WorldWideScience

Sample records for c2d spitzer-irs spectra

  1. IRSFRINGE: Interactive tool for fringe removal from Spitzer IRS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRS Team at Cornell University

    2016-02-01

    IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).

  2. A systematic search for the spectra with features of crystalline silicates in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Jiaming; Jiang, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline silicates features are mainly reflected in infrared bands. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) collected numerous spectra of various objects and provided a big database to investigate crystalline silicates in a wide range of astronomical environments. We apply the manifold ranking algorithm to perform a systematic search for the spectra with crystalline silicates features in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products available. In total, 868 spectra of 790 sources are found to show the features of crystalline silicate. These objects are cross-matched with the SIMBAD database as well as with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)/DR2. The average spectrum of young stellar objects show a variety of features dominated either by forsterite or enstatite or neither, while the average spectrum of evolved objects consistently present dominant features of forsterite in AGB, OH/IR, post-AGB and planetary nebulae. They are identified optically as early-type stars, evolved stars...

  3. Principal Component Analysis and Radiative Transfer modelling of Spitzer IRS Spectra of Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, Peter D; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterise the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilise the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. We further investigate the principal components (PCs) of ULIRGs derived in Wang et al.(2011). We quantitatively show that five PCs is optimal for describing the IRS spectra. These five components (PC1-PC5) and the mean spectrum provide a template basis set that reproduces spectra of all z<0.35 ULIRGs within the noise. For comparison, the spectra are also modelled with a combination of radiative transfer models of both starbursts and the dusty torus surrounding active gala...

  4. Mid-Infrared Atomic Fine-Structure Emission Line Spectra of Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Spitzer/IRS Spectra of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Inami, H; Charmandaris, V; Groves, B; Kewley, L; Petric, A; Stierwalt, S; Díaz-Santos, T; Surace, J; Rich, J; Haan, S; Howell, J; Evans, A; Mazzarella, J; Marshall, J; Appleton, P; Lord, S; Spoon, H; Frayer, D; Matsuhara, H; Veilleux, S

    2013-01-01

    We present the data and our analysis of MIR fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/IRS high-res spectra of 202 local LIRGs observed as part of the GOALS project. We detect emission lines of [SIV], [NeII], [NeV], [NeIII], [SIII]18.7, [OIV], [FeII], [SIII]33.5, and [SiII]. Over 75% of our galaxies are classified as starburst (SB) sources in the MIR. We compare ratios of the emission line fluxes to stellar photo- and shock-ionization models to constrain the gas properties in the SB nuclei. Comparing the [SIV]/[NeII] and [NeIII]/[NeII] ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the line ratios suggest that the SB in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5Myr, metallicities of 1-2Z_sun, and ionization parameters of 2-8e7cm/s. Based on the [SIII]/[SIII] ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei has a median electron density of ~300cm-3 for sources above the low density limit. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 SB sources. A significant fraction of the ...

  5. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. III. [Ne II], [Fe I], and H-2 gas-phase lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline E.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a survey of mid-infrared gas-phase lines toward a sample of 76 circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" legacy program. We report the first detections of [ Ne II] and [ Fe I] toward classical T Tauri stars in similar to 20% and similar

  6. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]18.7μm, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]33.5μm, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z☉, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 107 cm s–1. Based on the [S III]33.5μm/[S III]18.7μm ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm–3, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm–3, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s–1) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s–1. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential, suggesting the possibility of a compact energy source and stratified interstellar medium in their

  7. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer IRS R ∼ 600 spectra (10 - 38 μm) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude of and including the Arches Cluster. Our positions include the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ''Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud MO.13-0.13, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line of sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O+3 and destroy dust grains, releasing iron into the interstellar medium (ISM); the shock effects are particularly noticeable in the center of the Bubble but the highly ionized gas is present in all positions. The H2 lines are formed both in photodissociation regions in the GC and along the line of sight to the GC

  8. Emission from Water Vapor and Absorption from Other Gases at 5-7.5 Microns in Spitzer-IRS Spectra of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Watson, Dan M; Calvet, N; Furlan, E; Kim, K -H; Green, J; Pontoppidan, K; Richter, I; Tayrien, C

    2014-01-01

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) 5-7.5 micron spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 microns due to the nu_2 = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures > 500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seen in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other six of the thirteen stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 microns, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H2CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission....

  9. Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of high mass precursors to planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Perea-Calderon, J. V.; Bobrowsky, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS observations of a small sample of heavily obscured IRAS sources displaying both the infrared and OH maser emission characteristic of OH/IR stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), but also radio continuum emission typical of ionized planetary nebulae (PNe), the so-called OHPNe. Our observations show that their mid-infrared spectra are dominated by the simultaneous presence of strong and broad amorphous silicate absorption features together with crystalline silicate f...

  10. The Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and MIPS debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. We carried out two separate SED analyses. (1) For all targets, we modeled the IRS and MIPS 70 micron data (where available) assuming that the SEDs were well-described using, zero, one or two temperature black bodies. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. (2) For a subset of 120 targets with 10 and/or 20 micron silicate features, we modeled the data using spherical silicate (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) grains located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or two thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. We present a demographic analysis of the disk properties. For example, we find that the majority of debris disks are better fit using two dust components, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and that the size distribution of dust grains is consistent with a collisional cascade.

  11. A Spitzer c2d Legacy Survey to Identify and Characterize Disks with Inner Dust Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Merín, Bruno; Oliveira, Isa; Herczeg, Gregory J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Evans, Neal J; Cieza, Lucas; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcalá, Juan M; Harvey, Paul M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bayo, Amelia; Geers, Vincent G; Lahuis, Fred; Prusti, Timo; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Olofsson, Johan; Walter, Frederick M; Chiu, Kuenley

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. However, identifying exactly how dust and gas dissipates is complicated due to difficulty in finding objects clearly in the transition of losing their surrounding material. We use Spitzer IRS spectra to examine 35 photometrically-selected candidate cold disks (disks with large inner dust holes). The infrared spectra are supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties and 1.3mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed SED modeling, we identify 15 new cold disks. The remaining 20 objects have IRS spectra that are consistent with disks without holes, disks that are observed close to edge-on, or stars with background emission. Based on these results, we determine reliable criteria for identifying disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry and examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d surveyed star-forming regions gives a frequency of such objects of at...

  12. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Spatially resolved mid-infrared observations with Spitzer/IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Colina, Luis; Engelbracht, Charles W; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Smith, J D T

    2009-01-01

    Luminous Infrared (IR) Galaxies (LIRGs) are an important cosmological class of galaxies as they are the main contributors to the co-moving star formation rate density of the universe at z=1. In this paper we present a GTO Spitzer IRS program aimed to obtain spectral mapping of a sample of 14 local (d<76Mpc) LIRGs. The data cubes map, at least, the central 20arcsec x 20arcsec to 30arcsec x 30arcsec regions of the galaxies, and use all four IRS modules covering the full 5-38micron spectral range. The final goal of this project is to characterize fully the mid-IR properties of local LIRGs as a first step to understanding their more distant counterparts. In this paper we present the first results of this GTO program. The IRS spectral mapping data allow us to build spectral maps of the bright mid-IR emission lines (e.g., [NeII], [NeIII], [SIII], H_2), continuum, the 6.2 and 11.3micron PAH features, and the 9.7micron silicate feature, as well as to extract 1D spectra for regions of interest in each galaxy. The I...

  13. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center: Shocked Gas in the Radio Arc Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Rubin, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra (R ~600, 10 - 38 micron) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude and spanning plus/minus 0.3 degrees in latitude. Our positions include the Arches Cluster, the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ``Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line-of-sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [S IV], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H_2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The Ne/H and S/H abundance ratios are ~ 1.6 times that of the Orion Nebula. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O^{+3} and destroy dust grains, ...

  14. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectral Maps of the Superwind in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Lehnert, M D; Guillard, P; Heckman, T; Draine, B; Hollenbach, D; Walter, F; Sheth, K; Smith, J D; Shopbell, P; Boulanger, F; Surace, J; Hoopes, C; Engelbracht, C

    2015-01-01

    We have mapped the superwind/halo region of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 in the mid-infrared with $Spitzer-IRS$. The spectral regions covered include the H$_2 S(1)-S(3)$, [NeII], [NeIII] emission lines and PAH features. We estimate the total warm H$_2$ mass and the kinetic energy of the outflowing warm molecular gas to be between $M_{warm}\\sim5-17\\times10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ and $E_{K}\\sim6-20\\times10^{53}$ erg. Using the ratios of the 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 micron PAH features in the IRS spectra, we are able to estimate the average size and ionization state of the small grains in the superwind. There are large variations in the PAH flux ratios throughout the outflow. The 11.3/7.7 and the 6.2/7.7 PAH ratios both vary by more than a factor of five across the wind region. The Northern part of the wind has a significant population of PAH's with smaller 6.2/7.7 ratios than either the starburst disk or the Southern wind, indicating that on average, PAH emitters are larger and more ionized. The warm molecular gas to PAH f...

  15. Spatial variations of PAH properties in M17SW revealed by Spitzer/IRS spectral mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, M; Ishihara, D; Oyabu, S; Suzuki, T; Onaka, T; Nagayama, T; Umemoto, T; Minamidani, T; Nishimura, A; Matsuo, M; Fujita, S; Tsuda, Y; Kohno, M; Ohashi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br$\\gamma$ and Nobeyama 45-m/FOREST $^{13}$CO ($J$=1--0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 $\\mu$m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the HII region traced by Br$\\gamma$ and the molecular cloud traced by $^{13}$CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially-resolved maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 $\\mu$m/PAH 11.3 $\\mu$m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the ionization degree of PAHs is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find tha...

  16. A Spitzer/IRS spectral study of a sample of galactic carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Hrivnak, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopic observations have shown that proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are sites of active synthesis of organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This paper presents a study of Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of carbon-rich PPNs, all except one of which show the unidentified 21 micron emission feature. The strengths of the aromatic infrared band (AIB), 21 micron, and 30 micron features are obtained by decomposition of the spectra. The observed variations in the strengths and peak wavelengths of the features support the model that the newly synthesized organic compounds gradually change from aliphatic to aromatic characteristics as stars evolve from PPNs to planetary nebulae.

  17. MARCS-Model Stellar Atmospheres, and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L

    2004-01-01

    We describe state-of-the-art MARCS-code model atmospheres generated for a group of A dwarf, G dwarf, and late-G to mid-K giant standard stars, selected to photometrically calibrate the Spitzer-IRS, and compare the synthetic spectra to observations of HR 6688, HR 6705, and HR 7891. The general calibration processes and uncertainties are briefly described, and the differences between various templated composite spectra of the standards are addressed. In particular, a contrast between up-to-date model atmospheres and previously published composite and synthetic spectra is illustrated for wavelength ranges around 8um (where the SiO Delta(v) = 1 band occurs for the cooler standards) and lambda greater than 20um, where the use of the Engelke function will lead to increasingly large discrepancies due to the neglect of gravity in cool stars. At this point, radiometric requirements are being met, absolute flux calibration uncertainties (1-sigma) are ~20% in the SH and LH, and ~15% in the SL and LL data, and order-to-o...

  18. Disentangling protostellar evolutionary stages in clustered environments using Spitzer-IRS spectra and comprehensive SED modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Forbrich, Jan; Tappe, Achim; Robitaille, Thomas; Muench, August A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Stolte, Andrea; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    When studying the evolutionary stages of protostars that form in clusters, the role of any intracluster medium cannot be neglected. High foreground extinction can lead to situations where young stellar objects (YSOs) appear to be in earlier evolutionary stages than they actually are, particularly when using simple criteria like spectral indices. To address this issue, we have assembled detailed SED characterizations of a sample of 56 Spitzer-identified candidate YSOs in the clusters NGC 2264 ...

  19. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the Spitzer/

  20. Spitzer/IRS Observations of Seyfert 1.8 and 1.9 Galaxies: Probing the Dusty Torus at Intermediate Viewing Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steven; Crenshaw, Michael; Dietrich, Matthias; Elitzur, Moshe; Gull, Theodore; Teplitz, Harry; Turner, Jane

    2004-09-01

    According to the unified model for AGN, Seyfert 1.8 and 1.9 galaxies are viewed at inclinations between those of Seyfert 1s (face-on) and Seyfert 2s (edge-on) with respect to the source of obscuration, typically envisioned as a dusty torus. This view is supported by the weak broad emission-line components of the Balmer lines, with ratios that are consistent with significant (E(B-V} ~ 1 mag) reddening of the broad-line region. Mid-IR spectra are the only means with which to probe the circumnuclear gas in these intermediate Seyferts and constrain the physical structure of the torus, such as its size, scale height, and clumpiness. Seyfert 1.8s and 1.9s also tend to possess relatively weak high ionization narrow lines (e.g. [Fe~VII] 6087 A) compared to Seyfert 1s, suggesting that the dusty circumnuclear gas may also obscure the inner narrow line region. We request Spitzer IRS spectra of 12 Seyfert 1.8s and 1.9s in order to 1) determine the temperature of the dust, and hence its radial distance from the central engine, to test for a torus origin, 2) determine the scale height and clumpiness of the torus atmosphere via the silicate 10 feature and comparisons with clumpy torus models, and 3) penetrate the obscuring gas via mid-IR emission lines, such as [Ne~V] 14.3 microns and [O~IV] 25.9 microns, to reveal the hidden high-ionization inner narrow line region. We have selected targets with host galaxies that are close to face-on, to minimize contamination of the mid-IR spectra by dust in their galactic planes. Among the more than 60 Seyferts in the Spitzer/IRS reserved target catalog, there are only a handful of true Seyfert 1.8s and 1.9s, and all of these have inclined (b/a < 0.5 ) host galaxies.

  1. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects II: CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Fraser, Helen J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Blake, Geoffrey A; Lahuis, Fred; Oberg, Karin I; Evans, Neal J; Salyk, Colette

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy of the CO2 15.2 micron bending mode toward a sample of 50 embedded low-mass stars in nearby star-forming clouds, taken mostly from the ``Cores to Disks (c2d)'' Legacy program. The average abundance of solid CO2 relative to water in low-mass protostellar envelopes is 0.32 +/- 0.02, significantly higher than that found in quiescent molecular clouds and in massive star forming regions. It is found that a decomposition of all the observed CO2 bending mode profiles requires a minimum of five unique components. Roughly 2/3 of the CO2 ice is found in a water-rich environment, while most of the remaining 1/3 is found in a CO environment. Ground-based observations of solid CO toward a large subset of the c2d sample are used to further constrain the CO2:CO component and suggest a model in which low-density clouds form the CO2:H2O component and higher density clouds form the CO2:CO ice during and after the freeze-out of gas-phase CO. It is suggested that the subsequent evolut...

  2. Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr-old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-Rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We describe Spitzer IRS spectroscopic observations of the 10 Myr-old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 {\\mu}m to 35 {\\mu}m confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with LD/L\\star ~ 10-3, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr-old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g. HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to pyroxene ratio of ~ 2 also provide...

  3. The physical properties of Spitzer/IRS galaxies derived from their UV to 22 $\\mu$m spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Vika, Marina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Xilouris, Emmanuel M; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2016-01-01

    We provide the basic integrated physical properties of all the galaxies contained in the full CASSIS with available broad-band photometry from UV to 22 $\\mu$m. We have collected photometric measurements in 14 wavelengths from available public surveys in order to study the SED of each galaxy in CASSIS, thus constructing a final sample of 1,146 galaxies in the redshift range 0Spitzer/IRS galaxies are star-forming and lie on or above the star-forming MS of the corresponding redshift. Moreover, the emission of Spitzer/IRS galaxies with z<0.1 is mostly dominated by star-formation, galaxies in the mid-redshift bin are a mixture of star forming and AGN galaxies, wh...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: c2d Spitzer final data release (DR4) (Evans+, 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J., II; Allen, L. E.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bourke, T.; Harvey, P. M.; Kessler, J. E.; Koerner, D. W.; Lee, C. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Myers, P. C.; Padgett, D. L.; Pontoppidan, K.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Young, C. H.; Young, K. E.

    2014-05-01

    This is the final delivery (DR4, Fall 2006 and Fall 2007) of the Spitzer Space Telescope "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d) Legacy Project. The data are also available as Enhanced Products from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). c2d has delivered 867 catalogs. IRSA has merged these delivered catalogs into four groups - Clouds, Off-Cloud, Cores, Stars - and serves them through the general catalog search engine Gator. Many of the delivered catalogs, images and spectra are accessible through IRSA's general search service, Atlas. As a service to its users, the CDS has downloaded a dataset containing most of the c2d data (but not all columns) from the IRSA archive. The individual catalogs are listed below: C2D Fall '07 Full CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 High Reliability (HREL) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 Full STARS Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) STARS Catalog These tables have been merged into a single table at CDS. All three SIRTF instruments (Infrared Array Camera [IRAC], Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF [MIPS], and Infrared Spectrograph [IRS]) were used to observe sources that span the evolutionary sequence from molecular cores to protoplanetary disks, encompassing a wide range of cloud masses, stellar masses, and star-forming environments. (1 data file).

  5. Determination of the Ground Vibrational State Parameters of the C2D4 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, F.; Gromova, O. V.; Buttersack, T.

    2016-07-01

    The object of the study is the C2D4 molecule, as it is important to know its properties to address numerous problems of molecular physics. The analysis of high-resolution spectra of the deuterated ethylene molecule was made in the range of 600-1200 cm-1, specifically bands ν7 and ν12. The results obtained were used to determine high-accurate values of the vibrational-rotational levels of the ground vibrational state of the C2D4 molecule.

  6. Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

    2014-01-01

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

  7. A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Beirao, P; Helou, G; Appleton, P N; Smith, J -D T; Croxall, K V; Murphy, E J; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Wolfire, M G; Sandstrom, K M; Aniano, G; Bolatto, A D; Groves, B; Brandl, B R; Schinnerer, E; Crocker, A F; Hinz, J L; Rix, H -W; Kennicutt, R C; Calzetti, D; de Paz, A Gil; Dumas, G; Galametz, M; Gordon, K D; Hao, C -N; Johnson, B; Koda, J; Krause, O; van der Laan, T; Leroy, A K; Li, Y; Meidt, S E; Meyer, J D; Rahman, N; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Srinivasan, S; Vigroux, L; Walter, F; Warren, B E

    2012-01-01

    NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far infrared (FIR) [CII]158um and [OI]63um lines and mid-infrared H2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS, and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158um+[OI]63um)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7um PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158{\\mu}m/PAH(5.5 - 14um) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158um and [OI]63um emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. SED modeling indicates that at most ...

  8. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautista, Manuel [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI 49008-5252 (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  9. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Appleton, P N; Groves, B; Armus, L; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Smith, J D; Charmandaris, V; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (~ 35 parsec) 5-38 um spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths of key diagnostic features, such as the [NeII]12.8um, [NeIII]15.5um, and H_2 S(1)17.03um lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analysed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18um PAH complex is very prominent, and its equivalent width is enhanced outwards from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3um PAH fe...

  10. Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Galactic Center. 1; Spectroscopic Identification from Spitzer/IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris; Arendt, Richard G.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Cotera, Angela S.; Smith, Howard A.; Stolovy, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from our spectroscopic study, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, designed to identify massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic Center (GC). Our sample of 107 YSO candidates was selected based on IRAC colors from the high spatial resolution, high sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC images in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), which spans the central approximately 300 pc region of the Milky Way Galaxy. We obtained IRS spectra over 5 micron to 35 micron using both high- and low-resolution IRS modules. We spectroscopically identify massive YSOs by the presence of a 15.4 micron shoulder on the absorption profile of 15 micron CO2 ice, suggestive of CO2 ice mixed with CH30H ice on grains. This 15.4 micron shoulder is clearly observed in 16 sources and possibly observed in an additional 19 sources. We show that 9 massive YSOs also reveal molecular gas-phase absorption from C02, C2H2, and/or HCN, which traces warm and dense gas in YSOs. Our results provide the first spectroscopic census of the massive YSO population in the GC. We fit YSO models to the observed spectral energy distributions and find YSO masses of 8 - 23 solar Mass, which generally agree with the masses derived from observed radio continuum emission. We find that about 50% of photometrically identified YSOs are confirmed with our spectroscopic study. This implies a preliminary star formation rate of approximately 0.07 solar mass/yr at the GC.

  11. A Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic atlas of early-type galaxies in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Rampazzo, R; Vega, O; Marino, A; Bressan, A; Clemens, M S

    2013-01-01

    We produce an atlas of homogeneously reduced and calibrated low resolution IRS spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby early-type galaxies (i.e. Es and S0s, ETGs), in order to build a reference sample in the mid-infrared window. From the Spitzer Heritage Archive we extract ETGs in the "Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies" having an IRS SL and/or LL spectrum. We recover 91 spectra out of 363 galaxies classified as ETGs in the catalog: 56 E (E0-E6), 8 mixed E/S0+S0/E, 27 S0 (both normal and barred - SB0) plus mixed types SB0/Sa+SB0/SBa. For each galaxy, we provide the fully reduced and calibrated spectrum, the intensity of nebular and molecular emission lines as well as of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) after a template spectrum of a passively evolving ETG has been subtracted. Spectra are classified into five mid-infrared classes, ranging from AGN (class-4) and star forming nuclei (class-3), transition class-2 (with PAHs) and class-1 (no-PAHs) to passively evolving nuclei (class-0). A ...

  12. The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3 and CH3OH

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and HCOOCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. (...) In this work, we investigate the ~ 8-10 micron region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 micron silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH3- and CH3OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ~9 micron in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH3 nu_2 umbrella mode, and derive abundances with respect to w...

  13. Mid-IR properties of Seyferts: Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the IRAS 12micron Seyfert sample

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Huang, J; Spinoglio, L; Tommasin, S

    2009-01-01

    We performed an analysis of the mid-infared properties of the 12micron Seyfert sample, a complete unbiased 12micron flux limited sample of local Seyfert galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, based on low resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed presentation of this analysis is dicussed in Wu et al. (2009). We find that on average, the 15-30micron slope of the continuum is -0.85+/-0.61 for Seyfert 1s and -1.53+/-0.84 for Seyfert 2s, and there is substantial scatter in each type. Moreover, nearly 32% of Seyfert 1s, and 9% of Seyfert 2s, display a peak in the mid-infrared spectrum at 20micron, which is attributed to an additional hot dust component. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent width decreases with increasing dust temperature, as indicated by the global infrared color of the host galaxies. However, no statistical difference in PAH equivalent width is detected between the two Seyfert types, 1 and 2, of the...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Dunham, M. M.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Enoch, M. L.; Merin, B.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Alcala, J. M.; Myers, P. C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Huard, T. L.; Allen, L. E.; Harvey, P. M.; van Kempen, T.; Blake, G. A.; Koerner, D. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Padgett, D. L.; Sargent, A. I.

    2009-10-01

    The observations here were all obtained by the c2d project or by GTO observations that we have included in our data. They have been described in the publications given hereafter: Five large clouds were selected for the c2d project: Serpens (Eiroa et al., 2008hsf2.book..693E), Perseus (Bally et al., 2008hsf1.book..308B), Ophiuchus (Wilking et al., 2008hsf2.book..351W), Lupus (Comeron, 2008hsf2.book..295C), and Chamaeleon (Luhman, 2008hsf2.book..169L). (5 data files).

  15. Overexpression of IL-10 in C2D macrophages promotes a macrophage phenotypic switch in adipose tissue environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linglin; Fu, Qiang; Ortega, Teresa M; Zhou, Lun; Rasmussen, Dane; O'Keefe, Jacy; Zhang, Ke K; Chapes, Stephen K

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages are a heterogeneous collection of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, secreted by a variety of cell types including M2 macrophages. We generated a macrophage cell line stably overexpressing IL-10 (C2D-IL10) and analyzed the C2D-IL10 cells for several macrophage markers after exposure to adipocytes compared to C2D cells transfected with an empty vector (C2D-vector). C2D-IL10 macrophage cells expressed more CD206 when co-cultured with adipocytes than C2D-vector cells; while the co-cultured cell mixture also expressed higher levels of Il4, Il10, Il1β and Tnf. Since regular C2D cells traffic to adipose tissue after adoptive transfer, we explored the impact of constitutive IL-10 expression on C2D-IL10 macrophages in adipose tissue in vivo. Adipose tissue-isolated C2D-IL10 cells increased the percentage of CD206(+), CD301(+), CD11c(-)CD206(+) (M2) and CD11c(+)CD206(+) (M1b) on their cell surface, compared to isolated C2D-vector cells. These data suggest that the expression of IL-10 remains stable, alters the C2D-IL10 macrophage cell surface phenotype and may play a role in regulating macrophage interactions with the adipose tissue.

  16. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  17. High resolution analysis of C2D4 in the region of 600-1150 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, Fangce; Sydow, C.; Maul, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2016-10-01

    High-accurate Fourier-transform infrared spectra of C2D4 were recorded and analyzed in the region of 600-1150 cm-1 where the bands ν7(B1u), ν10(B2u), ν12(B3u) are located as well as the ν4(Au) band which is forbidden by the symmetry of the molecule. The ground state rotational structure was re-analyzed by the use of ground state combination differences obtained on the basis of infrared transitions of the ν12 and ν7 absorption bands. This gave us the possibility to considerably improve the rotational and centrifugal parameters of the ground vibrational state. The analysis of the experimental data and the subsequent weighted-fit procedure of the Hamiltonian parameters allowed us to reproduce the initial 4405 "experimental" ro-vibrational energy values with the drms = 2.1 ×10-4cm-1.

  18. The water abundance behind interstellar shocks: results from $Herschel$/PACS and $Spitzer$/IRS observations of H$_2$O, CO, and H$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Neufeld, David A.; Gusdorf, Antoine; Güsten, Rolf; Herczeg, Greg J.; Kristensen, Lars,; Melnick, Gary J.; Nisini, Brunella; Ossenkopf, Volker; Tafalla, Mario; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of $Herschel$ measurements of far-infrared CO and H$_2$O line emissions in combination with $Spitzer$ measurements of mid-IR H$_2$ rotational emissions. We present far-infrared line spectra obtained with $Herschel$'s PACS instrument in range spectroscopy mode towards two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivoca...

  19. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. IV. Lupus Observed with MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Nicholas L; Mundy, Lee G; Evans, Neal J; Brooke, Timothy Y; Cieza, Lucas A; Spiesman, William J; Rebull, Luisa M; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Lanz, Lauranne; Allen, Lori E; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bourke, Tyler L; Harvey, Paul M; Huard, Tracy L; Jørgensen, Jes K; Koerner, David W; Myers, Philip C; Padgett, Deborah L; Sargent, Annelia I; Teuben, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Wahhaj, Zahed; Young, Kaisa E

    2007-01-01

    We present maps of 7.78 square degrees of the Lupus molecular cloud complex at 24, 70, and $160\\:\\mu$m. They were made with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument as part of the Spitzer Legacy Program, ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks'' (c2d). The maps cover three separate regions in Lupus, denoted I, III, and IV. We discuss the c2d pipeline and how our data processing differs from it. We compare source counts in the three regions with two other data sets and predicted star counts from the Wainscoat model. This comparison shows the contribution from background galaxies in Lupus I. We also create two color magnitude diagrams using the 2MASS and MIPS data. From these results, we can identify background galaxies and distinguish them from probable young stellar objects. The sources in our catalogs are classified based on their spectral energy distribution (SED) from 2MASS and Spitzer wavelengths to create a sample of young stellar object candidates. ...

  20. The deeply obscured AGN of NGC4945 I. Spitzer-IRS maps of [Ne V], [Ne II], H2 0-0 S(1), S(2), and other tracers

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J P; Spaans, M; Smith, J D

    2011-01-01

    The nearly edge-on galaxy NGC4945 is one of the closest galaxies where an AGN and starburst coexist, and is one of the brightest sources at 100 keV. Near and mid-infrared spectroscopy have shown very strong obscuration of its central region, rivaled only in strength by some of the most deeply obscured ULIRGs. We aim to determine the spatial distribution of ISM features in the central 426x426 pc^2 of NGC4945. We map the central region of NGC4945 in three Spitzer-IRS modules (SH, SL and LL). We produce maps of the flux distribution of the starburst tracers [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III] and [S IV] at 12.81, 15.56, 18.71 and 10.51 mum, respectively, and a map of the AGN narrow-line region tracer [Ne V] at 14.32 mum. We also mapped the S(1), S(2) and S(3) pure rotational lines of H2, which trace the distribution of warm molecular hydrogen. We obtained an extinction map (A_V) based on the apparent strength of the 9.7 mum silicate absorption feature. Our A_V map traces the contours of the starburst ring but the highest...

  1. The Ionized Absorber and Nuclear Environment of IRAS 13349+2438: Multi-wavelength insights from coordinated Chandra HETGS, HST STIS, HET, and Spitzer IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Julia C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Rahoui, Farid; Young, Andrew J; Brandt, William N; Hines, Dean C; Ogle, Patrick M; Reynolds, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a coordinated IR-to-X-ray spectral campaign of the QSO IRAS 13349+2438. Optical spectra reveal extreme Eigenvector-1 characteristics, but the H-beta line width argues against a NLS1 classification; we refine z=0.10853 based on [O III]. We estimate a BH mass=10^9 Msun using 2 independent methods (H-beta line width & SED fits). Blue-shifted absorption (-950km/s & -75km/s) is seen for the 1st time in STIS UV spectra from Ly-alpha, NV, & CIV. The higher velocity UV lines are coincident with the lower-ionisation (xi~1.6) X-ray warm absorber lines. A dusty multiple ionization absorber blueshifted by 700-900km/s is required to fit the X-ray data. Theoretical models comparing different ionising SEDs reveal that a UV-inclusive (i.e., the accretion disc) ionising continuum strongly impacts conclusions for the thermodynamic stability of the warm absorber. Specific to IRAS13349, an Xray-UV ionising SED favors a continuous distribution of ionisation states in a smooth flow (this paper),...

  2. The water abundance behind interstellar shocks: results from $Herschel$/PACS and $Spitzer$/IRS observations of H$_2$O, CO, and H$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, David A; Güsten, Rolf; Herczeg, Greg J; Kristensen, Lars; Melnick, Gary J; Nisini, Brunella; Ossenkopf, Volker; Tafalla, Mario; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of $Herschel$ measurements of far-infrared CO and H$_2$O line emissions in combination with $Spitzer$ measurements of mid-IR H$_2$ rotational emissions. We present far-infrared line spectra obtained with $Herschel$'s PACS instrument in range spectroscopy mode towards two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivocal detections, at one or more positions, of 12 rotational lines of water, 14 rotational lines of CO, 8 rotational lines of OH (4 lambda doublets), and 7 fine-structure transitions of atoms or atomic ions. We first used a simultaneous fit to the CO line fluxes, along with H$_2$ rotational line fluxes measured previously by $Spitzer$, to constrain the temperature and density distribution within the emitting gas; and we then investigated the water abundances implied by the observed H$_2$O line fluxes. The water line fluxes ar...

  3. The water abundance behind interstellar shocks: results from Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/IRS observations of H2O, CO, and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the water abundance in shock-heated molecular gas, making use of Herschel measurements of far-infrared (IR) CO and H2O line emissions in combination with Spitzer measurements of mid-IR H2 rotational emissions. We present far-IR line spectra obtained with Herschel's Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument in range spectroscopy mode toward two positions in the protostellar outflow NGC 2071 and one position each in the supernova remnants W28 and 3C391. These spectra provide unequivocal detections, at one or more positions, of 12 rotational lines of water, 14 rotational lines of CO, 8 rotational lines of OH (4 lambda doublets), and 7 fine-structure transitions of atoms or atomic ions. We first used a simultaneous fit to the CO line fluxes, along with H2 rotational line fluxes measured previously by Spitzer, to constrain the temperature and density distribution within the emitting gas; we then investigated the water abundances implied by the observed H2O line fluxes. The water line fluxes are in acceptable agreement with standard theoretical models for nondissociative shocks that predict the complete vaporization of grain mantles in shocks of velocity v ∼ 25 km s–1, behind which the characteristic gas temperature is ∼1300 K and the H2O/CO ratio is 1.2.

  4. Mineralogy and Thermal Properties of V-Type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for Diogenitic Material from the Spitzer IRS (5-35 Micrometers) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the thermal infrared (5-35 micrometer) spectrum of 956 Elisa as measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph ("IRS"; Houck,1.R. et .11. [20041. Astrophys, 1. SuppL 154, 18-24) together with new ground-based lightcurve data and near-IR spectra. From the visible lightcurve photometry, we determine a rotation period of 16.494 +/- 0.001 h, identify the rotational phase of the Spitzer observations, and estimate the visible absolute magnitude (Hv) at that rotational phase to be 12.58 +/- 0.04. From radiometric analysis of the thermal flux spectrum, we find that at the time of observation 956 Elisa had a projected radius of 5.3 +/- 0.4 km with a visible albedo pv = 0.142+/- 0.022, significantly lower than that of the prototype V-type asteroid, 4 Vesta. (This corresponds to a radius of 5.2 +/- 0.4 km at lightcurve mean.) Analysis with the standard thermal model (STM) results in a sub-solar temperature of 292.3 +/- 2.8 K and beaming parameter eta = 1.16 +/- 0.05. Thermophysical modeling places a lower limit of 20 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) on the thermal inertia of the asteroid's surface layer (if the surface is very smooth) but more likely values fall between 30 and 150 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) depending on the sense of rotation. The emissivity spectrum, calculated by dividing the measured thermal flux spectrum by the modeled thermal continuum, exhibits mineralogically interpretable spectral features within the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen band, the 15-16.5 micrometer Si-O-Si stretching region, and the 16-25 micrometer reststrahlen region that are consistent with pyroxene of diogenitic composition: extant diogenitic pyroxenes fall within the narrow compositional range W0(sub 2+/-1)En(sub 74+/-2)Fs(sub 24+/-1). Spectral deconvolution of the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen features indicates that up to approximately 20% olivine may also be present, suggesting an olivine-diogenite-like mineralogy. The mid-IR spectrum is inconsistent with non

  5. Reagent Vibration Effect on the Stereodynamics for the C+CD→C2+D Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ting-Xian; SHI Ying

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD→C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al. Mol. Phys. 98(2000) 1925]. The vector correlation distributions p(θr) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(θr) as well as p(θr,φr) are calculated. In addition, two polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework. The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.%We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD → C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al.Mol.Phys.98(2000)1925].The vector correlation distributions p(θΤ) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(φΤ) as well as p(θΤ,φΥ) are calculated.In addition,two polarizationdependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework.The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.The studies of the chemical reaction dynamics of C+CH and its isotopic variants have received much attention theoretically[1-7] and experimentally.[8-11]The systems are very important in the investigation of atmospheric chemistry and combustion.[12]The branching ratios between the channels were measured by using the LIF[13] method.Compared with the rare experimental work,many theoretical studies have been performed on the title reaction.

