants include two parents whose circadian clock periods are different; NSC is known to provide inputs to the circadian clock likely modified by drought. Thus, drought may interact with clock control to constrain how NSC changes over the day. The Brassica rapa plants were grown in growth chamber conditions where drought was precisely controlled. The connection between these datasets is that both provide rigorous tests of our understanding of plant NSC dynamics and use similar leaf and whole plant gas exchange and NSC laboratory methods. Our results show that NSC decline (water stress. The model is able to capture this relatively small decline in NSC by limiting NSC utilization through loss of plant hydraulic

  8. C3d enhanced DNA vaccination induced humoral immune response to glycoprotein C of pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tiezhu; Fan Huiying; Tan Yadi; Xiao Shaobo; Ling Jieyu; Chen Huanchun; Guo Aizhen

    2006-01-01

    Murine C3d were utilized to enhance immunogenicity of pseudorabies virus (PrV) gC DNA vaccination. Three copies of C3d and four copies of CR2-binding domain M28 4 were fused, respectively, to truncated gC gene encoding soluble glycoprotein C (sgC) in pcDNA3.1. BALB/c mice were, respectively, immunized with recombinant plasmids, blank vector, and inactivated vaccine. The antibody ELISA titer for sgC-C3d 3 DNA was 49-fold more than that for sgC DNA, and the neutralizing antibody obtained 8-fold rise. Protection of mice from death after lethal PrV (316 LD 5 ) challenge was augmented from 25% to 100%. Furthermore, C3d fusion increased Th2-biased immune response by inducing IL-4 production. The IL-4 level for sgC-C3d 3 DNA immunization approached that for the inactivated vaccine. Compared to C3d, M28 enhanced sgC DNA immunogenicity to a lesser extent. In conclusion, we demonstrated that murine C3d fusion significantly enhanced gC DNA immunity by directing Th1-biased to a balanced and more effective Th1/Th2 response

  9. Self-assembled hierarchical carbon/g-C3N4 composite with high photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Long; Huang, Wei-Qing; Li, Dong-Feng; Ma, Li-Li; Pan, Anlian; Hu, Wangyu; Fan, Xiaoxing; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2018-04-01

    Hierarchical carbon/g-C3N4 composites consisting of nanosheets are synthesized by a direct thermal diffusion and exfoliation approach with glucose acting as the intercalator and carbon source. This facile protocol not only renders nanosheets with a large surface area, but also carbon intercalation into the interlayer of g-C3N4. Therefore, the synthesized carbon/g-C3N4 composites exhibit superior photocatalytic performance for degrading representative methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiatuon. Carbon/g-C3N4 composites with an optimal glucose mass ratio of 0.25% show the apparent reaction rate constant of 0.253 h-1, which is 9 times higher than that over bluk g-C3N4. The superior photocatalytic performance of carbon/g-C3N4 hierarchical architectures can be attributed to the synergic effects of large reactive sites, effective visible light adsorption and faster charge transfer owing to the superior electron transfer ability of carbon as verified by the PL and photoelectrochemical measurements. The main reactive species responsible for the photocatalytic degradation are photoinduced holes and ·OH radicals under visible light irradiation. This work provides a facile way to fabricate effecient g-C3N4-based photocatalysts for the potential application in dealing with environmental and energy shortage issues using solar energy.

  10. Ultrathin g-C3N4 films supported on Attapulgite nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongshuai; Zhang, Lili; Yin, Minghui; Xie, Dengyu; Chen, Jiaqi; Yin, Jingzhou; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhao, Pusu; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-01

    A novel visible-light-responsive photocatalyst is fabricated by introducing g-C3N4 ultrathin films onto the surface of attapulgite (ATP) via a simple in-situ depositing technique, in which ATP was pre-grafted using (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (KH560) as the surfactant. A combination of XRD, FT-IR, BET, XPS, UV-vis, TEM and SEM techniques are utilized to characterize the composition, morphology and optical properties of the products. The results show that with the help of KH560, g-C3N4 presented as ultrathin layer is uniformly loaded onto the surface of ATP by forming a new chemical bond (Sisbnd Osbnd C). Comparing with g-C3N4 and ATP, ATP/g-C3N4 exhibits remarkably enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity in degradation of methyl orange (MO) because of its high surface area, appropriate band gap and the synergistic effect between g-C3N4 and ATP. To achieve the best photocatalyst, the ratio of g-C3N4 was adjusted by controlling the mass portion between ATP-KH560 and melamine (r = m (ATP-KH560)/m (melamine)). The highest decomposition rate of methyl orange (MO) was 96.06% when r = 0.5 and this degradation efficiency remained unchanged after 4 cycles, which is 10 times as that of pure g-C3N4 particles. Possible photocatalytic mechanism is presented.

  11. An appraisal of ecological distribution of herbaceous flora at changa manga park lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Erum, S.; Khan, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The forest ground flora plays a vital role in cycling of nutrients, habitat preservation and rejuvenation of shrubs. The vegetation consociated with the forest plays a vital role in the protection, function of the forest ecosystem. Effective management of forest vegetation serves the forest ecosystem in assaying the balance of harmful effects of vying vegetation. Relationship of ecology between environment and vegetation and their ordination techniques and classification methods has become vital means in the research field vegetation ecology. Classification depends on the abundances of ground vegetation species. Multivariate technique is an important technique in ecology and biology for the group prediction. Classification of different plant communities had been accomplished by carrying out TWINSPAN analysis using PC-ORD. The results were shown in a two-way cluster dendrogram. A dendrogram is a hierarchical representation of species in graphical form. The encompassing survey has been conducted in the Changa Manga Forest (CMF) which resulted in the identification of the 45 species belonging to 24 families from all over the forest area. The TWINSPAN results of CMF ascertained the following dominant species in all of the four zones, Cynadon dactylon, Malvestrum cormendalianum, Oxalis corniculata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Desmostachya bipinnata. (author)

  12. Improving our understanding of environmental controls on the distribution of C3 and C4 grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Stephanie; Edwards, Erika J; Still, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the ecological sorting of C3 and C4 grasses along temperature and moisture gradients. However, previous studies of C3 and C4 grass biogeography have often inadvertently compared species in different and relatively unrelated lineages, which are associated with different environmental settings and distinct adaptive traits. Such confounded comparisons of C3 and C4 grasses may bias our understanding of ecological sorting imposed strictly by photosynthetic pathway. Here, we used MaxEnt species distribution modeling in combination with satellite data to understand the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses by comparing both large clades and closely related sister taxa. Similar to previous work, we found that C4 grasses showed a preference for regions with higher temperatures and lower precipitation compared with grasses using the C3 pathway. However, air temperature differences were smaller (2 °C vs. 4 °C) and precipitation and % tree cover differences were larger (1783 mm vs. 755 mm, 21.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively) when comparing C3 and C4 grasses within the same clade vs. comparing all C4 and all C3 grasses (i.e., ignoring phylogenetic structure). These results were due to important differences in the environmental preferences of C3 BEP and PACMAD clades (the two main grass clades). Winter precipitation was found to be more important for understanding the distribution and environmental niche of C3 PACMADs in comparison with both C3 BEPs and C4 taxa, for which temperature was much more important. Results comparing closely related C3 -C4 sister taxa supported the patterns derived from our modeling of the larger clade groupings. Our findings, which are novel in comparing the distribution and niches of clades, demonstrate that the evolutionary history of taxa is important for understanding the functional diversity of C3 and C4 grasses, and should have implications for how grasslands will respond to global change. © 2012

  13. A recombinant fusion toxin based on enzymatic inactive C3bot1 selectively targets macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Dmochewitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C3bot1 protein (~23 kDa from Clostridium botulinum ADP-ribosylates and thereby inactivates Rho. C3bot1 is selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages but not of other cell types such as epithelial cells or fibroblasts. Most likely, the internalization occurs by a specific endocytotic pathway via acidified endosomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested whether enzymatic inactive C3bot1E174Q serves as a macrophage-selective transport system for delivery of enzymatic active proteins into the cytosol of such cells. Having confirmed that C3bot1E174Q does not induce macrophage activation, we used the actin ADP-ribosylating C2I (∼50 kDa from Clostridium botulinum as a reporter enzyme for C3bot1E174Q-mediated delivery into macrophages. The recombinant C3bot1E174Q-C2I fusion toxin was cloned and expressed as GST-protein in Escherichia coli. Purified C3bot1E174Q-C2I was recognized by antibodies against C2I and C3bot and showed C2I-specific enzyme activity in vitro. When applied to cultured cells C3bot1E174Q-C2I ADP-ribosylated actin in the cytosol of macrophages including J774A.1 and RAW264.7 cell lines as well as primary cultured human macrophages but not of epithelial cells. Together with confocal fluorescence microscopy experiments, the biochemical data indicate the selective uptake of a recombinant C3-fusion toxin into the cytosol of macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrated that C3bot1E174Q can be used as a delivery system for fast, selective and specific transport of enzymes into the cytosol of living macrophages. Therefore, C3-based fusion toxins can represent valuable molecular tools in experimental macrophage pharmacology and cell biology as well as attractive candidates to develop new therapeutic approaches against macrophage-associated diseases.

  14. Characterization of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin G.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Shi, Hua; Meyer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and consistent estimates of shrubland ecosystem components are crucial to a better understanding of ecosystem conditions in arid and semiarid lands. An innovative approach was developed by integrating multiple sources of information to quantify shrubland components as continuous field products within the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). The approach consists of several procedures including field sample collections, high-resolution mapping of shrubland components using WorldView-2 imagery and regression tree models, Landsat 8 radiometric balancing and phenological mosaicking, medium resolution estimates of shrubland components following different climate zones using Landsat 8 phenological mosaics and regression tree models, and product validation. Fractional covers of nine shrubland components were estimated: annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, shrub, sagebrush height, and shrub height. Our study area included the footprint of six Landsat 8 scenes in the northwestern United States. Results show that most components have relatively significant correlations with validation data, have small normalized root mean square errors, and correspond well with expected ecological gradients. While some uncertainties remain with height estimates, the model formulated in this study provides a cross-validated, unbiased, and cost effective approach to quantify shrubland components at a regional scale and advances knowledge of horizontal and vertical variability of these components.

  15. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  16. Loss of native herbaceous species due to woody plant encroachment facilitates the establishment of an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Fowler, Norma L

    2013-03-01

    Although negative relationships between diversity (frequently measured as species richness) and invasibility at neighborhood or community scales have often been reported, realistic natural diversity gradients have rarely been studied at this scale. We recreated a naturally occurring gradient in species richness to test the effects of species richness on community invasibility. In central Texas savannas, as the proportion of woody plants increases (a process known as woody plant encroachment), herbaceous habitat is both lost and fragmented, and native herbaceous species richness declines. We examined the effects of these species losses on invasibility in situ by removing species that occur less frequently in herbaceous patches as woody plant encroachment advances. This realistic species removal was accompanied by a parallel and equivalent removal of biomass with no changes in species richness. Over two springs, the nonnative bunchgrass Bothriochloa ischaemum germinated significantly more often in the biomass-removal treatment than in unmanipulated control plots, suggesting an effect of native plant density independent of diversity. Additionally, significantly more germination occurred in the species-removal treatment than in the biomass-removal treatment. Changes in species richness had a stronger effect on B. ischaemum germination than changes in plant density, demonstrating that niche-related processes contributed more to biotic resistance in this system than did species-neutral competitive interactions. Similar treatment effects were found on transplant growth. Thus we show that woody plant encroachment indirectly facilitates the establishment of an invasive grass by reducing native diversity. Although we found a negative relationship between species richness and invasibility at the scale of plots with similar composition and environmental conditions, we found a positive relationship between species richness and invasibility at larger scales. This apparent

  17. Atom-radical reaction dynamics of O(3P)+C3H5→C3H4+OH: Nascent rovibrational state distributions of product OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Hohjai; Kwon, Han-Cheol; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Choi, Young-Sang; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2002-08-01

    The reaction dynamics of ground-state atomic oxygen [O(3P)] with allyl radicals (C3H5) has been investigated by applying a combination of crossed beams and laser induced fluorescence techniques. The reactants O(3P) and C3H5 were produced by the photodissociation of NO2 and the supersonic flash pyrolysis of precursor allyl iodide, respectively. A new exothermic channel of O(3P)+C3H5→C3H4+OH was observed and the nascent internal state distributions of the product OH (X 2Π:υ″=0,1) showed substantial bimodal internal excitations of the low- and high-N″ components without Λ-doublet and spin-orbit propensities in the ground and first excited vibrational states. With the aid of the CBS-QB3 level of ab initio theory and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations, it is predicted that on the lowest doublet potential energy surface the major reaction channel of O(3P) with C3H5 is the formation of acrolein (CH2CHCHO)+H, which is consistent with the previous bulk kinetic experiments performed by Gutman et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 94, 3652 (1990)]. The counterpart C3H4 of the probed OH product in the title reaction is calculated to be allene after taking into account the factors of reaction enthalpy, barrier height and the number of intermediates involved along the reaction pathway. On the basis of population analyses and comparison with prior calculations, the statistical picture is not suitable to describe the reactive atom-radical scattering processes, and the dynamics of the title reaction is believed to proceed through two competing dynamical pathways. The major low N″-components with significant vibrational excitation may be described by the direct abstraction process, while the minor but extraordinarily hot rotational distribution of high N″-components implies that some fraction of reactants is sampled to proceed through the indirect short-lived addition-complex forming process.

  18. De novo Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of C3, C3-C4, and C4 Species of Tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lauterbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available C4 photosynthesis is a carbon-concentrating mechanism that evolved independently more than 60 times in a wide range of angiosperm lineages. Among other alterations, the evolution of C4 from ancestral C3 photosynthesis requires changes in the expression of a vast number of genes. Differential gene expression analyses between closely related C3 and C4 species have significantly increased our understanding of C4 functioning and evolution. In Chenopodiaceae, a family that is rich in C4 origins and photosynthetic types, the anatomy, physiology and phylogeny of C4, C2, and C3 species of Salsoleae has been studied in great detail, which facilitated the choice of six samples of five representative species with different photosynthetic types for transcriptome comparisons. mRNA from assimilating organs of each species was sequenced in triplicates, and sequence reads were de novo assembled. These novel genetic resources were then analyzed to provide a better understanding of differential gene expression between C3, C2 and C4 species. All three analyzed C4 species belong to the NADP-ME type as most genes encoding core enzymes of this C4 cycle are highly expressed. The abundance of photorespiratory transcripts is decreased compared to the C3 and C2 species. Like in other C4 lineages of Caryophyllales, our results suggest that PEPC1 is the C4-specific isoform in Salsoleae. Two recently identified transporters from the PHT4 protein family may not only be related to the C4 syndrome, but also active in C2 photosynthesis in Salsoleae. In the two populations of the C2 species S. divaricata transcript abundance of several C4 genes are slightly increased, however, a C4 cycle is not detectable in the carbon isotope values. Most of the core enzymes of photorespiration are highly increased in the C2 species compared to both C3 and C4 species, confirming a successful establishment of the C2 photosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a function of PEP-CK in C2 photosynthesis

  19. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  1. Safety demonstration test (SR-3/S1C-3/S2C-3/SF-2) plan using the HTTR. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Sakaba, Nariaki; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Takada, Eiji; Tochio, Daisuke; Ohwada, Hiroyuki

    2005-03-01

    Safety demonstration tests using the HTTR are to be conducted from the FY2002 to verify the inherent safety features and to improve the safety design and evaluation technologies for HTGRs, as well as to contribute to not only the commercial HTGRs but also the research and development for the VHTR that is one of the Generation IV reactor candidates. This paper describes the reactivity insertion test (SR-3), the coolant flow reduction test by tripping of gas circulators (S1C-3, S2C-3), and the partial flow loss of coolant test (SF-2) planned in March 2005 with their detailed test method, procedure and results of pre-test analysis. From the analytical results, it was verified that the negative reactivity feedback effect of the core brings the reactor power safely to a stable level without a reactor scram. (author)

  2. Structure, mechanical and magnetic properties of Al4C3 reinforced nickel matrix nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Alok Kumar; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Singh, V. B.

    2018-05-01

    A new type of nanocomposite, Ni-Al4C3 was prepared using Al4C3 as reinforcement by cathodic co-deposition at different current densities (1.0 to 5.0 A dm‑2) from a nickel acetate-N-methyl formamide (non-aqueous) bath. Influence of current density and incorporation of Al4C3 particles in nickel matrix on the structure and properties of the composite coatings was investigated. Surface morphology and composition of the deposits were determined by SEM and EDAX. Crystallographic structure and orientation of the electrodeposited Ni-Al4C3 composite were studied by x-ray diffraction. Compared to nickel metal, these nanocomposites exhibited finer grains, higher microhardness, improved corrosion resistance and enhanced soft magnetic properties. Composite deposited at higher current densities (>2 A dm‑2) shows mild texturing along (200) plane. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and microhardness of the nanocomposites was also investigated.

  3. Selective Oxidation of Alcohols Using Photoactive VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated...

  4. Portlandite content and ionic transport properties of hydrated C3S pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henocq, P.; Samson, E.; Marchand, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a C 3 S paste characterization study. The objective was to determine the parameters needed to model the process of degradation. The experimental study focused on determining the portlandite content and the ionic diffusion coefficients of C 3 S paste. The molar C/S ratio of C–S–H in hydrated C 3 S pastes was also investigated. The portlandite content was determined with an experimental method based on an electron microprobe analysis. This method leads to a portlandite mass content of 24.4 ± 2.3%. The diffusion coefficient of each ionic species was determined by inverse analysis of diffusion test data performed on hydrated C 3 S samples using a multiionic transport model.

  5. Photocatalytic C-H Activation and Oxidative Esterification Using Pd@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Graphitic carbon nitride supported palladium nanoparticles, Pd@g-C3N4, have been synthesized and utilized for the direct oxidative esterification of alcohols using...

  6. Photocatalytic C−H Activation of Hydrocarbons over VO@g‑C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A highly selective and sustainable method has been developed for the oxidation of methyl arenes and their analogues. The VO@g-C3N4 catalyst is very efficient in the...

  7. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Satellite Simulated Orbits C3VP dataset is available in the Orbital database, which takes account for the atmospheric profiles, the...

  8. Carbon isotope ratios of epidermal and mesophyll tissues from leaves of C3 and CAM plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, K.; Roksandic, Z.; Osmond, B.

    1981-01-01

    The δ 13 C values for epidermal and mesophyll tissues of two C 3 plants, Commelina communis and Tulipa gesneriana, and a CAM plant, Kalanchoē daigremontiana, were measured. The values for the tissues of both C 3 plants were similar. In young leaves of Kalanchoē, the epidermis and the mesophyll showed S 13 C values which were nearly identical, and similar to those found in C 3 plants. However, markedly more negative values for epidermal compared to mesophyll tissue, were obtained in the mature Kalanchoē leaf. This is consistent with the facts that the epidermis in a CAM leaf is formed when leaves engage in C 3 photosynthesis and that subsequent dark CO 2 fixation in guard cells or mesophyll cells makes only a small contribution to total epidermal carbon

  9. Regulation of C3 Activation by the Alternative Complement Pathway in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A E Williams

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the retinas of mice carrying hemizygous and null double deletions of Cfb-/- and Cfh-/-, and to compare these with the single knockouts of Cfb, Cfh and Cfd. Retinas were isolated from wild type (WT, Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfh-/-/Cfb+/-, Cfb-/-, Cfh-/- Cfd-/-, and Cfd+/- mice. Complement proteins were evaluated by western blotting, ELISA and immunocytochemistry, and retinal morphology was assessed using toluidine blue stained semi-thin sections. WT mice showed staining for C3 and its breakdown products in the retinal vasculature and the basal surface of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Cfb-/- mice exhibited a similar C3 staining pattern to WT in the retinal vessels but a decrease in C3 and its breakdown products at the basal surface of the RPE. Deletion of both Cfb and Cfh restored C3 to levels similar to those observed in WT mice, however this reversal of phenotype was not observed in Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- or Cfb-/-/Cfh+/- mice. Loss of CFD caused an increase in C3 and a decrease in C3 breakdown products along the basal surface of the RPE. Overall the retinal morphology and retinal vasculature did not appear different across the various genotypes. We observed that C3 accumulates at the basal RPE in Cfb-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh-/-, Cfb-/-/Cfh+/-, Cfd-/- and WT mice, but is absent in Cfh-/- and Cfh-/-/Cfb+/- mice, consistent with its consumption in the serum of mice lacking CFH when CFB is present. C3 breakdown products along the surface of the RPE were either decreased or absent when CFB, CFH or CFD was deleted or partially deleted.

