WorldWideScience

Sample records for c2d spitzer spectroscopic

  1. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopic survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects II: CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Fraser, Helen J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Blake, Geoffrey A; Lahuis, Fred; Oberg, Karin I; Evans, Neal J; Salyk, Colette

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy of the CO2 15.2 micron bending mode toward a sample of 50 embedded low-mass stars in nearby star-forming clouds, taken mostly from the ``Cores to Disks (c2d)'' Legacy program. The average abundance of solid CO2 relative to water in low-mass protostellar envelopes is 0.32 +/- 0.02, significantly higher than that found in quiescent molecular clouds and in massive star forming regions. It is found that a decomposition of all the observed CO2 bending mode profiles requires a minimum of five unique components. Roughly 2/3 of the CO2 ice is found in a water-rich environment, while most of the remaining 1/3 is found in a CO environment. Ground-based observations of solid CO toward a large subset of the c2d sample are used to further constrain the CO2:CO component and suggest a model in which low-density clouds form the CO2:H2O component and higher density clouds form the CO2:CO ice during and after the freeze-out of gas-phase CO. It is suggested that the subsequent evolut...

  2. The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3 and CH3OH

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and HCOOCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. (...) In this work, we investigate the ~ 8-10 micron region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 micron silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH3- and CH3OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ~9 micron in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH3 nu_2 umbrella mode, and derive abundances with respect to w...

  3. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. IV. Lupus Observed with MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Nicholas L; Mundy, Lee G; Evans, Neal J; Brooke, Timothy Y; Cieza, Lucas A; Spiesman, William J; Rebull, Luisa M; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Lanz, Lauranne; Allen, Lori E; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bourke, Tyler L; Harvey, Paul M; Huard, Tracy L; Jørgensen, Jes K; Koerner, David W; Myers, Philip C; Padgett, Deborah L; Sargent, Annelia I; Teuben, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Wahhaj, Zahed; Young, Kaisa E

    2007-01-01

    We present maps of 7.78 square degrees of the Lupus molecular cloud complex at 24, 70, and $160\\:\\mu$m. They were made with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument as part of the Spitzer Legacy Program, ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks'' (c2d). The maps cover three separate regions in Lupus, denoted I, III, and IV. We discuss the c2d pipeline and how our data processing differs from it. We compare source counts in the three regions with two other data sets and predicted star counts from the Wainscoat model. This comparison shows the contribution from background galaxies in Lupus I. We also create two color magnitude diagrams using the 2MASS and MIPS data. From these results, we can identify background galaxies and distinguish them from probable young stellar objects. The sources in our catalogs are classified based on their spectral energy distribution (SED) from 2MASS and Spitzer wavelengths to create a sample of young stellar object candidates. ...

  4. A Spitzer c2d Legacy Survey to Identify and Characterize Disks with Inner Dust Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Merín, Bruno; Oliveira, Isa; Herczeg, Gregory J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Evans, Neal J; Cieza, Lucas; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcalá, Juan M; Harvey, Paul M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bayo, Amelia; Geers, Vincent G; Lahuis, Fred; Prusti, Timo; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Olofsson, Johan; Walter, Frederick M; Chiu, Kuenley

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. However, identifying exactly how dust and gas dissipates is complicated due to difficulty in finding objects clearly in the transition of losing their surrounding material. We use Spitzer IRS spectra to examine 35 photometrically-selected candidate cold disks (disks with large inner dust holes). The infrared spectra are supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties and 1.3mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed SED modeling, we identify 15 new cold disks. The remaining 20 objects have IRS spectra that are consistent with disks without holes, disks that are observed close to edge-on, or stars with background emission. Based on these results, we determine reliable criteria for identifying disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry and examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d surveyed star-forming regions gives a frequency of such objects of at...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: c2d Spitzer final data release (DR4) (Evans+, 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J., II; Allen, L. E.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bourke, T.; Harvey, P. M.; Kessler, J. E.; Koerner, D. W.; Lee, C. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Myers, P. C.; Padgett, D. L.; Pontoppidan, K.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Young, C. H.; Young, K. E.

    2014-05-01

    This is the final delivery (DR4, Fall 2006 and Fall 2007) of the Spitzer Space Telescope "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d) Legacy Project. The data are also available as Enhanced Products from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). c2d has delivered 867 catalogs. IRSA has merged these delivered catalogs into four groups - Clouds, Off-Cloud, Cores, Stars - and serves them through the general catalog search engine Gator. Many of the delivered catalogs, images and spectra are accessible through IRSA's general search service, Atlas. As a service to its users, the CDS has downloaded a dataset containing most of the c2d data (but not all columns) from the IRSA archive. The individual catalogs are listed below: C2D Fall '07 Full CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 High Reliability (HREL) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 Full STARS Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) STARS Catalog These tables have been merged into a single table at CDS. All three SIRTF instruments (Infrared Array Camera [IRAC], Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF [MIPS], and Infrared Spectrograph [IRS]) were used to observe sources that span the evolutionary sequence from molecular cores to protoplanetary disks, encompassing a wide range of cloud masses, stellar masses, and star-forming environments. (1 data file).

  6. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-line T Tauri Stars II: New Constraints on the Timescale for Planet Building

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Harvey, Paul; Evans, Neal J; II,; Merin, Bruno; Koerner, David W; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, G A; Brooke, Timothy; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; Lai, Shih-Ping; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C; Spiesman, William; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2007-01-01

    One of the central goals of the Spitzer Legacy Project ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks'' (c2d) is to determine the frequency of remnant circumstellar disks around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTs) and to study the properties and evolutionary status of these disks. Here we present a census of disks for a sample of over 230 spectroscopically identified wTTs located in the c2d IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 4.8, and 8.0 um) and MIPS (24 um) maps of the Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Perseus Molecular Clouds. We find that ~20% of the wTTs in a magnitude limited subsample have noticeable IR-excesses at IRAC wavelengths indicating the presence of a circumstellar disk. The disk frequencies we find in these 3 regions are ~3-6 times larger than that recently found for a sample of 83 relatively isolated wTTs located, for the most part, outside the highest extinction regions covered by the c2d IRAC and MIPS maps. The disk fractions we find are more consistent with those obtained in recent Spitzer studies of wTTs in young clusters s...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Dunham, M. M.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Enoch, M. L.; Merin, B.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Alcala, J. M.; Myers, P. C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Huard, T. L.; Allen, L. E.; Harvey, P. M.; van Kempen, T.; Blake, G. A.; Koerner, D. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Padgett, D. L.; Sargent, A. I.

    2009-10-01

    The observations here were all obtained by the c2d project or by GTO observations that we have included in our data. They have been described in the publications given hereafter: Five large clouds were selected for the c2d project: Serpens (Eiroa et al., 2008hsf2.book..693E), Perseus (Bally et al., 2008hsf1.book..308B), Ophiuchus (Wilking et al., 2008hsf2.book..351W), Lupus (Comeron, 2008hsf2.book..295C), and Chamaeleon (Luhman, 2008hsf2.book..169L). (5 data files).

  8. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XI. Lupus Observed With IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Merin, Bruno; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcala, Juan M; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul M; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Comeron, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We present c2d Spitzer/IRAC observations of the Lupus I, III and IV dark clouds and discuss them in combination with optical and near-infrared and c2d MIPS data. With the Spitzer data, the new sample contains 159 stars, 4 times larger than the previous one. It is dominated by low- and very-low mass stars and it is complete down to M $\\approx$ 0.1M$_\\odot$. We find 30-40 % binaries with separations between 100 to 2000 AU with no apparent effect in the disk properties of the members. A large majority of the objects are Class II or Class III objects, with only 20 (12%) of Class I or Flat spectrum sources. The disk sample is complete down to ``debris''-like systems in stars as small as M $\\approx$ 0.2 M$_\\odot$ and includes sub-stellar objects with larger IR excesses. The disk fraction in Lupus is 70 -- 80%, consistent with an age of 1 -- 2 Myr. However, the young population contains 20% optically thick accretion disks and 40% relatively less flared disks. A growing variety of inner disk structures is found for l...

  9. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XII. The Perseus YSO Population as Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Kaisa E; Lai, Shih-Ping; Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope mapped the Perseus molecular cloud complex with IRAC and MIPS as part of the c2d Spitzer Legacy project. This paper combines the observations from both instruments giving an overview of low-mass star formation across Perseus from 3.6 to 70 micron. We provide an updated list of young stellar objects with new classifications and source fluxes from previous works, identifying 369 YSOs in Perseus with the Spitzer dataset. By synthesizing the IRAC and MIPS maps of Perseus and building on the work of previous papers in this series (Jorgensen et al. 2006, Rebull et al. 2007), we present a current census of star formation across the cloud and within smaller regions. 67% of the YSOs are associated with the young clusters NGC 1333 and IC 348. The majority of the star formation activity in Perseus occurs in the regions around the clusters, to the eastern and western ends of the cloud complex. The middle of the cloud is nearly empty of YSOs despite containing regions of high visual extinction....

  10. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-Line T Tauri Stars. III. The Transition from Primordial Disks to Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Padgett, Deborah L; Koerner, David W; Case, April; Keller, James R; Merín, Bruno; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Brooke, Tim; Chapman, Nicholas; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 {\\mu}m Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) which are located in the same star forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 {\\mu}m) and the 24 {\\mu}m MIPS band. In the 70 {\\mu}m MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTS survey in the mid to far infrared to date, and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTS. The 70 {\\mu}m photometry for half the c2d WTTS sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, Padgett et al. (2006) and Cieza et al. (2007), are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTS, but just 5% for...

  11. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 2 x 10-3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 5 x 10-4 in 4 Myr.

  12. SSGSS : The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, Matthew J.; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Treyer, Marie A.; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy M.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) provides a new sample of 101 star-forming galaxies at z <0.2 with unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage. New mid-to far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope is added to a rich suite of previous imaging and spectroscopy, includin

  13. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. III. [Ne II], [Fe I], and H-2 gas-phase lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline E.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a survey of mid-infrared gas-phase lines toward a sample of 76 circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" legacy program. We report the first detections of [ Ne II] and [ Fe I] toward classical T Tauri stars in similar to 20% and similar

  14. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: III: Low Mass Star Formation in a Small Group, L1251B

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J E; Lai, S P; Bourke, T L; Spiesman, B; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Brooke, T Y; Porras, A; Wahhaj, Z; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Francesco, James Di; Lai, Shih-Ping; Bourke, Tyler L.; II, Neal J. Evans; Spiesman, Bill; Myers, Philip C.; Allen, Lori E.; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Porras, Alicia; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a low-mass star-forming region,L1251B, at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. L1251B, where only one protostar, IRAS 22376+7455, was known previously, is confirmed to be a small group of protostars based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The most luminous source of L1251B is located 5" north of the IRAS position. A near-infrared bipolar nebula, which is not associated with the brightest object and is located at the southeast corner of L1251B, has been detected in the IRAC bands. OVRO and SMA interferometric observations indicate that the brightest source and the bipolar nebula source in the IRAC bands are deeply embedded disk sources.Submillimeter continuum observations with single-dish telescopes and the SMA interferometric observations suggest two possible prestellar objects with very high column densities. Outside of the small group, many young stellar object candidates have been detected over a larger region of 12' x 12'. Extended emiss...

  15. AST/RO 13CO(J=2-1) and 12CO(J=4-3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Löhr, A; Lane, A P; Myers, P C; Parshley, S C; Stark, A A; Tothill, N F H

    2007-01-01

    Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-1), 12CO(4-3), and 12CO(7-6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, ten of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-1) and 12CO(4-3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-1) linewidth to be 2.0 km/s for cores with embedded stars, and 1.8 km/s for all others. The typical 12CO(4-3) linewidth is 2.6 to 3.7 km/s for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6 to 2.3 km/s for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.9 x 10^15 cm^(-2) for cores with embedded stars, and ...

  16. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopic analysis of the ν11 and ν2 + ν7 bands of 13C2D4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabona, M. G.; Tan, T. L.

    2016-06-01

    The FTIR spectrum of the ν11 band of 13C2D4 was recorded at a resolution of 0.0063 cm-1 in the 2130-2250 cm-1 region. This band was perturbed by the unobserved ν2 + ν7 band. By fitting 862 infrared transitions for the ν11 band with a rms deviation of 0.0024 cm-1 using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation including a Coriolis coupling constant, the rovibrational constants for the ν11 = 1 state and three rotational constants for the ν2 = ν7 = 1 state of 13C2D4 were derived for the first time. The band centers of ν11 and ν2 + ν7 were determined to be 2193.75982(25) cm-1 and 2184.613(11) cm-1 respectively.

  17. Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Héctor; Guerrero, Martin A; Nigoche-Netro, Alberto; Toalá, Jesús A; Fang, Xuan; Rubio, Gabriel M; Kemp, Simon N; Navarro, Silvana G; Corral, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 {\\mu}m that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ~900+/-70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases. The decline of the [Ar III]/[Ne II] line ratio with the stellar effective temperature can be explained either by a true neon enrichment or by high density circumstellar regions of PNe that presumably descend from higher mass progenitor stars.

  18. The Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of S-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolders, K; Blommaert, J A D L; Hony, S; Van Winckel, H; Decin, L; Van Eck, S; Sloan, G C; Cami, J; Uttenthaler, S; Degroote, P; Barry, D; Feast, M; Groenewegen, M A T; Matsuura, M; Menzies, J; Sahai, R; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A A; Acke, B; Bloemen, S; Cox, N; de Cat, P; Desmet, M; Exter, K; Ladjal, D; Ostensen, R; Saesen, S; van Wyk, F; Verhoest, T; Zima, W

    2012-01-01

    S-type AGB stars are thought to be in the transitional phase between M-type and C-type AGB stars. Because of their peculiar chemical composition, one may expect a strong influence of the stellar C/O ratio on the molecular chemistry and the mineralogy of the circumstellar dust. In this paper, we present a large sample of 87 intrinsic galactic S-type AGB stars, observed at infrared wavelengths with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and supplemented with ground-based optical data. On the one hand, we derive the stellar parameters from the optical spectroscopy and photometry, using a grid of model atmospheres. On the other, we decompose the infrared spectra to quantify the flux-contributions from the different dust species. Finally, we compare the independently determined stellar parameters and dust properties. For the stars without significant dust emission, we detect a strict relation between the presence of SiS absorption in the Spitzer spectra and the C/O ratio of the stellar atmosphere. These absorption bands can...

  19. Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Galactic Center. 1; Spectroscopic Identification from Spitzer/IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris; Arendt, Richard G.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Cotera, Angela S.; Smith, Howard A.; Stolovy, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from our spectroscopic study, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, designed to identify massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic Center (GC). Our sample of 107 YSO candidates was selected based on IRAC colors from the high spatial resolution, high sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC images in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), which spans the central approximately 300 pc region of the Milky Way Galaxy. We obtained IRS spectra over 5 micron to 35 micron using both high- and low-resolution IRS modules. We spectroscopically identify massive YSOs by the presence of a 15.4 micron shoulder on the absorption profile of 15 micron CO2 ice, suggestive of CO2 ice mixed with CH30H ice on grains. This 15.4 micron shoulder is clearly observed in 16 sources and possibly observed in an additional 19 sources. We show that 9 massive YSOs also reveal molecular gas-phase absorption from C02, C2H2, and/or HCN, which traces warm and dense gas in YSOs. Our results provide the first spectroscopic census of the massive YSO population in the GC. We fit YSO models to the observed spectral energy distributions and find YSO masses of 8 - 23 solar Mass, which generally agree with the masses derived from observed radio continuum emission. We find that about 50% of photometrically identified YSOs are confirmed with our spectroscopic study. This implies a preliminary star formation rate of approximately 0.07 solar mass/yr at the GC.

  20. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C. A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program. The combination of Spitzer derived albedos and diameters with spectroscopic data will enhance our understanding of the NEO population.

  1. The Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S4MC): Probing the Physical State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Low-Metallicity Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, Karin M; Bot, Caroline; Draine, B T; Ingalls, James G; Israel, Frank P; Jackson, James M; Leroy, Adam K; Li, Aigen; Rubio, Mónica; Simon, Joshua D; Smith, J D T; Stanimirović, Snežana; Tielens, A G G M; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2011-01-01

    We present results of mid-infrared spectroscopic mapping observations of six star-forming regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S4MC). We detect the mid-IR emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in all of the mapped regions, greatly increasing the range of environments where PAHs have been spectroscopically detected in the SMC. We investigate the variations of the mid-IR bands in each region and compare our results to studies of the PAH bands in the SINGS sample and in a sample of low-metallicity starburst galaxies. PAH emission in the SMC is characterized by low ratios of the 6-9 micron features relative to the 11.3 micron feature and weak 8.6 and 17.0 micron features. Interpreting these band ratios in the light of laboratory and theoretical studies, we find that PAHs in the SMC tend to be smaller and less ionized than those in higher metallicity galaxies. Based on studies of PAH destruction, we argue that a size distribution shifted towards sm...

  2. A Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic atlas of early-type galaxies in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Rampazzo, R; Vega, O; Marino, A; Bressan, A; Clemens, M S

    2013-01-01

    We produce an atlas of homogeneously reduced and calibrated low resolution IRS spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby early-type galaxies (i.e. Es and S0s, ETGs), in order to build a reference sample in the mid-infrared window. From the Spitzer Heritage Archive we extract ETGs in the "Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies" having an IRS SL and/or LL spectrum. We recover 91 spectra out of 363 galaxies classified as ETGs in the catalog: 56 E (E0-E6), 8 mixed E/S0+S0/E, 27 S0 (both normal and barred - SB0) plus mixed types SB0/Sa+SB0/SBa. For each galaxy, we provide the fully reduced and calibrated spectrum, the intensity of nebular and molecular emission lines as well as of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) after a template spectrum of a passively evolving ETG has been subtracted. Spectra are classified into five mid-infrared classes, ranging from AGN (class-4) and star forming nuclei (class-3), transition class-2 (with PAHs) and class-1 (no-PAHs) to passively evolving nuclei (class-0). A ...

  3. Spectroscopic follow-up of 70{\\mu}m sources in Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, H; Rowan-Robinson, M; Vaccari, M

    2010-01-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 70{\\mu}m selected galaxies from the SWIRE XMMLSS and Lockman Hole fields. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 293 new sources down to a 70{\\mu}m flux limit of 9mJy and R < 22. The redshift distribution peaks at z ~ 0.3 and has a high redshift tail out to z = 3.5. We perform emission line diagnostics for 91 sources where [OIII], H{\\beta}, [NII], H{\\alpha} and [SII] emission lines are available to determine their power source. We find in our sample 13 QSOs, 1 Seyfert II galaxy, 33 star forming galaxies, 30 composite galaxies, 5 LINERs and 21 ambiguous galaxies. We fit single temperature dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 81 70{\\mu}m sources with 160{\\mu}m photometry to estimate dust temperatures and masses. Assuming the dust emissivity factor ({\\beta}) as 1.5, we determine temperatures in the range ~ 20-60K and dust masses with a range of 10{^6}-10{^9} M{_\\odot}. Plotting these objects in the luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that th...

  4. Determination of the Ground Vibrational State Parameters of the C2D4 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, F.; Gromova, O. V.; Buttersack, T.

    2016-07-01

    The object of the study is the C2D4 molecule, as it is important to know its properties to address numerous problems of molecular physics. The analysis of high-resolution spectra of the deuterated ethylene molecule was made in the range of 600-1200 cm-1, specifically bands ν7 and ν12. The results obtained were used to determine high-accurate values of the vibrational-rotational levels of the ground vibrational state of the C2D4 molecule.

  5. Overexpression of IL-10 in C2D macrophages promotes a macrophage phenotypic switch in adipose tissue environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linglin; Fu, Qiang; Ortega, Teresa M; Zhou, Lun; Rasmussen, Dane; O'Keefe, Jacy; Zhang, Ke K; Chapes, Stephen K

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages are a heterogeneous collection of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, secreted by a variety of cell types including M2 macrophages. We generated a macrophage cell line stably overexpressing IL-10 (C2D-IL10) and analyzed the C2D-IL10 cells for several macrophage markers after exposure to adipocytes compared to C2D cells transfected with an empty vector (C2D-vector). C2D-IL10 macrophage cells expressed more CD206 when co-cultured with adipocytes than C2D-vector cells; while the co-cultured cell mixture also expressed higher levels of Il4, Il10, Il1β and Tnf. Since regular C2D cells traffic to adipose tissue after adoptive transfer, we explored the impact of constitutive IL-10 expression on C2D-IL10 macrophages in adipose tissue in vivo. Adipose tissue-isolated C2D-IL10 cells increased the percentage of CD206(+), CD301(+), CD11c(-)CD206(+) (M2) and CD11c(+)CD206(+) (M1b) on their cell surface, compared to isolated C2D-vector cells. These data suggest that the expression of IL-10 remains stable, alters the C2D-IL10 macrophage cell surface phenotype and may play a role in regulating macrophage interactions with the adipose tissue.

  6. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  7. VVDS-SWIRE: Clustering evolution up to z=2 of a spectroscopic sample of galaxies selected from Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 microns photometry

    CERN Document Server

    De la Torre, S; Arnouts, S; Guzzo, L; Farrah, D; Iovino, A; Lonsdale, C J; Meneux, B; Oliver, S J; Pollo, A; Waddington, I; Bottini, D; Fang, F; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Shupe, D; Surace, J; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; Lamareille, F; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; Vergani, D; Walcher, C J; Torre, Sylvain de la

    2007-01-01

    By combining the VVDS with the SWIRE data, we have built the currently largest spectroscopic sample of galaxies selected in the rest-frame near-infrared. These allow us to investigate, for the first time using spectroscopic redshifts, the clustering evolution of galaxies selected from their rest-frame near-infrared luminosity in the redshift range 0.2spectroscopic redshifts from first epoch VVDS. We find that in the flux limited samples at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, the clustering length does not change from redshift ~2 to the present. In addition, we find that the clustering lengths are systematically higher when galaxy samples are selected from increasingly redder wavelengths. These values are larger than the typical values found for I-band selected galaxies in the same redshift range, but we find that th...

  8. Reagent Vibration Effect on the Stereodynamics for the C+CD→C2+D Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ting-Xian; SHI Ying

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD→C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al. Mol. Phys. 98(2000) 1925]. The vector correlation distributions p(θr) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(θr) as well as p(θr,φr) are calculated. In addition, two polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework. The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.%We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD → C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al.Mol.Phys.98(2000)1925].The vector correlation distributions p(θΤ) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(φΤ) as well as p(θΤ,φΥ) are calculated.In addition,two polarizationdependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework.The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.The studies of the chemical reaction dynamics of C+CH and its isotopic variants have received much attention theoretically[1-7] and experimentally.[8-11]The systems are very important in the investigation of atmospheric chemistry and combustion.[12]The branching ratios between the channels were measured by using the LIF[13] method.Compared with the rare experimental work,many theoretical studies have been performed on the title reaction.

  9. Machine Learning Energies of 2 Million Elpasolite (A B C2D6) Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Felix A.; Lindmaa, Alexander; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Armiento, Rickard

    2016-09-01

    Elpasolite is the predominant quaternary crystal structure (AlNaK2F6 prototype) reported in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. We develop a machine learning model to calculate density functional theory quality formation energies of all ˜2 ×106 pristine A B C2D6 elpasolite crystals that can be made up from main-group elements (up to bismuth). Our model's accuracy can be improved systematically, reaching a mean absolute error of 0.1 eV /atom for a training set consisting of 10 ×103 crystals. Important bonding trends are revealed: fluoride is best suited to fit the coordination of the D site, which lowers the formation energy whereas the opposite is found for carbon. The bonding contribution of the elements A and B is very small on average. Low formation energies result from A and B being late elements from group II, C being a late (group I) element, and D being fluoride. Out of 2 ×106 crystals, 90 unique structures are predicted to be on the convex hull—among which is NFAl2Ca6, with a peculiar stoichiometry and a negative atomic oxidation state for Al.

  10. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  11. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  12. High resolution analysis of C2D4 in the region of 600-1150 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, Fangce; Sydow, C.; Maul, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2016-10-01

    High-accurate Fourier-transform infrared spectra of C2D4 were recorded and analyzed in the region of 600-1150 cm-1 where the bands ν7(B1u), ν10(B2u), ν12(B3u) are located as well as the ν4(Au) band which is forbidden by the symmetry of the molecule. The ground state rotational structure was re-analyzed by the use of ground state combination differences obtained on the basis of infrared transitions of the ν12 and ν7 absorption bands. This gave us the possibility to considerably improve the rotational and centrifugal parameters of the ground vibrational state. The analysis of the experimental data and the subsequent weighted-fit procedure of the Hamiltonian parameters allowed us to reproduce the initial 4405 "experimental" ro-vibrational energy values with the drms = 2.1 ×10-4cm-1.

  13. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effects of collision energy (Ecol) and five different H2CO+ vibrational modes on the reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4 over the center-of-mass Ecol range from 0.1 to 2.1 eV. Properties of various complexes and transition states were also examined computationally. Seven product channels are observed. Charge transfer (CT) has the largest cross section over the entire energy range, substantially exceeding the hard sphere cross section at high energies. Competing with CT are six channels involving transfer of one or more hydrogen atoms or protons and one involving formation of propanal, followed by hydrogen elimination. Despite the existence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface, all reactions go by direct mechanisms, except at the lowest collision energies, where short-lived complexes appear to be important. Statistical complex decay appears adequate to account for the product branching at low collision energies, however, even at the lowest energies, the vibrational effects are counter to statistical expectations. The pattern of Ecol and vibrational mode effects provide insight into factors that control reaction and interchannel competition

  14. Central stars of mid-infrared nebulae discovered with Spitzer and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V

    2016-01-01

    Searches for compact mid-IR nebulae with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), accompanied by spectroscopic observations of central stars of these nebulae led to the discovery of many dozens of massive stars at different evolutionary stages, of which the most numerous are candidate luminous blue variables (LBVs). In this paper, we give a census of candidate and confirmed Galactic LBVs revealed with Spitzer and WISE, and present some new results of spectroscopic observations of central stars of mid-IR nebulae.

  15. Z>~7 galaxies with red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] colors in the full CANDELS data set: the brightest-known galaxies at Z~7-9 and a probable spectroscopic confirmation at Z=7.48

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts-Borsani, G W; Oesch, P A; Labbe, I; Smit, R; Illingworth, G D; van Dokkum, P; Holden, B; Gonzalez, V; Stefanon, M; Holwerda, B; Wilkins, S

    2015-01-01

    We identify 4 unusually bright (H~7.5. As Y-band observations are not available over the full CANDELS program to perform a standard Lyman-break selection of z>7 galaxies, here we employ an alternate strategy using the deep Spitzer/IRAC data. We identify z~7.1-9.1 galaxies by selecting z>~6 galaxies from the HST CANDELS data that show quite red IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] colors, indicating a strong [OIII] line in the 4.5mu band. This selection strategy was validated using a modest sample for which we have deep Y-band coverage. Here we focus on using this criterion to select the brightest z>~7 sources. Applying the IRAC criteria to all HST-selected optical-dropout galaxies over the full ~900 arcmin**2 of the 5 CANDELS fields revealed four unusually bright z~7.1, 7.6, 7.9 and 8.6 candidates. The median [3.6]-[4.5] color of our selected z~7.1-9.1 sample is consistent with rest-frame [OIII]+Hbeta EWs of ~1600A in the [4.5] band. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy has already been reported for one of our selected sources EGS-zs8-1, s...

  16. Chemical abundances in Galactic Planetary Nebulae with Spitzer spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2014-01-01

    We present new low-resolution (R~800) optical spectra of 22 Galactic PNe with Spitzer spectra. These data are combined with recent optical spectroscopic data available in the literature to construct representative samples of compact (and presumably young) Galactic disc and bulge PNe with Spitzer spectra. Attending to the nature of the dust features seen in their Spitzer spectra, Galactic disc and bulge PNe are classified according to four major dust types (oxygen chemistry or OC, carbon chemistry or CC, double chemistry or DC, featureless or F) and subtypes (amorphous and crystalline, and aliphatic and aromatic). Nebular gas abundances of He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl and Ar, as well as plasma parameters (e.g. Ne, Te) are homogeneously derived and we study the median chemical abundances and nebular properties in Galactic disc and bulge PNe depending on their Spitzer dust types and subtypes. A comparison of the derived median abundance patterns with AGB nucleosynthesis predictions show mainly that: i) DC PNe, both with ...

  17. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. IV. Lupus V and VI Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzi, Loredana; Merın, Bruno; Allen, Lori E; Evans, Neal J; Jørgensen, Jes K; Bourke, Tyler L; Cieza, Lucas A; Dunham, Michael M; Harvey, Paul M; Huard, Tracy L; Peterson, Dawn; Tothill, Nick F H

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer "Core to Disk" (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including 2 transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main sequence star from previous optical, near-IR and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ~79% in Lupus V and ~87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photo-evapo...

  18. SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    Emerging from the cosmic web, galaxy clusters are the most massive gravitationally bound structures in the universe. Thought to have begun their assembly at z > 2, clusters provide insights into the growth of large-scale structure as well as the physics that drives galaxy evolution. Understanding how and when the most massive galaxies assemble their stellar mass, stop forming stars, and acquire their observed morphologies in these environments remain outstanding questions. The redshift range 1.3 imaging or from X-ray surveys. Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging with the IRAC camera on board of the Spitzer Space Telescope has changed the landscape. High-redshift clusters are easily identified in the MIR due to a combination of the unique colors of distant galaxies and a negative k-correction in the 3-5 μm range which makes such galaxies bright. Even 90-sec observations with Spitzer/IRAC, a depth which essentially all extragalactic observations in the archive achieve, is sufficient to robustly detect overdensities of L* galaxies out to z~2. Here we request funding to embark on a ambitious scientific program, the “SACS: Spitzer Archival Cluster Survey”, a comprehensive search for the most distant galaxy clusters in all Spitzer/IRAC extragalactic pointings available in the archive. With the SACS we aim to discover ~2000 of 1.3 < z < 2.5 clusters, thus provide the ultimate catalog for high-redshift MIR selected clusters: a lasting legacy for Spitzer. The study we propose will increase by more than a factor of 10 the number of high-redshift clusters discovered by all previous surveys combined, providing a high-purity, uniform sample. Matching the Spitzer/IRAC-selected clusters with data at similar and longer wavelengths available in the archive (WISE 3- 5μm, Spitzer/MIPS 24μm or Herschel/SPIRE 250μm data) we will be also able to study the dependence on the environment of star formation and AGN activity out to z~2, and to study the effect of star-forming galaxies and AGNs

  19. Spectroscopic properties of Young Stellar Objects in the Lupus Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mortier, Annelies; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-01-01

    The results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of young stellar objects (YSOs) and pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Lupus Clouds are presented. 92 objects were observed with VLT/FLAMES. All of those objects show IR excess as discovered by the Spitzer Legacy Program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d). After reduction, 54 spectra with good signal-to-noise ratio are spectrally classified. Effective temperatures and luminosities are derived for these objects, and used to construct H-R diagrams for the population. The sample consists mostly of M-type stars, with 10% K-type stars. Individual ages and masses are inferred for the objects according to theoretical evolutionary models. The mean population age is found to be between 3.6 and 4.4 Myr, depending on the model, while the mean mass is found to be ~0.3 M for either model. Together with literature data, the distribution of spectral types is found to be similar to that in Chamaeleon I and IC348. The H{\\alpha} line in emission, fo...

  20. Spitzer IRS 16 micron Observations of the GOODS Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, Harry I; Elbaz, David; Dickinson, Mark; Bridge, Carrie; Colbert, James; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Frayer, David T; Howell, Justin H; Koo, David C; Papovich, Casey; Phillips, Andrew; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer 16 micron imaging of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. We survey 150 square arcminutes in each of the two GOODS fields (North and South), to an average 3 sigma depth of 40 and 65 micro-Jy respectively. We detect about 1300 sources in both fields combined. We validate the photometry using the 3-24 micron spectral energy distribution of stars in the fields compared to Spitzer spectroscopic templates. Comparison with ISOCAM and AKARI observations in the same fields show reasonable agreement, though the uncertainties are large. We provide a catalog of photometry, with sources cross correlated with available Spitzer, Chandra, and HST data. Galaxy number counts show good agreement with previous results from ISOCAM and AKARI, with improved uncertainties. We examine the 16 to 24 micron flux ratio and find that for most sources it lies within the expected locus for starbursts and infrared luminous galaxies. A color cut of S_{16}/S_{24}>1.4 selects mostly sources which lie a...

  1. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  2. A Study of the Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy NGC 855 with Spitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 855 using the narrow-band Ha and Spitzer data. Both the Ha and Spitzer IRAC images confirm star-forming activity in the center of NGC 855. We obtained a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.022 and 0.025 M☉yr-1, respectively, from the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm emission data. The HI observa tion suggests that the star-forming activity might be triggered by a minor merger. We also find that there is a distinct IR emission region in 5.8 and 8.0μm bands, located at about 10 "away from the nucleus of NGC 855. Given the strong 8.0μm but faint Hα emission, we expect that it is a heavily obscured star-forming region, which needs to be confirmed by further optical spectroscopic observations.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  4. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer Core to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (AV ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  5. Spitzer Space Telescope : observatory desciption and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Keyur C.; Spath, Stuart R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, the last of the four Great Observatories commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was successfully launched on August 25, 2003 from Kennedy Space Center. The engineering systems for Spitzer were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, and Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. This paper provides an overview of Spitzer, a technical description of all the engineering subsystems, and the associated challenges involved in developing them to satisfy the mission requirements. In addition, this paper describes the performance of the engineering subsystems during the In-Orbit Checkout phase, the Science Verification phase, and the early portions of the Nominal Mission.

  6. An Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Kinetic Isotope Effect of C2H6 and C2D6 Reaction with OH

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fethi

    2015-10-30

    We report experimental and theoretical results for the deuterated kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) of the reaction of OH with ethane (C2H6) and deuterated ethane (C2D6). The reactions were investigated behind reflected shock waves over 800–1350 K by monitoring OH radicals near 306.69 nm using laser absorption. In addition, high level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/cc-pVTZ quantum chemical and statistical rate theory calculations were performed which agreed very well with the experimental findings. The results reported herein provide the first experimental evidence that DKIE for alkanes asymptotes to a value of 1.4 at high temperatures.

  7. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Timlin, John D; Richards, Gordon T; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L; Stone, Robert B; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, W N; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D; Schneider, Donald P; Urry, C Megan; Wollack, Edward J; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of 115 deg^2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its 'warm' mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5{\\sigma} depths of 6.13 {\\mu}Jy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 {\\mu}Jy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively - depths significantly fainter than WISE. We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically-confirmed quasars (98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > 3.5), where SpIES reco...

  8. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  9. Luminosity Functions of Spitzer Identified Protostars in Nine Nearby Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukova, E; Gutermuth, R A; Pipher, J; Allen, T S; Allen, L E; Myers, P C; Muzerolle, J

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine photometry from 2MASS J, H, and Ks bands and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands to create 1 - 24 micron spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities (Lbol), we derive a relationship between Lbol, L_MIR (integrated from 1 - 24 microns), and SED slope. Estimations of Lbol for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high mass star forming clouds peak near 1 Lsun and show a tail extending ...

  10. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4formation and destruction processes. Our study will greatly enhance the scientific

  11. Weak-line T Tauri Star Disks I. Initial Spitzer Results from the Cores to Disks Legacy Project

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, D L; Augereau, J; Blake, G A; Brooke, T; Chapman, N; Cieza, L; Evans, N J; Fukagawa, M; Harvey, P; Körner, D W; Lai, S; Mundy, L; Myers, P C; Porras, A; Sargent, A; Spiesman, W; Stapelfeldt, K R; Wahhaj, Z; van Dishoek, E F

    2006-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have observed 90 weak-line and classical T Tauri stars in the vicinity of the Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, and Taurus star-forming regions as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Spitzer Legacy project. In addition to the Spitzer data, we have obtained contemporaneous optical photometry to assist in constructing spectral energy distributions. These objects were specifically chosen as solar-type young stars with low levels of H alpha emission, strong X-ray emission, and lithium absorption i.e. weak-line T Tauri stars, most of which were undetected in the mid-to-far IR by the IRAS survey. Weak-line T Tauri stars are potentially extremely important objects in determining the timescale over which disk evolution may take place. Our objective is to determine whether these young stars are diskless or have remnant disks which are below the detection threshold of previous infrared missions. We find that only 5/83 weak-line T Tauri stars have detectable excess emission between 3.6 and...

  12. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  13. Two mutant alleles of the human cytochrome P-450dbl gene (P450C2D1) associated with genetically deficient metabolism of debrisoquine and other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debrisoquine polymorphism is a clinically important genetic defect of drug metabolism affecting 5-10% of individuals in Caucasian populations. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A full-length cDNA for human cytochrome P-450db1, the deficient enzyme (also designated P450IID1 for P450 family II subfamily D isozyme 1), has recently been cloned. Leukocyte DNA from extensive metabolizers (EMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) of debrisoquine was examined by Southern analysis. Two polymorphic restriction fragments were associated with the PM phenotype when DNAs from 24 unrelated PM and 29 unrelated EM individuals were probed with P-450db1 cDNA after digestion with Xba I restriction endonuclease and Southern blotting. Seventy-five percent of PMs had either the 44-kb or the 11.5-kb fragment or both. Segregation of these restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the families of six PM probands demonstrated that each of the two fragments is allelic with the 29-kb fragment present in all EM individuals and suggests that they identify two independent mutated alleles of the P-450db1 gene (designated P450C2D1). The Xba I 44-kb fragment and 11.5-kb fragment were in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by four and five additional restriction endonucleases, respectively, which can be used to identify the same mutant alleles for the P-450db1 gene

  14. Coarticulació i assimilació en fonologia. Dades de moviment lingual sobre els grups consonàntics amb C2=/d/ en català

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Recasens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry technique (EMMA for the investigation of tongue tip and tongue blade activity during the production of Catalan clusters consisting of consonants specified for adjacent places of articulation. C2 of these clusters is /d/ (a dental in Catalan; C1 is either an alveolar (/1/, /n/, /r/, /z/, a post-alveolar (/?/ or an alveopalatal (/?/. Apical and laminal trajectories for these clusters are compared to those for intervocalic /d/ and for intervocalic C 1. Data show the presence of a single dental articulation for /nd/ and /1d/ and of two sequential articulatory places (alveolar for Cl and dental for C2 in the case of the cluster /rd/. The clusters /zd/ and /?d/ are produced with an alveolar place followed by an intermediate place between the dental and the alveolar zone, which indicates progressive co-articulatory effects (or even progressive assimilation from Cl fricative onto C2=/d/. Finally, the production of the sequence /?d/ involves presumably gestural blending resulting into an intermediate location between that for C1 and that for C2. The notion of «articulatory constraint» is discussed in the light of these results.

  15. A study of the ground states of CaC2H+2,CaC2D+2 and CaC2H+4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The geometries, vibrational frequencies and bind energies are reported for the ground states of CaC2H+2, CaC2D+2 and CaC2H+4. CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 equilibrium geometries have C2v symmetry with the metal ion lying in the perpendicular bisector of the C-C bond. The ground state in both CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 molecules ia a 2A1 state and the binding in the ground state is mainly electrostatic. For both CaC2H+2 and CaC2H+4 the ligand is only slightly distorted from its free ligand structure, the C-C distance has hardly increased and there is only a very small bending of the H atom away from the Ca atom. This is consistent with the electrostatic nature of the bonding. Two different approaches-Hartree-Fock(HF) and density functional theory methods(DFT)-are used and basis sets here used is 6-311+G(3df,2p). The DFT results are in good agreement with experiments, namely, DFT methods provide the benefits that some more expensive ab initio methods can do, but at essentially HF cost. So it is important to include electron correlation for accurate results in this study.

  16. The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccari, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at \\url{http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/} and on...

  17. Spitzer v. K2: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Crossfield (Deputy PI), Ian; Akeson, Rachel; Beichman, Charles; Benneke, Bjoern; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Deck, Katherine; Dressing, Courtney; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John; Morales, Farisa; Petigura, Erik; Schlieder, Joshua; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2016-08-01

    We propose to build on our Cycles 11-12 program of Spitzer photometry of planets from the K2 survey by enlarging our sample to interesting exoplanets from the continuing K2 mission. Our team has shown that we can carry out this program end to end, starting with finding interesting candidate stars/planets in the K2 data stream, validating them using both proven Kepler techniques and ground-based observations, selecting and executing the Spitzer observations, and analyzing the Spitzer data in conjunction with the K2 data. To date we have observed or scheduled 38 transits/eclipses of 27 exoplanets. We will observe stars in K2 fields 0 through 15 and foresee executing over 60 AOR's on over 40 exoplanets. In the end, we expect to have a greatly improved characterization of exoplanets and their orbits than would be possible from the K2 data alone. This will be vital for JWST follow-up. In addition to improvements in ephemerides, these Spitzer observations will look for transit timing variations, analyze exoplanet atmospheres, study young exoplanets, and provde early TESS follow-up. This work will add substantially to the extensive exoplanet legacy of the Spitzer mission. This is a Generic Target proposal: The fields to be studied and their visibility windows are known, but until the K2 data is analyzed and the targets vetted, we cannot specify exact AORs.