  6. Machine Learning Energies of 2 Million Elpasolite (A B C2D6) Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Felix A.; Lindmaa, Alexander; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Armiento, Rickard

    2016-09-01

    Elpasolite is the predominant quaternary crystal structure (AlNaK2F6 prototype) reported in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. We develop a machine learning model to calculate density functional theory quality formation energies of all ˜2 ×106 pristine A B C2D6 elpasolite crystals that can be made up from main-group elements (up to bismuth). Our model's accuracy can be improved systematically, reaching a mean absolute error of 0.1 eV /atom for a training set consisting of 10 ×103 crystals. Important bonding trends are revealed: fluoride is best suited to fit the coordination of the D site, which lowers the formation energy whereas the opposite is found for carbon. The bonding contribution of the elements A and B is very small on average. Low formation energies result from A and B being late elements from group II, C being a late (group I) element, and D being fluoride. Out of 2 ×106 crystals, 90 unique structures are predicted to be on the convex hull—among which is NFAl2Ca6, with a peculiar stoichiometry and a negative atomic oxidation state for Al.

  7. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XI. Lupus Observed With IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Merin, Bruno; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcala, Juan M; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul M; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Comeron, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We present c2d Spitzer/IRAC observations of the Lupus I, III and IV dark clouds and discuss them in combination with optical and near-infrared and c2d MIPS data. With the Spitzer data, the new sample contains 159 stars, 4 times larger than the previous one. It is dominated by low- and very-low mass stars and it is complete down to M $\\approx$ 0.1M$_\\odot$. We find 30-40 % binaries with separations between 100 to 2000 AU with no apparent effect in the disk properties of the members. A large majority of the objects are Class II or Class III objects, with only 20 (12%) of Class I or Flat spectrum sources. The disk sample is complete down to ``debris''-like systems in stars as small as M $\\approx$ 0.2 M$_\\odot$ and includes sub-stellar objects with larger IR excesses. The disk fraction in Lupus is 70 -- 80%, consistent with an age of 1 -- 2 Myr. However, the young population contains 20% optically thick accretion disks and 40% relatively less flared disks. A growing variety of inner disk structures is found for l...

  8. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effects of collision energy (Ecol) and five different H2CO+ vibrational modes on the reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4 over the center-of-mass Ecol range from 0.1 to 2.1 eV. Properties of various complexes and transition states were also examined computationally. Seven product channels are observed. Charge transfer (CT) has the largest cross section over the entire energy range, substantially exceeding the hard sphere cross section at high energies. Competing with CT are six channels involving transfer of one or more hydrogen atoms or protons and one involving formation of propanal, followed by hydrogen elimination. Despite the existence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface, all reactions go by direct mechanisms, except at the lowest collision energies, where short-lived complexes appear to be important. Statistical complex decay appears adequate to account for the product branching at low collision energies, however, even at the lowest energies, the vibrational effects are counter to statistical expectations. The pattern of Ecol and vibrational mode effects provide insight into factors that control reaction and interchannel competition

  9. IRS Spectra of Debris Disks in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Manoj, P; Watson, Dan; Lisse, Carey M; Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We analyze Spitzer/IRS spectra of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius-Centaurus (ScoCen) OB association. The age of these stars ranges from 11-17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer/IRS and Spitzer/MIPS to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with trunction of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  10. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopic analysis of the ν11 and ν2 + ν7 bands of 13C2D4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabona, M. G.; Tan, T. L.

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR spectrum of the ν11 band of 13C2D4 was recorded at a resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 in the 2130-2250 cm-1 region. This band was perturbed by the unobserved ν2 + ν7 band. By fitting 862 infrared transitions for the ν11 band with a rms deviation of 0.0024 cm-1 using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation including a Coriolis coupling constant, the rovibrational constants for the ν11 = 1 state and three rotational constants for the ν2 = ν7 = 1 state of 13C2D4 were derived for the first time. The band centers of ν11 and ν2 + ν7 were determined to be 2193.75982(25) cm-1 and 2184.613(11) cm-1 respectively.

  11. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-line T Tauri Stars II: New Constraints on the Timescale for Planet Building

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Harvey, Paul; Evans, Neal J; II,; Merin, Bruno; Koerner, David W; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, G A; Brooke, Timothy; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; Lai, Shih-Ping; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C; Spiesman, William; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2007-01-01

    One of the central goals of the Spitzer Legacy Project ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks'' (c2d) is to determine the frequency of remnant circumstellar disks around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTs) and to study the properties and evolutionary status of these disks. Here we present a census of disks for a sample of over 230 spectroscopically identified wTTs located in the c2d IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 4.8, and 8.0 um) and MIPS (24 um) maps of the Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Perseus Molecular Clouds. We find that ~20% of the wTTs in a magnitude limited subsample have noticeable IR-excesses at IRAC wavelengths indicating the presence of a circumstellar disk. The disk frequencies we find in these 3 regions are ~3-6 times larger than that recently found for a sample of 83 relatively isolated wTTs located, for the most part, outside the highest extinction regions covered by the c2d IRAC and MIPS maps. The disk fractions we find are more consistent with those obtained in recent Spitzer studies of wTTs in young clusters s...

  12. Spitzer IRS 16 micron Observations of the GOODS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, Harry I; Elbaz, David; Dickinson, Mark; Bridge, Carrie; Colbert, James; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Koo, David C; Papovich, Casey; Phillips, Andrew; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer 16 micron imaging of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. We survey 150 square arcminutes in each of the two GOODS fields (North and South), to an average 3 sigma depth of 40 and 65 micro-Jy respectively. We detect about 1300 sources in both fields combined. We validate the photometry using the 3-24 micron spectral energy distribution of stars in the fields compared to Spitzer spectroscopic templates. Comparison with ISOCAM and AKARI observations in the same fields show reasonable agreement, though the uncertainties are large. We provide a catalog of photometry, with sources cross correlated with available Spitzer, Chandra, and HST data. Galaxy number counts show good agreement with previous results from ISOCAM and AKARI, with improved uncertainties. We examine the 16 to 24 micron flux ratio and find that for most sources it lies within the expected locus for starbursts and infrared luminous galaxies. A color cut of S_{16}/S_{24}>1.4 selects mostly sources which lie a...

  13. An Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Kinetic Isotope Effect of C2H6 and C2D6 Reaction with OH

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fethi

    2015-10-30

    We report experimental and theoretical results for the deuterated kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) of the reaction of OH with ethane (C2H6) and deuterated ethane (C2D6). The reactions were investigated behind reflected shock waves over 800–1350 K by monitoring OH radicals near 306.69 nm using laser absorption. In addition, high level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/cc-pVTZ quantum chemical and statistical rate theory calculations were performed which agreed very well with the experimental findings. The results reported herein provide the first experimental evidence that DKIE for alkanes asymptotes to a value of 1.4 at high temperatures.

  14. Two mutant alleles of the human cytochrome P-450dbl gene (P450C2D1) associated with genetically deficient metabolism of debrisoquine and other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debrisoquine polymorphism is a clinically important genetic defect of drug metabolism affecting 5-10% of individuals in Caucasian populations. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A full-length cDNA for human cytochrome P-450db1, the deficient enzyme (also designated P450IID1 for P450 family II subfamily D isozyme 1), has recently been cloned. Leukocyte DNA from extensive metabolizers (EMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) of debrisoquine was examined by Southern analysis. Two polymorphic restriction fragments were associated with the PM phenotype when DNAs from 24 unrelated PM and 29 unrelated EM individuals were probed with P-450db1 cDNA after digestion with Xba I restriction endonuclease and Southern blotting. Seventy-five percent of PMs had either the 44-kb or the 11.5-kb fragment or both. Segregation of these restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the families of six PM probands demonstrated that each of the two fragments is allelic with the 29-kb fragment present in all EM individuals and suggests that they identify two independent mutated alleles of the P-450db1 gene (designated P450C2D1). The Xba I 44-kb fragment and 11.5-kb fragment were in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by four and five additional restriction endonucleases, respectively, which can be used to identify the same mutant alleles for the P-450db1 gene

  15. Coarticulació i assimilació en fonologia. Dades de moviment lingual sobre els grups consonàntics amb C2=/d/ en català

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Recasens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry technique (EMMA for the investigation of tongue tip and tongue blade activity during the production of Catalan clusters consisting of consonants specified for adjacent places of articulation. C2 of these clusters is /d/ (a dental in Catalan; C1 is either an alveolar (/1/, /n/, /r/, /z/, a post-alveolar (/?/ or an alveopalatal (/?/. Apical and laminal trajectories for these clusters are compared to those for intervocalic /d/ and for intervocalic C 1. Data show the presence of a single dental articulation for /nd/ and /1d/ and of two sequential articulatory places (alveolar for Cl and dental for C2 in the case of the cluster /rd/. The clusters /zd/ and /?d/ are produced with an alveolar place followed by an intermediate place between the dental and the alveolar zone, which indicates progressive co-articulatory effects (or even progressive assimilation from Cl fricative onto C2=/d/. Finally, the production of the sequence /?d/ involves presumably gestural blending resulting into an intermediate location between that for C1 and that for C2. The notion of «articulatory constraint» is discussed in the light of these results.

  16. A study of the ground states of CaC2H+2,CaC2D+2 and CaC2H+4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The geometries, vibrational frequencies and bind energies are reported for the ground states of CaC2H+2, CaC2D+2 and CaC2H+4. CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 equilibrium geometries have C2v symmetry with the metal ion lying in the perpendicular bisector of the C-C bond. The ground state in both CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 molecules ia a 2A1 state and the binding in the ground state is mainly electrostatic. For both CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 the ligand is only slightly distorted from its free ligand structure, the C-C distance has hardly increased and there is only a very small bending of the H atom away from the Ca atom. This is consistent with the electrostatic nature of the bonding. Two different approaches-Hartree-Fock(HF) and density functional theory methods(DFT)-are used and basis sets here used is 6-311+G(3df,2p). The DFT results are in good agreement with experiments, namely, DFT methods provide the benefits that some more expensive ab initio methods can do, but at essentially HF cost. So it is important to include electron correlation for accurate results in this study.

  17. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XII. The Perseus YSO Population as Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Kaisa E; Lai, Shih-Ping; Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope mapped the Perseus molecular cloud complex with IRAC and MIPS as part of the c2d Spitzer Legacy project. This paper combines the observations from both instruments giving an overview of low-mass star formation across Perseus from 3.6 to 70 micron. We provide an updated list of young stellar objects with new classifications and source fluxes from previous works, identifying 369 YSOs in Perseus with the Spitzer dataset. By synthesizing the IRAC and MIPS maps of Perseus and building on the work of previous papers in this series (Jorgensen et al. 2006, Rebull et al. 2007), we present a current census of star formation across the cloud and within smaller regions. 67% of the YSOs are associated with the young clusters NGC 1333 and IC 348. The majority of the star formation activity in Perseus occurs in the regions around the clusters, to the eastern and western ends of the cloud complex. The middle of the cloud is nearly empty of YSOs despite containing regions of high visual extinction....

  18. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-Line T Tauri Stars. III. The Transition from Primordial Disks to Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Padgett, Deborah L; Koerner, David W; Case, April; Keller, James R; Merín, Bruno; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Brooke, Tim; Chapman, Nicholas; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 {\\mu}m Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) which are located in the same star forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 {\\mu}m) and the 24 {\\mu}m MIPS band. In the 70 {\\mu}m MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTS survey in the mid to far infrared to date, and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTS. The 70 {\\mu}m photometry for half the c2d WTTS sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, Padgett et al. (2006) and Cieza et al. (2007), are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTS, but just 5% for...

  19. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  20. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 2 x 10-3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 5 x 10-4 in 4 Myr.

  1. The 69 micron forsterite band in spectra of protoplanetary disks - Results from the Herschel DIGIT programme

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, B; Henning, Th; Evans, N J; Waters, L B F M; van Dishoeck, E F; Green, J D; Olofsson, J; Meeus, G; Maaskant, K; Dominik, C; Augereau, J C; Mulders, G D; Acke, B; Merin, B; Herczeg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Context: We have analysed Herschel-PACS spectra of 32 circumstellar disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T-Tauri stars obtained within the Herschel key programme DIGIT. In this paper we focus on the 69mu emission band of the crystalline silicate forsterite. Aims: This work provides an overview of the 69mu forsterite bands in the DIGIT sample. We aim to derive the temperature and composition of the forsterite grains. With this information, constraints can be placed on the spatial distribution of the forsterite in the disk and its formation history. Methods: Position and shape of the 69mu band are used to derive the temperature and composition of the dust by comparison to laboratory spectra of that band. We combine our data with existing Spitzer IRS spectra to compare the presence and strength of the 69mu band to the forsterite bands at shorter wavelengths. Results: A total of 32 sources have been observed, 8 of them show a 69mu emission band that can be attributed to forsterite. With the exception of the T-Tauri star...

  2. Peculiarities of the C2d3Π→a3Π band system intensities in gas discharges through CO-contained mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The paper discusses the experimental results pointing to the efficient channel of the CO vibrational to the C2 electronic energy-transfer. The radiation spectra of the d3Πg electronic state of C2 molecule are investigated and the relation of their kinetics to a vibrational excitation of CO molecules in the He-CO-O2 plasma is discussed. The changes of CO vibrational energy distribution (VED) were imposed by an application of a laser resonator to the discharge tube under investigation. It was found that the modulation of laser radiation (and VED) led to a similar changes of the spontaneous radiation from d3Πg state of C2 molecules

  3. CHARACTERIZING THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF SMALL, NEUTRAL, FULLY DEHYDROGENATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, C. J.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr., E-mail: mackie@strw.leidenuniv.nl [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a computational study to investigate the infrared spectroscopic properties of a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and their fully dehydrogenated counterparts. We constructed a database of fully optimized geometries for PAHs that is complete for eight or fewer fused benzene rings, thus containing 1550 PAHs and 805 fully dehydrogenated aromatics. A large fraction of the species in our database have clearly non-planar or curved geometries. For each species, we determined the frequencies and intensities of their normal modes using density functional theory calculations. Whereas most PAH spectra are fairly similar, the spectra of fully dehydrogenated aromatics are much more diverse. Nevertheless, these fully dehydrogenated species show characteristic emission features at 5.2 μm, 5.5 μm, and 10.6 μm; at longer wavelengths, there is a forest of emission features in the 16-30 μm range that appears as a structured continuum, but with a clear peak centered around 19 μm. We searched for these features in Spitzer-IRS spectra of various positions in the reflection nebula NGC 7023. We find a weak emission feature at 10.68 μm in all positions except that closest to the central star. We also find evidence for a weak 19 μm feature at all positions that is not likely due to C{sub 60}. We interpret these features as tentative evidence for the presence of a small population of fully dehydrogenated PAHs, and discuss our results in the framework of PAH photolysis and the formation of fullerenes.

  4. AST/RO 13CO(J=2-1) and 12CO(J=4-3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Löhr, A; Lane, A P; Myers, P C; Parshley, S C; Stark, A A; Tothill, N F H

    2007-01-01

    Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-1), 12CO(4-3), and 12CO(7-6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, ten of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-1) and 12CO(4-3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-1) linewidth to be 2.0 km/s for cores with embedded stars, and 1.8 km/s for all others. The typical 12CO(4-3) linewidth is 2.6 to 3.7 km/s for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6 to 2.3 km/s for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.9 x 10^15 cm^(-2) for cores with embedded stars, and ...

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon emission in Spitzer/IRS maps I: Catalog and simple diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, D J; Moya, L G V; Otaguro, J N; Sorkhou, S; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G G M; Peeters, E

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic HII regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5--15 $\\mu$m. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of $\\sim$4" in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the PAH emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 $\\mu$m, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 $\\mu$m. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups, the first comprising the HII regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources, the reflection nebu...

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN SPITZER/IRS MAPS. I. CATALOG AND SIMPLE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Choi, W. D.-Y.; Moya, L. G. V.; Otaguro, J. N.; Sorkhou, S.; Peeters, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M., E-mail: dstock4@uwo.ca [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic H ii regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5–15 μm. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of ∼4″ in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, and 12.7 μm, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 μm. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups: the first comprising the H ii regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources—the reflection nebula NGC 7023, the Horsehead nebula PDR (an interface between the H ii region IC 434 and the Orion B molecular cloud), and M17—resist this categorization, with the Horsehead PDR points mimicking the RNe and the NGC 7023 fluxes displaying a unique bifurcated appearance in our correlation plots. These discrepancies seem to be due to the very low radiation field experienced by the Horsehead PDR and the very clean separation between the PDR environment and a diffuse environment in the NGC 7023 observations.

  7. Spitzer IRS Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Rotational Emission Towards Translucent Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, James G; Boulanger, F; Draine, B T; Falgarone, E; Hily-Blant, P

    2011-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v=0-0) transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) towards 6 positions in two translucent high Galactic latitude clouds, DCld 300.2-16.9 and LDN 1780. The detection of these lines raises important questions regarding the physical conditions inside low-extinction clouds that are far from ultraviolet radiation sources. The ratio between the S(2) flux and the flux from PAHs at 7.9 microns averages 0.007 for these 6 positions. This is a factor of about 4 higher than the same ratio measured towards the central regions of non-active Galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). Thus the environment of these translucent clouds is more efficient at producing rotationally excited H2 per PAH-exciting photon than the disks of entire galaxies. Excitation analysis finds that the S(1) and S(2) emitting regions are warm (T >300K), but comprise no more than 2% of the gas m...

  8. Neon Abundances from a Spitzer/IRS Survey of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignace, R.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Tracy, G.; Churchwell, E.B.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on neon abundances derived from Spitzer high resolution spectral data of eight Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using the forbidden line of [Ne III] 15.56 μm. Our targets include four WN stars of subtypes 4-7, and four WC stars of subtypes 4-7. We derive ion fraction abundances γ of Ne2+ for the wind

  9. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  10. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  11. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  12. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  13. Spectra of stable sonoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lewia, Stephen D.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The continuous emission of picosecond pulses of light has been observed to originate from a bubble trapped at the pressure antinode of a resonant sound field in water and in water/glycerin mixtures. The spectra of this light in several solutions has been measured with a scanning monochrometer/photomultiplier detector system. The spectra are broadband and show strong emission in the UV region. A comparison of this measurement to two ...

  14. Complex Hydrocarbon Chemistry in Interstellar and Solar System Ices Revealed: A Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ethane (C2H6) and D6-Ethane (C2D6) Ices Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-08-01

    The irradiation of pure ethane (C2H6/C2D6) ices at 5.5 K, under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was conducted to investigate the formation of complex hydrocarbons via interaction with energetic electrons simulating the secondary electrons produced in the track of galactic cosmic rays. The chemical modifications of the ices were monitored in situ using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during temperature-programmed desorption via mass spectrometry exploiting a quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization (EI-QMS) as well as a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). FTIR confirmed previous ethane studies by detecting six molecules: methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), the ethyl radical (C2H5), 1-butene (C4H8), and n-butane (C4H10). However, the TPD phase, along with EI-QMS, and most importantly, PI-ReTOF-MS, revealed the formation of at least 23 hydrocarbons, many for the first time in ethane ice, which can be arranged in four groups with an increasing carbon-to-hydrogen ratio: C n H2n+2 (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10), C n H2n (n = 3-10), {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-2 (n = 3-10), and {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-4 (n = 4-6). The processing of simple ethane ices is relevant to the hydrocarbon chemistry in the interstellar medium, as ethane has been shown to be a major product of methane, as well as in the outer solar system. These data reveal that the processing of ethane ices can synthesize several key hydrocarbons such as C3H4 and C4H6 isomers, which ha­ve been found to synthesize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like indene (C9H8) and naphtha­lene (C10H8) in the ISM and in hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons such as Titan.

  15. Spectra and strains

    CERN Document Server

    Golyshev, V

    2008-01-01

    This is a blend of two informal reports on the activities of the seminar on Galois representations and mirror symmetry given at the Conference on classification problems and mirror duality at the Steklov Institute, in March 2006, and at the Seminar on Algebra, Geometry and Physics at MPI, in November 2007. We assess where we are on the issue of the spectra of Fano varieties, and state problems. We introduce higher dimensional irreducible analogues of dessins, the low ramified sheaves, and hypothesize that Fano spectra relate to their geometric conductors. We give a recipe to a physicist.

  16. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  17. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  18. Meteors and meteorites spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.; Lenža, L.; Ferus, M.; Civiš, S.; Knížek, A.; Kubelík, P.; Kaiserová, T.; Váňa, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of our meteor spectroscopy project is to better understand the physical and chemical properties of meteoroids. Astrometric and spectral observations of real meteors are obtained via spectroscopic CCD video systems. Processed meteor data are inserted to the EDMOND database (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database) together with spectral information. The fully analyzed atmospheric trajectory, orbit and also spectra of a Leonid meteor/meteoroid captured in November 2015 are presented as an example. At the same time, our target is the systematization of spectroscopic emission lines for the comparative analysis of meteor spectra. Meteoroid plasma was simulated in a laboratory by laser ablation of meteorites samples using an (ArF) excimer laser and the LIDB (Laser Induced Dielectric Breakdown) in a low pressure atmosphere and various gases. The induced plasma emissions were simultaneously observed with the Echelle Spectrograph and the same CCD video spectral camera as used for real meteor registration. Measurements and analysis results for few selected meteorite samples are presented and discussed.

  19. Sequencing BPS Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...

  20. Mid-Infrared Fine Structure Line Ratios in Active Galactic Nuclei Observed with Spitzer IRS: Evidence for Extinction by the Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Satyapal, S; Fischer, J; Dudley, C C; O'Halloran, B

    2007-01-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of the [NeV] (14um/24um) and [SIII] (18um/33um) infrared line flux ratios, traditionally used to estimate the density of the ionized gas, in a sample of 41 Type 1 and Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board Spitzer. The majority of galaxies with both [NeV] lines detected have observed [NeV] line flux ratios consistent with or below the theoretical low density limit, based on calculations using currently available collision strengths and ignoring absorption and stimulated emission. We find that Type 2 AGNs have lower line flux ratios than Type 1 AGNs and that all of the galaxies with line flux ratios below the low density limit are Type 2 AGNs. We argue that differential infrared extinction to the [NeV] emitting region due to dust in the obscuring torus is responsible for the ratios below the low density limit and we suggest that the ratio may be a tracer of the inclination angle of the torus to our line of sight. Becau...

  1. Non-Gaussian Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P G; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, Joao

    1997-01-01

    Gaussian cosmic microwave background skies are fully specified by the power spectrum. The conventional method of characterizing non-Gaussian skies is to evaluate higher order moments, the n-point functions and their Fourier transforms. We argue that this method is inefficient, due to the redundancy of information existing in the complete set of moments. In this paper we propose a set of new statistics or non-Gaussian spectra to be extracted out of the angular distribution of the Fourier transform of the temperature anisotropies in the small field limit. These statistics complement the power spectrum and act as localization, shape, and connectedness statistics. They quantify generic non-Gaussian structure, and may be used in more general image processing tasks. We concentrate on a subset of these statistics and argue that while they carry no information in Gaussian theories they may be the best arena for making predictions in some non-Gaussian theories. As examples of applications we consider superposed Gaussi...

  2. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  3. Pileup correction of microdosimetric spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Langen, K M; Lennox, A J; Kroc, T K; De Luca, P M

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra were measured at the Fermilab neutron therapy facility using low pressure proportional counters operated in pulse mode. The neutron beam has a very low duty cycle (<0.1%) and consequently a high instantaneous dose rate which causes distortions of the microdosimetric spectra due to pulse pileup. The determination of undistorted spectra at this facility necessitated (i) the modified operation of the proton accelerator to reduce the instantaneous dose rate and (ii) the establishment of a computational procedure to correct the measured spectra for remaining pileup distortions. In support of the latter effort, two different pileup simulation algorithms using analytical and Monte-Carlo-based approaches were developed. While the analytical algorithm allows a detailed analysis of pileup processes it only treats two-pulse and three-pulse pileup and its validity is hence restricted. A Monte-Carlo-based pileup algorithm was developed that inherently treats all degrees of pileup. This algorithm...

  4. Infrared spectra of some fructans

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, M.; Bekers, M.; Upite, D.; Kaminska, E.

    2002-01-01

    The FT–IR spectra of fructan – inulin (RAFTILINE), widely applied in the food industry and crystalline fructose as the main component of fructans, were studied. Special interest was to study the spectra of the levan precipitate and fructan syrup – produced by Zymomonas mobilis during the fermentation on sucrose–based medium.It was shown that levan precipitate and fructose syrup does not contain lipids and nucleic acids. Levan precipitate consists of ∼93% of fructose and admixture of glucose, ...

  5. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v2. Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  6. Complex Spectra in Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellermann, M.G. von; Jaspers, R. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Giroud, C.; Zastrow, K.D. [UKAEA Culham Laboratory Euratom Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Jupen, C. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Physics Dept.; O' Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Whiteford, A. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Applied Physics Dept.

    2005-12-15

    The need for quantitative evaluation of complex line emission spectra as observed in hot fusion plasmas initiated a challenging development of sophisticated interpretation tools based on integrating advanced atomic modelling with detailed treatment of the plasma environment. The successful merging of the two worlds has led to routine diagnostic procedures which have contributed enormously to the understanding of underlying plasma processes and also to a wide acceptance of spectroscopy as a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper three characteristic types of spectra of current and continuing interest are presented. The first is that of medium/heavy species with many ionisation stages revealed in survey VUV and XUV spectra. Such species occur as control gases, as wall materials, as ablated heavy species and possible as layered wall dopants for monitoring erosion. The spectra are complex with line-like and quasi-continuum regions and are amenable to advanced ?pattern recognition' methods. The second type is of few electron, highly ionised systems observed as line-of-sight integrated passive emission spectra in the soft X-ray region. They are analysed successfully in terms of plasma parameters through matching of observation with predicted synthetic spectra. Examples used here include highly resolved helium-like emission spectra of argon, iron and titanium observed on the tokamaks TEXTOR and Tore Supra. The third type, and the emphasis of this work, comprises spectra linked to active beam spectroscopy, that is, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES). In this case, a complex spectrum is again composed of a (usually) dominating active spectrum and an underlying passive emission spectrum. Its analysis requires modelling of both active and passive features. Examples used here are from the CXRS diagnostic at JET and TEXTOR. They display characteristic features of the main light impurity ions (C{sup +6}, He{sup +2}, N

  7. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  8. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  9. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  10. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  11. Arquitectura wormhole per a una NoC 2D-Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Aquest projecte presenta la implementació d'un disseny, i la seva posterior síntesi en una FPGA, d'una arquitectura de tipus wormhole packet switching per a una infraestructura de NetWork-On-Chip amb una topologia 2D-Mesh. Agafant un router circuit switching com a punt de partida, s'han especificat els mòduls en Verilog per tal d'obtenir l'arquitectura wormhole desitjada. Dissenyar la màquina de control per governar els flits que conformen els paquets dins la NoC,i afegir les cues a la sortid...

  12. Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kwitter, K B; Kwitter, Karen B.; Henry, Richard B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present the Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra now available at http://oitwilliams.edu/nebulae. The website offers high-quality, moderate resolution (~7-10 A FWHM) spectra of 128 Galactic planetary nebulae from 3600-9600 A, obtained by Kwitter, Henry, and colleagues with the Goldcam spectrograph at the KPNO 2.1-m or with the RC spectrograph at the CTIO 1.5-m. The master PN table contains atlas data and an image link. A selected object's spectrum is displayed in a zoomable window; line identification templates are provided. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users: researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and...

  13. Squeezed States and Helmholtz Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Francisco Delgado, C; Reyes, M A; Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A

    1997-01-01

    The 'classical interpretation' of the wave function psi(x) reveals an interesting operational aspect of the Helmholtz spectra. It is shown that the traditional Sturm-Liouville problem contains the simplest key to predict the squeezing effect for charged particle states.

  14. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...

  15. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  16. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  17. Phobos surface spectra mineralogical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.; Pendleton, Y.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; Carli, C.; La Forgia, F.; Barbieri, C.

    2014-04-01

    A mineralogical model composed of a mixture of Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and Pyroxene Glass (PM80) was presented in [1] to explain the surface reflectance of Phobos from 0.25 to 4.0 μm. The positive results we obtained, when comparing the OSIRIS data [2] extended in wavelength to include the [3,4] spectra, forced us to perform a wider comparison between our TL-PM80 model and the CRISM and OMEGA Phobos spectra presented in [5]. Such spectra cover three different regions of interest (ROIs) situated in the Phobos sub-Mars hemisphere: the interior of the Stickney crater, its eastern rim, and its proximity terrain southeast of the Reldresal crater. We decided to vary the percentage mixture of the components of our model (80% TL, 20% PM80), between pure TL and pure PM80, by means of the radiative transfer code based on the [6] formulation of the slab approximation. Once this spectral range was derived, see Fig. 1, we attempted to compare it with the [5] spectra between 0.4 and 2.6 μm, i.e. below the thermal emitted radiation, to see if any spectral match was possible. We observed that CRISM scaled spectra above 1.10 μm fall within pure Tagish Lake composition and the [1] model. The CRISM data below 1.10 μm present more discrepancies with our models, in particular for the Stickney's rim spectrum. Nevertheless the TL and PM80 components seem to be good mineralogical candidates on Phobos. We performed the same analysis with the OMEGA data and, again, we found out that the Stickney's rim spectrum lies out of our model range, while the two remaining spectra still lie between pure TL and 80% TL - 20% PM80, but indicating that a different, more complicated mixture is expected in order to explain properly both the spectral trend and the possible absorption bands located above 2.0 μm. Within this analysis, we point out that a big fraction of TL material (modeled pure or present with a minimum percentage of 80% mixed together with 20% PM80) seems to explain Phobos spectral

  18. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  19. BPS Spectra, Barcodes and Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Cirafici, Michele

    2015-01-01

    BPS spectra give important insights into the non-perturbative regimes of supersymmetric theories. Often from the study of BPS states one can infer properties of the geometrical or algebraic structures underlying such theories. In this paper we approach this problem from the perspective of persistent homology. Persistent homology is at the base of topological data analysis, which aims at extracting topological features out of a set of points. We use these techniques to investigate the topological properties which characterize the spectra of several supersymmetric models in field and string theory. We discuss how such features change upon crossing walls of marginal stability in a few examples. Then we look at the topological properties of the distributions of BPS invariants in string compactifications on compact threefolds, used to engineer black hole microstates. Finally we discuss the interplay between persistent homology and modularity by considering certain number theoretical functions used to count dyons i...

  20. Theoretical prediction of vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zefu; Dunn, Kevin M.; Boggs, James E.

    The complete harmonic force field and the diagonal and first off-diagonal cubic constants of aniline have been calculated ab initio using a 4-21 basis set augmented by addition of d functions to the nitrogen atom. The force constants were then scaled using scale factors optimized previously to give the best fit to the similarly computed vibrational spectra of benzene and its deuterated isotopomers. The vibrational spectra of aniline, aniline-NHD, and aniline-ND2 were then calculated from this scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) force field and compared with experimentally observed spectra. Several corrections were made to previously proposed empirical spectral assignments. Because of computational difficulties, no definitive statement can be made about the torsion or inversion modes of the amino group. Aside from these and the C-H stretching frequencies for which the detailed assignment is still quite uncertain, the average deviation between the observed frequencies and those obtained entirely from the scaled computed force field is 9·1 cm-1. Dipole moment derivatives and infrared absorption intensities were also calculated, but these are of lower accuracy.

  1. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  2. Parametrized spectra, multiplicative Thom spectra, and the twisted Umkehr map

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Matthew; Gepner, David

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study a general theory of objects parametrized by spaces, in the setting of infinity categories. This framework specializes to give an infinity categorical model of parametrized spectra, and we apply these foundations to study the multiplicative properties of the generalized Thom spectrum functor. As part of this work we study the Picard space of a presentable monoidal infinity category. We sharpen classical results due to Lewis about the multiplicative properties of the Thom isomorphism. Our main application is the construction of twisted Umkehr maps on twistings of generalized cohomology theories.

  3. LYAPUNOV SPECTRA FOR KAPITZA OSCILLATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyer Iqbal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we purpose a simple but realistic model of one dimensional nonlinear Kapitza oscillator driven by sin- or cos- rapidly external oscillating periodical force. The model has a parameter 2gl=a22 of dimension one, depending on the amplitude a and frequency of modulation . Changing its value we construct phase portraits of the system in the neighbourhood of fixed points and demonstrate the changing in Lyapunov spectrum. Our purpose is to observe the behavior of system at fixed points due to the different structures of the Lyapunov spectra

  4. Rotational spectra and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wollrab, James E

    1967-01-01

    Physical Chemistry, A Series of Monographs: Rotational Spectra and Molecular Structure covers the energy levels and rotational transitions. This book is divided into nine chapters that evaluate the rigid asymmetric top molecules and the nuclear spin statistics for asymmetric tops. Some of the topics covered in the book are the asymmetric rotor functions; rotational transition intensities; classes of molecules; nuclear spin statistics for linear molecules and symmetric tops; and classical appearance of centrifugal and coriolis forces. Other chapters deal with the energy levels and effects of ce

  5. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 200\\,{\\rm GeV} have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  6. Satellite spectra of heliumlike nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of heliumlike nickel, NiXXVII, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the heliumlike resonance line, the intercombination and forbidden lines, and all the associated satellites due to transitions 1s2nl - 1s2l'nl'' with N ≥ 2. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can thus be determined very accurately. The observed spectral data are in good agreement with results from the present Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic model calculations and predictions from the Z-expansion method

  7. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events.

  8. Analysing degeneracies in networks spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Marrec, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit a high degeneracy at few eigenvalues. We show that a simple transformation of the network's adjacency matrix provides an understanding of? the origins of occurrence of high multiplicities in the networks spectra. We find that the eigenvectors associated with the degenerate eigenvalues shed light on the structures contributing to the degeneracy. Since these degeneracies are rarely observed in model graphs, we present results for various cancer networks. This approach gives an opportunity to search for structures contributing to degeneracy which might have an important role in a network.

  9. Duality properties between spectra and tilings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and tilings play an important role in analysis and geometry respectively.The relations between spectra and tilings have bafied the mathematicians for a long time.Many conjectures,such as the Fuglede conjecture,are placed on the establishment of relations between spectra and tilings,although there are no desired results.In the present paper we derive some characteristic properties of spectra and tilings which highlight certain duality properties between them.

  10. Fast computation of morphological area pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2001-01-01

    An area based counterpart of the binary structural opening spectra is developed It is shown that these area opening and closing spectra can be computed using an adaptation of Tarjan's union-find algorithm These spectra provide rotation, translation, and scale invariant pattern vectors for texture an

  11. Analysis of multi-layer ERBS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmitt, G.G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosa, L.F.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nandi, S.K. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Vos, M., E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) spectra are presented. • The spectra are fitted based on physical meaningful quantities. • Very consistent results are obtained for spectra taken under different conditions. • This establishes that ERBS can be used to measure film thicknesses. - Abstract: A systematic way of analysis of multi-layer electron Rutherford backscattering spectra is described. The approach uses fitting in terms of physical meaningful parameters. Simultaneous analysis then becomes possible for spectra taken at different incoming energies and measurement geometries. Examples are given to demonstrate the level of detail that can be resolved by this technique.

  12. Action spectra of zebrafish cone photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duco Endeman

    Full Text Available Zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model in the field of visual neuroscience. Although the absorption spectra of its cone photopigments have been described, the cone action spectra were still unknown. In this study we report the action spectra of the four types of zebrafish cone photoreceptors, determined by measuring voltage responses upon light stimulation using whole cell patch clamp recordings. A generic template of photopigment absorption spectra was fit to the resulting action spectra in order to establish the maximum absorption wavelength, the A2-based photopigment contribution and the size of the β-wave of each cone-type. Although in general there is close correspondence between zebrafish cone action- and absorbance spectra, our data suggest that in the case of MWS- and LWS-cones there is appreciable contribution of A2-based photopigments and that the β-wave for these cones is smaller than expected based on the absorption spectra.