  10. Characterization of [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c3 from Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Susana; Zapata, Manuel; Garrido, José L; Vaz, Belén

    2012-06-04

    We report herein the isolation and complete characterization of a member of the chlorophyll c family, designated as [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c(3) ([8-ethyl]-chl c(3)). Structural elucidation of this pigment rested on the analysis of mono- and bidimensional NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and ESI-MS data, and the configuration at the 13(2) position on chiral HPLC analysis.

  11. Synthesis of 20-14C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraffo, H.M.; Gros, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    20 - 14 C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one was synthesised by condensing 3β-acetoxy-5β-androstan-17-one with potassium 14 C cyanide to produce cyanohydrin. This was dehydrated and the resulting unsaturated nitrile treated with methylmagnesiumiodide to produce hydroxypregnenone. Hydrogenation of this gave 14 C 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one. (U.K.)

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heating at 540◦C for 3 h in air, melamine was converted to C3N4 but the formation of C3N4 depended on the ratios of the melamine and ZnO (M/Z) powders. From the experimental results, ... decolourize the textile wastewater such as adsorption, chem- ical coagulation, oxidization and so on [1–3]. Photocataly- sis is one of ...

  13. Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3) through comparative case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public rerlease; distribution is unlimited This thesis contains material for the course, Introduction to Command, Control and Communications (C3). The first part of the thesis describes selected principles and concepts of C3 related to communication management, interoperability, command structure and standardization. The Crisis Action System is described emphasizing the roles and functions of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. A discussion of...

  14. Overcoming CRPC Treatment Resistance via Novel Dual AKR1C3 Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Accomplishments 3 4. Impact 8 5. Changes/Problems 8 6. Products 8 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 8 8. Special Reporting Requirements...orthotopic animal model 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the major goals of the project? Specific Aim 1 To determine the mechanisms of AKR1C3-mediated...selected for stable clones with respective antibiotics . Here we showed the characterization of the tet-inducible LNCaP/TR/AKR1C3 stale clone

  15. [Could isolated mesangial deposits of C3 be responsible of glomerular hematuric nephropathies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Andre, J P; Touzard, D; Houssin, A; Simard, C

    1982-01-01

    This communication presents three cases of prolonged macroscopic hematuria in young subjects. Complementary explorations eliminated urologic or vascular causes. Renal biopsies showed minimal glomerular lesions with light microscopy, normal basement membranes in electron microscopy and mesangial deposits of C3 and properdine in immunofluorescence. Although the mesangial deposits of C3 lack specificity and the number of observations is small, it appears useful to report such cases so as to indicate their frequency and perhaps their autonomy, in glomerular hematuric nephropathies.

  16. Seed morphology, germination phenology, and capacity to form a seed bank in six herbaceous layer apiaceae species of the eastern deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin

    2007-01-01

    We compared seed mass, seed morphology, and long-term germination phenology of three monocarpic (MI and three polycarpic (P) Apiaceae species of the herbaceous layer of the Eastern Deciduous Forest. Seeds (mericarps) of the six species differed considerably in mass, shape, and ornamentation. Mean seed masses were ranked Cryptotaenia canadensis (M)...

  17. A Regional Study of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation Development During the First 15 Years After Early Complete Woody and/or Herbaceous Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Conifer plantations in North America and elsewhere in the world are increasingly cultured using early control of herbaceous and woody plants. Development of sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop- competition dynamics, and ecological changes. There are lmany reports of...

  18. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Sharitz, R.R.; Gladden, J.B.

    1982-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings of slightly more than one year's study of the Steel Creek ecosystem. Generally, the findings have allowed us to refine our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the Steel Creek ecosystem which is an essential prerequisite for predicting the impacts associated with L-reactor restart. Reanalysis of the Steel Creek plant community relationships using 1981 aerial photography revealed that this component of the delta ecosystem continues to change as a result of natural successional processes. The major detectable changes have occurred on the more elevated portions of Steel Creek delta where coverage by woody species (especially willow) is continuing to increase. This successional woody community is invading areas previously dominated by persistent herbaceous species such as cut grass. Eleven vegetation associations were identified in the Steel Creek delta area, including two associations that were not apparently affected by the earlier reactor operations

  19. Photosynthetic responses of C3 and C4 species to seasonal water variability and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shuli; Yuan, Zhiyou; Zhang, Yanfang; Liu, Weixing; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jianhui; Wan, Shiqiang

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the impacts of seasonal water variability and interspecific competition on the photosynthetic characteristics of a C3 (Leymus chinensis) and a C4 (Chloris virgata) grass species. Plants received the same amount of water but in three seasonal patterns, i.e. the one-peak model (more water in the summer than in the spring and autumn), the two-peak model (more water in the spring and autumn than in the summer), and the average model (water evenly distributed over the growing season). The effects of water variability on the photosynthetic characteristics of the C3 and C4 species were dependent on season. There were significant differences in the photosynthetic characteristics of the C4 species in the summer and the C3 species in the autumn among the three water treatments. Interspecific competition exerted negative impacts on the C3 species in August and September but had no effects on the C4 species in any of the four measuring dates. The relative competitive capability of the two species was not altered by water availability. The assimilation rate, the maximum quantum yield of net CO2 assimilation, and the maximum rate of carboxylation of the C3 species were 13-56%, 5-11%, and 11-48% greater, respectively, in a monoculture than in a mixture in August and September. The results demonstrated that the photosynthetic characteristics of the C3 and C4 species were affected by water availability, but the effects varied considerably with season.

  20. Photo double ionization of He: C3-like wave function for the two electron continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R. [Conicet and Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Otranto, S. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Dept. de Fisica, Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2002-12-01

    We evaluate the triply differential cross-section (TDCS) for photo double ionization (PDI) of helium. A first approximation to the final state can be obtained by neglecting the e-e interaction and the non-orthogonal kinetic energy. This leads to the C2 model which proposes as solution a product of 2 independent Coulomb wave plane waves. A better approximation is the C3 model where the C3 wave describes the e-e motion as independent of the presence of the nucleus and represents it by a Coulomb continuum wave. The C3 wave function mainly consists in the product of 3 Coulomb waves, each one representing the interaction between a pair of particles. We use a C3 final continuum wave function with an inter-electronic effective coordinate to express the nuclear screening. Comparison with the standard C3 model shows that the TDCS is enhanced in the threshold region by effect of the reduced inter-electronic repulsion introduced by the present model. A more accurate description of the intermediate energy region is also obtained. Comparison with recent experimental data shows a good overall agreement of the angular distributions. The theoretical PDI total cross-section shows a relevant improvement in the intermediate energy region relative to the C3 model, which converges to data for photon energies larger than 1 keV.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of the ν3 band of C3 in helium droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Harruff-Miller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The C3 molecule is an important species known to participate in key chemical reactions in combustion and astrochemistry. Its occurrence in environments of interest, its intramolecular physics, and its intermolecular reactivity have been areas of extensive and ongoing study. Much of the interest in C3 is related to investigating its interactions with other species relevant to combustion processes or astrochemistry. Helium droplet methods offer a promising route to assemble and study a wide variety of novel complexes, clusters, and adducts made from C3. Here we report the results of our recent efforts to dope cold helium droplets with C3 molecules and record the rotationally-resolved infrared spectrum of the embedded C3. The spectrum consists of P(2, R(0, and R(2 lines well-described by a linear rotor Hamiltonian with ν0 = 2039.09(2 cm-1, B = 0.204(5 cm-1, and T = 0.37 K. The B rotational constant of the C3 molecule is found to be reduced from its gas-phase value by a factor of 2.1 due to rotational following by the helium solvent.

  2. Photo double ionization of He: C3-like wave function for the two electron continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R.; Otranto, S.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluate the triply differential cross-section (TDCS) for photo double ionization (PDI) of helium. A first approximation to the final state can be obtained by neglecting the e-e interaction and the non-orthogonal kinetic energy. This leads to the C2 model which proposes as solution a product of 2 independent Coulomb wave plane waves. A better approximation is the C3 model where the C3 wave describes the e-e motion as independent of the presence of the nucleus and represents it by a Coulomb continuum wave. The C3 wave function mainly consists in the product of 3 Coulomb waves, each one representing the interaction between a pair of particles. We use a C3 final continuum wave function with an inter-electronic effective coordinate to express the nuclear screening. Comparison with the standard C3 model shows that the TDCS is enhanced in the threshold region by effect of the reduced inter-electronic repulsion introduced by the present model. A more accurate description of the intermediate energy region is also obtained. Comparison with recent experimental data shows a good overall agreement of the angular distributions. The theoretical PDI total cross-section shows a relevant improvement in the intermediate energy region relative to the C3 model, which converges to data for photon energies larger than 1 keV

  3. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

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    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  4. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Deo D; Pfeifer, Marion; Platts, Philip J; Totland, Ørjan; Moe, Stein R

    2015-01-01

    We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI) and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH) along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m), stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps), soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand structure, environmental

  5. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  6. Acquired partial lipodystrophy and C3 glomerulopathy: Dysregulation of the complement system as a common mechanism

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    Fernando Corvillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The activation of the alternative pathway of the complement is involved in the development of several renal diseases, such as atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and C3 glomerulopathy. In C3 glomerulopathy, a high percentage of patients have circulating levels of the autoantibody called C3NeF, which causes systemic dysregulation of the complement system. In some cases, the presence of this antibody has been related with abnormalities of adipose tissue, causing acquired partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer–Simons syndrome. Acquired partial lipodystrophy is an extremely rare disorder affecting the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue and that mainly onsets during childhood. These patients, in addition to possibly presenting with all the metabolic disorders associated with the adipose tissue defect, present with C3 hypocomplementemia and C3NeF and 25% have developed C3 glomerulopathy. Although it has been known for some time how the dysregulation of the complement system affects the kidneys, it remains unknown how it exactly affects adipose tissue; nevertheless, the relationship is quite clear. In this paper, we describe the connection between the complement system with the biology of the adipose tissue and its pathogenesis reflected from acquired partial lipodystrophy. Resumen: La activación de la vía alternativa del complemento interviene en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades renales, como el síndrome hemolítico urémico atípico o la glomerulopatía C3. En esta última enfermedad un elevado porcentaje de los pacientes presentan niveles circulantes de un autoanticuerpo denominado C3NeF, causante de la desregulación del complemento a nivel sistémico. En ciertos casos, la presencia de este anticuerpo se asocia con alteraciones en el tejido adiposo, causando lipodistrofia parcial adquirida (síndrome de Barraquer-Simons, una enfermedad ultra-rara que afecta a la distribución del tejido adiposo subcutáneo y que comienza principalmente

  7. The spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in North America through the next century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J. M.; Mosier, T. M.; Cerling, T. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hoppe, K. A.; Still, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    C4 grasses currently cover ~18% of the earth's surface and are economically important as food sources, but their distributions are likely to change with future climate changes. As a result of the opposing impacts of atmospheric CO2 and temperature on C3 and C4 physiology, future changes to the productivity and distributions of these grasses have remained unclear. We have used past and present tooth enamel, collagen, and bone carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of Bison and Mammoth grazers to record the δ13C values of their diet, and the abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in these habitats. Thus, the δ13C values of bison and mammoth tissues serve as a proxy for vegetation composition across North America through time. We combine these isotope data with ensemble CMIP5 climate model outputs, eight different climatic and fire predictor variables and advanced statistical techniques to model the spatial distribution of C3 and C4 grasses up through the year 2100 for two different emissions scenarios. Using the Random Forest algorithm, our model explains 91% of the spatial and temporal isotopic variability in bison and mammoth tissues and infers that mean summer temperature is the strongest predictor of all climate variables. For the emission scenario RCP4.5, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to rise to ~540 ppm by 2100, we find decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses of up to 30% in the south-central Great Plains and the Florida peninsula, and increases of up to 50% in the northern Great Plains. For the RCP8.5 scenario, in which atmospheric CO2 levels are expected to rise to ~930 ppm by 2100, our model predicts minor decreases in the abundance of C4 grasses in Texas and Oklahoma, but increases of 30-50% over the majority of the Great Plains. The overall effect of these changes is a homogenization of the Great Plains ecoregion in terms of grassland type distributions, and the loss of the highest abundance of C4 ecosystems of the panhandles of Texas, Oklahoma and

  8. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic fundamentals, versatile properties, design strategies and potential applications of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts were systematically summarized and addressed. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 were systematically summarized. • The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were highlighted. • The different design strategies of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were reviewed. • The important photocatalytic applications of g-C 3 N 4 were also addressed. - Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H 2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE HERBACEOUS AND SHRUBBY-ARBOREAL COMPONENTS IN A SEMIARID REGION IN THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL: COMPETITION OR FACILITATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLEBER ANDRADE DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of high stress, interactions between species can be positive. Islands of perennial vegetation can improve the conditions of the understory and facilitate the establishment of herbaceous plants. The hypothesis of this study is that islands of perennial vegetation in an area of caatinga harbor, a greater richness, diversity and density of herbaceous plants, and that individuals reach a greater height and diameter than in open spaces. The study was conducted in Petrolândia, Pernambuco, Brazil. Twenty-seven plots were installed in the center of the islands, 38 at the edge of the islands (in a total of 38 islands and 35 in the open spaces. A total of 51 species were recorded in the center and 55 on the edge of the islands and 48 in the open spaces. The mean richness of the open spaces was lower than on the islands. The diversity was greater in the center of the island and became less on the edge of the island and in the open spaces. The mean density was lower in the open spaces than on the islands. The mean density at the edge of the islands was greater than in the center of the islands. There was no difference in mean diameter of herbaceous plants. The mean height of the individuals was higher in the center of the islands. The herbaceous community growing on the islands exhibited higher richness, diversity, density and height than in open spaces. Thus, islands of perennial vegetation facilitate the establishment of herbaceous species.

  10. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  11. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis) and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) Grasses in Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Shangzhi; Chai, Hua; Xu, Yueqiao; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13Cl) and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (ΔR,biomass) in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C3-C4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ13Cl, the δ13C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C3 ...

  12. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  13. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  14. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

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    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  15. Structural influence of gene networks on their inference: analysis of C3NET

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    Emmert-Streib Frank

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of large-scale high-throughput data possesses considerable challenges toward their functional analysis. For this reason gene network inference methods gained considerable interest. However, our current knowledge, especially about the influence of the structure of a gene network on its inference, is limited. Results In this paper we present a comprehensive investigation of the structural influence of gene networks on the inferential characteristics of C3NET - a recently introduced gene network inference algorithm. We employ local as well as global performance metrics in combination with an ensemble approach. The results from our numerical study for various biological and synthetic network structures and simulation conditions, also comparing C3NET with other inference algorithms, lead a multitude of theoretical and practical insights into the working behavior of C3NET. In addition, in order to facilitate the practical usage of C3NET we provide an user-friendly R package, called c3net, and describe its functionality. It is available from https://r-forge.r-project.org/projects/c3net and from the CRAN package repository. Conclusions The availability of gene network inference algorithms with known inferential properties opens a new era of large-scale screening experiments that could be equally beneficial for basic biological and biomedical research with auspicious prospects. The availability of our easy to use software package c3net may contribute to the popularization of such methods. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Lev Klebanov, Joel Bader and Yuriy Gusev.

  16. Complemento hemolítico total, C3 e taxa de conversão de C3 nas formas cardíaca e indeterminada da doença de Chagas Levels of hemolytic complement, total C3 and degree of conversion of native C3 in cardiac and indeterminate form of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shikanai-Yasuda

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Os valores de complemento hemolítico total, C3 total (nativo + produtos de degradação e o grau de conversão de C3 nativo foram estudados em dois subgrupos de pacientes chagásicos, nas formas cardíaca e indeterminada, e em um subgrupo de indivíduos não chagásicos, clinicamente sadios. Os níveis de C3 total e as taxas de conversão de C3 em seus produtos de degradação foram semelhantes nos três subgrupos. Os valores de complemento hemolítico total foram estatisticamente diferentes nos três subgrupos (nível de significância descritivo p = 0,0757, tendo sido observada média aritmética mais baixa no subgrupo de cardíacos e mais elevada no subgrupo de controles. Maior amplitude de variação dos níveis de complemento hemolítico total foi notada no subgrupo de cardíacos, no qual se encontraram os valores extremos (máximo e mínimo, considerando-se todos os subgrupos.The levels of hemolytic complement and total C3 (native C3 plus its degration products and the degree of conversion of native C3 into its breakdown products were studied in sera from two subgroups of chagasic patients (indeterminate and cardiac forms and from non chagasic individuals (control subgroup. The levels of total C3 and the degree of conversion of native C3 into its breakdown products were similar in the three subgroups. The levels of hemolytic complement were statistically different among the three subgroups. The lowest average was observed in the subgroup of cardiac patients and the highest average in the control subgroup of non chagasic individuals. The widest variation on levels of hemolytic complement was observed in the subgroup of cardiac patients in which we found the maximum and minimum values among all the subgroups.

  17. HMB-45, S-100, NK1/C3, and MART-1 in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovits, Judit; Buzney, Elizabeth; Yu, Lawrence; Duncan, Lyn M

    2004-02-01

    The diagnosis of melanoma metastatic to lymph node remains a difficult problem given its histological diversity. We examined the staining patterns of S-100, NK1/C3, HMB-45, and MART-1 (DC10) in melanoma metastases to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on tissue sections of 126 formalin-fixed lymph nodes from 126 patients with an established diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. A total of 98% of cases (123 of 126) stained positive for S-100, 93% (117 of 125) stained positive for NK1/C3, 82% (103 of 126) stained positive for MART-1, and 76% (95 of 125) stained positive for HMB-45. The distribution and intensity of staining varied among these markers. A diffuse staining pattern, defined as >50% of tumor cells stained, was observed in 83% of MART-1-positive cases but in only 56% of S-100-positive cases, 48% of NK1/C3-positive cases, and 34% of HMB-45-positive cases. A maximally intense signal was almost always observed for MART-1 (83% of positive cases) but was rarely observed for NK1/C3 (20%). S-100 and HMB-45 showed maximally intense staining in 50% and 54% of cases, respectively. S-100 and NK1/C3 stained both histiocytes and melanocytes, whereas MART-1 and HMB-45 stained only melanocytes. Seventy-eight cases (63%) stained positive for all 4 markers, 17 cases (14%) stained for all markers except HMB-45, 13 cases (10%) stained for all markers except MART-1, 6 cases (5%) stained only with S-100 and NK1/C3, 4 cases (3%) stained only with S-100 and HMB-45, and 2 cases stained for all markers except S-100. One case each stained for the following: only S-100, only S-100 and HMB-45, and all markers except NK1/C3. One case exhibited absence of staining for any of these markers. We demonstrate that lymph node metastases of melanoma are heterogeneous with regard to tumor marker expression. S-100 and NK1/C3 were the most sensitive stains for detecting metastatic melanoma; however, they both also stain other nontumor cells in lymph nodes. MART-1 did not stain

  18. The phosphoglucan phosphatase like sex Four2 dephosphorylates starch at the C3-position in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Kötting, Oliver; Seung, David; Schubert, Mario; Thalmann, Matthias; Bischof, Sylvain; Meekins, David A; Lutz, Andy; Patron, Nicola; Gentry, Matthew S; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2011-11-01

    Starch contains phosphate covalently bound to the C6-position (70 to 80% of total bound phosphate) and the C3-position (20 to 30%) of the glucosyl residues of the amylopectin fraction. In plants, the transient phosphorylation of starch renders the granule surface more accessible to glucan hydrolyzing enzymes and is required for proper starch degradation. Phosphate also confers desired properties to starch-derived pastes for industrial applications. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the removal of phosphate by the glucan phosphatase Starch Excess4 (SEX4) is essential for starch breakdown. We identified a homolog of SEX4, LSF2 (Like Sex Four2), as a novel enzyme involved in starch metabolism in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Unlike SEX4, LSF2 does not have a carbohydrate binding module. Nevertheless, it binds to starch and specifically hydrolyzes phosphate from the C3-position. As a consequence, lsf2 mutant starch has elevated levels of C3-bound phosphate. SEX4 can release phosphate from both the C6- and the C3-positions, resulting in partial functional overlap with LSF2. However, compared with sex4 single mutants, the lsf2 sex4 double mutants have a more severe starch-excess phenotype, impaired growth, and a further change in the proportion of C3- and C6-bound phosphate. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the metabolism of phosphate in starch and provide innovative options for tailoring novel starches with improved functionality for industry.