  18. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer, WISE and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of optical spectroscopic observations of 54 candidate evolved massive stars revealed through the detection of mid-infrared nebulae of various shapes surrounding them with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} and {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer}. These observations, carried out with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in 2010-2015, led to the discovery of about two dozens emission-line stars, of which 15 stars we classify as candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs). Spectroscopic and photometric monitoring revealed significant changes in the spectra and brightness of four newly identified cLBVs, meaning that they are new members of the class of bona fide LBVs. We present an updated list of the Galactic bona fide LBVs. Currently, this list contains eighteen stars, of which more than 70 per cent are associated with circumstellar nebulae. We also discovered a very rare [WN] star - the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 48, and a WN3 star in a close, eccentric binary s...

  19. Spitzer Operations: Scheduling the Out Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William A.; Effertz, Mark J.; Fisher, Mark E.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Mannings, Vincent; McElroy, Douglas B.; Scire, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Spitzer Warm Mission operations have remained robust and exceptionally efficient since the cryogenic mission ended in mid-2009. The distance to the now exceeds 1 AU, making telecommunications increasingly difficult; however, analysis has shown that two-way communication could be maintained through at least 2017 with minimal loss in observing efficiency. The science program continues to emphasize the characterization of exoplanets, time domain studies, and deep surveys, all of which can impose interesting scheduling constraints. Recent changes have significantly improved on-board data compression, which both enables certain high volume observations and reduces Spitzer's demand for competitive Deep Space Network resources.

  20. The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Feng, Y. Katherina; Fortney, Jonathan; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Exoplanet phase curves are sure to be one of the main enduring legacies of Spitzer. They provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that will continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations for years to come. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. Instead, a new potential trend is emerging, one that connects heat redistribution efficiency with planet rotation rate. We will test this hypothesis by performing Spitzer phase curve observations of seven exoplanets with physical properties that span the parameter space. We have identified high-contrast targets with short orbital periods around bright host stars to ensure the observations reveal robust phase curve results. Spitzer is uniquely suited for this program because we can achieve our primary goals using broadband photometry. Part of the phase curve legacy will be to combine our archived Spitzer data with transmission and dayside emission spectra from HST and JWST. Adding energy transport and cloud coverage constraints to the measured dayside abundances and thermal profiles will yield a fundamental understanding of these exoplanets' atmospheres that can be leveraged into new avenues of investigation.

  1. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  2. Microlens Parallax Measurements with a Warm Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Because Spitzer is an Earth-trailing orbit, losing about 0.1 AU/yr, it is excellently located to perform microlens parallax observations toward the Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC) and the Galactic bulge. These yield the so-called ``projected velocity'' of the lens, which can distinguish statistically among different populations. A few such measurements toward the LMC/SMC would reveal the nature of the lenses being detected in this direction (dark halo objects, or ordinary LMC/SMC stars). Cool Spitzer has already made one such measurement of a (rare) bright red-clump source, but warm (presumably less oversubscribed) Spitzer could devote the extra time required to obtain microlens parallaxes for the more common, but fainter, turnoff sources. Warm Spitzer could observe bulge microlenses for 38 days per year, which would permit up to 24 microlens parallaxes per year. This would yield interesting information on the disk mass function, particularly old brown dwarfs, which at present are inaccessible by other techniques...

  3. Spitzer Survey of the Karin Cluster Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, M.; Lisse, C.; Cheng, A.; Osip, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Karin cluster is one of the youngest known families of main-belt asteroids, dating back to a collisional event only 5.8 Myr ago. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope we have sampled the thermal continua of 17 Karin cluster asteroids, down to the smallest members discovered so far, in order to deriv

  4. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg.2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 105 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  5. The Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, David R; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Song, Inseok; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra (SASS), which includes 159 stellar spectra (5 to 32 mic; R~100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, like blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, dominated by Hydrogen lines around A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstell...

  6. Software Architecture of the Spitzer Archive Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J.; Wu, X.; Roby, W.; Hoac, A.; Goldina, T.; Hartley, B.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) provides a set of user tools to support search and retrieval of Spitzer Archive (SA) data via the Internet. This presentation describes the software architecture and design principles that support the Archive Interface subsystem of the SA (Handley 2007). The Archive Interface is an extension of the core components of the Uplink subsystem and provides a set web services to allow open access to the SA data set. Web services technology provides a basis for searching the archive and retrieving data products. The archive interface provides three modes of access: a rich client, a Web browser, and scripts (via Web services). The rich client allows the user to perform complex queries and submit requests for data that are asynchronously down-loaded to the local workstation. Asynchronous down-load is a critical feature given the large volume of a typical data set (on the order of 40~GB). For basic queries and retrieval of data the Web browser interface is provided. For advanced users, scripting languages with web services capabilities (i.e. Perl) can used to query and down-load data from the SA. The archive interface subsystem is the primary means for searching and retrieving data from the SA and is critical to the success of the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  7. Spitzer reveals what's behind Orion's Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; O'Dell, C R; McNabb, Ian A; Colgan, Sean W J; Zhuge, Scott Y; Ferland, Gary J; Hidalgo, Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 11 regions SE of the Bright Bar in the Orion Nebula, along a radial from the exciting star theta1OriC, extending from 2.6 to 12.1'. Our Cycle 5 programme obtained deep spectra with matching IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) aperture grid patterns. Most previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the ISM particularly for elemental abundances. Spitzer observations provide a unique perspective on the Ne and S abundances by virtue of observing the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) in Orion and H II regions in general. The Ne/H abundance ratio is especially well determined, with a value of (1.01+/-0.08)E-4. We obtained corresponding new ground-based spectra at CTIO. These optical data are used to estimate the electron temperature, electron density, optical extinction, and the S+/S++ ratio at each of our Spitzer positions. That permits an adjustment for the total gas-phase S abundan...

  8. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: The life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Antoniou, V; Bernard, J -P; Blum, R D; Boyer, M L; Chan, J; Chen, C -H R; Cohen, M; Dijkstra, C; Engelbracht, C; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gielen, C; Gordon, Karl D; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Hony, S; Hora, J L; Indebetouw, R; Jones, O; Kawamura, A; Lagadec, E; Lawton, B; Leisenring, J M; Madden, S C; Marengo, M; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; McGuire, C; Meixner, M; Mulia, A J; O'Halloran, B; Oliveira, J M; Paladini, R; Paradis, D; Reach, W T; Rubin, D; Sandstrom, K; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Shiao, B; Sloan, G C; Speck, A K; Srinivasan, S; Szczerba, R; Tielens, A G G M; van Aarle, E; Van Dyk, S D; van Loon, J Th; Van Winckel, H; Vijh, Uma P; Volk, K; Whitney, B A; Wilkins, A N; Zijlstra, A A

    2010-01-01

    The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program is a spectroscopic follow-up to the SAGE-LMC photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present an overview of SAGE-Spec and some of its first results. The SAGE-Spec program aims to study the life cycle of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and to provide information essential to the classification of the point sources observed in the earlier SAGE-LMC photometric survey. We acquired 224.6 hours of observations using the InfraRed Spectrograph and the SED mode of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. The SAGE-Spec data, along with archival Spitzer spectroscopy of objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, are reduced and delivered to the community. We discuss the observing strategy, the specific data reduction pipelines applied and the dissemination of data products to the scientific community. Initial science results include the first detection of an extragalactic "21 um" feature towards an evolved star and...

  9. Spitzer View of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, Georgios E

    2007-01-01

    Using a combination of deep MID-IR observations obtained by IRAC, MIPS and IRS on board Spitzer we investigate the MID-IR properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3, establish a better understanding of their nature and attempt a complete characterisation of the population. With deep mid-infrared and optical observations of ~1000 LBGs covered by IRAC/MIPS and from the ground respectively, we extend the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the LBGs to mid-infrared. Spitzer data reveal for the first time that the mid-infrared properties of the population are inhomogeneous ranging from those with marginal IRAC detections to those with bright rest-frame near-infrared colors and those detected at 24mu MIPS band revealing the newly discovered population of the Infrared Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (ILLBGs). To investigate this diversity, we examine the photometric properties of the population and we use stellar population synthesis models to probe the stellar content of these galaxies. We find that a fract...

  10. A systematic search for the spectra with features of crystalline silicates in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Jiaming; Jiang, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline silicates features are mainly reflected in infrared bands. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) collected numerous spectra of various objects and provided a big database to investigate crystalline silicates in a wide range of astronomical environments. We apply the manifold ranking algorithm to perform a systematic search for the spectra with crystalline silicates features in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products available. In total, 868 spectra of 790 sources are found to show the features of crystalline silicate. These objects are cross-matched with the SIMBAD database as well as with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)/DR2. The average spectrum of young stellar objects show a variety of features dominated either by forsterite or enstatite or neither, while the average spectrum of evolved objects consistently present dominant features of forsterite in AGB, OH/IR, post-AGB and planetary nebulae. They are identified optically as early-type stars, evolved stars...

  11. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 33 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  12. Galactic Distribution of Planets Spitzer Microlens Parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Carey, Sean; Yee, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    We will measure the Galactic distribution of planets by obtaining 'microlens parallaxes' of about 700 events, including 18 planetary events, from the comparison of microlens lightcurves observed from Spitzer and Earth, which are separated by 1 AU in projection. As we have demonstrated in two previous programs, the difference in these lightcurves yields both the 'microlens parallax' (ratio of the lens-source relative parallax) to the Einstein radius, and the direction of lens-source relative motion. For planetary events, this measurement directly yields the mass and distance of the planet. For non-planetary events it can be combined with a Galactic model to estimate these quantities with factor 1.4 precision. Hence, the cumulative distributions of planetary events and all events can be compared to determine the relative frequency of planets in the Galactic disk and bulge. The results will be combined with those of current/previous Spitzer campaigns and the current Kepler campaign. This proposal is significantly more sensitive to planets than previous work because it takes advantage of the new KMTNet observing strategy that covers 80 sq.deg at >0.4/hr cadence, 24/7 from 3 southern observatories. This same observing program also provides a unique probe of dark objects. It will yield the first mass-measurement based determination of the isolated-brown-dwarf mass function. Thirteen percent of the observations will specifically target binaries, which will probe systems with dark components (brown dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) that are difficult or impossible to investigate by other methods. The observations and methods from this work are a test bed for WFIRST microlensing.

  13. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  14. Spitzer data at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexov, Anastasia; Good, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) curates and serves science data sets from NASA’s infrared and submillimeter projects and missions, including IRAS, 2MASS, MSX, SWAS, ISO, IRTS and from the Spitzer Space Telescope. All Spitzer data can be accessed from IRSA’s Spitzer mission page at: http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/Missions/spitzer.html Spitzer Legacy Enhanced Products along with ancillary data are delivered in six month intervals starting from Fall 2004, until Fall...

  15. Downsizing a Great Observatory: Reinventing Spitzer in the Warm Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Dodd, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogen mission to the IRAC warm mission during 2009. This transition involved changing several areas of operations in order to cut the mission annual operating costs to 1/3 of the cryogen mission amount. In spite of this substantial cut back, Spitzer continues to have one of the highest science return per dollar ratio of any of NASA's extended missions. This paper will describe the major operational changes mad...

  16. Spitzer Space Telescope observatory planning and scheduling team

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Stephen J.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Levine, Deborah A.; McElroy, Douglas B.; Mittman, David S.; O'Linger, JoAnn C.; Tyler, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Launched as the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) in August, 2003 and renamed in early 2004, the Spitzer space telescope is performing an extended series of science observations at wavelengths ranging from 3 to 180 microns. The California Institute of Technology is the home of the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and operates the science operations system (SOS), which supports science operations of the observatory. A key function supported by the SOS is the long-range planning and short-t...

  17. Discovery of a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Berdnikov, L N; Langer, N; Grebel, E K; Bestenlehner, J M

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \\approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.

  18. Spitzer Observations Confirm and Rescue the Habitable-Zone Super-Earth K2-18b for Future Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Benneke, Björn; Petigura, Erik; Knutson, Heather; Dressing, Courtney; Crossfield, Ian J M; Schlieder, Joshua E; Livingston, John; Beichman, Charles; Christiansen, Jessie; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Howard, Andrew W; Sinukoff, Evan; Ciardi, David R; Akeson, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    The recent detections of two transit events attributed to the super-Earth candidate K2-18b have provided the unprecedented prospect of spectroscopically studying a habitable-zone planet outside the Solar System. Orbiting a nearby M2.5 dwarf and receiving virtually the same stellar insolation as Earth, K2-18b would be a prime candidate for the first detailed atmospheric characterization of a habitable-zone exoplanet using HST and JWST. Here, we report the detection of a third transit of K2-18b near the predicted transit time using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Spitzer detection demonstrates the periodic nature of the two transit events discovered by K2, confirming that K2-18 is indeed orbited by a super-Earth in a 33-day orbit and ruling out the alternative scenario of two similarly-sized, long-period planets transiting only once within the 75-day K2 observation. We also find, however, that the transit event detected by Spitzer occurred 1.85 hours (7-sigma) before the predicted transit time. Our joint analy...

  19. Colors of Ellipticals from GALEX to Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Schombert, J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV, ugri, JHK and 3.6mum. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are *not* composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color-magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyrs stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyrs. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from -0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics dedu...

  20. The Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and MIPS debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. We carried out two separate SED analyses. (1) For all targets, we modeled the IRS and MIPS 70 micron data (where available) assuming that the SEDs were well-described using, zero, one or two temperature black bodies. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. (2) For a subset of 120 targets with 10 and/or 20 micron silicate features, we modeled the data using spherical silicate (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) grains located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or two thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. We present a demographic analysis of the disk properties. For example, we find that the majority of debris disks are better fit using two dust components, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and that the size distribution of dust grains is consistent with a collisional cascade.

  1. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer IRS R ∼ 600 spectra (10 - 38 μm) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude of and including the Arches Cluster. Our positions include the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ''Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud MO.13-0.13, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line of sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O+3 and destroy dust grains, releasing iron into the interstellar medium (ISM); the shock effects are particularly noticeable in the center of the Bubble but the highly ionized gas is present in all positions. The H2 lines are formed both in photodissociation regions in the GC and along the line of sight to the GC

  2. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  3. On the mid-IR variability of candidate eruptive variables (EXors): a comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniucci, S; Causi, G Li; Lorenzetti, D

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at statistically studying the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects (YSOs), we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 um Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 um. From this comparison we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of the star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigate...

  4. The impact of Spitzer infrared data on stellar mass estimates - and a revised galaxy stellar mass function at 0 < z < 5

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, F; Hopp, U

    2007-01-01

    Aims: We estimate stellar masses of galaxies in the high redshift universe with the intention of determining the influence of newly available Spitzer/IRAC infrared data on the analysis. Based on the results we probe the mass assembly history of the universe. Methods: We use the GOODS-MUSIC catalog which provides multiband photometry from the U--filter to the 8 mum Spitzer band for almost 15.000 galaxies with either spectroscopic redshifts (for ~7 % of the sample) or photometric ones and apply a standard model fitting technique to estimate stellar masses. Then we repeat our calculations with fixed photometric redshifts excluding Spitzer photometry and directly compare the outcomes to look for systematic deviations. Finally we use our results to compute stellar mass functions and mass densities up to redshift z = 5. Results: We find that stellar masses tend to be overestimated on average if further constraining Spitzer data are not included into the analysis. Whereas up to intermediate redshifts z < 2.5 this...

  5. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ˜ 800 spectroscopy will produce ˜200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  6. Spitzer Surveys of IR Excesses of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y -H; Bilíkovà, J; Riddle, A; Su, K Y -L

    2010-01-01

    IR excesses of white dwarfs (WDs) can be used to diagnose the presence of low-mass companions, planets, and circumstellar dust. Using different combinations of wavelengths and WD temperatures, circumstellar dust at different radial distances can be surveyed. The Spitzer Space Telescope has been used to search for IR excesses of white dwarfs. Two types of circumstellar dust disks have been found: (1) small disks around cool WDs with Teff 100,000 K. The small dust disks are within the Roche limit, and are commonly accepted to have originated from tidally crushed asteroids. The large dust disks, at tens of AU from the central WDs, have been suggested to be produced by increased collisions among Kuiper Belt-like objects. In this paper, we discuss Spitzer IRAC surveys of small dust disks around cool WDs, a MIPS survey of large dust disks around hot WDs, and an archival Spitzer survey of IR excesses of WDs.

  7. Spitzer Surveys of Infrared Excesses of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y -H; Bilíkovà, J; Riddle, A; Su, K Y -L

    2010-01-01

    IR excesses of white dwarfs (WDs) can be used to diagnose the presence of low-mass companions, planets, and circumstellar dust. Using different combinations of wavelengths and WD temperatures, circumstellar dust at different radial distances can be surveyed. The Spitzer Space Telescope has been used to search for IR excesses of white dwarfs. Two types of circumstellar dust disks have been found: (1) small disks around cool WDs with T_eff 100,000 K. The small dust disks are within the Roche limit, and are commonly accepted to have originated from tidally crushed asteroids. The large dust disks, at tens of AU from the central WDs, have been suggested to be produced by increased collisions among Kuiper Belt-like objects. In this paper, we discuss Spitzer IRAC surveys of small dust disks around cool WDs, a MIPS survey of large dust disks around hot WDs, and an archival Spitzer survey of IR excesses of WDs.

  8. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  9. THE SPITZER ARCHIVAL FAR-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanish, D. J.; Capak, P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Edwards, L. [Astronomy Department, 260 Whitney Avenue, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Huynh, M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Murphy, E. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, CA 91101 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Shenoy, S., E-mail: danish@alumni.caltech.edu [Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared (FIR) extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of FIR data in two wavelength bands (70 and 160 μm) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  10. The Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hanish, D; Teplitz, H; Desai, V; Armus, L; Brinkworth, C; Brooke, T; Colbert, J; Edwards, L; Fadda, D; Frayer, D; Huynh, M; Lacy, M; Murphy, E; Noriega-Crespo, A; Paladini, R; Scarlata, C; Shenoy, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of far-infrared data in two wavelength bands (70 um and 160 um) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  11. Spitzer Observations of a 24 μm Shadow: Bok Globule CB 190

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bieging, John H.; Rieke, George H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Balog, Zoltan; Gordon, Karl D.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Keene, Jocelyn; Kelly, Brandon C.; Rubin, Mark; Werner, Michael W.

    2007-08-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dark globule CB 190 (LDN 771). We observe a roughly circular 24 μm shadow with a 70" radius. The extinction profile of this shadow matches the profile derived from 2MASS photometry at the outer edges of the globule and reaches a maximum of ~32 visual magnitudes at the center. The corresponding mass of CB 190 is ~10 Msolar. Our 12CO and 13CO J=2-1 data over a 10'×10' region centered on the shadow show a temperature ~10 K. The thermal continuum indicates a similar temperature for the dust. The molecular data also show evidence of freezeout onto dust grains. We estimate a distance to CB 190 of 400 pc using the spectroscopic parallax of a star associated with the globule. Bonnor-Ebert fits to the density profile, in conjunction with this distance, yield ξmax=7.2, indicating that CB 190 may be unstable. The high temperature (56 K) of the best-fit Bonnor-Ebert model is in contradiction with the CO and thermal continuum data, leading to the conclusion that the thermal pressure is not enough to prevent free-fall collapse. We also find that the turbulence in the cloud is inadequate to support it. However, the cloud may be supported by the magnetic field, if this field is at the average level for dark globules. Since the magnetic field will eventually leak out through ambipolar diffusion, it is likely that CB 190 is collapsing or in a late precollapse stage. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under NASA contract 1407.

  12. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  13. Spitzer and DIRBE Studies of the Infrared Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Hauser, Michael; Wright, Edward; Arendt, Rick; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Levenson, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL), defined as the sky surface brightness of all radiation arising from outside the Milky Way, carries in the 1-5um region the imprint of the nearby Universe, of red-shifted light from the first galaxies, and of any possible pre-galactic contributions. The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite has measured the total sky brightness, the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIRB), over the entire sky at 3.6um. The CIRB is the sum of the zodiacal light, galactic starlight, radiation from the ISM, and the EBL. Although the determinations of the EBL are presently limited by uncertainties in the zodiacal light model, experiments now under way can reduce those uncertainties. This Spitzer proposal prepares for that reduction by eliminating other uncertainties. We will use Spitzer to determine the point source components of CIRB at 3.6um, the wavelength of the minimum in the bright foreground from interplanetary dust. We will measure essentially all of the stellar contribution, and more than 80% of the integrated light from resolved galaxies; this can be extrapolated using other Spitzer data to determine IGL. The ultimate objective of this type of study is to search for a currently unknown diffuse component of EBL, DEBL. Symbolically, DEBL = EBL-IGL. In this program, we will execute the following steps aimed at reducing the uncertainties in DEBL once the zodiacal uncertainty in CIRB is minimized and a correction for ISM emission is applied: 1. Cross calibrating DIRBE and Spitzer so that EBL and IGL are on the same flux scale; 2. Reducing the uncertainties in EBL by measuring stars as faint as 19th mag at 3.6um. 3. Determining EBL and IGL at six widely separated positions so that the isotropy - and hence the cosmological significance - of any detection of DEBL can be assessed. We emphasize that this important investigation can be carried out only with Spitzer, and this scientific opportunity is perishable due to Spitzer's finite lifetime.

  14. A Combined Spitzer and Herschel Infrared Study of Gas and Dust in the Circumbinary Disk Orbiting V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Sacco, G Germano; Kastner, Joel H; Wilner, David; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Andrews, Sean; Herczeg, Gregory; van der Marel, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic Spitzer and Herschel mid-to-far-infrared study of the circumbinary disk orbiting the evolved (age ~12-23 Myr) close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr. Spitzer IRS spectra show emission lines of [Ne II], H_2 S(1), CO_2 and HCN, while Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectra reveal emission from [O I], OH, and tentative detections of H_2O and high-J transitions of CO. We measure [Ne III]/[Ne II] < 0.13, which is comparable to other X-ray/EUV luminous T Tauri stars that lack jets. We use the H_2 S(1) line luminosity to estimate the gas mass in the relatively warm surface layers of the inner disk. The presence of [O I] emission suggests that CO, H_2O, and/or OH is being photodissociated, and the lack of [C I] emission suggests any excess C may be locked up in HCN, CN and other organic molecules. Modeling of silicate dust grain emission features in the mid-infrared indicates that the inner disk is composed mainly of large (r~5 um) amorphous pyroxene and olivine grains (~86% by mass)...

  15. Cosmic Infrared Background: Resolved, Unresolved and Spitzer Contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dole, H; Puget, J L; Dole, Herve; Lagache, Guilaine; Puget, Jean-Loup

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) peaks in the Far-Infrared (FIR), and its Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is now well constrained. Thanks to recent facilities and Spitzer, the populations contributing to the CIB are being characterized: the dominant galaxy contributions to the FIR CIB are Luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) at 0.52. These populations of galaxies experience very high rates of evolution with redshift. Because of confusion, the CIB is (and will remain in some domains) partially resolved and its contributing galaxies SEDs are not well constrained. We discuss all these aspects and show how confusion limits Spitzer observations, and how to overcome it in order to study the unresolved part of the CIB.

  16. TRACSSS-2: Tracing More Cold Stellar Streams with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillmair, Carl; Kupper, Andreas; Sesar, Branimir; Pearson, Sarah; Rich, Jeffrey; Scowcroft, Vicky; Price-Whelan, Adrian; Johnston, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Stellar debris streams may be the most sensitive probes we have of the size and shape of the Milky Way's dark matter distribution. Using the remarkably precise infrared period-luminosity relation for RR Lyrae, Spitzer has already demonstrated the ability to measure distances to better than 2% over nearly the entire volume of the Galaxy. By measuring very accurate mean magnitudes for RR Lyrae in the Anticenter and Styx streams, we will immediately be able to put tighter constrains on the mass and shape of the Galactic halo. These measurements will become still more important in coming years, when they can be used to turn Gaia proper motion measurements into accurate transverse space velocities. These measurements are unlikely to be improved upon in the foreseeable future and may ultimately rank among Spitzer's most enduring legacies.

  17. A Spitzer/IRS spectral study of a sample of galactic carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Hrivnak, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopic observations have shown that proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) are sites of active synthesis of organic compounds in the late stages of stellar evolution. This paper presents a study of Spitzer/IRS spectra for a sample of carbon-rich PPNs, all except one of which show the unidentified 21 micron emission feature. The strengths of the aromatic infrared band (AIB), 21 micron, and 30 micron features are obtained by decomposition of the spectra. The observed variations in the strengths and peak wavelengths of the features support the model that the newly synthesized organic compounds gradually change from aliphatic to aromatic characteristics as stars evolve from PPNs to planetary nebulae.

  18. Mid-to-Far Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Galaxies in the Spitzer First Look Survey Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Wen; Hong Wu; Chen Cao; Xiao-Yang Xia

    2007-01-01

    We made model fitting to the mid-to-far infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for different categories of galaxies in the main extragalactic field of the Spitzer First Look Survey with the aid of spectroscopic information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.We find that the mid-to-far infrared SEDs of HII galaxies, mixture type galaxies and LINERs can be well fitted by the one-parameter (α) dust model of Dale et al. plus the 13 Gyr dust-free elliptical galaxy model. The statistics of α values indicates that all these galaxies tend to be quiescent, although the HII galaxies are relatively more active than the LINERs. The midinfrared SEDs of absorption galaxies are well fitted simply by the 13 Gyr dust-free elliptical galaxy template, and the near-to-mid infrared SEDs of QSOs can be represented by AGN NGC 5506.

  19. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J; Showman, Adam P; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y Katherina

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally-locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The first 3.6 micron visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within...

  20. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Mudumba, Parthasarathy; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 147 explosive transients and 1948 eruptive variables. Of these 147 infrared transients, 35 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black-hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of only those 104 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEa. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 22 new SPRITEs and 6 new supernovae over the next two years. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  1. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie;

    2010-01-01

    Aims: We employ archival Spitzer slit-scan observations of the HH211 outflow in order to investigate its warm gas content, assess the jet mass flux in the form of H2 and probe for the existence of an embedded atomic jet. Methods: Detected molecular and atomic lines are interpreted by means of emi...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  2. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Mehrtens, N; Lanham, C; Lacy, M; Ciardullo, R; Finkelstein, S L; Bassett, R; Behroozi, P; Blanc, G A; de Jong, R S; DePoy, D L; Drory, N; Gawiser, E; Gebhardt, K; Gronwall, C; Hill, G J; Hopp, U; Jogee, S; Kawinwanichakij, L; Marshall, J L; McLinden, E; Cooper, E Mentuch; Somerville, R S; Steinmetz, M; Tran, K -V; Tuttle, S; Viero, M; Wechsler, R; Zeimann, G

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers $\\sim$deg$^2$ of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey "Stripe 82" region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R $\\sim$ 800 spectroscopy will produce $\\sim$ 200,000 redshifts from the Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional $\\sim$200,000 redshifts from the [OII] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, AGN, and environment over a co-moving volume of $\\sim$0.5 Gpc$^3$ at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties o...

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Gizis, J E; Rebull, L M; Carey, S J; Krick, J; Ingalls, J G; Lowrance, P; Glaccum, W; Kirkpatrick, J D; Simon, A A; Wong, M H

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in February 2016 to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17-hour duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 $\\mu$m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18-hour light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) and W2 (4.6 $\\mu$m) from the WISE/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude $\\sim$0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude $\\sim$ 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in N...

  4. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy: Survey Description and Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Johnson, L C; Schuster, M D; Calzetti, D; Engelbracht, C W; de Paz, A Gil; Kennicutt, R C; Lee, J C; Begum, A; Block, M; Dalcanton, J J; Funes, J G; Gordon, K D; Johnson, B D; Marble, A R; Sakai, S; Skillman, E D; Van Zee, L; Walter, F; Weisz, D R; Williams, B; Wu, S -Y; Wu, Y

    2009-01-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, H-alpha, and HST imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8um PAH emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks th...

  5. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011--2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009--2011 this star has brightened by approx 0.9 and 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, respectively, then faded by approx 1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and sugge...

  6. The Incidence of Active Galactic Nuclei in Pure Disk Galaxies: The Spitzer View

    CERN Document Server

    Satyapal, S; Mcalpine, W; Gliozzi, M; Abel, N P; Heckman, T

    2009-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study using Spitzer of 18 bulgeless (Sd/Sdm) galaxies that show no definitive signatures of nuclear activity in their optical spectra. This is the first systematic mid-IR search for weak or hidden AGNs in a statistically significant sample of bulgeless disk galaxies. Based on the detection of the high-ionization [NeV] line, we report the discovery of an AGN in one out of the 18 galaxies in the sample. This galaxy, NGC 4178, is a nearby edge-on Sd galaxy, which likely hosts a prominent nuclear star cluster (NSC). The bolometric luminosity of the AGN inferred from the [NeV] luminosity is ~ 8e41 ergs/s. This is almost two orders of magnitude greater than the luminosity of the AGN in NGC 4395, the best studied AGN in a bulgeless disk galaxy. Assuming that the AGN in NGC 4178 is radiating below the Eddington limit, the lower mass limit for the black hole is ~ 6e3M_sun. The fact that none of the other galaxies in the sample shows any evidence for an AGN demonstrates...

  7. Mid-Infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L N; Assef, Roberto J; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A; Croft, S; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P R; Gonzalez, A; Gorjian, V; Griffith, R; Grogin, N; Ivison, R; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L; Rottgering, H; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I S; van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2010-01-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of 474,179 objects in 8.1 deg^2 of the NDWFS Bootes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. We find that 1.1% of the studied sample meet our standard selection criteria for being classed as a variable source. We require that the 3.6 and 4.5 micron light-curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2 sigma. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBootes survey, radio catalogs, 24 micron-selected AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects. Most of the s...

  8. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: ianws@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  9. Spitzer observations of a 24 micron shadow: Bok Globule CB190

    CERN Document Server

    Stutz, Amelia M; Rieke, George H; Shirley, Yancy L; Balog, Zoltan; Gordon, Karl D; Green, Elizabeth M; Keene, Jocelyn; Kelly, Brandon C; Rubin, Mark; Werner, Michael W

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dark globule CB190 (L771). We observe a roughly circular 24 micron shadow with a 70 arcsec radius. The extinction profile of this shadow matches the profile derived from 2MASS photometry at the outer edges of the globule and reaches a maximum of ~32 visual magnitudes at the center. The corresponding mass of CB190 is ~10 Msun. Our 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 data over a 10 arcmin X 10 arcmin region centered on the shadow show a temperature ~10 K. The thermal continuum indicates a similar temperature for the dust. The molecular data also show evidence of freezeout onto dust grains. We estimate a distance to CB190 of 400 pc using the spectroscopic parallax of a star associated with the globule. Bonnor-Ebert fits to the density profile, in conjunction with this distance, yield xi_max = 7.2, indicating that CB190 may be unstable. The high temperature (56 K) of the best fit Bonnor-Ebert model is in contradiction with the CO and thermal continuum data, leading to the conclusion that ...

  10. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Cristina A; Trilling, David E; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L; Mueller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al. 2010). Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (~0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectru...

  11. Observations of Extrasolar Planets During the non-Cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas; Knutson, Heather; Marengo, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Precision infrared photometry from Spitzer has enabled the first direct studies of light from extrasolar planets, via observations at secondary eclipse in transiting systems. Current Spitzer results include the first longitudinal temperature map of an extrasolar planet, and the first spectra of their atmospheres. Spitzer has also measured a temperature and precise radius for the first transiting Neptune-sized exoplanet, and is beginning to make precise transit timing measurements to infer the...

  12. Mean Halpha+[NII]+[SII] EW Inferred for Star-Forming Galaxies at z=5.1-5.4 Using High-Quality Spitzer/IRAC Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rasappu, N; Labbe, I; Bouwens, R; Stark, D; Ellis, R; Oesch, P

    2015-01-01

    Recent Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations have revealed that rest-frame optical emission lines contribute signficantly to the broadband fluxes of high-redshift galaxies. Specifically, in the narrow redshift range z~5.1-5.4 the [3.6]-[4.5] color is expected to be very red, due to contamination of the 4.5-micron band by the dominant Halpha line, while the 3.6-micron filter is free of nebular emission lines. We take advantage of new reductions of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging over the GOODS-North+South fields (Labbe+2015) to obtain a clean measurement of the mean Halpha equivalent width from the [3.6]-[4.5] color in the redshift range z=5.1-5.4. The selected sources either have measured spectroscopic redshifts (13 sources) or lie very confidently in the redshift range z=5.1-5.4 based on the photometric redshift likelihood intervals (11 sources). Our z_{phot}=5.1-5.4 sample and z_{spec}=5.10-5.40 spectroscopic sample have a mean [3.6]-[4.5] color of 0.31+/-0.05 mag and 0.35+/-0.07 mag, impl...

  13. NEOLegacy: The ultimate Spitzer survey of Near Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs are valuable tracers of the evolution of our Solar System, and are also key components of current and future space exploration. Finally, the study of NEOs is relevant for civil defense through understanding the impact threat. We propose here an efficient and comprehensive survey to measure the diameters, albedos, and lightcurves of 1154 NEOs. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 3000 NEOs -- more than 20% of all known objects. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 13, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will calculate an independent estimate of the NEO size distribution, addressing a current controversy, and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We will increase by up to a factor of five the number of NEO lightcurves with relatively well known periods and amplitudes. The legacy value of this project is most evident in the fact that there will not ever in the foreseeable future be another opportunity to measure thousands of NEO diameters and carry out the type of science described above. Our online database will be the single most valuable resource of NEO diameters and albedos for years to come. Only Spitzer is sensitive and efficient enough to create such an important catalog of this scale. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  14. Spitzer ultra faint survey program (surfs up). I. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Cain, Benjamin; Hall, Nicholas; Lubin, Lori [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ryan, Russell; Casertano, Stefano [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schrabback, Tim; Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Allen, Steve; Von der Linden, Anja [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gladders, Mike [The University of Chicago, The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 933 East 56th Street, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Treu, Tommaso, E-mail: marusa@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program is a joint Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Exploration Science program using 10 galaxy clusters as cosmic telescopes to study z ≳ 7 galaxies at intrinsically lower luminosities, enabled by gravitational lensing, than blank field surveys of the same exposure time. Our main goal is to measure stellar masses and ages of these galaxies, which are the most likely sources of the ionizing photons that drive reionization. Accurate knowledge of the star formation density and star formation history at this epoch is necessary to determine whether these galaxies indeed reionized the universe. Determination of the stellar masses and ages requires measuring rest-frame optical light, which only Spitzer can probe for sources at z ≳ 7, for a large enough sample of typical galaxies. Our program consists of 550 hr of Spitzer/IRAC imaging covering 10 galaxy clusters with very well-known mass distributions, making them extremely precise cosmic telescopes. We combine our data with archival observations to obtain mosaics with ∼30 hr exposure time in both 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm in the central 4' × 4' field and ∼15 hr in the flanking fields. This results in 3σ sensitivity limits of ∼26.6 and ∼26.2 AB magnitudes for the central field in the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands, respectively. To illustrate the survey strategy and characteristics we introduce the sample, present the details of the data reduction and demonstrate that these data are sufficient for in-depth studies of z ≳ 7 sources (using a z = 9.5 galaxy behind MACS J1149.5+2223 as an example). For the first cluster of the survey (the Bullet Cluster) we have released all high-level data mosaics and IRAC empirical point-spread function models. In the future we plan to release these data products for the entire survey.

  15. Spitzer Science operations: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A.

    2008-07-01

    We review the Spitzer Space Telescope Science Center operations teams and processes and their interfaces with other Project elements -- what we planned early in the development of the science center, what we had at a launch and what we have now and why. We also explore the checks and balances behind building an organizational structure that supports constructive airing of conflicts and a timely resolution that balances the inputs and provides for very efficient on-orbit operations. For example, what organizational roles are involved in reviewing observing schedules, what constituency do they represent and who has authority to approve or disapprove the schedule.

  16. Advanced optimal extraction for the Spitzer/IRS

    OpenAIRE

    Lebouteiller, V; Bernard-Salas, J.; Sloan, G. C.; Barry, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new advances in the spectral extraction of point-like sources adapted to the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. For the first time, we created a super-sampled point spread function of the low-resolution modules. We describe how to use the point spread function to perform optimal extraction of a single source and of multiple sources within the slit. We also examine the case of the optimal extraction of one or several sources with a complex background. The new...

  17. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  18. SPITZER, GAIA, AND THE POTENTIAL OF THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V., E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ∼10 kpc. This ''horizon'' for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of 10 in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail—a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy.

  19. Galactic Cepheids with Spitzer: I. Leavitt Law and Colors

    CERN Document Server

    Marengo, M; Barmby, P; Bono, G; Welch, D L; Romaniello, M

    2009-01-01

    Classical Cepheid variable stars have been important indicators of extragalactic distance and Galactic evolution for over a century. The Spitzer Space Telescope has opened the possibility of extending the study of Cepheids into the mid- and far-infrared, where interstellar extinction is reduced. We have obtained photometry from images of a sample of Galactic Cepheids with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on Spitzer. Here we present the first mid-infrared period-luminosity relations for Classical Cepheids in the Galaxy, and the first ever Cepheid period-luminosity relations at 24 and 70 um. We compare these relations with theoretical predictions, and with period-luminosity relations obtained in recent studies of the Large Magellanic Cloud. We find a significant period-color relation for the [3.6]-[8.0] IRAC color. Other mid-infrared colors for both Cepheids and non-variable supergiants are strongly affected by variable molecular spectral features, in particular deep CO absorption bands. We do not find strong evid...

  20. Structure of the Zodiacal Emission by Spitzer Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebélyi, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Dust in the Interplanetary Dust Cloud not just reflects the sunlight (known as zodiacal light) but also has its own thermal emission. At the heliocentric distance of Earth the peak of this emission (with particle size 100 μm) is close to 20 μm. In this study we used the data of four programs completed with the MIPS camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 μm to probe the large scale brightness distribution as well as the small-scale (subarcmin) structure of the Zodiacal Could. The four programs were:1. The Production of Zodiacal Dust by Asteroids and Comets (ID: 2317)2. High Latitude Dust Bands in the Main Asteroid Belt: Fingerprints of Recent Breakup Events (ID: 20539)3. A New Source of Interplanetary Dust: Type II Dust Trails (ID: 30545)4. First Look Survey - Ecliptic Plane Component (ID: 98)We take into account that while the Spitzer Space Telescope carried out the measurements it was orbiting the Sun at an Earth-trailing orbit and looked at different parts of the Zodiacal Cloud, in many cases looking through the same parts of the cloud from different locations. This gives us the chance to investigate the 3D distribution of zodiacal dust in addition to its large and small scale structure.

  1. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Hardy, Ryan A; Cubillos, Patricio E; Hardin, Matthew; Nymeyer, Sarah; Anderson, David R; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M S; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2013-01-01

    WASP-43b (Hellier et al.; Gillon et al.) is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis a = 0.01526 +/- 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (K7V, Tstar = 4520 +/- 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1440 +/- 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. This has resulted in strong signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) observations and deep eclipses in both Warm Spitzer channels (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.346 +/- 0.013% and 1684 +/- 24 K at 3.6 microns and 0.382 +/- 0.015% and 1485 +/- 24 K at 4.5 microns. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347459 +/- 2.1x10-7 days) compared to Gillon et al. and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e = 0.007+0.013-0.004). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths with two previously reported ground-based ...

  2. Multiple asteroid systems : Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the obse

  3. Models for Temperature and Composition in Uranus from Spitzer, Herschel and Ground-Based Infrared through Millimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moreno, Raphel; Encrenaz, Therese; Hartogh, Paul; Jarchow, Christopher; Swinyard, Bruce; Cavalie, Thibault; Moses, Julianne; Burgdorf, Martin; Hammel, Heidi; Line, Michael; Mainzer, Amy K.; Hofstadter, Mark; Sandell, Goran H.; Dowell, C. Darren; Pantin, Eric; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2014-11-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of Uranus in the thermal infrared were combined to create self-consistent models of its global-mean temperature profile and vertical distribution of gases. These were derived from a suite of observations from Spitzer and Herschel, together with ground-based observations from UKIRT, CSO, Gemini, VLT and Subaru. Observations of the collision-induced absorption and quadrupoles of H2 have constrained the temperature structure for pressures of nearly 2 bars down to 0.1 millibars. We coupled the vertical distribution of CH4 in the stratosphere of Uranus with models for the vertical mixing in such a way to be consistent with the mixing ratios of hydrocarbons. Spitzer and Herschel data constrain the abundances of CH3, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H4, C4H2, H2O and CO2. The Spitzer IRS data, in concert with photochemical models, show that the homopause is at much higher atmospheric pressures than for the other outer planets, with the predominant trace constituents for pressures lower than 30 µbar being H2O and CO2. The ratio of the oxygen-bearing molecules is consistent with exogenic origins in KBOs or comets. At millimeter wavelengths, there is evidence that an additional opacity source is required besides the H2 collision-induced absorption and the NH3 absorption needed to match the microwave spectrum; this can reasonably (but not uniquely) be attributed to H2S. This model is of ‘programmatic’ interest because it serves as a standard calibration source; the cross-comparison of its spectrum with model spectra for Mars and Neptune shows consistency to within 3%. Near equinox, the IRS spectra at different longitudes showed rotationally variable stratospheric emission that is consistent with a temperature anomaly ≤10 K near ~0.1-0.2 mbar. Spatial variability of tropospheric temperatures observed in ground-based observations from 2006 to 2011 is generally consistent with Voyager infrared (IRIS) results.