  13. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  14. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  15. Quantum entanglement without eigenvalue spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2001-01-01

    We introduce algebraic sets in complex projective spaces for the mixed states in bipartite quantum systems, which are independent of their eigenvalues and only measure the "position" of their eigenvectors, as their nonlocal invariants (ie., remaining invariant after local unitary transformations). The algebraic sets have to be the union of the linear subspaces if the mixed state is separable, and thus we give a "eigenvalue-free" criterion of separability. Based on our criterion, examples are given to illustrate that entangled mixed states which are invariant under partial transposition or fufill entropy and disorder criterion of separability can be constructed systematically. A by-product is a interesting lower bound of the Schmidt numbers of the "random" rank m mixed states in mxm sysytems. We reveal that a large part of quantum entanglement is independent of eigenvalue spectra and develop a method to measure this part of quantum enatnglement.

  16. Graviton spectra in string cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galluccio, Massimo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT); Litterio, Marco [Istituto Astronomico dell' Universita (Roma-IT); Occhionero, Franco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT)

    1996-08-01

    We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an ω³ increase and initiates an ω⁻⁷ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.

  17. Graviton Spectra in String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Galluccio, M; Occhionero, F; Galluccio, Massimo; Litterio, Marco; Occhionero, Franco

    1997-01-01

    We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an $\\omega^3$ increase and initiates an $\\omega^{-7}$ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.

  18. Power spectra of solar convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, D.Y.; Labonte, B.J.; Braun, D.C.; Duvall, T.L., Jr. (Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (Republic of China) Hawaii, University, Honolulu (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The properties of convective motions on the sun are studied using Kitt Peak Doppler images and power spectra of convection. The power peaks at a scale of about 29,000 km and drops off smoothly with wavenumber. There is no evidence of apparent energy excess at the scale of the mesogranulation proposed by other authors. The vertical and horizontal power for each wavenumber are obtained and used to calculate the vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation. The amplitude of vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation are 0.034 (+ or {minus} 0.002) km/s and 0.38 (+ or {minus} 0.01) km/s, respectively. The corresponding rms values are 0.024 (+ or {minus} 0.002) km/s and 0.27 (+ or {minus} 0.01) km/s. 25 refs.

  19. Power spectra of solar convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Labonte, B. J.; Braun, D. C.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of convective motions on the sun are studied using Kitt Peak Doppler images and power spectra of convection. The power peaks at a scale of about 29,000 km and drops off smoothly with wavenumber. There is no evidence of apparent energy excess at the scale of the mesogranulation proposed by other authors. The vertical and horizontal power for each wavenumber are obtained and used to calculate the vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation. The amplitude of vertical and horizontal velocities of the supergranulation are 0.034 (+ or - 0.002) km/s and 0.38 (+ or - 0.01) km/s, respectively. The corresponding rms values are 0.024 (+ or - 0.002) km/s and 0.27 (+ or - 0.01) km/s.

  20. Sampling ENDL Watt Fission Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2004-04-01

    All of the fission spectra in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, ENDL [1], are defined by a simple analytical function: a Watt spectrum [2], W(a,b,E') = C*Exp[-a*E']*Sinh[(b*E'){sup 1/2}]. Where the normalization, C, is given by, C = [{pi}b/4a]{sup 1/2} Exp[b/4a]/a. The coefficients a and b vary from one isotope to another and also vary weakly with the incident neutron energy. Here E' is the secondary energy, i.e., the energy at which the fission neutrons are emitted. In ENDL energy units of MeV for incident neutron energies between 0 and 20 MeV, in all cases b is very close to 1.0, and a varies over a rather small range near 1.0. Currently there are 38 fissionable isotopes in ENDL. For each of these isotopes I have parameterized a as a simple function of the incident neutron energy, and I treat b as always equal to unity. The values of these parameters are available to TART users as part of the TART CD package [3]. This parameterization coupled with the general Watt sampling method described below results in a very fast and accurate method of sampling all of the fission spectra in ENDL. In all cases I select the fissioning isotope, define a based on isotope and incident neutron energy, and then use the below described method to sample the energy E' of a neutron emitted due to fission.

  1. The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Song, Inseok; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS), which includes 159 stellar spectra (5 to 32 mic; R~100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, like blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, dominated by Hydrogen lines around A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstell...

  2. Functional Regression for Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ciollaro, Mattia; Freeman, Peter; Genovese, Christopher; Lei, Jing; O'Connell, Ross; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha forest is a portion of the observed light spectrum of distant galactic nuclei which allows us to probe remote regions of the Universe that are otherwise inaccessible. The observed Lyman-alpha forest of a quasar light spectrum can be modeled as a noisy realization of a smooth curve that is affected by a `damping effect' which occurs whenever the light emitted by the quasar travels through regions of the Universe with higher matter concentration. To decode the information conveyed by the Lyman-alpha forest about the matter distribution, we must be able to separate the smooth `continuum' from the noise and the contribution of the damping effect in the quasar light spectra. To predict the continuum in the Lyman-alpha forest, we use a nonparametric functional regression model in which both the response and the predictor variable (the smooth part of the damping-free portion of the spectrum) are function-valued random variables. We demonstrate that the proposed method accurately predicts the unobserv...

  3. On non-forking spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem; Shelah, Saharon

    2012-01-01

    Non-forking is one of the most important notions in modern model theory capturing the idea of a generic extension of a type (which is a far-reaching generalization of the concept of a generic point of a variety). To a countable first-order theory we associate its non-forking spectrum - a function of two cardinals kappa and lambda giving the supremum of the possible number of types over a model of size lambda that do not fork over a sub-model of size kappa. This is a natural generalization of the stability function of a theory. We make progress towards classifying the non-forking spectra. On the one hand, we show that the possible values a non-forking spectrum may take are quite limited. On the other hand, we develop a general technique for constructing theories with a prescribed non-forking spectrum, thus giving a number of examples. In particular, we answer negatively a question of Adler whether NIP is equivalent to bounded non-forking. In addition, we answer a question of Keisler regarding the number of cut...

  4. Circumstellar Molecular Spectra towards Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bakker, E J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of, and possible scientific gains which can be acquired from studying circumstellar molecular spectra toward evolved stars. Where can we expect circumstellar molecular spectra, why would we want to study these spectra, which molecules might be present, and what can we learn from these studies? We present an overview of reported detections, and discuss some of the results.

  5. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  6. A study of ice response spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunguang; JIA Lingling

    2009-01-01

    Some problems concerning the ice forces and ice response spectra are studied from both theoretical and practical points of view. On the basis of structural analysis,the analysis method of ice response spectra is proposed, since it plays an important role in the prediction of maximum structural response in cold regions. And it is illustrated that it is easy to study the structural response to ice using the ice response spectra.

  7. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  8. Dynamic Radio Spectra from two Fireballs

    OpenAIRE

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Lin, C. S.; J. Dowell; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the LWA1 telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a weak electron beam within the trail. The spectra of one fire...

  9. Decomposition of spectra using maximum autocorrelation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generating a low dimensional representation of the variation present in a set of spectra, e.g. reflection spectra recorded from a series of objects. The resulting low dimensional description may subseque ntly be input through variable selection schemes into cla......This paper addresses the problem of generating a low dimensional representation of the variation present in a set of spectra, e.g. reflection spectra recorded from a series of objects. The resulting low dimensional description may subseque ntly be input through variable selection schemes...

  10. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10–6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  11. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  12. POLLUX : a database of synthetic stellar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Palacios, A; Josselin, E; Martins, F; Plez, B; Belmas, M; Lebre, A

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic spectra are needed to determine fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all types of stars. They are also used for the construction of theoretical spectral libraries helpful for stellar population synthesis. Therefore, a database of theoretical spectra is required to allow rapid and quantitative comparisons to spectroscopic data. We provide such a database offering an unprecedented coverage of the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We present the POLLUX database of synthetic stellar spectra. For objects with Teff 25 000 K). Their spectra are computed with CMF_FLUX. Both high resolution (R>150 000) optical spectra in the range 3 000 to 12 000 A and spectral energy distributions extending from the UV to near--IR ranges are presented. These spectra cover the HR diagram at solar metallicity. We propose a wide variety of synthetic spectra for various types of stars in a format that is compliant with the Virtual Observatory standards. A user--friendly web interface allows an easy selection of spectra...

  13. (abstract) Spectra of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Hayward, T. L.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of Hale-Bopp were acquired in mid-1996 at R > 3.5 AU. Strong silicate emission is present in all the spectra. The shape of the feature is very similar to that seen in comet P/Halley. This is the first time that a strong silicate feature has been detected in a comet beyond 2 AU.

  14. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  15. Diffuse interstellar bands in RAVE survey spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munari, U.; Tomasella, L.; Fiorucci, M.; Bienayme, O.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Campbell, R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F. G.; Williams, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have used spectra of hot stars from the RAVE Survey in order to investigate the visibility and properties of five diffuse interstellar bands previously reported in the literature. The RAVE spectroscopic survey for Galactic structure and kinematics records CCD spectra covering the 8400-8800 angstr

  16. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.;

    1982-01-01

    Spectra have been measured over a variety of types of complex terrain: on tops of hills and escarpments, over land downstream of a water surface, and over rolling terrain. Differences between spectra over many types of complex terrain, and over uniform terrain, can be explained by these hypothese...

  17. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  18. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlapak, Vaclav

    2015-04-15

    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2} sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic

  19. Rotational structure in molecular infrared spectra

    CERN Document Server

    di Lauro, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in infrared molecular spectroscopy have resulted in sophisticated theoretical and laboratory methods that are difficult to grasp without a solid understanding of the basic principles and underlying theory of vibration-rotation absorption spectroscopy. Rotational Structure in Molecular Infrared Spectra fills the gap between these recent, complex topics and the most elementary methods in the field of rotational structure in the infrared spectra of gaseous molecules. There is an increasing need for people with the skills and knowledge to interpret vibration-rotation spectra in ma

  20. Improvements in differentiation unfolding of radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiation unfolding is widely used for measurements of neutron spectra in reactors using proton-recoil proportional counters and for measurements of neutron and gamma-ray spectra using scintillators. Current differentiation unfolding codes use various least-squares fits of polynomials to estimate the derivative of numerical data. Simple examples are used to illustrate the errors in unfolded energy spectra that result from the use of least-squares differentiation. An alternative method of numerical differentiation is presented; this method is shown to be free of the errors that result from least-squares differentiation

  1. Mass Spectra of Tetraselenafulvalenes, Diselenadithiafulvalenes and Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn;

    1978-01-01

    The mass spectra of 13 heterofulvalenes are reported. The spectra show great similarities within the selenium and within the sulphur series. The main difference between the selenium and the sulphur compounds results from the more facile loss of selenium compared with sulphur, and from the first...... fragmentation of the molecular ion, as the selenium fulvalenes lose an alkyne molecule, whereas the sulphur fulvalenes first lose an (SĊR) radical. An important feature of the spectra of the simple heterofulvalenes is the formation of a rearrangement ion by migration of a heteroatom. The mechanism was...

  2. Dynamic Radio Spectra from two Fireballs

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Lin, C S; Dowell, J; Schinzel, F K; Stovall, K

    2015-01-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the LWA1 telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a weak electron beam within the trail. The spectra of one fireball displays broadband temporal frequency sweeps. We suggest that these sweeps are evidence of individual expanding clumps of emitting plasma. While some of these proposed clumps may have formed at the very beginning of the fireball event, others must have formed seconds after the initial event.

  3. Dynamic radio spectra from two fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Lin, C. S.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.

    2015-11-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the Long Wavelength Array telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a bump-on-tail instability within the trail. The spectra of one fireball display broadband temporal frequency sweeps. We suggest that these sweeps are evidence of individual expanding clumps of emitting plasma. While some of these proposed clumps may have formed at the very beginning of the fireball event, others must have formed seconds after the initial event.

  4. Application of retardation time spectra of asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Xiao-li; ZHANG Xiao-ning; LU Liang

    2008-01-01

    To improve the performance of asphah pavement,the dynamic and static tests of asphalt were used to measure its viscoelastic properties under different time.Based on the obtained data of static creep compliances and dynamic compliances according to the static creep test and dynamic test of asphalt using the dynamic shear rheometer,the discrete retardation time spectra were attained using the non-linear regression method.All viseoelastic functions are mathematically equivalent and belong to the same retardation time spectra,so the dynamic compliances of asphalt were converted to the static creep compliance using the retardation time spectra.Good correlations were found betwin calculation results and measurement results.In accordalice to these findings,the retardation time spectra can accurately transform static and dynamic viscoelastic functions.Therefore,we can obtain viscoelastic properties over much larger time or frequency region than measurement results.

  5. Origin of zero degeneracy in networks spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of real world networks exhibit properties which are different from the random networks. One such property is the existence of a very high degeneracy at zero eigenvalues. In this work, we provide all the possible reasons behind occurrence of the zero degeneracy in the networks spectra. Comparison of zero degeneracy in protein-protein interaction networks of six different species and in their corresponding model networks sheds light in understanding the evolution of complex biological systems.

  6. Parameterizing Stellar Spectra Using Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangru; Pan, Ruyang

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the spectrum parameterization problem using deep neural networks (DNNs). The proposed scheme consists of the following procedures: first, the configuration of a DNN is initialized using a series of autoencoder neural networks; second, the DNN is fine-tuned using a gradient descent scheme; third, stellar parameters ($T_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H]) are estimated using the obtained DNN. This scheme was evaluated on both real spectra from SDSS/SEGUE and synthetic spectra ca...

  7. Selection and Characterization of Interesting Grism Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Meurer, G R

    2006-01-01

    Observations with the ACS Wide Field Camera and G800L grism can produce thousands of spectra within a single WFC field producing a potentially rich treasure trove of information. However, the data are complicated to deal with. Here we describe algorithms to find and characterize spectra of emission line galaxies and supernovae using tools we have developed in conjunction with off the shelf software.

  8. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a f...

  9. Generation of synthetic gamma spectra with MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The aim of this work is the simulation of gamma spectra using the MATLAB program to generate the calibration curves in efficiency, which will be used to measure radioactive waste in drums. They are necessary for the proper characterization of these drums. A Monte Carlo simulation was basically developed with the random number generator Mersenne Twister and nuclear data obtained from NIST. This paper shows the results obtained and difficulties encountered until today. The physical correction of the simulated spectra has been the only aspect we have been working, up to this moment. Procedures: A simplified representation of the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad' was chosen. Drums with cemented liquid waste are routinely measured in this laboratory. The commercial program MCNP was also used to get a valid reference in the field of simulation of spectra. We analyzed the spectra obtained by MATLAB in the light of classical literature photon detection and the spectrum obtained by MCNP. Conclusions: Currently the program developed seems adequate to simulate a measurement in the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad'. The spectra obtained by MATLAB seem to physically represent what is observed in real spectra. However, it is a slow program. The current development efforts are directed to improve the speed of simulation. An alternative is to use the CUDA language for NVIDIA video cards to parallelized the simulation. An adequate simulation of the electronic measuring chain is also needed to obtain better representations of the shapes of the peaks. (author)

  10. Thermal Emission and Albedo Spectra of Super Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Marley, Mark S; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Planets larger than Earth and smaller than Neptune are some of the most numerous in the galaxy, but observational efforts to understand this population have proved challenging because optically thick clouds or hazes at high altitudes obscure molecular features (Kreidberg et al. 2014b). We present models of super Earths that include thick clouds and hazes and predict their transmission, thermal emission, and reflected light spectra. Very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000x solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Close analysis of reflected light from warm (~400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy spectra, which have moderate ...

  11. Far-infrared line spectra of active galaxies from the Herschel/PACS Spectrometer: the complete database

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Pereira-Santaella, M; Malkan, M A; Andreani, P; Dasyra, K M

    2016-01-01

    We present a coherent database of spectroscopic observations of far-IR fine-structure lines from the Herschel/PACS archive for a sample of 170 local AGN, plus a comparison sample of 20 starburst galaxies and 43 dwarf galaxies. Published Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/SPIRE line fluxes are included to extend our database to the full 10-600 $\\mu m$ spectral range. The observations are compared to a set of CLOUDY photoionisation models to estimate the above physical quantities through different diagnostic diagrams. We confirm the presence of a stratification of gas density in the emission regions of the galaxies, which increases with the ionisation potential of the emission lines. The new [OIV]25.9$\\mu m$/[OIII]88$\\mu m$ vs [NeIII]15.6$\\mu m$/[NeII]12.8$\\mu m$ diagram is proposed as the best diagnostic to separate: $i)$ AGN activity from any kind of star formation; and $ii)$ low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from starburst galaxies. Current stellar atmosphere models fail to reproduce the observed [OIV]25.9$\\mu m$/[OIII]8...

  12. Spectra from nuclear-excited plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the spectra taken from He-3(n,p)H-3 nuclear-induced plasmas under high thermal neutron flux, lasing conditions. Also, initial spectra are presented for U-235F6 generated plasmas. From an evaluation of these spectra, important atomic and molecular processes that occur in the plasma can be inferred. The spectra presented are the first to be generated by He-3 and U-235F6 nuclear reactions under high neutron flux, lasing conditions. The U-235(n,ff)FF reaction, which liberates 165 MeV of fission-fragment kinetic energy, creates plasmas that are of great interest, since at sufficiently high densities of U-235F6 the gas becomes self-critical; thus, there is no need for an external driving reactor (source of neutrons). The spectra from mixtures of He-3 and Ar, Xe, Kr, Ne, Cl2, F2 and N2 indicate little difference between high-pressure nuclear-induced plasmas and high-pressure electrically pulsed afterglow plasmas for noble-gas systems

  13. Good abundances from bad spectra; 1, techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bryn, J; Wyse, R F G; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F G

    1995-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from spectra of the type provided by the multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys underway with 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the forthcoming Sloan survey. Our method is optimised for low S/N, intermediate resolution blue spectra of G stars. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few Angstrom) wavelength intervals, and calibrated using synthetic spectra. We have also defined a single abundance indicator which is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having S/N ratios as low as 10 per Angstrom. The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in Jones, Wyse and Gilmore (PASP July 1995). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to \\sim 0.1 dex, and is reliable, with ...

  14. Principal Component Analysis of SDSS Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    McGurk, Rosalie C; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    We apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to ~100,000 stellar spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In order to avoid strong non-linear variation of spectra with effective temperature, the sample is binned into 0.02 mag wide intervals of the g-r color (-0.20spectra within the measurement noise. We discuss correlations of eigencoefficients with metallicity and gravity estimated by the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameters Pipeline. The resulting high signal-to-noise mean spectra and the other three eigenspectra are made publicly available. These data can be used to generate high quality spectra for an arbitrary combination of effective temperature, metallicity, and gravity within the parameter space probed by the SDSS. The SDSS stellar spect...

  15. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  16. X-ray spectra for mamography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of Monte Carlo methods the X-ray spectra that produce Mammography equipment have been obtained. The mammographs are widely used with the purpose of diagnosing the cancer of the mammary glands. Different makers and mammographs models are distinguished by the voltage capacity and the current, exist as well as in the target type and filter. The targets that are used are Mo, Rh and W and the filters are Mo, Rh, Al and Be. In this work the results obtained by means of the MCNP code of the X-ray spectra take place when an electron beam of 28 keV is made impact on Mo, Rh and W targets, as well as the spectra that result of filtering these X rays using different types of filters. The resulting spectra contain the continuous spectrum of the stopping radiation, as well as the X rays characteristic of the used target. The utility of estimating the spectra of X rays by means of Monte Carlo is that it can use to estimate the absorbed dose by the gland, as well as the absorbed dose by other organs. It also allows to calculate the detector response. (Author)

  17. Cleaning HI Spectra Contaminated by GPS RFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kamin; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NUDET systems aboard GPS satellites utilize radio waves to communicate information regarding surface nuclear events. The system tests appear in spectra as RFI (radio frequency interference) at 1381MHz, which contaminates observations of extragalactic HI (atomic hydrogen) signals at 50-150 Mpc. Test durations last roughly 20-120 seconds and can occur upwards of 30 times during a single night of observing. The disruption essentially renders the corresponding HI spectra useless.We present a method that automatically removes RFI in HI spectra caused by these tests. By capitalizing on the GPS system's short test durations and predictable frequency appearance we are able to devise a method of identifying times containing compromised data records. By reevaluating the remaining data, we are able to recover clean spectra while sacrificing little in terms of sensitivity to extragalactic signals. This method has been tested on 500+ spectra taken by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), in which it successfully identified and removed all sources of GPS RFI. It will also be used to eliminate RFI in the upcoming Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  18. Seismic spectra of events at regional distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 40 underground nuclear explosions detonated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were chosen for analysis of their spectra and any relationships they might have to source parameters such as yield, depth of burial, etc. The sample covered a large yield range (less than 20 kt to greater than 1 Mt). Broadband (0.05 to 20 Hz) data recorded by the four-station seismic network operated by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed in a search for unusual explosion signatures in their spectra. Long time windows (total wave train) as well as shorter windows (for instance, P/sub n/) were used as input to calculate the spectra. Much variation in the spectra of the long windows is typical although some gross features are similar, such as a dominant peak in the microseismic window. The variation is such that selection of corner frequencies is impractical and yield scaling could not be determined. Spectra for one NTS earthquake showed more energy in the short periods (less than 1 sec) as well as in the long periods (greater than 8 sec) compared to those for NTS explosions

  19. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  20. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C. [National Solar Observatory (NSO), 3010 Coronal Loop, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Choudhary, D. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge (CSUN), CA 91330-8268 (United States); Rezaei, R. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS), Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Louis, R. E., E-mail: cbeck@nso.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  1. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  2. Synthetic spectra: a tool for correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M B; Butler, M A; Ricco, A J; Senturia, S D

    1997-05-20

    We show that computer-generated diffractive optical elements can be used to synthesize the infrared spectra of important compounds, and we describe a modified phase-retrieval algorithm useful for the design of elements of this type. In particular, we present the results of calculations of diffractive elements that are capable of synthesizing portions of the infrared spectra of gaseous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Further, we propose a new type of correlation spectrometer that uses these diffractive elements rather than reference cells for the production of reference spectra. Storage of a large number of diffractive elements, each producing a synthetic spectrum corresponding to a different target compound, in compact-disk-like format will allow a spectrometer of this type to rapidly determine the composition of unknown samples. Other advantages of the proposed correlation spectrometer are also discussed.

  3. Fast inversion of solar Ca II spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Rezaei, R; Louis, R E

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast (<< 1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log tau ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log tau = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  4. [Vibrational spectra of Hetian nephrite from Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-wang; Liu, Yan; Liu, Tao-tao; Muhetaer, Zari; Liu, Yuan-qing

    2012-02-01

    In previous studies, EMPA, PIXE and others were employed to study the chemical compositions of nephrite separately without a systematical measurement. In the present study, XRF, XRD, IR and LR were used together to examine chemical and spectra characteristics of white, green and black nephrite from Hetian, Xinjiang. XRD results indicate that all nephrite samples consist of tremolite. Then IR spectra of nephrite samples suggest that the M-OH stretching vibration bands show that the M1 and M3 sites are not only occupied by Mg2+ and Fe2+, but also by Fe3+, which is consistent with the chemical compositions of these samples. This information might be useful to understanding the variety of nephrite. Their Raman spectra are almost the same, while some differences exist because of different content of FeO/Fe2O3.

  5. Rotational Spectra of the Baryons and Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Akers, D

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the rotational spectra of baryons and mesons is conducted. Diakonov, Petrov and Polyakov claimed that all light baryons are rotational excitations. A study of the history of particle physics indicates that the ideas of rotational spectra can be originally attributed to a constituent-quark (CQ) model as proposed by Mac Gregor. Later research advanced spin-orbit splitting in a deformed model as suggested by Bhaduri and others. In the present work, we show from current data that the rotational spectra of baryons and mesons are in agreement with the original claims of Mac Gregor: namely, the values for the rotational energies Erot of particles merge with those of nuclear rotational bands in light nuclei. It is also shown that particles of different isotopic spins are separated in mass by a 70 MeV quantum, which is related to the SU(3) decuplet mass spacing as originally proposed by Gell-Mann.

  6. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Carleo, I; Gratton, R; Benatti, S; Bonavita, M; Oliva, E; Origlia, L; Desidera, S; Claudi, R; Sissa, E

    2016-01-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 micron) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the v...

  7. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  8. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB......Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is often employed to study two-dimensional (2D) materials on conductive growth substrates, in order to gain information on the electronic structures of the 2D material-substrate systems, which can lead to insight into 2D material-substrate interactions, growth...... mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause...

  9. Collective spectra along the fission barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigni M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous spectra of fissioning nuclei at the humps of fission barriers (Bohr transition states and in the intermediate wells (superdeformed and hyperdeformed states play a key role in the calculation of fission cross sections. A theoretical evaluation of the collective parts of the spectra is possible within the framework of the dinuclear system model, which treats the wave function of the fissioning nucleus as a superposition of a mononucleus configuration and two–cluster configurations in a dynamical way, permitting exchange of upper–shell nucleons between clusters. The impact of theoretical spectra on neutron–induced fission cross sections and, in combination with an improved version of the scission–point model, on angular distribution of fission fragments is evaluated for plutonium isotopes of interest to nuclear energy applications.

  10. POLLUX: a database of stellar spectra - First step : SED and High Resolution Synthetic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, A.; Josselin, E.; Lèbre, A.; Martins, F.; Monier, R.; Plez, B.; Belmas, M.

    2008-10-01

    POLLUX is a stellar spectra database under development at the GRAAL laboratory (Montpellier, France). It will be made available on-line to the community through a VO compliant interface (http://pollux.graal.univ-montp2.fr). In its first version, POLLUX will propose theoretical data: high resolution synthetic spectra and spectral energy distribution.

  11. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  12. Energy spectra of geomagnetically trapped oxygen ions

    CERN Document Server

    Leicher, M; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    In a series of COSMOS satellite flights plastic nuclear track detectors have been exposed in low-earth orbits to monitor anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) at energies below 25 MeV/nuc. The analysis of energy spectra has now been extended to energies up to 40 MeV/nuc for two exposures aboard COSMOS 2260 in 1993 and COSMOS 2311 in 1995. Our data on trapped ACR (TACR) oxygen energy spectra might indicate the influence of energy-dependent stripping probabilities and the presence of multiply charged ACR oxygen at high energies as reported by latest SAMPEX observations.

  13. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  14. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  15. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    CERN Document Server

    Khvorostukhin, A S

    2016-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  16. What can we learn from inclusive spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1981-05-01

    The present experimental status on single particle inclusive measurements is described. Then, the geometrical aspect of the collision is discussed from the data of total integrated cross sections of nuclear charge or mass. The dynamical aspect of the collision, especially that for the participating region is discussed in connection with proton spectra, composite fragment spectra, pion production, ratios of ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/, n/p and t//sup 3/He, and production of strange particles. The spectator physics is described from the data on projectile fragments. (GHT)

  17. Preprocessing of ionospheric echo Doppler spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHAO Zhengyu; WANG Feng; SU Fanfan

    2007-01-01

    The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system(WIOBSS),which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.After the characteristics of the ionospheric echo Doppler spectra were analyzed,the signal preprocessing was developed in this paper,which aimed at improving the Doppler spectra.The results indicate that the preprocessing not only makes the system acquire a higher ability of target detection but also suppresses the radio frequency interference by 6-7 dB.

  18. AIS-2 spectra of California wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1987-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by Airborne Imaging Spectrometers-2 from wetlands were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of green Salicornia virginica, green Sesuvium verrucosum, senescing Distichlis spicata, a mixture of senescing Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, senescing Scirpus paludosus, senescent S. paludosus, mowed senescent S. paludosus, and soil were isolated. No difference among narrowband spectral reflectance of the cover types was apparent between 0.8 to 1.6 micron. There were, however, broadband differences in brightness. These differences were sufficient to permit a fairly accurate decomposition of the image into its major cover type components using a procedure that assumes an additive linear mixture of surface spectra.

  19. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  20. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  1. Rotational Spectra of Phenylalanine, Tirosine and Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, S.; Perez, C.; Sanz, M. E.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2009-06-01

    The rotational spectra of the aromatic natural amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan have been investigated by Laser Ablation Molecular Beam Fourier transform Microwave Spectroscopy LA-MB-FTMW. The spectra of two rotamers of phenylalanine have been detected in the supersonic expansion. Both forms are stabilized by a chain of intramolecular hydrogen bonds O-H\\cdotsN-H\\cdots{π}, being the carboxylic group incis configuration. One conformer of tyrosine, which only differs from phenylalanine in a -OH group inpara position, has been also characterized. Preliminary results on the rotational spectrum of tryptophan are presented.

  2. Thermal Emission and Reflected Light Spectra of Super Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-12-01

    Planets larger than Earth and smaller than Neptune are some of the most numerous in the galaxy, but observational efforts to understand this population have proved challenging because optically thick clouds or hazes at high altitudes obscure molecular features. We present models of super Earths that include thick clouds and hazes and predict their transmission, thermal emission, and reflected light spectra. Very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000× solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Close analysis of reflected light from warm (˜400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy spectra, which have moderate albedos (0.05-0.20), from hazy models, which are very dark (0.0-0.03). Reflected light spectra of cold planets (˜200 K) accessible to a space-based visible light coronagraph will have high albedos and large molecular features that will allow them to be more easily characterized than the warmer transiting planets. We suggest a number of complementary observations to characterize this population of planets, including transmission spectra of hot (≳ 1000 K) targets, thermal emission spectra of warm targets using the James Webb Space Telescope, high spectral resolution (R ˜ 105) observations of cloudy targets, and reflected light spectral observations of directly imaged cold targets. Despite the dearth of features observed in super Earth transmission spectra to date, different observations will provide rich diagnostics of their atmospheres.

  3. Stability properties of wines by absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larena, A.; Vega, J.

    1986-03-01

    The temporal evolution of absorption spectra (370-700 nm) of different spanish wines has been studied by us under the influence of air presence, and the light exposition. In particular, we have exposed the wines to a magenta light. Nevertheless, the color coordinates of wine show a little relative variation (0.1-1 %)

  4. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  5. Interpreting peptide mass spectra by VEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Rune; Lundsgaard, M.; Welinder, Karen G.;

    2003-01-01

    of peptide MS/MS spectra imported in text file format. Peaks are annotated, the monoisotopic peaks retained, and the b-and y-ion series identified in an interactive manner. The called peptide sequence is searched against a local protein database for sequence identity and peptide mass. The report compares...

  6. Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.

  7. Vibrational Spectra of a Mechanosensitive Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Chungwen; Louhivuori, Martti; Marrink, Siewert J.; Jansen, Thomas L.C.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We report the simulated vibrational spectra of a mechanosensitive membrane channel in different gating states. Our results show that while linear absorption is insensitive to structural differences, linear dichroism and sum-frequency generation spectroscopies are sensitive to the orientation of the

  8. Energy loss spectra in planar channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple models for the motion of particles in planar channels and for the energy loss and its dependence on the path, energy loss spectra of particles transmitted through thin foils in planar channels are calculated. A comparison with measurements is made. (Auth.)

  9. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  10. A tool for modelling telluric spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smette; H. Sana; H. Horst

    2009-01-01

    Accurate synthetic telluric spectra are required for efficient use of telescope time, in particular, with large telescopes and high-resolution NIR spectroscopy: (i) In the preparation of observations, are the telluric features at the same wavelength as spectroscopic features of scientific interest?

  11. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Stam

    2004-01-01

    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  12. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H3+. Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  14. On the closedness of approximation spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Parkkonen, Jouni; Paulin, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Generalizing Cusick's theorem on the closedness of the classical Lagrange spectrum for the approximation of real numbers by rational ones, we prove that various approximation spectra are closed, using penetration properties of the geodesic flow in cusp neighbourhoods in negatively curved manifolds and a result of Maucourant.

  15. Isobaric-spin relationships between nuclear spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, J.B.

    1961-01-01

    The simple fact that a one-body energy describes the interaction of a nucleon with a closed neutron subshell is used to establish sets of equations connecting the spectra of nuclei which are related by isobaric-spin when described by means of the nuclear shell model. Certain formal questions about i

  16. Discriminating Dysarthria Type from Envelope Modulation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the…

  17. RAMAN-SPECTRA OF HUMAN DENTAL CALCULUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSUDA, H; ARENDS, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra of human dental calculus have been observed for the first time by use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The spectral features of calculus were influenced easily by heating caused by laser irradiation. Therefore, the measurements were carried out at relatively low power (5 mW, 1-mu m spot si

  18. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  19. Chaotic spectra: How to extract dynamic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, H.S.; Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Kulander, K.C.

    1988-10-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasi-continuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H/sub 3//sup +/. Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned. 53 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. An Interactive Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.

    2002-12-01

    We have created a website containing high-quality moderate-resolution spectra of 88 planetary nebulae (PNe) from 3600 to 9600 Å, obtained at KPNO and CTIO. Spectra are displayed in a zoomable window, and there are templates available that show wavelength and ion identifications. In addition to the spectra themselves, the website also contains a brief discussion of PNe as astronomical objects and as contributors to our understanding of stellar evolution, and a table with atlas information for each object along with a link to an image. This table can be re-ordered by object name, galactic or equatorial coordinates, distance from the sun, the galactic center, or the galactic plane. We envision that this website, which concentrates a large amount of data in one place, will be of interest to a variety of users. PN researchers might need to check the spectrum of a particular object of interest; the non-specialist astronomer might simply be interested in perusing such a collection of spectra; and finally, teachers of introductory astronomy can use this database to illustrate basic principles of atomic physics and radiation. To encourage such use, we have written two simple exercises at a basic level to introduce beginning astronomy students to the wealth of information that PN spectra contain. We are grateful to Adam Wang of the Williams College OIT and to his summer student teams who worked on various apects of the implementation of this website. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-9819123 and by Williams College and the University of Oklahoma.

  1. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  2. Discrimination of phytoplankton classes using characteristic spectra of 3D fluorescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Lei, Shu-He; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Chen-Jian

    2006-02-01

    The discrimination of phytoplankton classes using the characteristic fluorescence spectra extracted from three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was investigated. Single species cultures of 11 phytoplankton species, representing 5 major phytoplankton divisions, were used. The 3D fluorescence spectra of the cultures grown at different temperatures (20 and 15 °C) and illumination intensities (140, 80 and 30 μM m -2 s -1) were measured and their feature extraction methods were explored. Ordering Rayleigh and Raman scattering data as zero, the obtained excitation-emission matrices were processed by both singular value decomposition (SVD) and trilinear decomposition methods. The resulting first principal component can be regarded as the characteristic spectrum of the original 3D fluorescence spectrum. The analysis shows that such characteristic spectra have a discriminatory capability. At different temperatures, the characteristic spectra of Isochrysis galbana, Platymonas helgolanidica and Skeletonema costatuma have high degrees of similarity to their own species samples, while the spectra similarities of Alexandrium tamarense, Prorocentrum dentatum, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Ch. Debilis, Ch. Didymus and Synechococcus sp. are not as significant as the other three species. C. curvisetus, Ch. Debilis and Ch. Didymus, belonging to genus Chaetoceros, have identical spectra and cannot be discriminated at all. Regarding all six diatom species as one class, the average discriminant error rate is below 9%. It is worth mentioning that the diatom class can be distinguished from A. tamarense and P. dentatum, which belong to Dinophyta.