  19. Ta4AlC3: Phase determination, polymorphism and deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, P.; Palmquist, J.-P.; Hoewing, J.; Trinh, D.H.; El-Raghy, T.; Hoegberg, H.; Hultman, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ta 4 AlC 3 , a new member of the M n+1 AX n -phase family, has been synthesized and characterized (n = 1-3; M = early transition metal; A A-group element; and X = C and/or N). Phase determination by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data shows that Ta 4 AlC 3 belongs to the P6 3 /mmc space group with a and c lattice parameters of 3.10884 ± 0.00004 A and 24.0776 ± 0.0004 A, respectively. This is shown to be the α-polymorph of Ta 4 AlC 3 , with the same structure as Ti 4 AlN 3 . Lattice imaging by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the characteristic MAX-phase stacking of α-Ta 4 AlC 3 . Three modes of mechanical deformation of α-Ta 4 AlC 3 are observed: lattice bending, kinking and delamination

  20. P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Block Axonal Degeneration and Preserve Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Terry C. Yin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI. This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, 1 day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals 8 months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI.

  1. Regulation of the activity of the promoter of RNA-induced silencing, C3PO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Shriya; Williams, Leo; Perez, Alberto; Philip, Finly; Caso, Giuseppe; Zurawsky, Walter; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2017-09-01

    RNA-induced silencing is a process which allows cells to regulate the synthesis of specific proteins. RNA silencing is promoted by the protein C3PO (component 3 of RISC). We have previously found that phospholipase Cβ, which increases intracellular calcium levels in response to specific G protein signals, inhibits C3PO activity towards certain genes. Understanding the parameters that control C3PO activity and which genes are impacted by G protein activation would help predict which genes are more vulnerable to downregulation. Here, using a library of 10 18 oligonucleotides, we show that C3PO binds oligonucleotides with structural specificity but little sequence specificity. Alternately, C3PO hydrolyzes oligonucleotides with a rate that is sensitive to substrate stability. Importantly, we find that oligonucleotides with higher Tm values are inhibited by bound PLCβ. This finding is supported by microarray analysis in cells over-expressing PLCβ1. Taken together, this study allows predictions of the genes whose post-transcriptional regulation is responsive to the G protein/phospholipase Cβ/calcium signaling pathway. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 assisted by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quan-Liang; Liu, Yi-Ling; Tong, Li-Ge

    2018-04-01

    Water pollution has caused much attention nowadays. Photocatalysis as a kind of advanced oxidation technology has been widely studied in the field of environmental pollution control. As a stable non-metal photocatalyst, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 assisted by H2O2 was investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The combination of g-C3N4 and H2O2 has much higher activity than that of pure g-C3N4 or H2O2. Neutral solution is preferred for the high phtotocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 with H2O2. The effect of the amount of catalyst, H2O2 concentration and RhB concentration was investigated. Photocatalytic mechanism study using radical scavenger showed free radicals {{{{O}}}2}- and · OH are the main active species. g-C3N4 assisted by H2O2 showed good photostability and repeatability after five cycles of degradation experiment.

  3. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  4. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy B. [USFS; Miller, Karl V. [University of Georgia; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  5. Integrating plant ecological responses to climate extremes from individual to ecosystem levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Andrew J; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-06-19

    Climate extremes will elicit responses from the individual to the ecosystem level. However, only recently have ecologists begun to synthetically assess responses to climate extremes across multiple levels of ecological organization. We review the literature to examine how plant responses vary and interact across levels of organization, focusing on how individual, population and community responses may inform ecosystem-level responses in herbaceous and forest plant communities. We report a high degree of variability at the individual level, and a consequential inconsistency in the translation of individual or population responses to directional changes in community- or ecosystem-level processes. The scaling of individual or population responses to community or ecosystem responses is often predicated upon the functional identity of the species in the community, in particular, the dominant species. Furthermore, the reported stability in plant community composition and functioning with respect to extremes is often driven by processes that operate at the community level, such as species niche partitioning and compensatory responses during or after the event. Future research efforts would benefit from assessing ecological responses across multiple levels of organization, as this will provide both a holistic and mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to increasing climatic variability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. The Preparation of Cu-g-C3N4/AC Catalyst for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel catalyst based on g-C3N4/activated carbon was prepared by adding CuCl2. The catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated in the acetylene hydrochlorination reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low temperature N2 adsorption/desorption (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, and thermal gravity analysis showed that Cu-g-C3N4/AC significantly enhanced the catalytic performance of the original catalyst by increasing the relative pyrrolic N content. Cu-g-C3N4/AC also affected the adsorption of hydrogen chloride and acetylene, as well as inhibited the coke deposition during acetylene hydrochlorination.

  7. On the lefetime of N2C3πμ state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallas, J.A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative lifetime of the N 2 C 3 πsub(u) electronic state and the absolute transition probabilities for the N 2 C 3 πsub(u)-B 3 πsub(g) system have been calculated by assuming Morse potentials for the involved electronic states and then evaluating the resulting integrals analytically. The lifetimes are computed using several electronic transition moment functions given in the literature and comparisons are made. The present method of calculation does not involve the usual anti r-centroid approximation, however it is found that, for the N 2 C 3 πsub(u)-B 3 πsub(g) system studied here, this approximation gives very good results. (Author) [pt

  8. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2009-02-26

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  9. Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.; Fernà ndez-Altable, V.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Dal Molin, D. C. C.; Casanova, I.

    2009-01-01

    Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to study the microstructural changes and phase development that take place during the hydration of cubic (pure) and orthorhombic (Na-doped) tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and gypsum in the absence and presence of lime. The results demonstrate that important differences occur in the hydration of each C3A polymorph and gypsum when no lime is added; orthorhombic C3A reacts faster with gypsum than the cubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the presence of lime slows down the formation of ettringite in the orthorhombic sample. Additional rheometric tests showed the possible effects on the setting time in these cementitious mixes.

  10. C3PO, an endoribonuclease that promotes RNAi by facilitating RISC activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ye, Xuecheng; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Liu, Qinghua

    2009-08-07

    The catalytic engine of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), wherein the endoribonuclease Argonaute and single-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) direct target mRNA cleavage. We reconstituted long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins. We used this core reconstitution system to purify an RNAi regulator that we term C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC), a complex of Translin and Trax. C3PO is a Mg2+-dependent endoribonuclease that promotes RISC activation by removing siRNA passenger strand cleavage products. These studies establish an in vitro RNAi reconstitution system and identify C3PO as a key activator of the core RNAi machinery.

  11. Reduction of U(VI) and Toxic Metals by Desulfovibrio Cytochrome C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D

    2013-04-11

    The central objective of our proposed research was twofold: 1) to investigate the structure-function relationship of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (now Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20) cytochrome c3 with uranium and 2) to elucidate the mechanism for uranium reduction in vitro and in vivo. Physiological analysis of a mutant of D. desulfuricans with a mutation of the gene encoding the type 1 tetraheme cytochrome c3 had demonstrated that uranium reduction was negatively impacted while sulfate reduction was not if lactate were the electron donor. This was thought to be due to the presence of a branched pathway of electron flow from lactate leading to sulfate reduction. Our experimental plan was to elucidate the structural and mechanistic details of uranium reduction involving cytochrome c3.

  12. Expression of the C3-C 4 intermediate character in somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and the C3-C 4 species Moricandia arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, C M; Murata, T; Morgan, C L; Mathias, R J

    1996-12-01

    The wild crucifer Moricandia arvensis is a potential source of alien genes for the genetic improvement of related Brassica crops. In particular M. arvensis has a C3-C4 intermediate photosynthetic mechanism which results in enhanced recapture of photorespired CO2 and may increase plant water-use efficiency. In order to transfer this trait into Brassica napus, somatic hybridisations were made between leaf mesophyll protoplasts from cultured M. arvensis shoot tips and hypocotyl protoplasts from three Brassica napus cultivars, 'Ariana', 'Cobra' and 'Westar'. A total of 23 plants were recovered from fusion experiments and established in the greenhouse. A wide range of chromosome numbers were observed among the regenerated plants, including some apparent mixoploids. Thirteen of the regenerated plants were identified as nuclear hybrids between B. napus and M. arvensis on the basis of isozyme analysis. The phenotypes of these hybrids were typically rather B. napus-like, but much variability was observed, including variation in flower colour, leaf shape and colour, leaf waxiness, fertility and plant vigour. CO2 compensation point measurements on the regenerated plants demonstrated that 3 of the hybrids express the M. arvensis C3-C4 intermediate character at the physiological level. Semi-thin sections through leaf tissues of these 3 plants revealed the presence of a Kranz-like leaf anatomy characteristic of M. arvensis but not found in B. napus. This is the first report of the expression of this potentially important agronomic trait, transferred from Moricandia, in M. arvensis x B. napus hybrids.

  13. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  14. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  15. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  16. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used to charac......High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...

  19. Surface complement C3 fragments and cellular binding of microparticles in patients with SLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes. These fea......Objectives: To examine microparticles (MPs) from patients with SLE and healthy controls (HCs) by determining the cellular origin of the MPs, quantifying attached fragments of complement component 3 (C3) and assessing the ability of MPs to bind to circulating phagocytes and erythrocytes...

  20. Protective role of complement C3 against cytokine-mediated beta cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Santos, R. S.; Marroqui, L.; Grieco, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic islet inflammation and β-cell destruction by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. The complement system, a major component of the immune system, has been recently shown to also act in metab...... in metabolic organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, and pancreas. In the present study we identified complement C3 as an important hub of a cytokine-modified complement network in human islets and characterized the role of C3 in β-cell survival....

  1. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 &C4 in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA and complements (C3 and C4 was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965.[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I and severe alopecia areata (group II. Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4 were within range of normal control values

  2. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  4. Review of the ecosystem service implications of mangrove encroachment into salt marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleway, Jeffrey J; Cavanaugh, Kyle; Rogers, Kerrylee; Feller, Ilka C; Ens, Emilie; Doughty, Cheryl; Saintilan, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Salt marsh and mangrove have been recognized as being among the most valuable ecosystem types globally in terms of their supply of ecosystem services and support for human livelihoods. These coastal ecosystems are also susceptible to the impacts of climate change and rising sea levels, with evidence of global shifts in the distribution of mangroves, including encroachment into salt marshes. The encroachment of woody mangrove shrubs and trees into herbaceous salt marshes may represent a substantial change in ecosystem structure, although resulting impacts on ecosystem functions and service provisions are largely unknown. In this review, we assess changes in ecosystem services associated with mangrove encroachment. While there is quantitative evidence to suggest that mangrove encroachment may enhance carbon storage and the capacity of a wetland to increase surface elevation in response to sea-level rise, for most services there has been no direct assessment of encroachment impact. On the basis of current understanding of ecosystem structure and function, we theorize that mangrove encroachment may increase nutrient storage and improve storm protection, but cause declines in habitat availability for fauna requiring open vegetation structure (such as migratory birds and foraging bats) as well as the recreational and cultural activities associated with this fauna (e.g., birdwatching and/or hunting). Changes to provisional services such as fisheries productivity and cultural services are likely to be site specific and dependent on the species involved. We discuss the need for explicit experimental testing of the effects of encroachment on ecosystem services in order to address key knowledge gaps, and present an overview of the options available to coastal resource managers during a time of environmental change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Groundwater uptake by forest and herbaceous vegetation in the context of salt accumulation in the Hungarian Great Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Fodor, Nándor; Tóth, Tibor

    2013-04-01

    In Hungarian Great Plain forested areas has significantly increased during the last century. Hydrological effects of trees differ from that of crops or grasses in that, due to their deep roots, they extract water from much deeper soil layers. It has been demonstrated that forest cover causes water table depression and subsurface salt accumulation above shallow saline water table in areas with a negative water balance. The above mentioned situation caused by the afforestation in the Hungarian Great Plain is examined in the frame of a systematic study, which analyzed all affecting factors, like climatic water balance, water table depth and salinity, three species, subsoil layering and stand age. At the regional scale altogether 108 forested and neighbouring non forested plots are sampled. At the stand scale 18 representative forested and accompanying non forested plots (from the 108) are monitored intensively. In this paper dataset of two neighbouring plots (common oak forest and herbaceous vegetation) was compared (as first results of this complex investigation). On the basis of the analysis it could be summarized that under forest the water table was lower, and the amplitude of diel fluctuation of water table was significantly larger as under the herbaceous vegetation. Both results demonstrate greater groundwater use of forest vegetation. Groundwater uptake of the forest (which was calculated by diel based method) was almost same as potential reference evapotranspiration (calculated by Penman-Monteith equation with locally measured meteorological dataset) along the very dry summer of 2012. Larger amount of forest groundwater use is not parallel with salt uptake, therefore salt accumulates in soil and also in groundwater as can be measured of the representative monitoring sites as well. In the long run this process can result in the decline of biological production or even the dry out of some part of the forest. Greater groundwater uptake and salt accumulation

  6. Relative contribution of C3 and C4 type terrestrial organic matter in the Mahanadi offshore (Bay of Bengal) sediments and climatic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rheane; Mazumdar, Aninda; Naik, Bg

    2017-04-01

    relative expansion of C4 vegetation while warmer, high pCO2 periods supported C3 expansion. A high resolution work is being carried out to get better understanding on actual limiting factors across the last 300 ky responsible for changes in C3 vs C4 expansion. Our data may help in understanding how vegetation may respond to future global warming and climate change including pCO2 build up, change in air temperature and monsoonal rainfall. References: • Collister, James W., et al. "Compound-specific δ 13C analyses of leaf lipids from plants with differing carbon dioxide metabolisms." Organic Geochemistry 21.6-7 (1994): 619-627. • Ehleringer, J. R. The influence of atmospheric CO2, temperature, and water on the abundance of C3/C4 taxa. In A history of atmospheric CO2 and its effects on plants, animals, and ecosystems Springer New York 214-231 (2005). • Mazumdar, A., et al. "Pore-water chemistry of sediment cores off Mahanadi Basin, Bay of Bengal: Possible link to deep seated methane hydrate deposit." Marine and Petroleum Geology 49 (2014): 162-175.

  7. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  8. The influence of gamma radiation upon the biological activity of the third serum complement component (C3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuhl, K.P.; Dierich, M.P.; Mainz Univ.

    1981-01-01

    For investigation of interaction between C3 and C3-binding cells the third complement component is to be labelled with radiotracer. After labelling C3 with high specific activity (0,2 μCi 125 l/μg C3) binding of C3 to Raji-cells was increased up to the twentyfold nine days after labelling. This effect was not to be reproduced with external gamma radiation using doses of 10, 200 and 1000 rad. The rosette inhibition test could demonstrate that with radiation doses of 200 and 1000 rad the radiated C3 lost its ability of specific binding to C3 receptors in Raji-cells. This functional alteration corresponded to amino acid analysis with relative increase of asparagine, glutamic acid and proline and relative decrease of cystine and phenylalanine in the C3 molecule. (orig.) [de

  9. The Photo-3 model: A Python-based model for C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis coupled with environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S. R.; Bartlett, M. S., Jr.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to depict all three photosynthetic types (C3, C4, and CAM) has important implications for the study of both natural and agroecosystems. Currently no model exists which covers all types of photosynthesis in a consistent way and which can be fully integrated with environmental conditions. This is partially because, despite the fact that Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis is prevalent in many plants in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where it may comprise nearly 50% of all plant biomass, CAM modelling remains understudied. The Photo-3 model takes advantage of recent advances in mechanistic modeling of CAM photosynthesis to provide a direct comparison of CAM functioning with C3 and C4 functioning under a wide range of soil and atmospheric conditions. The model is based on a core Farquhar photosynthetic model with additional functions to represent the spatial and temporal separations of carbon uptake and assimilation in the case of C4 and CAM photosynthesis. We have parameterized the model for one representative species of each photosynthetic type: Opuntia ficus-indica (CAM), Sorghum bicolor (C4), and Triticum aestivum (C3). Results agree well with experimental data on carbon assimilation and water use for the three species. Model runs using climate data from Temple, TX; Sicily, Italy; Zacatecas, Mexico; Pernambuco, Brazil and Adias Ababa, Ethiopia illustrate the high water use efficiency of CAM plants and its cumulative effects on long-term productivity in water-limited environments. The Photo-3 model, which is written in Python, will be made publicly available on GitHub and its outputs may be coupled to existing models of plant growth and phenology. The model may be used to evaluate potential productivity and water use for C3, C4, and CAM plants, and to devise optimal strategies for cropping systems and irrigation in water-limited environments.

  10. Germination Shifts of C3 and C4 Species under Simulated Global Warming Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies. PMID:25137138

  11. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-3 - Qualifying over-the-counter options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualifying over-the-counter options. 1.1092(c)-3...-counter options. (a) In general. Under section 1092(c)(4)(B)(i), an equity option is not a qualified covered call option unless it is traded on a national securities exchange that is registered with the...

  12. C3-dependent mechanism of microglial priming relevant to multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Hughes, Timothy R.; Donev, Rossen M.; Ruseva, Marieta M.; Wu, Xiaobo; Huitinga, Inge; Baas, Frank; Neal, James W.; Morgan, B. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Microglial priming predisposes the brain to neurodegeneration and affects disease progression. The signal to switch from the quiescent to the primed state is unknown. We show that deleting the C3 convertase regulator complement receptor 1-related protein y (Crry) induces microglial priming. Mice

  13. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  14. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night, simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature, maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  15. The influence of Na2O on the hydration of C3A II. Suspension hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, G.A.C.M.; Stein, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of Na2O on the hydration of C3A was studied in suspensions from the start of the reaction onwards. The heat evolution rate in very early stages of the hydration, measured at varying NaOH concentrations, and SEM, indicate that at NaOH concentrations larger then 0.1 M the reaction

  16. C3I Systems Acquisition and Maintenance in Relation to the use of COTS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    the NATO C3 Agency and crypto equipment. * the GFE STARGATE Software subsystem (the prototyped version of which, developed by IAF, Surveillance fctid...been increasing and dual-use systems (ACCAM, ICC, AOIS, STARGATE and re-use potentials have been enhanced. WAN connections) Use of COTS information

  17. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-06

    Dec 6, 2017 ... sents an easy method to utilize the energy of either artifi- cial illumination or natural ... light. In this work, we reported the synthesis of the C3N4/CdS ... Compared ... The above suspension was stirred in the dark before irradi-.

  18. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. The bifurcation and peakons for the special C(3,2,2) equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. C(3, 2, 2) equation; peakons; bell-shaped solitary waves; periodic cusp waves. .... In other words, the function φ is not well defined on ... Figure 2. The phase portrait bifurcation of system (22). 336. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 83, No.

  20. Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic amines using MnO2@g-C3N4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An efficient and direct oxidation of aromatic amines to aromatic azo-compounds has been achieved using a MnO2@g-C3N4 catalyst under visible light as a source of...

  1. Nett Warrior C3Conflict Experiment: Measuring the Effect of Battlefield Awareness in Small Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    C3Conflict is a distributed, computer-based, multiplayer , small unit war game designed to elicit measures of leader performance focusing on command...has raised the specter of even more violence . While the level of violence has plunged from the carnage of 2006 and 2007, suicide bombers continue

  2. Integration of C4-specific ppdk gene of Echinochloa to C3 upland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... rice though increased photoinhibition was noted under high light intensity. Key words: Pyrurate ... PPDK is regarded as an important target in efforts to .... transgenic upland rice. The introduction of C4 photosynthetic enzyme into C3 plants was intended to improve the efficiency of solar energy utilization.

  3. Analysis of C3 Counterinsurgency-Inspired Policing and the Flip Side of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Massachusetts, Massachusetts 15. NUMBER OF State Police, ten·orist, C3, Counter Criminal Continmuu, tmancy, delinquency , crime, graffiti, litter, PAGES...47 b. Delinquency in Schools by North End Students ....................52 c. After School Programs...Compliant Statistics CORE Common Operational Research Environment DOJ Department of Justice ER emergency room FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation

  4. Germination shifts of C3 and C4 species under simulated global warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4 species under asymmetric (+3/+6°C at day/night) and symmetric warming (+5/+5°C at day/night), simulated by alternating temperatures. A thermal time model was used to calculate germination base temperature and thermal time constant. Two additional alternating temperature regimes were used to test temperature metrics effect. The germination percentage and rate increased continuously for C4 species, but increased and then decreased with temperature for C3 species under both symmetric and asymmetric warming. Compared to asymmetric warming, symmetric warming significantly overestimated the speed of germination percentage change with temperature for C4 species. Among the temperature metrics (minimum, maximum, diurnal temperature range and average temperature), maximum temperature was most correlated with germination of C4 species. Our results indicate that global warming may favour germination of C4 species, at least for the C4 species studied in this work. The divergent effects of asymmetric and symmetric warming on plant germination also deserve more attention in future studies.