  4. Spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping as a probe of grain growth in IRDCs

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim & Tan (2014) developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using ${\\it Spitzer}$-MIPS ${\\rm 24\\mu m}$ and ${\\it Herschel}$-PACS ${\\rm 70\\mu m}$ images, and by comparing to MIR ${\\it Spitzer}$-IRAC $3$--${\\rm 8\\mu m}$ extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction (SIREX) mapping using ${\\it Spitzer}$-IRS (14 to ${\\rm 38\\mu m}$) data of the same IRDC. These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic ISM that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR-FIR opacity laws that lack the $\\sim{\\rm 12\\mu m}$ an...

  5. On-Orbit Performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas; Werner, Michael; Gallagher, David; Irace, William; Fazio, Giovanni; Houck, James; Rieke, George; Wilson, Robert; Soifer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope (formally known as SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003, and has completed its initial in-orbit checkout and science validation and calibration period. The measured performance of the observatory has met or exceeded all of its high-level requirements, it has entered normal operations, and is beginning to return high-quality science data. A superfluid-helium cooled 85 cm diameter telescope provides extremely low infrared backgrounds and feeds three science instruments covering wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 180 microns. The telescope optical quality is excellent, providing diffraction-limited performance down to wavelengths below 6.5 microns. Based on the first helium mass and boil-off rate measurements, a cryogenic lifetime in excess of 5 years is expected. This presentation will provide a summary of the overall performance of the observatory, with an emphasis on those performance parameters that have the greatest impact on its ultimate science return.

  6. Spitzer Observations of Exoplanets Discovered with The Kepler K2 Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Beichman, Charles; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Krick, Jessica; Deck, Katherine; Knutson, Heather; Wong, Ian; Petigura, Erik A; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Greene, Thomas P; Schlieder, Joshua E; Line, Mike; Crossfield, Ian; Howard, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-01-01

    We have used the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} to observe two transiting planetary systems orbiting low mass stars discovered in the \\Kepler \\Ktwo mission. The system K2-3 (EPIC 201367065) hosts three planets while EPIC 202083828 (K2-26) hosts a single planet. Observations of all four objects in these two systems confirm and refine the orbital and physical parameters of the planets. The refined orbital information and more precise planet radii possible with \\Spitzer will be critical for future observations of these and other \\Ktwo targets. For K2-3b we find marginally significant evidence for a Transit Timing Variation between the \\Ktwo and \\Spitzer\\ epochs.

  7. The Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S3MC): Insights into the Life-Cycle of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, Karin M; Draine, Bruce; Bot, Caroline; Stanimirovic, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of modeling dust SEDs across the SMC with the aim of mapping the distribution of PAHs in a low-metallicity environment. Using Spitzer Survey of the SMC (S3MC) photometry from 3.6-160 um over the main star-forming regions of the Wing and Bar along with spectral mapping from 5-38 um from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S4MC) in selected regions, we model the dust SED and emission spectrum to determine the fraction of dust in PAHs across the SMC. We use the regions of overlapping photometry and spectroscopy to test the reliability of the PAH fraction as determined from SED fits alone. The PAH fraction in the SMC is low compared to the Milky Way and variable--with relatively high fractions (q_PAH~1-2%) in molecular clouds and low fractions in the diffuse ISM (=0.6%). We use the map of PAH fraction across the SMC to test a number of ideas regarding the production, destruction and processing of PAHs in the ISM. We find weak or no correlation between the PAH fraction and the distr...

  8. Observation of the full 12-hour-long transit of the exoplanet HD80606b. Warm-Spitzer photometry and SOPHIE spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hebrard, G; Diaz, R F; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Moutou, C; Ehrenreich, D; Arnold, L; Bonfils, X; Delfosse, X; Desort, M; Eggenberger, A; Forveille, T; Gregorio, J; Lagrange, A -M; Lovis, C; Pepe, F; Perrier, C; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Santos, N C; Segransan, D; Sing, D K; Udry, S; Vidal-Madjar, A

    2010-01-01

    We present new observations of a transit of the 111-day-period exoplanet HD80606b. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope and its IRAC camera on the post-cryogenic mission, we performed a 19-hour-long photometric observation of HD80606 that covers the full transit of 13-14 January 2010. We complement this photometric data by new spectroscopic observations that we simultaneously performed with SOPHIE at Haute-Provence Observatory. This provides radial velocity measurements of the first half of the transit that was previously uncovered with spectroscopy. This new data set allows the parameters of this singular planetary system to be significantly refined. We obtained a planet-to-star radius ratio R_p/R_* = 0.1001 +/- 0.0006 that is slightly lower than the one measured from previous ground observations. We detected a feature in the Spitzer light curve that could be due to a stellar spot. We also found a transit timing about 20 minutes earlier than the ephemeris prediction; this could be caused by actual TTVs due to a...

  9. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: The life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Point source classification I

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Paul M; Kemper, F; van Loon, J Th; Sargent, B A; Matsuura, M; Szczerba, R; Volk, K; Zijlstra, A A; Sloan, G C; Lagadec, E; McDonald, I; Jones, O; Gorjian, V; Kraemer, K E; Gielen, C; Meixner, M; Blum, R D; Sewi\\lo, M; Riebel, D; Shiao, B; Chen, C -H R; Boyer, M L; Indebetouw, R; Antoniou, V; Bernard, J -P; Cohen, M; Dijkstra, C; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gordon, Karl D; Harris, J; Hony, S; Hora, J L; Kawamura, A; Lawton, B; Leisenring, J M; Madden, S; Marengo, M; McGuire, C; Mulia, A J; O'Halloran, B; Olsen, K; Paladini, R; Paradis, D; Reach, W T; Rubin, D; Sandstrom, K; Soszyński, I; Speck, A K; Srinivasan, S; Tielens, A G G M; van Aarle, E; Van Dyk, S D; Van Winckel, H; Vijh, Uma P; Whitney, B; Wilkins, A N

    2010-01-01

    We present the classification of 197 point sources observed with the Infrared Spectrograph in the SAGE-Spec Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We introduce a decision-tree method of object classification based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership, and variability information, which is used to classify the SAGE-Spec sample of point sources. The decision tree has a broad application to mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys, where supporting photometry and variability information are available. We use these classifications to make deductions about the stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the success of photometric classification methods. We find 90 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 29 young stellar objects, 23 post-AGB objects, 19 red supergiants, eight stellar photospheres, seven background galaxies, seven planetary nebulae, two HII regions and 12 other objects, seven of which remain unclassified.

  10. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy programme: the life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud - Point source classification I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Kemper, F.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sargent, B. A.; Matsuura, M.; Szczerba, R.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O.; Gorjian, V.; Kraemer, K. E.; Gielen, C.; Meixner, M.; Blum, R. D.; Sewiło, M.; Riebel, D.; Shiao, B.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Boyer, M. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Antoniou, V.; Bernard, J.-P.; Cohen, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Harris, J.; Hony, S.; Hora, J. L.; Kawamura, A.; Lawton, B.; Leisenring, J. M.; Madden, S.; Marengo, M.; McGuire, C.; Mulia, A. J.; O'Halloran, B.; Olsen, K.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Reach, W. T.; Rubin, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Soszyński, I.; Speck, A. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Aarle, E.; van Dyk, S. D.; van Winckel, H.; Vijh, Uma P.; Whitney, B.; Wilkins, A. N.

    2011-03-01

    We present the classification of 197 point sources observed with the Infrared Spectrograph in the SAGE-Spec Legacy programme on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We introduce a decision-tree method of object classification based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, which is used to classify the SAGE-Spec sample of point sources. The decision tree has a broad application to mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys, where supporting photometry and variability information are available. We use these classifications to make deductions about the stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the success of photometric classification methods. We find 90 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 29 young stellar objects, 23 post-AGB objects, 19 red supergiants, eight stellar photospheres, seven background galaxies, seven planetary nebulae, two H II regions and 12 other objects, seven of which remain unclassified.

  11. The Brightest Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn: Securing the Largest Samples of z=9-11 galaxies for JWST by leveraging the HST archive with Spitzer/IRAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Trenti, Michele; Calvi, Valentina; Bernard, Stephanie; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Coe, Dan; Holwerda, Benne; Bradley, Larry; Mason, Charlotte; Schmidt, Kasper; Illingworth, Garth

    2015-10-01

    Hubble's WFC3 has been a game changer for studying early galaxy formation in the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. Reliable samples of sources up to z~10, which can be discovered only from space, are now constraining the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function into the epoch of reionization. Despite these efforts, the size of the highest redshift galaxy samples (z >9 and especially z > 10) is still very small, particularly at high luminosities (L > L*). To deliver transformational results, much larger numbers of bright z > 9 galaxies are needed both to map out the bright end of the luminosity/mass function and for spectroscopic follow-up (with JWST and otherwise). One especially efficient way of expanding current samples is (1) to leverage the huge amounts of pure-parallel data available with HST to identify large numbers of candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies and (2) to follow up each candidate with shallow Spitzer/IRAC observations to distinguish the bona- fide z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies from z ~ 2 old, dusty galaxies. For this program we are requesting shallow Spitzer/IRAC follow-up of 20 candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies we have identified from 130 WFC3/IR pointings obtained from more than 4 separate HST programs with no existing IRAC coverage. Based on our previous CANDELS/GOODS searches, we expect to confirm 5 to 10 sources as L > L* galaxies at z >= 9. Our results will be used to constrain the bright end of the LF at z >= 9, to provide targets for Keck spectroscopy to constrain the ionization state of the z > 8 universe, and to furnish JWST with bright targets for spectroscopic follow-up studies.

  12. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  13. SPITZER, VERY LARGE TELESCOPE, AND VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mid-IR and radio observations of the Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) candidate HD 168625 and its associated nebula. We obtained mid-IR spectroscopic observations using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, and performed mid-IR and radio imaging observations using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope and the Very Large Array with comparable angular resolution. Our spectroscopic observations detected spectral features attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and therefore indicate the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) around the ionized nebula. This result increases the number of LBVs and LBV candidates where a PDR has been found, confirming the importance of such a component in the total mass-loss budget of the central object during this elusive phase of massive star evolution. We have analyzed and compared the mid-IR and radio maps, and derive several results concerning the associated nebula. There is evidence for grain distribution variations across the nebula, with a predominant contribution from bigger grains in the northern part of the nebula while PAH and smaller grains are more concentrated in the southern part. A compact radio component located where there is a lack of thermal dust grains corroborates the presence of a shock in the southern nebula, which could arise as a consequence of the interaction of a fast outflow with the slower, expanding dusty nebula. Such a shock would be a viable means for PAH production as well as for changes in the grain size distribution. Finally, from the detection of a central radio component probably associated with the wind from the central massive supergiant, we derive a current mass-loss rate of M-dot =(1.46±0.15)x10-6 Msun yr-1.

  14. Spitzer Spectroscopy of the Transition Object TW Hya

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Strom, Stephen E; Watson, Dan M; Pascucci, Ilaria; Hollenbach, David; Gorti, Uma; Keller, Luke

    2010-01-01

    We report sensitive Spitzer IRS spectroscopy in the 10-20 micron region of TW Hya, a nearby T Tauri star. The unusual spectral energy distribution of the source, that of a transition object, indicates that the circumstellar disk in the system has experienced significant evolution, possibly as a result of planet formation. The spectrum we measure is strikingly different from that of other classical T Tauri stars reported in the literature, displaying no strong emission features of water, acetylene, or HCN. The difference indicates that the inner planet formation region (within 5 AU) of the gaseous disk has evolved physically and/or chemically away from the classical T Tauri norm. Nevertheless, TW Hya does show a rich spectrum of emission features of atoms (HI, [NeII], and [NeIII]) and molecules (H2, OH, CO2, HCO+, and possibly CH3), some of which are also detected in classical T Tauri spectra. The properties of the neon emission are consistent with an origin for the emission in a disk irradiated by X-rays (wit...

  15. SPITZER SAGE Observations of Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, J L; Ellis, R G; Meixner, M; Blum, R D; Latter, W B; Whitney, B A; Meade, M R; Indebetouw, R; Gordon, K; For, B -Q; Block, M; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C

    2007-01-01

    We present IRAC and MIPS images and photometry of a sample of previously known planetary nebulae (PNe) from the SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the 233 known PNe in the survey field, 185 objects were detected in at least two of the IRAC bands, and 161 detected in the MIPS 24 micron images. Color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented using several combinations of IRAC, MIPS, and 2MASS magnitudes. The location of an individual PN in the color-color diagrams is seen to depend on the relative contributions of the spectral components which include molecular hydrogen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), infrared forbidden line emission from the ionized gas, warm dust continuum, and emission directly from the central star. The sample of LMC PNe is compared to a number of Galactic PNe and found to not significantly differ in their position in color-color space. We also explore the potential value of IR PNe luminosity functions (LFs) in the...

  16. Spitzer Transit and Secondary Eclipse Photometry of GJ 436b

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Laughlin, Gregory; Seager, Sara; Navarro, Sarah B; Bowman, William C; Horning, Karen

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of infrared (8 micron) transit and secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Neptune exoplanet, GJ436b using Spitzer. The nearly photon-limited precision of these data allow us to measure an improved radius for the planet, and to detect the secondary eclipse. The transit (centered at HJD = 2454280.78149 +/-0.00016) shows the flat-bottomed shape typical of infrared transits, and it precisely defines the planet-to-star radius ratio (0.0839 +/-0.0005), independent of the stellar properties. However, we obtain the planetary radius, as well as the stellar mass and radius, by fitting to the transit curve simultaneously with an empirical mass-radius relation for M-dwarfs (M=R). We find Rs=Ms=0.47 +/-0.02 in solar units, and Rp=27,600 +/-1170 km (4.33 +/-0.18 Earth radii). This radius significantly exceeds the radius of a naked ocean planet, and requires a gasesous hydrogen-helium envelope. The secondary eclipse occurs at phase 0.587 +/-0.005, proving a significant orbital eccentricity (e=0.15 +/-...

  17. Spitzer Observations of Spacecraft Target 162173 (1999 JU3)

    CERN Document Server

    Campins, H; Kelley, M; Fernandez, Y; Licandro, J; Delbo, M; Barucci, A; Dotto, E; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912374

    2009-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3) is the primary target of the Hayabusa-2 sample return mission, and a potential target of the Marco Polo sample return mission. Earth-based studies of this object are fundamental to these missions. We present a mid-infrared spectrum (5-38 microns) of 1999 JU3 obtained with NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope in May 2008. These observations place new constraints on the surface properties of this asteroid. To fit our spectrum we used the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and the more complex thermophysical model (TPM). However, the position of the spin-pole, which is uncertain, is a crucial input parameter for constraining the thermal inertia with the TPM; hence, we consider two pole orientations. In the extreme case of an equatorial retrograde geometry we derive a lower limit to the thermal inertia of 150 J/m^2/K/s^0.5. If we adopt the pole orientation of Abe et al. (2008a) our best-fit thermal model yields a value for the thermal inertia of 700+/-200 J/m^2/K/s^0.5 and e...

  18. Spitzer's Last Look at the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Greg; Kraemer, Kathleen; Kraemer, K. E.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Gordon, K. D.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Groenewegen, M.; Jones, O. C.; Kemper, F.; Lloyd, J. P.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Srinivasan, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We will map 30 square degrees of sky covering the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Bridge toward the LMC at 3.6 and 4.5 um, in two epochs in late 2017. Coupled with similar maps obtained in 2008 and surveys in the core of the SMC starting in 2005, the new epochs will give us a temporal baseline of 12 years in the heart of the SMC and 9 years in its outer regions. The Spitzer observations probe deeper than WISE and at higher resolution, allowing us to study fainter sources and sources in more crowded regions in this nearby metal-poor dwarf galaxy. We will use these data to better characterize how variability and dust production are intertwined in the final evolutionary stages of a star's lifetime. The long temporal baseline also enables searches for brown dwarfs near the Sun which are undetectable with Gaia or WISE, and the crowded background formed by the SMC makes any newly discovered brown dwarfs excellent candidates for microlensing studies which would reveal their masses. The long baseline may also reveal transients in star-forming regions in the SMC and in the population of background galaxies. We request 172.1 hours, with no proprietary period, to complete this project.

  19. Spitzer Mapping of PAHs and H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Brian T; Lupu, Roxana E; McCandliss, Stephan R

    2010-01-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of dense photodissociation regions (PDRs) are typically dominated by emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the lowest pure rotational states of molecular hydrogen (H2); two species which are probes of the physical properties of gas and dust in intense UV radiation fields. We utilize the high angular resolution of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope to construct spectral maps of the PAH and H2 features for three of the best studied PDRs in the galaxy, NGC 7023, NGC 2023 and IC 63. We present spatially resolved maps of the physical properties, including the H2 ortho-to-para ratio, temperature, and G_o/n_H. We also present evidence for PAH dehydrogenation, which may support theories of H2 formation on PAH surfaces, and a detection of preferential self-shielding of ortho-H2. All PDRs studied exhibit average temperatures of ~500 - 800K, warm H2 column densities of ~10^20 cm^-2, G_o/n_H ~ 0.1 - 0.8, and ortho-to-para ratios of ~ 1.8. We find th...

  20. A Spitzer mid-infrared spectral survey of mass-losing carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Cioni, M R L; Feast, M W; Groenewegen, M A T; Habing, H J; Hony, S; Lagadec, E; Loup, C; Matsuura, M; Menzies, J W; Sloan, G C; Van Loon, J T; Waters, L B F M; Whitelock, P A; Wood, P R; Lagadec, Eric; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Matsuura, Mikako; Wood, Peter R.; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic survey of mass-losing carbon stars (and one oxygen-rich star) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra cover the wavelength range 5--38 micron. They show varying combinations of dust continuum, dust emission features (SiC, MgS) and molecular absorption bands (C2H2, HCN). A set of four narrow bands, dubbed the Manchester system, is used to define the infrared continuum for dusty carbon stars. The relations between the continuum colours and the strength of the dust and molecular features are studied, and are compared to Galactic stars of similar colours. The circumstellar 7-micron C2H2 band is found to be stronger at lower metallicity, from a comparison of stars in the Galaxy, the LMC and the SMC. This is explained by dredge-up of carbon, causing higher C/O ratios at low metallicity (less O). A possible 10-micron absorption feature seen in our spectra may be due to C3. This band has also been identified with interstellar silicate or silicon-nitrite dust. The ...

  1. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. II-the demographics and cosmic evolution of the AGN population

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna; Petric, Andreea O; Gates, Elinor L; Urrutia, Tanya; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    We present luminosity functions derived from a spectroscopic survey of AGN selected from Spitzer Space Telescope imaging surveys. Selection in the mid-infrared is significantly less affected by dust obscuration. We can thus compare the luminosity functions of the obscured and unobscured AGN in a more reliable fashion than by using optical or X-ray data alone. We find that the AGN luminosity function can be well described by a broken power-law model in which the break luminosity decreases with redshift. At high redshifts ($z>1.6$), we find significantly more AGN at a given bolometric luminosity than found by either optical quasar surveys or hard X-ray surveys. The fraction of obscured AGN decreases rapidly with increasing AGN luminosity, but, at least at high redshifts, appears to remain at $\\approx 50$\\% even at bolometric luminosities $\\sim 10^{14}L_{\\odot}$. The data support a picture in which the obscured and unobscured populations evolve differently, with some evidence that high luminosity obscured quasar...

  2. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our

  3. AEGIS: A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF SPITZER POWER-LAW GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes a sample of 489 Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) sources in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), whose spectral energy distributions fit a red power law (PL) from 3.6 to 8.0 μm. The median redshift for sources with known redshifts is (z) = 1.6. Though all or nearly all of the sample galaxies are likely to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only 33% were detected in the EGS X-ray survey (AEGIS-X) using 200 ks Chandra observations. The detected sources are X-ray luminous with L X>1043 erg s-1 and moderately to heavily obscured with N H>1022 cm-2. Stacking the X-ray-undetected sample members yields a statistically significant X-ray signal, suggesting that they are on average more distant or more obscured than sources with X-ray detections. The ratio of X-ray to mid-infrared fluxes suggests that a substantial fraction of the sources undetected in X-rays are obscured at the Compton-thick level, in contrast to the X-ray-detected sources, all of which appear to be Compton thin. For the X-ray-detected PL sources with redshifts, an X-ray luminosity L X ∼ 1044 erg s-1 marks a transition between low-luminosity, blue sources dominated by the host galaxy to high-luminosity, red PL sources dominated by nuclear activity. X-ray-to-optical ratios, infrared variability, and 24 μm properties of the sample are consistent with the identification of infrared PL sources as active nuclei, but a rough estimate is that only 22% of AGNs are selected by the PL criteria. Comparison of the PL selection technique and various IRAC color criteria for identifying AGNs confirms that high-redshift samples selected via simple IRAC colors may be heavily contaminated by starlight-dominated objects.

  4. PSF subtraction to search for distant Jupiters with SPITZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Julien; Artigau, Etienne; Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Naud, Marie-Eve; Delorme, Philippe; Janson, Markus; Albert, Loic; Gagné, Jonathan; Beichman, Charles

    2015-12-01

    In the course of the search for extrasolar planets, a focus has been made towards rocky planets very close (within few AUs) to their parent stars. However, planetary systems might host gas giants as well, possibly at larger separation from the central star. Direct imaging is the only technique able to probe the outer part of planetary systems. With the advent of the new generation of planet finders like GPI and SPHERE, extrasolar systems are now studied at the solar system scale. Nevertheless, very extended planetary systems do exist and have been found (Gu Ps, AB Pic b, etc.). They are easier to detect and characterize. They are also excellent proxy for close-in gas giants that are detected from the ground. These planets have no equivalent in our solar system and their origin remain a matter of speculation. In this sense, studying planetary systems from its innermost to its outermost part is therefore mandatory to have a clear understanding of its architecture, hence hints of its formation and evolution. We are carrying out a space-based survey using SPITZER to search for distant companions around a well-characterized sample of 120 young and nearby stars. We designed an observing strategy that allows building a very homogeneous PSF library. With this library, we perform a PSF subtraction to search for planets from 10’’ down to 1’’. In this poster, I will present the library, the different algorithms used to subtract the PSF, and the promising detection sensitivity that we are able to reach with this survey. This project to search for the most extreme planetary systems is unique in the exoplanet community. It is also the only realistic mean of directly imaging and subsequently obtaining spectroscopy of young Saturn or Jupiter mass planets in the JWST-era.

  5. Spitzer Observations of Massive, Red Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Moustakas, L. A.; Dickinson, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Rieke, G. H.; Daddi, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Dahlen, T.; Egami, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Elbaz, D.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giavalisco, M.; Lucas, R. A.; Mobasher, B.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Stutz, A.; Rieke, M. J.; Yan, H.

    2006-03-01

    We study massive galaxies at z~1-3.5 using HST optical imaging, ground-based near-IR imaging, and Spitzer observations at 3-24 μm. From Ks-selected galaxies in the ~=130 arcmin2 GOODS-S field, we identify 153 distant red galaxies (DRGs) with (J-Ks)Vega>=2.3. This sample is approximately complete in stellar mass for passively evolving galaxies above 1011 Msolar and z~4-6 mag) starbursts (at zmed~1.7). Very few DRGs (=1011 Msolar have specific star formation rates (SFRs per unit mass) including the reradiated far-IR emission that range from 0.2 to 10 Gyr-1. Based on the X-ray luminosities and rest-frame near-IR colors, roughly one-quarter of the DRGs contain AGNs, implying that the growth of supermassive black holes coincides with the formation of massive galaxies. At 1.5=1011 Msolar have an integrated specific SFR comparable to the global value of all galaxies. In contrast, galaxies at z~0.3-0.75 with M>=1011 Msolar have an integrated specific SFR less than the global value and more than an order of magnitude lower than that for massive DRGs. At zcontract 1407; on observations taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 and on observations collected at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), National Optical Astronomical Observatory (NOAO), which is operated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. Observations have also been carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under program ID LP168.A-0485.

  6. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  7. NEOs in the mid-infrared: from Spitzer to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2016-10-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) account for a surprisingly large fraction of the Spitzer observing time devoted to Solar System science. As a community, we should think of ways to repeat that success with JWST. JWST is planning an open Early Release Science Program, with the expected deadline for letters of intent in early 2017. We can't wait for next year's DPS to develop ideas. The time is now!In order to stir up the discussion, we will present ideas for NEO observing programs that are well adapted to JWST's capabilities and limitations, based on our recent PASP paper (Thomas et al., 2016). Obvious measurement objectives would include* size and albedo from thermal continuum (MIRI photometry)* thermal inertia for objects with well-known shape and spin state (MIRI)* taxonomy through reflection spectroscopy and emission spectroscopy in the NIR and MIR; NIR colors for faint objects.In all cases, JWST's sensitivity will allow us to go deeper than currently possible by at least an order of magnitude. Meter-sized NEOs similar to 2009 BD or 2011 MD are easy targets for MIRI spectrophotometry!The following limitations must be kept in mind, however: JWST's large size makes it slow to move. Most problematic for NEOs is probably the resulting 'speed limit': non-sidereal tracking is supported up to a rate of 30 mas/s, NEOs can easily move faster than that (ways to relax this constraint are under discussion). The average slew to a new target is budgeted to take 30 min, effectively ruling out programs many-target programs like ExploreNEOs or NEOSurvey (see D. Trilling's paper). Additionally, JWST will only observe close to quadrature, translating to large solar phase angles for NEO observations; this is familiar from other space-based IR facilities.

  8. The Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS redshift survey of galaxy evolution since z = 1.5. I. Description and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelson, Daniel D.; Williams, Rik J.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Mulchaey, John S.; Villanueva, Edward V.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Quadri, Ryan F. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We describe the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) Survey, a wide-field, near-IR selected spectrophotometric redshift survey with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on Magellan-Baade. By defining a flux-limited sample of galaxies in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm imaging of SWIRE fields, the CSI Survey efficiently traces the stellar mass of average galaxies to z ∼ 1.5. This first paper provides an overview of the survey selection, observations, processing of the photometry and spectrophotometry. We also describe the processing of the data: new methods of fitting synthetic templates of spectral energy distributions are used to derive redshifts, stellar masses, emission line luminosities, and coarse information on recent star formation. Our unique methodology for analyzing low-dispersion spectra taken with multilayer prisms in IMACS, combined with panchromatic photometry from the ultraviolet to the IR, has yielded high-quality redshifts for 43,347 galaxies in our first 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the SWIRE XMM-LSS field. We use three different approaches to estimate our redshift errors and find robust agreement. Over the full range of 3.6 μm fluxes of our selection, we find typical redshift uncertainties of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) ≲ 0.015. In comparisons with previously published spectroscopic redshifts we find scatters of σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.011 for galaxies at 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 0.9, and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.014 for galaxies at 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.2. For galaxies brighter and fainter than i = 23 mag, we find σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.008 and σ {sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.022, respectively. Notably, our low-dispersion spectroscopy and analysis yields comparable redshift uncertainties and success rates for both red and blue galaxies, largely eliminating color-based systematics that can seriously bias observed dependencies of galaxy evolution on environment.

  9. The Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems: Placing Our Solar System in Context with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, M R; Backman, D; Beckwith, S; Bouwman, J; Brooke, T; Carpenter, J; Cohen, M; Cortes, S; Crockett, N; Gorti, U; Henning, T; Hines, D; Hollenbach, D; Kim, J S; Lunine, J; Malhotra, R; Mamajek, E; Morris, P; Najita, J; Moro-Martin, A; Padgett, D; Metchev, S; Pascucci, I; Rodmann, J; Schlingman, W; Silverstone, M D; Soderblom, D; Stauffer, J; Stobie, E; Strom, S; Watson, D; Weidenschilling, S J; Wolf, S; Young, E; Meyer, Michael R.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Backman, Dana; Beckwith, Steve; Bouwman, Jeroen; Brooke, Tim; Carpenter, John; Cohen, Martin; Cortes, Stephanie; Crockett, Nathan; Gorti, Uma; Henning, Thomas; Hines, Dean; Hollenbach, David; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Lunine, Jonathan; Malhotra, Renu; Mamajek, Eric; Morris, Pat; Najita, Joan; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Padgett, Deborah; Metchev, Stanimir; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rodmann, Jens; Schlingman, Wayne; Silverstone, Murray; Soderblom, David; Stauffer, John; Stobie, Elizabeth; Strom, Steve; Watson, Dan; Weidenschilling, Stuart; Wolf, Sebastian; Young, Erick

    2007-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Spitzer Legacy Program ``Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems" (FEPS) which was proposed in 2000, begun in 2001, and executed aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2003 and 2006. This program exploits the sensitivity of Spitzer to carry out mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations of solar-type stars. With a sample of ~ 328 stars ranging in age from ~ 3 Myr to ~ 3 Gyr, we trace the evolution of circumstellar gas and dust from primordial planet-building stages in young circumstellar disks through to older collisionally generated debris disks. When completed, our program will help define the time scales over which terrestrial and gas giant planets are built, constrain the frequency of planetesimal collisions as a function of time, and establish the diversity of mature planetary architectures. In addition to the observational program, we have coordinated a concomitant theoretical effort aimed at understanding the dynamics of circumstellar dust with and without the e...

  10. The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and IRAC Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Martinez, J; Bartlett, J G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Crawford, T M; Dey, A; Dressler, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Galametz, A; Jannuzi, B T; Marrone, D P; Mei, S; Muzzin, A; Pacaud, F; Pierre, M; Stern, D; Vieira, J D

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs...

  11. The IC 5146 star forming complex and its surroundings with 2MASS, WISE and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, N A; Bica, E

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the last decade sensitive infrared observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope significantly increased the known population of YSOs associated with nearby molecular clouds. With such a census recent studies have characterized pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and determined parame- ters from different wavelengths. Given the restricted Spitzer coverage of some of these clouds, relative to their extended regions, these YSO populations may represent a limited view of star formation in these regions. We are taking advantage of mid-infrared observations from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which provides an all sky view and therefore full coverage of the nearby clouds, to assess the degree to which their currently known YSO population may be representative of a more complete population. We extend the well established classification method of the Spitzer Legacy teams to archived WISE observations. We have adopted 2MASS photometry as a standard catalogue for comparisons. Besides ...

  12. Investigating the long-lived clouds of early L dwarfs with Spitzer and K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizis, John; Lowrance, Patrick; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-08-01

    We propose to monitor two bright L0 dwarfs with Spitzer. Unlike cooler brown dwarfs whose clouds evolve on timescales of hours and days, the best studied L1 dwarf star has a cloud feature that lasted for over two years. This discovery was enabled by Kepler optical photometry combined with Spitzer mid-infrared photometry. The upcoming K2 Campaign 10 happens to include two bright L0 dwarfs, and they will repeated in K2 Campaign 17, providing two uniquely accurate optical light curves that sample timescales from minutes to years. By probing higher altitudes in the L dwarf atmospheres, the Spitzer IRAC photometry would enable us to test whether the optical variability in these two objects also come from long-lived clouds. This would establish whether the Kepler field L1 dwarf is a fluke or whether the weather and cloud lifetimes in warm (~2300K) atmospheres are qualititatively different than in cooler brown dwarfs.

  13. SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND INDEPENDENT VALIDATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH CoRoT-7 b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet—and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed—has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 ± 0.115 mmag at 4.5 μm, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 ± 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 μm did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 μm observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information. Our Spitzer

  14. Dust in Intermediate Polars: Light Curves from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Kunegunda E.; Hoard, D. W.; Howell, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present Spitzer 4.5 μm light curves of two intermediate polars (IPs)-DQ Her and EX Hya-obtained with Cycle 6 observations. Our initial evaluation of the light curves of DQ Her and EX Hya shows that these two IPs exhibit similar behavior as that seen in non-magnetic systems (specifically WZ Sge). The binary eclipses seen in the Spitzer light curves of DQ Her and EX Hya are about three times longer than their optical counterparts, indicating that a reservoir of dust extends beyond the outer edge of the optically visible accretion disk.

  15. IRSFRINGE: Interactive tool for fringe removal from Spitzer IRS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRS Team at Cornell University

    2016-02-01

    IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).

  16. DUST EVOLUTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AROUND HERBIG Ae/Be STARS-THE SPITZER VIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhasz, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  17. Waters, dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around herbig ae/be stars—the spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhász, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; Van Den Ancker, M.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  18. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars—the Spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Juhász; J. Bouwman; T. Henning; B. Acke; M.E. van den Ancker; G. Meeus; C. Dominik; M. Min; A.G.G.M. Tielens; L.B.F.M. Waters

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  19. Near-infrared Spectroscopy Of NEOs: Characterization Of Targets Of The ExploreNEOs (Spitzer) Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, C. A.; Trilling, D. E.; Dave, R.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to complement the ExploreNEOs program, we are characterizing surface compositions of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (0.7 to 2.5 microns). The core ExploreNEOs program is an ambitious exploration of the history of near-Earth space using NASA's Spitzer space t

  20. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of Large Magellanic Cloud planetary nebula SMP 83

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J; Houck, [No Value; Morris, PW; Sloan, GC; Pottasch, [No Value; Barry, DJ

    2004-01-01

    The first observations of the infrared spectrum of the LMC planetary nebula SMP 83 as observed by the recently launched Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. The high-resolution (R similar to 600) spectrum shows strong emission lines but no significant continuum. The infrared fine-structure lines a

  1. Thermal properties of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Mueller, Th.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Delsanti, A.; Groussin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory [8] (either PACS or PACS and SPIRE) and Spitzer Space Telescope [12] (MIPS). We apply radiometric modeling techniques (NEATM [2]) to the measured fluxes to de

  2. Thermal Properties Of Trans-neptunian Objects And Centaurs From Combined Herschel And Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Santos-Sanz, P.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Müller, T.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Lacerda, P.; Harris, A.; TNOs are Cool Team, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory (either PACS or PACS/SPIRE) and Spitzer (MIPS). The combined wavelength range is 24-160 μm and additionally up to 500 μm for a few targets. We apply radiometr

  3. Bulk Densities of Binary Asteroids from the Warm Spitzer NEO Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, John; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazo, G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Warm Spitzer NEO survey, ExploreNEOs, will observe approximately 700 Near Earth Asteroids. Several of these objects are known to be binary asteroid systems. Binary systems are interesting due to the unique opportunity they present for determining the masses and densities of their constituent bod

  4. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create

  5. The IC 5146 star forming complex and its surroundings with 2MASS, WISE and Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, N. A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the last decade sensitive infrared observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope significantly increased the known population of YSOs associated with nearby molecular clouds. With such a census recent studies have characterized pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and determined parameters from different wavelengths. Given the restricted Spitzer coverage of some of these clouds, relative to their extended regions, these YSO populations may represent a limited view of star formation in these regions. We are taking advantage of mid-infrared observations from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which provides an all sky view and therefore full coverage of the nearby clouds, to assess the degree to which their currently known YSO population may be representative of a more complete population. We extend the well established classification method of the Spitzer Legacy teams to archived WISE observations. We have adopted 2MASS photometry as a "standard catalogue" for comparisons. Besides the massive embedded cluster IC 5146 we provide a multiband view of five new embedded clusters in its surroundings that we discovered with WISE. In short, the analysis involves the following for the presently studied cluster sample: (i) extraction of 2MASS/WISE/Spitzer photometry in a wide circular region; (ii) field-star decontamination to enhance the intrinsic Colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) morphology (essential for a proper derivation of reddening, age, and distance from the Sun); and (iii) construction of Colour-magnitude filters, for more contrasted stellar radial density profiles (RDPs).

  6. Physical Properties of Asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, a Potential Spacecraft Target, from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Harris, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We report on results from recent Spitzer observations of near-Earth asteroid (10302) 1989 ML, which is among the lowest-ranking objects in terms of the specific momentum Δv required to reach it from Earth. It was originally considered as a target for Hayabusa and is now under consideration as a targ

  7. Mid-infrared Spectra of Binary Asteroids With Spitzer/IRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, Franck; Emery, J. P.; Iglesias, J.; Pollock, J.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Michalowski, T.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.

    2008-01-01

    To date, 162 asteroids are known to be binary or multiple systems. Insights, such as the size and shape of their components, the nature of their surface, their bulk density are the key to understanding how these multiple asteroidal systems formed. We obtained 19.9h of observations using the Spitzer/

  8. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. de Messières; R.W. O'Connell; B.R. McNamara; M. Donahue; P.E.J. Nulsen; G.M. Voit; M.W. Wise; B. Smith; J. Higdon; S. Higdon; N. Bastian

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  9. Neon Abundances from a Spitzer/IRS Survey of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignace, R.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Tracy, G.; Churchwell, E.B.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on neon abundances derived from Spitzer high resolution spectral data of eight Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using the forbidden line of [Ne III] 15.56 μm. Our targets include four WN stars of subtypes 4-7, and four WC stars of subtypes 4-7. We derive ion fraction abundances γ of Ne2+ for the wind

  10. The Accuracy of the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo', M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with IRAC as part of our on-going (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ("ExploreNEOs"), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall a

  11. Spectroscopically Unlocking Exoplanet Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nikole

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopy plays a critical role in a number of areas of exoplanet research. The first exoplanets were detected by precisely measuring Doppler shifts in high resolution (R ~ 100,000) stellar spectra, a technique that has become known as the Radial Velocity (RV) method. The RV method provides critical constraints on exoplanet masses, but is currently limited to some degree by robust line shape predictions. Beyond the RV method, spectroscopy plays a critical role in the characterization of exoplanets beyond their mass and radius. The Hubble Space Telescope has spectroscopically observed the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their host stars as seen from Earth giving us key insights into atmospheric abundances of key atomic and molecular species as well as cloud optical properties. Similar spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet atmospheres will be carried out at higher resolution (R ~ 100-3000) and with broader wavelength coverage with the James Webb Space Telescope. Future missions such as WFIRST that seek to the pave the way toward the detection and characterization of potentially habitable planets will have the capability of directly measuring the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and potentially surfaces. Our ability to plan for and interpret spectra from exoplanets relies heavily on the fidelity of the spectroscopic databases available and would greatly benefit from further laboratory and theoretical work aimed at optical properties of atomic, molecular, and cloud/haze species in the pressure and temperature regimes relevant to exoplanet atmospheres.

  12. Mean Hα+[N ii]+[S ii] EW inferred for star-forming galaxies atz ˜ 5.1-5.4 using high-qualitySpitzer/IRAC photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasappu, N.; Smit, R.; Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Stark, D. P.; Ellis, R. S.; Oesch, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Recent Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations have revealed that rest-frame optical emission lines contribute significantly to the broad-band fluxes of high-redshift galaxies. Specifically, in the narrow redshift range z ˜ 5.1-5.4 the [3.6]-[4.5] colour is expected to be very red, due to contamination of the 4.5 μm band by the dominant Hα line, while the 3.6 μm filter is free of nebular emission lines. We take advantage of new reductions of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North+South fields (Labbé et al. 2015) to obtain a clean measurement of the mean Hα equivalent width (EW) from the [3.6]-[4.5] colour in the redshift range z = 5.1-5.4. The selected sources either have measured spectroscopic redshifts (13 sources) or lie very confidently in the redshift range z = 5.1-5.4 based on the photometric redshift likelihood intervals (11 sources). Our zphot = 5.1-5.4 sample and zspec = 5.10-5.40 spectroscopic sample have a mean [3.6]-[4.5] colour of 0.31 ± 0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.07 mag, implying a rest-frame EW (Hα+[N II]+[S II]) of 665 ± 53 and 707 ± 74 Å, respectively, for sources in these samples. These values are consistent albeit slightly higher than derived by Stark et al. at z ˜ 4, suggesting an evolution to higher values of the Hα+[N II]+[S II] EW at z > 2. Using the 3.6 μm band, which is free of emission line contamination, we perform robust spectral energy distribution fitting and find a median specific star formation rate of sSFR = 17_{-5}^{+2} Gyr-1, 7_{-2}^{+1}× higher than at z ˜ 2. We find no strong correlation (<2σ) between the Hα+[N II]+[S II] EW and the stellar mass of sources. Before the advent of JWST, improvements in these results will come through an expansion of current spectroscopic samples and deeper Spitzer/IRAC measurements.

  13. Spitzer IRAC Color Diagnostics for Extended Emission in Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Ybarra, Jason E; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Lada, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope has provided an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study we calculate the IRAC color space of UV fluorescent molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine & Li 2007. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV excited and shock excited H$_2$ emission. To test this method we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  14. Spitzer Microlensing Program as a Probe for Globular Cluster Planets. Analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    CERN Document Server

    Poleski, Radosław; Christie, Grant W; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Pawlak, M; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Beatty, T G; Eastman, J D; Drummond, J; Friedmann, M; Henderson, M; Johnson, J A; Kaspi, S; Maoz, D; McCormick, J; McCrady, N; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Porritt, I; Relles, H M; Sliski, D H; Tan, T -G; Wittenmyer, R A; Wright, J T; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Jaimes, R Figuera; Wambsganss, J; Schmidt, R; Cassan, A; Ranc, C; Mao, S; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Hundertmark, M P G; Jørgensen, U G; Andersen, M I; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Southworth, G Scarpetta J; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; Verma, P; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ($\\mu_{\\rm cl}$(N,E) = (+0.36+-0.10, +1.42+-0.10) mas/yr) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters, other potential cluster lens events can be verified using our methodology. Additionally, we find that microlens parallax measured using OGLE photometry is consistent with the value found based on the light curve displacement between Earth and Spitzer.