  3. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shyu, F L, E-mail: fl.shyu@msa.hinet.ne, E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Physics, ROC Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  4. Analysis of spectra using correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Reinhard; Norton, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    A novel method is presented for the quantitative analysis of spectra based on the properties of the cross correlation between a real spectrum and either a numerical synthesis or laboratory simulation. A new goodness-of-fit criterion called the heteromorphic coefficient H is proposed that has the property of being zero when a fit is achieved and varying smoothly through zero as the iteration proceeds, providing a powerful tool for automatic or near-automatic analysis. It is also shown that H can be rendered substantially noise-immune, permitting the analysis of very weak spectra well below the apparent noise level and, as a byproduct, providing Doppler shift and radial velocity information with excellent precision. The technique is in regular use in the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) project and operates in an interactive, realtime computing environment with turn-around times of a few seconds or less.

  5. On the Algebraic Classification of Module Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Patchkoria, Irakli

    2011-01-01

    Using methods developed by Franke, we obtain algebraic classification results for modules over certain symmetric ring spectra ($S$-algebras). In particular, for any symmetric ring spectrum $R$ whose graded homotopy ring $\\pi_*R$ has graded global homological dimension 2 and is concentrated in degrees divisible by some natural number $N \\geq 4$, we prove that the homotopy category of $R$-modules is equivalent to the derived category of the homotopy ring $\\pi_*R$. This improves the Bousfield-Wolbert algebraic classification of isomorphism classes of objects of the homotopy category of $R$-modules. The main examples of ring spectra to which our result applies are the $p$-local real connective $K$-theory spectrum $ko_{(p)}$, the Johnson-Wilson spectrum E(2), and the truncated Brown-Peterson spectrum $BP$, for an odd prime $p$.

  6. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.

    1982-03-01

    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  7. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  8. Control of photodetachment spectra through laser dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nathan; Greene, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Photodetachment and photoionization spectra often display rich resonance structures. The properties of these spectra can be modified through dressing with intense laser fields, providing control over photon absorption and the emitted electron. We present a Floquet R-matrix method for calculating photodetachment cross sections in the presence of a dressing laser. The full wave functions in the Floquet formalism for bound and escaping electrons are found by solving the Schrödinger equation near the atomic core and applying analytic boundary conditions outside of the interaction region. These calculations are used to investigate the modification of existing resonances, such as modifying the shape, or q parameter, of Feshbach resonances. We also investigate the creation of new resonances in cases where high-lying bound states become autoionizing through the absorption of dressing laser photons. This work was supported by the DOE.

  9. Inflation and alternatives with blue tensor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tilt of the primordial gravitational waves spectrum. A hint of blue tilt is shown from analyzing the BICEP2 and POLARBEAR data. Motivated by this, we explore the possibilities of blue tensor spectra from the very early universe cosmology models, including null energy condition violating inflation, inflation with general initial conditions, and string gas cosmology, etc. For the simplest G-inflation, blue tensor spectrum also implies blue scalar spectrum. In general, the inflation models with blue tensor spectra indicate large non-Gaussianities. On the other hand, string gas cosmology predicts blue tensor spectrum with highly Gaussian fluctuations. If further experiments do confirm the blue tensor spectrum, non-Gaussianity becomes a distinguishing test between inflation and alternatives

  10. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2015-01-01

    We explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud of fossil relativistic electrons in the cluster periphery. Such a scenario could explain uniformity of the surface brightness and spectral curvature in the integrated spectra of thin arc-like radio relics. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. The surface brightness profile of radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated as well. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed $u_s \\sim 3,000 \\kms$ and sonic Mach number $M_s \\sim 3$. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over $(0.1-10) \

  11. Broadband Eclipse Spectra of Exoplanets are Featureless

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, C J; Cowan, N B

    2014-01-01

    Spectral retrieval methods leverage features in emission spectra to constrain the atmospheric composition and structure of transiting exoplanets. Most of the observed emission spectra consist of broadband photometric observations at a small number of wavelengths. We compare the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) of blackbody fits and spectral retrieval fits for all planets with eclipse measurements in multiple thermal wavebands, typically hot Jupiters with 2-4 observations. If the published error bars are taken at face value, then eight planets are significantly better fit by a spectral model than by a blackbody. In this under-constrained regime, however, photometric uncertainties directly impact one's ability to constrain atmospheric properties. By considering the handful of planets for which eclipse measurements have been repeated and/or reanalyzed, we obtain an empirical estimate of systematic uncertainties for broadband eclipse depths obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope: sigma_sys = 5E-4. When thi...

  12. Atomic and Molecular Aspects of Astronomical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2012-01-01

    In the first section we present the atomic part where a C2+ atomic target was prepared and used to generate theoretical data to investigate recombination lines arising from electron-ion collisions in thin plasma. R-matrix method was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system. Theoretical data concerning bound and autoionizing states were generated in the intermediate-coupling approximation. The data were used to generate dielectronic recombination data for C+ which include transition lines, oscillator strengths, radiative transition probabilities, emissivities and dielectronic recombination coefficients. The data were cast in a line list containing 6187 optically-allowed transitions which include many C II lines observed in astronomical spectra. This line list was used to analyze the spectra from a number of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae, and identify their electron temperature. The electron temperature investigation was also extended to include free electron energy analysis to investigate...

  13. Evaluation of covariance for fission neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakashima, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ohsawa, Takaaki; Shibata, Keiichi

    1999-02-01

    A covariance evaluation system for the evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 was established, and the covariance data for fission neutron spectra of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu were evaluated. Two methods were employed to evaluate the covariance. One is based on the experimental data, and the other is based on a model calculation including some kinds of renormalizations. The latter technique was adopted for the covariance evaluation of the fission neutron spectra in JENDL-3.2. We performed an adjustment of the evaluated fission neutron spectrum of {sup 235}U using the spectrum averaged cross sections for the {sup 27}Al(n, p), {sup 46,47,48}Ti(n, p), {sup 54,56}Fe(n, p), {sup 58}Ni(n, p), {sup 90}Zr(n, 2n) reactions. The adjusted spectrum integrated over energy was found to be unity. (author)

  14. Energy spectra in elasto-inertial turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, P. C.; da Silva, C. B.; Pinho, F. T.

    2016-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations of statistically steady homogeneous isotropic turbulence in viscoelastic fluids described by the FENE-P model are presented. Emphasis is given to large polymer relaxation times compared to the eddy turnover time, which is a regime recently termed elasto-inertial turbulence. In this regime the polymers are ineffective in dissipating kinetic energy but they play a lead role in transferring kinetic energy to the small solvent scales which turns out to be concomitant with the depletion of the usual non-linear energy cascade. However, we show that the non-linear interactions are still highly active, but they lead to no net downscale energy transfer because the forward and reversed energy cascades are nearly balanced. Finally, we show that the tendency for a steeper elasto-inertial power-law spectra is reversed for large polymer relaxation times and the spectra tend towards the usual k-5/3 functional form.

  15. Unconventional scanning tunneling conductance spectra for graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, K.; Paul, I.; Sengupta, K.

    2009-01-01

    We compute the tunneling conductance of graphene as measured by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a normal/superconducting tip. We demonstrate that for undoped graphene with zero Fermi energy, the first derivative of the tunneling conductance with respect to the applied voltage is proportional to the density of states of the STM tip. We also show that the shape of the STM spectra for graphene doped with impurities depends qualitatively on the position of the impurity atom in the grap...

  16. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques; Larsen, Kristopher; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W.; Mcclintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Bradley, E. Todd

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluor...

  17. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  18. On the Individuality of Sleep EEG Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Achim; Rosipal, Roman; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Research in recent years has supported the hypothesis that many properties of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are specific to an individual. In this study, the intra- and inter-individual variations of sleep EEG signals were investigated. This was carried out by analyzing the stability of the average EEG spectra individually computed for the Rechtschaffen and Kales (RK) sleep stages. Six EEG channels were used to account for the topographical aspect of the analysis. Validity of the results was...

  19. Atomic spectra in a helium bubble

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Bertsch, George F.

    2002-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is applied to atomic spectra under perturbations of superfluid liquid helium. The atomic DFT of helium is used to obtain the distribution of helium atoms around the impurity atom, and the electronic DFT is applied to the excitations of the atom, averaging over the ensemble of helium configurations. The shift and broadening of the D1 and D2 absorption lines are quite well reproduced by theory, suggesting that the DFT may be useful for describing spectral perturb...

  20. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  1. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad, S.; Emmel, P.; R. D. Hersch

    2001-01-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer response based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better unde...

  2. Understanding the baryon and meson spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [JLAB

    2013-10-01

    A brief overview is given of what we know of the baryon and meson spectra, with a focus on what are the key internal degrees of freedom and how these relate to strong coupling QCD. The challenges, experimental, theoretical and phenomenological, for the future are outlined, with particular reference to a program at Jefferson Lab to extract hadronic states in which glue unambiguously contributes to their quantum numbers.

  3. Density fluctuation spectra in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Brown, M. R.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that within the framework of nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamics, but not within that of neutral-fluid hydrodynamics, a k exp -5/3 inertial-range wave number density fluctuation spectrum is to be expected at the same times that k exp -5/3 kinetic energy and magnetic energy cascade spectra are present. A previous discrepancy between theory and observation in the local interstellar medium and solar wind is thereby resolved.

  4. Fourier Spectra of Binomial APN Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, Carl; Markin, Nadya; McGuire, Gary

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we compute the Fourier spectra of some recently discovered binomial APN functions. One consequence of this is the determination of the nonlinearity of the functions, which measures their resistance to linear cryptanalysis. Another consequence is that certain error-correcting codes related to these functions have the same weight distribution as the 2-error-correcting BCH code. Furthermore, for fields of odd degree, our results provide an alternative proof of the APN property of the functions.

  5. Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.

  6. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  7. The Transit Spectra of Earth and Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Patrick G J; Bowles, Neil E; Fletcher, Leigh N; Aigrain, Suzanne; Lee, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of observations have been made of the transits of 'Hot Jupiters', such as HD 189733b, which have been modelled to derive atmospheric structure and composition. As measurement techniques improve, the transit spectra of 'Super-Earths' such as GJ 1214b are becoming better constrained, allowing model atmospheres to be fitted for this class of planet also. While it is not yet possible to constrain the atmospheric states of small planets such as the Earth or cold planets like Jupiter, this may become practical in the coming decades and if so, it is of interest to determine what we might infer from such measurements. Here we have constructed atmospheric models of the Solar System planets from 0.4 - 15.5 microns that are consistent with ground-based and satellite observations and from these calculate the primary transit and secondary eclipse spectra (with respect to the Sun and typical M-dwarfs) that would be observed by a 'remote observer', many light years away. From these spectra we test ...

  8. Infrared Transmission Spectra for Extrasolar Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Vidal-Madjar, A; Ehrenreich, D; Etangs, A L; Yung, Y

    2006-01-01

    Among the hot Jupiters that transit their parent stars known to date, the two best candidates to be observed with transmission spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (MIR) are HD189733b and HD209458b, due to their combined characteristics of planetary density, orbital parameters and parent star distance and brightness. Here we simulate transmission spectra of these two planets during their primary eclipse in the MIR, and we present sensitivity studies of the spectra to the changes of atmospheric thermal properties, molecular abundances and C/O ratios. Our model predicts that the dominant species absorbing in the MIR on hot Jupiters are water vapor and carbon monoxide, and their relative abundances are determined by the C/O ratio. Since the temperature profile plays a secondary role in the transmission spectra of hot Jupiters compared to molecular abundances, future primary eclipse observations in the MIR of those objects might give an insight on EGP atmospheric chemistry. We find here that the absorption features c...

  9. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 μm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  10. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Hook, Simon J.; Baldridge, Alice; Ibanez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 {mu}m with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  11. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer. PMID:19571921

  12. Tunneling spectra of graphene on copper unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Stradi, Daniele; Liu, Lei; Luo, Hong; Brandbyge, Mads; Gu, Gong

    2016-06-22

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy is often employed to study two-dimensional (2D) materials on conductive growth substrates, in order to gain information on the electronic structures of the 2D material-substrate systems, which can lead to insight into 2D material-substrate interactions, growth mechanisms, etc. The interpretation of the spectra can be complicated, however. Specifically for graphene grown on copper, there have been conflicting reports of tunneling spectra. A clear understanding of the mechanisms behind the variability is desired. In this work, we have revealed that the root cause of the variability in tunneling spectra is the variation in graphene-substrate coupling under various experimental conditions, providing a salutary perspective on the important role of 2D material-substrate interactions. The conclusions are drawn from measured data and theoretical calculations for monolayer, AB-stacked bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene coexisting on the same substrates in areas with and without intercalated oxygen, demonstrating a high degree of consistency. The Van Hove singularities of the twisted graphene unambiguously indicate the Dirac energy between them, lending strong evidence to our assignment of the spectral features. In addition, we have discovered an O-Cu superstructure that has never been observed before.

  13. Parameterizing Stellar Spectra Using Deep Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the spectrum parameterization problem using deep neural networks (DNNs). The proposed scheme consists of the following procedures: first, the configuration of a DNN is initialized using a series of autoencoder neural networks; second, the DNN is fine-tuned using a gradient descent scheme; third, stellar parameters ($T_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H]) are estimated using the obtained DNN. This scheme was evaluated on both real spectra from SDSS/SEGUE and synthetic spectra calculated from Kurucz's new opacity distribution function models. Test consistencies between our estimates and those provided by the spectroscopic parameter pipeline of SDSS show that the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 0.0048, 0.1477, and 0.1129 dex for log$~T_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H] (64.85 K for $T_{eff}$), respectively. For the synthetic spectra, the MAE test accuracies are 0.0011, 0.0182, and 0.0112 dex for log$~T_{eff}$, log$~g$, and [Fe/H] (14.90 K for $T_{eff}$), respectively.

  14. Variability in Optical Spectra of epsilon Orionis

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a time-series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of epsilon Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of Halpha (net) and He I 5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I 5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both Halpha and He I 5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with time scales of 2-7 d. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both Halpha and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the o...

  15. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Recio-Blanco, A; Prieto, C Allende; Fustes, D; Manteiga, M; Arcay, B; Bijaoui, A; Dafonte, C; Ordenovic, C; Blanco, D Ordoñez

    2016-01-01

    Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as G_RVS~16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed for most of these RVS spectra. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimization (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE) or pattern recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log(g), [M/H]) for B- to K- type stars. The performances for the determinations of [alpha/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. For all the considered stellar types, stars brighter than G_RVS~12.5 will be very efficiently parametrized by t...

  16. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of mercuric halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templet, P.; Mcdonald, J. R.; Mcglynn, S. P.; Kendrow, C. H.; Roebber, J. L.; Weiss, K.

    1972-01-01

    The gas phase transitions of the mercuric halides were observed in the UV region by operating at temperatures above 400 K and at vapor pressures on the order of 0.5 mm. Spectral features exhibited by the chloride, bromide, and iodide of mercury correlate energetically with bands previously designated as intermolecular charge transfer transitions. The solution spectra of mercuric iodide and deep color of the crystals (if not due to some solid state interactions) indicate that this molecule may also have longer wavelength transitions.

  18. Spaces of orderings and abstract real spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Murray A

    1996-01-01

    This book is of interest to students as well as experts in the area of real algebraic geometry, quadratic forms, orderings, valuations, lattice ordered groups and rings, and in model theory. The original motivation comes from orderings on fields and commutative rings. This is explained as is the important application to minimal generation of semi-algebraic sets. Many results in the new theory of abstract real spectra (also called spaces of signs) appear here for the first time. The reader needs elementary knowledge of commutative rings, ordered fields and real closed fields and valuations.

  19. The spectra and dynamics of diatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre-Brion, Helene

    2004-01-01

    This book is written for graduate students just beginning research, for theorists curious about what experimentalists actually can and do measure, and for experimentalists bewildered by theory. It is a guide for potential users of spectroscopic data, and uses language and concepts that bridge the frequency-and time-domain spectroscopic communities. Key topics, concepts, and techniques include: the assignment of simple spectra, basic experimental techniques, definition of Born-Oppenheimer and angular momentum basis sets and the associated spectroscopic energy level patterns (Hund's ca

  20. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e+e- beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e+e- and γγ differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e+e- linear collider designs currently under study

  1. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF LOW-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Y Chiragwandi Z; G(o..)thberg P; Willander M

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the optical spectra of low-dimensional semiconductor systems by calculating all possible optical transitions between electronic states. Optical absorption and emission have been obtained under different carrier population conditions and in different photon wavelengths. The line-shapes of the peaks in the optical spectrum are determined by the density of electronic states of the system, and the symmetries and intensities of these peaks can be improved by reducing the dimensionality of the system. Optical gain requires in general a population inversion, whereas for a quantum-dot system, there exists a threshold value of the population inversion.

  2. Symmetry in bonding and spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Bodie E

    1985-01-01

    Many courses dealing with the material in this text are called ""Applications of Group Theory."" Emphasizing the central role and primary importance of symmetry in the applications, Symmetry in Bonding and Spectra enables students to handle applications, particularly applications to chemical bonding and spectroscopy. It contains the essential background in vectors and matrices for the applications, along with concise reviews of simple molecular orbital theory, ligand field theory, and treatments of molecular shapes, as well as some quantum mechanics. Solved examples in the text illustra

  3. The Hilbert transform: Applications to atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, K A; Hughes, I G; Adams, C S

    2014-01-01

    In many areas of physics, the Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations are used to extract information about the real part of the optical response of a medium from its imaginary counterpart. In this paper we discuss an alternative but mathematically equivalent approach based on the Hilbert transform. We apply the Hilbert transform to transmission spectra to find the group and refractive indices of a Cs vapor, and thereby demonstrate how the Hilbert transform allows indirect measurement of the refractive index, group index and group delay whilst avoiding the use of complicated experimental set ups.

  4. Statistical properties of quantum spectra in nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some aspects of quantum chaos in a finite system have been studied based on the analysis of statistical behavior of quantum spectra in nuclei.The experiment data show the transition from order to chaos with increasing excitation energy in spherical nuclei.The dependence of the order to chaos transition on nuclear deformation and nuclear rotating is described.The influence of pairing effect on the order to chaos transition is also discussed.Some important experiment phenomena in nuclear physics have been understood from the point of view of the interplay between order and chaos.

  5. Vibrational infrared and raman spectra of dicyanoacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R. K.; Perera-Jarmer, M. A.; Ospina, M. J.

    The raman and infrared spectra for solid C 4N 2 are reported. New assignments are given for ˜gn 1 (2333 cm -1), ˜gn 2 (2267) and ˜gn 3 (640 cm -1). These assignments are supported by a normal coordinate Analysis using eight force constants. Extinction coefficients for the infrared active fundamentals are also reported. Our results suggest C 4N 2 to be a likely candidate to explain the 478 cm -1 band in the Titan's emission recorded by the Voyager mission.

  6. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  7. Method for analysis of low energy backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Rez. Ustav Jaderne Fyziky); Pelikan, L. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslavika). Dept. of Microelectronics); Rybka, V.; Krejci, P. (Tesla, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-04-15

    An analytical formula is proposed describing the shape of the energy spectra of particles backscattered from samples implanted with heavy impurities. The method is suitable for quantitative evaluation of backscattering spectra measured with low energy ions.

  8. Computational system of reference spectra locating-LOCREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCREF system was developed with the aim of automatizing the reference spectra locating routine. These spectra are used as background for the internal individual monitoring activity calculations performed in the whole body counter located in IRD. (author)

  9. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  10. Abundances, energy and LET spectra of HZE particles in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter reviews knowledge of the composition and energy spectra of HZE (high Z and energy) particles in space and present experimental results of LET spectra measured in several manned satellites

  11. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10-6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of secondary and prompt fission neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porodzinskij, Yu.V.; Sukhovitskij, E.Sh. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1997-03-01

    A simple model allowing to split neutron emission spectra into reaction partials is suggested. Predicted spectra of (n,n`{gamma}), (n,n`f), etc appear to be much harder than usually evaluated. (author)

  13. Measurement of the Spectra of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence in water

    CERN Document Server

    Antos, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary results of measurement of the spectra of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL) in water are presented. Analysis concentrates on similarity and differences of spectra from black-body radiation like shape.

  14. The use of synthetic spectra to test the preparedness to evaluate and analyze complex gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M [Doletom OY (Finland)

    2001-10-01

    This is the report of two exercises that were run under the NKS BOK-1.1 sub-project. In these exercises synthetic gamma spectra were developed to exercise the analysis of difficult spectra typically seen after a severe nuclear accident. The spectra were analyzed twice; first, participants were given short time to give results to resemble an actual emergency preparedness situation, then a longer period of time was allowed to tune the laboratory analysis results for quality assurance purposes. The exercise did prove that it is possible to move measurement data from one laboratory to another if second opinion of the analysis is needed. It was also felt that this kind of exercise would enhance the experience the laboratories have in analyzing accident data. Participants expressed the need for additional exercises of this type, this is inexpensive and an easy way to exercise quick emergency response situations not normally seen in daily laboratory routines. (au)

  15. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria;

    There is potential to use soil ·-proximal and remote sensing derived spectra concomitantly to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) models. Yet mixing spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was to incorporate...... soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...... by separately calibrating samples from upland and wetland. We hypbthesize that final prediction accuracy is significantly improved by incorporatin1 laboratory vis-NlR images upscaled from point-based spectra to catchment scale and RS data for topsoil SOC spatial modeling....

  16. Determination of the dynamical structure of galaxies using optical spectra

    OpenAIRE

    De Rijcke, S.; Dejonghe, H.

    1998-01-01

    Galaxy spectra are a rich source of kinematical information since the shapes of the absorption lines reflect the movement of stars along the line-of-sight. We present a technique to directly build a dynamical model for a galaxy by fitting model spectra, calculated from a dynamical model, to the observed galaxy spectra. Using synthetic spectra from a known galaxy model we demonstrate that this technique indeed recovers the essential dynamical characteristics of the galaxy model. Moreover, the ...

  17. On the analysis of membrane protein circular dichroism spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Sreerama, Narasimha; Woody, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of circular dichroism spectra of proteins provides information about protein secondary structure. Analytical methods developed for such an analysis use structures and spectra of a set of reference proteins. The reference protein sets currently in use include soluble proteins with a wide range of secondary structures, and perform quite well in analyzing CD spectra of soluble proteins. The utility of soluble protein reference sets in analyzing membrane protein CD spectra, however, has ...

  18. Measurement of turbulence spectra using scanning pulsed wind lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.; Mann, J.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent velocity spectra, as measured by a scanning pulsed wind lidar (WindCube), are analyzed. The relationship between ordinary velocity spectra and lidar derived spectra is mathematically very complex, and deployment of the three-dimensional spectral velocity tensor is necessary. The resulting

  19. Spectra of radioactive nuclides radiation, measured with semiconductor detectors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second part of the atlas 'Radiation spectra of radionuclides measured with semiconductor detectors' is presented including 259 spectra of 126 alpha, beta, gamma, and X ray emitters. Some spectra of the first part of the atlas are given at another scale and sometimes for other energy ranges. The total number of investigated radionuclides amounts to 261 of which 69 are new ones

  20. A program converting MCNP simulation into gamma vision spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is developed which can convert the energy distribution of photons calculated by MCNP into Gamma Vision spectra, thus, the simulated energy spectra can be displayed and processed with Gamma Vision. The program provides a convenient tool for the theoretical simulation of HPGe γ spectra. (authors)

  1. Power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Moraghan, Anthony; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence through high-resolution three-dimensional isothermal numerical simulations where the turbulence is driven locally in real-space by a simple spherical outflow model. The resulting turbulent flow saturates at an average Mach number of ~2.5 and is analysed through density and velocity power spectra, including an investigation of the evolution of the solenoidal and compressional components. We obtain a shallow density power spectrum with a slope of ~-1.2 attributed to the presence of a network of localised dense filamentary structures formed by strong shock interactions. The total velocity power spectrum slope is found to be ~-2.0, representative of Burgers shock dominated turbulence model. The density weighted velocity power spectrum slope is measured as ~-1.6, slightly less than the expected Kolmogorov scaling value (slope of -5/3) found in previous works. The discrepancy may be caused by the nature of our real space driving model and we suggest ther...

  2. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  3. Non-gaussian CMBR angular power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we show how the prediction of CMBR angular power spectra C_l in non-Gaussian theories is affected by a cosmic covariance problem, that is (C_l,C_{l'}) correlations impart features on any observed C_l spectrum which are absent from the average C^l spectrum. Therefore the average spectrum is rendered a bad observational prediction, and two new prediction strategies, better adjusted to these theories, are proposed. In one we search for hidden random indices conditional to which the theory is released from the correlations. Contact with experiment can then be made in the form of the conditional power spectra plus the random index distribution. In another approach we apply to the problem a principal component analysis. We discuss the effect of correlations on the predictivity of non-Gaussian theories. We finish by showing how correlations may be crucial in delineating the borderline between predictions made by non-Gaussian and Gaussian theories. In fact, in some particular theories, correlations may ...

  4. Theoretical Spectra of Terrestrial Exoplanet Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable via prominent Si-O features in the thermal emission bands of 7 - 13 \\mu m and 15 - 25 \\mu m. The variation of brightness temperature due to the silicate features can be up to 20 K for an airless Earth analog, and the silicate features are wide enough to be distinguished from atmospheric features with relatively high-resolution spectra. The surface characterization thus provides a method to unambiguously identify a rocky exoplanet. Furthermore, identification of specific rocky surface types is possible with the planet's reflectance spectrum in near-infrared broad bands. A key parameter to observe is the difference between K band and J band geometric albedos (A_g (K)-A_g (J)): A_g (K)-A_g (J) > 0.2 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface has abundant mafic minerals, such as oliv...

  5. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  6. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  7. Absorption Features in Soil Spectra Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašát, Radim; Kodešová, Radka; Borůvka, Luboš; Jakšík, Ondřej; Klement, Aleš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    From a wide range of techniques appropriate to relate spectra measurements with soil properties, partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector machines (SVM) are most commonly used. This is due to their predictive power and the availability of software tools. Both represent exclusively statistically based approaches and, as such, benefit from multiple responses of soil material in the spectrum. However, physical-based approaches that focus only on a single spectral feature, such as simple linear regression using selected continuum-removed spectra values as a predictor variable, often provide accurate estimates. Furthermore, if this approach extends to multiple cases by taking into account three basic absorption feature parameters (area, width, and depth) of all occurring features as predictors and subjecting them to best subset selection, one can achieve even higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression. Here, we attempt to further extend this approach by adding two additional absorption feature parameters (left and right side area), as they can be important diagnostic markers, too. As a result, we achieved higher prediction accuracy compared with PLS regression and SVM for exchangeable soil pH, slightly higher or comparable for dithionite-citrate and ammonium oxalate extractable Fe and Mn forms, but slightly worse for oxidizable carbon content. Therefore, we suggest incorporating the multiple linear regression approach based on absorption feature parameters into existing working practices. PMID:26555184

  8. Energy spectra of solar flare electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of 50 electron energy spectra from .1 to 100 MeV originating from solar flares was made by the combination of data from two spectrometers onboard the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft. The observed spectral shapes of flare events can be divided into two classes through the criteria of fit to an acceleration model. This standard two step acceleration model, which fits the spectral shape of the first class of flares, involves an impulsive step that accelerates particles up to 100 keV and a second step that further accelerates these particles up to 100 MeV by a single shock. This fit fails for the second class of flares that can be characterized as having excessively hard spectra above 1 MeV relative to the predictions of the model. Correlations with soft x-ray and meter radio observations imply that the acceleration of the high energy particles in the second class of flares is dominated by the impulsive phase of the flares

  9. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, i.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are

  10. Comparative analysis of characteristic electron energy loss spectra and inelastic scattering cross-section spectra of Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra of Fe have been calculated based on experimental spectra of characteristic reflection electron energy loss as dependences of the product of the inelastic mean free path by the differential inelastic electron scattering cross section on the electron energy loss. It has been shown that the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages over the electron energy loss spectra in the analysis of the interaction of electrons with substance. The peaks of energy loss in the spectra of characteristic electron energy loss and inelastic electron scattering cross sections have been determined from the integral and differential spectra. It has been shown that the energy of the bulk plasmon is practically independent of the energy of primary electrons in the characteristic electron energy loss spectra and monotonically increases with increasing energy of primary electrons in the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra. The variation in the maximum energy of the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra is caused by the redistribution of intensities over the peaks of losses due to various excitations. The inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have been analyzed using the decomposition of the spectra into peaks of the energy loss. This method has been used for the quantitative estimation of the contributions from different energy loss processes to the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra of Fe and for the determination of the nature of the energy loss peaks.

  11. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  12. Energy dependence of radioluminescence spectra from strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wyfemail@gmail.com [School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Wu, X. [School of Science, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Finch, A.A. [Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Townsend, P.D. [Physics Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    X-ray excited luminescence spectra of strontium titanate are reported over the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The range includes several crystalline phases, each with different emission spectra. The signals are thermally quenched above ~220 K. There are spectral shifts and intensity changes around the temperatures associated with phase changes and overall there are nominally three spectral emission bands. A remarkable observation is that at fixed lower temperatures the spectra undergo major changes with the energy of the X-rays. A possible cause of the effect is discussed in terms of inner shell excitation from the K shell of the strontium. Comparisons with thermoluminescence spectra from the strontium titanate are reported. - Highlights: • Radioluminescence spectra of SrTiO{sub 3} are reported from 20 to 300 K. • X-ray luminescence spectra depend on crystal phase. • Direct evidence for inner shell excitation of Sr controlling emission spectra.

  13. Reflectance Spectra of the Juneau Icefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Allen, L.; Popyack, K.; Peter, A.; Perera, E.; Pope, A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow reflectance is an important input to understanding a glacier's surface energy balance. It is also useful for quantifying other snow properties such as impurities and grain size. In cooperation with the Juneau Icefield Research Program, we measured the spectral reflectance and albedo of a range of targets, collecting a spectral catalogue of the Taku glacier system. Using this spectral library, the main foci of this study are linking red algae biomass to spectral reflectance, quantifying the radiative forcing of impurities in suncups, and testing a snow grain size retrieval algorithm. Impurities, algae, and large snow grains all reduce the reflectance of shortwave radiation but with unique spectral signatures. In addition, spectra are used in conjunction with satellite imagery to investigate the spatial variability of albedo and therefore impurities on the Taku Glacier.

  14. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  15. Spectra as windows into exoplanet atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam S

    2014-09-01

    Understanding a planet's atmosphere is a necessary condition for understanding not only the planet itself, but also its formation, structure, evolution, and habitability. This requirement puts a premium on obtaining spectra and developing credible interpretative tools with which to retrieve vital planetary information. However, for exoplanets, these twin goals are far from being realized. In this paper, I provide a personal perspective on exoplanet theory and remote sensing via photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. Although not a review in any sense, this paper highlights the limitations in our knowledge of compositions, thermal profiles, and the effects of stellar irradiation, focusing on, but not restricted to, transiting giant planets. I suggest that the true function of the recent past of exoplanet atmospheric research has been not to constrain planet properties for all time, but to train a new generation of scientists who, by rapid trial and error, are fast establishing a solid future foundation for a robust science of exoplanets.

  16. UV spectra, bombs, and the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    A recent analysis of UV data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph {\\em IRIS} reports plasma "bombs" with temperatures near \\hot{} within the solar photosphere. This is a curious result, firstly because most bomb plasma pressures $p$ (the largest reported case exceeds $10^3$ dyn~cm$^{-2}$) fall well below photospheric pressures ($> 7\\times10^3$), and secondly, UV radiation cannot easily escape from the photosphere. In the present paper the {\\em IRIS} data is independently analyzed. I find that the bombs arise from plasma originally at pressures between $\\lta80$ and 800 dyne~cm$^{-2}$ before explosion, i.e. between $\\lta850$ and 550 km above $\\tau_{500}=1$. This places the phenomenon's origin in the low-mid chromosphere or above. I suggest that bomb spectra are more compatible with Alfv\\'enic turbulence than with bi-directional reconnection jets.

  17. Interference and diffraction in photoelectron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decleva, P., E-mail: decleva@univ.trieste.it; Ponzi, A.; Santizo, I.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy oscillations in the photoionization cross sections. • Interference and diffraction in molecular photoionization. • Non-stoichiometric cross sections. • Core and valence photoionization cross sections in haloacetylenes. - Abstract: Theoretical calculations are employed to disentangle the effect due to coherent emission from equivalent centres and diffraction from neighbouring inequivalent atoms in core and valence photoelectron spectra. The molecules investigated are mono and disubstituted fluoro and iodo acetylenes, compared to the simple acetylene system. The two effects appear well separated and additive in the core region, with diffraction giving oscillations of smaller amplitude, shorter period, and more strongly damped. Their interplay is more complex in the valence region giving rise to irregular patterns which, although rich in information, are more difficult to analyze. It is shown that the use of an external standard molecule can be profitably used to reveal diffraction patterns in the case where no internal ratio is available.

  18. A review of type Ia supernova spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Parrent, J; Parthasarathy, M

    2014-01-01

    SN 2011fe was the nearest and best-observed type Ia supernova in a generation, and brought previous incomplete datasets into sharp contrast with the detailed new data. In retrospect, documenting spectroscopic behaviors of type Ia supernovae has been more often limited by sparse and incomplete temporal sampling than by consequences of signal-to-noise ratios, telluric features, or small sample sizes. As a result, type Ia supernovae have been primarily studied insofar as parameters discretized by relative epochs and incomplete temporal snapshots near maximum light. Here we discuss a necessary next step toward consistently modeling and directly measuring spectroscopic observables of type Ia supernova spectra. In addition, we analyze current spectroscopic data in the parameter space defined by empirical metrics, which will be relevant even after progenitors are observed and detailed models are refined.

  19. Boundary spectra in superspace σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note we compute exact boundary spectra for D-instantons in σ-models on the supergroup PSL(22). Our results are obtained through an explicit summation of the perturbative expansion for conformal dimensions to all orders in the curvature radius. The analysis exploits several remarkable properties of the perturbation series that arises from rescalings of the metric on PSL(22) relative to a fixed Wess- Zumino term. According to Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the models are relevant in the context of string theory on AdS3 with non-vanishing RR-flux. The note concludes with a number of comments on various possible generalizations to other supergroups and higher dimensional supercoset theories. (orig.)

  20. Jets and Bombs: Characterizing IRIS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Donald; Innes, Davina

    2014-06-01

    For almost two decades, SUMER has provided an unique perspective on explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. One of the hallmark observations during this tenure is the identification of quiet sun bi-directional jets in the lower transition region. We investigate these events through two distinct avenues of study: a MHD model for reconnection and the new datasets of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Based on forward modeling optically thin spectral profiles, we find the spectral signatures of reconnection can vary dramatically based on viewing angle and altitude. We look to the IRIS data to provide a more complete context of the chromospheric and coronal environment during these dynamic events. During a joint IRIS-SUMER observing campaign, we observed spectra of multiple jets, a small C flare, and an Ellerman bomb event. We discuss the questions that arise from the inspection of these new data.