  5. In silico analysis of the regulation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in C3 plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Sierra, A.; Yin, Xinyou; Harbinson, Jeremy; Driever, Steven Michiel; Molenaar, Jaap; Kramer, David M.; Struik, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport),

  6. Extension of a biochemical model for the generalized stoichiometry of electron transport limited C3 photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Oijen, van M.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The widely used steady-state model of Farquhar et al. (Planta 149: 78-90, 1980) for C-3 photosynthesis was developed on the basis of linear whole-chain (non-cyclic) electron transport. In this model, calculation of the RuBP-regeneration limited CO2-assimilation rate depends on whether it is

  7. Synthesis of C3-symmetric tri(alkylamino) guests and their interaction with cyclodextrins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednaříková, T.; Tošner, Z.; Horský, Jiří; Jindřich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-2 (2015), s. 141-152 ISSN 0923-0750 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclodextrin * supramolecular interactions * C3-symmetric guests Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.253, year: 2015

  8. A model of the generalized stoichiometry of electron transport limited C3 photosynthesis: Development and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Harbinson, J.; Struik, P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an extended Farquhar, Von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model for the RuBP regeneration-limited or electron transport-limited steady-state C3 photosynthesis. Analytical algorithms are presented to account for (i) the effects of Photosystem (PS) I and II photochemical efficiencies and of

  9. First-principles study of intrinsic phononic thermal transport in monolayer C3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Wang, Haifeng; Sun, Maozhu; Ding, Yingchun; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Qingfang

    2018-05-01

    Very recently, a new graphene-like crystalline, hole-free, 2D-single-layer carbon nitride C3N, has been fabricated by polymerization of 2,3-diaminophenazine and used to fabricate a field-effect transistor device with an on-off current ratio reaching 5. 5 ×1010 (Adv. Mater. 2017, 1605625). Heat dissipation plays a vital role in its practical applications, and therefore the thermal transport properties need to be explored urgently. In this paper, we perform first-principles calculations combined with phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the phononic thermal transport properties of monolayer C3N, and meanwhile, a comparison with graphene is given. Our calculated intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity of C3N is 380 W/mK at room temperature, which is one order of magnitude lower than that of graphene (3550 W/mK at 300 K), but is greatly higher than many other typical 2D materials. The underlying mechanisms governing the thermal transport were thoroughly discussed and compared to graphene, including group velocities, phonon relax time, the contribution from phonon branches, phonon anharmonicity and size effect. The fundamental physics understood from this study may shed light on further studies of the newly fabricated 2D crystalline C3N sheets.

  10. C3 Glomerulopathy and Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Two Important Manifestations of Complement System Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet Bajwa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The advances in our understanding of the alternative pathway have emphasized that uncontrolled hyperactivity of this pathway causes 2 distinct disorders that adversely impact the kidney. In the so-called atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, renal dysfunction occurs along with thrombocytopenia, anemia, and target organ injury to multiple organs, most commonly the kidney. On the other hand, in the so-termed C3 glomerulopathy, kidney involvement is not associated with thrombocytopenia, anemia, or other system involvement. In this report, we present 2 cases of alternative pathway dysfunction. The 60-year-old female patient had biopsy-proven C3 glomerulopathy, while the 32-year-old female patient was diagnosed with aHUS based on renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and normal ADAMTS-13 level. The aHUS patient was successfully treated with the monoclonal antibody (eculizumab for complement blockade. The patient with C3 glomerulopathy did not receive the monoclonal antibody. In this patient, management focused on blood pressure and proteinuria control with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This article focuses on the clinical differences, pathophysiology, and treatment of aHUS and C3 glomerulopathy.

  11. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization–cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization.

  12. 26 CFR 1.412(c)(3)-1 - Reasonable funding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable funding methods. 1.412(c)(3)-1... Reasonable funding methods. (a) Introduction—(1) In general. This section prescribes rules for determining whether or not, in the case of an ongoing plan, a funding method is reasonable for purposes of section 412...

  13. Temporal and spatial variations of canopy temperature over a C3C4 mixture grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, S.; Oikawa, T.

    2006-10-01

    This study discusses the photosynthetic pathway types involved in canopy temperature measurements on a mixed grassland consisting of C3 and C4 plants (dominant species in biomass were Solidago altissima (C3), Miscanthus sinensis (C4), and Imperata cylindrica (C4)). In the wet conditions immediately after the rainy season, the mean canopy temperature for S. altissima was the lowest among the dominant species, mainly due to its leaf conductance being twice as large as the other two species. Despite using the same C4 photosynthetic pathway, M. sinensis had a lower apparent canopy temperature than I. cylindrica due to a smaller proportion of sunlit elements in the field of view. In the dry conditions during late July, the mean canopy temperatures of the three dominant species were within 0.3 °C of one another. These results can be explained by poor water conditions for C3 species (S. altissima). The simultaneous survey of vegetation and thermal imaging can help clarify characteristics of C3 and C4 canopy temperature over complicated grassland.

  14. Selective oxidation of alcohols using photoactive VO@g-C3N4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A photoactive VO@g-C3N4 catalyst has been developed for the selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The visible light mediated activity of the catalyst could be attributed to photoactive graphitic carbon nitrides surface.

  15. Characterization of Al–Al4C3 nanocomposites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Beltrán, A.; Goytia-Reyes, R.; Morales-Rodriguez, H.; Gallegos-Orozco, V.; Santos-Beltrán, M.; Baldenebro-Lopez, F.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a mixture of Al–C–Al 4 C 3 nanopowder previously synthesized by mechanical milling and subsequent thermal treatment was used to reinforce the Al matrix. The nanocomposites were fabricated via high-energy ball milling and subsequent sintering process for different periods of time at 550 °C. Hardness and compression tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in the as-milled and sintered conditions. According to the results the reinforcement located in the grain boundaries is responsible for the brittle behavior observed in the nanocomposites during the compression test. The combined effect of sintering and precipitation mechanisms produced an evident increase of the strength of the Al matrix at a relatively short sintering time. By using the Rietveld method the crystallite size and microstrain measurements were determined and correlated with the microhardness values. For the proper characterization of the nanoparticles present in the Al matrix, atomic force microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy were used. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Al 4 C 3 reinforcement was fabricated via mechanical milling and heat treatment. • We found a significant increase of the mechanical properties at short sintering times. • The formation of Al 4 C 3 with during sintering time restricted the excessive growth of the crystallite. • Al 4 C 3 located in the grain boundaries causes brittle fracture observed in compression tests. • There is a correlation between, crystallite size and microstrain values with microhardness

  16. Apolipoprotein C3 deficiency results in diet-induced obesity and aggravated insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Teusink, Bas; Rensen, Patrick C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to study whether the absence of apolipoprotein (apo) C3, a strong inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), accelerates the development of obesity and consequently insulin resistance. Apoc3(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates were fed a high-fat (46 energy %) diet for 20 weeks. After 20

  17. Novel indole-based inhibitors of IMPDH: introduction of hydrogen bond acceptors at indole C-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Dhar, T G Murali; Ballentine, Shelley K; Shen, Zhongqi; Barrish, Joel C; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-04-07

    The development of a series of novel indole-based inhibitors of 5'-inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is described. Various hydrogen bond acceptors at C-3 of the indole were explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are outlined.

  18. Percutaneous CT-Guided Biopsy of C3 Vertebral Body: Modified Approach for an Old Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei; Chan, Stephen Yung-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous biopsy of upper cervical vertebrae is challenging due to the various critical structures in the location and often requires difficult trajectory such as transoral or paramaxillary approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the utility of head rotation in creating a potential space for direct percutaneous access to C3 vertebral body for safe biopsy.

  19. Percutaneous CT-Guided Biopsy of C3 Vertebral Body: Modified Approach for an Old Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chan, Stephen Yung-Wei [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine (Singapore)

    2013-06-15

    Percutaneous biopsy of upper cervical vertebrae is challenging due to the various critical structures in the location and often requires difficult trajectory such as transoral or paramaxillary approaches. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the utility of head rotation in creating a potential space for direct percutaneous access to C3 vertebral body for safe biopsy.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  1. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphism is associated with cognitive function in Caribbean Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Apolipoprotein C3(APOC3) modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired ...

  2. Current ecosystem processes in steppe near Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanteeva, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the ecosystems. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the ecosystem functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of ecosystem were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground

  3. The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme binds cells via an Arg-Gly-Asp motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Höltje, Markus; Adolf, Andrej; Oms, Elisabeth; Hagemann, Sandra; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Just, Ingo

    2017-10-27

    The Rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme (C3bot) is a bacterial protein toxin devoid of a cell-binding or -translocation domain. Nevertheless, C3 can efficiently enter intact cells, including neurons, but the mechanism of C3 binding and uptake is not yet understood. Previously, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as an extracellular membranous interaction partner of C3. However, uptake of C3 into cells still occurs (although reduced) in the absence of vimentin, indicating involvement of an additional host cell receptor. C3 harbors an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is the major integrin-binding site, present in a variety of integrin ligands. To check whether the RGD motif of C3 is involved in binding to cells, we performed a competition assay with C3 and RGD peptide or with a monoclonal antibody binding to β1-integrin subunit and binding assays in different cell lines, primary neurons, and synaptosomes with C3-RGD mutants. Here, we report that preincubation of cells with the GRGDNP peptide strongly reduced C3 binding to cells. Moreover, mutation of the RGD motif reduced C3 binding to intact cells and also to recombinant vimentin. Anti-integrin antibodies also lowered the C3 binding to cells. Our results indicate that the RGD motif of C3 is at least one essential C3 motif for binding to host cells and that integrin is an additional receptor for C3 besides vimentin. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Characterizing the spatio-temporal variations of C3 and C4 dominated grasslands aboveground biomass in the Drakensberg, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, Cletah; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy; Slotow, Rob

    2018-06-01

    C3 and C4 grass species composition, with different physiological, morphological and most importantly phenological characteristics, influence Aboveground Biomass (AGB) and their ability to provide ecosystem goods and services, over space and time. For decades, the lack of appropriate remote sensing data sources compromised C3 and C4 grasses AGB estimation, over space and time. This resulted in uncertainties in understanding their potential and contribution to the provision of services. This study therefore examined the utility of the new multi-temporal Sentinel 2 to estimate and map C3 and C4 grasses AGB over time, using the advanced Sparse Partial Least Squares Regression (SPLSR) model. Overall results have shown the variability in AGB between C3 and C4 grasses, estimation accuracies and the performance of the SPLSR model, over time. Themeda (C4) produced higher AGB from February to April, whereas from May to September, Festuca produced higher AGB. Both species also showed a decrease in AGB in August and September, although this was most apparent for Themeda than its counterpart. Spectral bands information predicted species AGB with lowest accuracies and an improvement was observed when both spectral bands and vegetation indices were applied. For instance, in the month of May, spectral bands predicted species AGB with lowest accuracies for Festuca (R2 = 0.57; 31.70% of the mean), Themeda (R2 = 0.59; 24.02% of the mean) and combined species (R2 = 0.61; 15.64% of the mean); the use of spectral bands and vegetation indices yielded 0.77; (18.64%), 0.75 (14.27%) and 0.73 (16.47%), for Festuca, Themeda and combined species, respectively. The red edge (at 0.705 and 0.74 μm) and derived indices, NIR and SWIR 2 (2.19 μm) were found to contribute more to grass species AGB estimation, over time. Findings have also revealed the potential of the SPLSR model in estimating C3 and C4 grasses AGB using Sentinel 2 images, over time. The AGB spatial variability maps produced in

  5. Generation of Anaphylatoxins by Human β-Tryptase from C3, C4, and C51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshihiro; Xia, Han-Zhang; Sanchez-Muñoz, Laura B.; Dellinger, Anthony L.; Escribano, Luis; Schwartz, Lawrence B.

    2009-01-01

    Both mast cells and complement participate in innate and acquired immunity. The current study examines whether β-tryptase, the major protease of human mast cells, can directly generate bioactive complement anaphylatoxins. Important variables included pH, monomeric vs tetrameric forms of β-tryptase, and the β-tryptase-activating polyanion. The B12 mAb was used to stabilize β-tryptase in its monomeric form. C3a and C4a were best generated from C3 and C4, respectively, by monomeric β-tryptase in the presence of low molecular weight dextran sulfate or heparin at acidic pH. High molecular weight polyanions increased degradation of these anaphylatoxins. C5a was optimally generated from C5 at acidic pH by β-tryptase monomers in the presence of high molecular weight dextran sulfate and heparin polyanions, but also was produced by β-tryptase tetramers under these conditions. Mass spectrometry verified that the molecular mass of each anaphylatoxin was correct. Both β-tryptase-generated C5a and C3a (but not C4a) were potent activators of human skin mast cells. These complement anaphylatoxins also could be generated by β-tryptase in releasates of activated skin mast cells. Of further biologic interest, β-tryptase also generated C3a from C3 in human plasma at acidic pH. These results suggest β-tryptase might generate complement anaphylatoxins in vivo at sites of inflammation, such as the airway of active asthma patients where the pH is acidic and where elevated levels of β-tryptase and complement anaphylatoxins are detected. PMID:18424754

  6. AKR1C3-Mediated Adipose Androgen Generation Drives Lipotoxicity in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael W; Kempegowda, Punith; Walsh, Mark; Taylor, Angela E; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N; Allwood, J William; Semple, Robert K; Hebenstreit, Daniel; Dunn, Warwick B; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Arlt, Wiebke

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. We hypothesized that adipose tissue is an important site linking androgen activation and metabolic dysfunction in PCOS. We performed a human deep metabolic in vivo phenotyping study examining the systemic and intra-adipose effects of acute and chronic androgen exposure in 10 PCOS women, in comparison with 10 body mass index-matched healthy controls, complemented by in vitro experiments. PCOS women had increased intra-adipose concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.0006) and dihydrotestosterone (P = 0.01), with increased expression of the androgen-activating enzyme aldo-ketoreductase type 1 C3 (AKR1C3) (P = 0.04) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipose glycerol levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue microdialysate supported in vivo suppression of lipolysis after acute androgen exposure in PCOS (P = 0.04). Mirroring this, nontargeted serum metabolomics revealed prolipogenic effects of androgens in PCOS women only. In vitro studies showed that insulin increased adipose AKR1C3 expression and activity, whereas androgen exposure increased adipocyte de novo lipid synthesis. Pharmacologic AKR1C3 inhibition in vitro decreased de novo lipogenesis. These findings define an intra-adipose mechanism of androgen activation that contributes to adipose remodeling and a systemic lipotoxic metabolome, with intra-adipose androgens driving lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in PCOS. AKR1C3 represents a promising therapeutic target in PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  8. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Municipal Woody and Herbaceous Prunings: Hydrochar Valorisation as Soil Amendment and Growth Medium for Horticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puccini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the suitability of hydrochar, produced at industrial scale by hydrothermal carbonization of municipal woody and herbaceous prunings, to be used as soil amendment and peat substitute in organic growth medium for horticulture. Fresh hydrochar and the products of two different hydrochar post-treatments (i.e., washing and aging were compared in terms of potential phytotoxicity throughout physicochemical characterization and germination tests, performed with a sensitive species (Lactuca sativa. The results showed that the fresh hydrochar obtained from municipal green wastes complies with the Italian regulated parameters for the use as soil amendment. Moreover, hydrochar exhibits biological activity and a high content in organic C, Ca, and other micronutrients (Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl. On the other hand, post-treatments are needed before application of hydrochar as peat substitute in potting mix, since appreciable phytotoxic effects on lettuce seed germination and radicle length of plantlets were observed (e.g., germination percentage of 56% and 54%, with 5 and 10 wt % of hydrochar in the blend, respectively. The inhibition of germination could be mainly attributed to the presence of polyphenols (tannins and volatile fatty acids, which were most effectively removed through the aging post-treatment.

  9. Overexpression of herbaceous peony miR156e-3p improves anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lateral branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Xia, Xing; Wei, Mengran; Sun, Jing; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2017-12-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, the function of herbaceous peony ( Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) miR156e-3p in the regulation of color formation has been investigated. Firstly, P. lactiflora miR156e-3p precursor sequence (pre-miR156e-3p) was isolated. Subsequently, the overexpression vector of pre-miR156e-3p was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana . Moreover, the medium screening, GUS staining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the GUS region and real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) of miR156e-3p all confirmed that the purpose gene had been successfully transferred into Arabidopsis plants and expressed, which resulted in apparent purple lateral branches. And this change in color was caused by the improved anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, expression analysis had shown that the level of miR156e-3p transcript was increased, while transcription level of target gene squamosa promoter binding protein-like gene ( SPL1 ), encoding SPL transcription factor that negatively regulated anthocyanin accumulation, was repressed in miR156e-3p-overexpressing transgenic plants, and its downstream gene dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene ( DFR ) that was directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was strongly expressed, which resulted in anthocyanin accumulation of Arabidopsis lateral branches. These findings would improve the understanding of miRNAs regulation of color formation in P. lactiflora .

  10. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  11. Diversity and distribution patterns of root-associated fungi on herbaceous plants in alpine meadows of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of root-associated fungi associated with four ectomycorrhizal herbaceous species, Kobresia capillifolia, Carex parva, Polygonum macrophyllum and Potentilla fallens, collected in three sites of alpine meadows in southwestern China, was estimated based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis of root tips. Three hundred seventy-seven fungal sequences sorted to 154 operational taxonomical units (sequence similarity of ≥ 97% across the ITS) were obtained from the four plant species across all three sites. Similar taxa (in GenBank with ≥ 97% similarity) were not found in GenBank and/or UNITE for most of the OTUs. Ectomycorrhiz a made up 64% of the fungi operational taxonomic units (OTUs), endophytes constituted 4% and the other 33% were unidentified root-associated fungi. Fungal OTUs were represented by 57% basidiomycetes and 43% ascomycetes. Inocybe, Tomentella/Thelophora, Sebacina, Hebeloma, Pezizomycotina, Cenococcum geophilum complex, Cortinarius, Lactarius and Helotiales were OTU-rich fungal lineages. Across the sites and host species the root-associated fungal communities generally exhibited low host and site specificity but high host and sampling site preference. Collectively our study revealed noteworthy diversity and endemism of root-associated fungi of alpine plants in this global biodiversity hotspot. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. Conversion of Levulinic Acid from Various Herbaceous Biomass Species Using Hydrochloric Acid and Effects of Particle Size and Delignification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Neel Pulidindi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid catalyzed hydrothermal conversion of levulinic acid (LA from various herbaceous materials including rice straw (RS, corn stover (CS, sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB, and Miscanthus (MS was evaluated. With 1 M HCl, 150 °C, 5 h, 20 g/L solid loading, the yields of LA from untreated RS, CS, SSB and MS based on the glucan content were 60.2, 75.1, 78.5 and 61.7 wt %, respectively. It was also found that the particle size had no significant effect on LA conversion yield with >3 h reaction time. With delignification using simulated green liquor (Na2CO3-Na2S, 20 wt % total titratable alkali (TTA, 40 wt % sulfidity at 200 °C for 15 min, lignin removal was in the range of 64.8–91.2 wt %. Removal of both lignin and xylan during delignification increased the glucan contents from 33.0–44.3 of untreated biomass to 61.7–68.4 wt % of treated biomass. Delignified biomass resulted in much lower conversion yield (50.4–56.0 wt % compared to 60.2–78.5 wt % of untreated biomass. Nonetheless, the concentration of LA in the product was enhanced by a factor of ~1.5 with delignification.

  13. CONSUMPTION OF TREE SPECIES AND SHRUBS FOR FRUITS AND HERBACEOUS GOATS TRASHUMANCE GRAZING IN MIXTECA OAXAQUEÑA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Franco-Guerra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the weight of the bite in dry matter (DM most favorite tree and shrub species, the fruits (pods and the herbaceous stratum as a component of the diet of goats under conditions of herding transhumance in the Mixteca Baja region and the coast of Oaxaca in order to establish the capacity of ingestion. Six animals of different age and sex of a herd consisting of 963 goats were chosen randomly. The method of direct observation of grazing was used in a whole day, once established preferences, simulated manually bite and to establish the group of values from each sample was measured, and weight. The ANOVA and Bartlett's Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were. The means comparison test was used to determine the weight of the bite in dry matter of the various species, (HSD Tukey (α, 0.05. Found a large variation prehensile act in the breadth and depth of the bite given to each depending on the type, shape and foliar surface woody species found that they graze on three anatomically different parts: on stem, in the area of the petiole and at the level of the central or main nerve of the leaf.

  14. Species richness, alpha and beta diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants in the woodlands of swat, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Bergmeier, E.