  15. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Street, R A; Novati, S Calchi; Hundertmark, M P G; Zhu, W; Gould, A; Yee, J; Tsapras, Y; Bennett, D P; Project, The RoboNet; Jorgensen, U G; Dominik, M; Andersen, M I; Bachelet, E; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M J; Cassan, A; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Dong, Subo; Evans, D F; Gu, Sheng-hong; Harkonnen, H; Hinse, T C; Horne, Keith; Jaimes, R Figuera; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Menzies, J; Mao, S; Peixinho, N; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Ranc, C; Rasmussen, R Tronsgaard; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Steele, I A; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; Verma, P; von Essen, C; Wambsganss, J; Wang, Yi-Bo; Wertz, O; Project, The OGLE; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymanski, M K; Skowron, J; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Wyrzykowski, L; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Inayama, K; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; P.,; Tristram, J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of a Cold Neptune m_planet=21+/-2MEarth orbiting a 0.38MSol M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al. (2015), which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow-up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near-to-mid disk and clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  16. SPITZER PARALLAX OF OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A COLD NEPTUNE IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, R. A.; Bachelet, E. [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Novati, S. Calchi [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Jørgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5, DK-1350—Copenhagen K (Denmark); Zhu, W.; Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Yee, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsapras, Y. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dominik, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Andersen, M. I. [Niels Bohr Institute and Dark Cosmology Centre, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100—Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E.R. Caianiello,” Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084, Fisciano (Italy); Bramich, D. M. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Collaboration: RoboNet Project and MiNDSTEp Consortium; OGLE Project; Spitzer Team; MOA Collaboration; KMTNet Modeling Team; and others

    2016-03-10

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune m{sub planet} = 21 ± 2 M{sub ⊕} orbiting a 0.38 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf lying 2.5–3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  17. Spitzer Infrared Spectrographic point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffle, Paul M E; Jones, O C; Sloan, G C; Kraemer, K E; Woods, Paul M; Boyer, M L; Srinivasan, S; Antoniou, V; Lagadec, E; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; Oliveira, J M; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Szczerba, R; van Loon, J Th; Volk, K; Zijlstra, A A

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust.We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects (YSOs), 4 post-AGB objects, 22 Red Super...

  18. AKARI and Spitzer observations of heavily obscured C-rich AGB/post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernández, D A; Engels, D; Perea-Calderón, J V; García-Lario, P

    2009-01-01

    We present AKARI/IRC and Spitzer/IRS observations of a selected sample of galactic IRAS sources considered to be heavily obscured AGB/post-AGB stars based on their characteristic IRAS colours. All of them are completely invisible in the optical range but extremely bright in the infrared. Based on AKARI and Spitzer spectroscopy and using DUSTY we are able to determine the dominant chemistry of their circumstellar shells as well as the properties of the dust grains contained in these shells. Most of the sources are found to be C-rich (being the reddest C-rich stars observed so far). We find only molecular absorptions (and no PAH features) such as acetylene (C2H2) at 13.7 micron, indicative of an early post-AGB stage. We shortly discuss our findings in the context of stellar evolution during the hidden "transition phase" from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae.

  19. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Zhu, W.; Gould, A.; Yee, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; RoboNet Project, The; Consortium, MiNDSTEp; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Cassan, A.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dong, Subo; Evans, D. F.; Gu, Sheng-hong; Harkonnen, H.; Hinse, T. C.; Horne, Keith; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Menzies, J.; Mao, S.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Ranc, C.; Tronsgaard Rasmussen, R.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Steele, I. A.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Verma, P.; von Essen, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Wang, Yi-Bo.; Wertz, O.; OGLE Project, The; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Spitzer Team; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; MOA Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; KMTNet Modeling Team; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  20. Measuring High-Precision Astrometry with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  1. Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of high mass precursors to planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Perea-Calderon, J. V.; Bobrowsky, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS observations of a small sample of heavily obscured IRAS sources displaying both the infrared and OH maser emission characteristic of OH/IR stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), but also radio continuum emission typical of ionized planetary nebulae (PNe), the so-called OHPNe. Our observations show that their mid-infrared spectra are dominated by the simultaneous presence of strong and broad amorphous silicate absorption features together with crystalline silicate f...

  2. Spitzer SAGE Infrared Photometry of Massive Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.; Lennon, D.J.; Panagia, N.; Smith, L J; Meixner, M.; Babler, B. L.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M. R.; Gordon, K.D.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R; Whitney, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3-24 microns in the UBVIJHKs+IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagram...

  3. Characteristic function and Spitzer's law for the winding angle distribution of planar brownian curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the analogy between brownian motion and Quantum Mechanics, we study the winding angle θ of planar brownian curves around a given point, say the origin O. In particular, we compute the characteristic function for the probability distribution of θ and recover Spitzer's law in the limit of infinitely large times. Finally, we study the (large) change in the winding angle distribution when we add a repulsive potential at the origin

  4. Disentangling protostellar evolutionary stages in clustered environments using Spitzer-IRS spectra and comprehensive SED modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Forbrich, Jan; Tappe, Achim; Robitaille, Thomas; Muench, August A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Stolte, Andrea; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    When studying the evolutionary stages of protostars that form in clusters, the role of any intracluster medium cannot be neglected. High foreground extinction can lead to situations where young stellar objects (YSOs) appear to be in earlier evolutionary stages than they actually are, particularly when using simple criteria like spectral indices. To address this issue, we have assembled detailed SED characterizations of a sample of 56 Spitzer-identified candidate YSOs in the clusters NGC 2264 ...

  5. MEASURING HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively.

  6. Mass Loss from Evolved Stars in the LMC: A Spitzer SAGE View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Robert D.; Volk, K.; Srinivasan, S.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Meixner, M.; Points, S.; Olsen, K.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Indebetouw, R.; Hora, J.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Mould, J.; SAGE Team

    2006-12-01

    I will present preliminary results for Evolved Star properties and their mass--loss contribution to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) as viewed from color--magnitude diagrams (CMDs) obtained with the Spitzer space telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey. These data represent the deepest, widest mid--infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the 2MASS survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the LMC from which we can deduce the relative contributions to the complete mass--loss budget. I will show initial fits to the spectral energy distributions of the LMC stars using dust radiative transfer models and assumptions about the evolved star envelopes guided by existing observations of luminous stars. Owing to the high angular resolution and sensitivity of Spitzer, we can identify essentially all the important mass--loss sources in the galaxy. Indeed, there is strong evidence from the 24 micron channel of Spitzer that previously unexplored, lower luminosity oxygen--rich AGB stars contribute significantly to the mass loss budget. This work has been funded by generous grants from the NASA SST program.

  7. Probing the Physical Properties of z=4.5 Lyman Alpha Emitters with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Keely D; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Grogin, Norman A; Pirzkal, Norbert; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T; Mobasher, Bahram; Pakzad, Sabrina; Salmon, Brett; Wang, Junzian

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z=4.5, and 14 z=5.7 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Bootes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 um from the Spitzer Lyman Alpha Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 um for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z=4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z=5.7 LAEs are detected at >3-sigma in at least one IRAC band. Individual z=4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5x10^8 to 10^11 Msol. One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr - 1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages < 100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8 -- 20 x 10^8 Msol) and young (64 - 570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-bas...

  8. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create a catalog of NEO diameters and albedos that can be used for a wide range of science goals. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We include in our target list only objects that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs (including results from our previous Spitzer program, ExploreNEOs, as well as objects observed by NEOWISE). We will present the status of the program and results to date, some nine months into the execution of the program. All observational and model results are published immediately online at nearearthobjects.nau.edu . Support for this work is provided by the Spitzer Science Center.

  9. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, I; Rodighiero, G; Franceschini, A; Capak, P L; Mei, S; Vaccari, M; Marchetti, L; Hibon, P; Sedgwick, C; Pearson, C; Serjeant, S; Menèndez-Delmestre, K; Salvato, M; Malkan, M; Teplitz, H I; Hayes, M; Colbert, J; Papovich, C; Devlin, M; Kovacs, A; Scott, K S; Surace, J; Kirkpatrick, J D; Atek, H; Urrutia, T; Scoville, N Z; Takeuchi, T T

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) field. The large area covered (7.7 deg$^2$), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area ($\\approx$4:1), allowing for a significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches a depth of 1.93 and 1.75 $\\mu$Jy (1$\\sigma$) at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC--based catalog, completed with optical, mid-- and far--IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with F$_{3.6\\mu m} \\geq 3\\sigma$. Of these, 10% have an associated 24 $\\mu$m counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrare...

  10. Results of the 2015 Spitzer Exoplanet Data Challenge: Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Carey, Sean J.; Stauffer, John R.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. At infrared wavelengths secondary eclipses and phase curves are powerful tools for studying a planet’s atmosphere. Extracting information about atmospheres, however, is extremely challenging due to the small differential signals, which are often at the level of 100 parts per million (ppm) or smaller, and require the removal of significant instrumental systematics. For the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm InSb detectors that remain active on post-cryogenic Spitzer, the interplay of residual telescope pointing fluctuations with intrapixel gain variations in the moderately under sampled camera is the largest source of time-correlated noise. Over the past decade, a suite of techniques for removing this noise from IRAC data has been developed independently by various investigators. In summer 2015, the Spitzer Science Center hosted a Data Challenge in which seven exoplanet expert teams, each using a different noise-removal method, were invited to analyze 10 eclipse measurements of the hot Jupiter XO-3 b, as well as a complementary set of 10 simulated measurements. In this contribution we review the results of the Challenge. We describe statistical tools to assess the repeatability, reliability, and validity of data reduction techniques, and to compare and (perhaps) choose between techniques.

  11. A Pilot Search for Population III Supernova Candidates in the Spitzer/IRAC Dark Field

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Mark I; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Krick, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    We have undertaken a systematic search for candidate supernovae from high-redshift Population III stars in a field that has been observed with repeated imaging on a cadence of 2-3 weeks over a 2.2 year baseline, the Spitzer/IRAC Dark Field. The individual epochs reach a typical 5-sigma depth of 1 uJy in IRAC Channel 1 (3.6 um). Requiring a minimum of four epochs coverage, the total effective area searched is 214 sq arcminutes. The unprecedented depth and multi-epochal nature of these data make it ideal for a first foray to detect transient objects which may be candidate luminous Pair Instability Supernovae from the primordial-metallicity first stars. The search was conducted over a broad range of timescales, allowing for different durations of the putative candidates' light curve plateau phases. All candidates were vetted by inspection of the Spitzer imaging data, as well as deep HST/ACS F814W imaging available over the full field. While many resolved-source objects were found with Spitzer variability, no tra...

  12. The Taurus Spitzer Survey: New Candidate Taurus Members Selected Using Sensitive Mid-Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; McCabe, C -E; Hillenbrand, L A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Audard, M; Monin, J -L; Fukagawa, M; Guedel, M; Knapp, G R; Menard, F; Allen, L E; Angione, J R; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Bouvier, J; Briggs, K; Dougados, C; Evans, N J; Flagey, N; Guieu, S; Grosso, N; Glauser, A M; Harvey, P; Hines, D; Latter, W B; Skinner, S L; Strom, S; Tromp, J; Wolf, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in 7 mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously-identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ~44 square degree map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ~20% of the bonafide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 candidate new members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, 3 probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, 7 are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candida...

  13. Spitzer Transits of the Super-Earth GJ1214b and Implications for Its Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Fraine, Jonathan D; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns wavelength during a 20-day quasi-continuous sequence in May 2011. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a re-analysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. (2011). In total, we analyse 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 microns, 3 transits at 3.6 microns, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe & Burrows (2012). Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke & Seager (2012) and Howe &a...

  14. The initial conditions of stellar protocluster formation. I. A catalogue of Spitzer dark clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Peretto, N

    2009-01-01

    The majority of stars form in clusters. Therefore a comprehensive view of star formation requires understanding the initial conditions for cluster formation. The goal of our study is to shed light on the physical properties of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and the role they play in the formation of stellar clusters. This article, the first of a series dedicated to the study of IRDCs, describes techniques developed to establish a complete catalogue of Spitzer IRDCs in the Galaxy. We have analysed Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL data to identify a complete sample of IRDCs in the region of Galactic longitude and latitude 10deg 1x10^{22} cm^{-2}. The 24micron data are then used to characterize the star formation activity of each extracted cloud. A total of 11303 clouds have been extracted. A comparison with the existing MSX based catalogue of IRDCs shows that 80% of these Spitzer dark clouds were previously unknown. The algorithm also extracts ~ 20000 to 50000 fragments within these clouds, depending on detection thr...

  15. Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr-old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-Rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We describe Spitzer IRS spectroscopic observations of the 10 Myr-old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 {\\mu}m to 35 {\\mu}m confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with LD/L\\star ~ 10-3, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr-old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g. HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to pyroxene ratio of ~ 2 also provide...

  16. Probing the Interstellar Medium of z~1 Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies through Interferometric Observations of CO and Spitzer Mid-infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Alexandra; Frayer, David; Armus, Lee; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Daddi, Emanuele; Desai, Vandana; Dickinson, Mark E; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Kirkpatrick, Allison

    2013-01-01

    We explore the relationship between gas, dust and star formation in a sample of 12 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at high redshift compared to a similar sample of local galaxies. We present new CO observations and/or Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy for 6 70 micron selected galaxies at z~1 in order to quantify the properties of the molecular gas reservoir, the contribution of an active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the mid-IR luminosity and the star formation efficiency (SFE=LIR/L'CO). The mid-IR spectra show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and our spectral decomposition suggests that the AGN makes a minimal contribution (<25%) to the mid-IR luminosity. The 70 micron selected ULIRGs which we find to be spectroscopic close pairs, are observed to have high SFE, similar to local ULIRGs and high redshift submillimeter galaxies, consistent with enhanced IR luminosity due to an ongoing major merger. Combined with existing observations of local and high redshift ULIRGs, we further compare t...

  17. Spitzer Observations of GJ3470b: a Very Low-density Neptune-size Planet Orbiting a Metal-rich M dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Neves, Vasco; Rogers, Leslie; Gillon, Michael; Horch, Elliott; Sullivan, Peter; Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Santos, Nuno; Seager, Sara; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5-micron transit photometry of GJ3470b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting a M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3-day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M_star = 0.539+0.047-0.043 M_sun and a radius of R_star = 0.568+0.037-0.031 R_sun. We determine the host star of GJ3470b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 +/- 0.10 and an effective temperature of Teff = 3600 +/- 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R_pl = 4.83+0.22-0.21 R_Earth that is 13 percent larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M_pl = 13.9+1.5-1.4 M_Earth that translates to a very low planetary density, rho_pl = 0.72+0.13-0.12 gcm-3, whic...

  18. Spitzer observations of HH54 and HH7-11: mapping the H2 ortho-to-para ratio in shocked molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, D A; Sonnentrucker, P; Bergin, E A; Green, J D; Kim, K H; Watson, D M; Forrest, W J; Pipher, J L; Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Bergin, Edwin A.; Green, Joel D.; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Watson, Dan M.; Forrest, William J.; Pipher, Judith L.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward the Herbig-Haro objects HH7-11 and HH54 over the 5.2 - 37 micron region using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations have led to the detection and mapping of the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen, together with emissions in fine structure transitions of Ne+, Si+, S, and Fe+. The H2 rotational emissions indicate the presence of warm gas with a mixture of temperatures in the range 400 - 1200 K, consistent with the expected temperature behind nondissociative shocks of velocity ~ 10 - 20 km/s, while the fine structure emissions originate in faster shocks of velocity 35 - 90 km/s that are dissociative and ionizing. Maps of the H2 line ratios reveal little spatial variation in the typical admixture of gas temperatures in the mapped regions, but show that the H2 ortho-to-para ratio is quite variable, typically falling substantially below the equilibrium value of 3 attained at the...

  19. Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium In Nearby Tidal Streams (SAINTS): Spitzer Mid-infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging of Intergalactic Star-forming Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, S J U; Smith, B J; Hancock, M

    2014-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant HII regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction ( 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 um emission compared to that at 3.6 um or 24 um separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two color diagrams. The infrared power in two thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from ...

  20. Complex Hydrocarbon Chemistry in Interstellar and Solar System Ices Revealed: A Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ethane (C2H6) and D6-Ethane (C2D6) Ices Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-08-01

    The irradiation of pure ethane (C2H6/C2D6) ices at 5.5 K, under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was conducted to investigate the formation of complex hydrocarbons via interaction with energetic electrons simulating the secondary electrons produced in the track of galactic cosmic rays. The chemical modifications of the ices were monitored in situ using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during temperature-programmed desorption via mass spectrometry exploiting a quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization (EI-QMS) as well as a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). FTIR confirmed previous ethane studies by detecting six molecules: methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), the ethyl radical (C2H5), 1-butene (C4H8), and n-butane (C4H10). However, the TPD phase, along with EI-QMS, and most importantly, PI-ReTOF-MS, revealed the formation of at least 23 hydrocarbons, many for the first time in ethane ice, which can be arranged in four groups with an increasing carbon-to-hydrogen ratio: C n H2n+2 (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10), C n H2n (n = 3-10), {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-2 (n = 3-10), and {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-4 (n = 4-6). The processing of simple ethane ices is relevant to the hydrocarbon chemistry in the interstellar medium, as ethane has been shown to be a major product of methane, as well as in the outer solar system. These data reveal that the processing of ethane ices can synthesize several key hydrocarbons such as C3H4 and C4H6 isomers, which ha­ve been found to synthesize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like indene (C9H8) and naphtha­lene (C10H8) in the ISM and in hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons such as Titan.

  1. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  2. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (∼100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ≲6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ∼106 M ☉ of warm H2 with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 μm, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 μm emission compared to that at 3.6 μm or 24 μm separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ∼30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  3. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, S. J. U.; Higdon, J. L. [Physics Department, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Smith, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Hancock, M. [Bishop Gorman High School, 5959 Hualapai Way, Las Vegas, NV 89148 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (∼100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ≲6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ∼10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} of warm H{sub 2} with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 μm, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 μm emission compared to that at 3.6 μm or 24 μm separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ∼30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  4. The Buried Starburst in the Interacting Galaxy II Zw 096 as Revealed by the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Inami, Hanae; Surace, J A; Mazzarella, J M; Evans, A S; Sanders, D B; Howell, J H; Petric, A; Vavilkin, T; Iwasawa, K; Haan, S; Murphy, E J; Stierwalt, S; Appleton, P N; Barnes, J E; Bothun, G; Bridge, C R; Chan, B; Charmandaris, V; Frayer, D T; Kewley, L J; Kim, D C; Lord, S; Madore, B F; Marshall, J A; Matsuhara, H; Melbourne, J E; Rich, J; Schulz, B; Spoon, H W W; Sturm, E; U, V; Veilleux, S; Xu, K

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite is presented for the z=0.036 merging galaxy system II Zw 096 (CGCG 448-020). Because II Zw 096 has an infrared luminosity of log(L_IR/L_sun) = 11.94, it is classified as a Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG), and was observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). The Spitzer data suggest that 80% of the total infrared luminosity comes from an extremely compact, red source not associated with the nuclei of the merging galaxies. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectra indicate no high-ionization lines from a buried active galactic nucleus in this source. The strong detection of the 3.3 micron and 6.2 micron PAH emission features in the AKARI and Spitzer spectra also implies that the energy source of II Zw 096 is a starburst. Based on Spitzer infrared imaging and AKARI near-infrared spectroscopy, the star formation rate is estimated to be 120 M_sun/yr and ...

  5. Multiple asteroid systems: Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-11-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq > 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia (Γ ⩽ ∼100 J s-1/2 K-1 m-2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff < 17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are significantly weaker, consistent with regoliths with coarser grains, than those of the large binary asteroids. The average bulk densities of these multiple asteroids vary from 0.7-1.7 g/cm3 (P-, C-type) to ∼2 g/cm3 (S-type). The highest density is estimated for the M-type (22) Kalliope (3.2 ± 0.9 g/cm3). The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and emissivity spectra, made available as a supplement document, could help to constrain the surface compositions of these asteroids.

  6. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gillon, Michaeel; Jehin, Emmanueel [Institute d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knutson, Heather [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Desert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jfraine@astro.umd.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 {mu}m wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 {mu}m, 3 transits at 3.6 {mu}m, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  7. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 μm wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Désert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 μm, 3 transits at 3.6 μm, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a χ2 analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  8. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path to Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, V; Udalski, A; Novati, S Calchi; Bond, I A; Han, C; Hundertmark, M; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Inayama, K; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G; Albrow, M D; Park, B -G; Kim, S -L; Lee, C -U; Cha, S -M; Kim, D -J; Lee, Y; Dominik, M; Jørgensen, U G; Andersen, M I; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Jaimes, R Figuera; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O; Maoz, D; Friedmann, M; Kaspi, S

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively breaks a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  9. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC Exoplanetary Eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  10. Finding {\\eta} Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer: I. Candidate Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Kochanek, C S

    2012-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {\\eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {\\eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of 7 nearby (= 40 M_sun star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude.

  11. REPEATABILITY OF SPITZER/IRAC EXOPLANETARY ECLIPSES WITH INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  12. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check ...

  13. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp; Maoz, D.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group

    2016-03-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  14. Spitzer's identity and the algebraic Birkhoff decomposition in pQFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch [Institut Henri Poincare, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Guo Li [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kreimer, Dirk [CNRS-IHES, Le Bois-Marie, 35, Route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-11-12

    In this paper we continue to explore the notion of Rota-Baxter algebras in the context of the Hopf algebraic approach to renormalization theory in perturbative quantum field theory. We show in very simple algebraic terms that the solutions of the recursively defined formulae for the Birkhoff factorization of regularized Hopf algebra characters, i.e. Feynman rules, naturally give a non-commutative generalization of the well-known Spitzer's identity. The underlying abstract algebraic structure is analysed in terms of complete filtered Rota-Baxter algebras.

  15. Spitzer Transits of the Super-Earth GJ1214b and Implications for Its Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns wavelength during a 20-day quasi-continuous sequence in May 2011. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a re-analysis of previous transit obse...

  16. Spitzer Observations of z ~ 3 Lyman Break Galaxies: Stellar Masses and Mid-Infrared Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rigopoulou, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Papovich, C.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Barmby, P.; Shu, C.; Bundy, K.; Egami, E.; Magdis, G.; Smith, H.; Willner, S. P.; G. Wilson; Fazio, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 using deep mid-infrared and optical observations of the Extended Groth Strip, obtained with IRAC and MIPS on board Spitzer and from the ground, respectively. We focus on LBGs with detections at all four IRAC bands, in particular the 26 galaxies with IRAC 8 micron band (rest--frame K-band) detections. We use stellar population synthesis models and probe the stellar content of these galaxies. Based on bes...

  17. A global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b

    CERN Document Server

    Lanotte, A A; Demory, B -O; Fortney, J J; Astudillo, N; Bonfils, X; Magain, P; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Neves, V; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santos, N; Udry, S

    2014-01-01

    Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims. We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods. We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 {\\mu}m. Adding the high precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar...

  18. The impact of endorsing Spitzer's proposed criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V on male and female Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lyndsey N; Chard, Kathleen M; Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Brien, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This study explored differences between Spitzer's proposed model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the current DSM-IV diagnostic classification scheme in 353 Veterans. The majority of Veterans (89%) diagnosed with PTSD as specified in the DSM-IV also met Spitzer's proposed criteria. Veterans who met both DSM-IV and Spitzer's proposed criteria had significantly higher Clinician Administered PTSD Scale severity scores than Veterans only meeting DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression indicated that being African American and having no comorbid diagnosis of major depressive disorder or history of a substance use disorder were found to predict those Veterans who met current, but not proposed criteria. These findings have important implications regarding proposed changes to the diagnostic classification criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V.

  19. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marchis, F; Emery, J P; Mueller, M; Baek, M; Pollock, J; Assafin, M; Martins, R Vieira; Berthier, J; Vachier, F; Cruikshank, D P; Lim, L; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; LaCluyz, A

    2016-01-01

    Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq $\\lt$ 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$ < $\\sim$100 J s-1/2K-1m-2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff $\\lt$17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are signif...

  20. Spitzer--IRAC Imagery and Photometry of Ultracompact HII Regions With Extended Emission

    CERN Document Server

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Grave, J M C; Kumar, M S N; Trinidad, M A; Kurtz, S; Kemp, S; Franco, J; Quevedo, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a morphological study performed to a sample of Ultracompact (UC) HII regions with Extended Emission (EE) using Spitzer--IRAC imagery and 3.6 cm VLA conf. D radio-continuum (RC) maps. Some examples of the comparison between maps and images are presented. Usually there is an IR point source counterpart to the peak(s) of RC emission, at the position of the UC source. We find that the predominant EE morphology is the cometary, and in most cases is coincident with IR emission at 8.0 $\\mu$m. Preliminary results of Spitzer--IRAC photometry of a sub-sample of 13 UC HII regions with EE based on GLIMPSE legacy data are also presented. Besides, individual IRAC photometry was performed to 19 UC sources within these 13 regions. We show that UC sources lie on specific locus, both in IRAC color-color and AM-product diagnostic diagrams. Counts of young stellar sources are presented for each region, and we conclude that a proportion of ~ 2%, ~10%, and ~88% of sources in the UC HII regions with EE are...

  1. Measuring High-Precision Astrometry with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Esplin, T L

    2015-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7$^{\\rm th}$ and 8$^{\\rm th}$ order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m arrays of IRAC, ...

  2. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  3. A Spitzer view of protoplanetary disks in the gamma Velorum cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria; Jeffries, R D; Gutermuth, R; Muzerolle, J; Stauffer, J

    2008-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of stars in the young ~5 Myr gamma Velorum stellar cluster. Combining optical and 2MASS photometry, we have selected 579 stars as candidate members of the cluster. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 5 debris disks around A-type stars, and 5-6 debris disks around solar-type stars, indicating that the strong radiation field in the cluster does not completely suppress the production of planetesimals in the disks of cluster members. However, we find some evidence that the frequency of circumstellar primordial disks is lower, and the IR flux excesses are smaller than for disks around stellar populations with similar ages. This could be evidence for a relatively fast dissipation of circumstellar dust by the strong radiation field from the highest mass star(s) in the cluster. Another possibility is that gamma Velorum stellar cluster is slightly older than reported ages and the the low frequency of primordial disks reflects the fa...

  4. Spitzer-IRAC survey of molecular jets in Vela-D

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; De Luca, M; Strafella, F; Elia, D; Maiolo, B; Marengo, M; Maruccia, Y; Massi, F; Nisini, B; Olmi, L; Salama, A; Smith, H A

    2013-01-01

    We present a survey of H2 jets from young protostars in the Vela-D molecular cloud (VMR-D), based on Spitzer -IRAC data between 3.6 and 8.0 micron. Our search has led to the identification of 15 jets and about 70 well aligned knots within 1.2 squared degree. We compare the IRAC maps with observations of the H2 1-0 S(1) line at 2.12 micron, with a Spitzer-MIPS map at 24 and 70 micron, and with a map of the dust continuum emission at 1.2 mm. We find a association between molecular jets and dust peaks. The jet candidate exciting sources have been searched for in the published catalog of the Young Stellar Objects of VMR-D. We selected all the sources of Class II or earlier which are located close to the jet center and aligned with it.The association between jet and exciting source was validated by estimating the differential extinction between the jet opposite lobes. We are able to find a best-candidate exciting source in all but two jets. Four exciting sources are not (or very barely) observed at wavelengths sho...

  5. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS): survey definition and goals

    CERN Document Server

    Mauduit, J -C; Farrah, D; Surace, J A; Jarvis, M; Oliver, S; Maraston, C; Vaccari, M; Marchetti, L; Zeimann, G; Gonzalez-Solares, E A; Pforr, J; Petric, A O; Henriques, B; Thomas, P A; Afonso, J; Rettura, A; Wilson, G; Falder, J T; Geach, J E; Huynh, M; Norris, R P; Seymour, N; Richards, G T; Stanford, S A; Alexander, D M; Becker, R H; Best, P N; Bizzocchi, L; Bonfield, D; Castro, N; Cava, A; Chapman, S; Christopher, N; Clements, D L; Covone, G; Dubois, N; Dunlop, J S; Dyke, E; Edge, A; Ferguson, H C; Foucaud, S; Franceschini, A; Gal, R R; Grant, J K; Grossi, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hickey, S; Hodge, J A; Huang, J -S; Ivison, R J; Kim, M; LeFevre, O; Lehnert, M; Lonsdale, C J; Lubin, L M; McLure, R J; Messias, H; Martinez-Sansigre, A; Mortier, A M J; Nielsen, D M; Ouchi, M; Parish, G; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierre, M; Rawlings, S; Readhead, A; Ridgway, S E; Rigopoulou, D; Romer, A K; Rosebloom, I G; Rottgering, H J A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sajina, A; Simpson, C J; Smail, I; Squires, G K; Stevens, J A; Taylor, R; Trichas, M; Urrutia, T; van Kampen, E; Verma, A; Xu, C K

    2012-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 square degrees medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ~2 microJy (AB=23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra Deep Field South and XMM-LSS). SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z~5 to the present day, and is the first extragalactic survey both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z>1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths to provide an unprecedented view of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies. In this paper, we discuss the SERVS survey design, the data processing flow from image reduction and mosaicing to catalogs, as well as coverage of ancillary data from other surveys i...

  6. A Spitzer Infrared Radius for the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, L. Jeremy; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the infrared transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observed two primary eclipse events (one partial and one complete transit) using the 24 micrometer array of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We analyzed a total of 2392 individual images (10-second integrations) of the planetary system, recorded before, during, and after transit. We perform optimal photometry on the images and use the local zodiacal light as a short-term flux reference. At this long wavelength, the transit curve has a simple box-like shape, allowing robust solutions for the stellar and planetary radii independent of stellar limb darkening, which is negligible at 24 micrometers. We derive a stellar radius of R(sub *) = 1.06 plus or minus 0.07 solar radius, a planetary radius of R(sub p) = 1.26 plus or minus 0.08 R(sub J), and a stellar mass of 1.17 solar mass. Within the errors, our results agree with the measurements at visible wavelengths. The 24 micrometer radius of the planet therefore does not differ significantly compared to the visible result. We point out the potential for deriving extrasolar transiting planet radii to high accuracy using transit photometry at slightly shorter IR wavelengths where greater photometric precision is possible.

  7. Knot a Bad Idea: Testing BLISS Mapping for Spitzer Space Telescope Eclipse Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Much of transiting exoplanet science relies on high-precision photometry. The current generation of instruments exhibit sensitivity variations greater than the astrophysical signals. For the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, a popular way to handle this is BiLinearly-Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity mapping (BLISS). We use examples of posterior probability functions to show that this scheme can misfit or bias astrophysical parameters, and a toy model to show that underestimated uncertainties may even happen in very simple cases. BLISS maps of detector sensitivity can also be unreliable if the noise in the data is low. To know the astrophysical and detector models a priori, we construct a model of \\emph{Spitzer} light curves with $\\sim10^{3}$ data. We compare standard BLISS to a variant in which the knot values are full-fledged parameters in the MCMC, and to a standard polynomial model. Both types of BLISS fit the eclipse depth similarly, and the standard BLISS knots vary...

  8. A New Analysis of Spitzer Observations of Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    CERN Document Server

    Schambeau, Charles A; Lisse, Carey M; Samarasinha, Nalin; Woodney, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of ${\\it Spitzer}$ observations of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 taken on UT 2003 November 21, 23, and 24, similar to a previous investigation of the observations (Stansberry et al. 2004), but using the most recent ${\\it Spitzer}$ data pipeline products and intensive image processing techniques. Analysis of images from the IRAC 5.8 & 8.0 $\\mu$m bands and the MIPS 24.0 & 70.0 $\\mu$m bands resulted in photometry measurements of the nucleus after a suite of coma modeling and removal processes were implemented. SW1 was not identified in the 5.8 $\\mu$m image from the previous work so its incorporation into this analysis is entirely new. Using the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (Harris 1998) resulted in a nucleus radius measurement of $R$ = 30.2 $^{+3.7}_{-2.9}$ km and an infrared beaming parameter value of $\\eta = 0.99$ $^{+0.26}_{-0.19}$. We also measured an infrared geometric albedo, $p_{5.8}$ = 0.5 $\\pm$ 0.5. Extrapolating a 0.04 V-band albedo and using a normalized refle...

  9. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet WASP-14b

    CERN Document Server

    Krick, J E; Carey, S; von Braun, K; Kane, S R; Ciardi, D; Plavchan, P; Wong, I; Lowrance, P

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of roughly two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring mode phase curve. Both datasets as well as snapshot style observations of a calibration star are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot dataset, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric ...

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, T; Woodward, C E; Roellig, T L; Smith, N; Rudnick, L R; Polomski, E F; Davidson, K; Yuen, L; Onaka, T; Temim, Tea; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Smith, Nathan; Rudnick, Lawrence R.; Polomski, Elisha F.; Davidson, Kris; Yuen, Lunming; Onaka, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We present 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, and 70 micron images of the Crab Nebula obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS cameras, Low- and High-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of selected positions within the nebula, and a near-infrared ground-based image made in the light of [Fe II]1.644 micron. The 8.0 micron image, made with a bandpass that includes [Ar II]7.0 micron, resembles the general morphology of visible H-alpha and near-IR [Fe II] line emission, while the 3.6 and 4.5 micron images are dominated by continuum synchrotron emission. The 24 micron and 70 micron images show enhanced emission that may be due to line emission or the presence of a small amount of warm dust in the nebula on the order of less than 1% of a solar mass. The ratio of the 3.6 and 4.5 micron images reveals a spatial variation in the synchrotron power law index ranging from approximately 0.3 to 0.8 across the nebula. Combining this information with optical and X-ray synchrotron images, we derive a broadband spectrum that re...

  11. Spitzer observations of a circumstellar nebula around the candidate Luminous Blue Variable MWC 930

    CERN Document Server

    Cerrigone, L; Buemi, C S; Hora, J L; Trigilio, C; Leto, P; Hart, A

    2013-01-01

    MWC 930 is a star just ~2{\\deg} above the Galactic plane whose nature is not clear and that has not been studied in detail so far. While a post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) classification was proposed in the past, studies of its optical spectrum and photometry pointed toward strong variability, therefore the object was reclassified as a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) candidate. LBVs typically undergo phases of strong mass loss in the form of eruptions that can create shells of ejecta around the star. Our goal is to search for the presence of such a circumstellar nebula in MWC 930 and investigate its properties. To do so, we make use of space-based infrared data from our Spitzer campaign performed with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) and the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) as well as data from optical and infrared (IR) surveys. In our Spitzer images, we clearly detect an extended shell around MWC 930 at wavelengths longer than 5 um. The mid-infrared spectrum is dominated by the central star and mostly shows forbid...

  12. High Contrast Imaging with Spitzer : Constraining the Frequency of Giant Planets out to 1000 AU separations

    CERN Document Server

    Durkan, Stephen; Carson, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a re-analysis of archival Spitzer IRAC direct imaging surveys encompassing a variety of nearby stars. Our sample is generated from the combined observations of 73 young stars (median age, distance, spectral type = 85 Myr, 23.3 pc, G5) and 48 known exoplanet host stars with unconstrained ages (median distance, spectral type = 22.6 pc, G5). While the small size of Spitzer provides a lower resolution than 8m-class AO-assisted ground based telescopes, which have been used for constraining the frequency of 0.5 - 13 $M_J$ planets at separations of $10 - 10^2$ AU, its exquisite infrared sensitivity provides the ability to place unmatched constraints on the planetary populations at wider separations. Here we apply sophisticated high-contrast techniques to our sample in order to remove the stellar PSF and open up sensitivity to planetary mass companions down to 5\\arcsec\\ separations. This enables sensitivity to 0.5 - 13 $M_J$ planets at physical separations on the order of $10^2 - 10^3$ AU , allow...

  13. A Spitzer Five-Band Analysis of the Jupiter-Sized Planet TrES-1

    CERN Document Server

    Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Foster, Andrew S D; Lust, Nate B; Hardy, Ryan A; Bowman, M Oliver

    2014-01-01

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by {\\Spitzer}. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all {\\Spitzer} eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 {\\micron} (0.083 % {\\pm} 0.024 %, 1270 {\\pm} 110 K), 4.5 {\\micron} (0.094 % {\\pm} 0.024 %, 1126 {\\pm} 90 K), 5.8 {\\micron} (0.162 % {\\pm} 0.042 %, 1205 {\\pm} 130 K), 8.0 {\\micron} (0.0213 % {\\pm} 0.042 %, 1190 {\\pm} 130 K), and 16 {\\micron} (0.33 % {\\pm} 0.12 %, 1270 {\\pm} 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1$\\sigma$ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity $e = 0.033^{+0.015}_{-0.031}$, consistent with a circular ...

  14. Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dweek, Eli; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hwang, Una; Long, Knox X.; Petre, Robert; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P. Frank

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with a neighboring molecular cloud provides a unique opportunity to measure the amount of grain destruction in an SNR shock. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS imaging of the entire SNR at 24, 70, and 160 micrometers shows an extremely good correlation with X-ray emission, indicating that the SNR's IR radiation is dominated by the thermal emission of swept-up interstellar dust, collisionally heated by the hot shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectral observations targeted both the Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) of the SNR where a small cloud has been engulfed by the supernova blast wave and outlying portions of the associated molecular cloud that are yet to be hit by the shock front. Modeling the spectra from both regions reveals the composition and the grain size distribution of the interstellar dust, both in front of and behind the SNR shock front. The comparison shows that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the interstellar medium are destroyed within the BEK, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

  15. Spitzer/MIPS Observations of Stars in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Werner, M W; Mannings, V G; Chen, C; Stauffer, J R; Smith, P S; Song, I; Hines, D; Low, F J

    2008-01-01

    We present Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations at 24 and 70 microns for 30 stars, and at 160 microns for a subset of 12 stars, in the nearby (~30 pc), young (~12 Myr) Beta Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG). In several cases, the new MIPS measurements resolve source confusion and background contamination issues in the IRAS data for this sample. We find that 7 members have 24 micron excesses, implying a debris disk fraction of 23%, and that at least 11 have 70 micron excesses (disk fraction of >=37%). Five disks are detected at 160 microns (out of a biased sample of 12 stars observed), with a range of 160/70 flux ratios. The disk fraction at 24 and 70 microns, and the size of the excesses measured at each wavelength, are both consistent with an "inside-out" infrared excess decrease with time, wherein the shorter-wavelength excesses disappear before longer-wavelength excesses, and consistent with the overall decrease of infrared excess frequency with stellar age, as seen in Spitzer studies of...

  16. Analysis of Spitzer Mid Infrared Spectra of Irradiated Planets: Evidence for Water Vapor?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, Jonathan J

    2007-01-01

    Published mid infrared spectra of transiting planets HD 209458b and HD 189733b, obtained during secondary eclipse by the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, are predominantly featureless. In particular these flux ratio spectra do not exhibit an expected feature arising from water vapor absorption short-ward of 10 microns. Here we suggest that the spectral data for HD 189733b are inconsistent with 8 micron-photometry obtained with Spitzer's InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC), perhaps an indication of problems with the IRS spectra from 7.5-10 microns. The IRAC data, along with previously published secondary eclipse photometry for HD 189733b, are in excellent agreement with a one-dimensional model of HD 189733b that clearly predicts water absorption. We are not able to draw firm conclusions regarding the IRS data for HD 209458b, but spectra predicted by 1D and 3D atmospheres models fit the data adequately, without adjustment of the water abundance or reliance on cloud opacity. We argue that...

  17. An investigation of the submillimeter background radiation using SCUBA and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S; Ashby, M L N; Huang, J S; Webb, T M A; Barmby, P; Lilly, S; Brodwin, M; McCracken, H; Egami, E; Fazio, G G

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the redshift dependence of the contribution to the extragalactic far-infrared/sub-millimeter background from galaxies detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 8um and 24um. Using seven-band optical to mid-infrared photometry, we estimate photometric redshifts for the Spitzer sources which appear to be mostly L* galaxies at a median redshift of z=1.0. These sources, extracted from deep 8um and 24um mosaics of the CUDSS 14-hour field with 5sigma limits of 5.8uJy and 70uJy respectively, exhibit significant 850um and 450um emission as observed by SCUBA. At 850um, after removing >=4sigma sources and those securely identified in our previous cross-matching paper, we measure stacked flux at the significance level of 4.4sigma and 2.9sigma from the full 8um and 24um galaxy catalogue respectively. At 450um, flux is detected from all 8um galaxies at the level of 3.5sigma, while there is no significant emission from the 24um galaxies. We find that the 850um flux is emitted almost exclusively at z>~1.3 fr...