  1. On Magnetic Spectra of Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.; Sabaka, T. J.; Purucker, M.

    2002-01-01

    The spectral method for distinguishing crustal from core-source magnetic fields is reexamined, modified, and applied to both a comprehensive geomagnetic field model and an altitude normalized magnetic map of Mars. The observational spectra are fairly fitted by theoretical forms expected from certain elementary classes of magnetic sources. For Earth we find fields from a core of radius 3512 +/- 64 km, in accord with the seismologic core radius of 3480 km, and a crust represented by a shell of random dipolar sources at radius 6367 +/- 14 km, near the planetary mean radius of 6371.2 km. For Mars we find no sign of a core-source field, only a field from a crust represented in same way, but at radius 3344 +/- 10 km, about 46 km below the planetary mean radius of 3389.5 km, and with sources about 9.6 +/- 3.2 times stronger.

  2. Electron spectra from decay of fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J K

    1982-09-01

    Electron spectra following decay of individual fission products (72 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 162) are obtained from the nuclear data given in the compilation using a listed and documented computer subroutine. Data are given for more than 500 radionuclides created during or after fission. The data include transition energies, absolute intensities, and shape parameters when known. An average beta-ray energy is given for fission products lacking experimental information on transition energies and intensities. For fission products having partial or incomplete decay information, the available data are utilized to provide best estimates of otherwise unknown decay schemes. This compilation is completely referenced and includes data available in the reviewed literature up to January 1982.

  3. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectra of Dipeptide Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO, Zaigang; ZENG, Chengchu; YANG, Daoshan; HUANG, Yali; WANG, Fang; DU, Hongguang; HU, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the structure of the HIV integrase core domain, dipeptide derivatives, as a type of HIV integrase in- hibitor, were synthesized, and their fragmentation pathways were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spec- trometry (ESI-MSN) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In order to better understand the fragmentation pathways, the MS2 and MS3 spectra of the title compound were obtained. The main fragmentation pathways occur by the cleavage of the C-CO bonds between N-(benzothiazol-2-yl)aminocarbonyl and methylene, NH-CO bonds between the NH groups and carbonyl groups. Electrospray ionization was proven to be a good method for the structural characterization and identification of this kind of compound.

  4. Turbulent velocity spectra in superfluid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Salort, J; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Daviaud, F; Didelot, T; Diribarne, P; Dubrulle, B; Gagne, Y; Gauthier, F; Girard, A; Hébral, B; Rousset, B; Thibault, P; Roche, P -E; 10.1063/1.3504375

    2012-01-01

    We present velocity spectra measured in three cryogenic liquid 4He steady flows: grid and wake flows in a pressurized wind tunnel capable of achieving mean velocities up to 5 m/s at temperatures above and below the superfluid transition, down to 1.7 K, and a "chunk" turbulence flow at 1.55 K, capable of sustaining mean superfluid velocities up to 1.3 m/s. Depending on the flows, the stagnation pressure probes used for anemometry are resolving from one to two decades of the inertial regime of the turbulent cascade. We do not find any evidence that the second order statistics of turbulence below the superfluid transition differ from the ones of classical turbulence, above the transition.

  5. Infrared Spectra of High Pressure Carbon Monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, W J; Lipp, M J; Lorenzana, H E

    2001-09-21

    We report infrared (IR) spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) at high pressures. Although CO is one of the simplest heteronuclear diatomic molecules, it displays surprisingly complex behavior at high pressures and has been the subject of several studies [1-5]. IR spectroscopic studies of high pressures phases of CO provide data complementing results from previous studies and elucidating the nature of these phases. Though a well-known and widely utilized diagnostic of molecular systems, IR spectroscopy presents several experimental challenges to high pressure diamond anvil cell research. We present measurements of the IR absorption bands of CO at high pressures and experimentally illustrate the crucial importance of accurate normalization of IR spectra specially within regions of strong absorptions in diamond.

  6. Emission infrared spectra of molten potassium heptafluoroniobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Bessonova, V.A. (AN SSSR, Apatity. Kol' skij Filial)

    1984-01-01

    Emission infrared spectra of potassium heptafluoroniobate molten in the air, vacuum and inert gas atmosphere are obtained. The analysis of different sections of the in got as well as potassium heptafluoroniobate condensate obtained upon long remelting in the air has shown that the investigated phases have complex composition. Along with the heptafluoroniobate potassium oxyfluoroniobate, mainly K/sub 2/NbOF/sub 5/ is present in them, in case of condensate-KNbOF/sub 4/. The pyrohydrolysis process consists of two-mutually compensating each other stages, that is parallel to the oxyfluoroniobate production the process of their destruction and partial removal from the melting surface takes place. It is shown that hydrogen fluoride produced as a result of KNbF/sub 5/ pyrohydrolysis can affect to considerable extent the ion structure of the melt.

  7. Spectra as Windows into Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Understanding a planet's atmosphere is a necessary condition for understanding not only the planet itself, but also its formation, structure, evolution, and habitability, This puts a premium on obtaining spectra, and developing credible interpretative tools with which to retrieve vital planetary information. However, for exoplanets these twin goals are far from being realized. In this paper, I provide a personal perspective on exoplanet theory and remote sensing via photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. Though not a review in any sense, this paper highlights the limitations in our knowledge of compositions, thermal profiles, and the effects of stellar irradiation, focussing on, but not restricted to, transiting giant planets. I suggest that the true function of the recent past of exoplanet atmospheric research has been not to constrain planet properties for all time, but to train a new generation of scientists that, by rapid trial and error, is fast establishing a solid future foundation for a robust sc...

  8. Modeling degradation in SOEC impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Knibbe, Ruth;

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide cell (SOC) performance is limited by various processes. One way to investigate these processes is by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In order to quantify and characterize the processes, an equivalent circuit can be used to model the SOC impedance spectra (IS). Unfortunately......, the optimal equivalent circuit is often unknown and to complicate matters further, several processes contribute to the SOC impedance - making detailed process characterization difficult. In this work we analyze and model a series of IS measured during steam electrolysis operation of an SOC. During testing......, degradation is only observed in the Ni/YSZ electrode and not in the electrolyte or the LSM/YSZ electrode. A batch fit of the differences between the IS shows that a modified Gerischer element provides a better fit to the Ni/YSZ electrode impedance than the frequently used RQ element - albeit neither...

  9. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  10. THEORETICAL SPECTRA OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ehlmann, Bethany L., E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable via prominent Si-O features in the thermal emission bands of 7-13 {mu}m and 15-25 {mu}m. The variation of brightness temperature due to the silicate features can be up to 20 K for an airless Earth analog, and the silicate features are wide enough to be distinguished from atmospheric features with relatively high resolution spectra. The surface characterization thus provides a method to unambiguously identify a rocky exoplanet. Furthermore, identification of specific rocky surface types is possible with the planet's reflectance spectrum in near-infrared broad bands. A key parameter to observe is the difference between K-band and J-band geometric albedos (A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J)): A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) > 0.2 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface has abundant mafic minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, in other words primary crust from a magma ocean or high-temperature lavas; A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) < -0.09 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface is covered or partially covered by water ice or hydrated silicates, implying extant or past water on its surface. Also, surface water ice can be specifically distinguished by an H-band geometric albedo lower than the J-band geometric albedo. The surface features can be distinguished from possible atmospheric features with molecule identification of atmospheric species by transmission spectroscopy. We therefore propose that mid-infrared spectroscopy of exoplanets may detect rocky surfaces, and near-infrared spectrophotometry may identify ultramafic surfaces, hydrated surfaces, and water ice.

  11. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}∼ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}∼ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1–10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}∼ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ∼60–80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ∼1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  12. Title: Near-UV behaviour of observed TNO reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccull, Tom; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Izawa, Matthew; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Observed spectra provide the best diagnostics of the surface compositions of Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs). We have observed the spectra of 7 TNOs, from across almost the full range of dynamical classes, using the VLT's X-Shooter spectrograph. Compared to the 5 targets in our sample which exhibit linear spectra in the UV-optical range, two of of our targets show highly unusual spectral behaviour, whereby their reflectance decreases sharply at wavelengths below ~440nm. Those same objects exhibit typically unremarkable spectra in the optical and near-IR spectral regions. In these regions where available, our observed spectra of the targets are in agreement with spectra or photometry available in the literature. Using a different solar analogue to produce our reflectance spectra does not remove the UV decrease exhibited by the two targets. Further, it appears that neither reducing the spectra with different pipelines, nor using drastically different parameters in those pipelines changes this general behaviour. Based on laboratory spectra of complex hydrocarbons it is plausible that the near-UV behaviour is the result of a surface coating of organic substances on the TNOs which exhibit it. The spectra of organics are also consistent in having a general red slope similar to that observed in the spectra of many TNOs. While laboratory spectra of some silicate substances also show a decrease in reflectance in the near-UV spectral region that is in principle consistent with our observations, those silicates do not exhibit a red slope consistent with our optical spectra. Hence, the hypothesis that silicates are present seems less likely than the hypothesis that this UV decrease is due to the presence of organics on the surfaces of these objects.

  13. Inclusive spectra of hadrons created by color tube fission; 2, Inclusive spectra of primary hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Gedalin, E V

    1997-01-01

    The primary inclusive spectra and correlation functions of particles created by color tube fission are considered. Using the previously obtained expression for probability of the tube breaking in n points we have calculated the one and two particle inclusive spectra of tube pieces as well as pseudoscalar and vector mesons in plateau area. It is shown that the plateau height of the one particle inclusive spectrum is determined by the flavor quark composition and spin of hadron. Small oscillations of the tube surface give only small correction to the main term. The correlation functions of fixed particles have the form of a product of the universal function that depends only on the particle rapidity difference and thescale factor dependent on the spin and flavor quark composition of hadron.

  14. A Comprehensive Investigation Into Modeling Supernovae Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Desmond

    Supernovae are a rich source of information. By studying their light curves and spectra we gain insights into stellar evolution, the nature of the progenitor star, surface abundances at the time of the explosion, whether previous mass-loss episodes have occurred, the physics of the explosion including the amount and type of elements synthesized, and whether the explosion has produced significant mixing between shells of different chemical composition. To maximize the information that can be gleaned from observations of supernovae it is essential that we have the necessary spectroscopic tools. To this end, we are developing a code, CMFGEN, capable of modeling supernova light curves and spectra. The code is currently being used, to study core-collapse supernovae as well as those arising from the nuclear detonation of a White Dwarf star. We wish to extend CMFGEN's capabilities by developing a procedure to handle non-monotonic velocity flows so that we can treat shock breakout and the interaction of supernova ejecta with circumstellar material. We will also investigate magnetar-powered SNe, and explore the connection between Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae and those supernovae associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursters. Through detailed studies of individual supernova, and through the construction of model grids, we are able to infer deficiencies in our modeling, in our atomic data, and in the progenitor models, and hence make refinements so that we can improve our understanding of all SNe classes. Previous (IUE), current (HST, Chandra, GALEX), and future NASA missions (James Webb Telescope) do/will provide a wealth of data on supernovae. The proposed research is related to strategic subgoal 3D: "Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets." Supernovae are inherently coupled to the evolution of the universe and life: They can trigger star formation and they provide the raw materials (e.g., oxygen

  15. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  16. System of pattern analysis of PIXE spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murozono, K.; Iwasaki, S.; Inoue, J.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    1996-07-01

    We have developed an analysis system based on the pattern analysis method. By testing the system, several difficulties of the present method have been identified. We found the following solutions for them: pre-selection of candidate elements in a sample and the use of a proper absorber. The pre-selection of the candidate elements will not be a serious drawback in the industrial PIXE, because it will be easy to pre-process the spectra for a few samples in the beginning of the mass processing of samples of the same kind. On the other hand, reduction of the efficiency due to the use of funny filter is significant only in the lower energy region, where we usually do not suffer from insufficient yields of lighter elements in common samples. The selection of the most suitable filter requires PIXE user to be deeply experienced. In particular, it is not easy to choose the best filter to suppress the yield of peak of an abundant element as the absorption edge filter. It will be important task to find a set of suitable combination of representative samples and corresponding filters. Furthermore, the peak profile model should be improved from the simple Gaussian approximation to more realistic ones with exponential tail, flat component below the peak and escape peaks, etc. It is also necessary to develop a theoretical approach for the background shape of the bremsstrahlung. (J.P.N.)

  17. Resonance spectra of caged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    Recent numerical studies of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity have provided compelling evidence that confined scalar fields generically collapse to form black holes. Motivated by this intriguing discovery, we here use analytical tools in order to study the characteristic resonance spectra of the confined fields. These discrete resonant frequencies are expected to dominate the late-time dynamics of the coupled black-hole-field-cage system. We consider caged Reissner-Nordstroem black holes whose confining mirrors are placed in the near-horizon region x{sub m} ≡ (r{sub m} - r{sub +})/r{sub +} << τ ≡ (r{sub +} - r{sub -})/r{sub +} (here r{sub m} is the radius of the confining mirror and r{sub ±} are the radii of the black-hole horizons). We obtain a simple analytical expression for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of the coupled blackhole- field-cage system: ω{sub n} = -2πT{sub BH}.n [1 + O(x{sub m}{sup n}/τ{sup n})], where T{sub BH} is the temperature of the caged black hole and n = 1, 2, 3,.. is the resonance parameter. (orig.)

  18. Conformal symmetry and light flavor baryon spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchbach, M

    2010-01-01

    The degeneracy among parity pairs systematically observed in the N and Delta spectra is interpreted as signature for conformal symmetry realization in the light flavor baryon sector in consequence of AdS/CFT. The case is made by showing that all the observed N and Delta resonances with masses below 2500 MeV distribute fairly well over the first levels of a unitary representation of the conformal group, a representation that covers the spectrum of a quark-diquark system, placed directly on the AdS_5 cone, conformally compactified to R^1*S^3. The free geodesic motion on the S^3 manifold is described by means of the scalar conformal equation there, which is of the Klein-Gordon type. The equation is then gauged by the "curved" Coulomb potential that has the form of a cotangent function. Conformal symmetry is not exact, this because the gauge potential slightly modifies the conformal centrifugal barrier of the free geodesic motion. Thanks to this, the degeneracy between P11-S11 pairs from same level is relaxed, wh...

  19. Bumpy Power Spectra and Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Knebe, A; Silk, J; Knebe, Alexander; Islam, Ranty; Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the abundance of galaxy clusters is not a reliable measure of Omega if there are features on scales of a few Mpc in the primordial power spectrum. Conversely, if we know the cosmological model parameters from other measurements, the cluster abundance evolution permits us to probe features in the power spectrum that are in the nonlinear regime at the present epoch, and hence difficult to discern directly from current epoch measurements. We have investigated the influence of an artificially introduced Gaussian feature on an otherwise unperturbed SCDM power spectrum. Using these modified spectra as an input to cosmological N-body simulations, we are able to show that in terms of the cluster abundance evolution, a SCDM model displays characteristics similar to an OCDM model. However, strong modifications would also be visible at a redshift z=0 in the dark matter power spectrum whereas minor alterations to the usual SCDM spectrum are washed away by non-linear evolution effects. We therefore conclu...

  20. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  1. Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) - Algorithm and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asa'd, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) is a new package that can easily predict the age and reddening of stellar clusters from their observed optical integrated spectra by comparing them to synthesis model spectra. The ages obtained with ASAD are consistent with ages obtained from previous cluster age methods requiring a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. This package not only provides fast results, but also allows the user to comprehend the accuracy of these results by prov...

  2. Double-Resonance Facilitated Decomposion of Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryota; Ishikawa, Haruki

    2016-06-01

    Emission spectra provide us with rich information about the excited-state processes such as proton-transfer, charge-transfer and so on. In the cases that more than one excited states are involved, emission spectra from different excited states sometimes overlap and a decomposition of the overlapped spectra is desired. One of the methods to perform a decomposition is a time-resolved fluorescence technique. It uses a difference in time evolutions of components involved. However, in the gas-phase, a concentration of the sample is frequently too small to carry out this method. On the other hand, double-resonance technique is a very powerful tool to discriminate or identify a common species in the spectra in the gas-phase. Thus, in the present study, we applied the double-resonance technique to resolve the overlapped emission spectra. When transient IR absorption spectra of the excited state are available, we can label the population of the certain species by the IR excitation with a proper selection of the IR wavenumbers. Thus, we can obtain the emission spectra of labeled species by subtracting the emission spectra with IR labeling from that without IR. In the present study, we chose the charge-transfer emission spectra of cyanophenyldisilane (CPDS) as a test system. One of us reported that two charge-transfer (CT) states are involved in the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process of CPDS-water cluster and recorded the transient IR spectra. As expected, we have succeeded in resolving the CT emission spectra of CPDS-water cluster by the double resonance facilitated decomposion technique. In the present paper, we will report the details of the experimental scheme and the results of the decomposition of the emission spectra. H. Ishikawa, et al., Chem. Phys. Phys. Chem., 9, 117 (2007).

  3. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frédéric Zagury

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a series of spectra in the Red Rectangle nebula. Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the proximity of the star. In the blue, light from HD 44179, refracted or scattered in the atmosphere, dominates the spectra. This paper questions the reliability of ground-based broad-band spectra of extended objects in the blue.

  4. Universal triangular spectra in parametrically-driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmediev, Nail [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Ankiewicz, Adrian, E-mail: ana124@rsphysse.anu.edu.a [Optical Sciences Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Soto-Crespo, J.M. [Instituto de Optica, C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Dudley, John M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, 25030 Besancon (France)

    2011-01-17

    We analyse triangular spectra that appear in many branches of physics that deal with parametrically-driven systems, and give a simple theoretical analysis for them in terms of the nonlinear dynamics of multimode fields. Such spectra appear universally as a result of an exponential decay of the nonlinearly generated frequency modes of many parametrically-driven systems, and have been confirmed by recent observations of noise-driven supercontinuum generation in optical fibers. We demonstrate that such universal triangular spectra (UTS) can be well-described by the analytical expressions for the spectra of Akhmediev breather (AB) solutions at the point of maximal compression.

  5. Spectra of Optical Functions and Transitions in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Timonov, A. P.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2000-02-01

    Spectra of a complete set of optical functions are obtained for three different diamond samples in the region from 0 to 32 eV. The calculations were performed by the Kramers-Kronig method using experimental reflection spectra. Special features and differences of the spectra of optical functions of the three samples are analyzed. Based on the method of joined Argand diagrams, the spectra of the dielectric constant are decomposed into elementary components for the first time, and their energies and oscillator strengths are determined. The component structure is in good agreement with the theoretical spectrum of the dielectric constant and the expected spectrum of the interband transitions.

  6. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  7. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques; Larsen, Kristopher; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W.; McClintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Bradley, E. Todd

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluorescence and solar photo-fragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N2) or excitation by magnetosphere plasma. The altitude of the peak UV emissions on the limb during daylight occurred inside the thermosphere at the altitude of the topside ionosphere (near 1000 km altitude). However, at night on the limb, a subset of emission features, much weaker in intensity, arise in the atmosphere with two different geometries. First, there is a twilight photoelectron-excited glow that persists with solar depression angle up to 25-30 degrees past the terminator, until the solar XUV shadow height passes the altitude of the topside ionosphere (1000-1200 km). The UV twilight glow spectrum is similar to the dayglow but weaker in intensity. Second, beyond 120° solar zenith angle, when the upper atmosphere of Titan is in total XUV darkness, there is indication of weak and sporadic nightside UV airglow emissions excited by magnetosphere plasma collisions with ambient thermosphere gas, with similar N2 excited features as above in the daylight or twilight glow over an extended altitude range.

  8. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  9. Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, P.; Laskina, O.; Alexander, J. M.; Young, M.; Grassian, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol affects the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. The effect of atmospheric dust on climate is studied by various remote sensing techniques that use measurements from narrow band IR channels of satellites to determine key atmospheric properties. Therefore, it is essential to take radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol into account to correctly process remote sensing data. As aerosols are transported through the atmosphere they undergo aging and heterogeneous chemistry. This leads to changes in their optical properties and their effects on climate. In this study we carried out spectral simulations using both Mie theory and solutions derived in the Rayleigh regime for authentic dust samples and several processed components of mineral dust. Simulations of the extinction based on Mie theory shows that it does not accurately reproduce the peak position and band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Errors in the simulated peak position and the line shape associated with Mie theory can adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Analytic solutions for various shapes derived from Rayleigh theory offer a better fit to the major band features of the spectra, therefore the accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using these analytic solutions. It is also important to take aging of mineral dust into account. We investigated the effect of chemical processing on the optical properties. It was shown that interactions of components of mineral dust (calcite, quartz and kaolinite) with humic and organic acids cause a shift of the IR resonance bands of these minerals. It may indicate changes in shape of the particles as well as changes in hygroscopicity and, as the result, the water content in these samples. Therefore, care should be taken when modeling optical properties of aged mineral dust.

  10. High frequency fall-off of source spectra using Q-free spectra estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A broadband seismogram may be represented by a convolution of source time function, the propagation operator and the scattering/attenuation operator. As the propagation operator is frequency-independent, and the scattering/attenuation effect may be described by a Q-factor depending on frequency via Q-1=Q-11+(Q2ω)-1, considering a combination of the displacement spectra, the source spectra may directly be estimated, in which the contribution of the Q-value may be eliminated automatically. Using this algorithm, the near-source broadband seismograms of five aftershocks of the 1988 Lancang-Gengma, Yunnan Province, China earthquake were processed. The results for the ML=3.0 and ML=3.5 aftershocks show that for the same earthquake, similar high-frequency fall-off may be obtained from different recording stations. The result for the MS=6.7 aftershock shows that consistent source parameters may be gotten from different seismic stations. The parameters estimated also agree with the results obtained by empirical Green's function approach. The high-frequency spectra of the aftershocks exhibit a typical f-γ fall-off. For the ML=3.0 aftershock,γ≈3 ; for the MS=6.7 and ML=4.0 aftershocks,γ≈2; and for the ML=3.5 and ML=3.0 aftershocks, γ≈2.5. The corner frequency of the MS=6.7 aftershock indicates that it has a small source dimension, implying that it may come from the rupture of a small but strong barrier.

  11. Infra-red reflectance and emissivity spectra of nanodiamonds

    OpenAIRE

    MATURILLI, A.; A. A Shiryaev; Kulakova, I I; Helbert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance and emissivity spectra of nanodiamonds powder were measured in a dedicated setup at temperatures up to 873 K. The spectra are characterised by presence of sharp bands due to surface-bound functional groups. Thermal desorption of oxygen-containing groups lead to corresponding spectral changes. The maximal emissivity of nanodiamond powder reaches 0.985.

  12. HI absorption spectra for Supernova Remnants in the VGPS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Leahy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The set of supernova remnants (SNR) from Green's SNR catalog which are found in the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) are the objects considered in this study. For these SNR, we extract and analyse HI absorption spectra in a uniform way and construct a catalogue of absorption spectra and distance determinations.

  13. Combination spectra in long-period variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical discharge theory of the variation in excitation observed in the atmosphere of the long period variable stars offers an explanation for the combination spectra exhibited by many of these stars, which is shown to be in accord with several of the most outstanding changes in their spectra and magnitude. (author)

  14. Spent-fuel photon and neutron source spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been performed to develop appropriate data and techniques for computing the photon and neutron source spectra of spent fuel. The methods reviewed here include both the determination of spent-fuel composition and the radiation source spectra associated with these isotopic inventories

  15. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Survey (VIPERS): First Release of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Franzetti, P; Guzzo, L; Marchetti, A; Scodeggio, M

    2014-01-01

    We release the spectra for the more than 57000 objects presented in the First VIPERS Data Release. For each object we distribute the observed, wavelength and flux calibrated spectrum, as well as cleaned spectra, where artifacts due to fringing are removed. We also provide the sky and noise spectrum and the 2D spectrum. Data can be downloaded from http://vipers.inaf.it.

  16. 1H NMR Spectra of Some Amidrazone Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    BAHÇECİ, Şule; YÜKSEK, Haydar

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen amidrazone derivatives (six being new compounds) were synthesized and their proton magnetic resonance spectra were recorded in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The protonation shifts, related to alkyl groups and observed on comparison of the spectra run in a neutral solvent and TFA, were attributed to an amidinium-type resonance of the resulting cations in the acidic medium.

  17. Turn-over in pulsar spectra above 1 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Kijak, J.; Gupta, Y; Krzeszowski, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first direct evidence for turn-over in pulsar radio spectra at high frequencies. Two pulsars are now shown to have a turn-over frequency > 1GHz. We also find some evidence that the peak frequency of turn-over in pulsar spectra appears to depend on dispersion measure and pulsar age.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.P. [Department of Optometry and Radiography, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China). E-mail: benngkp at netvigator.com; Kwok, C.S.; Ng, K.P.; Tang, F.H. [Department of Optometry and Radiography, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2000-05-01

    A model for generating x-ray spectra in mammography is presented. This model used the ITS version 3 Monte Carlo code for simulating the radiation transport. Various target/filter combinations such as tungsten/aluminium, molybdenum/molybdenum, molybdenum/rhodium and rhodium/rhodium were used in the simulation. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray production were included in the model. The simulated x-ray emission spectra were compared with two sets of spectra, those of Boone et al (1997 Med. Phys. 24 1863-74) and IPEM report 78. The {chi}{sup 2} test was used for the overall goodness of fit of the spectral data. There is good agreement between the simulated x-ray spectra and the comparison spectra as the test yielded a probability value of nearly 1. When the transmitted x-ray spectra for specific target/filter combinations were generated and compared with a measured molybdenum/rhodium spectrum and spectra generated in IPEM report 78, close agreement is also observed. This was demonstrated by the probability value for the {chi}{sup 2} test being almost 1 for all the cases. However, minor differences between the simulated spectra and the 'standard' ones are observed. (author)

  19. Normalized spectra of 82 Kepler red giants (Thygesen+, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Thygesen; S. Frandsen; H. Bruntt; T. Kallinger; M.F. Andersen; Y.E. Elsworth; S. Hekker; C. Karoff; D. Stello; K. Brogaard; C. Bruke; D.A. Caldwell; J.L. Christiansen

    2012-01-01

    Normalized spectra of 82 red giants in the Kepler Field. Target names are as found in the Kepler Input Catalogue (Kepler Mission Team 2009) Also included spectra of 10 well-studied bright giants observed for reference. 9 of the reference giants were chosen from the PASTEL catalogue (Soubiran et al.,

  20. Velocity Spectra in the Unstable Planetary Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, Jørgen

    1982-01-01

    Models for velocity spectra of all three components in the lower half of the unstable PBL are presented. The model spectra are written as a sum of two parts, nS(n) = A(fi, z/zi)w*2 + B(f, z/zi)u*02, a mixed layer part with a stability dependence, and a surface layer part without stability...

  1. Information rates and power spectra of digital codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    1982-01-01

    is expressed in terms of the rate distortion function for a memoryless finite alphabet source and mean-square error distortion measure. A class of simple dc-free power spectra is considered in detail, and a method for constructing Markov sources with such spectra is derived. It is found that these sequences...

  2. A new method for compression-rebuilding of IR spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This work presents a new spectral data compression-rebuilding technique to translate the full IR spectral data into compact codes based on the analysis and comprehension encoding approach. This method has been successfully applied to a sample set of 505 IR spectra randomly picked from 100 000 spectra. The results show that the compression ratio reaches 12.7:1 under a very weak curve distortion. The choice of the number and shape of the basis functions is flexible. The IR spectra can be compressed in a fixed data size in fulfilling the distortion criteria. The data after compression have no significance in the sense of IR spectra. To recover the original spectra, a specific algorithm must be applied. So the method can be used as a cryptic tool. Furthermore, the method can be applied to the compression of other complex curve by utilizing some of proper basis functions.

  3. Experimental Investigation on Terahertz Spectra of Amphetamine Type Stimulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-Hai; SHEN Jing-Ling; LIANG Lai-Shun; XU Xiao-Yu; LIU Hai-Bo; ZHANG Cun-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The spectral absorption features of three amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) belonging to illicit drugs have been studied with terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the characteristic absorption spectra (fingerprint spectra) are obtained in the range from 0.2 to 2.5 THz. Fingerprint spectra of illicit drugs in terahertz band are bases to detect and to inspect nondestructively illicit drugs with terahertz technique. With fingerprint spectra of illicit drugs and strong penetrability for cloths, paper bags and leathered or plastic luggage terahertz technique would be better than other techniques in illicit drugs detection and inspection. Thus, this work would contribute to the building of corresponding fingerprint spectra database of illicit drugs and provide experimental bases for using of terahertz detection apparatus in drugs nondestructive detection and inspection in the future.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Terahertz Spectra of Amphetamine Type Stimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin-Hai; Shen, Jing-Ling; Liang, Lai-Shun; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Cun-Lin

    2005-12-01

    The spectral absorption features of three amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) belonging to illicit drugs have been studied with terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and the characteristic absorption spectra (fingerprint spectra) are obtained in the range from 0.2 to 2.5 THz. Fingerprint spectra of illicit drugs in terahertz band are bases to detect and to inspect nondestructively illicit drugs with terahertz technique. With fingerprint spectra of illicit drugs and strong penetrability for cloths, paper bags and leathered or plastic luggage terahertz technique would be better than other techniques in illicit drugs detection and inspection. Thus, this work would contribute to the building of corresponding fingerprint spectra database of illicit drugs and provide experimental bases for using of terahertz detection apparatus in drugs nondestructive detection and inspection in the future.

  5. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Lebzelter, T; Abia, C; Eriksson, K; Ireland, M; Neilson, H; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T; Peterson, R; Plez, B; Short, C I; Wahlgren, G M; Worley, C; Aringer, B; Bladh, S; de Laverny, P; Goswami, A; Mora, A; Norris, R P; Recio-Blanco, A; Scholz, M; Thevenin, F; Tsuji, T; Kordopatis, G; Montesinos, B; Wing, R F

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar...

  6. Newmark design spectra considering earthquake magnitudes and site categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Newmark design spectra have been implemented in many building codes, especially in building codes for critical structures. Previous studies show that Newmark design spectra exhibit lower amplitudes at high frequencies and larger amplitudes at low frequencies in comparison with spectra developed by statistical methods. To resolve this problem, this study considers three suites of ground motions recorded at three types of sites. Using these ground motions, influences of the shear-wave velocity, earthquake magnitudes, source-to-site distances on the ratios of ground motion parameters are studied, and spectrum amplification factors are statistically calculated. Spectral bounds for combinations of three site categories and two cases of earthquake magnitudes are estimated. Site design spectrum coefficients for the three site categories considering earthquake magnitudes are established. The problems of Newmark design spectra could be resolved by using the site design spectrum coefficients to modify the spectral values of Newmark design spectra in the acceleration sensitive, velocity sensitive, and displacement sensitive regions.

  7. Quantitative analysis for nonlinear fluorescent spectra based on edges matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel spectra-edge-matching approach is proposed for the quantitative analysis of the nonlinear fluorescence spectra of the air impurities excited by a femtosecond laser.The fluorescence spectra are first denoised and compressed,both by wavelet transform,and several peak groups are then picked from each spectrum according to a threshold of intensity and are used to extract the spectral features through principal component analysis.It is indicated that the first two principle components actually cover up to 98% of the total information and are sufficient for the final concentration analysis.The analysis reveals a monotone relationship between the spectra intensity and the concentration of the air impurities,suggesting that the femtosecond laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with the proposed spectra analysis method can become a powerful tool for monitoring environmental pollutants.

  8. Peptide de novo sequencing of mixture tandem mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Hotta, Stéphanie Yuki Kolbeck; Braga, Thiago Verano;

    2016-01-01

    complementary b-, y-ions to each precursor peptide mass, which allowed the creation of virtual spectra containing sequence specific fragment ions of each co-isolated peptide. Deconvolution processing resulted in equally efficient identification rates but increased the absolute number of correctly sequenced...... peptides. The improvement was in the range of 20–35% additional peptide identifications for a HeLa lysate sample. Some correct sequences were identified only using unprocessed spectra; however, the number of these was lower than those where improvement was obtained by mass spectral deconvolution. Tight......The impact of mixture spectra deconvolution on the performance of four popular de novo sequencing programs was tested using artificially constructed mixture spectra as well as experimental proteomics data. Mixture fragmentation spectra are recognized as a limitation in proteomics because they...

  9. Statistical properties of quantum spectra in nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xizhen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Wu Xizhen,Sakata,F.,Zhuo Yizhong et al.,Dynamic realization of statistical state in finite systems,Phys.ReV.C,1996,53:1233-1244.[2]Weidenmüller,H.A.,Statistical theory of nuclear reactions and the Gaussian Othogonal Ensemble,Annals of Physics,1984,158:120-141.[3]Hag,R.U.,Pandey,A.,Bohigas,O.,Fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels:Do theory and experiment agree? Phys.Rev.Lett.,1982,48:1086-1089.[4]Wu Xizhen,Gu Jianzhong,Iwamoto,A.,Statistical properties of quasiparticle spectra in deformed nuclei,Phys.Rev.C,1999,59:215-220.[5]Garrett,J.D.,Robinson,J.Q.,Foglia,A.J.et al.,Nuclear level repulsion and order vs chaos,Phys.Lett.B,1997,392:24-29.[6]Bohigas,O.,Hag,R.U.,Pandy,A.,Fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths comparison of theory with experiment,in Nuclear Data for Science and Technology (ed.Bockhoff,K.H.),Dordrecht:Reidel,1983,809-813.[7]Heiss,W.D.,Nazmitdinov,R.G.,Radu,S.,Chaos in axially symmetric potentials with Octupole deformation,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1994,72:2351-2354.[8]Wu Xizhen,Gu Jianzhong,Zhuo Yizhong et al.,Possible understanding of hyperdeformed 144-146Ba nuclei appearing in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1997,79:4542-4545.[9]Ter-Akopian,G.M.,Hamilton,J.H.,Oganessian,Y.T.et al.,New spontaneous fission mode for 252Cf:Indication of hyperdeformed 144,145,146Ba at scission,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1996,77:32-35.[10]Adamian,G.G.,Antonenko,N.V.,Ivanova,S.P.et al.,Problems in description of fusion of heavy nuclei in the two-center shell model approach,Nucl.Phys.A,1999,646:29-52.[11]Hofmann,H.,A quantal transport theory for nuclear collective motion:the metrits of a locally harmonic approximation method,Phys.Rep.,1997,284:139-380.[12]Gu Jianzhong,Wu Xizhen,Zhuo Yizhong,Quantum chaotic motion of a single particle in heavy nuclei,Nucl.Phys.A,1997,625:621-632.[13]Gu Jianzhong,Wu Xizhen,Zhuo Yizhong,The single-particle spectrum and its spacing and curvature distributions in

  10. An example of scaling MST Doppler spectra using median spectra, spectral smoothing, and velocity tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Although automatic, computer scaling methods appeared at the start of the MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar technique, there is a continuing need for scaling algorithms that perform editing functions and increase the sensitivity of radar by post processing. The scaling method presented is an adaptation of the method of scaling MST Doppler spectra presented by Rastogi (1984). A brief overview of this method is as follows: a median spectrum is calculated from several sequential spectra; the median noise value is subtracted from this derived spectrum; the median spectrum is smoothed; the detection/nondetection decision is made by comparing the smoothed spectrum to the variance of the smoothed noise; and if a signal is detected, then the half-power points of the smoothed echo spectrum are used to place limits on the evaluation of the first two moments of the unsmoothed median spectrum. In all of the above steps, the algorithm is guided by tracing the expected velocity range upward from the lowest range as far as possible. The method is discussed in more detail.