    2015-01-01

    The variation in species richness and diversity of trees, shrubs and herbs in the mountains of Miandam, Swat, North Pakistan, along an elevation gradient between 1600 m and 3400 m was explored. Field data were collected in 18 altitudinal intervals of 100 m each. Polynomial regression was used to find relations of the different growth forms with elevation. The Shannon index was used for calculating α-diversity and the Simpson index for β-diversity. Species richness and α-diversity of herbs were unrelated to elevation. Herbaceous species turnover was high, ranging between 0.46 and 0.89, with its maximum between 2700 and 3000 m. Hump-shaped relationship was observed for shrubs with maximum richness between 2000 and 2200 m; and α-diversity decreased monotonically. Turnover of shrub species was highest between 2000 and 2500 m. Tree species richness was highest at low elevations, and α-diversity was relatively low along the entire gradient. Tree species turnover was also high in the lower zone and again at 2600-2800 m. Species richness of all vascular plants was highest at 2200-2500 m, and α-diversity was highest in the lower part of the gradient. Beta diversity of all growth forms was quite high ranging between 0.53 and 0.87 along the entire gradient reflecting high species and structural turnover. (author)

  15. Role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in the Northern Hemisphere disjunction: evidence from two herbaceous genera of Rubiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Meng, Ying; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang; Nie, Ze-Long

    2017-10-17

    To assess the role of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplift in shaping the intercontinental disjunction in Northern Hemisphere, we analyzed the origin and diversification within a geological timeframe for two relict herbaceous genera, Theligonum and Kelloggia (Rubiaceae). Phylogenetic relationships within and between Theligonum and Kelloggia as well as their relatives were inferred using five chloroplast markers with parsimony, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches. Migration routes and evolution of these taxa were reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed molecular clock and ancestral area reconstruction. Our results suggest the monophyly of each Theligonum and Kelloggia. Eastern Asian and North American species of Kelloggia diverged at ca.18.52 Mya and the Mediterranean species of Theligonum diverged from eastern Asian taxa at ca.13.73 Mya. Both Kelloggia and Theligonum are Tethyan flora relicts, and their ancestors might have been occurred in warm tropical to subtropical environments along the Tethys coast. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau separated the eastern and western Tethyan area may contribute significantly to the disjunct distributions of Theligonum, and the North Atlantic migration appears to be the most likely pathway of expansion of Kelloggia to North America. Our results highlight the importance role of the QTP uplift together with corresponding geological and climatic events in shaping biodiversity and biogeographic distribution in the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. Digital Gene Expression Analysis to Screen Disease Resistance-Relevant Genes from Leaves of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saijie Gong

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a well-known traditional flower in China and is widely used for landscaping and garden greening due to its high ornamental value. However, disease spots usually appear after the flowering of the plant and may result in the withering of the plant in severe cases. This study examined the disease incidence in an herbaceous peony field in the Yangzhou region, Jiangsu Province. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, the disease in this area was identified as a gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Based on previously obtained transcriptome data, eight libraries generated from two herbaceous peony cultivars 'Zifengyu' and 'Dafugui' with different susceptibilities to the disease were then analyzed using digital gene expression profiling (DGE. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened by comparing the eight samples, and these genes were annotated using the Gene ontology (GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG database. The pathways related to plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism synthesis and antioxidant system were concentrated, and 51, 76, and 13 disease resistance-relevant candidate genes were identified, respectively. The expression patterns of these candidate genes differed between the two cultivars: their expression of the disease-resistant cultivar 'Zifengyu' sharply increased during the early stages of infection, while it was relatively subdued in the disease-sensitive cultivar 'Dafugui'. A selection of ten candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to validate the DGE data. These results revealed the transcriptional changes that took place during the interaction of herbaceous peony with B. cinerea, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of host resistance to gray mold.

  17. Influence of microhabitats on the performance of herbaceous species in areas of mature and secondary forest in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ramos de Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for plant establishment in mature forest are different from those found in disturbed areas. In dry environments, the herbaceous cover is the most important in the recolonization of deforested areas. It can, therefore, act as an ideal biological group for assessing how changes in habitat heterogeneity affect the resilience of dry forests. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether natural regeneration of the herbaceous stratum differed between areas of mature and secondary forest of Caatinga and to describe this process. The study took place in the Brazilian semiarid region during the rainy season 2011 (January to August, where fifty 1m² plots were set up, 25 allocated to the microhabitat established as “between canopies” and 25 to the microhabitat “under the canopy”. The herbaceous species selected for the study were Delilia biflora (Asteraceae, Gomphrena vaga (Amaranthaceae and Pseudabutilon spicatum (Malvaceae, abundant species occurring in both areas. All individuals from the selected populations were counted, marked with sequential numbers, and the height of the stem was measured. Differences between areas, and in size and survival between microhabitats, were found only for the first two species. Fruit production was higher in the mature forest for the three species. The study concluded that: 1. The effect of the microhabitats “between canopies” and “under the canopy” in mature and secondary forest areas depends on the species considered; 2. Populations sensitive to light intensity differ in number of individuals, height and fruit production; and 3. The resilience of anthropogenic areas in semiarid environments can be characterized by the presence of spatial heterogeneity with regard to the emergence and survival of herbaceous seedlings, suggesting that the regeneration of disturbed areas may occur in patches. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 357-368. Epub 2015 June 01.

  18. Analysis of Complement C3 Gene Reveals Susceptibility to Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Inkeri Lokki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a common vascular disease of pregnancy with genetic predisposition. Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3. Three cohorts of Finnish patients and controls were recruited for a genetic case-control study. Participants were genotyped using Sequenom genotyping and Sanger sequencing. Initially, we studied 259 Finnish patients with severe PE and 426 controls from the Southern Finland PE and the Finnish population-based PE cohorts. We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. Fourteen SNPs from C3 were also genotyped by a Sequenom panel in 960 patients with severe PE and 705 controls, including already sequenced individuals. Three of the 43 SNPs observed within C3 were associated with severe PE: rs2287845 (p = 0.038, OR = 1.158, rs366510 (p = 0.039, OR = 1.158, and rs2287848 (p = 0.041, OR = 1.155. We also discovered 16 SNP haplotypes with extreme linkage disequilibrium in the middle of the gene with a protective (p = 0.044, OR = 0.628 or a predisposing (p = 0.011, OR = 2.110 effect to severe PE depending on the allele combination. Genetic variants associated with PE are located in key domains of C3 and could thereby influence the function of C3. This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women.

  19. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results are used to assess potential environmental impacts of different products and services. As part of the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative flagship project that aims to harmonize indicators of potential environmental impacts, we provide a consensus...... viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species...

  20. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  1. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  2. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  3. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  4. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  5. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  6. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  7. Community-specific biogeochemical responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, J. P.; Rochefort, R.; Evans, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions result in higher rates of atmospheric N deposition (Ndep) that can saturate sensitive ecosystems. Consequences of increased Ndep include higher emissions of greenhouse gases, eutrophication of watersheds, and deterioration of vegetation communities. Most of the annual N deposition at higher elevations in the Cascades is stored in snowpack until spring snowmelt when it is released as a pulse that can be assimilated by plant and microbial communities, or lost as gaseous emissions or leachate. The relative magnitude of these fluxes is unknown, particularly with accelerated rates of snowpack loss due to climate change. We quantified storage of Ndep in winter snowpack and determined impacts of Ndep on biogeochemical processes in a lush-herbaceous community characterized by Valeriana sitchensis and Lupinus latifolius, a heath-shrub community characterized by Phyllodoce empetriformis and Cassiope mertensiana, and a wet-sedge community dominated by Carex nigricans. These communities were selected to represent early, mid, and late snowmelt vegetation regimes prevalent throughout the Cascades. Ammonium (NH4+) was the dominant form of Ndep in winter snowpack and Ndep rates were higher than anticipated based on nearby National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements. Vegetation N uptake was the dominant N sink in the ecosystem, with the highest growing season uptake occurring in the lush-herbaceous community, while soil N leaching was the dominant N loss, with the lush-herbaceous also having the highest rates. Microbial biomass N fluctuated substantially across the growing season, with high biomass N immediately after snowmelt and again 30 days following snow release. Soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions peaked 30 days following snowmelt for all three communities and were greatest in the wet sedge community. These results indicate that subalpine communities have unique responses to Ndep that vary throughout the growing

  8. Considerations for Achieving Cross-Platform Point Cloud Data Fusion across Different Dryland Ecosystem Structural States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetnam, Tyson L; Gillan, Jeffrey K; Sankey, Temuulen T; McClaran, Mitchel P; Nichols, Mary H; Heilman, Philip; McVay, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing recent growth, herbivory, or disturbance of herbaceous and woody vegetation in dryland ecosystems requires high spatial resolution and multi-temporal depth. Three dimensional (3D) remote sensing technologies like lidar, and techniques like structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry, each have strengths and weaknesses at detecting vegetation volume and extent, given the instrument's ground sample distance and ease of acquisition. Yet, a combination of platforms and techniques might provide solutions that overcome the weakness of a single platform. To explore the potential for combining platforms, we compared detection bias amongst two 3D remote sensing techniques (lidar and SfM) using three different platforms [ground-based, small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS), and manned aircraft]. We found aerial lidar to be more accurate for characterizing the bare earth (ground) in dense herbaceous vegetation than either terrestrial lidar or aerial SfM photogrammetry. Conversely, the manned aerial lidar did not detect grass and fine woody vegetation while the terrestrial lidar and high resolution near-distance (ground and sUAS) SfM photogrammetry detected these and were accurate. UAS SfM photogrammetry at lower spatial resolution under-estimated maximum heights in grass and shrubs. UAS and handheld SfM photogrammetry in near-distance high resolution collections had similar accuracy to terrestrial lidar for vegetation, but difficulty at measuring bare earth elevation beneath dense herbaceous cover. Combining point cloud data and derivatives (i.e., meshes and rasters) from two or more platforms allowed for more accurate measurement of herbaceous and woody vegetation (height and canopy cover) than any single technique alone. Availability and costs of manned aircraft lidar collection preclude high frequency repeatability but this is less limiting for terrestrial lidar, sUAS and handheld SfM. The post-processing of SfM photogrammetry data became the limiting factor

  9. A potent complement factor C3 specific nanobody inhibiting multiple functions in the alternative pathway of human and murine complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus K; Pihl, Rasmus; Gadeberg, Trine A F; Jensen, Jan K; Andersen, Kasper R; Thiel, Steffen; Laursen, Nick S; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2018-03-01

    The complement system is a complex, carefully regulated proteolytic cascade for which suppression of aberrant activation is of increasing clinical relevance and inhibition of the complement alternative pathway is a subject of intense research. Here, we describe the nanobody hC3Nb1 that binds to multiple functional states of C3 with sub-nanomolar affinity. The nanobody causes a complete shutdown of alternative pathway activity in human and murine serum when present in concentrations comparable to C3, and hC3Nb1 is shown to prevent both proconvertase assembly as well as binding of the C3 substrate to C3 convertases. Our crystal structure of the C3b-hC3Nb1 complex and functional experiments demonstrate that proconvertase formation is blocked by steric hindrance between the nanobody and an Asn-linked glycan on complement factor B. In addition, hC3Nb1 is shown to prevent factor H binding to C3b rationalizing its inhibition of factor I activity. Our results identify hC3Nb1 as a versatile, inexpensive, and powerful inhibitor of the alternative pathway in both human and murine in vitro model systems of complement activation. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  11. Hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinzhou; Zhang, Jingtao; Wang, Biao; Li, Qiuguo; Chu, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Solar photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production is a promising way for solving energy and environment problems. Earth-abundant Cu2O is a potential light absorber for PEC hydrogen production. In this article, hierarchical porous Cu2O foams are prepared by thermal oxidation of the electrochemically deposited Cu foams. PEC performances of the Cu2O foams are systematically studied and discussed. Benefiting from their higher light harvesting and more efficient charge separation, the Cu2O foams demonstrate significantly enhanced photocurrents and photostability compared to their film counterparts. Moreover, by integrating g-C3N4, hierarchical Cu2O foam/g-C3N4 composites are prepared with further improved photocurrent and photostability, appearing to be potential photocathodes for solar PEC hydrogen production. This study may provide a new and useful insight for the development of Cu2O-based photocathodes for PEC hydrogen production.

  12. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; et al.

    2017-02-24

    New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C$_3$F$_8$ located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C$_3$F$_8$ exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than 1 event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg-day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background. These results set the most stringent direct-detection constraint to date on the WIMP-proton spin-dependent cross section at 3.4 $\\times$ 10$^{-41}$ cm$^2$ for a 30-GeV$\\thinspace$c$^{-2}$ WIMP, more than one order of magnitude improvement from previous PICO results.

  13. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G., E-mail: Eric.Verhoeven@klinikum-nuernberg.de [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  14. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes and their interaction with complement C3 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Jepsen, H H

    1985-01-01

    Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components of the me......Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components...... of the cellular localization, expression and structure of the C3 receptors, especially the C3b (CR1) receptor, has been considerably extended in the last few years, whereas our understanding of the physiological role of these receptors is still fragmentary. However, it is becoming increasingly evident...

  15. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  16. Lack of carcinogenicity of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, A; Boonyaphiphat, P; Kawabe, M; Naito, H; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1992-08-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25 and 5.0% to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 96 wk after which all animals were maintained on a basal diet without tragacanth gum for a further 10 wk. Mean body weights of females in the 5.0% and 1.25% groups were lower than those of the controls after 11 and 16 wk, respectively. However, there were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on survival rate, urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry and organ weight. While detailed histopathology revealed the development of squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas and one carcinoma in the forestomach, there was no significant treatment-related increase in the incidence of any preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, tragacanth gum was not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  17. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  18. Inseparability of colours through dynamical breaking of SUsub(C)(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werle, J.

    1983-09-01

    A class of feasible quark field models based on the assumption that the quarks are the only carriers of colours is discussed. The forces between quarks are described by local but non-linear interaction between quark fields. Such models are much closer than QCD to the - so far very successful - naive quark model with colours. It is shown that inseparability and localization of colours, which are two basic conditions of quark confinement, are of dynamical nature. In particular, inseparability is simply incompatible with rigorous SUsub(C)(3) invariance. Therefore, explicit dynamical SUsub(C)(3) breaking is proposed in such a form that makes only the white currents strictly conserved. The resulting field equations imply manifest inseparability of colours. (author)

  19. Morphometric studies with attached mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, C.R.; Harding, T.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of in vitro transformation using the Syrian hamster embryo cell system and the mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cell system form an integral part of this laboratory's activities. As part of the studies with the mouse cell line we have monitored the behavior of these cells in culture in order to ascertain those variables which might influence the expression of transformation. The study of transformed cells versus normal cells could lead to insight into an earlier definition of transformation that the clonal morphological change currently in use. This present report details the changes in cellular morphology with time in culture of normal mouse C3H/10T 1/2 cells from early passages (9 to 13) and x-ray transformed cells which have been maintained in culture for three years

  20. Collaborative Chronic Care Networks (C3Ns) to transform chronic illness care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Peter A; Peterson, Laura E; Seid, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Despite significant gains by pediatric collaborative improvement networks, the overall US system of chronic illness care does not work well. A new paradigm is needed: a Collaborative Chronic Care Network (C3N). A C3N is a network-based production system that harnesses the collective intelligence of patients, clinicians, and researchers and distributes the production of knowledge, information, and know-how over large groups of people, dramatically accelerating the discovery process. A C3N is a platform of "operating systems" on which interconnected processes and interventions are designed, tested, and implemented. The social operating system is facilitated by community building, engaging all stakeholders and their expertise, and providing multiple ways to participate. Standard progress measures and a robust information technology infrastructure enable the technical operating system to reduce unwanted variation and adopt advances more rapidly. A structured approach to innovation design provides a scientific operating system or "laboratory" for what works and how to make it work. Data support testing and research on multiple levels: comparative effectiveness research for populations, evaluating care delivery processes at the care center level, and N-of-1 trials and other methods to select the best treatment of individual patient circumstances. Methods to reduce transactional costs to participate include a Federated IRB Model in which centers rely on a protocol approved at 1 central institutional review board and a "commons framework" for organizational copyright and intellectual property concerns. A fully realized C3N represents a discontinuous leap to a self-developing learning health system capable of producing a qualitatively different approach to improving health.

  1. 12C(3He,3He n)11C cross section at 910 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, E.; Fassnacht, P.; Dellacasa, G.; Gallio, M.; Tuyn, J.W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The 12 C( 3 He, 3 He n) 11 C cross section at 910 MeV was measured by using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer to determine the disintegration rate and measuring the incident flux by means of a scintillator telescope. Cross sections for the production of 7 Be in C and Al and for the production of 24 Na in Al are then determined using the measured cross section as a monitor

  2. Embeddings of SU/sup c/3 in unifying gauge groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hypothetical models that attempt to unify electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions into a simple, compact gauge group G are discussed. The problem of embedding the strong group SU 3 /sup c/ in any larger simple group is solved, and a complete classification of theories where the color in some representation is restricted to 1/sup c/, 3/sup c/, and anti 3/sup c/ is given

  3. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.3/C.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The paper refers to chapters C.3 and C.4 of the WG 5C report. Different modes of international FBR activities are examined according to the aspects such as ownership, operation, electricity supply, and safeguards. Examples of realization of international FBR development are given. Three aspects are examined as the main potential incentives for internationalization i.e. environment, economics, non-proliferation; some problems are revealed. Aspects of collocation and internationalization in connection with FBRs are investigated based on 3 concepts

  4. Ruthenium-catalyzed direct C3 alkylation of indoles with α,β-unsaturated ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2015-01-28

    In this paper, a simple and highly efficient ruthenium-catalyzed direct C3 alkylation of indoles with various α,β-unsaturated ketones without chelation assistance has been developed. This novel C-H activation methodology exhibits a broad substrate scope such as different substituted indoles, pyrroles, and other azoles. Further synthetic applications of the alkylation products can lead to more attractive 3,4-fused tricyclic indoles.

  5. Novel SNPs of WNK1 and AKR1C3 are associated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Juan; Li, Lin; Li, Xueyan; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Wei

    2018-08-20

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and is one of the most common causes of poor perinatal outcomes. Preeclampsia increases the risk of hypertension in the future. Variants of WNK1 (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), ADRB2 (β2 adrenergic receptor), NEDD4L (ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like), KLK1 (kallikrein 1) contribute to hypertension, and AKR1C3 (aldo-keto reductase family1 member C3), is associated with preeclampsia. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these five candidate preeclampsia susceptibility genes and the related traits in Chinese individuals were investigated. In this study, 13 SNPs of the five genes were genotyped in 276 preeclampsia patients and 229 age- and area-matched normal pregnancies in women of Chinese Northern Han origin. The 95% confidence interval (CI) and odds ratio (OR) were estimated by binary logistic regression. No obvious linkage disequilibrium or haplotypes were observed among these SNPs. Those with GG genotype and allele G of AKR1C3 (rs10508293) had a decreased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.011, 95% CI = 1.758-5.159, and adjusted OR = 1.745, 95% CI = 1.349-2.257, respectively). The AA genotype and allele A of WNK1 (rs1468326) were significantly associated with an increased risk in preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 2.307, 95% CI = 1.206-3.443, and adjusted OR = 1.663, 95% CI = 1.283-2.157, respectively). The findings indicate that the GG genotype of AKR1C3 rs10508293 is associated with decreased risk for preeclampsia and the AA genotype of WNK1 rs1468326 are related with an increased risk for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthracycline resistance mediated by reductive metabolism in cancer cells: The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Jakub; Malcekova, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Novotna, Eva; Wsol, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug resistance is a serious obstacle that emerges during cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the possible role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in the resistance of cancer cells to anthracyclines. First, the reducing activity of AKR1C3 toward anthracyclines was tested using incubations with a purified recombinant enzyme. Furthermore, the intracellular reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin was examined by employing the transfection of A549, HeLa, MCF7 and HCT 116 cancer cells with an AKR1C3 encoding vector. To investigate the participation of AKR1C3 in anthracycline resistance, we conducted MTT cytotoxicity assays with these cells, and observed that AKR1C3 significantly contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to daunorubicin and idarubicin, whereas this resistance was reversible by the simultaneous administration of 2′-hydroxyflavanone, a specific AKR1C3 inhibitor. In the final part of our work, we tracked the changes in AKR1C3 expression after anthracycline exposure. Interestingly, a reciprocal correlation between the extent of induction and endogenous levels of AKR1C3 was recorded in particular cell lines. Therefore, we suggest that the induction of AKR1C3 following exposure to daunorubicin and idarubicin, which seems to be dependent on endogenous AKR1C3 expression, eventually might potentiate an intrinsic resistance given by the normal expression of AKR1C3. In conclusion, our data suggest a substantial impact of AKR1C3 on the metabolism of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which affects their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behavior. In addition, we demonstrate that the reduction of daunorubicin and idarubicin, which is catalyzed by AKR1C3, contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to anthracycline treatment. - Highlights: • Metabolism of anthracyclines by AKR1C3 was studied at enzyme and cellular levels. • Anthracycline resistance mediated by AKR1C3 was demonstrated in cancer cells. • Induction of AKR1C3

  7. Low Serum Complement C3 Levels at Diagnosis of Renal ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Is Associated with Poor Prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Augusto

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the key role of the complement alternative pathway (cAP in the pathophysiology of experimental ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. However, in human AAV the role of cAP has not been extensively explored. In the present work, we analysed circulating serum C3 levels measured at AAV onset and their relation to outcomes.We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study including 45 consecutive patients with AAV diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 with serum C3 measurement at diagnosis, before immunosuppressive treatment initiation. Two groups were defined according to the median serum C3 level value: the low C3 group (C3<120 mg/dL and the high C3 level group (C3≥120 mg/dL. Patient and renal survivals, association between C3 level and renal pathology were analysed.Serum complement C3 concentration remained in the normal range [78-184 mg/dL]. Compared with the high C3 level, the patients in the low C3 level group had lower complement C4 concentrations (P = 0.008 and lower eGFR (P = 0.002 at diagnosis. The low C3 level group had poorer patient and death-censored renal survivals, compared with the high C3 level group (P = 0.047 and P = 0.001, respectively. We observed a significant negative correlation between C3 levels and the percentage of glomeruli affected by cellular crescent (P = 0.017, r = -0.407. According to the Berden et al renal histologic classification, patients in the crescentic/mixed category had low C3 levels more frequently (P<0.01. Interestingly, we observed that when patients with the crescentic/mixed histologic form were analysed according to C3 level, long term renal survival was significantly greater in the high C3 level group than in the low C3 level group (100% vs 40.7% at 6 years, p = 0.046. No relationship between serum C4 and renal outcome was observed.A Low C3 serum level in AAV patients at diagnosis is associated with worse long-term patient and renal survival.