  18. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC exoplanetary eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Giuseppe; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths $>$3 $\\mu$m, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in the past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same datasets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. 2014, 2015 proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze IRAC data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-S/N cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over twelve eclipses of the exoplanet XO...

  19. Spitzer infrared spectrograph point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, Paul M. E.; Kemper, F.; Jones, O. C.; Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Woods, Paul M.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Antoniou, V.; Lagadec, E.; Matsuura, M.; McDonald, I.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewiło, M.; Szczerba, R.; van Loon, J. Th.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust. We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring-mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects, 4 post-AGB objects, 22 red supergiants, 27 stars (of which 23 are dusty OB stars), 24 planetary nebulae (PNe), 10 Wolf-Rayet stars, 3 H II regions, 3 R Coronae Borealis stars, 1 Blue Supergiant and 6 other objects, including 2 foreground AGB stars. We use these classifications to evaluate the success of photometric classification methods reported in the literature.

  20. Ground-based Optical and SPITZER Infrared Imaging Observations of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner

    CERN Document Server

    Pittichova, Jana; Kelley, Michael S; Reach, William T

    2008-01-01

    We present ground-based optical and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared imaging observations of the ecliptic (Jupiter-family) comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, the parent body of the Draconid meteor stream, during its 2005 apparition. Onset of nucleus activity occurred at a pre-perihelion heliocentric distance, 3.3 AU following a logarithmic slope with heliocentric distance -2.04. Coma colors, (V-R) = 0.524 +/- 0.003, (R-I) = 0.487 +/- 0.004 are redder than solar, yet comparable to colors derived for other Jupiter-family comets. A nucleus radius of 1.82 +/- 0.05 km is derived from photometry at quiescence. Spitzer images post-perihelion exhibit an extensive coma with a prominent dust tail, where excess emission (over the dust continuum) in the 4.5 micron IRAC image arises from volatile gaseous CO and/or CO2. No dust trail was detected (3-sigma surface brightness upper-limit of 0.3 MJy/sr/pixel) along the projected velocity vector of comet 21P in the MIPS 24 micron image suggesting that the number density of trail par...

  1. Spitzer Mid-to-Far-Infrared Flux Densities of Distant Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Floc'h, Emeric Le; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Rieke, George H; Taylor, Edward N; Armus, Lee; Gawiser, Eric; Huang, Jiasheng; Marcillac, Delphine; Franx, Marijn

    2007-01-01

    We study the infrared (IR) properties of high-redshift galaxies using deep Spitzer 24, 70, and 160 micron data. Our primary interest is to improve the constraints on the total IR luminosities, L(IR), of these galaxies. We combine the Spitzer data in the southern Extended Chandra Deep Field with a K-band-selected galaxy sample and photometric redshifts from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We used a stacking analysis to measure the average 70 and 160 micron flux densities of 1.5 250 micro-Jy and 1.5 250 micro-Jy have S(70)/S(24) flux ratios comparable to sources with X-ray detections or red rest-frame IR colors, suggesting that warm dust possibly heated by AGN may contribute to the high 24 micron emission. Based on the average 24-160 micron flux densities, nearly all 24 micron-selected galaxies at 1.5 6 x 10^12 solar luminosities are quite rare, with a surface density ~ 30 +/- 10 per sq. deg, corresponding to ~ 2 +/- 1 x 10^-6 Mpc^-3 over 1.5 < z < 2.5.

  2. A Spitzer View of Mon OB1 East/NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Gutermuth, Robert A; Megeath, S Thomas; Allen, Thomas S; Myers, Philip C; Allen, Lori E

    2014-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 micron images of the Mon OB1 East giant molecular cloud, which contains the young star forming region NGC 2264, as well as more extended star formation. With Spitzer data and 2MASS photometry, we identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs) with dusty circumstellar disks and/or envelopes in Mon OB1 East by their infrared-excess emission and study their distribution with respect to cloud material. We find a correlation between the local surface density of YSOs and column density of molecular gas as traced by dust extinction that is roughly described as a power law in these quantities. NGC 2264 follows a power law index of ~2.7, exhibiting a large YSO surface density for a given gas column density. Outside of NGC 2264 where the surface density of YSOs is lower, the power law is shallower and the region exhibits a larger gas column density for a YSO surface density, suggesting the star formation is more recent. In order to measure the fraction of cloud members ...

  3. A Chandra and Spitzer census of the young star cluster in the reflection nebula NGC 7129

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B

    2009-01-01

    The reflection nebula NGC 7129 has long been known to be a site of recent star formation as evidenced, e.g., by the presence of deeply embedded protostars and HH objects. However, studies of the stellar population produced in the star formation process have remained rudimentary. At a presumed age of ~3 Myr, NGC7129 is in the critical range where disks around young stars disappear. We make use of Chandra X-ray and Spitzer and 2MASS IR imaging observations to identify the pre-main sequence stars in NGC7129. We define a sample of Young Stellar Objects based on color-color diagrams composed from IR photometry between 1.6 and 8 mu, from 2MASS and Spitzer, and based on X-ray detected sources from a Chandra observation. This sample is composed of 26 Class II and 25 Class III candidates. The sample is estimated to be complete down to ~ 0.5 solar masses. The most restricted and least biased sub-sample of pre-main sequence stars is composed of lightly absorbed (A_V < 5 mag) stars in the cluster core. This sample com...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  5. Spitzer IRS Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Rotational Emission Towards Translucent Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, James G; Boulanger, F; Draine, B T; Falgarone, E; Hily-Blant, P

    2011-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v=0-0) transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) towards 6 positions in two translucent high Galactic latitude clouds, DCld 300.2-16.9 and LDN 1780. The detection of these lines raises important questions regarding the physical conditions inside low-extinction clouds that are far from ultraviolet radiation sources. The ratio between the S(2) flux and the flux from PAHs at 7.9 microns averages 0.007 for these 6 positions. This is a factor of about 4 higher than the same ratio measured towards the central regions of non-active Galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). Thus the environment of these translucent clouds is more efficient at producing rotationally excited H2 per PAH-exciting photon than the disks of entire galaxies. Excitation analysis finds that the S(1) and S(2) emitting regions are warm (T >300K), but comprise no more than 2% of the gas m...

  6. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 using Spitzer /IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donovan, Francis T; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Madhusudhan, N; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A

    2009-01-01

    With the recent torrent of discoveries of new transiting planets, there have been ample candidates for observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127%+-0.021%, 0.230%+-0.024%, 0.199%+-0.054%, and 0.359%+-0.060%, at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a black body spectrum with Teff = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. However, the planet-to-star flux ratio at 4.5 microns exceeds the expectation from the blackbody emission, which argues for a temperature inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2. The presence or absence of such an inversion in a planetary atmosphere has been predicted to be correlated with the amount of incident flux received by...

  7. A Spitzer survey of mid-infrared molecular emission from protoplanetary disks I: Detection rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Meijerink, Rowin; Carr, John S; Najita, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 micron molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H2O, OH, C2H2, HCN and CO2. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H2O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5x10^-4 to 9x10^-3 Lsun, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the 5 transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H...

  8. The Spitzer-IRAC Point Source Catalog of the Vela-D Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Strafella, F; Campeggio, L; Giannini, T; Lorenzetti, D; Marengo, M; Smith, H A; Fazio, G; De Luca, M; Massi, F

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the observations of the Cloud D in the Vela Molecular Ridge, obtained with the IRAC camera onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope at the wavelengths \\lambda = 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 {\\mu}m. A photometric catalog of point sources, covering a field of approximately 1.2 square degrees, has been extracted and complemented with additional available observational data in the millimeter region. Previous observations of the same region, obtained with the Spitzer MIPS camera in the photometric bands at 24 {\\mu}m and 70 {\\mu}m, have also been reconsidered to allow an estimate of the spectral slope of the sources in a wider spectral range. A total of 170,299 point sources, detected at the 5-sigma sensitivity level in at least one of the IRAC bands, have been reported in the catalog. There were 8796 sources for which good quality photometry was obtained in all four IRAC bands. For this sample, a preliminary characterization of the young stellar population based on the determination of spectral slope is discu...

  9. Spitzer-MIPS survey of the young stellar content in the Vela Molecular Cloud-D

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; De Luca, M; Nisini, B; Marengo, M; Allen, L; Smith, H A; Fazio, G; Massi, F; Elia, D; Strafella, F

    2007-01-01

    A new, unbiased Spitzer-MIPS imaging survey (~1.8 square degs) of the young stellar content of the Vela Molecular Cloud-D is presented. The survey is complete down to 5mJy and 250mJy at 24micron (mu) and 70mu, respectively. 849 sources are detected at 24mu and 52 of them also have a 70mu counterpart. The VMR-D region is one that we have already partially mapped in dust and gas millimeter emission, and we discuss the correlation between the Spitzer compact sources and the mm contours. About half of the 24mu sources are located inside the region delimited by the 12CO(1-0) contours (corresponding to only one third of the full area mapped with MIPS) with a consequent density increase of about 100% of the 24mu sources [four times for 70mu ones] moving from outside to inside the CO contours. About 400 sources have a 2MASS counterpart. So we have constructed a Ks vs. Ks-[24] diagram and identified the protostellar population. We find an excess of Class I sources in VMR-D in comparison with other star forming regions...

  10. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  11. Binarity as a key factor in protoplanetary disk evolution : Spitzer disk census of the eta Chamaeleontis cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.; Lawson, W. A.; Dominik, C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Henning, Th.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of planets is directly linked to the evolution of the circumstellar (CS) disk from which they are born. The dissipation timescales of CS disks are therefore of direct astrophysical importance in evaluating the time available for planet formation. We employ Spitzer Space Telescope spect

  12. Transits and Eclipses of the Best of the Best: 23 Hot Jupiters for Atmospheric Characterization by Spitzer, Hubble, and JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjoern; Fraine, Jonathan; Kataria, Tiffany; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mandell, Avi; McCullough, Peter; Sheppard, Kyle; Sing, David; Stevenson, Kevin; Todorov, Kamen; Wakeford, Hannah; Wilkins, Ashlee; Burrows, Adam

    2016-08-01

    We propose a program of Spitzer transit and secondary eclipse observations for 23 of the 'best of the best' hot giant planets (R > 0.8 Jupiters). We focus on planets that are already observed by HST, proposed to be observed by HST, or candiates for JWST Early Release Science observations. Our eclipse observations will measure day side temperatures that are needed for HST spectroscopy, and temperatures of the hottest and most favorable planets for JWST spectroscopy and possible phase curve observations. Several of our planets are extremely inflated, with atmospheric scale heights exceeding a thousand kilometers, yielding large atmospheric signatures during transit. Our transit photometry has the potential to detect molecular absorption by comparing transit radii and eclipse depths in the two Spitzer bands. Moreover, our precise transit depths will help to evaluate the magnitude of continuous opacity in the exoplanetary atmospheres, breaking the degeneracy between composition and cloud opacity, as recently demonstrated by Sing et al. We will thereby find the hottest and clearest giant exoplanetary atmospheres, with the largest molecular signatures, for HST and JWST spectroscopy. This will complete the Spitzer hot Jupiter legacy by providing a uniform set of transit and eclipse observations for the most favorable members of the intriguing population of close-in highly-irradiated giant planets. This unique Spitzer data set will guide efforts toward detailed atmospheric characterization of individual hot Jupiters for years to come.

  13. Observations of Blazar S5 0716+714 With Ground Based Telescopes and the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jeffery; Lacy, M.; Morton, A.; Travagli, T.; Mulaveesala, M.; Santiago, J.; Rapp, S.; Stefaniak, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to be launched in 2007 has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the Global Telescope Network (GTN). One of our targets, S5 0716+714, was observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS and IRAC instruments and also using ground based telescopes. Observations were made in seven infrared bands with Spitzer. Additional observations made from the ground by students, amateur astronomers, and college observatories in R,V, and I were nearly simultaneous with the Spitzer observations. This data were used to construct light curves over the course of the observation and the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the target using all the sources. These data were compared to models of the dust emission from the torus, synchrotron emission from the radio core, and thermal emission from the accretion disk to determine the relative importance of the different emission mechanisms in this object as a function of wavelength. Results were compared to observations of 4C 29.45 made last year. This research was supported by the Spitzer Science Center, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the California Department of Education's Specialized Secondary Program.

  14. Palomar/triplespec observations of Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm circumstellar shells: Unveiling the natures of their central sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petric, A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Gemini North Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopic observations of the central sources in 17 circumstellar shells from a sample of more than 400 'bubbles' discovered in the Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm survey of the Galactic plane and in the Cygnus-X region. To identify the natures of these shells, we have obtained J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of ∼2600 of the stars at their centers. We observed 14 MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs), WR149, and 2 objects in the Cygnus-X region (WR138a and BD+43 3710), our sample being about 2.5 mag fainter in the K band than previous studies of the central sources of MBs. We use spectroscopic diagnostics and spectral libraries of late- and early-type stars to constrain the natures of our targets. We find five late-type giants. The equivalent widths of their CO 2.29 μm features allow us to determine the spectral types of the stars and hence derive the extinction along the line of sight, distance, and physical size of the shells. We also find 12 early-type stars: in 9 MBs and the 3 comparison objects. We find that the subtype inferred from the near-IR for WR138a (WN9h) and WR149 (WN5h) agrees with that derived from optical observations. A careful analysis of the literature and the environment of BD+43 3710 allows us to rule out the carbon star interpretation previously suggested. Our near-IR spectrum suggests that it is a B5 supergiant. At the centers of the nine MBs, we find a WC5-6 star possibly of low mass, a candidate O5-6 V star, a B0 supergiant, a B/A-type giant, and five luminous blue variable (LBV) candidates. We also report the detections of emission lines arising from at least two shells with typical extents (∼10''), in agreement with those in the mid-IR. We summarize the findings on the natures of the MBs since their discovery, with 30% of them now known. Most MBs with central sources detected in the near- to mid-IR have been identified and are red and blue giants, supergiants, or stars evolving toward these phases

  15. The Evolution of Protostars: Insights from Ten Years of Infrared Surveys with Spitzer and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Allen, Lori E; Evans, Neal J; Fischer, William J; Megeath, S Thomas; Myers, Philip C; Offner, Stella S R; Poteet, Charles A; Tobin, John J; Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2014-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cloud cores. In the protostellar phase, mass accretes from the core onto a protostar, likely through an accretion disk, and it is during this phase that the initial masses of stars and the initial conditions for planet formation are set. Over the past decade, new observational capabilities provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have enabled wide-field surveys of entire star-forming clouds with unprecedented sensitivity, resolution, and infrared wavelength coverage. We review resulting advances in the field, focusing both on the observations themselves and the constraints they place on theoretical models of star formation and protostellar evolution. We also emphasize open questions and outline new directions needed to further advance the field.

  16. Star Formation in Distant Red Galaxies: Spitzer observations in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, T; Egami, E; Fazio, G; Franx, M; Gawiser, E; Herrera, D H; Huang, J; Labbé, I; Lira, P; Marchesini, D; Maza, J; Quadri, R; Rudnick, G; Van der Werf, P P; Webb, Tracy; Dokkum, Pieter van; Egami, Eiichi; Fazio, Giovanni; Franx, Marijn; Gawiser, Eric; Herrera, David; Huang, Jiasheng; Labbe, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Marchesini, Danilo; Maza, Jose; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Gregory; Werf, Paul van der

    2005-01-01

    We present Spitzer 24micron imaging of 1.5 40uJy, and conclude that the bulk of the DRG population are dusty active galaxies. A mid-infrared (MIR) color analysis with IRAC data suggests that the MIR fluxes are not dominated by buried AGN, and we interpret the high detection rate as evidence for a high average star formation rate of = 130+/-30 M/yr. From this, we infer that DRGs are important contributors to the cosmic star formation rate density at z ~ 2, at a level of \\~0.02 M/yr/Mpc^3 to our completeness limit of K_AB = 22.9 mag

  17. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  18. Spitzer Mid-infrared Study of Compact HII Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Chatzopoulos, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the mid-infrared properties and dust content of a sample of 27 HII ``blobs'', a rare class of compact HII regions in the Magellanic Clouds. A unique feature of this sample is that even though these HII regions are of high and low excitation they have nearly the same physical sizes ~1.5-3 pc. We base our analysis on archival 3-8 microns infrared imagery obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that despite their youth, sub-solar metallicity and varied degrees of excitation, the mid-infrared colors of these regions are similar to those of typical HII regions. Higher excitation ``blobs'' (HEBs) display stronger 8 micron emission and redder colors than their low-excitation counterparts (LEBs).

  19. The Early Years: Lyman Spitzer, Jr. and the Physics of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the interstellar medium and the early work of Lyman Spitzer, Jr. are reviewed here in the context of the remarkable observation in the early 1950's that star formation continues in the present age. Prior to this observation, stars were thought to have formed only at the beginning of the universe. The main debate in the 1930's was whether stars had the young age of ~3 Gyr suggested by the expansion of the universe and the meteorites, or the old age of 10^{13} yr suggested by thermalized stellar motions. The adoption of Ambartsumian's claim of modern-day star formation was slow and mixed in the early 1950's. While some astronomers like Adriaan Blaauw immediately followed, adding more from their own data, others were slow to change. By the end of the 1950's, Lyman had deduced the basic theory for star formation that we would recognize today.

  20. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep Spitzer IRAC Images: Data Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, R G; Moseley, S H; Mather, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer IRAC observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations which would otherwise corrupt our results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources, and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large scale (>~30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power law components. Our measurements of spatial fluctuations ...

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope: Unprecedented Efficiency and Excellent Science on a Limited Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope completed nearly six years of cryogenic operations in 2009 and in August 2011 began the third year of ‘warm’ science observations. Over 50,000 hours of science have been executed in the first 8 years of the mission. Nearly 40% of the cryogenic mission project budget was devoted to data analysis funding provided directly to the astronomical community. For the warm mission, the observatory was effectively reinvented as a new, scientifically productive mission operating at a substantially lower cost. In this paper we discuss how the design of the science operations, observing modes and observing program for the cryogenic mission led to very high observing efficiencies and maximized the observatory time devoted to science. The philosophy of maximizing science output per dollar has continued in the warm mission. The transition to warm operations has maintained an outstanding science program while reducing the project budget by nearly 70% from the cryogenic mission level.

  2. Nova V2362 Cygni (Nova Cygni 2006): Spitzer, Swift, and Ground-Based Spectral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Mazuk, S.; Woodward, Charles; Gehrz, Robert; Rayner, John; Helton, L.A.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Rudy, Richard J.; Russell, Ray W.; Osborne, Julian P.; Page, Kim; Pearson, Richard; Wagner, R. Mark; Puetter, Richard C.; Perry, Raleigh B.; Schwarz, Greg; Vanlandingham, Karen; Black, John; Bode, Michael; Evans, Aneurin; Geballe, Thomas; Greenhouse, Matthew; Hauschildt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Nova V2362 Cygni has undergone a number of very unusual changes. Ground-based spectroscopy initially revealed a normal sequence of events: the object faded and its near-infrared emission lines gradually shifted to higher excitation conditions until about day 100 when the optical fading reversed and the object slowly brightened. This was accompanied by a rise in the Swift X-ray telescope flux and a sudden shift in excitation of the visible and IR spectrum back to low levels. The new lower excitation spectrum revealed broad line widths and many P-Cygni profiles, all indicative of the ejection of a second shell. Eventually, dust formed, the X-ray brightness -- apparently unaffected by dust formation -- peaked and then declined, and the object faded at all wavelengths. The Spitzer dust spectra revealed a number of solid-state emission features that, at this time, are not identified.

  3. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectra of Cool-Core Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Messières, G E; McNamara, B R; Donahue, M; Nulsen, P E J; Voit, G M; Wise, M W

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation in the brightest cluster galaxy. Our goal is to use the advantages of the mid-infrared band to improve estimates of star formation. Our spectra are characterized by diverse morphologies ranging from classic starbursts to flat spectra with surprisingly weak dust features. Although most of our sample are known from optical/UV data to be active star-formers, they lack the expected strong mid-infrared continuum. Star formation may be proceeding in unusually dust-deficient circumgalactic environments such as the interface between the cooling flow and the relativistic jets from the active galactic nucleus.

  4. The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey: A Mid-infrared Atlas of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard. A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength” the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  5. FINDING {eta} CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S., E-mail: khan@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby ({approx}< 4 Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs. We find 34 candidates with a flat or rising mid-IR spectral energy distributions toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths that emit >10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 {+-} 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of {eta} Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like {eta} Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M{sub Sun} star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 {mu}m, allowing identification of {eta} Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  6. THE SPITZER INTERACTING GALAXIES SURVEY: A MID-INFRARED ATLAS OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassington, N. J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Klein, C., E-mail: n.brassington@herts.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength”; the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  7. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ0) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M ☉ stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M ☉ stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  8. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  9. High Contrast Imaging with Spitzer: Constraining the Frequency of Giant Planets out to 1000 au Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Stephen; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    We report results of a re-analysis of archival Spitzer IRAC direct imaging surveys encompassing a variety of nearby stars. Our sample is generated from the combined observations of 73 young stars (median age, distance, spectral type = 85 Myr, 23.3 pc, G5) and 48 known exoplanet host stars with unconstrained ages (median distance, spectral type = 22.6 pc, G5). While the small size of Spitzer provides a lower resolution than 8 m class AO-assisted ground-based telescopes, which have been used for constraining the frequency of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 10–102 au, its exquisite infrared sensitivity provides the ability to place unmatched constraints on the planetary populations at wider separations. Here we apply sophisticated high-contrast techniques to our sample in order to remove the stellar point-spread function and to open up sensitivity to planetary mass companions down to 5″ separations. This enables sensitivity to 0.5–13 M J planets at physical separations on the order of 102–103 au, allowing us to probe a parameter space that has not previously been systematically explored to any similar degree of sensitivity. Based on a color and proper motion analysis, we do not record any planetary detections. Exploiting this enhanced survey sensitivity, employing Monte Carlo simulations with a Bayesian approach, and assuming a mass distribution of {dn}/{dm}\\propto {m}-1.31, we constrain (at 95% confidence) a population of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 100–1000 au with an upper frequency limit of 9%.

  10. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DETECTION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ROTATIONAL EMISSION TOWARDS TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G. [Spitzer Space Telescope Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Boulanger, F. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris Sud, Bat. 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Draine, B. T. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Falgarone, E. [Laboratoire de Radio-Astronomie, LERMA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hily-Blant, P., E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bania@bu.edu, E-mail: francois.boulanger@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: edith.falgarone@lra.ens.fr, E-mail: pierre.hilyblant@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [LAOG, CNRS UMR 5571, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP53, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2011-12-20

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v = 0-0) transitions of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) toward six positions in two translucent high Galactic latitude clouds, DCld 300.2-16.9 and LDN 1780. The detection of these lines raises important questions regarding the physical conditions inside low-extinction clouds that are far from ultraviolet radiation sources. The ratio between the S(2) flux and the flux from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 7.9 {mu}m averages 0.007 for these six positions. This is a factor of about four higher than the same ratio measured toward the central regions of non-active Galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. Thus, the environment of these translucent clouds is more efficient at producing rotationally excited H{sub 2} per PAH-exciting photon than the disks of entire galaxies. Excitation analysis finds that the S(1) and S(2) emitting regions are warm (T {approx}> 300 K), but comprise no more than 2% of the gas mass. We find that UV photons cannot be the sole source of excitation in these regions and suggest mechanical heating via shocks or turbulent dissipation as the dominant cause of the emission. The clouds are located on the outskirts of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association and may be dissipating recent bursts of mechanical energy input from supernova explosions. We suggest that pockets of warm gas in diffuse or translucent clouds, integrated over the disks of galaxies, may represent a major source of all non-active galaxy H{sub 2} emission.

  11. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Detection of Molecular Hydrogen Rotational Emission towards Translucent Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Bania, T. M.; Boulanger, F.; Draine, B. T.; Falgarone, E.; Hily-Blant, P.

    2011-12-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have detected emission in the S(0), S(1), and S(2) pure-rotational (v = 0-0) transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) toward six positions in two translucent high Galactic latitude clouds, DCld 300.2-16.9 and LDN 1780. The detection of these lines raises important questions regarding the physical conditions inside low-extinction clouds that are far from ultraviolet radiation sources. The ratio between the S(2) flux and the flux from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 7.9 μm averages 0.007 for these six positions. This is a factor of about four higher than the same ratio measured toward the central regions of non-active Galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. Thus, the environment of these translucent clouds is more efficient at producing rotationally excited H2 per PAH-exciting photon than the disks of entire galaxies. Excitation analysis finds that the S(1) and S(2) emitting regions are warm (T >~ 300 K), but comprise no more than 2% of the gas mass. We find that UV photons cannot be the sole source of excitation in these regions and suggest mechanical heating via shocks or turbulent dissipation as the dominant cause of the emission. The clouds are located on the outskirts of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association and may be dissipating recent bursts of mechanical energy input from supernova explosions. We suggest that pockets of warm gas in diffuse or translucent clouds, integrated over the disks of galaxies, may represent a major source of all non-active galaxy H2 emission.

  12. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  13. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-cryogenic Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M.; Morello, G.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μm data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble, 5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  14. A Precise Determination of the Mid-Infrared Interstellar Extinction Law Based on the APOGEE Spectroscopic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Mengyao; Gao, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    A precise measure of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction law is crucial to the investigation of the properties of interstellar dust, especially of the grains in the large size end. Based on the stellar parameters derived from the SDSS-III/APOGEE spectroscopic survey, we select a large sample of G- and K-type giants as the tracers of the Galactic mid-infrared extinction. We calculate the intrinsic stellar color excesses from the stellar effective temperatures and use them to determine the mid-infrared extinction for a given line of sight. For the entire sky of the Milky Way surveyed by APOGEE, we derive the extinction (relative to the K$_{\\rm S}$ band at wavelength $\\lambda=2.16\\mu$m) for the four \\emph{WISE} bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22$\\mu$m, the four \\emph{Spitzer}/IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8$\\mu$m, the \\emph{Spitzer}/MIPS24 band at 23.7$\\mu$m and for the first time, the \\emph{AKARI}/S9W band at 8.23$\\mu$m. Our results agree with previous works in that the extinction curve is flat in the ~3--8$\\m...

  15. The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Arie, E.; Ballard, J.; Barbe, A.; Bjoraker, G.; Bonnet, B.; Brown, L. R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Champion, J. P.; Chedin, A.; Chursin, A.; Clerbaux, C.; Duxbury, G.; Flaud, J.-M.; Fourrie, N.; Fayt, A.; Graner, G.; Gamache, R.; Goldman, A.; Golovko, V.; Guelachvili, G.; Hartmann, J. M.; Hilico, J. C.; Hillman, J.; Lefevre, G.; Lellouch, E.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nemtchinov, V.; Newnham, D. A.; Nikitin, A.; Orphal, J.; Perrin, A.; Reuter, D. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Rosenmann, L.; Rothman, L. S.; Scott, N. A.; Selby, J.; Sinitsa, L. N.; Sirota, J. M.; Smith, A. M.; Smith, K. M.; Tyuterev, V. G.; Tipping, R. H.; Urban, S.; Varanasi, P.; Weber, M.

    1999-05-01

    The current version GEISA-97 of the computer-accessible database system GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmospheriques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) is described. This catalogue contains 1,346,266 entries. These are the spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located between 0 and 22656 cm-1. The featured molecules are of interest in studies of the terrestrial as well as the other planetary atmospheres, especially those of the giant planets. GEISA-97 contains also a catalog of absorption cross-sections of molecules such as chlorofluorocarbons which exhibit unresolvable spectra. The modifications and improvements made to the earlier edition (GEISA-92) and the data management software are described.

  16. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haw; Cang, Hu; Xu, Cangshan; Wong, Chung M.

    2011-07-19

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  17. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  18. VIMOS-VLT and Spitzer observations of a radio galaxy at z=2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villar-Martin, M; Sanchez, SF; De Breuck, C; Peletier, R; Vernet, J; Rettura, A; Seymour, N; Humphrey, A; Stern, D; Alighieri, SD; Fosbury, R

    2006-01-01

    We present: (i) a kinematic and morphological study of the giant Ly alpha nebula associated with the radio galaxy MRC 2104-242 (z = 2.49) based on integral field spectroscopic Visible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) data from the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and (ii) a photometric study of the host

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer and VRIJHK photometry of V582 Mon (Arulanantham+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, N. A.; Herbst, W.; Cody, A. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Agol, E.; Windemuth, D.; Marengo, M.; Winn, J. N.; Hamilton, C. M.; Mundt, R.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Gutermuth, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have continued to obtain ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry over the last two years using A Novel Dual Imaging CAMera (ANDICAM) on the 1.3m telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The instrument is operated by the SMARTS consortium. Data were collected almost nightly from 2013 October through 2014 April. Observations were resumed in 2014 September and continued until 2015 April. Each night, four 150s exposures were obtained in each of the three optical bands (VRI) along with 10-15 dithered exposures (30s each) in the near-infrared bands (JHK). All images have a 10.2'*10.2' field of view. The data acquisition and reduction processes are discussed briefly in Appendix A, and a more complete description is given by Windemuth & Herbst 2014 (cat. J/AJ/147/9). The VRIJHK magnitudes from the last two observing seasons have been added to the entire set of CCD data obtained since 1995, which is presented here as Table1. Images of KH 15D were collected with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during six observational runs with five separate PI's spanning three distinct epochs since 2004 (2004 Mar 6 and 2004 Oct 08, PI Giovanni Fazio, Program ID=37; 2004 Oct 5-12 and 2005 Oct 21-29, PI Massimo Marengo, Program ID=3441; 2006 Mar 23-27, PI Eric Agol, Program ID=3469; 2008 Nov 1-2, PI Lucas A. Cieza, Program ID=50773). The fifth set of observations was obtained by the CSI 2264 team (PI=John R. Stauffer, Program ID=61027, 80040) as part of a large campaign to monitor young variable objects in NGC2264 (Cody et al. 2014, cat. J/AJ/147/82). These data were obtained over 28 consecutive days of observation in 2011 December (2011 Dec 3-2012 Jan 1). A final set of observations was obtained on eight nights between 2013 December and 2014 January (2013 Dec 22-2014 Jan 20, PI William Herbst, Program ID=90154, 90098). The full set of Spitzer photometry at all epochs is given in Table3. (2 data files).

  20. SPITZER-IRAC SURVEY OF MOLECULAR JETS IN VELA-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Nisini, B.; Salama, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy); De Luca, M. [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Strafella, F.; Maiolo, B.; Maruccia, Y. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita del Salento, CP 193, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Elia, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Massi, F.; Olmi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a survey of H{sub 2} jets from young protostars in the Vela-D molecular cloud (VMR-D), based on Spitzer-IRAC data between 3.6 {mu}m and 8.0 {mu}m. Our search has led to the identification of 15 jets (two new discoveries) and about 70 well-aligned knots within 1.2 deg{sup 2}. We compare the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) maps with observations of the H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line at 2.12 {mu}m, with a Spitzer-MIPS map at 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m, and with a map of the dust continuum emission at 1.2 mm. From such a comparison, we find a tight association between molecular jets and dust peaks. The jet candidate exciting sources have been searched for in the published catalog of the young stellar objects of VMR-D. In particular, we searched for all the sources of Class II or (preferentially) earlier which are located close to the jet center and aligned with it. Furthermore, the association between jet and exciting source was validated by estimating the differential extinction between the jet opposite lobes. We are able to find a best-candidate exciting source in all but two jets, for which two alternative candidates are given. Four exciting sources are not (or very barely) observed at wavelengths shorter than 24 {mu}m, suggesting that they are very young protostars. Three of them are also associated with the most compact jets (projected length {approx}<0.1 pc). The exciting source spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed and modeled by means of all the available photometric data between 1.2 {mu}m and 1.2 mm. From SEDs fits, we derive the main source parameters, which indicate that most of them are low-mass protostars. A significant correlation is found between the projected jet length and the [24]-[70] color, which is consistent with an evolutionary scenario according to which shorter jets are associated with younger sources. A rough correlation is found between IRAC line cooling and exciting source bolometric luminosity, in agreement with the previous

  1. Searching for gas emission lines in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of young stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Skinner, S. L.; Carmona, A.; Glauser, A. M.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Our knowledge of circumstellar disks has traditionally been based on studies of dust. However, gas dominates the disk mass and its study is key to our understanding of accretion, outflows, and ultimately planet formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope provides access to gas emission lines in the mid-infrared, providing crucial new diagnostics of the physical conditions in accretion disks and outflows. Aims: We seek to identify gas emission lines in mid-infrared spectra of 64 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus. Using line luminosities and other known star-disk-outflow parameters, we aim to identify correlations that will help to constrain gas heating, excitation mechanisms, and the line formation. Methods: We have based our study on Spitzer observations using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), mainly with the high-resolution modules. Line luminosities (or 3σ upper limits) have been obtained by fitting Gaussian profiles to the lines. We have further searched for correlations between the line luminosities and different parameters related to the star-disk system. Results: We have detected H2 (17.03, 28.22 μm) emission in 6 objects, [Ne II] (12.81 μm) emission in 18 objects, and [Fe II] (17.93, 25.99 μm) emission in 7 objects. [Ne II] detections are found primarily in Class II objects. The luminosity of the [Ne II] line (LNeII) is in general higher for objects known to drive jets than for those without known jets, but the two groups are not statistically distinguishable. LNeII is correlated with X-ray luminosity, but for Class II objects only. LNeII is also correlated with disk mass and accretion rate when the sample is divided into high and low accretors. Furthermore, we find correlations of LNeII with mid-IR continuum luminosity and with luminosity of the [O I] (6300 Å) line, the latter being an outflow tracer. L [FeII] correlates with Ṁacc. No correlations were found between LH2 and several tested parameters. Conclusions: Our study reveals a general trend

  2. The climate of HD 189733b from fourteen transits and eclipses measured by Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, E.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Cowan, Nicolas B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knutson, Heather A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Deming, Drake; /NASA, Goddard; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Henry, Gregory W.; /Tennessee State U.; Charbonneau, David; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of six transits and six eclipses of the transiting planet system HD 189733 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC camera at 8 microns, as well as a re-analysis of previously published data. We use several novel techniques in our data analysis, the most important of which is a new correction for the detector 'ramp' variation with a double-exponential function which performs better and is a better physical model for this detector variation. Our main scientific findings are: (1) an upper limit on the variability of the day-side planet flux of 2.7% (68% confidence); (2) the most precise set of transit times measured for a transiting planet, with an average accuracy of 3 seconds; (3) a lack of transit-timing variations, excluding the presence of second planets in this system above 20% of the mass of Mars in low-order mean-motion resonance at 95% confidence; (4) a confirmation of the planet's phase variation, finding the night side is 64% as bright as the day side, as well as an upper limit on the night-side variability of 17% (68% confidence); (5) a better correction for stellar variability at 8 micron causing the phase function to peak 3.5 hours before secondary eclipse, confirming that the advection and radiation timescales are comparable at the 8 micron photosphere; (6) variation in the depth of transit, which possibly implies variations in the surface brightness of the portion of the star occulted by the planet, posing a fundamental limit on non-simultaneous multi-wavelength transit absorption measurements of planet atmospheres; (7) a measurement of the infrared limb-darkening of the star, which is in good agreement with stellar atmosphere models; (8) an offset in the times of secondary eclipse of 69 seconds, which is mostly accounted for by a 31 second light travel time delay and 33 second delay due to the shift of ingress and egress by the planet hot spot; this confirms that the phase variation is due to an offset hot

  3. The (w)hole survey: an unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; van Terwisga, Sierk; Merin, Bruno; Herczeg, Gregory; Ligterink, Niels F W; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen SED-selected candidates have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased towards the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Using color criteria we have selected a sample of ~150 candidates, and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC...

  4. Low False-Positive Rate of Kepler Candidates Estimated From A Combination Of Spitzer And Follow-Up Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Ballard, Sarah; Bryson, Stephen T; Knutson, Heather A; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) NASA's Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates, yet only a small subset have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) amongst the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 microns. We use these observations to measures the candidate's transit depths and infrared magnitudes. A bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a f...

  5. The Spitzer Microlensing Program as a Probe for Globular Cluster Planets: Analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleski, Radosław; Zhu, Wei; Christie, Grant W.; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE group; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Spitzer team; Beatty, T. G.; Eastman, J. D.; Drummond, J.; Friedmann, M.; Henderson, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Kaspi, S.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; McCrady, N.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Porritt, I.; Relles, H. M.; Sliski, D. H.; Tan, T.-G.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Wright, J. T.; μFUN group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Menzies, J.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Schmidt, R.; Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.; Mao, S.; project, RoboNet; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D’Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Verma, P.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp group

    2016-05-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ({{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}{cl}(N,E)=(+0.36+/- 0.10,+1.42+/- 0.10) {{mas}} {{{yr}}}-1) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters, other potential cluster lens events can be verified using our methodology. Additionally, we find that microlens parallax measured using Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE) photometry is consistent with the value found based on the light curve displacement between the Earth and Spitzer.

  6. Spectroscopic Survey of Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, J.

    This program will obtain far-UV spectra of cool stars that span a broad range of spectral type and luminosity class. It is our intention to obtain these spectra early in the FUSE program and to provide the spectra quickly to the user community in order to guide potential guest investigators in designing their observing programs. The specific science objectives include: (1) studying transition region dynamics (winds and downflows), (2) modeling the thermal structure of transition regions, (3) measuring electron densities, (4) search for low temperature coronae, (5) studying molecular excitation and fluorescence processes, and (6) inferring how the transition regions of spectroscopic binary systems differ from those of single stars.

  7. Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van

    2006-01-01

    We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...

  8. The Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud: Discovery of Embedded Protostars in the HII Region NGC 346

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Joshua D; Whitney, Barbara A; Robitaille, Thomas P; Shah, Ronak Y; Makovoz, David; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Barba, Rodolfo H; Rubio, Monica

    2007-01-01

    We use Spitzer Space Telescope observations from the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S3MC) to study the young stellar content of N66, the largest and brightest HII region in the SMC. In addition to large numbers of normal stars, we detect a significant population of bright, red infrared sources that we identify as likely to be young stellar objects (YSOs). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) fits to classify objects as ordinary (main sequence or red giant) stars, asymptotic giant branch stars, background galaxies, and YSOs. This represents the first large-scale attempt at blind source classification based on Spitzer SEDs in another galaxy. We firmly identify at least 61 YSOs, with another 50 probable YSOs; only one embedded protostar in the SMC was reported in the literature prior to the S3MC. We present color selection criteria that can be used to identify a relatively clean sample of YSOs with IRAC photometry. Our fitted SEDs indicate that the infrared-bright YSOs in N66 have stellar mas...

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud ---polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at low metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, Mikako; Evans, T Lloyd; Volk, Kevin M; Hrivnak, Bruce J; Sloan, G C; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Kraemer, Kathleen E; Peeters, Els; Szczerba, R; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, Albert A; Hony, S; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamath, Devika; Lagadec, Eric; Parker, Quentin A; Reid, Warren A; Shimonishi, Takashi; Van Winckel, H; Woods, Paul M; Kemper, F; Meixner, Margaret; Otsuka, M; Sahai, R; Sargent, B A; Hora, J L; McDonald, Iain

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) features that were found in Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of carbon-rich post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part describes our Spitzer spectral observing programme of 24 stars including post-AGB candidates. The latter half of this paper presents the analysis of PAH features in 20 carbon-rich post-AGB stars in the LMC, assembled from the Spitzer archive as well as from our own programme. We found that five post-AGB stars showed a broad feature with a peak at 7.7 micron, that had not been classified before. Further, the 10--13 micron PAH spectra were classified into four classes, one of which has three broad peaks at 11.3, 12.3 and 13.3 micron rather than two distinct sharp peaks at 11.3 and 12.7 micron, as commonly found in HII regions. Our studies suggest that PAHs are gradually processed while the central stars evolve from post-AGB phase to PNe,...

  10. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Kemper, F; Ling, B; Volk, K

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previ...

  11. Spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the early-type spectroscopic binary HD 161853 in the centre of an H II region

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R; Barbá, R H; Arias, J I; Apellániz, J Maíz; Walborn, N R; Sota, A; Alfaro, E J

    2015-01-01

    We study the O-type star HD 161853, which has been noted as a probable double-lined spectroscopic binary system. We secured high-resolution spectra of HD 161853 during the past nine years. We separated the two components in the system and measured their respective radial velocities for the first time. We confirm that HD 161853 is an $\\sim$1 Ma old binary system consisting of an O8 V star ($M_{\\rm A,RV} \\geq 22$ M$_\\odot$) and a B1--3 V star ($M_{\\rm B,RV} \\geq 7.2$ M$_\\odot$) at about 1.3 kpc. From the radial velocity curve, we measure an orbital period $P$ = 2.66765$\\pm$0.00001 d and an eccentricity $e$ = 0.121$\\pm$0.007. Its $V$-band light curve is constant within 0.014 mag and does not display eclipses, from which we impose a maximum orbital inclination $i=54$ deg. HD 161853 is probably associated with an H II region and a poorly investigated very young open cluster. In addition, we detect a compact emission region at 50 arcsec to HD 161853 in 22$\\mu$m-WISE and 24$\\mu$m-Spitzer images, which may be identif...