  11. Comparison between simplified load spectra in accordance with Germanische Lloyd guidelines, and load spectra derived from time domain simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, M. [Aerodyn Energiesysteme gmbH, Rendsburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The Germanische Lloyd guideline allows calculations of load spectra in two fundamentally different ways. In the case of the so-called `simplified load spectra` the maximum amplitude of fluctuation of a load component is formed as {+-}75% of the average value of the purely aerodynamic loads of this component at rated wind conditions, together with an overlay of mass-related loads. The second method allowed in the GL guideline is the calculation of load spectra from simulation results in the time domain. For a number of average wind speeds the time-dependent characteristics of the load components are calculated taking account of the natural spatial turbulence of the wind. These are converted into load spectra using the rainflow method. In a parametric study the load spectra are calculated according to both methods and compared. The calculations are performed for turbines with rated powers of 100 kW to 2000 kW, with two and three blades, and also for stall-controlled and pitch-controlled turbines. The calculated load spectra are compared with each by means of 1 P fatigue equivalent load spectra. The influence of individual parameters is presented, as is the validity of the simplified load spectra. (au)

  12. Polynomial analysis of canopy spectra and biochemical component content inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chunyan; LIU Qiang; NIU Zheng; WANG Jihua; HUANG Wenjiang; LIU Liangyun

    2005-01-01

    A polynomial expression model was developed in this paper to describe directional canopy spectra, and the decomposition of the polynomial expression was used as a tool for retrieving biochemical component content from canopy multi-angle spectra. First, the basic formula of the polynomial expression was introduced and the physical meaning of its terms and coefficients was discussed. Based on this analysis, a complete polynomial expression model and its decomposition method were given. By decomposing the canopy spectra simulated with SAILH model, it shows that the polynomial expression can not only fit well the canopy spectra, but also show the contribution of every order scattering to the whole reflectance. Taking the first scattering coefficients a10 and a01 for example, the test results show that the polynomial coefficients reflect very well the hot spot phenomenon and the effects of viewing angles, LAI and leaf inclination angle on canopy spectra. By coupling the polynomial expression with leaf model PROSPECT, a canopy biochemical component content inversion model was given. In the simulated test, the canopy multi-angle spectra were simulated by two different models, SAILH and 4-SCALE respectively, then the biochemical component content was retrieved by inverting the coupled polynomial expression + PROSPECT model. Results of the simulated test are promising, and when applying the algorithm to measured corn canopy multi-angle spectra, we also get relatively accurate chlorophyll content. It shows that the polynomial analysis provides a new method to get biochemical component content independent of any specific canopy model.

  13. Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) - Algorithm and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Asa'd, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Analyzer of Spectra for Age Determination (ASAD) is a new package that can easily predict the age and reddening of stellar clusters from their observed optical integrated spectra by comparing them to synthesis model spectra. The ages obtained with ASAD are consistent with ages obtained from previous cluster age methods requiring a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. This package not only provides fast results, but also allows the user to comprehend the accuracy of these results by providing surface plots and spectral plots for all combinations of observations and models. ASAD is available for download on the Web and can be immediately used on both Mac and Windows.

  14. The quantum spectra analysis of the circular billiards in wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Hui; Zhang Li-Qin; Xu Xue-You; Ge Mei-Hua; Lin Sheng-Lu; Du Meng-Li

    2006-01-01

    We use a recently defined quantum spectral function and apply the method of closed-orbit theory to the 2D circular billiard system. The quantum spectra contain rich information of all classical orbits connecting two arbitrary points in the well. We study the correspondence between quantum spectra and classical orbits in the circular, 1/2 circular and 1/4 circular wells using the analytic and numerical methods. We find that the peak positions in the Fourier-transformed quantum spectra match accurately with the lengths of the classical orbits. These examples show evidently that semi-classical method provides a bridge between quantum and classical mechanics.

  15. Spectra Statistics for the Odd-Odd Nucleus 86Nb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ren-Rong; ZHU Shun-Quan; CHENG Nan-Pu

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 86 Nb at low spins are calculated by using quasi-particles plus a rotor model. The distribution of the nearest-neighbour spacing and the spectral rigidity are studied. We find that the chaotic degree of the energy spectra increases with the increasing spin and reaches a maximum at I = 10; then it decreases gradually for spins above I = 10. The recoil term in the model Haniltonian makes the energy spectra slightly regular. The Coriolis force, however, makes the spectra chaotic and plays a major role in the spectral statistics of the odd-odd nucleus 86Nb.

  16. Comparison of exit time moment spectra for extrinsic metric balls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado, Ana; Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    We prove explicit upper and lower bounds for the $L^1$-moment spectra for the Brownian motion exit time from extrinsic metric balls of submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian spaces $N^{n}$. We assume that $P$ and $N$ both have controlled radial curvatures (mean curvature and sectional curvature......, respectively) as viewed from a pole in $N$. The bounds for the exit moment spectra are given in terms of the corresponding spectra for geodesic metric balls in suitably warped product model spaces. The bounds are sharp in the sense that equalities are obtained in characteristic cases. As a corollary we also...

  17. Tungsten spectra recorded at the LHD and comparison with calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Harte, Colm S.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T; Sakaue, H.A.; Kato, D.; Sato, K.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; D'Arcy, Rebekah; Sokell, Emma; White, John K.; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    We have measured extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from highly charged tungsten ions in low-density and high-temperature plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The EUV spectra emitted after injection of a tungsten pellet into a hydrogen plasma were recorded at plasma temperatures of 1.5 and 3 keV and were dominated by an intense transition array in the 4.5–6.5 nm region, the profile and extent of which was different in both spectra. Some dis...

  18. Characterization studies of BWR-4 neutron noise analysis spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron noise analysis measurements were made in three BWR-4 reactors under full-power conditions to determine the noise characterization spectra of the reactors with two different instrument-tube cooling configurations. Both configurations were designed to prevent flow-induced vibration of the instrument tubes and subsequent damage of fuel channel boxes caused by impacts of the tubes with the boxes. Noise spectra from these three reactors were compared with spectra previously obtained prior to changing the instrument-tube cooling configuration, and no evidence of impacting was found

  19. Breit-Wigner-Fano lineshapes in Raman spectra of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Saito, Riichiro

    2014-01-01

    Excitation of electron-hole pairs in the vicinity of the Dirac cone by the Coulomb interaction gives rise to an asymmetric Breit-Wigner-Fano lineshape in the phonon Raman spectra in graphene. This asymmetric lineshape appears due to the interference effect between the phonon spectra and the electron-hole pair excitation spectra. The calculated Breit-Wigner-Fano asymmetric factor 1/qBWF as a function of the Fermi energy shows a V-shaped curve with a minimum value at the charge neutrality point...

  20. Primary Cosmic-Ray Spectra in the Knee Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Antonyan, Samvel V.; Biermann, P. L.

    2003-07-01

    Using EAS inverse approach and KASCADE EAS data the primary energy spectra for different primary nuclei at energies 1015 - 1017 eV are obtained in the framework of multi-comp onent model of primary cosmic ray origin and QGSJET and SIBYLL interaction models. The rigidity-dep endent behavior of spectra is the same for two interaction models. The extrap olation of the obtained primary spectra in a 1017 - 1018 eV energy range displays a presence of the extragalactic component of primary cosmic rays.

  1. Computer Processing Of Tunable-Diode-Laser Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Randy D.

    1991-01-01

    Tunable-diode-laser spectrometer measuring transmission spectrum of gas operates under control of computer, which also processes measurement data. Measurements in three channels processed into spectra. Computer controls current supplied to tunable diode laser, stepping it through small increments of wavelength while processing spectral measurements at each step. Program includes library of routines for general manipulation and plotting of spectra, least-squares fitting of direct-transmission and harmonic-absorption spectra, and deconvolution for determination of laser linewidth and for removal of instrumental broadening of spectral lines.

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance spectra of H2-reduced minerals and glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Allen, Carlton C.

    1994-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we reported that H2 reduction of basaltic glass, olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase resulted in the formation of metallic iron, in the darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra, and the masking of individual spectral features in the visible and near-IR. In this work, we report FMR spectra for H2-reduced minerals and glasses that include the samples studied in the earlier paper. The FMR spectra were reduced at room temperature at a nominal frequency of 9.5 GHz. Sample saturation magnetization reported as F3(0) was measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  3. Photoemission spectra of charge density wave states in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Peng-Jen; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy(ARPES) experiments have reported many exotic properties of cuprates, such as Fermi arc at normal state, two gaps at superconducting state and particle-hole asymmetry at the antinodal direction. On the other hand, a number of inhomogeneous states or so-called charge density waves(CDW) states have also been discovered in cuprates by many experimental groups. The relation between these CDW states and ARPES spectra is unclear. With the help of Gutzwiller projected mean-field theory, we can reproduce the quasiparticle spectra in momentum space. The spectra show strong correspondence to the experimental data with afore-mentioned exotic features in it.

  4. Vibrational Spectra of the Azabenzenes Revisited: Anharmonic Force Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Boese, A D; Martin, Jan M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Anharmonic force fields and vibrational spectra of the azabenzene series (pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, s-triazine, 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine and s-tetrazine) and benzene are obtained using density functional theory (DFT) with the B97-1 exchange-correlation functional and a triple-zeta plus double polarization (TZ2P) basis set. Overall, the fundamental frequencies computed by second-order rovibrational perturbation theory are in excellent agreement with experiment. The resolution of the presently calculated anharmonic spectra is such that they represent an extremely useful tool for the assignment and interpretation of the experimental spectra, especially where resonances are involved.

  5. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π-/+ ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  6. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum

  8. E. S. R. spectra of eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnu, T.; Alexander, C.; Harrell, J.W.; Miyagawa, I.

    1985-09-01

    E.S.R. spectra of several oil shales from eastern and western USA have been measured at 9 and 25 GHz. The spectra of the western shales were similar to previously reported spectra and consist of a Mn/sup 2 +/ signal and a featureless organic signal. The eastern spectra consist of a V/sup 4 +/ signal and a complex and unusual organic signal consisting of at least four component signals. The organic signal has been characterized in terms of g factor, line-width and saturation characteristics. The effect of oxygen on the signal has also bee examined. Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) signals have been obtained from the organic signals of the eastern oil shales.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 retrieved from ground-based solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Toon, G. C.; Margolis, J. S.; Wennberg, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    The column-averaged volume mixing ration of CO2 over Kitt Peak, Arizona, has been retrieved from high-resolution solar absorption spectra obtained with the fourier transform spectrometer on the McMath telescope.

  10. ASERA: A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant for Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao; Zhao, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    Spectral type recognition is an important and fundamental step of large sky survey projects in the data reduction for further scientific research, like parameter measurement and statistic work. It tends out to be a huge job to manually inspect the low quality spectra produced from massive spectroscopic survey, where the automatic pipeline may not provide confident type classification results. In order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of spectral classification, we develop a semi-automated toolkit named ASERA, A Spectrum Eye Recognition Assistant. The main purpose of ASERA is to help the user in quasar spectral recognition and redshift measurement. Furthermore it can also be used to recognize various types of spectra of stars, galaxies and AGNs (Active Galactic Nucleus). It is an interactive software allowing the user to visualize observed spectra, superimpose template spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and interactively access related spectral line information. It is an efficient and...

  11. Predicting Infrared Spectra of Nerve Agents Using Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-P.; Wang, H.-T.; Zheng, W.-P.; Sun, C.; Bai, Y.; Guo, X.-D.; Sun, H.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration frequencies of four nerve agents and two simulators are calculated using B3LYP coupled with ten basis sets. To evaluate the accuracy of calculated spectra, root mean square error (RMSE) and weighted cross-correlation average (WCCA) are considered. The evaluation shows that B3LYP/6-311+g(d,p) performs best in predicting infrared spectra, and polarization functions are found to be more important than diffusion functions in spectra simulation. Moreover, B3LYP calculation underestimates frequencies related to the P atom. The WCCA metric derives 1.008 as a unique scaling factor for calculated frequencies. The results indicate that the WCCA metric can identify six agents based on calculated spectra.

  12. A metric space for type Ia supernova spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sasdelli, Michele; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Benitez-Herrera, S; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chen, J; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Feindt, U; Fink, M; Fleury, M; Fouchez, D; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Ishida, E E O; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Lombardo, S; Mazzali, P A; Nordin, J; Pain, R; Pécontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Saunders, C; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Suzuki, N; Tao, C; Taubenberger, S; Thomas, R C; Tilquin, A; Weaver, B A

    2014-01-01

    We develop a new framework for use in exploring Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) spectra. Combining Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square analysis (PLS) we are able to establish correlations between the Principal Components (PCs) and spectroscopic/photometric SNe Ia features. The technique was applied to ~120 supernova and ~800 spectra from the Nearby Supernova Factory. The ability of PCA to group together SNe Ia with similar spectral features, already explored in previous studies, is greatly enhanced by two important modifications: (1) the initial data matrix is built using derivatives of spectra over the wavelength, which increases the weight of weak lines and discards extinction, and (2) we extract time evolution information through the use of entire spectral sequences concatenated in each line of the input data matrix. These allow us to define a stable PC parameter space which can be used to characterize synthetic SN Ia spectra by means of real SN features. Using PLS, we demonstrate that th...

  13. 9 Sgr spectra 1999-2011 (Rauw+, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rauw; H. Sana; M. Spano; E. Gosset; L. Mahy; M. De Becker; P. Eenens

    2012-01-01

    The best quality wavelength-calibrated and normalized spectra of 9 Sgr are provided. These data were obtained with the FEROS, UVES and Coralie spectrographs. The wavelengths are given in the heliocentric frame of reference.

  14. Development of probabilistic floor spectra for Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure used in this study for generating probabilistic floor response spectra follows the methodology developed under seismic safety margins research program (SSMRP) conducted in the beginning of eighties in the U.S. This approach will provide a complete description of seismic environment for equipment and piping and can be used directly in seismic PSA studies. The end result of the study will be mean and mean-plus-one-standard-deviation amplified response spectra in selected nodal points in the structure. In seismic PSAs, the uncertainty in structural response is required and this is given by mean and mean-plus-one-standard-deviation response spectra. In the procedure for probabilistic floor spectra generation there are five main tasks, namely, the development of control motion; the development of soil and structural models; the latin hypercube sampling for setting up the input values for each earthquake simulation and the last step is the actual response analysis. (author)

  15. Thermo-Reflectance Spectra of Eros: Unambiguous Detection of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Hinrichs, J. L.; Urquhart-Kelly, M.; Wellnitz, D.; Bell, J. F., III; Clark, B. E.

    2001-01-01

    Olivine is readily detected on 433 Eros using the new thermo-reflectance spectral technique applied to near-IR spectra obtained at Eros by the NEAR spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Online Spectral Fit Tool for Analyzing Reflectance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.

    2015-11-01

    The Online Spectral Fit Tool is developed for analyzing Vis-NIR spectral behavior of asteroids and meteorites. Implementation is done using JavaScript/HTML. Fitted spectra consist of spline continuum and gamma distributions for absorption bands.

  17. Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Peloton, Julien; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of $\\sim 5\\sigma$ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting those could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However we found that the inclusion of ext...

  18. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Sergio, E-mail: abbate@med.unibs.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Tommasini, Matteo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Milano (Dip. CMIC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ECD and VCD Spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine measured in various solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations allow to study the protonation state and conformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contributions from catechol OH vibrations to the VCD spectra is studied. -- Abstract: Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  19. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Limb V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Limb granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.025 cm-1 resolution for an entire Global Survey &...

  20. Non-flat power spectra in the CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Semig, L V; Semig, Lutz V; Mueller, Volker

    1995-01-01

    Standard inflation with one scalar field produces primordial perturbations with a nearly flat ('Harrison-Zeldovich') power spectrum. Here we consider first, a double inflation spectrum, and second, a massive scalar field with an interaction potential which mimics an early quartic interaction, but fading away at a characteristic scale. We solve numerically the linear perturbation equations with initial conditions due to scalar field quantum fluctuations at the initial horizon crossing. The resulting power spectra are shown to be non-flat, exhibiting either a break or a valley. Using the transfer function of cold dark matter model we study the influence of the shape of primordial power spectra on observations of large scale structure in the universe. We compare the power spectra in redshift space with reconstructed power spectra from the IRAS catalogue. Further we discuss the variances of galaxy counts in cells, and the mass function of galaxy clusters. Comparison with standard CDM demonstrates the advantages a...

  1. A new matching algorithm for high resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    We present a new matching algorithm designed to compare high-resolution spectra. Whereas existing methods are bound to compare fixed intervals of ion masses, the accurate mass spectrum (AMS) distance method presented here is independent of any alignment. Based on the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM...... accurate mass spectra from an analysis of extracts of 80 isolates representing the nine closely related species in the Penicillium series Viridicata. Using this algorithm we can obtain a retrieval performance of approximate to97-98% that is comparable with the best of the existing methods (e.g., the dot......) distance, a difference between observed peaks across pairs of spectra can be calculated, and used to find a unique correspondence between the peaks. The method takes into account that there may be differences in resolution of the spectra. The algorithm is used for indexing in a database containing 80...

  2. Locally linear embedding: dimension reduction of massive protostellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J. L.; Lumsden, S. L.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of the application of locally linear embedding (LLE) to reduce the dimensionality of dereddened and continuum subtracted near-infrared spectra using a combination of models and real spectra of massive protostars selected from the Red MSX Source survey data base. A brief comparison is also made with two other dimension reduction techniques; principal component analysis (PCA) and Isomap using the same set of spectra as well as a more advanced form of LLE, Hessian locally linear embedding. We find that whilst LLE certainly has its limitations, it significantly outperforms both PCA and Isomap in classification of spectra based on the presence/absence of emission lines and provides a valuable tool for classification and analysis of large spectral data sets.

  3. Inclusive spectra of stripping reactions induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of inclusive transfer reactions induced by heavy ions and leading to continuum final states show high-lying broad resonancelike structures superimposed on a large continuum. Recent experimental spectra for neutron stripping on targets in the lead region are analyzed by the Bonaccorso and Brink single-particle transfer model. The results of the calculation suggest that the structures are due to the population of high-spin single-particle states which are unbound and mix with the underlying states giving rise to a broadening of the peak. The main characteristics of the spectra are reproduced. Moreover, an estimate of the elastic and inelastic breakup contributions to the inclusive spectra is given

  4. Infrared spectra of olivine polymorphs - Alpha, beta phase and spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.

    1980-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of several olivines (alpha phase) and their corresponding beta phase (modified spinel) and spinel (gamma) high-pressure polymorphs are determined. Spectra were measured for ground and pressed samples of alpha and gamma A2SiO4, where A = Fe, Ni, Co; alpha and gamma Mg2GeO4; alpha Mg2SiO4; and beta Co2SiO4. The spectra are interpreted in terms of internal, tetrahedral and octagonal, and lattice vibration modes, and the spinel results are used to predict the spectrum of gamma Mg2SiO4. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples of gamma Mg2GeO4 heated to 730 and 1000 C provides evidence that partial inversion could occur in silicate spinels at elevated temperatures and pressures.

  5. Comparison between measured and calculated neutron spectra in FCA assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron spectra measured in FCA Assembly VI-2, VI-1 and V-2 are discussed, and are compared with the results by calculation. The data were obtained by measurements of proton-recoil counter and double scintillator methods. Calculations were made with cell-program SP-2000 and fine-group cross section library AGRI/2, and the spectra with 1950 groups and broadened 64 and 26 group were derived. The measured spectra in the energy range of 5 keV to 6 MeV were effectively compared with the calculational results, by using C/E values. There are large differences between the measured and the calculated spectra near the 430 keV oxygen and 29 keV iron resonances. The experimental and the calculated central fission rate ratios were also compared. (author)

  6. Composite delayed neutron energy spectra of fissionable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayed neutron (DN) energy spectra spanning a range of 0.01-4.00 MeV have been measured for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. DN equilibrium spectra were also measured for all three nuclides. A helium jet transfer system was used to transport fission products to a low-background counting area. Beta-neutron correlations were used for background suppression and for energy determination by the neutron time-of-flight method. The 235U and 239Pu spectra show marked similarity, while those from the fast fission of 238U are considerably more energetic. DN six-group spectra for 235U, 238U and 239Pu have been deduced from these measurements using a constrained least-squares iterative method

  7. Absorption Spectra of Magnesium Sulphite Hexahydrate Doped with Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Petya N.; Bunzarov, Zhelyu I.; Iliev, Ilia A.; Dimov, Todor N.

    2007-04-01

    In the work are presented absorption spectra of MgSO3.6H2O monocrystals doped with Ni. The spectra are measured in a wide spectral range (200 - 1200nm) at room temperature with polarized light. The impurity of Ni changes essentially the absorption of MgSO3.6H2O because it causes the appearance of additional spectral structures.

  8. Multiple multichannel spectra acquisition and processing system with intelligent interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Multiple multichannel spectra acquisition and processing system with intelligent interface is described. Sixteen spectra measured with various lengths, channel widths, back biases and acquisition times can be identified and collected by the intelligent interface simultaneously while the connected computer is doing data processing. The execution time for the Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrum analysis software on IBM PC-XT is about 55 seconds

  9. CO2 Spectroscopy Evaluation Using Atmospheric Solar Absorption Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bhaswar; Brown, Linda R.; Miller, Charles E.; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Toth, Robert A.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Wennberg, Paul O

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the improvements in successive versions (1996 - 2004) of HITRAN (1) and other molecular line parameter data set (2) to correctly simulate infrared (IR) and near-infrared (NIR) CO 2 transmittance spectra. Understanding the global sources and sinks of CO 2 requires highly accurate measurements (ó 0.3%) and makes extreme de- mands on the spectroscopy. We evaluated the line parameter data sets by fitting solar absorption spectra measured by the JPL MkIV FTIR spectrometer (3) and the ...

  10. Shell structure of pancakes and the absorption spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of the absorption lines of atomic hydrogen in the spectra of distant quasars is considered. A model is constructed of the formation of shells of a pancake formed in the adiabatic picture of the generation of the large-scale structure of the universe. It is shown that the absorption lines can form doublets and the equivalent widths of the corresponding lines are calculated. The physical conditions corresponding to the observed heavy-element absorption spectra are discussed

  11. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Sergio; Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France; Tommasini, Matteo

    2012-09-01

    Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  12. MATLAB programs for smoothing X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two MATLAB 4.0 programs for smoothing X-ray spectra: wekskl.m - using polynomial regression splines and wekfft.m - using the fast Fourier transform are presented. The wekskl.m accomplishes smoothing for optimal distances between the knots, whereas the wekff.m uses an optimal spectral window width. The smoothed spectra are available in the form of vectors and are presented in a graphical form as well. (author)

  13. Neutron spectra and dosimetric assessment around a neutron Howitzer container

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Silvia; Gallego Díaz, Eduardo F.; Lorente Fillol, Alfredo; Gonçalves, Isabel F.; Vaz, Pedro; Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Zankl, María

    2014-01-01

    The neutron Howitzer container at the Neutron Measurements Laboratory of the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), is equipped with a 241Am-Be neutron source of 74 GBq in its center. The container allows the source to be in either the irradiation or the storage position. To measure the neutron fluence rate spectra around the Howitzer container, measurements were performed using a Bonner spheres spectrometer and the spectra were unfolded using the NSDann...

  14. The modeling of Auger spectra: Modeliranje Augerjevih spektrov:

    OpenAIRE

    Belič, Igor; Jenko, Monika; Poniku, Besnik

    2011-01-01

    The presented work deals with the process of simulated AES spectra creation. The purpose of virtual spectra creation is to use them as a testing ground for different background-removal and noise-reduction algorithms. Numerous methods for background removal and noise reduction exist already, but there is uncertainty about their performance and the accuracy of the data produced, since it is well known that the raw data is altered any time it undergoes any kind of processing conducted for differ...

  15. Distinguishing graphs with zeta functions and generalized spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Durfee, Christina; Martin, Kimball

    2014-01-01

    Conjecturally, almost all graphs are determined by their spectra. This problem has also been studied for variants such as the spectra of the Laplacian and signless Laplacian. Here we consider the problem of determining graphs with Ihara and Bartholdi zeta functions, which are also computable in polynomial time. These zeta functions are geometrically motivated, but can be viewed as certain generalizations of characteristic polynomials. After discussing some graph properties determined by zeta ...

  16. The theoretical description of thermal neutron capture γ-spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of statistical approach with phenomenological parametrization the energy dependence of the excited level density the thermal neutron capture γ-ray spectra for a number of spherical nuclei with 77<=A<=200 are calculated. Taking into account satisfactory agreement between theoretical and experimental intensities of the γ-ray spectra it is concluded that the photon E1- and M1-strength functions can serve as a reliable basis for the analysis of radiative decay of these nuclei

  17. Meson spectra governed by the Fermi-Breit potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jirimutu; WANG Hai-Jun; ZHANG Wei-Ning; Cheuk-Yin Wong

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the meson mass spectra in a quark potential model by using the complete Fermi-Breit potential including the terms of orbit-orbit interaction, spin-orbit coupling, and tensor force interaction. We find that these terms give nontrivial contributions to the calculated meson spectra. The orbit-orbit coupling term may lead to an instability of the solution of the Schrodinger equation and should be regularized.

  18. Algebraic K-theory of strict ring spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Rognes, John

    2014-01-01

    We view strict ring spectra as generalized rings. The study of their algebraic K-theory is motivated by its applications to the automorphism groups of compact manifolds. Partial calculations of algebraic K-theory for the sphere spectrum are available at regular primes, but we seek more conceptual answers in terms of localization and descent properties. Calculations for ring spectra related to topological K-theory suggest the existence of a motivic cohomology theory for strictly commutative ri...

  19. Interpretation of Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MSMS) Spectra for Peptide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a short introduction to peptide analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) and interpretation of fragment mass spectra. Through examples and guidelines we demonstrate how to understand and validate search results and how to perform de novo sequencing based on the often...... very complex fragmentation pattern obtained by tandem mass spectrometry (also referred to as MSMS). The focus is on simple rules for interpretation of MSMS spectra of tryptic as well as non-tryptic peptides....

  20. Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent...... turbulent jet. These are compared with corresponding hot-wire spectra as well as to alternative algorithms for LDA signals such as the time-slot correlation method, sample-and-hold and common weighting schemes....

  1. LSD-based analysis of high-resolution stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbal, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Van, Reeth T.

    2014-11-01

    We present a generalization of the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), a powerful tool for extracting high S/N average line profiles from stellar spectra. The generalization of the method is effected by extending it towards the multiprofile LSD and by introducing the possibility to correct the line strengths from the initial mask. We illustrate the new approach by two examples: (a) the detection of astroseismic signatures from low S/N spectra of single stars, and (b) disentangling spectra of multiple stellar objects. The analysis is applied to spectra obtained with 2-m class telescopes in the course of spectroscopic ground-based support for space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler. Usually, rather high S/N is required, so smaller telescopes can only compete successfully with more advanced ones when one can apply a technique that enables a remarkable increase in the S/N of the spectra which they observe. Since the LSD profiles have a potential for reconstruction what is common in all the spectral profiles, it should have a particular practical application to faint stars observed with 2-m class telescopes and whose spectra show remarkable LPVs.

  2. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  3. Turbulence spectra of the FIRE stratocumulus-topped boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. S.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    There are at least four physical phenomena which contribute to the FIRE boundary layer turbulence spectra: boundary layer spanning eddies resulting from buoyant and mechanical production of turbulent kinetic energy (the microscale subrange); inertial subrange turbulence which cascades this energy to smaller scales; quasi-two dimensional mesoscale variations; and gravity waves. The relative contributions of these four phenomena to the spectra depend on the altitude of observation and variable involved (vertical velocity, temperature and moisture spectra are discussed). The physical origins of these variations in relative contribution are discussed. As expected from the theory (Kaimal et al., 1976), mixed layer scaling of the spectra (i.e., nondimensionalizing wavelength by Z(sub i) and spectral density by Z(sub i) and the dissipation rates) is successful for the microscale subrange and inertial subrange but not for the mesoscale subrange. The most striking feature of the normalized vertical velocity spectra is the lack of any significant mesoscale contribution. The spectral peak results from buoyant and mechanical production on scales similar to the boundary layer depth. The decrease in spectral density at larger scales results from the suppression of vertical velocity perturbations with large horizontal scales by the shallowness of the atmosphere. The spectral density also decreases towards smaller scales following the well known inertial subrange slope. There is a significant variation in the shape of the normalized spectra with height.

  4. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Two Lensed Star-forming Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Fadely, Ross; Allam, Sahar S.; Baker, Andrew J.; Lin, Huan; Lutz, Dieter; Shapley, Alice E.; Shin, Min-Su; Smith, J. Allyn; Strauss, Michael A.; Tucker, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    We present low-resolution, rest-frame ~ 5 - 12 micron Spitzer/IRS spectra of two lensed z ~ 2 UV-bright star-forming galaxies, SDSS J120602.09+514229.5 and SDSS J090122.37+181432.3. Using the magnification boost from lensing, we are able to study the physical properties of these objects in greater detail than is possible for unlensed systems. In both targets, we detect strong PAH emission at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 microns, indicating the presence of vigorous star formation. For J1206, we find a s...

  5. Chemometric method of spectra analysis leading to isolation of lysozyme and CtDNA spectra affected by osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruździak, Piotr; Rakowska, Paulina W; Stangret, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present a chemometric method of analysis leading to isolation of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of biomacromolecules (HEW lysozyme, ctDNA) affected by osmolytes (trimethylamine-N-oxide and N,N,N-trimethylglycine, respectively) in aqueous solutions. The method is based on the difference spectra method primarily used to characterize the structure of solvent affected by solute. The cyclical usage of factor analysis allows precise information to be obtained on the shape of "affected spectra" of analyzed biomacromolecules. "Affected spectra" of selected biomacromolecules give valuable information on their structure in the presence of the osmolytes in solution, as well as on the level of perturbation in dependence of osmolyte concentration. The method also gives a possibility of insight into the mechanism of interaction in presented types of systems. It can be easily adapted to various chemical and biochemical problems where vibrational or ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is used. PMID:23146186

  6. UV-IR Spectra of the Icy Saturnian Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Filacchione, G.; Schenk, P.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Noll, K. S.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini's multi-instrument suite allows simultaneous observations of the icy satellites of Saturn over a wide range of wavelengths. We present composite UV-IR spectra (0.1-5 microns) of the leading and trailing hemispheres of the icy moons using data from Cassini supplemented with spectra from Hubble Space Telescope (STIS). We use data of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea from the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS), the Imaging Subsystem (ISS) and the Visual-Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) taken during simultaneous measurements, or using similar observational geometries. The well-studied phase curve behaviors of the satellites are utilized to readily combine Earth-based STIS data with the Cassini datasets to create composite spectra. Focusing primarily on the UV-visible region so far, we find that the spectra of all satellites are bright and spectrally relatively flat at visible wavelengths longer than 500-600 nm; shortward of 500-600 nm the surfaces become absorbing with wavelength, resulting in reddish spectra. The satellites exhibit flattish-to-bowl-shaped spectra in the ~200-350 nm range and demonstrate the 165 nm water ice absorption edge, in varying strengths. These composite spectra are used to study the system-wide surface compositions of the satellites to understand large-scale exogenic effects (e.g., E-ring grain bombardment and radiolytic processing) at a variety of regolith sensing depths, and in particular to study implications for the presence and distribution of organics, ammonia, and other non-H2O-ice species in the system.

  7. Raman spectra of single cell from gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-Ling Yan; Rui-Xin Dong; Lei Zhang; Xue-Jun Zhang; Zong-Wang Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the difference between cancer cells and normal cells, we investigated the Raman spectra of singlecells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: All samples were obtained from 30 diagnosed as gastrointestinal cancer patients. The flesh tumor specimen is located in the center of tumor tissue, while the normal ones were 5 cm away from the outside tumor section. The imprint was put under the microscope and a single cell was chosen for Raman measurement. All spectra were collected at confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (British Renishaw) with NIR 780 nm laser.RESULTS: We measured the Raman spectra of several cells from gastrointestinal cancer patients. The result shows that there exists the strong line at 1 002/cm with less half-width assigned to the phenylalanine in several cells. The Raman lines of white cell were lower and less, while those of red cell were not only higher in intensity and more abundant, but also had a parti cular C-N breathing stretching band of pyrrole ring at 1 620-1 540/cm. The line at 1 084/cm assigned to phosphate backbone of DNA became obviously weaker in cancer cell. The Raman spectra of stomach cancer cells were similar to those of normal cells, but the Raman intensity of cancer cells was much lower than that of normal cells, and even some lines disappear. The lines of enteric cancer cells became weaker than spectra above and many lines disappeared, and the cancer cells in different position had different fluorescence intensity.CONCLUSION: The Raman spectra of several cells from cancer patients show that the structural changes of cancer cells happen and many bonds rupture so that the biological function of cells are lost. The results indicate that Raman spectra can offer the experiment basis for the cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Kemper, F; Ling, B; Volk, K

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previ...

  9. Redshift distortions in one-dimensional power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, V; Desjacques, Vincent; Nusser, Adi

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for one-dimensional (1D) matter power spectra in redshift space as estimated from data provided along individual lines of sight. We derive analytic expressions for these power spectra in the linear and nonlinear regimes, focusing on redshift distortions arising from peculiar velocities. In the linear regime, redshift distortions enhance the 1D power spectra only on small scales, and do not affect the power on large scales. This is in contrast to the effect of distortions on three-dimensional (3D) power spectra estimated from data in 3D space, where the enhancement is independent of scale. For CDM cosmologies, the 1D power spectra in redshift and real space are similar for wavenumbers $q<0.1h/Mpc$ where both have a spectral index close to unity, independent of the details of the 3D power spectrum. Nonlinear corrections drive the 1D power spectrum in redshift space into a nearly universal shape over scale $q<10h/Mpc$, and suppress the power on small scales as a result of the strong velo...

  10. Simulated spectra for QA/QC of spectral analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, K. R. (Kevin R.); Biegalski, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulated spectra have been developed to test the peak analysis algorithms of several spectral analysis software packages. Using MCNP 5, generic sample spectra were generated in order to perform ANSI N42.14 standard spectral tests on Canberra Genie-2000, Ortec GammaVision, and UniSampo. The reference spectra were generated in MCNP 5 using an F8, pulse height, tally with a detector model of an actual Germanium detector used in counting. The detector model matches the detector resolution, energy calibration, and efficiency. The simulated spectra have been found to be useful in testing the reliability and performance of spectral analysis programs. The detector model used was found to be useful in testing the performance of modern spectral analysis software tools. The software packages were analyzed and found to be in compliance with the ANSI 42.14 tests of the peak-search and peak-fitting algorithms. This method of using simulated spectra can be used to perform the ANSI 42.14 tests on the reliability and performance of spectral analysis programs in the absence of standard radioactive materials.