  8. Influence of tree species on the herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics in a silvopastoral system in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. C. Menezes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies from some semi-arid regions of the world have shown the beneficial effect of trees in silvopastoral systems, by promoting the formation of resource islands and increasing the sustainability of the system. No data are available in this respect for tree species of common occurrence in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. In the present study, conducted in the summer of 1996, three tree species (Zyziphus joazeiro, Spondias tuberosa and Prosopis juliflora: found within Cenchrus ciliaris pastures were selected to evaluate differences on herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics between samples taken under the tree canopy and in open grass areas. Transects extending from the tree trunk to open grass areas were established, and soil (0-15 cm and herbaceous understory (standing live biomass in 1 m² plots samples were taken at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the average canopy radius (average radius was 6.6 ± 0.5, 4.5 ± 0.5, and 5.3 ± 0.8 m for Z. joazeiro, P. juliflora, and S. tuberosa , respectively. Higher levels of soil C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found under the canopies of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora: trees, as compared to open grass areas. Only soil Mg organic P were higher under the canopies of S. tuberosa trees, as compared to open grass areas. Herbaceous understory biomass was significantly lower under the canopy of S. tuberosa and P. juliflora trees (107 and 96 g m-2, respectively relatively to open grass areas (145 and 194 g m-2. No herbaceous biomass differences were found between Z. joazeiro canopies and open grass areas (107 and 87 g m-2, respectively. Among the three tree species studied, Z. joazeiro was the one that presented the greatest potential for use in a silvopastoral system at the study site, since it had a larger nutrient stock in the soil without negatively affecting herbaceous understory biomass, relatively to open grass areas.

  9. Study of immunogenicity of solid Gardner's lymphosarcoma implanted to C3H/Sumice mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motycka, K.; Soucek, J.; Potmesilova, I.; Zak, M.; Jandova, A.; Bostik, J.; Pezlarova, A.

    1982-01-01

    Mice of inbred strain C3H/Sumice (H-2sup(k)) were immunized with solid Gardner's lymphosarcoma cells inactivated using a 60 Co source. Immunization once repeated extended average survival after transplantation of proliferation-capable cells of the tumor as against intact controls. After immunization twice repeated, some mice were so resistant that they survived the time of observation without tumor. Significant differences were found in relative numbers of mice in the individual experimental groups which, immunized using the same technique, became little, or totally resistant to the transplantation of viable tumor. Transplantation of spleen cells of the C3H strain mice which survived the time of observation without apparent tumor showed that resistance need not be associated with the disposal of all malignant Gardner's lymphosarcoma cells. Different reasons for immunity to the tumor are disscussed on the basis of the differences in the cytotoxicity of the spleen cells of the C3H (H-2sup(k)) strain mice and those of the C 57B1.B10 (H-2sup(b)) strain, immune to the lymphosarcoma. (author)

  10. Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis of adenocarcinoma mammae in C3H mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaningsih

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Apoptosis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Induction of apoptosis is a strategy for developing cancer therapy. In vitro study found that andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata has anticancer activity by an apoptotic mechanism in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to prove the effect of Andrographis paniculata extract administered orally on apoptosis of mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice. METHODS This study was of post test randomized control group design. Twenty four C3H mice with transplanted mammary adenocarcinomas were divided into four groups. To three groups Andrographis paniculata extract was administered orally for 14 days, at doses of 5, 10 and 15 mg/day, respectively, whereas to the control group no Andrographis paniculata extract was administered. On day 15 the mice were terminated. The mammary adenocarcinomas were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. The values of the apoptotic index were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed using Anova and Pearson’s correlation test. RESULTS The mean apoptotic index values differed significantly among the experimental groups (p=0.001. The highest value was found in the group receiving Andrographis paniculata extract 15 mg/day, while the lowest was in the control group, the values being significantly correlated (r=0.974. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract induced apoptosis in C3H mice with mammary adenocarcinoma

  11. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alan Edward [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  12. Stress Wave attenuation in SiC3D/Al Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chunyuan; Wang Yangwei; Li Guoju; Zhang Xu; Gao Jubin

    2013-01-01

    SiC 3D /Al composite is a kind of special composite with interpenetrating network microstructure. The attenuation properties of stress wave propagation along the SiC 3D /Al composite are studied by a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system and FEM simulations, and the attenuation mechanism is discussed in this paper. Results show that the attenuation rate of the stress wave in the composite is up to 1.73MPa·mm −1 . The reduction of the amplitude of waves is caused by that plenty of interfaces between SiC and Al within the composite acting with stress waves. When the incident plane wave reaches the SiC 3D /Al interface, reflection wave and transmission wave propagates in different directions along the irregular interface between SiC phase and aluminium phase due to the impedance mismatch of them, which leads to the divergence of stress wave. At the same time, some stress micro-focuses occurs in the aluminium phase for the complex wave superimposition, and some plastic deformation may take place within such micro-regions, which results in the consumption of stress wave energy. In conclusion, the stress wave attenuation is derived from divergence and consumption of stress wave.

  13. Photodissociation of C3H5Br and C4H7Br at 234 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Kook; Paul, Dababrata; Hong, Ki Ryong; Cho, Ha Na; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Seok

    2012-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropyl bromide (C-3H 5 Br) and cyclobutyl bromide (C 4 H 7 Br) at 234 nm was investigated. A two-dimensional photofragment ion-imaging technique coupled with a [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme was utilized to obtain speed and angular distributions of the nascent Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms. The recoil anisotropies for the Br and Br* channels were measured to be βBr = 0.92 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.52 ± 0.04 for C 3 H 5 Br and βBr = 1.10 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.49 ± 0.05 for C 4 H 7 Br. The relative quantum yield for Br was found to be ΦBr = 0.13 ± 0.03 and for C 3 H 5 Br and C 4 H 7 Br, respectively. The soft radical limit of the impulsive model adequately modeled the related energy partitioning. The nonadiabatic transition probability from the 3A' and 4A' potential energy surfaces was estimated and discussed

  14. 2nd international workshop on graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009 graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and engineering communities because of their applications in photocatalysis. Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysis was the main theme of the 2nd International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP2) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on March 24-27, 2017. The IWGCP2 workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University and Kent State University, and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University, Beijing Perfectlight, ThermoFisher, LumaSense Technologies, Anhui Kemi, Zhenjiang Silver Jewelry, Instytut Fotonowy (Poland) and others. More than 240 colleagues from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, and presented 6 plenary lectures, 12 keynote lectures, 14 invited lectures, 5 oral lectures and 113 posters. A tradition of this meeting is the poster competition, which resulted in selecting 10 best posters.

  15. Scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 laser, and perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 for retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C3F8 gas for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients who underwent primary repair of RRD by PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% perfluoropropane (C 3 F 8 was conducted. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up, previous retinal surgery, and higher than grade B proliferative vitreoretinopathy were excluded. Results : Ninety-one eyes were included in the study. The mean age was 60.1 years. The mean follow-up was 13.7 months. The macula was detached in 63% (58/91 of the eyes. The reattachment rate after one surgical procedure was 95% (86/91 while overall reattachment rate was 100%. There was no statistically significant difference between reattachment rates of superior, nasal/temporal, or inferior RRDs. The mean final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40. Of all the patients, 66% of patients with macula-off RRDs had a final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: PPV with scleral depressed vitreous shaving, 360 degree peripheral endolaser, and 14% C 3 F 8 leads to successful anatomical reattachment with visual improvement in patients with primary RRD.

  16. A case of regression of atypical dense deposit disease without C3 deposition in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kang, Mung Jae; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2010-07-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of abnormal electron-dense material within the glomerular basement membrane of the kidneys. The diagnosis is made in most patients between 5 and 15 years of age, and within 10 years, approximately half of the affected patients progress to end-stage renal disease. We report a rare case of regressive DDD without C3 deposition after steroid therapy in an 11-year-old boy. The patient presented with edema, gross hematuria, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory testing revealed a serum creatinine level of 1.17 mg/dL, albumin level of 2.3 g/dL, and serum C3 level of 125 mg/dL (range 90-180 mg/dL). The results of the renal biopsy were consistent with DDD without C3 deposition. After 6 weeks of steroid therapy, the nephrotic syndrome completely resolved. The follow-up renal biopsy showed a significant reduction in mesangial proliferation and disappearance of electron-dense deposits in the GBM.

  17. STM-electroluminescence from clustered C3N4 nanodomains synthesized via green chemistry process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E P; Costa, B B A; Chaves, C R; de Paula, A M; Cury, L A; Malachias, A; Safar, G A M

    2018-01-01

    A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on clustered C 3 N 4 nanoparticles (nanoflakes) is conducted on green-chemistry synthesized samples obtained from chitosan through high power sonication. Morphological aspects and the electronic characteristics are investigated. The observed bandgap of the nanoflakes reveals the presence of different phases in the material. Combining STM morphology, STS spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results one finds that the most abundant phase is graphitic C 3 N 4 . A high density of defects is inferred from the XRD measurements. Additionally, STM-electroluminescence (STMEL) is detected in C 3 N 4 nanoflakes deposited on a gold substrate. The tunneling current creates photons that are three times more energetic than the tunneling electrons of the STM sample. We ponder about the two most probable models to explain the observed photon emission energy: either a nonlinear optical phenomenon or a localized state emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expert systems for C3I. Volume 1. A user's introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J. A.; Hockett, S. M.; Prelle, M. J.; Tallant, A. M.; Triant, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    There has been a tremendous burgeoning of interest in artificial intelligence (AI) over the last few years. Investments of commercial and government sponsors reflect a widespread belief that AI is now ready for practical applications. The area of AI currently receiving the greatest attention and investment is expert system technology. Most major high tech corporations have begun to develop expert systems, and many software houses specializing in expert system tools and applications have recently appeared. The defense community is one of the heaviest investors in expert system technology, and within this community one of the application areas receiving greatest attention is C3I. Many ESD programs are now beginning to ask whether expert system applications for C3I are ready for incorporation into ESD-developed systems, and, if so, what are the potential benefits and risks of doing so. This report was prepared to help ESD and MITRE personnel working on acquisition programs to address these issues and to gain a better understanding of what expert systems are all about. The primary intention of this report is to investigate what expert systems are and the advances that are being made in expert system technology for C3I applications. The report begins with a brief tutorial on expert systems, emphasizing how they differ from conventional software systems and what they are best at doing.

  19. Nocturnal uptake and assimilation of nitrogen dioxide by C3 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misa; Konaka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 by C3 and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, they were fumigated with 4 microl l(-1) 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for 8 h. The amount of NO2 and assimilation of NO2 by plants were determined by mass spectrometry and Kjeldahl-nitrogen based mass spectrometry, respectively. C3 plants such as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and ground cherry (Physalis alkekengi) showed a high uptake and assimilation during daytime as high as 1100 to 2700 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. While tobacco and ground cherry strongly reduced uptake and assimilation of NO2 during nighttime, kenaf kept high nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2 as high as about 1500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight. Stomatal conductance measurements indicated that there were no significant differences to account for the differences in the uptake of NO2 by tobacco and kenaf during nighttime. CAM plants such as Sedum sp., Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (kalanchoe) and Aloe arborescens exhibited nocturnal uptake and assimilation of NO2. However, the values of uptake and assimilation of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime was very low (at most about 500 ng N mg(-1) dry weight) as compared with those of above mentioned C3 plants. The present findings indicate that kenaf is an efficient phytoremediator of NO2 both during daytime and nighttime.

  20. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in seagrasses C-labeling evidence for the c(3) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T J; Abel, K M

    1979-04-01

    The delta(13)C values of several seagrasses were considerably less negative than those of terrestrial C(3) plants and tended toward those of terrestrial C(4) plants. However, for Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers and Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers, phosphoglycerate and other C(3) cycle intermediates predominated among the early labeled products of photosynthesis in (14)C-labeled seawater (more than 90% at the earliest times) and the labeling pattern at longer times was brought about by the operation of the C(3) pathway. Malate and aspartate together accounted for only a minor fraction of the total fixed label at all times and the kinetic data of this labeling were not at all consistent with these compounds being early intermediates in seagrass photosynthesis. Pulse-chase (14)C-labeling studies further substantiated these conclusions. Significant labeling of photorespiratory intermediates was observed in all experiments. The kinetics of total fixation of label during some steady-state and pulse-chase experiments suggested that there may be an intermediate pool of inorganic carbon of variable size closely associated with the leaves, either externally or internally. Such a pool may be one cause for the C(4)-like carbon isotope ratios of seagrasses.

  1. Combination of neurofilament heavy chain and complement c3 as CSF biomarkers for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; An, Jiyan; Shaw, Christopher E; Shaw, Gerry; Lacomis, David; Bowser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease with an average survival of 3 years from symptom onset. Rapid and conclusive early diagnosis is essential if interventions with disease-modifying therapies are to be successful. Cytoskeletal modification and inflammation are known to occur during the pathogenesis of ALS. We measured levels of cytoskeletal proteins and inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ALS, disease controls and healthy subjects. We determined threshold values for each protein that provided the optimal sensitivity and specificity for ALS within a training set, as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Interestingly, the optimal assay was a ratio of the levels for phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain and complement C3 (pNFH/C3). We next applied this assay to a separate test set of CSF samples to verify our results. Overall, the predictive pNFH/C3 ratio identified ALS with 87.3% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity in a total of 71 ALS subjects, 52 disease control subjects and 40 healthy subjects. In addition, the level of CSF pNFH correlated with survival of ALS patients. We also detected increased pNFH in the plasma of ALS patients and observed a correlation between CSF and plasma pNFH levels within the same subjects. These findings support large-scale prospective biomarker studies to determine the clinical utility of diagnostic and prognostic signatures in ALS. PMID:21418221

  2. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  3. Mycophenolate Mofetil in Combination with Steroids for Treatment of C3 Glomerulopathy: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasare, Rupali S; Canetta, Pietro A; Bomback, Andrew S; Marasa, Maddalena; Caliskan, Yasar; Ozluk, Yasemin; Li, Yifu; Gharavi, Ali G; Appel, Gerald B

    2018-03-07

    C3 glomerulopathy is a form of complement-mediated GN. Immunosuppressive therapy may be beneficial in the treatment of C3 glomerulopathy. Mycophenolate mofetil is an attractive treatment option given its role in the treatment of other complement-mediated diseases and the results of the Spanish Group for the Study of Glomerular Diseases C3 Study. Here, we study the outcomes of patients with C3 glomerulopathy treated with steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in the C3 glomerulopathy registry at Columbia University and identified patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil for at least 3 months and follow-up for at least 1 year. We studied clinical, histologic, and genetic data for the whole group and compared data for those who achieved complete or partial remission (responders) with those who did not achieve remission (nonresponders). We compared remission with mycophenolate mofetil with remission with other immunosuppressive regimens. We identified 30 patients who met inclusion criteria. Median age was 25 years old (interquartile range, 18-36), median creatinine was 1.07 mg/dl (interquartile range, 0.79-1.69), and median proteinuria was 3200 mg/g creatinine (interquartile range, 1720-6759). The median follow-up time was 32 months (interquartile range, 21-68). Twenty (67%) patients were classified as responders. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between responders and nonresponders, although initial proteinuria was lower (median 2468 mg/g creatinine) in responders compared with nonresponders (median 5000 mg/g creatinine) and soluble membrane attack complex levels were higher in responders compared with nonresponders. For those tapered off mycophenolate mofetil, relapse rate was 50%. Genome-wide analysis on complement genes was done, and in 12 patients, we found 18 variants predicted to be damaging. None of these variants were previously reported to be pathogenic. Mycophenolate

  4. Rooting of herbaceous minicuttings of passion fruit/ Enraizamento de miniestacas herbáceas de maracujazeiro amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudival Faquim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the basal cut, leaf presence and the treament with a root suspension in the rooting of herbaceous minicuttings of yellow passion fruit. The experiment was realized in a greenhouse using minicuttings with 8 cm of lenght and two nodes, collected from yellow passion fruit seedlings. The longitudinal basal cut in the minicuttings was done until the basal node. The leaves were removed or a half of a single leaf was maintained in the apical node. The minicuttings were treated with a root suspension in water in three concentrations (0, 100 e 200 g L-1. After 58 days, the rooting percentage, the number of roots and the root dry matter produced per minicutting were determined. The entirely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial esqueme (2 x 2 x 3 with three replications. The propagation of the yellow passion fruit by herbaceous minicuttings was viable and the presence of the half of a single leaf in the apical node give a higher production of number and dry matter of roots. The basal cut was only a little favourable to the production of roots and the treatment with a root suspension did not present a benefit to the plant propagation.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do corte basal, da presença da folha e do tratamento com suspensão de raízes no enraizamento de miniestacas herbáceas de maracujazeiro amarelo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com miniestacas de 8 cm de comprimento e dois nós, obtidas de mudas de maracujazeiro. O corte longitudinal na base das estacas foi feito até o nó basal. Foram retiradas as folhas ou mantida a metade da folha do nó apical. As miniestacas foram tratadas com suspensão de raízes mais água nas concentrações de 0, 100 e 200 g L-1. Após 58 dias, determinou-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, o número de raízes emitidas e a massa seca de raízes por estaca. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o

  5. A potent complement factor C3 specific nanobody inhibiting multiple functions in the alternative pathway of human and murine complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus K; Pihl, Rasmus; Gadeberg, Trine A F

    2018-01-01

    The complement system is a complex, carefully regulated proteolytic cascade for which suppression of aberrant activation is of increasing clinical relevance and inhibition of the complement alternative pathway is a subject of intense research. Here, we describe the nanobody hC3Nb1 that binds...... to multiple functional states of C3 with sub-nanomolar affinity. The nanobody causes a complete shutdown of alternative pathway activity in human and murine serum when present in concentrations comparable to C3, and hC3Nb1 is shown to prevent both proconvertase assembly as well as binding of the C3 substrate...... to C3 convertases. Our crystal structure of the C3b-hC3Nb1 complex and functional experiments demonstrate that proconvertase formation is blocked by steric hindrance between the nanobody and an Asn-linked glycan on complement factor B. In addition, hC3Nb1 is shown to prevent factor H binding to C3b...