  12. The $Spitzer$ infrared spectrograph survey of protoplanetary disks in Orion A: I. disk properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K H; Manoj, P; Forrest, W J; Furlan, Elise; Najita, Joan; Sargent, Benjamin; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Adame, Lucía; Espaillat, Catherine; Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, James; McClure, M K

    2016-01-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by $Spitzer$/IRS. We also present the follow-up observation of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from IRTF/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks to those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (ONC and L1641) and to the sub-groups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks vs. radially continuous full disks. Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) Mass accretion rate of transitional disks and that of radially continuous full disks are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The m...

  13. The properties of asteroid (2867) Steins from Spitzer observations and OSIRIS shape reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Fornasier, S; Jorda, L

    2011-01-01

    We report on the thermal properties and composition of asteroid (2867) Steins derived from an analysis of new Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) observations performed in March 2008, in addition to previously published SST observations performed in November 2005. We consider the three-dimensional shape model and photometric properties derived from OSIRIS images obtained during the flyby of the Rosetta spacecraft in September 2008, which we combine with a thermal model to properly interpret the observed SST thermal light curve and spectral energy distributions. We obtain a thermal inertia in the range 100\\pm50 JK-1m-2s-1/2 and a beaming factor (roughness) in the range 0.7-1.0. We confirm that the infrared emissivity of Steins is consistent with an enstatite composition. The November 2005 SST thermal light curve is most reliably interpreted by assuming inhomogeneities in the thermal properties of the surface, with two different regions of slightly different roughness, as observed on other small bodies, such as the n...

  14. Fully Sampled Maps of Ices and Silicates in Front of Cepheus A East with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnentrucker, P; Gerakines, P A; Bergin, E A; Melnick, G J; Forrest, W J; Pipher, J L; Whittet, D C B

    2007-01-01

    We report the first fully sampled maps of the distribution of interstellar CO2 ices, H2O ices and total hydrogen nuclei, as inferred from the 9.7 micron silicate feature, toward the star-forming region Cepheus A East with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that the column density distributions for these solid state features all peak at, and are distributed around, the location of HW2, the protostar believed to power one of the outflows observed in this star-forming region. A correlation between the column density distributions of CO2 and water ice with that of total hydrogen indicates that the solid state features we mapped mostly arise from the same molecular clumps along the probed sight lines. We therefore derive average CO2 ice and water ice abundances with respect to the total hydrogen column density of X(CO2)_ice~1.9x10^-5 and X(H2O)_ice~7.5x10^-5. Within errors, the abundances for both ices are relatively constant over the mapped region exhibiting both ice absorptions. The ...

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon emission in Spitzer/IRS maps I: Catalog and simple diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, D J; Moya, L G V; Otaguro, J N; Sorkhou, S; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G G M; Peeters, E

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic HII regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5--15 $\\mu$m. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of $\\sim$4" in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the PAH emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 $\\mu$m, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 $\\mu$m. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups, the first comprising the HII regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources, the reflection nebu...

  16. A Spitzer high resolution mid-infrared spectral atlas of starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Charmandaris, V; Lebouteiller, V; Farrah, D; Devost, D; Brandl, B R; Wu, Yanling; Armus, L; Hao, L; Sloan, G C; Weedman, D; Houck, J R

    2009-01-01

    We present an atlas of Spitzer/IRS high resolution (R~600) 10-37um spectra for 24 well known starburst galaxies. The spectra are dominated by fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, and emission bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Six out of the eight objects with a known AGN component show emission of the high excitation [NeV] line. This line is also seen in one other object (NGC4194) with, a priori, no known AGN component. In addition to strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features in this wavelength range (11.3, 12.7, 16.4um), the spectra reveal other weak hydrocarbon features at 10.6, 13.5, 14.2um, and a previously unreported emission feature at 10.75um. An unidentified absorption feature at 13.7um is detected in many of the starbursts. We use the fine-structure lines to derive the abundance of neon and sulfur for 14 objects where the HI 7-6 line is detected. We further use the molecular hydrogen lines to sample the properties of the warm molecular gas. Several basic diagrams ch...

  17. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies: Spatially resolved mid-infrared observations with Spitzer/IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H; Colina, Luis; Engelbracht, Charles W; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Smith, J D T

    2009-01-01

    Luminous Infrared (IR) Galaxies (LIRGs) are an important cosmological class of galaxies as they are the main contributors to the co-moving star formation rate density of the universe at z=1. In this paper we present a GTO Spitzer IRS program aimed to obtain spectral mapping of a sample of 14 local (d<76Mpc) LIRGs. The data cubes map, at least, the central 20arcsec x 20arcsec to 30arcsec x 30arcsec regions of the galaxies, and use all four IRS modules covering the full 5-38micron spectral range. The final goal of this project is to characterize fully the mid-IR properties of local LIRGs as a first step to understanding their more distant counterparts. In this paper we present the first results of this GTO program. The IRS spectral mapping data allow us to build spectral maps of the bright mid-IR emission lines (e.g., [NeII], [NeIII], [SIII], H_2), continuum, the 6.2 and 11.3micron PAH features, and the 9.7micron silicate feature, as well as to extract 1D spectra for regions of interest in each galaxy. The I...

  18. Spitzer Observations of M33 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Brunner, Gregory; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Erickson, Edwin F; Haas, Michael R; Citron, Robert I

    2008-01-01

    We have observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.51, H(7-6) 12.37, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71 um in a number of extragalactic H II regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. A previous paper presented our data and analysis for the substantially face-on spiral galaxy M83. Here we report our results for the local group spiral galaxy M33. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph with the short wavelength, high resolution module. The above set of five lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) for H II regions, we can estimate the Ne/H, S/H, and Ne/S ratios. We find from linear least-squares fits that ...

  19. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center: Shocked Gas in the Radio Arc Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Rubin, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra (R ~600, 10 - 38 micron) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude and spanning plus/minus 0.3 degrees in latitude. Our positions include the Arches Cluster, the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ``Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line-of-sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [S IV], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H_2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The Ne/H and S/H abundance ratios are ~ 1.6 times that of the Orion Nebula. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O^{+3} and destroy dust grains, ...

  20. Spitzer Observations of M83 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, R H; Colgan, S W J; Dufour, R J; Ray, K L; Erickson, E F; Haas, M R; Pauldrach, A W A; Citron, R I; Rubin, Robert H.; Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W.J.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Ray, Katherine L.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W.A.; Citron, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken a program to observe emission lines of SIV 10.5, NeII 12.8, NeIII 15.6, & SIII 18.7 um in a number of extragalactic HII regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report our results for the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M83. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph in the short wavelength, high dispersion configuration. The above set of 4 lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne and S for HII regions, Ne/S ~ (Ne+ + Ne++)/(S++ + S3+). Our findings of ratios that exceed the benchmark Orion value are more likely due to other effects than a true gradient in Ne/S. Both Ne and S are primary elements produced in alpha- chain...

  1. Spitzer observations of the HH 1/2 system. The discovery of the counterjet

    CERN Document Server

    Noriega-Crespo,; Raga,; C, A

    2012-01-01

    We present unpublished Spitzer IRAC observations of the HH 1/2 young stellar outflow processed with a high angular resolution deconvolution algorithm that produces sub-arcsecond (approx. 0.6" - 0.8") images. In the resulting mid-infrared images the optically invisible counterjet is detected for the first time. The counterjet is approximately half as bright as the jet at 4.5 micron (the IRAC band that best traces young stellar outflows) and has a length of approx. 10". The NW optical jet itself can be followed back in the mid-IR to the position of the exciting VLA 1 source. An analysis of the IRAC colors indicates that the jet/counterjet emission is dominated by collisionally excited H2 pure rotational lines arising from a medium with a neutral Hydrogen gas density of 1000-2000 per cubic cm and a temperature of 1500 K. The observed jet/counterjet brightness asymmetry is consistent with an intrinsically symmetric outflow with extinction from a dense, circumstellar structure of 6" size (along the outflow axis), ...

  2. Spitzer observations of a gravitationally lensed quasar, QSO 2237+0305

    CERN Document Server

    Agol, Eric; Gorjian, Varoujan; Kimball, Amy; 10.1088/0004-637X/697/2/1010

    2009-01-01

    The four-image gravitationally lensed quasar QSO 2237+0305 is microlensed by stars in the lens galaxy. The amplitude of microlensing variability can be used to infer the relative size of the quasar as a function of wavelength; this provides a test of quasar models. Toward this end, we present Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations of QSO 2237+0305, finding the following. (1) The infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) is similar to that of other bright radio-quiet quasars, contrary to an earlier claim. (2) A dusty torus model with a small opening angle fits the overall shape of the IR SED well, but the quantitative agreement is poor due to an offset in wavelength of the silicate feature. (3) The flux ratios of the four lensed images can be derived from the IRAC data despite being unresolved. We find that the near-IR fluxes are increasingly affected by microlensing toward shorter wavelengths. (4) The wavelength dependence of the IRAC flux ratios is ...

  3. Clustering of the IR Background Light with Spitzer: Contribution from Resolved Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, I; Chary, R R; Bock, J J; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Dey, A; Dickinson, M; Eisenhardt, P; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Keating, B; Lange, A; Mobasher, B; Reach, W T; Stern, D; Wright, E L; Sullivan, Ian; Cooray, Asantha; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Bock, James J.; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Mobasher, Bahram; Reach, William T.; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the angular power spectrum of resolved sources at 3.6 microns (L-band) in Spitzer imaging data of the GOODS HDF-N, the GOODS CDF-S, and the NDWFS Bootes field in several source magnitude bins. We also measure angular power spectra of resolved sources in the Bootes field at K_S and J-bands using ground-based IR imaging data. In the three bands, J, K_S, and L, we detect the clustering of galaxies on top of the shot-noise power spectrum at multipoles between ell ~ 10^2 and 10^5. The angular power spectra range from the large, linear scales to small, non-linear scales of galaxy clustering, and in some magnitude ranges, show departure from a power-law clustering spectrum. We consider a halo model to describe clustering measurements and to establish the halo occup ation number parameters of IR bright galaxies at redshifts around one. We also extend our clustering results and completeness-corrected faint source number counts in GOODS fields to understand the underlying nature of unresolved sources respon...

  4. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Esteban F E

    2016-01-01

    We analyze near-infrared UKIDSS observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources in the Galactic plane selected in the Spitzer-GLIMPSE survey. Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the SFR based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work towards the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to automatically recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method which could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. We found that most (87.0% +- 1.6...

  5. Photometric Monitoring of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}

    CERN Document Server

    Esplin, Taran; Cushing, Michael; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Trucks, Jessica; Burgasser, Adam; Schneider, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Because WISE J085510.83$-$071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf ($\\sim250$ K) and one of the Sun's closest neighbors (2.2 pc), it offers a unique opportunity for studying a planet-like atmosphere in an unexplored regime of temperature. To detect and characterize inhomogeneities in its atmosphere (e.g., patchy clouds, hot spots), we have performed time-series photometric monitoring of WISE 0855-0714 at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Spitzer Space Telescope during two 23~hr periods that were separated by several months. For both bands, we have detected variability with peak-to-peak amplitudes of 4-5% and 3-4% in the first and second epochs, respectively. The light curves are semi-periodic in the first epoch for both bands, but are more irregular in the second epoch. Models of patchy clouds have predicted a large increase in mid-IR variability amplitudes (for a given cloud covering fraction) with the appearance of water ice clouds at $T_{\\rm eff}<$375 K, so if such clouds are respo...

  6. Spitzer observations of acetylene bands in carbon-rich AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Sloan, G C; Zijlstra, A A; Van Loon, J T; Groenewegen, M A T; Blommaert, J A D L; Cioni, M R L; Feast, M W; Habing, H J; Hony, S; Lagadec, E; Loup, C; Menzies, J W; Waters, L B F M; Whitelock, P A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the molecular bands in carbon-rich AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) over the 5--38 micron range. All 26 low-resolution spectra show acetylene (C2H2) bands at 7 and 14 micron. The hydrogen cyanide (HCN) bands at these wavelengths are very weak or absent. This is consistent with low nitrogen abundances in the LMC. The observed 14 micron C2H2 band is reasonably reproduced by an excitation temperature of 500 K. There is no clear dilution of the 14 micron band by circumstellar dust emission. This 14 micron band originates from molecular gas in the circumstellar envelope in these high mass-loss rate stars, in agreement with previous findings for Galactic stars. The C2H2,column density, derived from the 13.7 micron band, shows a gas mass-loss rate in the range 3x10^-6 to 5x10^{-5} Msun yr-1. This is comparable with the total mass-loss rate of these stars estimated from the spectral energy distribution. Addit...

  7. Spitzer Observations of Long Term Infrared Variability Among Young Stellar Objects in Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Flaherty, Kevin M; Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Herbst, William; Megeath, S Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about a month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer space telescope over a 200 day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find such variability is common, occurring in ~80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]-[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200 ...

  8. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectral Maps of the Superwind in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Lehnert, M D; Guillard, P; Heckman, T; Draine, B; Hollenbach, D; Walter, F; Sheth, K; Smith, J D; Shopbell, P; Boulanger, F; Surace, J; Hoopes, C; Engelbracht, C

    2015-01-01

    We have mapped the superwind/halo region of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 in the mid-infrared with $Spitzer-IRS$. The spectral regions covered include the H$_2 S(1)-S(3)$, [NeII], [NeIII] emission lines and PAH features. We estimate the total warm H$_2$ mass and the kinetic energy of the outflowing warm molecular gas to be between $M_{warm}\\sim5-17\\times10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ and $E_{K}\\sim6-20\\times10^{53}$ erg. Using the ratios of the 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 micron PAH features in the IRS spectra, we are able to estimate the average size and ionization state of the small grains in the superwind. There are large variations in the PAH flux ratios throughout the outflow. The 11.3/7.7 and the 6.2/7.7 PAH ratios both vary by more than a factor of five across the wind region. The Northern part of the wind has a significant population of PAH's with smaller 6.2/7.7 ratios than either the starburst disk or the Southern wind, indicating that on average, PAH emitters are larger and more ionized. The warm molecular gas to PAH f...

  9. Spitzer MIPS 24 and 70 micron Imaging near the South Ecliptic Pole: Maps and Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Kimberly S; Braglia, Filiberto G; Borys, Colin; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D P; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P

    2010-01-01

    We have imaged an 11.5 sq. deg. region of sky towards the South Ecliptic Pole (RA = 04h43m, Dec = -53d40m, J2000) at 24 and 70 microns with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. This region is coincident with a field mapped at longer wavelengths by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope. We discuss our data reduction and source extraction procedures. The median depths of the maps are 47 microJy/beam at 24 micron and 4.3 mJy/beam at 70 micron. At 24 micron, we identify 93098 point sources with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >5, and an additional 63 resolved galaxies; at 70 micron, we identify 891 point sources with SNR >6. From simulations, we determine a false detection rate of 1.8% (1.1%) for the 24 micron (70 micron) catalog. The 24 and 70 micron point-source catalogs are 80% complete at 230 microJy and 11 mJy, respectively. These mosaic images and source catalogs will be available to the public through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive.

  10. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Giuseppe; Tinetti, Giovanna; Peres, Giovanni; Micela, Giuseppina; Howarth, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyse two exoplanetary transit lightcurves of the exoplanet HD189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6$\\mu$m during the "cold" era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterise the atmosphere of the planet HD189733b. Previous analyses of the same datasets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such "admission of ignorance" may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor $1.6$. This is a worthwhile t...

  11. Revisiting Spitzer Transit Observations with Independent Component Analysis: New Results for Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D.; Micela, G.

    2015-10-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyse several exoplanetary transit lightcurves of a few exoplanets recorded with the infrared camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope during the "cold" era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterise the atmospheres of the planets. Previous analyses of the same datasets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. We obtained for the first time coherent and repeatable results over different epochs for the exoplanets HD189733b and GJ436b[Morello et al.(2014), Morello et al.(2015)]. The technique has been also tested on simulated datasets with different instrument properties, proving its validity in a more general context [Morello et al.(2015b)]. We will present here the technique, and the results of its application to different observations, in addition to the already published ones. A uniform re-analysis of other archive data with this technique will provide improved parameters for a list of exoplanets, and in particular some other results debated in the literature.

  12. AGB stars in the SMC: evolution and dust properties based on Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Ventura, P; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; Rossi, C

    2015-01-01

    We study the population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by means of full evolutionary models of stars of mass 1Msun < M < 8Msun, evolved through the thermally pulsing phase. The models also account for dust production in the circumstellar envelope. We compare Spitzer infrared colours with results from theoretical modelling. We show that ~75% of the AGB population of the SMC is composed by scarcely obscured objects, mainly stars of mass M < 2.5Msun at various metallicity, formed between 700 Myr and 5 Gyr ago; ~ 70% of these sources are oxygen--rich stars, while ~ 30% are C-stars. The sample of the most obscured AGB stars, accounting for ~ 25% of the total sample, is composed almost entirely by carbon stars. The distribution in the colour-colour ([3.6]-[4.5], [5.8]-[8.0]) and colour-magnitude ([3.6]-[8.0], [8.0]) diagrams of these C-rich objects, with a large infrared emission, traces an obscuration sequence, according to the amount of carbonaceous dust in the...

  13. Spitzer Observations of G Dwarfs in the Pleiades: Circumstellar Debris Disks at 100 Myr Age

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Carpenter, J; Hillenbrand, L; Backman, D; Meyer, M R; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Young, E; Hines, D C; Soderblom, D R; Mamajek, E E; Morris, P; Bouwman, J; Strom, S E

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes and upper limits in the wavelength range from 3.6 to 70 microns from the Spitzer Space Telescope are provided for twenty solar-mass Pleiades members. One of these stars shows a probable mid-IR excess and two others have possible excesses, presumably due to circumstellar debris disks. For the star with the largest, most secure excess flux at MIPS wavelengths, HII1101, we derive Log(L[dust]/L[Sun]) ~ -3.8 and an estimated debris disk mass of 4.2 x 10^-5 M(Earth) for an assumed uniform dust grain size of 10 microns If the stars with detected excesses are interpreted as stars with relatively recent, large collision events producing a transient excess of small dust particles, the frequency of such disk transients is about ~ 10 % for our ~ 100 Myr, Pleiades G dwarf sample. For the stars without detected 24-70 micron excesses, the upper limits to their fluxes correspond to approximate 3 sigma upper limits to their disk masses of 6 x 10^-6 M(Earth) using the MIPS 24 micron upper limit, or 2 x 10^-4 M(Earth) us...

  14. The Large Magellanic Cloud: A power spectral analysis of Spitzer images

    CERN Document Server

    Puerari, Ivanio; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Bournaud, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We present a power spectral analysis of Spitzer images of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The power spectra of the FIR emission show two different power laws. At larger scales (kpc) the slope is ~ -1.6, while at smaller ones (tens to few hundreds of parsecs) the slope is steeper, with a value ~ -2.9. The break occurs at a scale around 100-200 pc. We interpret this break as the scale height of the dust disk of the LMC. We perform high resolution simulations with and without stellar feedback. Our AMR hydrodynamic simulations of model galaxies using the LMC mass and rotation curve, confirm that they have similar two-component power-laws for projected density and that the break does indeed occur at the disk thickness. Power spectral analysis of velocities betrays a single power law for in-plane components. The vertical component of the velocity shows a flat behavior for large structures and a power law similar to the in-plane velocities at small scales. The motions are highly anisotropic at large scales, with in-plan...

  15. Molecular Cooling as a Probe of Star Formation: Spitzer Looking Forward to Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin A.; Maret, Sebastien; Yuan, Yuan; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Green, Joel D.; Watson, Dan M.; Harwit, Martin O.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Werner, Michael W.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We explore here the question of how cloud physics can be more directly probed when one observes the majority of cooling emissions from molecular gas. For this purpose we use results from a recent Spitzer Space Telescope study of the young cluster of embedded objects in NGC1333. For this study we mapped the emission from eight pure H2 rotational lines, from S(0) to S(7). The H2 emission appears to be associated with the warm gas shocked by the multiple outflows present in the region. The H2 lines are found to contribute to 25 - 50% of the total outflow luminosity, and can be used to more directly ascertain the importance of star formation feedback on the natal cloud. From these lines, we determine the outflow mass loss rate and, indirectly, the stellar infall rate, the outflow momentum and the kinetic energy injected into the cloud over the embedded phase. The latter is found to exceed the binding energy of individual cores, suggesting that outflows could be the main mechanism for cores disruption. Given the recent launch of Herschel and the upcoming operational lifetime of SOFIA we discuss how studies of molecular cooling can take a step beyond understanding thermal balance to exploring the origin, receipt, and transfer of energy in atomic and molecular gas in a wide range of physical situations.

  16. Spitzer Microlens Measurement of a Massive Remnant in a Well-Separated Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Gould, A; Han, C; Bozza, V; Friedmann, M; Hundertmark, M; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Novati, S Calchi; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Kerr, T; Pogge, R W; Varricatt, W; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G; Albrow, M D; Park, B -G; Kim, S -L; Lee, C -U; Cha, S -M; Kim, D -J; Lee, Y; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bachelet, E; Dominik, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, Keith; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Jaimes, R Figuera; Wambsganss, J; Schmidt, R; Cassan, A; Ranc, C; Mao, S; Dong, Subo; D'Ago, G; Scarpetta, G; Verma, P; Jørgensen, U G; Kerins, E; Skottfelt, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having $M_1>1.35\\,M_\\odot$ (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star or black hole. The system has a projected separation $r_\\perp= 6.1\\pm 0.4\\,{\\rm AU}$ and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the "microlens parallax" effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from $Spitzer$, which lay at $1.25\\,{\\rm AU}$ projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing black holes and neutron stars in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous com...

  17. The Spitzer View of Low-Metallicity Star Formation: I. Haro 3

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Sauvage, M; Izotov, Yu I

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the blue compact dwarf galaxy (BCD) Haro 3, with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=8.32. These data are part of a larger study of star formation and dust in low-metallicity environments.The IRS spectrum of Haro 3 shows strong narrow Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with high equivalent widths. Gaseous nebular fine-structure lines are also seen. Despite the absence of optical high-excitation lines, a faint high-ionization [O IV] line at 25.89 micron indicates the presence of radiation as hard as 54.9 eV. A CLOUDY model suggests that the MIR lines originate in two regions: a low-extinction optically-emitting region, and an optically invisible one with much higher extinction. The morphology of Haro 3 changes with wavelength. IRAC 4.5 micron traces extended stellar photospheric emission from the body of the galaxy and hot dust continuum coming mainly from star-forming regions; 8 micron probes extended PAH emission coming mainly from the general ISM; MIPS 24 and 7...

  18. A dozen type II-P supernovae seen with the eyes of Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, T

    2012-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe), especially those of type II-plateau (II-P), are thought to be important contributors to cosmic dust production. The most obvious indicator of the presence of newly-formed and/or pre-existing dust is the time-dependent mid-infrared (MIR) excess coming from the environment of SNe. Our goal was to collect publicly available, previously unpublished measurements on type II-P (or peculiar IIP) SNe from the Spitzer database. The temporal changes of the observed fluxes may be indicative of the underlying supernova, while spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to the fluxes in different IRAC channels may reveal the physical parameters of the mid-IR radiation, presumably due to warm dust. IRS spectra were extracted and calibrated with SPICE, while photometric SEDs were assembled using IRAF and MOPEX. Calculated SEDs from observed fluxes were fit with simple dust models to get basic information on the dust presumed as the source of MIR radiation. We found twelve SNe satisfying the ...

  19. Spitzer 24 um Excesses for Bright Galactic Stars in Bootes and First Look Survey Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hovhannisyan, L R; Weedman, D W; Le Floc'h, E; Houck, J R; Soifer, B T; Brand, K; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T

    2009-01-01

    Optically bright Galactic stars (V 1 mJy are identified in Spitzer mid-infrared surveys within 8.2 square degrees for the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey and within 5.5 square degrees for the First Look Survey (FLS). 128 stars are identified in Bootes and 140 in the FLS, and their photometry is given. (K-[24]) colors are determined using K magnitudes from the 2MASS survey for all stars in order to search for excess 24 um luminosity compared to that arising from the stellar photosphere. Of the combined sample of 268 stars, 141 are of spectral types F, G, or K, and 17 of these 141 stars have 24 um excesses with (K-[24]) > 0.2 mag. Using limits on absolute magnitude derived from proper motions, at least 8 of the FGK stars with excesses are main sequence stars, and estimates derived from the distribution of apparent magnitudes indicate that all 17 are main sequence stars. These estimates lead to the conclusion that between 9% and 17% of the main sequence FGK field stars in these samples have 24 u...

  20. DIGIT: Herschel and Spitzer spectro-imaging of SMM3 and SMM4 in Serpens

    CERN Document Server

    Dionatos, O; Green, J D; Herczeg, G J; Evans, N J; Kristensen, L E; Lindberg, J E; van Dishoeck, E F

    2013-01-01

    We report on spectro-imaging observations employing Spitzer IRS and Herschel PACS, aiming to constrain the physical conditions around SMM3 and SMM4 in Serpens. The combined power of both instruments provides an almost complete wavelength coverage between 5 and 200 micron at an angular resolution of 10". We detect line emission from all major molecular (H2, CO, H2O and OH) and many atomic ([OI], [CII], [FeII], [SiII] and [SI]) coolants. Line emission tends to peak at distances of 10 - 20" from the protostellar sources, at positions of known outflow shocks. The only exception is [CII] which likely traces a PDR excited from the neighboring source SMM6. Excitation analysis indicates that H2 and CO originate from gas at two distinct rotational temperatures of 300 K and 1000 K, while H2O and OH emission corresponds to rotational temperatures of 100 - 200 K. The morphological and physical association between CO and H2 suggests a common excitation mechanism which allows direct comparisons between the two molecules. T...

  1. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  2. Spitzer SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud II : Evolved Stars and Infrared Color Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Olsen, K A; Frogel, J A; Werner, M; Meixner, M; Markwick-Kemper, F; Indebetouw, R; Whitney, B; Meade, M; Babler, B; Churchwell, E B; Gordon, K; Engelbracht, C W; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C; Volk, K; Points, S; Reach, W; Hora, J L; Bernard, J P; Boulanger, F; Bracker, S; Cohen, M; Fukui, Y; Gallagher, J; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Kelly, D; Kawamura, A; Latter, W B; Madden, S; Mizuno, A; Mizuno, N; Nota, A; Oey, M S; Onishi, T; Paladini, R; Panagia, N; Perez-Gonzalez, P; Shibai, H; Sato, S; Smith, L; Staveley-Smith, L; Tielens, A G G M; Ueta, T; Van Dyk, S D; Zaritsky, D

    2006-01-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 um epoch one data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the 2MASS survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud as well as Galactic foreground and extragalactic background populations. Some 32000 evolved stars brighter than the tip of the red giant branch are identified. Of these, approximately 17500 are classified as oxygen-rich, 7000 carbon-rich, and another 1200 as ``extreme'' asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Brighter members of the latter group have been called ``obscured'' AGB stars in the literature owing to their dusty circumstellar envelopes. A large number (1200) of luminous oxygen--rich AGB stars/M supergiants are also identified. Finally, there is strong evidence from the 24 u...

  3. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, David E; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in eta, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modelin...

  4. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Mass Loss and Dust Production by Evolved Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Kraemer, K E; Wood, P R; Nieusma, J; Bernard-Salas, J; Devost, D; Houck, J R

    2010-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 35 long-period variables and four Cepheid variables in the vicinity of 23 Galactic globular clusters using the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The long-period variables in the sample cover a range of metallicities from near solar to about 1/40th solar. The dust mass-loss rate from the stars increases with pulsation period and bolometric luminosity. Higher mass-loss rates are associated with greater contributions from silicate grains. The dust mass-loss rate also depends on metallicity. The dependence is most clear when segregating the sample by dust composition, less clear when segregating by bolometric magnitude, and absent when segregating by period. The spectra are rich in solid-state and molecular features. Emission from alumina dust is apparent across the range of metallicities. Spectra with a 13-um dust emission feature, as well as an associated feature at 20 um, also appear at most metallicities. Molecular features in the spectra include H_2O bands at ...

  5. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Appleton, P N; Groves, B; Armus, L; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Smith, J D; Charmandaris, V; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (~ 35 parsec) 5-38 um spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths of key diagnostic features, such as the [NeII]12.8um, [NeIII]15.5um, and H_2 S(1)17.03um lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analysed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18um PAH complex is very prominent, and its equivalent width is enhanced outwards from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3um PAH fe...

  6. SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 um and high-quality rotation curves from previous HI/Halpha studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (~5 dex), and surface brightnesses (~4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass-HI mass relation and the stellar radius-HI radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the HI mass-radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic-to-observed velocity (Vbar/Vobs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) at [3.6]. Assuming M/L=0.5 Msun/Lsun (as suggested by stellar population models) we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity, (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly correspond...

  7. Spitzer observations of the Orion OB1 association: disk census in the low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Briceño, C; Hartmann, L; Vivas, A K; Muzerolle, J; Downes, J; Allen, L; Gutermuth, R

    2007-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two fields in the Orion OB1 association. We report here IRAC/MIPS observations for 115 confirmed members and 41 photometric candidates of the ~10 Myr 25 Orionis aggregate in the OB1a subassociation, and 106 confirmed members and 65 photometric candidates of the 5 Myr region located in the OB1b subassociation. The 25 Orionis aggregate shows a disk frequency of 6% while the field in the OB1b subassociation shows a disk frequency of 13%. Combining IRAC, MIPS and 2MASS photometry we place stars bearing disks in several classes: stars with optically thick disks (class II systems), stars with an inner transitional disks (transitional disk candidates) and stars with "evolved disks"; the last exhibit smaller IRAC/MIPS excesses than class II systems. In all, we identify 1 transitional disk candidate in the 25 Orionis aggregate and 3 in the OB1b field; this represents ~10% of the disk bearing stars, indicating that the transitional disk phase can be relatively fast...

  8. A Deep Spitzer Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Double Cluster, h and chi Persei

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Ryan; Rieke, George; Kenyon, Scott J; Balog, Zoltan; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We analyze very deep IRAC and MIPS photometry of $\\sim$ 12,500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and $\\chi$ Persei, building upon on our earlier, shallower Spitzer studies (Currie et al. 2007a, 2008a). Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 {\\mu}m and 24 $\\mu$m indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 $\\mu$m excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower-mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 $\\mu m$ reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, although similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide better constraints. We combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nomi...

  9. Updated Spitzer emission spectroscopy of bright transiting hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, Kamen O. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We analyze all existing secondary eclipse time series spectroscopy of hot Jupiter HD 189733b acquired with the now defunct Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument. We describe the novel approaches we develop to remove the systematic effects and extract accurate secondary eclipse depths as a function of wavelength in order to construct the emission spectrum of the exoplanet. We compare our results with a previous study by Grillmair et al. that did not examine all data sets available to us. We are able to confirm the detection of a water feature near 6 μm claimed by Grillmair et al. We compare the planetary emission spectrum to three model families—based on isothermal atmosphere, gray atmosphere, and two realizations of the complex radiative transfer model by Burrows et al., adopted in Grillmair et al.'s study. While we are able to reject the simple isothermal and gray models based on the data at the 97% level just from the IRS data, these rejections hinge on eclipses measured within a relatively narrow wavelength range, between 5.5 and 7 μm. This underscores the need for observational studies with broad wavelength coverage and high spectral resolution, in order to obtain robust information on exoplanet atmospheres.

  10. Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

    2014-01-01

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

  11. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Ravandi, Masoud; Barmby, Pauline; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T. J.; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 h of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 µm. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4.4° and 6.6° along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues, we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426 529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6] = 19.0 ± 0.2, [4.5] = 18.7 ± 0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterizing point sources in the outer radii.

  12. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ravandi, Masoud Rafiei; Ashby, Matthew L N; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T J; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 hours of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 \\mu m. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4$.\\!\\!^\\circ$4 and 6$.\\!\\!^\\circ$6 along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426,529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6]$\\,=\\,$19.0$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2, [4.5]$\\,=\\,$18.7$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterising point sources in the outer radii.

  13. Reliability, validity and discriminatory ability of Spitzer's QL-index in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Morad, Z

    1998-12-01

    Quality of life outcome (QOL) on dialysis is important. We determined the measurement properties of Spitzer's QL-index, a QOL measure, in our patients on chronic haemodialysis. The QL-index measures 5 dimensions of QOL (activity, daily activities, general health, social support and psychological outlook). 59 haemodialysis (HD) patients from 2 centres were rated by 5 raters. Inter-rater agreement for the total score was good with a mean intra-class correlation coefficient 0.66 (range 0.47-0.81). That for dimension scores however was poor (weighted kappa range 0.07-1). Systematic differences between raters were also observed. Intra-rater agreement was generally better than inter-rater agreement. Significant gradients in scores were observed by age, serum albumin, comorbid disorders, previous hospitalisation, capacity for self care HD and rehabilitation status thus providing evidence for construct validity. The distribution of total scores was skewed indicating poor discriminatory ability. Nevertheless, QL-index has acceptable measurement properties for application in dialysis patients. PMID:10971983

  14. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Popov, S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Wachter, S., E-mail: posselt@psu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königsstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ∼10% to ∼20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  15. Dust-corrected surface photometry of M 31 from the Spitzer far infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, Elmo; Tenjes, Peeter; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912186

    2009-01-01

    We create a model for recovering the intrinsic, absorption-corrected surface brightness distribution of a galaxy and apply the model to the M31. We construct a galactic model as a superposition of axially symmetric stellar components and a dust disc to analyse the intrinsic absorption efects. Dust column density is assumed to be proportional to the far-infrared flux of the galaxy. Along each line of sight, the observed far-infrared spectral energy distribution is approximated with modified black body functions considering dust components with different temperatures, allowing to determine the temperatures and relative column densities of the dust components. We apply the model to the nearby galaxy M31 using the Spitzer Space Telescope far-infrared observations for mapping dust distribution and temperature. A warm and a cold dust component are distinguished. The temperature of the warm dust in M31 varies between 56 and 60 K and is highest in the spiral arms; the temperature of the cold component is mostly 15-19...

  16. Spatial variations of PAH properties in M17SW revealed by Spitzer/IRS spectral mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, M; Ishihara, D; Oyabu, S; Suzuki, T; Onaka, T; Nagayama, T; Umemoto, T; Minamidani, T; Nishimura, A; Matsuo, M; Fujita, S; Tsuda, Y; Kohno, M; Ohashi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br$\\gamma$ and Nobeyama 45-m/FOREST $^{13}$CO ($J$=1--0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 $\\mu$m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the HII region traced by Br$\\gamma$ and the molecular cloud traced by $^{13}$CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially-resolved maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 $\\mu$m/PAH 11.3 $\\mu$m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the ionization degree of PAHs is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find tha...

  17. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 $\\mu$m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 $\\mu$m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the p...

  18. Revisiting Spitzer transit observations with Independent Component Analysis: new results for the GJ436 system

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, G; Tinetti, G; Howarth, I D; Micela, G; Allard, F

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important to investigate the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility to extract conclusively an atmospheric signal; those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. (2014) to analyze 3.6 {\\mu}m transit light-curves of the hot Jupiter HD189733b; it performes an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on a set of pixel-light-curves, i.e. time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques ...

  19. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-Cryogenic Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, James G; Carey, S J; Stauffer, John R; Lawrence, Patrick J; Grillmair, Carl J; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M; Morello, G; Stevenson, Kevin B; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5{\\mu}m dataset, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3 b system during secondary eclipse, using 7 different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 150 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 2 of the photon noise limit. Nearly all methods accurately assess their own errors: for these methods the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10-epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated datas...

  20. Models of the Eta Corvi debris disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, J; Bryden, G; Defrère, D; Mennesson, B; Millan-Gabet, R; Boccaletti, A

    2015-01-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogues to small body populations of the Solar System, often however with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star Eta Corvi is especially striking as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ~1.4 Gyr. We undertake to construct a consistent model of the system able to explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectro-photometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries a...

  1. A uniform analysis of HD209458b Spitzer/IRAC lightcurves with Gaussian process models

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Thomas M; Gibson, Neale; Barstow, Joanna K; Amundsen, David S; Tremblin, Pascal; Mourier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer/IRAC primary transit and secondary eclipse lightcurves measured for HD209458b, using Gaussian process models to marginalise over the intrapixel sensitivity variations in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels and the ramp effect in the 5.8 micron and 8.0 micron channels. The main advantage of this approach is that we can account for a broad range of degeneracies between the planet signal and systematics without actually having to specify a deterministic functional form for the latter. Our results do not confirm a previous claim of water absorption in transmission. Instead, our results are more consistent with a featureless transmission spectrum, possibly due to a cloud deck obscuring molecular absorption bands. For the emission data, our values are not consistent with the thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere that was originally inferred from these data. Instead, we agree with another re-analysis of these same data, which concluded a non-inverted atmosphere provides a b...

  2. Spitzer Space Telescope Measurements of Dust Reverberation Lags in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 6418

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, Billy; Richmond, Michael; Robinson, Andrew; Axon, David J; Horne, Keith; Almeyda, Triana; Fausnaugh, Michael; Peterson, Bradley M; Bottorff, Mark; Gallimore, Jack; Eltizur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Marconi, Alessandro; Capetti, Alessandro; Batcheldor, Dan; Buchanan, Catherine; Stirpe, Giovanna; Kishimoto, Makoto; Packham, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Tadhunter, Clive; Upton, John; Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\\mu$m and 3.6 $\\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-inf...

  3. Spitzer characterisation of dust in an anomalous emission region: the Perseus cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Tibbs, C T; Paladini, R; Compiégne, M; Shenoy, S; Carey, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Dickinson, C; Ali-Haïmoud, Y; Casassus, S; Cleary, K; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; Hirata, C M; Watson, R A

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous microwave emission is known to exist in the Perseus cloud. One of the most promising candidates to explain this excess of emission is electric dipole radiation from rapidly rotating very small dust grains, commonly referred to as spinning dust. Photometric data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope have been reprocessed and used in conjunction with the dust emission model DUSTEM to characterise the properties of the dust within the cloud. This analysis has allowed us to constrain spatial variations in the strength of the interstellar radiation field ($\\chi_\\mathrm{ISRF}$), the mass abundances of the PAHs and VSGs relative to the BGs (Y$_\\mathrm{PAH}$ and Y$_\\mathrm{VSG}$), the column density of hydrogen (N$_\\mathrm{H}$) and the equilibrium dust temperature (T$_\\mathrm{dust}$). The parameter maps of Y$_\\mathrm{PAH}$, Y$_\\mathrm{VSG}$ and $\\chi_\\mathrm{ISRF}$ are the first of their kind to be produced for the Perseus cloud, and we used these maps to investigate the physical conditions in which ano...

  4. Study of infrared excess from circumstellar disks in binaries with Spitzer/IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Yusuke; Shibai, Hiroshi; Sumi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kodai

    2015-01-01

    The presence of excess emission at 3.6--8.0 $\\mu$m was investigated in a sample of 27 binary systems located in two nearby star-forming regions, Taurus and Ophiuchus, by using Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) archival data. Angular (Projected) separations for the binaries are greater than 2"($\\sim$280 AU), which allowed us to perform spatially resolved photometry of individual primary and secondary sources. The measured occurrence of infrared excess suggests that binarity plays a role in the evolution of circumstellar disks, even at such wide binary separations. Most of the binaries have excess emission from both the circumprimary and circumsecondary disks, or show photospheric levels for both components at all four wavelengths of IRAC. On the other hand, four systems ($17^{+11}_{-8}$%, designated by "mixed" systems) exhibit excess emission from a single binary component. This ratio is significantly smaller than that predicted by the random pairing of single stars, suggesting that circumprimary and circum...

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  6. The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey (TESIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ceca, R D; Severgnini, P; Braito, V; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying on a near-IR very low resolution spectroscopic follow-up in parallel with XMM-Newton observations of a complete sample of ~30 bright (K'<18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected over an area of 360 arcmin^2 of the MUNICS survey. We here present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and X-ray data analysis.

  7. A Tale of Three Galaxies: Deciphering the Infrared Emission of the Spectroscopically Anomalous Galaxies IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739 and SDSS J0808+3948

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei; Nikutta, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The \\textit{Spitzer}/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of three spectroscopically anomalous galaxies (IRAS~F10398+1455, IRAS~F21013-0739 and SDSS~J0808+3948) are modeled in terms of a mixture of warm and cold silicate dust, and warm and cold carbon dust. Their unique infrared (IR) emission spectra are characterized by a steep $\\simali$5--8$\\mum$ emission continuum, strong emission bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, and prominent silicate emission. The steep $\\simali$5--8$\\mum$ emission continuum and strong PAH emission features suggest the dominance of starbursts, while the silicate emission is indicative of significant heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). With warm and cold silicate dust of various compositions ("astronomical silicate," amorphous olivine, or amorphous pyroxene) combined with warm and cold carbon dust (amorphous carbon, or graphite), we are able to closely reproduce the observed IR emission of these %spectroscopically anomalous galaxies. We find that the dust tempe...

  8. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  9. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  10. Very Small Particles and Chemistry in Photodissociation Regions: from ISO to Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joblin, C.; Abergel, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Berne, O.; Boulanger, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Compiègne, M.; Deville, Y.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J.; Habart, E.; Le Bourlot, J.; Maillard, J.-P.; Rapacioli, M.; Reach, W.; Simon, A.; Smith, J.-D.; Teyssier, D.; Verstraete, L.