  11. The Impact of Stellar Model Spectra in Disk Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, J A; Greaves, J S

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the impact of different model groups in the detection of circumstellar debris disks. Almost all previous studies in this field have used Kurucz model spectra to predict the stellar contribution to the flux at the wavelength of observation thus determining the existence of a disk excess. Only recently have other model groups or families like Marcs and NextGen-Phoenix become available to the same extent. This study aims to determine whether the predicted stellar flux of a disk target can change with the choice of model family - can a disk excess be present in the use of one model family whilst being absent from another? A simple comparison of Kurucz model spectra with Mrcs and NextGen model spectra of identical stellar parameters was conducted and differences were present at near-infrared wavelengths. Model spectra often do not extend in wavelength to that of observation and therefore extrapolation of the spectrum is required. In extrapolation of model spectra to the Spitzer MIPS passbands...

  12. Spectra of cold molecular ions from hot helium nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The function of a molecule is intimately related to its structure. Accordingly, in the quest for a better understanding of molecular function, the development of spectroscopic methods to elucidate molecular structures increasingly takes central stage. The amount of detail that can be derived from spectra depends on the experimental conditions, most notably on the temperature of the sample and the intermolecular interactions a molecule experiences. Helium nanodroplets provide in this respect an almost ideal matrix. For neutral molecules, helium nanodroplet spectroscopy thus has led to important discoveries related to the structure of key molecular systems and has provided insight into the mechanisms underlying chemical reactions. Compared to the level of sophistication that has been reached for neutrals, the spectroscopic exploration of ions is still in its infancy. The use of helium droplets as a cryogenic matrix could potentially solve many of the technical challenges associated with recording high-resolution spectra of cold molecular ions. Here, we present a method to record spectra of ion containing helium nanodroplets that finds its roots in the nonthermal cooling dynamics of excited molecular ions. In addition, spectra of several molecular ions are present, and the influence of the helium environment on these spectra are discussed.

  13. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebzelter, T.; Heiter, U.; Abia, C.; Eriksson, K.; Ireland, M.; Neilson, H.; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T.; Peterson, R.; Plez, B.; Short, C. I.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Worley, C.; Aringer, B.; Bladh, S.; de Laverny, P.; Goswami, A.; Mora, A.; Norris, R. P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Scholz, M.; Thevenin, F.; Tsuji, T.; Kordopatis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. Aims. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Methods. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. Results. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar parameters. Similarities and differences of the results are discussed. Conclusions. Several valid approaches to analyze a given spectrum of a star result in quite a wide range of solutions. The main causes for the differences in parameters derived by different groups seem to lie in the physical input data and in the details of the analysis method. This clearly shows how far from a definitive abundance analysis we still are.

  14. Rogue Wave Spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). We compare our findings with their nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) analogs and show that the spectra of the individual rogue waves significantly differ from their NLSE analogs. A remarkable difference is the one-sided development of the triangular spectrum before the rogue wave becomes evident in time. Also we show that increasing the skewness of the rogue wave results in increased asymmetry in the triangular Fourier spectra. Additionally, the triangular spectra of the rogue waves of the KEE begin to develop at earlier stages of the their development compared to their NLSE analogs, especially for larger skew angles. This feature may be used to enhance the early warning times of the rogue waves. However we show that in a chaotic wavefield with many spectral components the triangular spectra remains as the main attribute as a universal feature of the typical wavefields produced through modulation instability and character...

  15. Influence of soil-structure interaction on floor response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to investigate the influence of soil-structure interaction on floor response spectra developed in typical nuclear power plant structures. A horizontal earthquake time history, whose spectra envelops the Regulatory Guide 1.60 criteria and is scaled to a log peak acceleration, was used as input to structural models. Two different structural stick models were used, representing typical BWR and PWR facilities. By varying the structural and soil stiffness parameters, a wide range of system behaviors were investigated. Floor response spectra, required to assess equipment qualification, were of primary interest. It was found from a variation of parameter study that the interaction soil parameters, particularly radiation damping, greatly affect the nature of the calculated responses. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Reflectance anisotropy spectra of CdTe(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Nava, R.A.; Arzate, N.; Mendoza, B.S. [Photonics Division, Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A. C., Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2010-08-15

    We present first-principles calculations of reflectance anisotropy spectra (RAS) of the more common CdTe(001) surface reconstructions: Te-terminated (2 x 1) and Cd-terminated (2 x 1) and c(2 x 2). The last two reconstructions with a Cd coverage of half atomic layers. Calculations have been performed by using the density-functional formalism within the local-density approximation + scissors corrections. The electron-ion interaction has been modeled by ab initio, relativistic norm-conserving pseudopotentials. We have also calculated RAS spectra using a semi-empirical tight binding method (SETB) within a sp{sup 3} s{sup *} basis. We show RAS of each surface reconstruction and compare our theoretical results with experimental results reported in the literature and we found a good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra for the (2 x 1) reconstructions. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. A novel technique to determine atmospheric ion mobility spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, K L

    2003-01-01

    Detailed tropospheric ion measurements are needed to improve understanding of the electrical microphysics affecting clouds. Additionally, atmospheric ion mobility spectra can be used to identify ion growth processes leading to condensation nucleus formation. However these measurements are rare, particularly in the troposphere where the majority of clouds form. Developments in the operating theory of the classical instrument for ion measurement, the aspirated cylindrical capacitor, are described, which enable ion mobility spectrum information to be extracted from the rate of voltage decay of the aspirated capacitor in air. In this paper, data from historical balloon-borne ion counter ascents will be reanalysed to extract new ion mobility spectra from simple voltage time series. Such data recovery will increase the amount of atmospheric ion spectra available for analysis.

  18. Least squares deconvolution of the stellar intensity and polarization spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N

    2010-01-01

    Least squares deconvolution (LSD) is a powerful method of extracting high-precision average line profiles from the stellar intensity and polarization spectra. Despite its common usage, the LSD method is poorly documented and has never been tested using realistic synthetic spectra. In this study we revisit the key assumptions of the LSD technique, clarify its numerical implementation, discuss possible improvements and give recommendations how to make LSD results understandable and reproducible. We also address the problem of interpretation of the moments and shapes of the LSD profiles in terms of physical parameters. We have developed an improved, multiprofile version of LSD and have extended the deconvolution procedure to linear polarization analysis taking into account anomalous Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. This code is applied to the theoretical Stokes parameter spectra. We test various methods of interpreting the mean profiles, investigating how coarse approximations of the multiline technique trans...

  19. Sequencing by hybridization by cooperating direct and reverse spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Samuel A; Preparata, Franco P; Young, Joel

    2003-01-01

    DNA sequencing by hybridization, potentially a powerful alternative to standard wet lab techniques, has received renewed interest after a novel probing scheme has been recently proposed whose performance for the first time asymptotically meets the information theory bound. After settlement of the question of asymptotic performance, there remains the issue of algorithmic fine tunings aimed at improving the performance "constants," with substantial practical implications. In this paper, we show that a probing scheme based on the joint use of direct and reverse spectra (tandem spectra) for a given gapped probing pattern achieves a performance improvement per unit of microarray area of about 5/4 and does not appear to be susceptible to further improvement by increasing the number of cooperating spectra. In other words, tandem-spectrum reconstruction is the best known technique for sequencing by hybridization.

  20. Polarization angular spectra of Galactic synchrotron emission on arcminute scales

    CERN Document Server

    Tucci, M; Cecchini, S; Nicastro, L; Fabbri, R; Gaensler, B M; Dickey, J M; McClure-Griffiths, N M

    2002-01-01

    We study the angular power spectra of the polarized component of the Galactic synchrotron emission in the 28-deg^2 Test Region of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 1.4 GHz. These data were obtained by the Australia Telescope Compact Array and allow us to investigate angular power spectra down to arcminute scales. We find that, at this frequency, the polarization spectra for E- and B-modes seem to be affected by Faraday rotation produced in compact foreground screens. A different behavior is shown by the angular spectrum of the polarized intensity PI=\\sqrt{Q^2+U^2}. This is well fitted by a power law with slope \\~1.7, which agrees with higher frequency results and can probably be more confidently extrapolated to the cosmological window.

  1. The Photoluminescence Spectra of the Aeschynite Group Minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raman and photoluminescence spectra of the metamict and annealing recrystallization titanoaeschynite-(Nd) and nioboaeschynite-(Ce), found in Baiyunobo mineral deposit in China, were measured and discussed. The peaks or bands in the spectra of the metamic minerals are weak, broad and diffuse, but sharpen notably after heating. The results show that the distortion of the structure and disorder state of the elements exists in the minerals when natural crystalline minerals transformed into metamict minerals after a long period of self-irradiation structure damaging. And all bands in the photoluminescence spectra of the aeschynite group mineral stem from emission transitions of Nd3+, when 514.5nm laser is used as the excitation source.

  2. Raman spectra of silicon carbide small particles and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two manufacturing protocols of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires are discussed. The Raman spectra of produced SiC nanowires are compared with spectra of SiC powders of various grain sizes. The temperature and pressure dependence of the Raman spectra for powders is similar to that of bulk crystals, but is different for nanowires. Frequency shifts, band broadenings and the presence of shoulders are discussed in terms of crystal size, character of defects and their population. The concentration of defects in synthesized nanowires depends on the sintering method. Raman intensity enhancement of the LO phonon was observed when the wavelength of the excitation laser was changed from 780 to 514 nm

  3. Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Beryllium by Mean Centering of Ratio Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Samghani, Kobra; Arbab-Zavar, Mohammad Hossein; Heidari, Tahereh

    2016-07-01

    Trace amounts of beryllium has been determined by spectrofluorimetric method that used morin as fluorimetric reagent. Beryllium gives a highly fluorescent complex with morin. The excitation wavelength of morin and Be-morin complex were 410 and 430. The fluorescence spectra of morin and Be-morin complex were overlaped in excitation wavelength of 430 nm. A method based on mean centering of ratio spectra has been performed to remove the interference caused by morin as it overlaps with the Be-morin spectra. The linear range of beryllium concentration is in 0.2-200 ppb range. The parameters of detection limit and RSD were 0.18 ppb and 4.6 % respectively. This method was used for determination of beryllium in copper-beryllium alloy as a real sample. In determination of Be(II), the interference by Cu(II) was very serious, which was eliminated by adding triethanolamine. PMID:27265354

  4. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  5. Measurements of LET spectra and comparison to models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, B; Heinrich, W; Benton, E V; Frank, A

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of LET spectra for near earth orbits with various inclinations and altitudes. A comparison with calculated LET spectra shows that the contribution from direct ionizing galactic cosmic rays is well described by the models. An additional contribution to the spectra originates from stopping protons and from nuclear interactions of particles with material. In the case of an interaction a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume by target recoils or target fragments. These events will be called short range (SR) events. For a low inclination orbit radiation belt protons are the main source of these events while galactic protons become more important when increasing the inclination to near polar orbits. We show that the contribution of SR events for orbits with low altitude (324 km) and 57 degrees inclination is comparable to that for an orbit with 28 degrees inclination at a high altitude (510 km). PMID:11537028

  6. Hardersen IRTF Asteroid NIR Reflectance Spectra V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), Mauna Kea, Hawaii, from April 2001 to January 2015. Raw NIR spectral data were obtained under mostly uniform instrumental conditions and include observations of the asteroids, extinction stars, and solar analog stars that were necessary for data reduction and production of the final average asteroid NIR reflectance spectra. SpecPR and Spextool were used during data reduction to produce the final spectra and both programs utilize similar functions that include sky background subtraction, telluric corrections, channel shifting, and averaging routines. The set of asteroids observed include a wide variety of taxonomic types and include V-, S-, M-, X-types that correspond to a wide variety of surface mineralogies, rock types, and potential meteorite analogs.

  7. HITRAN spectroscopy evaluation using solar occultation FTIR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Geoffrey C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Sung, Keeyoon; Rothman, Laurence S.; E. Gordon, Iouli

    2016-10-01

    High resolution FTIR solar occultation spectra, acquired by the JPL MkIV Fourier transform spectrometer from balloon, covering 650-5650 cm-1 at 0.01 cm-1 resolution, are systematically analyzed using the last four versions of the HITRAN linelist (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012). The rms spectral fitting residuals are used to assess the quality and adequacy of the linelists as a function of wavenumber and altitude. Although there have been substantial overall improvements with each successive version of HITRAN, there are nevertheless a few spectral regions where the latest HITRAN version (2012) has regressed, or produces residuals that far exceed the noise level. A few of these instances are investigated further and their causes identified. We emphasize that fitting atmospheric spectra, in addition to laboratory spectra, should be part of the quality assurance for any new linelist before public release.

  8. Doubly heavy baryon spectra guided by lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Garcilazo, H; Vijande, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides results for the ground state and excited spectra of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons, $bcn$ and $bcs$. We take advantage of the spin-independent interaction recently obtained to reconcile the lattice SU(3) QCD static potential and the results of nonperturbative lattice QCD for the triply heavy baryon spectra. We show that the spin-dependent potential might be constrained on the basis of nonperturbative lattice QCD results for the spin splittings of three-flavored doubly heavy baryons. Our results may also represent a challenge for future lattice QCD work, because a smaller lattice error could help in distinguishing between different prescriptions for the spin-dependent part of the interaction. Thus, by comparing with the reported baryon spectra obtained with parameters estimated from lattice QCD, one can challenge the precision of lattice calculations. The present work supports a coherent description of singly, doubly and triply heavy baryons with the same Cornell-like interacting poten...

  9. Metallicity calibration for solar type stars based on red spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Kun Zhao; Gang Zhao; Yu-Qin Chen; A-Li Luo

    2011-01-01

    Based on a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectral analysis of 90 solar-type stars, we have established several new metallicity calibrations in the Teff range [5600, 6500] K based on red spectra with the wavelength range of 560-880 nm. The new metallicity calibrations are applied to determine the metallicity of solar analogs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. There is a good consistent result with the adopted value presented in SDSS-DR7 and a small scatter of 0.26 dex for stars with S/N > 50 being obtained. This study provides a new reliable way to derive the metallicity for solar-like stars with low resolution spectra.In particular, our calibrations are useful for finding metal-rich stars, which are missing in the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline.

  10. Structure and vibrational spectra of the salts of mononitroalkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapochnikov, V. A.; Tafipolsky, M. A.; Tokmakov, I. V.; Oleneva, G. I.

    2000-03-01

    The molecular geometries of the anions of nitromethane and 2-nitropropane were optimised and their harmonic force fields were calculated by the RHF/6-311G(d,p), MP2/6-311G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) methods. The force fields obtained made it possible to reliably interpret the IR and Raman spectra of the Na + salt of nitromethane, d2-nitromethane and 2-nitropropane. The assignment proposed significantly improves the interpretation of vibrational spectra known so far. Some general conclusions on geometry and vibrational spectra of the salts of mononitroalkanes studied are made. The hybrid density functional method used (B3LYP) is shown to be in better agreement with experimental data available than the Hartree-Fock methods.

  11. Evaluation of prompt neutron spectra for minor actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1997-03-01

    Measurement data on fission prompt neutron spectra of minor actinide (MA) is much little, and its accuracy is also unsufficient. Therefore, conventional evaluation value of fission spectra of MA was assumed for its nuclear temperature by using a method of determining from its systemicity owing to assumption of the Maxwell type distribution, but it can be said that this method consider fully to features of MA isotopes. In this paper, some evaluation calculation results are shown by adopting an evaluation method developed by authors and based on modified Madland Nix model and are conducted by concept of physical properties on target nuclei. As a result, by adopting the level density parameter of fission fragments, the inverse process cross section, the fission product yield distribution and the total release energy, effect of inverse process cross section, mass distribution of fission product, calculation results of Cm isotope and systemicity of fission spectra of actinide isotope were investigated. (G.K.)

  12. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, R Esteban; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on e.g. charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  13. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  14. Vibrational spectra and DFT calculations of sonderianin diterpene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, I. M. M.; Santos, H. S.; Sena, D. M.; Cruz, B. G.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Freire, P. T. C.; Braz-Filho, R.; Sousa, J. W.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Bernardino, A. C. S. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Bento, R. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the natural product sonderianin diterpene (C21H26O4), a diterpenoid isolated from Croton blanchetianus, with potential application in the drug industry, was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational spectra were supported by Density Functional Theory calculations. Infrared and Raman spectra of sonderianin were recorded at ambient temperature in the regions from 400 cm-1 to 3600 cm-1 and from 40 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1, respectively. DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p) were performed with the purpose of obtaining information on the structural and vibrational properties of this organic compound. A comparison with experimental spectra allowed us to assign all of the normal modes of the crystal. The assignment of the normal modes was carried out by means of potential energy distribution.

  15. Properties of artificial networks evolved to contend with natural spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Yaniv; Rostami, Mohammad; Purves, Dale

    2014-07-22

    Understanding why spectra that are physically the same appear different in different contexts (color contrast), whereas spectra that are physically different appear similar (color constancy) presents a major challenge in vision research. Here, we show that the responses of biologically inspired neural networks evolved on the basis of accumulated experience with spectral stimuli automatically generate contrast and constancy. The results imply that these phenomena are signatures of a strategy that biological vision uses to circumvent the inverse optics problem as it pertains to light spectra, and that double-opponent neurons in early-level vision evolve to serve this purpose. This strategy provides a way of understanding the peculiar relationship between the objective world and subjective color experience, as well as rationalizing the relevant visual circuitry without invoking feature detection or image representation.

  16. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy of the...... massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time and...... mass axis on to a fixed one-dimensional array, we obtain a vector that can be used directly as input in multivariate statistics or library search methods. We demonstrate that both cluster- and discriminant analysis as well as PCA (and related methods) can be applied directly on mass spectra from direct...

  17. Efficient estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons. Acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles which cause the signal to be highly intermittent. This both creates self-noise and causes the measured velocities...... requirements for good statistical convergence due to the random sampling of the data. In the present work, the theory for estimating burst-mode LDA spectra using residence time weighting is discussed and a practical estimator is derived and applied. A brief discussion on the self-noise in spectra...... and correlations is included, as well as one regarding the statistical convergence of the spectral estimator for random sampling. Further, the basic representation of the burst-mode LDA signal has been revisited due to observations in recent years of particles not following the flow (e.g., particle clustering...

  18. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  19. Theoretical prediction on vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 赵新生

    2003-01-01

    Centrosymmetric linear [Ar-H-Ar]+ and asymmetric linear [Ar…Ar-H]+ are two stable configurations of [Ar2H]+. Based on the global potential energy surface of [Ar2H]+ provided by our group recently, we calculated the vibrational spectra of [Ar…Ar-H]+ with total angular momentum J = 0 by time-dependent quantum mechanical method, and the influence of quantum tunneling effect on vibrational spectra was found. With the help of the observation on the eigenstate functions and the modified potential energy surface, assignments were made to the spectra. The strong coupling between the excited bending mode of [Ar-H-Ar]+ and the vibrational states of [Ar…Ar-H]+ was discussed.

  20. Status of measurements of fission neutron spectra of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapchinsky, L.; Shiryaev, B. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The report considers experimental and theoretical works on studying the energy spectra of prompt neutrons emitted in spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission of Minor Actinides. It is noted that neutron spectra investigations were done for only a small number of such nuclei, most measurements, except those of Cf-252, having been carried out long ago by obsolete methods and imperfectapparatus. The works have no detailed description of experiments, analysis of errors, detailed numerical information about results of experiments. A conclusion is made that the available data do not come up to modern requirements. It is necessary to make new measurements of fission prompt neutron spectra of transuranium nuclides important for the objectives of working out a conception of minor actinides transmutation by means of special reactors. (author)

  1. Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic spectra and their interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgemore-Schulthess, K.J.F.; St. Maurice, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radars are designed to detect scatter from thermal fluctuations in the ionosphere. These fluctuations contain, among other things, features associated with ion-acoustic waves driven by random motions within the plasma. The resulting spectra are generally broad and noisy, but...... nevertheless the technique can, through a detailed analysis of spectra, be used to measure a range of physical parameters in the Earth's upper atmosphere, and provides a powerful diagnostic in studies of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, thermosphere dynamics and the geospace environment in general. In recent...... acceleration, wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in the ionosphere, and their association with magnetospheric processes. There is now a substantial body of literature documenting observations of enhanced ion-acoustic spectra, but there remains controversy over generation mechanisms. We present a review...

  2. Seeing Through the Clouds: Thermal Emission and Reflected Light Spectra of Super-Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-12-01

    Vast resources have been dedicated to characterizing the handful of planets with radii between Earth’s and Neptune’s that are accessible to current telescopes. Observations of their transmission spectra have been inconclusive and do not constrain their atmospheric compositions. Of the planets smaller than Neptune studied to date, all have radii in the near-infrared consistent with being constant in wavelength, likely showing that these small planets are consistently enshrouded in thick hazes and clouds. We explore the types of clouds and hazes that can completely obscure transmission spectra and find that very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000× solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities.We present a path forward for understanding this class of small planets: by understanding the thermal emission and reflectivity of small planets, we can break the degeneracies and better constrain the atmospheric compositions. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Analysis of reflected light from warm (~400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy planets, which have moderate albedos (Ag=0.05-0.20), from hazy planets, which are very dark (Ag=0.0-0.03). Reflected light spectra of cold planets (~200 K) accessible to a space-based visible light coronagraph may be the key to understanding small planets: they will have high albedos and large molecular features that actually allow them to be more easily characterized than the warmer transiting planets. We suggest a number of complementary observations to characterize super Earths, including transmission spectra of hot (~1000 K) targets, thermal emission spectra of warm targets using the James

  3. Better Spectrometers, Beautiful Spectra and Confusion for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Brauer, C. S.; Drouin, B. J.; Yu, S.

    2009-01-01

    The confluence of enormous improvements in submillimeter receivers and the development of powerful large scale observatories is about to force astrophysics and the sciences that support it to develop novel approaches for interpretation of data. The historical method of observing one or two lines and carefully analyzing them in the context of a simple model is now only applicable for distant objects where only a few lines are strong enough to be observable. Modern observatories collect many GHz of high signal-to-noise spectra in a single observation and in many cases, at sufficiently high spatial resolution to start resolving chemically distinct regions. The observatories planned for the near future and the inevitable upgrades of existing facilities will make large spectral data sets the rule rather than the exception in many areas of molecular astrophysics. The methodology and organization required to fully extract the available information and interpret these beautiful spectra represents a challenge to submillimeter astrophysics similar in magnitude to the last few decades of effort in improving receivers. The quality and abundance of spectra effectively prevents line-by-line analysis from being a time efficient proposition, however, global analysis of complex spectra is a science in its infancy. Spectroscopy at several other wavelengths have developed a number of techniques to analyze complex spectra, which can provide a great deal of guidance to the molecular astrophysics community on how to attack the complex spectrum problem. Ultimately, the challenge is one of organization, similar to building observatories, requiring teams of specialists combining their knowledge of dynamical, structural, chemical and radiative models with detailed knowledge in molecular physics and gas and grain surface chemistry to extract and exploit the enormous information content of complex spectra. This paper presents a spectroscopists view of the necessary elements in a tool for

  4. Spatial Spectra of Jet Turbulence Measured by Particle Image Velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wänström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    The unique capabilities of particle image velocimetry (PIV) have been utilized together with two-point similarity theory to measure spatial spectra in a ‘homogenized’ fully-developed turbulence jet at relatively high Reynolds number (20,000). The theory developed by Ewing et al. [1] was found...... to be in excellent agreement with the data, and in fact key to the present application. Despite relatively poor spatial resolution of the scales of motion (up to 15 times the Kolmogorov microscale) and limited dynamic range due to progressive jet velocity decay, it was possible to produce highly accurate spectra...

  5. Classification and radiative-transfer modeling of meteorite spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, H.; Penttilä, A.; Peltoniemi, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    The interpretation of asteroid spectra is closely tied to surface structure and composition. Asteroid surfaces are usually assumed to be covered with a regolith, which is a mixture of mineral grains ranging from micrometers to centimeters in size. The inverse problem of deducing the characteristics of the grains from the scattering of light (e.g., using photometric and polarimetric observations) is difficult. Meteorite spectroscopy can be a valuable alternative source of information considering that unweathered meteoritic ''falls'' are almost pristine samples of their parent bodies. Reflectance spectra of 18 different meteorite samples were measured with the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) covering a wavelength range of 450--2250 nm [1,2]. The measurements expand the database of reflectance spectra obtained by Paton et al. [3] and Gaffey [4]. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on the spectra indicates a separation of the undifferentiated ordinary chondrites and the differentiated achondrites. The principal components also suggest a discrimination between the spectra of ordinary chondrites with petrologic grades 5 and 6. The distinction is not present when the data are supplemented with the spectra from the two other data sets obtained with differing measuring techniques. To further investigate the different classifications, the PCA is implemented with selected spectral features contrary to the previous analyses, which encompassed the complete spectra. Single-scattering albedos for meteoritic fundamental scatterers were derived with a Monte Carlo radiative-transfer model [1]. In the derivation, realistic scattering phase functions were utilized. The functions were obtained by fitting triple Henyey-Greenstein functions to the measured scattering phase functions of olivine powder for two different size distributions [5,6]. The simulated reflectances for different scattering phase functions were matched to the measured meteorite

  6. Analysis of amplitude spectra with overlapping peaks from scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique is proposed for resolution of overlapping peaks in amplitude spectra obtained by scintillation detectors. Based on the technique, a program was developed and is being used in practical measurements at Kozloduy NPP. The program works in environment of MathCAD, version 2, of the firm MathSoft, Inc. As regards the handling of amplitude spectra, a software emulation on an multichannel analyzer with a personal computer was developed. The language used for program emulation is QuickBASIC, version 4.0 of the firm Microsoft Corp. (author)

  7. Absorption spectra of quasars and the structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the distribution of the distances between the systems of absorption lines in the quasars' spectra and the comparison of this distribution with the distribution of the distances between superclusters in the deep optical surveys are carried out. It is shown that the systems of absorption lines are connected with superclusters of galaxies. The comparison of the absorbing gas parameters with the data for coronae of the Galaxy and of the Magellanic Clouds confirms this connection and permits to revise conclusions of the theory on the properties of superclusters. The problem of unidentified absorption lines in the quasars spectra is discussed

  8. Identification of Bacteria by Patterns Generated from Odor Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    We use the power density spectra obtained by fluctuation-enhanced sensing of bacterial odors (Escherichia coli and Anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis) to generate new, highly distinguishable, types of patterns based on the average slope of the spectra in different frequency ranges. Such plots can be considered as "fingerprints" of bacterial odors. Three different ways of pattern generation are tested, including a simple binary version. The obtained patterns are simple enough to identify the situation by the naked eye without a pattern recognizer.

  9. Extended Vicsek fractals: Laplacian spectra and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgushev, Maxim; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Extended Vicsek fractals (EVF) are the structures constructed by introducing linear spacers into traditional Vicsek fractals. Here we study the Laplacian spectra of the EVF. In particularly, the recurrence relations for the Laplacian spectra allow us to obtain an analytic expression for the sum of all inverse nonvanishing Laplacian eigenvalues. This quantity characterizes the large-scale properties, such as the gyration radius of the polymeric structures, or the global mean-first passage time for the random walk processes. Introduction of the linear spacers leads to local heterogeneities, which reveal themselves, for example, in the dynamics of EVF under external forces.

  10. EPR spectra of four gadolinium complexes with Schiff bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚克敏; 陈德余; 封子先; 李冬成; 冯亚菲; 何玲

    1995-01-01

    EPR spectra of four new gadolinium complexes with Schiff bases in polycrystalline powder and those of these complexes in three organic solvents were investigated at different temperatures. It has been observed for the first time that their freezing solution spectra are quite different from each other. In THF one peak was observed only, but there were three peaks and typical "U" spectral features appearing in DMF and DMSO at low temperatures. On the basis of spin Hamiltonian of S = 7/2 system, the correlations between crystal field strength in complexes and local symmetry around Gd3+ ions are discussed.

  11. DFT studies and vibrational spectra of isoquinoline and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Ramasamy, R.

    2005-02-01

    The geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of isoquinoline (IQ) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the B3LYP functional and 6-31 G* basis set. The vibrational spectral data obtained from the solid phase mid and far FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of IQ and 8-HQ are assigned based on the results of the normal coordinate calculations. The observed and the calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement.

  12. Boson spectra and correlations for thermal locally equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single- and multi-particle inclusive spectra for strongly inhomogeneous thermal boson systems are studied using the method of statistical operator. The thermal Wick's theorem is generalized and the analytical solution of the problem for a boost-invariant expanding boson gas is found. The results demonstrate the effects of inhomogeneity for such a system: the spectra and correlations for particles with wavelengths larger than the system's homogeneity lengths change essentially as compared with the results based on the local Bose-Einstein thermal distributions. The effects noticeably grow for overpopulated media, where the chemical potential associated with violation of chemical equilibrium is large enough. (author)

  13. Analysis of X-Ray (L) spectra of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general problem of obtaining and analysing spectra is presented, with emphasis in the comparison of methods for the analysis of gamma rays and X rays. The method proposed to obtain a standard and later the intensities of lines of an X-ray (L) spectrum is discussed. The good eesults obtained by the program RAIOXL, when simulated spectra are used, and by the program RAIXL1, when doublets are decomposed, are shown. In annex A, the listings of the programs used are presented, and in annex B a review is made of the analytical formulae used for adjustment of the pulses. (I.C.R.)

  14. Recurrence spectra of Li atom in strong external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang De-hua; Ding Shi-liang; Wang Xiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    Based upon our previous work [Commun. Theor. Phys.. 40,702 (2003)], we developed the closed orbit theory from two degrees of freedom to three non-separable degrees of freedom and calculated the recurrence spectra of Li Rydberg atom in strong perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. The Fourier transformed spectra of Li atom has allowed direct comparison between the resonance peaks and the scaled action values of closed orbits, whereas the nonhydrogenic resonance can be explained in terms of the new orbits created by the core scattering. The semiclassical result is in good agreement with the quantum one, which suggests that our calculation is correct.

  15. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072

  16. Analyzing of LED-induced Blood Fluorescent Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑梅; 骆晓森; 兰秀风; 刘莹; 陆健; 倪晓武

    2002-01-01

    The visible fluorescence spectra of healthy mice blood cells have been measured by light emitting diode (LED) excitation at about 570 nm (Δλ1/2≈32 nm ) in vitro. It is found that the spectral profiles of mouse blood, erythrocyte and hemoglobin are similar. The physical mechanism for LED-induced blood cells fluorescence spectra is analyzed. The development of low intensity laser or light irradiating blood therapy in vivo and in vitro may be guided by the understanding of blood fluorescence characteristics.

  17. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectra of Triazolylcoumarin Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xian-fu; LI Hong-qi

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is devoted to fluorescent dyes especially those with potential in versatile applications. Reactions under "click" conditions between nonfluorescent 3 - azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes produced 3 -(1, 2, 3- triazol- 1 - yl)cournarins, a novel type of fluorescent dyes with intense fluorescence. The structures of the new coumarins were characterized by 1H NMR, MS, and IR spectra. Fluorescence spectra measurement demonstrated excellent fluorescence performance of the triazolylcoumarins and this click reaction is a promising candidate for bioconjugation and bioimaging applications since both azide and alkynes are quite inert to biological systems.

  18. Pellet X-ray spectra for laser fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculated X-ray energy contents, spectra and pulse lengths for a range of simple target designs that include deuterium-tritium fuel surrounded by mercury are given. The calculations start with a compressed pellet core at the time of ignition and the evolution of the burning pellet is followed by using a plasma hydrodynamic-thermonuclear burn-radiative transfer computer code. It is shown that the pellet-released radiation energy contents, spectra and pulse lengths depend upon pellet mass, density and material structure, and total yield. (author)

  19. Parametric models of reflectance spectra for dyed fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Daniel C.; Ramsey, Scott; Mayo, Troy; Lambrakos, Samuel G.; Peak, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This study examines parametric modeling of NIR reflectivity spectra for dyed fabrics, which provides for both their inverse and direct modeling. The dye considered for prototype analysis is triarylamine dye. The fabrics considered are camouflage textiles characterized by color variations. The results of this study provide validation of the constructed parametric models, within reasonable error tolerances for practical applications, including NIR spectral characteristics in camouflage textiles, for purposes of simulating NIR spectra corresponding to various dye concentrations in host fabrics, and potentially to mixtures of dyes.

  20. Dispersion effects on infrared spectra in attenuated total reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belali, Rabah; Vigoureux, Jean-Marie; Morvan, Joseph

    1995-12-01

    A potential problem with the attenuated total reflection that is used to measure infrared spectra is described. The problem is the possibility that the anomalous dispersion associated with an infrared absorption band may cause the experimental configuration to move from the attenuated total reflection regime to the specular reflection regime, with consequent distortion of the apparent absorption bands and consequent error in the interpretation of the bands if the problem is not recognized. Key infrared spectra, attenuated total reflection, specular reflection, polyethylene terephtalate. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  1. Boson spectra and correlations for thermal locally equilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sinyukov, Yu M

    1999-01-01

    The single- and multi- particle inclusive spectra for strongly inhomogeneous thermal boson systems are studied using the method of statistical operator. The thermal Wick's theorem is generalized and the analytical solution of the problem for an boost-invariant expanding boson gas is found. The results demonstrate the effects of inhomogeneity for such a system: the spectra and correlations for particles with wave-lengths larger than the system's homogeneity lengths change essentially as compared with the results based on the local Bose-Einstein thermal distributions. The effects noticeable grow for overpopulated media, where the chemical potential associated with violation of chemical equilibrium is large enough.

  2. IR spectra of guanine and hypoxanthine isolated molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheina, G. G.; Stepanian, S. G.; Radchenko, E. D.; Blagoi, Yu. P.

    1987-05-01

    High resolution spectra of guanine, hypoxanthine, isocytosine, 2-aminopyrimidine and their deutero- and methyl derivatives obtained in Ar matrices by the low temperature IR spectroscopy method are reported. Normal modes of enol tautomers of guanine, 9-CH 3-guanine, hypoxanthine and 2-aminopurine are calculated. Force fields are the same as for purine. Results calculated are used to interpret the experimental spectra. Keto—enol tautomerism is shown to exist in guanine and hypoxanthine, the proportions of enol tautomer being 50 and 5%, respectively. Possible biological applications of the results obtained are discussed.

  3. Software tools for the analysis of video meteors emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Toscano, F. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    One of the goals of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is related to the study of the chemical composition of meteoroids by analyzing the emission spectra resulting from the ablation of these particles of interplanetary matter in the atmosphere. With this aim, some of the CCD video devices we employ to observe the nigh sky are endowed with holographic diffraction gratings, and a continuous monitoring of meteor activity is performed. We have recently developed a new software to analyze these spectra. A description of this computer program is given, and some of the results obtained so far are presented here.

  4. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  5. Impedance Spectra of Activating/Passivating Solid Oxide Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Sun, Xiufu; Koch, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that the inductive arcs seen in electrochemical impedance spectra of solid oxide cells (SOCs) are real electrochemical features that in several cases can be qualitatively explained by passivation/activation processes. Several degradation processes of Solid Oxide...... Fuel Cells (SOFC) and Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) exist. Not all of them are irreversible, especially not over short periods. A reversible degradation is termed “passivation” and the reverse is then “activation”. These processes may exhibit themselves in the Electrochemical Impedance Spectra (EIS...