  6. Evidence of correlated evolution and adaptive differentiation of stem and leaf functional traits in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilote, Alex J; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Patterns of plant stem traits are expected to align with a "fast-slow" plant economic spectrum across taxa. Although broad patterns support such tradeoffs in field studies, tests of hypothesized correlated trait evolution and adaptive differentiation are more robust when taxa relatedness and environment are taken into consideration. Here we test for correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits and their adaptive differentiation across environments in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus. Stem and leaf traits of 14 species of Helianthus (28 populations) were assessed in a common garden greenhouse study. Phylogenetically independent contrasts were used to test for evidence of correlated evolution of stem hydraulic and biomechanical properties, correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits, and adaptive differentiation associated with source habitat environments. Among stem traits, there was evidence for correlated evolution of some hydraulic and biomechanical properties, supporting an expected tradeoff between stem theoretical hydraulic efficiency and resistance to bending stress. Population differentiation for suites of stem and leaf traits was found to be consistent with a "fast-slow" resource-use axis for traits related to water transport and use. Associations of population traits with source habitat characteristics supported repeated evolution of a resource-acquisitive "drought-escape" strategy in arid environments. This study provides evidence of correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits consistent with the fast-slow spectrum of trait combinations related to water transport and use along the stem-to-leaf pathway. Correlations of traits with source habitat characteristics further indicate that the correlated evolution is associated, at least in part, with adaptive differentiation of Helianthus populations among native habitats differing in climate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Identification of miRNAs Responsive to Botrytis cinerea in Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall., one of the world’s most important ornamental plants, is highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, and improving resistance to this pathogenic fungus is a problem yet to be solved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an essential role in resistance to B. cinerea, but until now, no studies have been reported concerning miRNAs induction in P. lactiflora. Here, we constructed and sequenced two small RNA (sRNA libraries from two B. cinerea-infected P. lactiflora cultivars (“Zifengyu” and “Dafugui” with significantly different levels of resistance to B. cinerea, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. From the raw reads generated, 4,592,881 and 5,809,796 sRNAs were obtained, and 280 and 306 miRNAs were identified from “Zifengyu” and “Dafugui”, respectively. A total of 237 conserved and 7 novel sequences of miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cultivars, and we predicted and annotated their potential target genes. Subsequently, 7 differentially expressed candidate miRNAs were screened according to their target genes annotated in KEGG pathways, and the expression patterns of miRNAs and corresponding target genes were elucidated. We found that miR5254, miR165a-3p, miR3897-3p and miR6450a might be involved in the P. lactiflora response to B. cinerea infection. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for resistance to B. cinerea in P. lactiflora.

  8. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effects of Inflorescence Stem Structure and Cell Wall Components on the Mechanical Strength of Inflorescence Stem in Herbaceous Peony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Geng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a traditional famous flower, but its poor inflorescence stem quality seriously constrains the development of the cut flower. Mechanical strength is an important characteristic of stems, which not only affects plant lodging, but also plays an important role in stem bend or break. In this paper, the mechanical strength, morphological indices and microstructure of P. lactiflora development inflorescence stems were measured and observed. The results showed that the mechanical strength of inflorescence stems gradually increased, and that the diameter of inflorescence stem was a direct indicator in estimating mechanical strength. Simultaneously, with the development of inflorescence stem, the number of vascular bundles increased, the vascular bundle was arranged more densely, the sclerenchyma cell wall thickened, and the proportion of vascular bundle and pith also increased. On this basis, cellulose and lignin contents were determined, PlCesA3, PlCesA6 and PlCCoAOMT were isolated and their expression patterns were examined including PlPAL. The results showed that cellulose was not strictly correlated with the mechanical strength of inflorescence stem, and lignin had a significant impact on it. In addition, PlCesA3 and PlCesA6 were not key members in cellulose synthesis of P. lactiflora and their functions were also different, but PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT regulated the lignin synthesis of P. lactiflora. These data indicated that PlPAL and PlCCoAOMT could be applied to improve the mechanical strength of P. lactiflora inflorescence stem in genetic engineering.

  10. Occurrence of different phytoplasma infections in wild herbaceous dicots growing in vineyards affected by bois noir in Tuscany (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido MARCHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbaceous dicotyledonous plants (dicots showing symptoms ascribable to phytoplasma disorders were found to be widely distributed in organic vineyards in central Tuscany (Italy affected by bois noir, a grapevine yellows disease caused by “Candidatus Phytoplasma solani”. In 2010 symptomatic dicots were tentatively identified to species level and the incidence of symptoms estimated in two selected vineyards in the province of Florence. Incidence ranged from 2 to 77%, and was not related to the relative abundance of hosts since very common species as well as relatively rare ones were consistently found to be symptomatic. PCR indexing and 16S rRNA sequence analyses indicated that two phytoplasmas co-existed in the vineyards: “Ca. P. solani”, infecting the root systems of 17 taxa, and a phytoplasma closely related to “Ca. P. phoenicium”, infecting 11 taxa, and occasionally co-infecting the same plant. Regardless of the high frequency of both pathogens in the vineyards, only “Ca. P. solani” could be detected in the grapevines. Population screening by means of tuf sequence analyses revealed the presence of only the tuf-b “Ca. P. solani” type both in dicot hosts and grapevine. This supports current notions of bois noir epidemiology, indicating that some infected dicots act as sources of “Ca. P. solani” inoculum whereas others are dead-end hosts. When the same specimens were screened by sequence analysis of the vmp1 gene, evidence was found that different phytoplasma genotypes may be predominant in grapevines and dicots.

  11. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima Grasses in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangzhi Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13Cl and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (ΔR,biomass in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C3-C4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ13Cl, the δ13C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C3 (Leymus chinensis and two C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ13Cl decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ13Cl values were correlated with the δ13C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ13Cl strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The ΔR,biomass in the C3 and C4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ13C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO2. The detected drought sensitivities in δ13Cl and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C3 and C4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level.

  12. Drought Sensitivity of the Carbon Isotope Composition of Leaf Dark-Respired CO2 in C3 (Leymus chinensis) and C4 (Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima) Grasses in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shangzhi; Chai, Hua; Xu, Yueqiao; Li, Yan; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Whether photosynthetic pathway differences exist in the amplitude of nighttime variations in the carbon isotope composition of leaf dark-respired CO 2 (δ 13 C l ) and respiratory apparent isotope fractionation relative to biomass (Δ R,biomass ) in response to drought stress is unclear. These differences, if present, would be important for the partitioning of C 3 -C 4 mixed ecosystem C fluxes. We measured δ 13 C l , the δ 13 C of biomass and of potential respiratory substrates and leaf gas exchange in one C 3 ( Leymus chinensis ) and two C 4 ( Chloris virgata and Hemarthria altissima ) grasses during a manipulated drought period. For all studied grasses, δ 13 C l decreased from 21:00 to 03:00 h. The magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l decreased with increasing drought stress. The δ 13 C l values were correlated with the δ 13 C of respiratory substrates, whereas the magnitude of the nighttime shift in δ 13 C l strongly depended on the daytime carbon assimilation rate and the range of nighttime variations in the respiratory substrate content. The Δ R,biomass in the C 3 and C 4 grasses varied in opposite directions with the intensification of the drought stress. The contribution of C 4 plant-associated carbon flux is likely to be overestimated if carbon isotope signatures are used for the partitioning of ecosystem carbon exchange and the δ 13 C of biomass is used as a substitute for leaf dark-respired CO 2 . The detected drought sensitivities in δ 13 C l and differences in respiratory apparent isotope fractionation between C 3 and C 4 grasses have marked implications for isotope partitioning studies at the ecosystem level.

  13. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  14. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  15. Nematode Community Composition under Various Irrigation Schemes in a Citrus Soil Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, D L; McSorley, R; Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Wheaton, T A; Parsons, L R

    1998-06-01

    Interest in the sustainability of farming practices has increased in response to environmental problems associated with conventional agricultural management often adopted for the production of herbaceous crops, ornamentals, and fruit crops. Availability of measures of the status of the soil ecosystem is of immediate importance, particularly for environmental assessment and monitoring programs. This study investigated the effects of various irrigation regimes (an example of an agricultural management practice) on the structure of the nematode fauna in a citrus orchard in the sandy ridge area of Central Florida. Ecological measures such as community structure indices, diversity indices, and maturity indices were assessed and related to irrigation intensity. Maturity index was an effective measure in distinguishing differences between irrigation regimes, whereas other indices of community structure were not. Of various nematode genera and trophic groups, only omnivores and the omnivore genera. Aporcelaimellus and Eudorylaimus responded to irrigation treatments.

  16. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  17. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Babu, S.; Vinoth, R.; Surya Narayana, P.; Bahnemann, Detlef; Neppolian, B.

    2015-10-01

    Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ˜2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O-rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  18. Working group 7: Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheyen, R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the environmental impact of nuclear power plants. The effects of ionizing radiations, of the thermal and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems as well as on terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated. After a general survey of such effects and their interaction, practical conclusions in regard to determined areas such as Meuse-Escaut marine and the coast have been drawn. The contamination effects of food chains have been evaluted under deliberately pessimistic conditions with regard to the choice of the radionuclide as well as of concentration factors. Following the biodegradation conditions of the surface waters, criteria for the quality of the aquatic ecosystems have been established. Finally, attention has been paid on certain factors affecting the site selection especially within the frame of the nature conservation. The effects of cooling towers have been also considered. (G.C.)

  19. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  20. C3-6 laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy maintains satisfactory long-term surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.

  1. C3–6 Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Maintains Satisfactory Long-Term Surgical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3–6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2–7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2–7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3–6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2–7 angle after surgery. PMID:25083358

  2. Dietary controlled carcinogenicity study of chloral hydrate in male B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakey, Julian E.A.; Seng, John E.; Latendresse, John R.; Hussain, Nursreen; Allen, Laura J.; Allaben, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate, which is used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination, is hepatocarcinogenic in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which are associated with increased body weight. In this study, dietary control was used to manipulate body growth in male B6C3F 1 mice in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Male B6C3F 1 mice were treated with water or 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg chloral hydrate by gavage. The study compared ad libitum-fed mice with dietary controlled mice. The latter received variably restricted feed allocations to maintain their body weights on a predetermined 'idealized' weight curve predictive of a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. These mice exhibited less individual body weight variation than did their ad libitum-fed counterparts. This was associated with a decreased variation in liver to body weight ratios, which allowed the demonstration of a statistically significant dose response to chloral hydrate in the dietary controlled, but not the ad libitum-fed, test groups. Chloral hydrate increased terminally adjusted liver tumor incidence in both dietary controlled (23.4, 23.9, 29.7, and 38.6% for the four dose groups, respectively) and ad libitum-fed mice (33.4, 52.6, 50.6, and 46.2%), but a statistically significant dose response was observed only in the dietary controlled mice. This dose response positively correlated with markers of peroxisomal proliferation in the dietary controlled mice only. The study suggests that dietary control not only improves terminal survival and decreases interassay variation, but also can increase assay sensitivity by decreasing intra-assay variation

  3. C3H2 observations as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the three-membered ring molecule, cyclopropenylidene, C3H2, has been identified in the laboratory and detected in molecular clouds by Thaddeus, Vrtilek and Gottlieb (1985). This molecule is wide-spread throughout the Galaxy and has been detected in 25 separate sources including cold dust clouds, circumstellar envelopes, HII regions, and the spiral arms observed against the Cas supernova remnant. In order to evaluate the potential of C3H2 as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds, and to attempt to identify the most useful transitions, statistical equilibrium calculations were carried out for the lowest 24 levels of the ortho species and the lowest 10 levels of the para species. Many of the sources observed by Matthews and Irvine (1985) show evidence of being optically thick in the 1(10)-1(01) line. Consequently, the effects of radiative trapping should be incorporated into the equilibrium calculations. This was done using the Large Velocity Gradient approximation for a spherical cloud of uniform density. Some results of the calculations for T(K)=10K are given. Figures are presented which show contours of the logarithm of the ratio of peak line brightness temperatures for ortho-para pairs of lines at similar frequencies. It appears that the widespread nature of C3H2, the relatively large strength of its spectral lines, and their sensitivity to density and molecular abundance combine to make this a useful molecule for probing physical conditions in molecular clouds. The 1(10)-1(01) and 2(20)-2(11) K-band lines may be especially useful in this regard because of the ease with which they are observed and their unusual density-dependent emission/absorption properties.

  4. Acylation stimulating protein, complement C3 and lipid metabolism in ketosis-prone diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPDM is new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis without precipitating factors in non-type 1 diabetic patients; after management, some are withdrawn from exogenous insulin, although determining factors remain unclear.Twenty KPDM patients and twelve type 1 diabetic patients (T1DM, evaluated at baseline, 12 and 24 months with/without insulin maintenance underwent a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT for 2 h.At baseline, triglyceride and C3 were higher during MMTT in KPDM vs. T1DM (p<0.0001 with no differences in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA while Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP tended to be higher. Within 12 months, 11 KPDM were withdrawn from insulin treatment (KPDM-ins, while 9 were maintained (KPDM+ins. NEFA was lower in KPDM-ins vs. KPDM+ins at baseline (p = 0.0006, 12 months (p<0.0001 and 24 months (p<0.0001 during MMTT. NEFA in KPDM-ins decreased over 30-120 minutes (p<0.05, but not in KPDM+ins. Overall, C3 was higher in KPDM-ins vs KPDM+ins at 12 months (p = 0.0081 and 24 months (p = 0.0019, while ASP was lower at baseline (p = 0.0024 and 12 months (p = 0.0281, with a decrease in ASP/C3 ratio.Notwithstanding greater adiposity in KPDM-ins, greater NEFA decreases and lower ASP levels during MMTT suggest better insulin and ASP sensitivity in these patients.

  5. Collisional rate coefficients of C3H2 and the determination of physical conditions in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. W.; Green, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    Collisional excitation rates for C3H2, calculated using the coupled states approximation at temperatures of 10-30 K, are presented. C3H2 produces a number of spectral line pairs whose members are close together in frequency but arise from levels with different excitation energies. The rates are used in statistical equilibrium calculations to illustrate the excitation properties and density-dependent behavior of various C3H2 line ratios.

  6. Isolation of lymphocyte membrane complement receptor type two (the C3d receptor) and preparation of receptor-specific antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Lambris, J D; Dobson, N J; Ross, G D

    1981-01-01

    A glycoprotein binding complement component C3d was isolated from media used for culture of Raji human lymphoblastoid cells. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gas/liquid chromatography indicated that the C3d-binding glycoprotein consisted of a single polypeptide chain with extensive intrachain disulfide bonds, a molecular weight of 72,000, and several different bound carbohydrates. Several lines of evidence indicated that this medium-derived C3d-binding...

  7. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  8. An unusual cause of chest pain: Fused cervical vertebra (C3-C4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daipayan Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervicogenic angina is paroxysmal precordialgia usually due to lower cervical vertebral involvement. But upper cervical vertebral segmental anomaly causing cervicogenic angina is rare. Herein, we report a case of cervicogenic angina due to fused 3 rd and 4 th cervical vertebra in a 37-year female, which was initially misdiagnosed as angina and treated likewise. But, persistence of symptoms led to evaluation of her cervical spine and subsequent diagnosis. Cervical traction, physiotherapy and posture training relieved her of her symptoms with no recurrence till 6 months of follow-up. Fused C3-C4 can be a cause of precordialgia and physicians should be aware of it.

  9. Effects of low atmospheric CO2 and elevated temperature during growth on the gas exchange responses of C3, C3-C4 intermediate, and C4 species from three evolutionary lineages of C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, Patrick J; Sage, Rowan F

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates acclimation of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in three evolutionary lineages of C(3), C(3)-C(4) intermediate, and C(4) species grown in the low CO(2) and hot conditions proposed to favo r the evolution of C(4) photosynthesis. Closely related C(3), C(3)-C(4), and C(4) species in the genera Flaveria, Heliotropium, and Alternanthera were grown near 380 and 180 μmol CO(2) mol(-1) air and day/night temperatures of 37/29°C. Growth CO(2) had no effect on photosynthetic capacity or nitrogen allocation to Rubisco and electron transport in any of the species. There was also no effect of growth CO(2) on photosynthetic and stomatal responses to intercellular CO(2) concentration. These results demonstrate little ability to acclimate to low CO(2) growth conditions in closely related C(3) and C(3)-C(4) species, indicating that, during past episodes of low CO(2), individual C(3) plants had little ability to adjust their photosynthetic physiology to compensate for carbon starvation. This deficiency could have favored selection for more efficient modes of carbon assimilation, such as C(3)-C(4) intermediacy. The C(3)-C(4) species had approximately 50% greater rates of net CO(2) assimilation than the C(3) species when measured at the growth conditions of 180 μmol mol(-1) and 37°C, demonstrating the superiority of the C(3)-C(4) pathway in low atmospheric CO(2) and hot climates of recent geological time.

  10. Ecosystem and Community Responses to Rainfall Manipulations in Shrublands Depends on Dominant Vegetation Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, E. H.; Lipson, D.; Kim, J. B.; Cleland, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Southern California is predicted to face decreasing precipitation with increased interannual variability in the coming century. Native shrublands in this area are increasingly invaded by exotic annual grasses, though invasion dynamics can vary by rainfall scenario, with wet years generally associated with high invasion pressure. Interplay between rainfall and invasion scenarios can influence carbon stocks and community composition. Here we asked how invasion alters ecosystem and community responses in drought versus high rainfall scenarios, as quantified by community identity, biomass production, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). To do this, we performed a rainfall manipulation experiment with paired plots dominated either by native shrubs or exotic herbaceous species, subjected to treatments of 50%, 100%, or 150% of ambient rainfall. The study site was located in a coastal sage scrub ecosystem, with patches dominated by native shrubs and exotic grasses located in San Diego County, USA. During two growing seasons, we found that native, herbaceous biomass production was significantly affected by rainfall treatment (p<0.05 for both years), though was not affected by dominant community composition. Photosynthetic biomass production of shrub species also varied by treatment (p=0.035). Exotic biomass production showed a significant interaction between dominant community composition and rainfall treatment, and both individual effects (p<0.001 for all). NDVI showed similar results, but also indicated the importance of rainfall timing on overall biomass production between years. Community composition data showed certain species, of both native and exotic identities, segregating by treatment. These results indicate that exotic species are more sensitive to rainfall, and that increased rainfall may promote greater carbon storage in annual dominated communities when compared to shrub dominated communities in high rainfall years, but with drought, this

  11. The Crystal Structure of Cobra Venom Factor, a Cofactor for C3- and C5-Convertase CVFBb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V.L.; (Madras); (UAB)

    2009-05-26

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The CVF crystal structure, an intermediate between C3b and C3c, lacks the TED domain and has the CUB domain in an identical position to that seen in C3b. The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B.

  12. Exploring the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C3N4 nanoribbon with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Lau, Woon Ming; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-04-18

    The optical properties and condensation degree (structure) of polymeric g-C 3 N 4 depend strongly on the process temperature. For polymeric g-C 3 N 4 , its structure and condensation degree depend on the structure of molecular strand(s). Here, the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon are investigated by studying the polymerization and crystallinity of molecular strand(s) employing first-principle density functional theory. The calculations show that the width of the molecular strand has a significant effect on the electronic structure of polymerized and crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbons, a conclusion which would be indirect evidence that the electronic structure depends on the structure of g-C 3 N 4 . The edge shape also has a distinct effect on the electronic structure of the crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon. Furthermore, the conductive band minimum and valence band maximum of the polymeric g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon show a strong localization, which is in good agreement with the quasi-monomer characters. In addition, molecular strands prefer to grow along the planar direction on graphene. These results provide new insight on the properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon and the relationship between the structure and properties of g-C 3 N 4 .

  13. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  14. The spatial distribution of C2, C3, and NH in comet 2P/Encke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, Garrett; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of C 2 , C 3 , and NH radicals in the coma of comet Encke in order to understand their abundances and distributions in the coma. The observations were obtained from 2003 October 22-24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Building on our original study of CN and OH, we have used our modified version of the vectorial model, which treats the coma as one large cone, in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. Our results suggest that NH can be explained by the photodissociation of NH 2 , assuming that NH 2 is produced rapidly from NH 3 in the innermost coma. Our modeling of C 2 and C 3 suggests a multi-generational photodissociation process may be required for their production. Using the results of our previous study, we also obtain abundance ratios with respect to OH and CN. Overall, we find that Encke exhibits typical carbon-chain abundances, and the results are consistent with other studies of comet Encke.