    PAH emission. They proposed that VSGs could be aggregates of PAHs which photoevaporate at the surface of clouds. This work can now continue thanks to the unique spectro-imagery capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope. With the spectrometer IRS, spectro-imagery studies are possible in the 5-35 μm range, giving the possibility to better characterize the VSG emission and therefore the chemical identity of this dust population. Second, the spectrometer IRS allows to access to the full set of rotational lines of H2: 0-0 S(0), S(1), S(2) and S(3) at 28.2, 17.0, 12.3 and 9.7 μm. The interpretation of the line intensities with a PDR model allows to derive precise information on the formation mechanism of H2, in particular the formation rate and the ortho-to-para ratio (Le Bourlot (2000)). Finally, the spectro-imagery data obtained with IRS will be soon combined to MIPS-SED observations between 55 and 95 μm in order to follow the spatial evolution of the abundance and size distribution of the different dust populations including large grains. The Spitzer data will be presented. Our sources were selected in order to span a broad range of physical conditions (radiation field, geometry and density). Interpretation is in progress using PDR, radiative transfer and dust models developped by our team. The obtained data is clearly a benchmark for models describing the nature and evolution of all dust populations as well as for the excitation and formation of H2. Complementary work includes ground-based observations, blind source separation analysis and laboratory/theoretical work.

  11. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN SPITZER/IRS MAPS. I. CATALOG AND SIMPLE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Choi, W. D.-Y.; Moya, L. G. V.; Otaguro, J. N.; Sorkhou, S.; Peeters, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M., E-mail: dstock4@uwo.ca [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic H ii regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5–15 μm. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of ∼4″ in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, and 12.7 μm, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 μm. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups: the first comprising the H ii regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources—the reflection nebula NGC 7023, the Horsehead nebula PDR (an interface between the H ii region IC 434 and the Orion B molecular cloud), and M17—resist this categorization, with the Horsehead PDR points mimicking the RNe and the NGC 7023 fluxes displaying a unique bifurcated appearance in our correlation plots. These discrepancies seem to be due to the very low radiation field experienced by the Horsehead PDR and the very clean separation between the PDR environment and a diffuse environment in the NGC 7023 observations.

  12. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  13. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautista, Manuel [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI 49008-5252 (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  14. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 Using Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +/- 0.021%, 0.230% +/- 0.024%, 0.199% +/- 0.054%, and 0.359% +/- 0.060% at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T(sub eff) = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four lRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet. Key words: eclipses - infrared: stars - planetary systems - stars: individual (OSC 03549-02811) - techniques: photometric

  15. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  16. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, via Archirafi I-90123, Italy. (Italy); Micela, G., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (previously Dipartimento di Fisica), Specola Universitaria, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1 I-90123 (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyze two exoplanetary transit light curves of the exoplanet HD 189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 μm during the 'cold' era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterize the atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b. Previous analyses of the same data sets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such 'admission of ignorance' may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor 1.6. This is a worthwhile tradeoff for much higher objectivity, necessary for trustworthy claims. Our main results are (1) improved and robust values of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) new measurements of the transit depths at 3.6 μm, (3) consistency between the parameters estimated from the two observations, (4) repeatability of the measurement within the photometric level of ∼2 × 10{sup –4} in the IR, and (5) no evidence of stellar variability at the same photometric level within one year.

  17. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  18. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHKs +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  19. Discovery of the Dust-Enshrouded Progenitor of SN 2008S with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José L.; Kistler, Matthew D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Yüksel, Hasan; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Beacom, John F.; Martini, Paul; Pasquali, Anna; Bechtold, Jill

    2008-07-01

    We report the discovery of the progenitor of the recent Type IIn SN 2008S in the nearby galaxy NGC 6946. Surprisingly, it was not found in deep, preexplosion optical images of its host galaxy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope, but only through examination of archival Spitzer mid-IR data. A source coincident with the SN 2008S position is clearly detected in the 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm IRAC bands, showing no evident variability in the 3 years prior to the explosion, yet is undetected at 3.6 and 24 μm. The distinct presence of ~440 K dust, along with stringent LBT limits on the optical fluxes, suggests that the progenitor of SN 2008S was engulfed in a shroud of its own dust. The inferred luminosity of ≈3.5 × 104 L⊙ implies a modest mass of ~10 M⊙. We conclude that objects like SN 2008S are not exclusively associated with the deaths or outbursts of very massive η Carinae-like objects. This conclusion holds based solely on the optical flux limits even if our identification of the progenitor with the mid-IR source is incorrect. Based in part on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.

  20. A Spitzer search for transits of radial velocity detected super-Earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, J. A.; Knutson, H. A.; Desert, J.-M. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, A. W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Laughlin, G. P.; Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Deming, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Todorov, K. O. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Agol, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Burrows, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, A. P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lewis, N. K., E-mail: jkammer@caltech.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Unlike hot Jupiters or other gas giants, super-Earths are expected to have a wide variety of compositions, ranging from terrestrial bodies like our own to more gaseous planets like Neptune. Observations of transiting systems, which allow us to directly measure planet masses and radii and constrain atmospheric properties, are key to understanding the compositional diversity of the planets in this mass range. Although Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting super-Earth candidates over the past 4 yr, the majority of these planets orbit stars that are too far away and too faint to allow for detailed atmospheric characterization and reliable mass estimates. Ground-based transit surveys focus on much brighter stars, but most lack the sensitivity to detect planets in this size range. One way to get around the difficulty of finding these smaller planets in transit is to start by choosing targets that are already known to host super-Earth sized bodies detected using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Here we present results from a Spitzer program to observe six of the most favorable RV-detected super-Earth systems, including HD 1461, HD 7924, HD 156668, HIP 57274, and GJ 876. We find no evidence for transits in any of their 4.5 μm flux light curves, and place limits on the allowed transit depths and corresponding planet radii that rule out even the most dense and iron-rich compositions for these objects. We also observed HD 97658, but the observation window was based on a possible ground-based transit detection that was later ruled out; thus the window did not include the predicted time for the transit detection recently made by the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars space telescope.

  1. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  2. Revisiting Spitzer Transit Observations with Independent Component Analysis: New Results for the GJ 436 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D.; Micela, G.; Allard, F.

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ 436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important for investigating the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ 436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility of conclusively extracting an atmospheric signal. Those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. to analyze 3.6 μm transit light curves of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. It performes an Independent Component Analysis on a set of pixel light curves, i.e., time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques published in the literature. The data sets we analyzed in this paper represent a more challenging test than the previous ones. Contrary to previous results reported in the literature, our results (1) do not support any detectable inter-epoch variations of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) are photometrically stable at the level ˜10-4 in the IR, and (3) the transit depth measurements at the two wavelengths are consistent within 1σ. We also (4) detect a possible transit duration variation of ˜80 s (2σ significance level) that has not been pointed out in the literature, and (5) confirm no transit timing variations ≳30 s.

  3. Spitzer view of massive star formation in the tidally stripped Magellanic Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan P.; Shiao, Bernie [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitney, Barbara A.; Meade, Marilyn R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oliveira, Joana M.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: rchen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., in situ, current massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using Spitzer mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are ∼10 M {sub ☉}, <<45 M {sub ☉} found in the LMC. The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears to be decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given H I column density, N(H I). We found that the LMC has ∼3 × higher probability than the Bridge for N(H I) >12 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, but the trend reverses at lower N(H I). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to H I is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation or to less efficient cloud collapse, or to both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.

  4. MODELS OF THE η CORVI DEBRIS DISK FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER, SPITZER, AND HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Millan-Gabet, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bryden, G.; Mennesson, B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Defrère, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 993 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States); Boccaletti, A., E-mail: lebretoj@gmail.com [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 and University Denis Diderot Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  5. A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z=7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Oesch, P A; Illingworth, G D; Bouwens, R J; Momcheva, I; Holden, B; Roberts-Borsani, G W; Smit, R; Franx, M; Labbe, I; Gonzalez, V; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic redshift measurement of a very bright Lyman break galaxy at z=7.7302+-0.0006 using Keck/MOSFIRE. The source was pre-selected photometrically in the EGS field as a robust z~8 candidate with H=25.0 mag based on optical non-detections and a very red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] broad-band color driven by high equivalent width [OIII]+Hbeta line emission. The Lyalpha line is reliably detected at >6 sigma and shows an asymmetric profile as expected for a galaxy embedded in a relatively neutral inter-galactic medium near the Planck peak of cosmic reionization. The line has a rest-frame equivalent width of EW0=21+-4 A and is extended with V_FWHM=376+89-70 km/s. The source is perhaps the brightest and most massive z~8 Lyman break galaxy in the full CANDELS and BoRG/HIPPIES surveys, having assembled already 10^(9.9+-0.2) M_sol of stars at only 650 Myr after the Big Bang. The spectroscopic redshift measurement sets a new redshift record for galaxies. This enables reliable constraints on the stella...

  6. Infrared properties of Active OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds from the Spitzer SAGE Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D.J.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.; Köhlinger, F.; Panagia, N.; van Loon, J. Th.; Evans, C. J.; Smith, L J; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K; teams, the SAGE

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties of 4922 spectroscopically confirmed massive stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, focusing on the active OB star population. Besides OB stars, our sample includes yellow and red supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars, Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and supergiant B[e] stars. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in the SMC, respectively, when compared t...

  7. Two Eyes on the Prize: Revealing the Complete Architectures of Planetary Systems through Transit Timing with Kepler and Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrycky, Daniel; Stevenson, Kevin; Ballard, Sarah; Agol, Eric; Holman, Matthew; Bean, Jacob; Ragozzine, Darin

    2013-11-01

    The transit timing variation (TTV) technique has recently become a crucial method for determining the complete architectures (i.e., planet masses, orbital eccentricities, inclinations, and resonant properties) of extrasolar planetary systems. This technique has blossomed because of the Kepler mission's discovery of systems with multiple transiting planets and individual planets exhibiting very large TTVs. All of Kepler's results in this area so far have been for relatively short-period planets, but Kepler has also discovered dynamically-interacting systems with planets that have longer periods, similar to those of the Solar System. However, the ill-timed failure of the Kepler telescope has left us with an incomplete picture of these systems due to a lack of the required time baseline. Fortunately, Spitzer is positioned to leverage the unique potential that these planets offer, by extending the time baseline of transit observations. We propose to observe transits of seven Kepler-discovered planets in four particularly compelling systems to precisely determine their transit times. Combining the legacy Kepler transit times with the new times from Spitzer will give us the baseline that is needed to confirm and characterize these dynamically interacting systems of planets. This information will allow us to assess the complete architectures of these systems -- we will discover planets that do not transit and determine the masses and orbital properties of all the planets. For 6 planets in these systems, the TTVs will allow us to measure the planetary masses to better than 20%, which will approximately double the number of cool giant planets with known masses and radii. Several of the systems have mean-motion resonances between the planets, and characterizing these interactions yields information on the formation and migration of giant planets. The required precision and duration of these observations render Spitzer the only remaining instrument capable of such study.

  8. How to restore the fiduciary relationship. An interview with Eliot Spitzer. Interview by Louise O'Brien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Eliot

    2004-05-01

    Eliot Spitzer's investigations into the mutual fund and investment-banking industries have made the New York State attorney general the de facto flag bearer of corporate reform. His exposure of conflicts of interest between investment bankers and research analyst in Wall Street firms led to the $1.4 billion global settlement between regulators and banking houses in 2003. In this interview, Spitzer describes the challenge of protecting public markets from conflicts of interest, paying particular attention to how such conflicts get institutionalized in an industry. "The cases that have gotten me and my fellow regulators most upset are the ones where we've seen senior management being tolerant of rank abuses," he says. "Because then you know that the entire structure is rotten." He also points the finger squarely at boards, maintaining that board members are drawn from pools of company and industry insiders. He cites "a void in values in a lot of boardrooms," holding up executive compensation as a powerful example. "Board compensation committees ... are self-selected and interwoven--it's a rigged marketplace." He continues, "It would be interesting to see what the world would look like if CEO pay packages had to be submitted to shareholder votes." Spitzer suggests that what's really needed is for all business leaders to reinstill throughout their organizations the critical notion of a fiduciary duty--whether it is to the shareholder or to the customer. Using the mutual fund industry as an example, he also contrasts the value of enforcement with that of regulation and articulates an important--and surprisingly limited--role for government in protecting free markets. PMID:15146737

  9. NIR spectroscopic observation of massive galaxies in the protocluster at z = 3.09

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Mariko; Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Ichi

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the $K$-band selected candidate galaxies in the protocluster at $z=3.09$ in the SSA22 field. We observed 67 candidates with $K_{\\rm AB}1.4$), hyper extremely red objects (HEROs; $J-K_{\\rm AB}>2.1$), {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 $\\mu$m sources, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as well as the counterparts of Ly$\\alpha$ blobs and the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm sources in the SSA22 field are also found to be the protocluster members. The mass of the SSA22 protocluster is estimated to be $\\sim2-5\\times10^{14}~M_{\\odot}$ and this system is plausibly a progenitor of the most massive clusters of galaxies in the current Universe. The reddest ($J-K_{\\rm AB}\\geq 2.4$) protocluster galaxies are massive galaxies with $M_{\\rm star}\\sim10^{11}~M_{\\odot}$ showing quiescent star formation activities and plausibly dominated by old stellar populations. Most of these massive quiescent galaxies host moderately luminous AGNs detected by X-ray. There are no significant differences ...

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Study of a Selection of AGB and Post-AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Raman, V Venkata

    2008-01-01

    We present here near-infrared spectroscopy in the H and K bands of a selection of nearly 80 stars that belong to various AGB types, namely S type, M type and SR type. This sample also includes 16 Post-AGB (PAGB) stars. From these spectra, we seek correlations between the equivalent widths of some important spectral signatures and the infrared colors that are indicative of mass loss. Repeated spectroscopic observations were made on some PAGB stars to look for spectral variations. We also analyse archival SPITZER mid-infrared spectra on a few PAGB stars to identify spectral features due to PAH molecules providing confirmation of the advanced stage of their evolution. Further, we model the SEDs of the stars (compiled from archival data) and compare circumstellar dust parameters and mass loss rates in different types. Our near-infrared spectra show that in the case of M and S type stars, the equivalent widths of the CO(3-0) band are moderately correlated with infrared colors, suggesting a possible relationship wi...

  11. Revision of Stellar Intrinsic Colors in the Infrared by the Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jian, Mingjie; Zhao, He; Jiang, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic colors of normal stars are derived in the popularly used infrared bands involving the 2MASS/JHKs, WISE, Spitzer/IRAC and AKARI/S9W filters. Based on three spectroscopic surveys -- LAMOST, RAVE and APOGEE, stars are classified into groups of giants and dwarfs, as well as metal-normal and metal-poor stars. An empirical analytical relation of the intrinsic color is obtained with stellar effective temperature (Teff) for each group of stars after the zero-reddening stars are selected from the blue edge in the $J-\\lambda$ versus (Teff) diagram. It is found that metallicity has little effect on the infrared colors. In the near-infrared bands, our results agree with previous work. In addition, the color indexes H-W2 and Ks-W1 that are taken as constant to calculate interstellar extinction are discussed. The intrinsic color of M-type stars are derived separately due to lack of accurate measurement of their effective temperature.

  12. Coupled Blind Signal Separation and Spectroscopic Database Fitting of the Mid Infrared PAH Features

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, M J F; Boersma, C; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G G M

    2011-01-01

    The aromatic infrared bands (AIBs) observed in the mid infrared spectrum are attributed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). We observe the NGC 7023-North West (NW) PDR in the mid-infrared (10 - 19.5 micron) using the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), on board Spitzer. Clear variations are observed in the spectra, most notably the ratio of the 11.0 to 11.2 micron bands, the peak position of the 11.2 and 12.0 micron bands, and the degree of asymmetry of the 11.2 micron band. The observed variations appear to change as a function of position within the PDR. We aim to explain these variations by a change in the abundances of the emitting components of the PDR. A Blind Signal Separation (BSS) method, i.e. a Non-Negative Matrix Factorization algorithm is applied to separate the observed spectrum into components. Using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, these extracted signals are fit. The observed signals alone were also fit using the database and these components are compared to the BSS components. Th...

  13. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  14. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-wavelength View of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.;

    2011-01-01

    . Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs...... retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main...

  15. Spitzer as Microlens Parallax Satellite: Mass Measurement for the OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L Planet and its Host Star

    OpenAIRE

    Udalski, A; Yee, J. C.; Gould, A.; Carey, S.; Zhu, W; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector ${\\mathbf \\pi}_{\\rm E}$, and so the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses $m \\sim 0.5\\,M_{\\rm jup}$ and $M\\sim 0.7\\,M_\\odot$ and are separated by $a_\\perp\\sim 3.1$ AU in projection. The main source of uncertainty in all these numbers (approximately 30%, 30%, and 20%) is the relat...

  16. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  18. Spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-15bp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Copperwheat, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of the optical transient ASASSN-15bp (ATel #6981) taken on 2015 January 25.31 UT using the FRODOSpec spectrograph (Barnsley et al. 2012) on the Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004).

  19. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Ostrowski, M.

    2007-03-06

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 {micro}m and 8.0 {micro}m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B {approx} 170 {micro}G in spot A, and B {approx} 270 {micro}G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to {approx} 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of {approx} 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies {approx}> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets.

  20. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral mapping observations of 15 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). In this paper, we investigate the spatial variations of the mid-IR emission which includes fine structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, polycyclic aromatic features (PAHs), continuum emission, and the 9.7 μm silicate feature. We also compare the nuclear and integrated spectra. We find that the star formation takes place in extended regions (several kpc) as probed by the PAH emission, as well as the [Ne II]12.81 μm and [Ne III]15.56 μm emissions. The behavior of the integrated PAH emission and 9.7 μm silicate feature is similar to that of local starburst galaxies. We also find that the minima of the [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratio tends to be located at the nuclei and its value is lower than that of H II regions in our LIRGs and nearby galaxies. It is likely that increased densities in the nuclei of LIRGs are responsible for the smaller nuclear [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratios. This includes the possibility that some of the most massive stars in the nuclei are still embedded in ultracompact H II regions. In a large fraction of our sample, the 11.3 μm PAH emission appears more extended than the dust 5.5 μm continuum emission. We find a dependency of the 11.3 μm PAH/7.7 μm PAH and [Ne II]12.81 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratios with the age of the stellar populations. Smaller and larger ratios, respectively, indicate recent star formation. The estimated warm (300 K 8 M sun, which are similar to those found in ULIRGs, local starbursts, and Seyfert galaxies. Finally we find that the [Ne II]12.81 μm velocity fields for most of the LIRGs in our sample are compatible with a rotating disk at ∼kpc scales, and they are in a good agreement with Hα velocity fields.

  1. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF COMET 73P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3 USING THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to observe the 5-37 μm thermal emission of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3), components B and C. We obtained low spectral resolution (R ∼ 100) data over the entire wavelength interval, along with images at 16 and 22 μm. These observations provided an unprecedented opportunity to study nearly pristine material from the surface and what was until recently the interior of an ecliptic comet-the cometary surface having experienced only two prior perihelion passages, and including material that was totally fresh. The spectra were modeled using a variety of mineral types including both amorphous and crystalline components. We find that the degree of silicate crystallinity, ∼35%, is somewhat lower than most other comets with strong emission features, while its abundance of amorphous carbon is higher. Both suggest that SW3 is among the most chemically primitive solar system objects yet studied in detail, and that it formed earlier or farther from the Sun than the bulk of the comets studied so far. The similar dust compositions of the two fragments suggest that these are not mineralogically heterogeneous, but rather uniform throughout their volumes. The best-fit particle size distribution for SW3B has a form dn/da ∼ a-3.5, close to that expected for dust in collisional equilibrium, while that for SW3C has dn/da ∼ a-4.0, as seen mostly in active comets with strong directed jets, such as C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp. The total mass of dust in the comae plus nearby tail, extrapolated from the field of view of the IRS peak-up image arrays, is (3-5) x 108 kg for B and (7-9) x 108 kg for C. Atomic abundances derived from the spectral models indicate a depletion of O compared to solar photospheric values, despite the inclusion of water ice and gas in the models. Atomic C may be solar or slightly sub-solar, but its abundance is complicated by the potential contribution of spectrally featureless mineral

  2. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Spatially Resolved Observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H.; Colina, Luis; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Smith, J.-D. T.; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2010-06-01

    We present results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral mapping observations of 15 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). In this paper, we investigate the spatial variations of the mid-IR emission which includes fine structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, polycyclic aromatic features (PAHs), continuum emission, and the 9.7 μm silicate feature. We also compare the nuclear and integrated spectra. We find that the star formation takes place in extended regions (several kpc) as probed by the PAH emission, as well as the [Ne II]12.81 μm and [Ne III]15.56 μm emissions. The behavior of the integrated PAH emission and 9.7 μm silicate feature is similar to that of local starburst galaxies. We also find that the minima of the [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratio tends to be located at the nuclei and its value is lower than that of H II regions in our LIRGs and nearby galaxies. It is likely that increased densities in the nuclei of LIRGs are responsible for the smaller nuclear [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratios. This includes the possibility that some of the most massive stars in the nuclei are still embedded in ultracompact H II regions. In a large fraction of our sample, the 11.3 μm PAH emission appears more extended than the dust 5.5 μm continuum emission. We find a dependency of the 11.3 μm PAH/7.7 μm PAH and [Ne II]12.81 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratios with the age of the stellar populations. Smaller and larger ratios, respectively, indicate recent star formation. The estimated warm (300 K Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  3. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  4. A Precise Determination of the Mid-infrared Interstellar Extinction Law Based on the APOGEE Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mengyao; Jiang, B. W.; Gao, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen

    2016-06-01

    A precise measure of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction law is crucial for investigating the properties of interstellar dust, especially larger-sized grains. Based on the stellar parameters derived from the SDSS-III/Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectroscopic survey, we select a large sample of G-type and K-type giants as the tracers of the Galactic mid-infrared extinction. We calculate the intrinsic stellar color excesses from the stellar effective temperatures and use them to determine the mid-infrared extinction for a given line of sight. For the entire sky of the Milky Way surveyed by APOGEE, we derive the extinctions (relative to {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, the K S-band extinction at wavelength λ = 2.16 μm) for the four Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, the four Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm, the Spitzer/MIPS24 band at 23.7 μm, and, for the first time, the AKARI/S9W band at 8.23 μm. Our results agree with previous works in that the extinction curve is flat in the ˜3-8 μm wavelength range and is generally consistent with the {R}V = 5.5 model curve, except our determination exceeds the model prediction in the WISE/W4 band. Although some previous works found that the mid-IR extinction law appears to vary with the extinction depth {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, no noticeable variation has been found in this work. The uncertainties are analyzed in terms of the bootstrap resampling method and Monte-Carlo simulation and are found to be rather small.

  5. Arquitectura wormhole per a una NoC 2D-Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Aquest projecte presenta la implementació d'un disseny, i la seva posterior síntesi en una FPGA, d'una arquitectura de tipus wormhole packet switching per a una infraestructura de NetWork-On-Chip amb una topologia 2D-Mesh. Agafant un router circuit switching com a punt de partida, s'han especificat els mòduls en Verilog per tal d'obtenir l'arquitectura wormhole desitjada. Dissenyar la màquina de control per governar els flits que conformen els paquets dins la NoC,i afegir les cues a la sortid...

  6. Spitzer Observations of the Lambda Orionis cluster I: the frequency of young debris disks at 5 Myr

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Jesús; Hartmann, L; Muzerolle, J; Gutermuth, R; Stauffer, J

    2009-01-01

    We present IRAC/MIPS Spitzer observations of intermediate-mass stars in the 5 Myr old Lambda Orionis cluster. In a representative sample of stars earlier than F5 (29 stars), we find a population of 9 stars with a varying degree of moderate 24um excess comparable to those produced by debris disks in older stellar groups. As expected in debris disks systems, those stars do not exhibit emission lines in their optical spectra. We also include in our study the star HD 245185, a known Herbig Ae object which displays excesses in all Spitzer bands and shows emission lines in its spectrum. We compare the disk population in the Lambda Orionis cluster with the disk census in other stellar groups studied using similar methods to detect and characterize their disks and spanning a range of ages from 3 Myr to 10 Myr. We find that for stellar groups of 5 Myr or older the observed disk frequency in intermediate mass stars (with spectral types from late B to early F) is higher than in low mass stars (with spectral types K and ...

  7. SPITZER AS A MICROLENS PARALLAX SATELLITE: MASS MEASUREMENT FOR THE OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L PLANET AND ITS HOST STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udalski, A.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gould, A.; Zhu, W.; Pogge, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Calchi Novati, S. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector π{sub E}, and thus the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses of m ∼ 0.5 M {sub jup} and M ∼ 0.7 M {sub ☉} and are separated by a ∼ 3.1 AU in projection. The main source of uncertainty in all of these numbers (approximately 30%, 30%, and 20%) is the relatively poor measurement of the Einstein radius θ{sub E}, rather than uncertainty in π{sub E}, which is measured with 2.5% precision. This compares to 22% based on OGLE data alone, implying that the Spitzer data provide not only a substantial improvement in the precision of the π{sub E} measurement, but also the first independent test of a ground-based π{sub E} measurement.

  8. Spitzer Detection of PAH and Silicate Dust Features in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, L; Armus, L; Teplitz, H; Helou, G; Frayer, D; Fadda, D; Surace, J; Choi, P; Yan, Lin

    2005-01-01

    We report the initial results from a Spitzer GO-1 program to obtain low resolution, mid-infrared spectra of infrared luminous galaxies at z~1-2. This paper presents the spectra of eight sources observed with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). Of the eight spectra, six have mid-IR spectral features, either emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) or silicate absorption. Based on these mid-IR features, the inferred six redshifts are in the range of 1.8-2.6. The remaining two spectra detect only strong continua, thus do not yield redshift information. Strong, multiple PAH emission features are detected in two sources, and weak PAH emission in another two. These data provide direct evidence that PAH molecules are present and directly observable in ULIRGs at z~2. The six sources with measured redshifts are dusty, infrared luminous galaxies at z~2 with estimated $L_{bol} \\sim 10^{13}L_\\odot$. Of the eight sources, two appear starburst dominated; two with only power law continua are probably type I ...

  9. THE MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CEPHEIDS DERIVED FROM SPITZER ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we derive the Spitzer IRAC band period-luminosity (P-L) relations for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids, by matching the Spitzer archival SAGE-SMC data with the OGLE-III SMC Cepheids. We find that the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm band P-L relations can be better described using two P-L relations with a break period at log(P) = 0.4: this is consistent with similar results at optical wavelengths for SMC P-L relations. The 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm band P-L relations do not extend to sufficiently short periods to enable a similar detection of a slope change at log(P) = 0.4. The slopes of the SMC P-L relations, for log(P) > 0.4, are consistent with their Large Magellanic Cloud counterparts that were derived from a similar data set. They are also in agreement with those obtained from a small sample of Galactic Cepheids with parallax measurements.

  10. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  11. A Spitzer MIPS Study of 2.5-2.0 M\\odot Stars in Scorpius-Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Christine H; Mamajek, Eric E; Su, Kate Y L; Bitner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {\\mu}m and 70 {\\mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {\\mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25+6%), 36/131 (27+4%), and 23/95 (24+5%) for Upper Scorpius (\\sim11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus (\\sim15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux (\\sim17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from LIR/L\\ast = 1e-6 to 1e-2 and grain temperatures ranging from Tgr = 40 - 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {\\mu}m and 70 {\\mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A type stars ...

  12. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-Wavelength View of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Dawn E; Bourke, Tyler L; Forbrich, Jan; Gutermuth, Robert A; Jorgensen, Jes K; Allen, Lori E; Patten, Brian M; Dunham, Michael M; Harvey, Paul M; Merin, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L; Cieza, Lucas A; Huard, Tracy L; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg^2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M_o Myr^-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface ...

  13. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  14. The physical properties of Spitzer/IRS galaxies derived from their UV to 22 $\\mu$m spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Vika, Marina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Xilouris, Emmanuel M; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2016-01-01

    We provide the basic integrated physical properties of all the galaxies contained in the full CASSIS with available broad-band photometry from UV to 22 $\\mu$m. We have collected photometric measurements in 14 wavelengths from available public surveys in order to study the SED of each galaxy in CASSIS, thus constructing a final sample of 1,146 galaxies in the redshift range 0Spitzer/IRS galaxies are star-forming and lie on or above the star-forming MS of the corresponding redshift. Moreover, the emission of Spitzer/IRS galaxies with z<0.1 is mostly dominated by star-formation, galaxies in the mid-redshift bin are a mixture of star forming and AGN galaxies, wh...

  15. The Taurus Molecular Cloud: Multi-Wavelength Surveys with XMM-Newton, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and CFHT

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M; Dougados, C

    2006-01-01

    (abridged:) The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) contains numerous prototypical examples of deeply embedded protostars with massive disks and outflows, classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars, jets and Herbig-Haro objects, and a growing number of confirmed brown dwarfs. Star formation is ongoing, and the cloud covers all stages of pre-main sequence stellar evolution. We have initiated comprehensive surveys of the TMC, in particular including: (i) a deep X-ray survey of about 5 sq. degrees with XMM-Newton; (ii) a near-to-mid-infrared photometric survey of ~30 sq. degrees with the Spitzer Space Telescope, mapping the entire cloud in all available photometric bands; and (iii) a deep optical survey using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Each wavelength regime contributes to the understanding of different aspects of young stellar systems. XMM-Newton and Spitzer mapping of the central TMC is a real breakthrough in disk characterization, offering the most detailed studies of correlations between disk properties and hi...

  16. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  17. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  18. A global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanotte, A. A.; Gillon, M.; Demory, B.-O.; Fortney, J. J.; Astudillo, N.; Bonfils, X.; Magain, P.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.; Udry, S.

    2014-12-01

    Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims: We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods: We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 μm. Adding the high-precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar effects on the flux variation. Results: We present a refined radius estimate of RP = 4.10 ± 0.16 R⊕ , mass MP = 25.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, and eccentricity e = 0.162 ± 0.004 for GJ 436b. Our measured transit depths remain constant in time and wavelength, in disagreement with the results of previous studies. In addition, we find that the post-occultation flare-like structure at 3.6 μm that led to divergent results on the occultation depth measurement is spurious. We obtain occultation depths at 3.6, 5.8, and 8.0 μm that are shallower than in previous works, in particular at 3.6 μm. However, these depths still appear consistent with a metal-rich atmosphere depleted in methane and enhanced in CO/CO2, although perhaps less than previously thought. We could not detect a significant orbital modulation in the 8 μm phase curve. We find no evidence of a potential planetary companion, stellar activity, or a stellar spin-orbit misalignment. Conclusions: Recent theoretical

  19. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Müller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods: Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for th

  20. "TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs/trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the

  1. Spitzer/IRAC view of Sh 2-284. Searching for evidence of triggered star formation in an isolated region in the outer Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Puga; S. Hony; C. Neiner; A. Lenorzer; A.M. Hubert; L.B.F.M. Waters; F. Cusano; V. Ripepi

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Using Spitzer/IRAC observations of a region to be observed by the CoRoT satellite, we have unraveled a new complex star-forming region at low metallicity in the outer Galaxy. We perform a study of S284 in order to outline the chain of events in this star-forming region. Methods. We used four-b

  2. SPITZER observations of Abell 1763. III. The infrared luminosity function in different supercluster environments

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Durret, F; Edwards, L O V; Marleau, F

    2011-01-01

    We determine the galaxy infrared (IR) luminosity function (LF) as a function of the environment in a supercluster at z=0.23, using optical, near-IR, and mid- to far-IR photometry, as well as redshifts from optical spectroscopy. We identify 467 supercluster members in a sample of 24-micron-selected galaxies, on the basis of their spectroscopic (153) and photometric (314) redshifts. IR luminosities, stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) are determined for supercluster members via spectral energy distribution fitting and the Kennicutt relation. Galaxies with active galactic nuclei are excluded from the sample. We determine the IR LF of the whole supercluster as well as the IR LFs of three different regions in the supercluster: the cluster core, a large-scale filament, and the cluster outskirts (excluding the filament). The IR LF shows an environmental dependence which is not simply related to the local galaxy density. The filament, an intermediate-density region in the A1763 supercluster, contains the h...

  3. Spitzer IRAC observations of IR excess in Holmberg IX X-1: A circumbinary disk or a variable jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Roberts, T P; Grise, F; Singh, A; Pagano, R; Winter, L M

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source (ULX, X-1) in Holmberg IX. We construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for Holmberg IX X-1 based on published optical, UV and X-ray data combined with the IR data from this analysis. We modeled the X-ray and optical data with disk and stellar models, however we find a clear IR excess in the ULX SED that cannot be explained by fits or extrapolations of any of these models. Instead, further analysis suggests that the IR excess results either from dust emission, possibly from a circumbinary disk or from a variable jet.

  4. The Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Short Orbital Period Polar EF Eridani from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Ciardi, David R; Wachter, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared (5.5-14.5 micron) spectrum of a highly magnetic cataclysmic variable, EF Eridani, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectrum displays a relatively flat, featureless continuum. A spectral energy distribution model consisting of a 9500 K white dwarf, L5 secondary star, cyclotron emission corresponding to a B~13 MG white dwarf magnetic field, and an optically thin circumbinary dust disk is in reasonable agreement with the extant 2MASS, IRAC, and IRS observations of EF Eri. Cyclotron emission is ruled out as a dominant contributor to the infrared flux density at wavelengths >3 microns. The spectral energy distribution longward of ~5 microns is dominated by dust emission. Even longer wavelength observations would test the model's prediction of a continuing gradual decline in the circumbinary disk-dominated region of the spectral energy distribution.

  5. Red worlds: Spitzer exploration of a compact system of temperate terrestrial planets transiting a nearby Jupiter-sized star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Michael; Burdanov, Artem; Delrez, Laetitia; Jehin, Emmanuel; Magain, Pierre; Van Grootel, Valerie; Bolmont, Emeline; Leconte, Jeremy; Raymond, Sean; Selsis, Franck; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier; Triaud, Amaury; de Wit, Julien; Burgasser, Adam; Carey, Sean; Ingalls, Jim; Lederer, Sue; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine

    2016-08-01

    The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system represents a unique opportunity to extend the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology into the realm of temperate terrestrial worlds. It is composed of at least three Earth-sized planets similar in sizes and irradiations to Earth and Venus transiting an ultra-cool dwarf star only 39 light-years away. Thanks to the Jupiter-size and infrared brightness of their host star, the planets are amenable for detailed atmospheric characterization with JWST, including for biosignatures detection. Our Spitzer Exploration Science Program aims to prepare and optimize the detailed study of this fascinating planetary system through the two following complementary sub-programs: (1) a 480 hrs continuous monitoring of the star to explore its full inner system up to its ice line in a search for any other transiting object(s) (planet, moon, Trojan) with a sensitivity high enough to detect any body as small as Ganymede, and (2) the observation of ~130 transits of the planets (520 hrs). This second part has two goals. First, to measure precisely the planets' masses and eccentricities through the Transit Timing Variations method, to constrain strongly their compositions and energy budgets. Secondly, to measure with an extremely high precision the planets' effective radii at 4.5 microns to assess, when combined with future HST/WFC3 observations, the presence of an atmosphere around them. The two complementary parts of this program will make it a long-lasting legacy of Spitzer to the fields of comparative exoplanetology and astrobiology, by providing the necessary measurements on the inner system of TRAPPIST-1 (complete census, masses, eccentricities, first insights on atmospheres) required to initiate and optimize the detailed atmospheric characterization of its different components with JWST and other future facilities.

  6. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.

  7. SPITZER EVIDENCE FOR A LATE-HEAVY BOMBARDMENT AND THE FORMATION OF UREILITES IN {eta} CORVI At {approx}1 Gyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Morlok, A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Open University, Milton-Keynes (United Kingdom); Watson, D. M.; Manoj, P.; Sheehan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Currie, T. M. [NASA-GSFC, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Sitko, M. L., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: wyatt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: a.morlok@open.ac.uk, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: manoj@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: psheeha2@mail.rochester.edu, E-mail: thayne.m.currie@nasa.gov, E-mail: philippe.thebault@obspm.fr, E-mail: sitko@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 475 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We have analyzed Spitzer and NASA/IRTF 2-35 {mu}m spectra of the warm, {approx}350 K circumstellar dust around the nearby MS star {eta} Corvi (F2V, 1.4 {+-} 0.3 Gyr). The spectra show clear evidence for warm, water- and carbon-rich dust at {approx}3 AU from the central star, in the system's terrestrial habitability zone. Spectral features due to ultra-primitive cometary material were found, in addition to features due to impact produced silica and high-temperature carbonaceous phases. At least 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} kg of 0.1-100 {mu}m warm dust is present in a collisional equilibrium distribution with dn/da {approx} a{sup -3.5}, the equivalent of a 130 km radius Kuiper Belt object (KBO) of 1.0 g cm{sup 3} density and similar to recent estimates of the mass delivered to the Earth at 0.6-0.8 Gyr during the late-heavy bombardment. We conclude that the parent body was a Kuiper Belt body or bodies which captured a large amount of early primitive material in the first megayears of the system's lifetime and preserved it in deep freeze at {approx}150 AU. At {approx}1.4 Gyr they were prompted by dynamical stirring of their parent Kuiper Belt into spiraling into the inner system, eventually colliding at 5-10 km s{sup -1} with a rocky planetary body of mass {<=}M{sub Earth} at {approx}3 AU, delivering large amounts of water (>0.1% of M{sub Earth'sOceans}) and carbon-rich material. The Spitzer spectrum also closely matches spectra reported for the Ureilite meteorites of the Sudan Almahata Sitta fall in 2008, suggesting that one of the Ureilite parent bodies was a KBO.

  8. 8th Czechoslovak spectroscopic conference. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 of the conference proceedings contains abstracts of 17 invited papers, 101 poster presentations and 7 papers of instrument manufacturers, devoted to special spectroscopic techniques including X-ray microanalysis, X-ray spectral analysis, Moessbauer spectrometry, mass spectrometry, instrumental activation analysis and other instrumental radioanalytical methods, electron spectrometry, and techniques of environmental analysis. Sixty abstracts were inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  9. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Investigation of Azoporphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of new covalently-connected azoporphyrin derivatives is described and the photochemical properties of the new compounds are discussed. The two chromophores of these derivatives exhibit their absorption spectroscopic properties respectively.In the fluorescence emission spectra, intermolecular fluorescence quenching is detected.

  10. Asiago spectroscopic classification of two SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Tomasella, L.; OAPd, M. Turatto (INAF

    2016-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of two transients. The targets are supplied by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNOvae (ASAS-SN) and the TNS (https://wis-tns.weizmann.ac.il).

  11. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm (also known as PTSS-16hxs), discovered 20160613.771 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  12. Spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, S; Tabosa, J W R; Failache, H; Lezama, A

    2006-09-15

    We report on the first spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler shift associated with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The effect is evidenced as the broadening of a Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency coherence resonance on Rb vapor when the two incident Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams have opposite topological charges. The observations closely agree with theoretical predictions.

  13. Crystallization and spectroscopic studies of manganese malonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varghese Mathew; Jochan Joseph; Sabu Jacob; K E Abraham

    2010-08-01

    The preparation of manganese malonate crystals by gel method and its spectroscopic studies are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the crystalline nature. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the crystals are recorded and the vibrational assignments are given with possible explanations. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is used to measure the bandgap (g) of the material.

  14. TESIS - The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Severgnini, P; Ceca, R D; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Ghinassi, F; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2002-01-01

    A near-IR low-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of a complete sample of K1.2 and at estimating their spatial density to put constraints on the galaxy formation and evolution models. In this proceeding, the preliminary analysis of the first spectra obtained is presented.