  6. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: III: Low Mass Star Formation in a Small Group, L1251B

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J E; Lai, S P; Bourke, T L; Spiesman, B; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Brooke, T Y; Porras, A; Wahhaj, Z; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Francesco, James Di; Lai, Shih-Ping; Bourke, Tyler L.; II, Neal J. Evans; Spiesman, Bill; Myers, Philip C.; Allen, Lori E.; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Porras, Alicia; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a low-mass star-forming region,L1251B, at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. L1251B, where only one protostar, IRAS 22376+7455, was known previously, is confirmed to be a small group of protostars based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The most luminous source of L1251B is located 5" north of the IRAS position. A near-infrared bipolar nebula, which is not associated with the brightest object and is located at the southeast corner of L1251B, has been detected in the IRAC bands. OVRO and SMA interferometric observations indicate that the brightest source and the bipolar nebula source in the IRAC bands are deeply embedded disk sources.Submillimeter continuum observations with single-dish telescopes and the SMA interferometric observations suggest two possible prestellar objects with very high column densities. Outside of the small group, many young stellar object candidates have been detected over a larger region of 12' x 12'. Extended emiss...

  7. Comparing Star Formation on Large Scales in the c2d Legacy Clouds: Bolocam 1.1 mm Dust Continuum Surveys of Serpens, Perseus, and Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Enoch, M L; Evans, N J; Sargent, A I; Young, K E; Huard, T L

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken an unprecedentedly large 1.1 millimeter continuum survey of three nearby star forming clouds using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We mapped the largest areas in each cloud at millimeter or submillimeter wavelengths to date: 7.5 sq. deg in Perseus (Paper I), 10.8 sq. deg in Ophiuchus (Paper II), and 1.5 sq. deg in Serpens with a resolution of 31", detecting 122, 44, and 35 cores, respectively. Here we report on results of the Serpens survey and compare the three clouds. Average measured angular core sizes and their dependence on resolution suggest that many of the observed sources are consistent with power-law density profiles. Tests of the effects of cloud distance reveal that linear resolution strongly affects measured source sizes and densities, but not the shape of the mass distribution. Core mass distribution slopes in Perseus and Ophiuchus (alpha=2.1+/-0.1 and alpha=2.1+/-0.3) are consistent with recent measurements of the stellar IMF, whereas the Serpens distributio...

  8. Optical Spectra of the High Voltage Erosive Water Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozerski, A L

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper kinetics of emission spectra of the high voltage erosive water discharge at near ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges has been investigated. Obtained results show a similarity of physical properties of this discharge (and of corresponding plasmoids) to that of some other types of erosional discharges which also result in the formation of dust-gas fireballs.

  9. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  10. Relativistic reflection X-ray spectra of accretion disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khee-Gan Lee; Kinwah Wu; Steven V. Fuerst; Graziella Branduardi-Raymont; Oliver Crowley

    2009-01-01

    We have calculated the relativistic reflection component of the X-ray spectra of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our calculations have shown that the spectra can be significantly modified by the motion of the accretion flow, and the gravity and rotation of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the spectra suffer severe en- ergy shifts and smearing, and the degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, in particular, the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The effects are significant. Fluorescent X-ray emission lines from the inner accretion disk could be a powerful diagnostic of space-time distortion and dynamical relativistic effects near the event horizons of accreting black holes. However, improper treatment of the re- flection component in fitting the X-ray continuum could give rise to spurious line-like features. These features mimic the true fluorescent emission lines and may mask their relativistic signatures. Fully relativistic models for reflection continua together with the emission lines are needed in order to extract black-hole parameters from the AGN X-ray spectra.

  11. Dante-unfolding code for energy spectra evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code DANTE, using the last square method in unfolding for dosimetry purpose, solves the neutron spectra evaluation problem starting by activity measurements. The code DANTE introduced for the first time the correlation between available data by mean of flux and activity variance-covariance matrices and the error propagation. In the present report the solution method is detailed described

  12. Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...

  13. Energy corrections and persistent perturbation effects in continuous spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Léon van

    1955-01-01

    The quantum-mechanical perturbation theory of continuous energy spectra is investigated for a special class of perturbations possessing some of the formal properties of the familiar interaction energies of field theory. These formal properties entail the inapplicability of the familiar perturbation

  14. Face recognition at mesopic light levels and various light spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Light sources that are optimized for mesopic vision contain a relatively high amount of bluish light (high S/P-ratio) and are therefore effective for peripheral visual tasks at mesopic light levels. Since the spectra of these light sources differ strongly from the common public lighting there were d

  15. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  16. Medium-resolution isaac newton telescope library of empirical spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Peletier, R. F.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.; Cardiel, N.; Cenarro, A. J.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Gorgas, J.; Selam, S.; Vazdekis, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new stellar library developed for stellar population synthesis modelling is presented. The library consists of 985 stars spanning a large range in atmospheric parameters. The spectra were obtained at the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and cover the range lambda lambda 3525-7500 angstrom at 2.3 angst

  17. Energy spectra and optical transitions in germanene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The band gap of buckled graphene-like materials, such as silicene and germanene, depends on external perpendicular electric field. Then a specially design profile of electric field can produce trapping potential for electrons. We study theoretically the energy spectrum and optical transitions for such designed quantum dots (QDs) in graphene-like materials. The energy spectra depend on the size of the QD and applied electric field in the region of the QD. The number of the states in the QD increases with increasing the size of the dot and the energies of the states have almost linear dependence on the applied electric field with the slope which increases with increasing the dot size. The optical properties of the QDs are characterized by two types of absorption spectra: interband (optical transitions between the states of the valence and conduction bands) and intraband (transitions between the states of conduction/valence band). The interband absorption spectra have triple-peak structure with peak separation around 10 meV, while intraband absorption spectra, which depend on the number of electrons in the dot, have double-peak structure. (paper)

  18. Charge-transfer spectra of tetravalent lanthanide ions in oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefdraad, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    The charge-transfer spectra of Ce4+, Pr4+ and Tb4+ in a number of oxides are reported. It is noted that the position of the first charge-transfer band is fixed for the metal ion in an oxygen coordination of VI, but varies in VIII coordination as a function of the host lattice. It is argued that this

  19. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  20. Measured-predicted molecular spectra at band-line resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, G. N.; Akagi, T.; Barton, P. B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Early ERIM measurements of hot-through-cold gas (CO2, H2O, N2) emission-absorption spectra are replicated by modern line-band computations that incorporate independent fundamental line strength-frequency information. Close agreement is achieved for all cases by empirical adjustment of the line broadening function. Line spectra for CO2 and H2O computed at 0.001 cm-1 resolution were integrated to 3.2 and 14 cm-1 using a triangular slit function consistent with ERIM measurements for the 4.3 and 2.7 μm spectral regions. Band spectra computed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution give close agreement with spectra generated at higher resolution. The findings demonstrate a merged line-band model for nonuniform path radiance and transmittance based on the line-sum spectral cross section for each piecewise-uniform path segment. The band-and-line transmittance become equivalent at high spectral resolution.

  1. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities

  2. Spectra-selective PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Keke; Deng, Hui; Yang, Xiaokun; Dong, Dongdong; Li, Min; Hu, Long; Liu, Huan; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Traditional photoconductive photodetectors (PDs) commonly respond to higher energy photons compared with the bandgaps of PD active materials. Different from the wide detection spectra of traditional PDs, the present reported PbS quantum dot (QD) PDs can detect the spectra-selective light source. Spectra-selective PDs (ss-PDs) of perovskite/QDs and QD/QDs were respectively implemented by integrating two functional layers. The top layer (facing the light) was utilized to filter the non-target spectra and the bottom layer was used for detection. The response spectrum wavelength and the range of ss-PDs can be conveniently tailored by tuning the QD size. The obtained selectivity factor and normalized detectivity ratio from target and non-target illumination can reach at least 10. A narrow detection range with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) ~100 nm was applied by typical QD/QD based ss-PDs. The prototype ss-PDs were successfully applied in identifying an unknown light source. The convenient tuning and identification capabilities of the present QD based ss-PDs may provide a versatile route to obtain highly spectrum-selective PDs in order to meet the demands for special fields.

  3. Interpreting the Ionization Sequence in AGN Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris T; Baldwin, Jack A; Hewett, Paul C; Ferland, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the physical cause of the great range in the ionization level seen in the spectra of narrow lined active galactic nuclei (AGN). Mean field independent component analysis identifies examples of individual SDSS galaxies whose spectra are not dominated by emission due to star formation (SF), which we designate as AGN. We assembled high S/N ratio composite spectra of a sequence of these AGN defined by the ionization level of their narrow-line regions (NLR), extending down to very low-ionization cases. We used a local optimally emitting cloud (LOC) model to fit emission-line ratios in this AGN sequence. These included the weak lines that can be measured only in the co-added spectra, providing consistency checks on strong line diagnostics. After integrating over a wide range of radii and densities our models indicate that the radial extent of the NLR is the major parameter in determining the position of high to moderate ionization AGN along our sequence, providing a physical interpretation for their ...

  4. The spectra and temperature of cloud lightning discharge channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie; YUAN Ping; GUO FengXia; QIE XiuShu; OUYANG YuHua; ZHANG YiJun

    2009-01-01

    Spectra of seven cloud lightning discharges are reported for the first time after captured with a Slit-less Spectrograph on Chinese Tibet Plateau. The structural characters are analyzed and compared with the spectra of cloud-to-ground lightning, and the results indicate that the spectra of cloud lightning show two different kinds of structure characteristics. One has the similar structure as those of cloud-to- ground lightning discharge, and the other is absolutely different. Meanwhile, more lines of OII with high excited energy are recorded in the spectra of cloud lightning discharge in comparison with that of cloud-to-ground lighting happening in the same region. Temperatures at different positions are calcu- lated and temperature characteristics of these two sorts are analyzed, based to the wavelength, relative intensities and other transition parameters. We suggest that the physical process in the cloud dis- charge channels changes with much more rapid velocity and wider range compared to cloud-to-ground lightning. The differences between the two types of cloud discharge also reflect some discrepancies between the discharge characteristics.

  5. Chemical effects in x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical bond influence in X-ray emission spectra of hafnium, iodine, iron, sulphur, aluminium and magnesium is detected. The position of one X-ray emission line is determined by three methods: parabolic profile; Gaussian distribution and extra-heavy maximum. (author)

  6. Perfluoro effect in the photoelectron spectra of quinoline and isoquinoline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van den D.M.W.; Meer, van der D.

    1972-01-01

    The high-resolution He 584Aophotoelectron spectra of heptafluoroquinoline and heptafluoroisoquinoline are compared with those of the parent compounds. Shifts in π ionisation potentials, due to the fluorine substitution, can be described with an inductive and a combined inductive-conjugative Hu¨ckel

  7. Prediction of pork quality attributes from near infrared reflectance spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Schreutelkamp, F.H.; Frankhuizen, R.; Vedder, H.W.; Faber, N.M.; Kranen, R.W.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the most promising techniques for large-scale meat quality evaluation. We investigated the potential of NIRS-based models to predict drip loss and shear force of pork samples. Near infrared reflectance spectra (1000¿2500 nm), water-holding capacity, shear

  8. Energy spectra and optical transitions in germanene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Thakshila M; Apalkov, Vadym

    2016-04-27

    The band gap of buckled graphene-like materials, such as silicene and germanene, depends on external perpendicular electric field. Then a specially design profile of electric field can produce trapping potential for electrons. We study theoretically the energy spectrum and optical transitions for such designed quantum dots (QDs) in graphene-like materials. The energy spectra depend on the size of the QD and applied electric field in the region of the QD. The number of the states in the QD increases with increasing the size of the dot and the energies of the states have almost linear dependence on the applied electric field with the slope which increases with increasing the dot size. The optical properties of the QDs are characterized by two types of absorption spectra: interband (optical transitions between the states of the valence and conduction bands) and intraband (transitions between the states of conduction/valence band). The interband absorption spectra have triple-peak structure with peak separation around 10 meV, while intraband absorption spectra, which depend on the number of electrons in the dot, have double-peak structure. PMID:27008912

  9. Far-infrared spectra of lanthanide complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibrational spectra of lanthanide oxines have been measured in the far-infrared region. In addition, the similar yttrium complex was investigated for further experimental evidence for the proposed band assignments. The most important metal-oxygen and metal-nitrogen bond vibrations have been attributed to absorptions between 390-350cm-1 and 210-170cm-1, respectively. (Author)

  10. Inclusive jet spectra in p–Pb collisions at ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, Megan

    2014-11-15

    Jet suppression has been observed in central heavy ion collisions. This suppression is attributed to partonic energy loss in the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formed in such collisions. However, this measurement is influenced by all stages of the collision. It is expected that in p–Pb collisions similar initial conditions occur as in Pb–Pb collisions without creating a QGP, allowing modification to the jet spectra due to cold nuclear matter effects to be quantified. Inclusive jet spectra in p–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV measured by ALICE are presented. Jets are reconstructed via the anti-k{sub T} algorithm with different resolution parameters by combining charged tracks measured in the ALICE tracking system with the neutral energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter. The jet spectra can be used to determine a nuclear modification factor R{sub pPb} while the jet profile in p–Pb is studied by dividing spectra measured with different resolution parameters and comparing to the same ratio measured in pp collisions.

  11. Online spectral fit tool (OSFT) for analyzing reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Kohout, T.; Muinonen, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm and its implementation for fitting continuum and absorption bands to UV/VIS/NIR reflectance spectra. The implementation is done completely in JavaScript and HTML, and will run in any modern web browser without requiring external libraries to be installed.

  12. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnès; Clegg, Samuel M.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Lasue, Jérémie

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches.

  13. Applications and real life spectra in the power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loading spectra encountered in various structures, machines, and components in the Power Generation Industry are presented from the viewpoint of fatigue analysis and structural integrity assessment. Although particular attention is paid to loading transients in turbo-generators, other items such as pressure vessels, pumped storage, nuclear plant pressure circuitry and wind turbines are also considered. (author)

  14. Chemical abundances in Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Spitzer spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2014-01-01

    We present new low-resolution (R~800) optical spectra of 22 Galactic PNe with Spitzer spectra. These data are combined with recent optical spectroscopic data available in the literature to construct representative samples of compact (and presumably young) Galactic disc and bulge PNe with Spitzer spectra. Attending to the nature of the dust features seen in their Spitzer spectra, Galactic disc and bulge PNe are classified according to four major dust types (oxygen chemistry or OC, carbon chemistry or CC, double chemistry or DC, featureless or F) and subtypes (amorphous and crystalline, and aliphatic and aromatic). Nebular gas abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl and Ar, as well as plasma parameters (e.g. Ne, Te) are homogeneously derived and we study the median chemical abundances and nebular properties in Galactic disc and bulge PNe depending on their Spitzer dust types and subtypes. A comparison of the derived median abundance patterns with AGB nucleosynthesis predictions show mainly that: i) DC PNe, both with ...

  15. Molecular dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra deconvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossis, Fabrizio [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Palese, Luigi L., E-mail: palese@biochem.uniba.it [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Biology and Medical Physics (DIBIFIM), University of Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase molecular dynamics serve to predict Moessbauer lineshape widths. {yields} Half height widths are used in modeling of Lorentzian doublets. {yields} Such spectral deconvolutions are useful in detecting the enzyme intermediates. -- Abstract: In this work low temperature molecular dynamics simulations of cytochrome c oxidase are used to predict an experimentally observable, namely Moessbauer spectra width. Predicted lineshapes are used to model Lorentzian doublets, with which published cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra were simulated. Molecular dynamics imposed constraints to spectral lineshapes permit to obtain useful information, like the presence of multiple chemical species in the binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, a benchmark of quality for molecular dynamic simulations can be obtained. Despite the overwhelming importance of dynamics in electron-proton transfer systems, limited work has been devoted to unravel how much realistic are molecular dynamics simulations results. In this work, molecular dynamics based predictions are found to be in good agreement with published experimental spectra, showing that we can confidently rely on actual simulations. Molecular dynamics based deconvolution of Moessbauer spectra will lead to a renewed interest for application of this approach in bioenergetics.

  16. Neutron spectra due 13N production in a PET cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo and experimental methods have been used to characterize the neutron radiation field around PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cyclotrons. In this work, the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to estimate the neutron spectra, the neutron fluence rates and the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) in seven locations around a PET cyclotron during 13N production. In order to validate these calculations, H*(10) was measured in three sites and were compared with the calculated doses. All the spectra have two peaks, one above 0.1 MeV due to the evaporation neutrons and another in the thermal region due to the room-return effects. Despite the relatively large difference between the measured and calculated H*(10) for one point, the agreement was considered good, compared with that obtained for 18F production in a previous work. - Highlights: • MCNPX code was used to estimate the neutron spectra in a PET cyclotron. • Neutrons were estimated when 13N is produced. • Neutron spectra show evaporation and room-return neutrons. • Calculated H*(10) were compared with measured H*(10)

  17. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner; El; Zheng; Hayden; Mayo

    2000-10-01

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes 128I and 24Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2" x 2", 5" x 5", 6" x 6", and 1" x 6" NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known. PMID:11003483

  18. NaI detector neutron activation spectra for PGNAA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.P. E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu; Sayyed, El; Zheng Yuanshui; Hayden, Stephanie; Mayo, C.W

    2000-11-15

    When NaI detectors are used in prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis devices, they are activated by neutrons that penetrate the detector. While thermal neutron filters like boron or lithium can be used to reduce this activation, it can never be completely eliminated by this approach since high energy neutrons can penetrate the detector and thermalize inside it. This activation results in the emission of prompt gamma rays from both the I and Na and the production of the radioisotopes {sup 128}I and {sup 24}Na that subsequently decay and emit their characteristic beta particles and gamma rays. The resulting three spectra represent a background for this measurement. An experimental method for obtaining these three spectra is described and results are reported for 2x2, 5x5, 6x6, and 1x6 NaI detectors using the thermal neutron beam of the NCSU PULSTAR nuclear reactor. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation programs have been developed and used for simulating these spectra. Good results have been obtained by the Monte Carlo method for the two radioisotope spectra, and it is anticipated that good results will also be obtained for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum when the I and Na coincidence schemes are known.

  19. Reconstructing the galaxy redshift distribution from angular cross power spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, L; Tao, C

    2015-01-01

    The control of photometric redshift (photo-$z$) errors is a crucial and challenging task for precision weak lensing cosmology. The spacial cross-correlations (equivalently, the angular cross power spectra) of galaxies between tomographic photo-$z$ bins are sensitive to the true redshift distribution $n_i(z)$ of each bin and hence can help calibrate the photo-$z$ error distribution for weak lensing surveys. Using Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate the contributions of various components of the angular power spectra to the constraints of $n_i(z)$ parameters and demonstrate the importance of the cross power spectra therein, especially when catastrophic photo-$z$ errors are present. We further study the feasibility of reconstructing $n_i(z)$ from galaxy angular power spectra using Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation. Considering an LSST-like survey with $10$ photo-$z$ bins, we find that the underlying redshift distribution can be determined with a fractional precision ($\\sigma(\\theta)/\\theta$ for parameter $\\...

  20. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author)

  1. The spectra and temperature of cloud lightning discharge channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Spectra of seven cloud lightning discharges are reported for the first time after captured with a Slit-less Spectrograph on Chinese Tibet Plateau. The structural characters are analyzed and compared with the spectra of cloud-to-ground lightning, and the results indicate that the spectra of cloud lightning show two different kinds of structure characteristics. One has the similar structure as those of cloud-to-ground lightning discharge, and the other is absolutely different. Meanwhile, more lines of OII with high excited energy are recorded in the spectra of cloud lightning discharge in comparison with that of cloud-to-ground lighting happening in the same region. Temperatures at different positions are calculated and temperature characteristics of these two sorts are analyzed, based to the wavelength, relative intensities and other transition parameters. We suggest that the physical process in the cloud discharge channels changes with much more rapid velocity and wider range compared to cloud-to-ground lightning. The differences between the two types of cloud discharge also reflect some discrepancies between the discharge characteristics.

  2. Standardization of near infrared spectra measured on multi-instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2014-07-11

    Calibration model transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. An approach for calibration transfer based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm is proposed in this work. From the three-way spectral matrix measured on different instruments, the relative intensity of concentration, spectrum and instrument is obtained using trilinear decomposition. Because the relative intensity of instrument is a reflection of the spectral difference between instruments, the spectra measured on different instruments can be standardized by a correction of the coefficients in the relative intensity. Two NIR datasets of corn and tobacco leaf samples measured with three instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra measured on one instrument can be correctly predicted using the partial least squares (PLS) models built with the spectra measured on the other instruments.

  3. Surface hopping modeling of two-dimensional spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Vegte, Cornelis P. van der; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L.C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy has become an important tool to unravel the excited state properties of complex molecular assemblies, such as biological light harvesting systems. In this work, we propose a method for simulating 2D electronic spectra based on a surface hopping

  4. Analysis of electron energy-loss spectra and images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W.J. Sorber (Lianne)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSeveral methods are proposed for the elemental analysis of biological material with the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) in a Zeiss EM902. For spectra, the Simplex-method was tested and compared to Egerton's 2- area method, the Stee

  5. Novel retrieval of volcanic SO 2 abundance from ultraviolet spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, G. G.; Burton, M. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Caltabiano, T.; Tsanev, V. I.; Bruno, N.

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of fixed networks of scanning ultraviolet spectrometers for automatic determination of volcanic SO 2 fluxes has created tremendous opportunities for monitoring volcanoes but has brought new challenges in processing (and interpreting) the copious data flow they produce. A particular difficulty in standard implantation of differential optical absorption (DOAS) methods is the requirement for a clear-sky (plume-free) background spectrum. Our experience after four years of measurements with two UV scanner networks on Etna and Stromboli shows that wide plumes are frequently observed, precluding simple selection of clear-sky spectra. We have therefore developed a retrieval approach based on simulation of the background spectrum. We describe the method here and tune it empirically by collecting clear, zenith sky spectra using calibration cells containing known amounts of SO 2. We then test the performance of this optimised retrieval using clear-sky spectra collected with the same calibration cells but for variable scan angles, time of day, and season (through the course of 1 year), finding acceptable results (~ 12% error) for SO 2 column amounts. We further illustrate the analytical approach using spectra recorded at Mt. Etna during its July 2006 eruption. We demonstrate the reliability of the method for tracking volcano dynamics on different time scales, and suggest it is widely suited to automated SO 2-plume monitoring.

  6. Photoelectron spectra and structures of three cyclic dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickrama Arachchilage, A.P.; Wang, F.; Feyer, V.;

    2012-01-01

    chemical properties associated with the central diketopiperazine ring, and with the additional functional groups. The valence spectra are generally characterized by a restricted set of outer valence orbitals separated by a gap from most other valence orbitals. The theoretically simulated core and valence...

  7. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  8. Demonstrations of Optical Spectra with a Video Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The use of a video camera may markedly improve demonstrations of optical spectra. First, the output electrical signal from the camera, which provides full information about a picture to be transmitted, can be used for observing the radiant power spectrum on the screen of a common oscilloscope. Second, increasing the magnification by the camera…

  9. Raman spectra of amino acids and their aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyong; Zhu, Xian; Fan, Qi; Wan, Xueliang

    2011-03-01

    Amino acids are the basic "building blocks" that combine to form proteins and play an important physiological role in all life-forms. Amino acids can be used as models for the examination of the importance of intermolecular bonding in life processes. Raman spectra serve to obtain information regarding molecular conformation, giving valuable insights into the topology of more complex molecules (peptides and proteins). In this paper, amino acids and their aqueous solution have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. Comparisons of certain values for these frequencies in amino acids and their aqueous solutions are given. Spectra of solids when compared to those of the solute in solution are invariably much more complex and almost always sharper. We present a collection of Raman spectra of 18 kinds of amino acids ( L-alanine, L-arginine, L-aspartic acid, cystine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-histidine, L-isoluecine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-phenylalanine, L-methionone, L-proline, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-valine) and their aqueous solutions that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins and biological materials.

  10. Short local descriptors from 2D connected pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosilj, Petra; Kijak, Ewa; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Lefèvre, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We propose a local region descriptor based on connected pattern spectra, and combined with normalized central moments. The descriptors are calculated for MSER regions of the image, and their performance compared against SIFT. The MSER regions were chosen because they can be efficiently selected by c

  11. Imaging Emission Spectra with Handheld and Cellphone Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, David

    2012-01-01

    As point-and-shoot digital camera technology advances it is becoming easier to image spectra in a laboratory setting on a shoestring budget and get immediate results. With this in mind, I wanted to test three cameras to see how their results would differ. Two undergraduate physics students and I used one handheld 7.1 megapixel (MP) digital Cannon…

  12. Calculation of prompt neutron spectra for curium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1997-03-01

    With the aim of checking the existing evaluations contained in JENDL-3.2 and providing new evaluations based on a methodology proposed by the author, a series of calculations of prompt neutron spectra have been undertaken for curium isotopes. Some of the evaluations in JENDL-3.2 was found to be unphysically hard and should be revised. (author)

  13. Spectra in the chaotic region: Methods for extracting dynamic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Llorente, J.M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Taylor, H.S.; Kulander, K.C.

    1989-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamics is applied to chaotic unassignable atomic and molecular spectra with the aim of extracting detailed information about regular dynamic motions that exist over short intervals of time. It is shown how this motion can be extracted from high resolution spectra by doing low resolution studies or by Fourier transforming limited regions of the spectrum. These motions mimic those of periodic orbits (PO) and are inserts into the dominant chaotic motion. Considering these inserts and the PO as a dynamically decoupled region of space, resonant scattering theory and stabilization methods enable us to compute ladders of resonant states which interact with the chaotic quasicontinuum computed in principle from basis sets placed off the PO. The interaction of the resonances with the quasicontinuum explains the low resolution spectra seen in such experiments. It also allows one to associate low resolution features with a particular PO. The motion on the PO thereby supplies the molecular movements whose quantization causes the low resolution spectra. Characteristic properties of the periodic orbit based resonances are discussed. The method is illustrated on the photoabsorption spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field and on the photodissociation spectrum of H/sup +//sub 3/ . Other molecular systems which are currently under investigation using this formalism are also mentioned.

  14. Estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters from SDSS/SEGUE spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re Fiorentin, P.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Sivarani, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Norris, J. E.

    2007-06-01

    We present techniques for the estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters (T_eff, log~g, [Fe/H]) for stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The atmospheric parameters are derived from the observed medium-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra using non-linear regression models trained either on (1) pre-classified observed data or (2) synthetic stellar spectra. In the first case we use our models to automate and generalize parametrization produced by a preliminary version of the SDSS/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline (SSPP). In the second case we directly model the mapping between synthetic spectra (derived from Kurucz model atmospheres) and the atmospheric parameters, independently of any intermediate estimates. After training, we apply our models to various samples of SDSS spectra to derive atmospheric parameters, and compare our results with those obtained previously by the SSPP for the same samples. We obtain consistency between the two approaches, with RMS deviations on the order of 150 K in T_eff, 0.35 dex in log~g, and 0.22 dex in [Fe/H]. The models are applied to pre-processed spectra, either via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or a Wavelength Range Selection (WRS) method, which employs a subset of the full 3850-9000Å spectral range. This is both for computational reasons (robustness and speed), and because it delivers higher accuracy (better generalization of what the models have learned). Broadly speaking, the PCA is demonstrated to deliver more accurate atmospheric parameters when the training data are the actual SDSS spectra with previously estimated parameters, whereas WRS appears superior for the estimation of log~g via synthetic templates, especially for lower signal-to-noise spectra. From a subsample of some 19 000 stars with previous determinations of the atmospheric parameters, the accuracies of our predictions (mean absolute errors) for each parameter are T_eff to 170/170 K, log~g to 0.36/0.45 dex, and [Fe/H] to 0.19/0.26 dex, for methods (1

  15. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches. - Highlights: • We use a novel independent component analysis method to classify LIBS spectra. • We demonstrate the usefulness of ICA. • We report the performances of the ICA classification. • We compare it to other classical classification schemes

  16. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.forni@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Maurice, Sylvestre, E-mail: sylvestre.maurice@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Gasnault, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.gasnault@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Cousin, Agnès, E-mail: acousin@lanl.gov [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Chemical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Chemical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Sirven, Jean-Baptiste, E-mail: jean-baptiste.sirven@cea.f [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP, 91191 Cedex, Gif sur Yvette (France); Lasue, Jérémie, E-mail: jeremie.lasue@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysiqe et Planétologie, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9, av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches. - Highlights: • We use a novel independent component analysis method to classify LIBS spectra. • We demonstrate the usefulness of ICA. • We report the performances of the ICA classification. • We compare it to other classical classification schemes.

  17. Inversion of neutron/gamma spectra from scintillator measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J., E-mail: koehler@physik.uni-kiel.de [IEAP, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Ehresmann, B.; Martin, C.; Boehm, E.; Kharytonov, A. [IEAP, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Kortmann, O. [IEAP, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkley, CA (United States); Zeitlin, C.; Hassler, D.M. [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Boulder, CO (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F. [IEAP, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on-board NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover will measure charged particles as well as neutron and gamma radiation on the Martian surface. Neutral particles are an important contribution to this radiation environment. RAD measures them with a CsI (Tl) and a plastic scintillator, which are both surrounded by an anticoincidence. The incident neutron/gamma spectrum is obtained from the measurements using inversion methods which often fit a functional behavior, e.g., a power law, to the measured data applying the instrument response function and, e.g., a least-squares method. In situations where count rates are small, i.e., where the stochastic nature of the measurement is evident, maximum likelihood estimates with underlying Poissonian statistics improve the resulting spectra. We demonstrate the measurement and inversion of gamma/neutron spectra for a detector concept featuring one high-density scintillator and one high-proton-content scintillator. The applied inversion methods derive the original spectra without any strong assumptions of the functional behavior. Instrument response functions are obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations in matrix form with which the instrument response is treated as a set of linear equations. Using the response matrices we compare a constrained least-squares minimization, a chi-squared minimization and a maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics. We make no assumptions about the incident particle spectrum and the methods intrinsically satisfy the constraint of non-negative counts. We analyzed neutron beam measurements made at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and inverted the measurement data for both neutron and gamma spectra. Monte-Carlo-generated measurements of the expected Martian neutron/gamma spectra were inverted as well, here the maximum likelihood method with underlying Poissonian statistics produces significantly better results.

  18. Fractal spectra in generalized Fibonacci one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.H.O. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: manoelvasconcelos@yahoo.com.br [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Barbosa, P.H.R.; Barbosa Filho, F.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina-Pi (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we carry out a theoretical analysis of the spectra of magnons in quasiperiodic magnonic crystals arranged in accordance with generalized Fibonacci sequences in the exchange regime, by using a model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation (RPA). The generalized Fibonacci sequences are characterized by an irrational parameter {sigma}(p,q), which rules the physical properties of the system. We discussed the magnonic fractal spectra for first three generalizations, i.e., silver, bronze and nickel mean. By varying the generation number, we have found that the fragmentation process of allowed bands makes possible the emergence of new allowed magnonic bulk bands in spectra regions that were magnonic band gaps before, such as which occurs in doped semiconductor devices. This interesting property arises in one-dimensional magnonic quasicrystals fabricated in accordance to quasiperiodic sequences, without the need to introduce some deferent atomic layer or defect in the system. We also make a qualitative and quantitative investigations on these magnonic spectra by analyzing the distribution and magnitude of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number F{sub n} and as well as how they scale as a function of the number of generations of the sequences, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quasiperiodic magnonic crystals are arranged in accordance with the generalized Fibonacci sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heisenberg model in exchange regime is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a theoretical model based on a transfer-matrix method together random-phase approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractal spectra are characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the distribution of allowed bulk bands in function of the generalized Fibonacci number.

  19. PREFACE: Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths (ASOS9) Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths (ASOS9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Wiese, Wolfgang L.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-05-01

    For the first time since its inaugural meeting in Lund in 1983, the triennial international conference on Atomic Spectroscopy and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (ASOS) returned to Lund, Sweden. Lund has been a home to atomic spectroscopy since the time of Janne Rydberg, and included the pioneering work in laboratory and solar spectroscopy by Bengt Edlén, who presented the initial ASOS talk in 1983. The ninth ASOS was hosted by the Lund Observatory and Physics Department of Lund University, 7-10 August 2007, and was attended by 99 registrants. An encouraging sign for the field was the number of young researchers in attendance. This volume of Physica Scripta contains contributions from the invited presentations of the conference. For the first time, papers from the ASOS9 poster presentations have been made feely available online in a complementary volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. With these two volumes the character of ASOS9 is more evident, and together they serve as a review of the state of atomic spectroscopy for spectrum analysis and the determination of oscillator strengths and their applications. The goal of ASOS is to be a forum for atomic spectroscopy, where both the providers and the users of atomic data, which includes wavelengths, energy levels, lifetimes, oscillator strengths and line shape parameters, can meet to discuss recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques and their application to understanding the physical processes that are responsible for producing observed spectra. The applications mainly originate from the fields of astrophysics and plasma physics, which includes fusion energy and lighting research. The oral presentations, all but one of which are presented in this volume, provided an extensive synopsis of techniques currently in use and those that are being planned. New to ASOS9 was the extent to which techniques such as cold, trapped atoms and molecules and frequency combs are

  20. Absorption spectra of crystalline limestones experimentally deformed or tectonised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelle, B.; ChayéD'Albissin, M.; Gouet, G.; Visocekas, R.

    1982-11-01

    Diffuse-reflectance spectra have been measured for a series of samples of Carrara marble experimentally deformed under different cylindrical stress ( P = 0, 100, 250, 500, 980 bars). The creation of point defects that results has been shown up classically by irradiation with β rays (40 krads), thus producing a typical blue coloration linked with the formation of colour centres. The diffuse-reflectance spectra, measured on powders with a microscope-spectrometer in the visible range (400-800 nm), allow the determination of the absorption spectra by means of the Kubelka-Munk function. These absorption spectra have been measured for each of the deformed samples, as well as for different fractions of a very deformed specimen subsequently heated at temperatures between 100 and 500° C for a fixed time. In the same way, tectonised crystalline limestones, of various origins, were studied without any other treatment than the irradiation with β rays. From this study the following preliminary conclusions have been drawn: (1) The absorption spectrum of an undeformed but merely irradiated specimen of crystalline limestone is practically monotonous, but in the deformed specimens a broad band of absorption appears, having a maximum at 620 nm with several shoulders, the chief of which is at 520 nm. (2) This absorption band shows the existence of colour centres, the density of which can be estimated relatively by means of the chromaticity coordinates x and y of the C.I.E. obtained from the diffuse-reflectance spectra (C.I.E. = Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage). (3) An overgrinding of calcite generates defects that have the same spectra as those produced during the experimental deformation. Consequently, in obtaining the powders of grain size 50-80 μm needed for the diffuse spectrometry, great care must be exercised. (4) For a given confining pressure, the defect density is proportional to the deformation rate. (5) One can calibrate the effect of the annealing of