  15. Weldability of Al4C3-Al composites via diffusion welding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arik, Halil; Aydin, Mustafa; Kurt, Adem; Turker, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    In this study, Al-Al 4 C 3 composites, produced by powder metallurgy in situ techniques, were joined by diffusion welding technique at 250 MPa pressure with various welding temperatures and durations. Microstructures and shear strengths of the joined areas were determined. Al powders were mixed with 2% carbon black and milled in a high energy ball mill (mechanical alloying) for up to 20 h. In order to obtain cylindrical blanks with 10 mm in diameter and 15 mm in height, powders were compacted in a single action press at 1000 MPa. Samples were sintered in Ar atmosphere at 650 deg C and metal matrix composite (MMC) containing 8% Al 4 C 3 particles were produced. Products were then joined to each other by using diffusion welding techniques. Scanning electron microscopy examination was carried out on the welded interfaces and shear tests were conducted to the sample interfaces to find out the effect of welding temperatures and duration on the weldability properties. It was found that high welding temperatures resulted in increase of both joined strength and shear properties. However, increase in welding duration did not make any detectable changes. Results indicated that MMC could be joined by diffusion welding technique successfully with the 88% strength of base material

  16. Atmospheric chemistry, sources and sinks of carbon suboxide, C3O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keßel, Stephan; Cabrera-Perez, David; Horowitz, Abraham; Veres, Patrick R.; Sander, Rolf; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Tucceri, Maria; Crowley, John N.; Pozzer, Andrea; Stönner, Christof; Vereecken, Luc; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Carbon suboxide, O = C = C = C = O, has been detected in ambient air samples and has the potential to be a noxious pollutant and oxidant precursor; however, its lifetime and fate in the atmosphere are largely unknown. In this work, we collect an extensive set of studies on the atmospheric chemistry of C3O2. Rate coefficients for the reactions of C3O2 with OH radicals and ozone were determined as kOH = (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K (independent of pressure between ˜ 25 and 1000 mbar) and kO3 chemistry-general circulation model. The results indicate sub-pptv levels at the Earth's surface, up to about 10 pptv in regions with relatively strong sources, e.g. influenced by biomass burning, and a mean lifetime of ˜ 3.2 days. These predictions carry considerable uncertainty, as more measurement data are needed to determine ambient concentrations and constrain the source strengths.

  17. O2-insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C 3 plants which exhibit a normal O 2 inhibition of CO 2 fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C 3 species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO 2 pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O 2 inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO 2 pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O 2 and CO 2 insensitive at physiological CO 2 pressures. Postillumination CO 2 exchange kinetics showed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO 2 assimilation

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3 and their antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-03-01

    The present study described biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a bacterial strain Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3, isolated from soil, and their application in antibacterial activity. The maximum absorbance values of the synthesized AgNPs was measured at 406 nm in ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and were mostly spherical in shape with particle size in range of 8-25 nm by field emission transmission electron microscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern corresponding to planes (111), (200), (220), and (311) demonstrated the crystalline nature of the AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited antimicrobial activity against various pathogens inculding Staphylococcus aureus, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Candida albicans, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus. In addition, the AgNPs in combination with commercial antibiotics enhanced antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. enterica, E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus. The AgNPs synthesized by strain Novosphingobium sp. THG-C3 are comparatively simple, green, cost-effective, and may serve as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  19. Nitrogen washing from C3 and C4 cover grasses residues by rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are more efficient in assimilating N than C3 plants, which results in different N amounts prone to be washed from its straw by rain water. Such differences may affect N recycling in agricultural systems where these species are grown as cover crops. In this experiment, phytomass production and N leaching from the straw of grasses with different photosynthetic pathways were studied in response to N application. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis with the C4 photosynthetic pathway, and black oat (Avena Strigosa and triticale (X Triticosecale, with the C3 photosynthetic pathway, were grown for 47 days. After determining dry matter yields and N and C contents, a 30 mm rainfall was simulated over 8 t ha-1 of dry matter of each plant residue and the leached amounts of ammonium and nitrate were determined. C4 grasses responded to higher fertilizer rates, whereas N contents in plant tissue were lower. The amount of N leached from C4 grass residues was lower, probably because the C/N ratio is higher and N is more tightly bound to organic compounds. When planning a crop rotation system it is important to take into account the difference in N release of different plant residues which may affect N nutrition of the subsequent crop.

  20. The C3PO project: a laser communication system concept for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Humières, Benoît; Esmiller, Bruno; Gouy, Yann; Steck, Emilie; Quintana, Crisanto; Faulkner, Graham; O'Brien, Dominic; Sproll, Fabian; Wagner, Paul; Hampf, Daniel; Riede, Wolfgang; Salter, Michael; Wang, Qin; Platt, Duncan; Jakonis, Darius; Piao, Xiaoyu; Karlsson, Mikael; Oberg, Olof; Petermann, Ingemar; Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Krezel, Jerzy; Debowska, Anna; Thueux, Yoann

    2017-02-01

    The satellite market is shifting towards smaller (micro and nanosatellites), lowered mass and increased performance platforms. Nanosatellites and picosatellites have been used for a number of new, innovative and unique payloads and missions. This trend requires new concepts for a reduced size, a better performance/weight ratio and a reduction of onboard power consumption. In this context, disruptive technologies, such as laser-optical communication systems, are opening new possibilities. This paper presents the C3PO1 system, "advanced Concept for laser uplink/ downlink CommuniCation with sPace Objects", and the first results of the development of its key technologies. This project targets the design of a communications system that uses a ground-based laser to illuminate a satellite, and a Modulating Retro-Reflector (MRR) to return a beam of light modulated by data to the ground. This enables a downlink, without a laser source on the satellite. This architecture suits well to small satellite applications so as high data rates are potentially provided with very low board mass. C3PO project aims to achieve data rates of 1Gbit/s between LEO satellites and Earth with a communication payload mass of less than 1kilogram. In this paper, results of the initial experiments and demonstration of the key technologies will be shown.

  1. Exotic ferromagnetism in the two-dimensional quantum material C3N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Cheng; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiaosong

    2018-04-01

    The search for and study of exotic quantum states in novel low-dimensional quantum materials have triggered extensive research in recent years. Here, we systematically study the electronic and magnetic structures in the newly discovered two-dimensional quantum material C3N within the framework of density functional theory. The calculations demonstrate that C3N is an indirect-band semiconductor with an energy gap of 0.38 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Interestingly, we find van Hove singularities located at energies near the Fermi level, which is half that of graphene. Thus, the Fermi energy easily approaches that of the singularities, driving the system to ferromagnetism, under charge carrier injection, such as electric field gating or hydrogen doping. These findings not only demonstrate that the emergence of magnetism stems from the itinerant electron mechanism rather than the effects of local magnetic impurities, but also open a new avenue to designing field-effect transistor devices for possible realization of an insulator-ferromagnet transition by tuning an external electric field.

  2. The Spatial Distribution of C2, C3, and NH in Comet 2P/Encke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Garrett; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the spatial distribution of C2, C3, and NH radicals in the coma of comet Encke in order to understand their abundances and distributions in the coma. The observations were obtained from 2003 October 22-24, using the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Building on our original study of CN and OH, we have used our modified version of the vectorial model, which treats the coma as one large cone, in order to reproduce Encke's highly aspherical and asymmetric coma. Our results suggest that NH can be explained by the photodissociation of NH2, assuming that NH2 is produced rapidly from NH3 in the innermost coma. Our modeling of C2 and C3 suggests a multi-generational photodissociation process may be required for their production. Using the results of our previous study, we also obtain abundance ratios with respect to OH and CN. Overall, we find that Encke exhibits typical carbon-chain abundances, and the results are consistent with other studies of comet Encke.

  3. The superfamily of C3b/C4b-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; D'Eustachio, P; Ogata, R T

    1987-01-01

    The determination of primary structures by amino acid and nucleotide sequencing for the C3b-and/or C4b-binding proteins H, C4BP, CR1, B, and C2 has revealed the presence of a common structural element. This element is approximately 60 amino acids long and is repeated in a tandem fashion, commencing...... at the amino-terminal end of each molecule. Two other complement components, C1r and C1s, have two of these repeating units in the carboxy-terminal region of their noncatalytic A chains. Three noncomplement proteins, beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2I), the interleukin 2 receptor (IL 2 receptor), and the b chain...... of factor XIII, have 4, 2 and 10 of these repeating units, respectively. These proteins obviously belong to the above family, although there is no evidence that they interact with C3b and/or C4b. Human haptoglobin and rat leukocyte common antigen also contain two and three repeating units, respectively...

  4. Isolation of the antibiotic pseudopyronine B and SAR evaluation of C3/C6 alkyl analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthillette, Leah M; Darcey, Catherine A; Handy, Tess E; Seaton, Sarah C; Wolfe, Amanda L

    2017-06-15

    Natural products are an abundant source of structurally diverse compounds with antibacterial activity that can be used to develop new and potent antibiotics. One such class of natural products is the pseudopyronines. Here we present the isolation of pseudopyronine B (2) from a Pseudomonas species found in garden soil in Western North Carolina, and SAR evaluation of C3 and C6 alkyl analogs of the natural product for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We found a direct relationship between antibacterial activity and C3/C6 alkyl chain length. For inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria, alkyl chain lengths between 6 and 7 carbons were found to be the most active (IC 50 =0.04-3.8µg/mL) whereas short alkyl chain analogs showed modest activity against Gram-negative bacteria (IC 50 =223-304µg/mL). This demonstrates the potential for this class of natural products to be optimized for selective activity against either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy at the C2-C3 articular facet joint in 11 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Penderis, J; Gonçalves, R

    2015-11-21

    In dogs, vertebral canal stenosis at C2-C3 due to articular facet joint degeneration is only sporadically identified. The authors' aims were to review the clinical presentation, MRI characteristics, treatment and outcome of dogs presenting with this condition. Eleven cases were eligible for inclusion. Neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia in all 4 limbs in 3/11, proprioceptive tetra-ataxia only in 4/11, pelvic limb proprioceptive ataxia in 2/11 and no gait abnormalities in 2/11 dogs. Cervical hyperaesthesia was present in 7/11 dogs. MRI revealed bilateral articular facet joint degeneration in 10/11 cases and unilateral degeneration in one. Surgery was performed in six cases and medical management elected in five. Long-term follow-up information was available for 11 animals. Four of the surgical cases are alive and have no neurological deficits, one was euthanased for an unrelated condition and one lost to follow-up. Of the cases managed medically, three are alive showing no neurological deficits, one is alive still displaying neurological deficits and one euthanased for an unrelated condition whilst still ataxic. This study shows that both medical and surgical management can result in good outcomes in dogs with vertebral canal stenosis resulting from articular facet joint degeneration at the level of C2-C3. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Tracy; Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Reis, Edimara S.; Echeverri Ruiz, Nancy P.; Grajales-Esquivel, Erika; Tzekou, Apostolia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.; Lambris, John D.; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the initiation signals for tissue regeneration in vertebrates is one of the major challenges in regenerative biology. Much of the research thus far has indicated that certain growth factors have key roles. Here we show that complement fragment C3a is sufficient to induce complete regeneration of the embryonic chick retina from stem/progenitor cells present in the eye, independent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling. Instead, C3a induces retina regeneration via STAT3 activation, which in turn activates the injury- and inflammation-responsive factors, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. This activation sets forth regulation of Wnt2b, Six3 and Sox2, genes associated with retina stem and progenitor cells. Thus, our results establish a mechanism for retina regeneration based on injury and inflammation signals. Furthermore, our results indicate a unique function for complement anaphylatoxins that implicate these molecules in the induction and complete regeneration of the retina, opening new avenues of experimentation in the field. PMID:23942241

  7. Validation of CATHARE 3D code against UPTF TRAM C3 transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Tony; Freitas, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Within the nuclear reactor safety analysis, one of the events that could potentially lead to a recriticality accident in case of a Small Break LOCA (SBLOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a boron dilution scenario followed by a coolant mixing transient. Some UPTF experiments can be interpreted as generic boron dilution experiments. In fact, the UPTF experiments were originally designed to conduct separate effects studies focused on multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic phenomena. But, in the case of experimental program TRAM, some studies are realized on the boron mixing: tests C3. Some of these tests have been used for the validation and assessment of the 3D module of CATHARE code. Results are very satisfying; CATHARE 3D code is able to reproduce correctly the main features of the UPTF TRAM C3 tests, the temperature mixing in the cold leg, the formation of a strong stratification in the upper downcomer, the perfect mixing temperature in the lower downcomer and the strong stratification in the lower plenum. These results are also compared with the CFX-5 and TRIO-U codes results on these tests. (author)

  8. Soil compaction related to grazing and its effects on herbaceous roots frequency and soil organic matter content in rangelands of SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Miralles Mellado, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Rangelands in SW Spain occupy a total surface area of approximately 6 million ha and constitute the most representative extensive ranching system of the Iberian Peninsula gathering more than 13 million livestock heads. They are characterised by an herbaceous layer, mostly composed of therophytic species, with a disperse tree cover, mainly holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Q. suber), interspersed with shrubs in many places. This type of land system is of ancient origin and experienced frequent changes in land use in the past, since agricultural, livestock and forestry activities have coexisted within the same farms. In recent decades, livestock farming has become dominant due, in part, to the subsidies of the Common Agriculture Policy. Since Spain joined the European Union in 1986 until the year 2000, the number of domestic animals doubled, particularly cattle, and consequently animal stocking rates have increased on average from 0.40 AU ha-1 up to 0.70 AU ha-1. This increase in animal stocking rates, along with a progressive substitution of cattle instead of sheep in many farms, has led to the occurrence of land degradation processes such as the reduction of grass cover or soil compaction in heavily grazed areas. Previous research has evidenced higher values of soil bulk density and resistance to penetration as well as larger bare surface areas in spring in fenced areas with animal stocking rates above 1 AU ha-1. However, a better understanding of how increasing bulk density or resistance to penetration influence the frequency of herbaceous roots and how a reduction in the frequency of roots affects soil organic matter content in rangelands is still unknown. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine possible relationships between the frequencies of herbaceous roots and soil organic matter content in order to understand the effect of excessive animal numbers on the depletion of soil fertility by reducing progressively the quantity of

  9. The AgMIP Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP): Methods and Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sonali P.; Ruane, Alexander Clark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter a multitude of factors important to agricultural systems, including pests, diseases, weeds, extreme climate events, water resources, soil degradation, and socio-economic pressures. Changes to carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), temperature, and water (CTW) will be the primary drivers of change in crop growth and agricultural systems. Therefore, establishing the CTW-change sensitivity of crop yields is an urgent research need and warrants diverse methods of investigation. Crop models provide a biophysical, process-based tool to investigate crop responses across varying environmental conditions and farm management techniques, and have been applied in climate impact assessment by using a variety of methods (White et al., 2011, and references therein). However, there is a significant amount of divergence between various crop models' responses to CTW changes (Rotter et al., 2011). While the application of a site-based crop model is relatively simple, the coordination of such agricultural impact assessments on larger scales requires consistent and timely contributions from a large number of crop modelers, each time a new global climate model (GCM) scenario or downscaling technique is created. A coordinated, global effort to rapidly examine CTW sensitivity across multiple crops, crop models, and sites is needed to aid model development and enhance the assessment of climate impacts (Deser et al., 2012). To fulfill this need, the Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP) (Ruane et al., 2014) was initiated within the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013). The submitted results from C3MP Phase 1 (February 15, 2013-December 31, 2013) are currently being analyzed. This chapter serves to present and update the C3MP protocols, discuss the initial participation and general findings, comment on needed adjustments, and describe continued and future development. AgMIP aims to improve

  10. An ingenious strategy of preparing TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst: In situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystals on g-C3N4 nanosheets via impregnation-calcination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanghui; Zhang, Tianyong; Li, Bin; Jiang, Shuang; Zhang, Xia; Hai, Li; Chen, Xingwei; Wu, Wubin

    2018-03-01

    An ingenious method was employed to design and fabricate the TiO2/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts in this study. The thermal oxidation etching of g-C3N4 nanosheets and the in situ growth of TiO2 nanocrystal on the surface of g-C3N4 nanosheets were completed simultaneously by the calcination process. The g-C3N4 nanosheets played a crucial role in regulating and assembling the structures and morphologies of TiO2. Furthermore, the thickness and content of g-C3N4, and the crystallinity of TiO2 in TiO2/g-C3N4 composites could be regulated and controlled by the calcination temperature. Among the resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 samples, the TiO2/g-C3N4 sample with 41.6 wt% g-C3N4 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It could degrade almost all MO molecules under visible light irradiation within 3 h. Moreover, it displayed higher visible light photocatalytic performance for degrading MO solution than pure g-C3N4 and D-TiO2. The synergistic effect between TiO2 and g-C3N4 makes significant contributions to the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity. In addition, the favorable photocatalytic performance of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites is also attributed to the porous structures and uniform morphologies, and large surface area. Furthermore, the resultant TiO2/g-C3N4 exhibits excellent photocatalytic stability. Radical trapping experiments indicated that rad O2- and h+ were the main reactive species during the photodegradation process under visible light irradiation. Hopefully, the results can offer new design and strategy for preparing other g-C3N4-based nanocomposites for environmental and energy applications.

  11. Governance of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in

  12. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  13. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  14. Payment for ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Oddershede, Jakob Stoktoft; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    Research question: Northern Europe experiences an increasingly wet climate, leading to more frequent and severe fluvial flood events. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is becoming recognised as a valuable yet under-utilised means to alleviating negative effects of a changing climate. This however,...

  15. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  16. Preparation of WO3/g-C3N4 composites and their application in oxidative desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongxiang; Li, Xiuping; Su, Jianxun; Gao, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 was successfully synthesized through simple calcination. • The process is simple and the cost raw materials is cheap. • The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 firstly applied to ODS. • The desulpurization rate of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 may attach to 91.2%. • Five recycles of WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 still attach to 89.5% due to heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: WO 3 /graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) composites were successfully synthesized through direct calcining of a mixture of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 at 400 °C for 2 h. The WO 3 was prepared by calcination of phosphotungstic acid at 550 °C for 4 h, and the g-C 3 N 4 was obtained by calcination of melamine at 520 °C for 4 h. The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner−Emmett−Teller analysis (BET). The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composites exhibited stronger XRD peaks of WO 3 and g-C 3 N 4 than the WO 3 and pure g-C 3 N 4 . In addition, two WO 3 peaks at 25.7° and 26.6° emerged for the 36% −WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite. This finding indicated that WO 3 was highly dispersed on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets and interacted with the nanosheets, which resulted in the appearance of (012) and (022) planes of WO 3 . The WO 3 /g-C 3 N 4 composite also exhibited a larger specific surface area and higher degree of crystallization than WO 3 or pure g-C 3 N 4 , which resulted in high catalytic activity of the catalyst. Desulfurization experiments demonstrated that the desulfurization rate of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil reached 91.2% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the activity of the catalyst was not significantly decreased after five recycles.

  17. Contribution to the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction and by the decomposition of UC$_2$; Beitrag zur U$_2$C$_3$-bildung nach der synthetischen reaktion und durch zerfall von UC$_2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschinelli, A. J.A.

    1974-06-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the mechanism and of the kinetics of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation by the synthetic reaction. The influences of a mechanical and a thermical pre-treatment of the samples on the reaction kinetics were investigated and discussed taking into account other information from the literature. The relative increasing of the U$_2$C$_3$ nucleation rate due to the pulverization corresponds approximately to the surface enlargement of the pulverized material. The activation energy for the synthetic reaction in powder was found to be 94 +- 7 kcal/mol. The negative influence of nitrogen, oxygen and tungsten on the U$_2$C$_3$ formation was reported. In the decomposition of UC$_2$ to U$_2$C$_3$ and graphite, the influences of the morphology of the graphite precipitate and the fast neutron irradiation on the beginning of the U$_2$C$_3$ formation were also investigated.

  18. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. © 2013.

  19. Photocatalytic decomposition of N2O over TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, K.; Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M.; Kupková, J.; Kustrowski, P.; Praus, P.

    2017-02-01

    TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the various TiO2/g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C3N4 was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C3N4 but pure TiO2 proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO2. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C3N4 amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO2 and g-C3N4 have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C3N4. This is probably due to the generation of heterojunction on the TiO2/g-C3N4 interface.

  20. Synthesis of g-C3N4/Ag3PO4 heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peizhi; Song, Limin; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The results show that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 possesses a much higher activity for the decomposition of RhB than that of the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles. The most mechanism is that g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst can efficiently separate the photogenerated electron–hole pairs, enhancing the photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 composites. - Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction showed much higher activity than that of Ag 3 PO 4 . • The high activity could be attributed to g-C 3 N 4 for modifying Ag 3 PO 4 . • More ·OH radicals may be significant reason to improve Ag 3 PO 4 activity. - Abstract: g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst with visible-light response was prepared by a facile coprecipitation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the obtained samples were tested by using Rhodamine B (RhB) as the degradation target under visible light irradiation. g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 decomposed RhB more effectively than the pure Ag 3 PO 4 particles did, and 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 had the highest activity. Furthermore, 2 wt.% g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 degraded high-concentration RhB more potently than unmodified Ag 3 PO 4 did, probably because g-C 3 N 4 /Ag 3 PO 4 heterojunction photocatalyst enhanced the photocatalytic activity by efficiently separating the photogenerated electron–hole pairs