  15. NIR SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES IN THE PROTOCLUSTER AT z = 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Mariko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Yamada, Toru; Ichikawa, Takashi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kajisawa, Masaru [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Yuichi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the K-band-selected candidate galaxies in the protocluster at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field. We observed 67 candidates with K {sub AB} < 24 and confirmed redshifts of the 39 galaxies at 2.0 < z {sub spec} < 3.4. Of the 67 candidates, 24 are certainly protocluster members with 3.04 ≤ z {sub spec} ≤ 3.12, which are massive red galaxies that have been unidentified in previous optical observations of the SSA22 protocluster. Many distant red galaxies (J – K {sub AB} > 1.4), hyper extremely red objects (J – K {sub AB} > 2.1), Spitzer MIPS 24 μm sources, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as well as the counterparts of Lyα blobs and the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm sources in the SSA22 field are also found to be protocluster members. The mass of the SSA22 protocluster is estimated to be ∼2-5 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, and this system is plausibly a progenitor of the most massive clusters of galaxies in the current universe. The reddest (J – K {sub AB} ≥ 2.4) protocluster galaxies are massive galaxies with M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} showing quiescent star formation activities and plausibly dominated by old stellar populations. Most of these massive quiescent galaxies host moderately luminous AGNs detected by X-ray. There are no significant differences in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ emission line ratios and [O III] λ5007 line widths and spatial extents of the protocluster galaxies from those of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2-3 in the general field.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of a brazilian portuguese version of the spitzer quality of life index in patients with low back pain Evaluación de las calidades psicométricas de una versión brasileña del spitzer quality of life index en pacientes con dolor lumbar Avaliação das qualidades psicométricas de uma versão brasileira do spitzer quality of life index em pacientes com dor lombar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Cunha Matheus Rodrigues Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt the Spitzer Quality of Life Index and evaluate its reliability in patients with low back pain. The following steps were followed: translation, back-translation, evaluation by a committee, and pretest. The reliability was estimated through stability and homogeneity assessment. The validity was tested comparing scores of the Spitzer (QLI with the SF-36 and the Roland-Morris. The psychometric properties were evaluated by the self-application on 120 patients. Results showed that the Cronbach's Alpha was 0.77. Intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.960 (pEste estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la adaptación cultural del Spitzer Quality of Life Index y evaluar su confiabilidad en pacientes portadores de dolor lumbar crónico. Se siguieron las siguientes etapas: traducción, retrotraducción, evaluación por un comité y pre-prueba. La validez fue obtenida por medio de la correlación entre los puntajes del Spitzer (QLI, del SF-36 y del Roland-Morris. Las propiedades psicométricas fueron evaluadas en 120 pacientes. Los resultados demostraron un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach=0,77. En una nueva pre-prueba, se encontró un coeficiente de correlación intraclases ICC=0,960 (pEste estudo teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação cultural do Spitzer Quality of Life Index, e avaliar sua confiabilidade em pacientes portadores de dor lombar crônica. Foram seguidas as seguintes etapas: tradução, retro-tradução, avaliação por um comitê e pré-teste. A confiabilidade foi avaliada por meio da consistência interna e da estabilidade. A validade foi obtida por meio da correlação entre os escores do Spitzer (QLI, do SF-36 e do Roland-Morris. As propriedades psicométricas foram avaliadas em 120 pacientes. Os resultados demonstraram coeficiente alfa de Cronbach=0,77. No teste-reteste, encontrou-se coeficiente de correlação intraclasse ICC=0,960 (p<0,001; IC 95%: 0,943; 0,972. Coeficiente

  17. An empirical mass-loss law for Population II giants from the Spitzer-IRAC survey of Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origlia, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Fabbri, S.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Dalessandro, E.; Rich, R. M.; Valenti, E.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: The main aim of the present work is to derive an empirical mass-loss (ML) law for Population II stars in first and second ascent red giant branches. Methods: We used the Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry obtained in the 3.6-8 μm range of a carefully chosen sample of 15 Galactic globular clusters spanning the entire metallicity range and sampling the vast zoology of horizontal branch (HB) morphologies. We complemented the IRAC photometry with near-infrared data to build suitable color-magnitude and color-color diagrams and identify mass-losing giant stars. Results: We find that while the majority of stars show colors typical of cool giants, some stars show an excess of mid-infrared light that is larger than expected from their photospheric emission and that is plausibly due to dust formation in mass flowing from them. For these stars, we estimate dust and total (gas + dust) ML rates and timescales. We finally calibrate an empirical ML law for Population II red and asymptotic giant branch stars with varying metallicity. We find that at a given red giant branch luminosity only a fraction of the stars are losing mass. From this, we conclude that ML is episodic and is active only a fraction of the time, which we define as the duty cycle. The fraction of mass-losing stars increases by increasing the stellar luminosity and metallicity. The ML rate, as estimated from reasonable assumptions for the gas-to-dust ratio and expansion velocity, depends on metallicity and slowly increases with decreasing metallicity. In contrast, the duty cycle increases with increasing metallicity, with the net result that total ML increases moderately with increasing metallicity, about 0.1 M⊙ every dex in [Fe/H]. For Population II asymptotic giant branch stars, we estimate a total ML of ≤0.1 M⊙, nearly constant with varying metallicity. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  18. The (w)hole survey: An unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, N.; Verhaar, B. W.; van Terwisga, S.; Merín, B.; Herczeg, G.; Ligterink, N. F. W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen candidates, selected by their spectral energy distribution (SED), have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased toward the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star-forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 young stellar objects. Using color criteria, we selected a sample of ~150 candidates and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid- and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC-3D disk models with a limited number of parameters: disk mass, inner disk mass, scale height and flaring, and disk cavity radius, where the latter is the main parameter of interest. About 72% of our targets possibly have dust cavities based on the SED. The derived cavity sizes are consistent with imaging/modeling results in the literature, where available. Trends are found with Ldisk over L∗ ratio and stellar mass and a possible connection with exoplanet orbital radii. A comparison with a previous study where color observables are used reveals large overlap between their category of planet-forming disks and our transition disks with cavities. A large number of the new transition disk candidates are suitable for follow-up observations with ALMA. Full Tables 4, 5, A.1-A.3, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  19. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S Calchi; Udalski, A; Menzies, J W; Bond, I A; Shvartzvald, Y; Street, R A; Hundertmark, M; Beichman, C A; Yee, J C; Carey, S; Poleski, R; Skowron, J; Kozlowski, S; Mroz, P; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Szymanski, M K; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J P; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Coutures, C; Danielski, C; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Lonvcaric, K; McDougall, A; Morales, J C; Ranc, C; Zhu, W; Abe, F; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Fukunaga, D; Inayama, K; Koshimoto, N; Namba, S; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Friedmann, M; Bachelet, E; Jaimes, R Figuera; Bramich, D M; Tsapras, Y; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Kains, N; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Jorgensen, U G; Alsubai, K A; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Haugbolle, T; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Wertz, O; Zarucki, M; Gaudi, B S; Pogge, R W; DePoy, D L

    2014-01-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ~1 AU West of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  20. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Menzies, J. W.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Beichman, C. A.; Yee, J. C.; Carey, S.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Danielski, C.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Lončarić, K.; McDougall, A.; Morales, J. C.; Ranc, C.; Zhu, W.; PLANET Collaboration; Abe, F.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Inayama, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Namba, S.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Friedmann, M.; Wise Group; Bachelet, E.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Tsapras, Y.; Horne, K.; Snodgrass, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Steele, I. A.; Kains, N.; RoboNet Collaboration; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Alsubai, K. A.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Haugbølle, T.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.; Zarucki, M.; MiNDSTEp Consortium; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; DePoy, D. L.; μFUN Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ˜1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun’s galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  1. Spectroscopic diagnostics of laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed phenomenological study of the spectroscopic analysis of laser produced plasmas is presented in this dissertation. High resolution x-ray spectroscopic data have been obtained in pellet implosion experiments using the 24 beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Line broadening theory was applied to diagnose plasma core temperatures and densities from observed spectral line shapes; detailed atomic physics models were constructed to diagnose core parameters from sensitive line intensity ratios. This study attempts to systematically observe the effects of opacity on the diagnostics by a self consistent analysis of x-ray spectra obtained from implosions of argon and neon filled glass microballoons differing in diameter, wall thickness, and Ar/Ne fill ratio. The subsequent analysis then includes opacity effects through the use of a radiation transport model for the spectral lines; atomic physics models are studied and the final results systematically compared with the experimental results

  2. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars...... and not planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  3. Photometric and spectroscopic investigation of TW Draconis

    CERN Document Server

    Zejda, M; Harmanec, P; Slechta, M; Mikulasek, Z; Zverko, J; Svoboda, P; Krticka, J

    2010-01-01

    Context. TW Draconis is one of the best studied Algol-type eclipsing binaries. There is significant evidence for miscellaneous physical processes between interacting binary components manifesting themselves by period and light curve changes. Aims. Obtaining new set of photometric and spectroscopic observations, we analysed them together with the older spectroscopic and photometric data to build model of this eclipsing system with respect to observed changes of O-C diagram and light curve. Methods. Reduction of new spectra was carried out in the IRAF and SPEFO programs. Radial velocities were determined manually using SPEFO, by CCF using the Zverko's code and from the program KOREL. Orbital elements were derived with the FOTEL program and via disentangling with KOREL. The final combined solution was obtained with the programs PHOEBE and FOTEL. Results. Photometry shows small irregularities in light curves as a results of pulsating of one component and spot activity. Using net of KOREL outputs we found the mass...

  4. The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e. spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross-sections for bands in the ultraviolet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for 42 molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  5. Are your spectroscopic data being used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Potterbusch, Megan R.; Bouquin, Daina; Erdmann, Christopher C.; Wilzewski, Jonas S.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of availability of data and their presentation in spectroscopic publications is discussed. Different current practices are critically reviewed from the point of view of potential users, government policies, and merit of success of the authors. Indeed, properly providing the data benefits not only users but also the authors of the spectroscopic research. We will show that this increases citations to the spectroscopy papers and visibility of the research groups. Examples based on the statistical analyses of the articles published in the Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy will be shown. We will discuss different methods including supplementary materials to the Journals, public-curated databases and also new tools that can be utilized by spectroscopists.

  6. Structural and spectroscopic studies of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Laitenberger, P

    1996-01-01

    and on a 10ML thick Ar spacer layer, a remarkable substrate dependence is revealed. A new STM-based technique for fabricating simple metal-structures with dimensions in the 10-100nm regime which are partially electrically isolated from their environment was developed in collaboration with Dr. L. A. Silva. This technique employs the STM tip as a mechanical nanofabrication tool to machine gaps into a thin metallic film deposited on an insulating substrate, which laterally confine and electrically isolate the desired metal regions. Several metal structures, such as nanoscale wires and pads, were successfully created. Finally, the conceptual basis and present stage of construction of a new surface analytical tool, the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS), is discussed. The SPELS offers the exciting prospect of collecting structural as well as spectroscopic information with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. Once successfully developed, it will be ideally suited for spectroscopic studies of nanos...

  7. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stephanie; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard

    2016-08-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies that have both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still very small, particularly at high luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and efficiently follow-up with Spitzer/IRAC the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 180 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue the Spitzer cycle 12 BORG911 program and target 15 additional fields, leveraging over 300 new HST orbits (350 sqarcmin) to identify a final sample of about 5 to 10 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just over 22 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z~2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies to investigate the reionization state of the inter-galactic medium through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  8. G313.3+00.3: A New Planetary Nebula discovered by the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A.; Watson, Christer; Wolfire, Mark; Wolff, Mike J.; Mathis, John S.; Churchwell, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new planetary nebula, first identified in images from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, although not recognized at that time. Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the GLIMPSE Legacy program have rediscovered the object. The high-resolution radio and infrared images enable the identification of the central star or its wind, the recognition of the radio emission as thermal, and the probable presence of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in and around the so...

  9. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buzzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some relevant properties of the observed changes of H , Mg2, and Fei Lick indices across the surface of 25 bright elliptical galaxies. The impact of these spectroscopic gradients is brie y discussed, in the framework of the leading physical mechanisms that led to galaxy formation. In particular, three relevant evolutionary scenarios are sketched, each one able, in principle, to consistently match galaxy spectral properties and e ectively constrain the composing stellar populations in these systems.

  11. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of unstudied southern PNe

    OpenAIRE

    Emprechtinger, M.; Forveille, T.; S. Kimeswenger

    2004-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic investigation of two hitherto unstudied galactic planetary nebulae (MeWe 1-10 and MeWe 1-11) and one candidate object (MeWe 2-5). The candidate object clearly has been identified as a bipolar hourglass shaped PN. The galactic foreground extinction was derived and using photoionization models with CLOUDY the two round objects were classified as highly evolved nebulae.

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Spectroscopic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, A M; Brough, S; Owers, M S; Bauer, A E; Gunawardhana, M L P; Cluver, M E; Colless, M; Foster, C; Lara-Lopez, M A; Roseboom, I; Sharp, R; Steele, O; Thomas, D; Baldry, I K; Brown, M J I; Liske, J; Norberg, P; Robotham, A S G; Bamford, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Drinkwater, M J; Loveday, J; Meyer, M; Peacock, J A; Tuffs, R; Agius, N; Alpaslan, M; Andrae, E; Cameron, E; Cole, S; Ching, J H Y; Christodoulou, L; Conselice, C; Croom, S; Cross, N J G; De Propris, R; Delhaize, J; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Ellis, S; Frenk, C S; Graham, A; Grootes, M W; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Hill, D; Hoyle, B; Hudson, M; Jarvis, M; Johansson, J; Jones, D H; van Kampen, E; Kelvin, L; Kuijken, K; Lopez-Sanchez, A; Maddox, S; Madore, B; Maraston, C; McNaught-Roberts, T; Nichol, R C; Oliver, S; Parkinson, H; Penny, S; Phillipps, S; Pimbblet, K A; Ponman, T; Popescu, C C; Prescott, M; Proctor, R; Sadler, E M; Sansom, A E; Seibert, M; Staveley-Smith, L; Sutherland, W; Taylor, E; Van Waerbeke, L; Vazquez-Mata, J A; Warren, S; Wijesinghe, D B; Wild, V; Wilkins, S

    2013-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic survey, using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain spectra for up to ~300000 galaxies over 280 square degrees, to a limiting magnitude of r_pet < 19.8 mag. The target galaxies are distributed over 0spectroscopic reduction and analysis pipeline. We present the steps involved in taking the raw two-dimensional spectroscopic images through to flux-calibrated one-dimensional spectra. The resulting GAMA spectra cover an observed wavelength range of 3750

  14. The Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, S; Kirshner, R P; Mandel, K S; Berlind, P; Calkins, M; Challis, P; Garnavich, P M; Jha, S W; Modjaz, M; Riess, A G; Schmidt, B P

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the FLWO 1.5m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. We study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SN Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SN Ia with broader lines. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II 6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ~0 to ~400 km/s/day considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B-V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more ...

  15. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, Brenna; Bebek, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar spectroscopic redshift survey. The DESI instrument consists of a new wide-field (3.2 deg. linear field of view) corrector plus a multi-object spectrometer with up to 5000 robotically positioned optical fibers and will be installed at prime focus on the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. The fibers feed 10 three-arm spectrographs producing spectra that cover a wavelength range from 360-980 nm and have resolution of 2000-5500 depending on the wavelength. The DESI instrument is designed for a 14,000 sq. deg. multi-year survey of targets that trace the evolution of dark energy out to redshift 3.5 using the redshifts of luminous red galaxies (LRGs), emission line galaxies (ELGs) and quasars. DESI is the successor to the successful Stage-III BOSS spectroscopic redshift survey and complements imaging surveys such as the Stage-III Dark Energy Survey (DES, currently operating) and the Stage-IV Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST, planned start early in the next decade).

  16. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of the Dense, Modestly-irradiated, Giant Exoplanet HAT-P-20b Using Pixel-Level Decorrelation

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Kammer, Joshua; Fulton, Benjamin J; Ingalls, James; Carey, Sean; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J; Todorov, Kamen; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fraine, Jonathan; Langton, Jonathan; Morley, Caroline; Showman, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    HAT-P-20b is a giant exoplanet that orbits a metal-rich star. The planet itself has a high total density, suggesting that it may also have a high metallicity in its atmosphere. We analyze two eclipses of the planet in each of the 3.6- and 4.5 micron bands of Warm Spitzer. These data exhibit intra-pixel detector sensitivity fluctuations that were resistant to traditional decorrelation methods. We have developed a simple, powerful, and radically different method to correct the intra-pixel effect for Warm Spitzer data, which we call pixel-level decorrelation (PLD). PLD corrects the intra-pixel effect very effectively, but without explicitly using - or even measuring - the fluctuations in the apparent position of the stellar image. We illustrate and validate PLD using synthetic and real data, and comparing the results to previous analyses. PLD can significantly reduce or eliminate red noise in Spitzer secondary eclipse photometry, even for eclipses that have proven to be intractable using other methods. Our succe...

  17. Warm Spitzer Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanets CoRoT-1 and CoRoT-2 at Secondary Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K

    2010-01-01

    We measure secondary eclipses of the hot giant exoplanets CoRoT-1 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, and CoRoT-2 at 3.6 microns, both using Warm Spitzer. We find that the Warm Spitzer mission is working very well for exoplanet science. For consistency of our analysis we also re-analyze archival cryogenic Spitzer data for secondary eclipses of CoRoT-2 at 4.5 and 8 microns. We compare the total data for both planets, including optical eclipse measurements by the CoRoT mission, and ground-based eclipse measurements at 2 microns, to existing models. Both planets exhibit stronger eclipses at 4.5 than at 3.6 microns, which is often indicative of an atmospheric temperature inversion. The spectrum of CoRoT-1 is best reproduced by a 2460K blackbody, due either to a high altitude layer that strongly absorbs stellar irradiance, or an isothermal region in the planetary atmosphere. The spectrum of CoRoT-2 is unusual because the 8 micron contrast is anomalously low. Non-inverted atmospheres could potentially produce the CoRoT-2 spect...

  18. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  19. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

    2009-06-01

    There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 μm thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the

  1. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations of Five Cool Gas Giant Planets and Empirical Trends in Cool Planet Emission Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kammer, Joshua A; Line, Michael R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Deming, Drake; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howard, Andrew W; Laughlin, Gregory P; Lewis, Nikole K; Morley, Caroline V; Moses, Julianne I; Showman, Adam P; Todorov, Kamen O

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron secondary eclipse observations of five new cool (<1200 K) transiting gas giant planets: HAT-P-19b, WASP-6b, WASP-10b, WASP-39b, and WASP-67b. We compare our measured eclipse depths to the predictions of a suite of atmosphere models and to eclipse depths for planets with previously published observations in order to constrain the temperature- and mass-dependent properties of gas giant planet atmospheres. We find that the dayside emission spectra of planets less massive than Jupiter require models with efficient circulation of energy to the night side and/or increased albedos, while those with masses greater than that of Jupiter are consistently best-matched by models with inefficient circulation and low albedos. At these relatively low temperatures we expect the atmospheric methane to CO ratio to vary as a function of metallicity, and we therefore use our observations of these planets to constrain their atmospheric metallicities. We find that the most massi...

  2. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8 deg2 Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M * > 1010 M ☉ star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M * ≳ 1011.5 M ☉. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ∼ 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ∼ 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched

  3. Spitzer/MIPS Infrared Imaging of M31: Further Evidence for a Spiral/Ring Composite Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, K D; Engelbracht, C W; Rieke, G H; Misselt, K A; Latter, W B; Young, E T; Ashby, M L N; Barmby, P; Gibson, B K; Hines, D C; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Levine, D A; Marleau, F R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Stolovy, S; Thilker, D A; Werner, M W; Gordon, Karl D.

    2006-01-01

    New images of M31 at 24, 70, and 160 micron taken with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) reveal the morphology of the dust in this galaxy. This morphology is well represented by a composite of two logarithmic spiral arms and a circular ring (radius ~10 kpc) of star formation offset from the nucleus. The two spiral arms appear to start at the ends of a bar in the nuclear region and extend beyond the star forming ring. As has been found in previous work, the spiral arms are not continuous but composed of spiral segments. The star forming ring is very circular except for a region near M32 where it splits. The lack of well defined spiral arms and the prominence of the nearly circular ring suggests that M31 has been distorted by interactions with its satellite galaxies. Using new dynamical simulations of M31 interacting with M32 and NGC 205 we find that, qualitatively, such interactions can produce an offset, split ring like that seen in the MIPS images.

  4. Spitzer observations of extragalactic H II regions III: NGC 6822 and the hot star, H II region connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Kader, Justin; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Weber, Johann A

    2016-01-01

    Using the short-high module of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have measured the [S IV] 10.51, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71-micron emission lines in 9 H II regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These lines arise from the dominant ionization states of the elements neon (Ne$^{++}$, Ne$^+$) and sulphur (S$^{3+}$, S$^{++}$), thereby allowing an analysis of the neon to sulphur abundance ratio as well as the ionic abundance ratios Ne$^+$/Ne$^{++}$ and S$^{3+}$/S$^{++}$. By extending our studies of H II regions in M83 and M33 to the lower metallicity NGC 6822, we increase the reliability of the estimated Ne/S ratio. We find that the Ne/S ratio appears to be fairly universal, with not much variation about the ratio found for NGC 6822: the median (average) Ne/S ratio equals 11.6 (12.2$\\pm$0.8). This value is in contrast to Asplund et al.'s currently best estimated value for the Sun: Ne/S = 6.5. In addition, we continue to test the predicted ionizing spectral e...

  5. A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Beirao, P; Helou, G; Appleton, P N; Smith, J -D T; Croxall, K V; Murphy, E J; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Wolfire, M G; Sandstrom, K M; Aniano, G; Bolatto, A D; Groves, B; Brandl, B R; Schinnerer, E; Crocker, A F; Hinz, J L; Rix, H -W; Kennicutt, R C; Calzetti, D; de Paz, A Gil; Dumas, G; Galametz, M; Gordon, K D; Hao, C -N; Johnson, B; Koda, J; Krause, O; van der Laan, T; Leroy, A K; Li, Y; Meidt, S E; Meyer, J D; Rahman, N; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Srinivasan, S; Vigroux, L; Walter, F; Warren, B E

    2012-01-01

    NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far infrared (FIR) [CII]158um and [OI]63um lines and mid-infrared H2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS, and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158um+[OI]63um)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7um PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158{\\mu}m/PAH(5.5 - 14um) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158um and [OI]63um emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. SED modeling indicates that at most ...

  6. Spitzer SAGE Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud. II. Evolved Stars and Infrared Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Mould, J. R.; Olsen, K. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Werner, M.; Meixner, M.; Markwick-Kemper, F.; Indebetouw, R.; Whitney, B.; Meade, M.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E. B.; Gordon, K.; Engelbracht, C.; For, B.-Q.; Misselt, K.; Vijh, U.; Leitherer, C.; Volk, K.; Points, S.; Reach, W.; Hora, J. L.; Bernard, J.-P.; Boulanger, F.; Bracker, S.; Cohen, M.; Fukui, Y.; Gallagher, J.; Gorjian, V.; Harris, J.; Kelly, D.; Kawamura, A.; Latter, W. B.; Madden, S.; Mizuno, A.; Mizuno, N.; Nota, A.; Oey, M. S.; Onishi, T.; Paladini, R.; Panagia, N.; Perez-Gonzalez, P.; Shibai, H.; Sato, S.; Smith, L.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ueta, T.; Van Dyk, S.; Zaritsky, D.

    2006-11-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 μm epoch 1 data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the LMC, as well as Galactic foreground and extragalactic background populations. Some 32,000 evolved stars brighter than the tip of the red giant branch are identified. Of these, approximately 17,500 are classified as oxygen-rich, 7000 as carbon-rich, and another 1200 as ``extreme'' asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Brighter members of the latter group have been called ``obscured'' AGB stars in the literature owing to their dusty circumstellar envelopes. A large number (1200) of luminous oxygen-rich AGB stars/M supergiants are also identified. Finally, there is strong evidence from the 24 μm MIPS channel that previously unexplored, lower luminosity oxygen-rich AGB stars contribute significantly to the mass-loss budget of the LMC (1200 such sources are identified).

  7. Benchmark Transiting Brown Dwarf LHS 6343 C: Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations Yield Brightness Temperature and mid-T Spectral Class

    CERN Document Server

    Montet, Benjamin T; Fortney, Jonathan J; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    There are no field brown dwarf analogs with measured masses, radii, and luminosities, precluding our ability to connect the population of transiting brown dwarfs with measurable masses and radii and field brown dwarfs with measurable luminosities and atmospheric properties. LHS 6343 C, a weakly-irradiated brown dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field, provides the first opportunity to probe the atmosphere of a non-inflated brown dwarf with a measured mass and radius. Here, we analyze four Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C behind LHS 6343 A. Jointly fitting the eclipses with a Gaussian process noise model of the instrumental systematics, we measure eclipse depths of 1.06 \\pm 0.21 ppt at 3.6 microns and 2.09 \\pm 0.08 ppt at 4.5 microns, corresponding to brightness temperatures of 1026 \\pm 57 K and 1249 \\pm 36 K, respectively. We then apply brown dwarf evolutionary models to infer a bolometric luminosity log(L_star / L_sun) = -5.16 \\pm 0.04. Given the known physica...

  8. Mid-infrared VISIR and Spitzer observations of the surroundings of the magnetar SGR 1806-20

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, F; Lagage, P O

    2008-01-01

    We report mid-infrared observations of SGR 1806-20 and its environment - with the highest spatial resolution in this domain to date - using ESO/VISIR in 2005 and 2006, and we retrieved Spitzer/IRAC-MIPS archival data of the same field. We aimed at studying the mid-infrared emission of the stars associated with the same cluster as SGR 1806-20, to detect variations that could be due to the high-energy activity of the magnetar through interaction with the dust. We also aimed at studying the morphology of the cloud close to the centre of the cluster. We performed broadband photometry of three stars - LBV 1806-20, a WC9 and an O/B supergiant - on our VISIR images, as well as on the IRAC data. We then built and fitted their broadband spectral energy distributions with a combination of two absorbed black bodies, representing their stellar components, as well as a possible mid-infrared excess, in order to derive their physical parameters. We show that LBV 1806-20 and the WC9 star exhibit a mid-infrared excess, likely...

  9. 3-D Dynamics of Interactions between Stellar Winds and the Interstellar Medium as Seen by AKARI and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Ueta, Toshiya; Yamamura, Issei; Stencel, Robert E; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Mikako; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Fukushi, Hinako; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Speck, Angela K

    2009-01-01

    Recent far-infrared mapping of mass-losing stars by the AKARI Infrared Astronomy Satellite and Spitzer Space Telescope have suggested that far-infrared bow shock structures are probably ubiquitous around these mass-losing stars, especially when these stars have high proper motion. Higher spatial resolution data of such far-infrared bow shocks now allow detailed fitting to yield the orientation of the bow shock cone with respect to the heliocentric space motion vector of the central star, using the analytical solution for these bow shocks under the assumption of momentum conservation across a physically thin interface between the stellar winds and interstellar medium (ISM). This fitting analysis of the observed bow shock structure would enable determination of the ambient ISM flow vector, founding a new technique to probe the 3-D ISM dynamics that are local to these interacting systems. In this review, we will demonstrate this new technique for three particular cases, Betelgeuse, R Hydrae, and R Cassiopeiae.

  10. A Spitzer Study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. III. Dust Production and Gas Return in Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    We present the third and final part of a census of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher-metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight IR excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30% - 40% in the optical AGB within the 1 sigma errors for all of the galaxies in our samp...

  11. The Cosmic Infrared Background Resolved by Spitzer. Contributions of Mid-Infrared Galaxies to the Far-Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Dole, H; Caputi, K I; Fernandez-Conde, N; Lagache, G; Le Floc'h, E; Papovich, C; Puget, J L; Pérez-González, P G; Rieke, G H; Blaylock, Myra; Caputi, Karina I.; Dole, Herve; Fernandez-Conde, Nestor; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Lagache, Guilaine; Papovich, Casey; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Puget, Jean-Loup; Rieke, George H.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. We quantify the contributions of 24um galaxies to the Far-Infrared (FIR) Background at 70 and 160um. We provide new estimates of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB), and compare it with the Cosmic Optical Background (COB). Methods. Using Spitzer data at 24, 70 and 160um in three deep fields, we stacked more than 19000 MIPS 24um sources with S24>60uJy at 70 and 160um, and measured the resulting FIR flux densities. Results. This method allows a gain up to one order of magnitude in depth in the FIR. We find that the Mid-Infrared (MIR) 24um selected sources contribute to more than 70% of the CIB at 70 and 160um. This is the first direct measurement of the contribution of MIR-selected galaxies to the FIR CIB. Galaxies contributing the most to the total CIB are thus z~1 luminous infrared galaxies, which have intermediate stellar masses. We estimate that the CIB will be resolved at 0.9 mJy at 70 and 3 mJy at 160um. By combining the extrapolation of the 24um source counts below 60uJy, with 160/24 and 70/24 col...

  12. Electron heat conduction in the solar wind: transition from Spitzer-H\\"{a}rm to the collisionless limit

    CERN Document Server

    Bale, S D; Salem, C; Chen, C H K; Quataert, E

    2013-01-01

    We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux $q_\\parallel$ in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-H\\"{a}rm collisional heat flux $q_{sh}$ for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths $L_T \\gtrsim 3.5 ~\\lambda_{fp}$. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high $\\beta$, weakly collisional plasma ('slow solar wind'). In the more collisionless regime $\\lambda_{fp}/L_T \\gtrsim 0.28$, the electron heat flux is limited to $q_\\parallel/q_0 \\sim 0.3$, independent of mean free path, where $q_0$ is the 'free-streaming' value; the measured $q_\\parallel$ does not achieve the full $q_0$. This constraint $q_\\parallel/q_0 \\sim 0.3$ might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a $\\beta_e$ dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile $T_e \\sim r^{-\\alpha}$ th...

  13. A Spitzer Transmission Spectrum for the Exoplanet GJ 436b, Evidence for Stellar Variability, and Constraints on Dayside Flux Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Knutson, Heather A; Cowan, Nicolas B; Christiansen, Jessie L; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Henry, Gregory W; Homeier, Derek; Langton, Jonathan; Laughlin, Gregory; Seager, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a uniform analysis of eight transits and eleven secondary eclipses of the extrasolar planet GJ 436b obtained in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 micron bands using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope between UT 2007 June 29 and UT 2009 Feb 4. We find that the best-fit transit depths for visits in the same bandpass can vary by as much as 8% of the total (4.7 sigma significance) from one epoch to the next. Although we cannot entirely rule out residual detector effects or a time-varying, high-altitude cloud layer in the planet's atmosphere as the cause of these variations, we consider the occultation of active regions on the star in a subset of the transit observations to be the most likely explanation. We reconcile the presence of magnetically active regions with the lack of significant visible or infrared flux variations from the star by proposing that the star's spin axis is tilted with respect to our line of sight, and that the planet's orbit is therefore likely to be misaligned...

  14. R CrB Candidates in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Observations of Cold, Featureless Dust with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, K E; Wood, P R; Price, S D; Egan, M P; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, Stephan D.; Egan, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    We observed 36 evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the low-resolution mode of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Two of these stars, MSX SMC 014 and 155, have nearly featureless spectral energy distributions over the IRS wavelength range (5.2-35 um) and F_nu peaking at ~8-9 um. The data can be fit by sets of amorphous carbon shells or by single 600-700 K blackbodies. The most similar spectra found in extant spectral databases are of R CrB, although the spectral structure seen in R CrB and similar stars is much weaker or absent in the SMC sources. Both SMC stars show variability in the near-infrared. Ground-based visual spectra confirm that MSX SMC 155 is carbon-rich, as expected for R CrB (RCB) stars, and coincides with an object previously identified as an RCB candidate. The temperature of the underlying star is lower for MSX SMC 155 than for typical RCB stars. The strength of the C_2 Swan bands and the low temperature suggest that it may be a rare DY Per-type...

  15. Detection of the Buried AGN in NGC 6240 with the Infrared Spectrograph on The Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Armus, L; Spoon, H W W; Marshall, J A; Charmandaris, V; Higdon, S J U; Desai, V; Hao, L; Teplitz, H I; Devost, D; Brandl, B R; Soifer, B T; Houck, J R

    2006-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra of the nearby, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6240 taken with the IRS on Spitzer. The spectrum of NGC 6240 is dominated by strong fine-structure lines, rotational H2 lines, and PAH emission features. The H2 line fluxes suggest molecular gas at a variety of temperatures. A simple two-temperature fit to the S(0) through S(7) lines implies a mass of 6.7E6 solar masses at T=957K and 1.6E9 solar masses at T=164K, or about 15% of the total molecular gas mass in this system. Noteably, we have detected the [NeV] 14.3 micron emission line, with a flux of 5E-14 erg/cm^2/s, providing the first direct detection of the buried AGN in the mid-infrared. Modelling of the total SED from near to far-infrared wavelengths requires the presence of a hot dust (T=700K) component, which we also associate with the buried AGN. The small [NeV]/[NeII] and [NeV]/IR flux ratios, the relative fraction of hot dust emission, as well as the large 6.2 micron PAH EQW, are all consistent with an apparent AGN con...

  16. Star Formation at $4 < z < 6$ From the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH)

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Charles L; Capak, Peter; Silverman, John D; Carollo, Marcella; Dunlop, James; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Ilbert, Olivier; Fevre, Olivier Le; Floc'h, Emeric Le; Lee, Nicholas; Lin, Liwhai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Masters, Daniel; McCracken, Henry J; Nagao, Tohru; Petric, Andreea; Salvato, Mara; Sanders, Dave; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik; Strauss, Michael A; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) observations on the 1.8 deg$^2$ Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 $M_*>10^{10}M_\\odot $ star-forming galaxies at $4 < z < 6$ with a substantial population up to $M_* \\gtrsim 10^{11.5} M_\\odot$. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the "main sequence" of star-forming galaxies) extends to $z\\sim6$. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has ...

  17. A Spitzer Space Telescope Atlas of omega Centauri: The Stellar Population, Mass Loss, and the Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Woodward, Charles E; Gehrz, Robert D; Evans, A; Dupree, A K

    2008-01-01

    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of the most massive Galactic globular cluster, omega Centauri, and investigate stellar mass loss at low metallicity and the intracluster medium (ICM). The survey covers approximately 3.2x the cluster half-mass radius at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, and 24 microns, resulting in a catalog of over 40,000 point-sources in the cluster. Approximately 140 cluster members ranging 1.5 dex in metallicity show a red excess at 24 microns, indicative of circumstellar dust. If all of the dusty sources are experiencing mass loss, the cumulative rate of loss is estimated at 2.9 - 4.2 x 10^(-7) solar masses per year, 63% -- 66% of which is supplied by three asymptotic giant branch stars at the tip of the Red Giant Branch (RGB). There is little evidence for strong mass loss lower on the RGB. If this material had remained in the cluster center, its dust component (> 1 x 10^(-4) solar masses) would be detectable in our 24 and 70 micron images. While no dust cloud located at the center of ...

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope IRS Spectral Mapping of Photoionized Columns in M16 and the Carina HII Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Angela; Simpson, J. P.; Sellgren, K.; Stolovy, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Photoevaporated columns of dust and gas - also called elephant trunks, pillars or fingers - are found in the periphery of many H II regions. They have been observed within the Galaxy, the SMC and the LMC. These features are thought to be sites of current star formation, but the question remains whether the columns persist because stars formed in the denser regions prior to interactions with the UV radiation and stellar winds of nearby massive stars, or because of core collapse resulting from these interactions. We have obtained Spitzer IRS spectral maps of three columns within M 16 and three columns within the Carina nebula, to test our understanding of the impact on these transitory features of differing stellar populations and initial conditions. We use the wealth of molecular, atomic and PAH emission lines located within the spectral range of the high resolution IRS modes (9.9-37.2 micron) to determine the excitation state, dust and gas temperatures, and probe the shock characteristics within the columns as a function of location. Using the IRS spectral mapping mode, in conjunction with the CUBISM tool and the CLOUDY H II region model code, we have constructed detailed maps of the accessible emission lines and derived parameters for each column. Mapping the distribution of the physical states of the dust and gas in these columns is enhancing our understanding of the competing processes within these dynamic objects. The data presented here represent the only IRS spectral maps of photoionized pillars.

  19. HiRes Deconvolved Spitzer Images of 89 Protostellar Jets and Outflows: New Data on Evolution of Outflow Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Velusamy, T; Thompson, T

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough data base of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible, to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85m mirror. Here we use a high resolution deconvolution algorithm, "HiRes", to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to sub-arcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful to detect: (i) wide angle outflow seen in scattered light; (ii) morphological details of H2 emission in jets and bow shocks; and (iii) compact features in MIPS 24 micron images as protostar/ disk and atomic/ionic line emissions associated with the...

  20. Ices in the edge-on disk CRBR 2422.8-3423: Spitzer spectroscopy and Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, K M; Van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; Boogert, A C A; Evans, N J; Kessler-Silacci, J E; Lahuis, F; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Blake, Geoffrey A; Boogert, Adwin C A; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline E; Lahuis, Fred

    2004-01-01

    We present 5.2-37.2 micron spectroscopy of the edge-on circumstellar disk CRBR 2422.8-3423 obtained using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS spectrum is combined with ground-based 3-5 micron spectroscopy to obtain a complete inventory of solid state material present along the line of sight toward the source. We model the object with a 2D axisymmetric (effectively 3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. It is found that the model disk, assuming a standard flaring structure, is too warm to contain the very large observed column density of pure CO ice, but is possibly responsible for up to 50% of the water, CO2 and minor ice species. In particular the 6.85 micron band, tentatively due to NH4+, exhibits a prominent red wing, indicating a significant contribution from warm ice in the disk. It is argued that the pure CO ice is located in the dense core Oph-F in front of the source seen in the submillimeter imaging, with the CO gas in the core highly depleted. The model is used ...

  1. Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope: Smog check for comets

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, William T; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 23 comets using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope in wide filters centered at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Emission in the 3.6 micron filter arises from sunlight scattered by dust grains; these images generally have a coma near the nucleus and a tail in the antisolar direction due to dust grains swept back by solar radiation pressure. The 4.5 micron filter contains the same dust grains, as well as strong emission lines from CO2 and CO gas; these show distinct morphologies, in which cases we infer they are dominated by gas. Based on the ratio of 4.5 to 3.6 micron brightness, we classify the survey comets as CO2+CO "rich" and "poor." This classification is correlated with previous classifications by A'Hearn based on carbon-chain molecule abundance, in the sense that comets classified as "depleted" in carbon-chain molecules are also "poor" in CO2+CO. The gas emission in the IRAC 4.5 micron images is characterized by a smooth morphology, typically a fan in the sunward hemisphere with a ...

  2. MARCS-Model Stellar Atmospheres, and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L

    2004-01-01

    We describe state-of-the-art MARCS-code model atmospheres generated for a group of A dwarf, G dwarf, and late-G to mid-K giant standard stars, selected to photometrically calibrate the Spitzer-IRS, and compare the synthetic spectra to observations of HR 6688, HR 6705, and HR 7891. The general calibration processes and uncertainties are briefly described, and the differences between various templated composite spectra of the standards are addressed. In particular, a contrast between up-to-date model atmospheres and previously published composite and synthetic spectra is illustrated for wavelength ranges around 8um (where the SiO Delta(v) = 1 band occurs for the cooler standards) and lambda greater than 20um, where the use of the Engelke function will lead to increasingly large discrepancies due to the neglect of gravity in cool stars. At this point, radiometric requirements are being met, absolute flux calibration uncertainties (1-sigma) are ~20% in the SH and LH, and ~15% in the SL and LL data, and order-to-o...

  3. Dynamic Young Stars and their Disks: A Temporal View of NGC 2264 with Spitzer and CoRoT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability is a signature feature of young stars. Among the well known light curve phenomena are periodic variations attributed to surface spots and irregular changes associated with accretion or circumstellar disk material. While decades of photometric monitoring have provided a framework for classifying young star variability, we still know surprisingly little about its underlying mechanisms and connections to the surrounding disks. In the past few years, dedicated photometric monitoring campaigns from the ground and space have revolutionized our view of young stars in the time domain. We present a selection of optical and infrared time series from several recent campaigns, highlighting the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (“CSI 2264”– a joint30-day effort with the Spitzer, CoRoT, and MOST telescopes. The extraordinary photometric precision, high cadence, and long time baseline of these observations is now enabling correlation of variability properties at very different wavelengths, corresponding to locations from the stellar surface to the inner 0.1 AU of the disk. We present some results of the CSI 2264 program, including new classes of optical/infrared behavior. Further efforts to tie observed variability features to physical models will provide insights into the inner disk environment at a time when planet formation may be underway.

  4. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  5. Obscured star formation in intermediate-density environments: A Spitzer study of the Abell 901/902 supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gallazzi, A; Wolf, C; Gray, M E; Papovich, C; Barden, M; Peng, C Y; Meisenheimer, K; Heymans, C; Van Kampen, E; Gilmour, R; Balogh, M; McIntosh, D H; Bacon, D; Barazza, F D; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Jahnke, K; Jogee, S; Lane, K; Robaina, A R; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We explore the amount of obscured star-formation as a function of environment in the A901/902 supercluster at z=0.165 in conjunction with a field sample drawn from the A901 and CDFS fields, imaged with HST as part of the STAGES and GEMS surveys. We combine the COMBO-17 near-UV/optical SED with Spitzer 24um photometry to estimate both the unobscured and obscured star formation in galaxies with Mstar>10^{10}Msun. We find that the star formation activity in massive galaxies is suppressed in dense environments, in agreement with previous studies. Yet, nearly 40% of the star-forming galaxies have red optical colors at intermediate and high densities. These red systems are not starbursting; they have star formation rates per unit stellar mass similar to or lower than blue star-forming galaxies. More than half of the red star-forming galaxies have low IR-to-UV luminosity ratios, relatively high Sersic indices and they are equally abundant at all densities. They might be gradually quenching their star-formation, poss...

  6. $Extrasolar~Storms$: Pressure-dependent Changes In Light Curve Phase In Brown Dwarfs From Simultaneous $Hubble$ and $Spitzer$ Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Marley, Mark S; Karalidi, Theodora; Flateau, Davin; Showman, Adam P; Metchev, Stanimir; Buenzli, Esther; Radigan, Jacqueline; Artigau, Étienne; Lowrance, Patrick J; Burgasser, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRAC Ch1 and Ch2 monitoring of six brown dwarfs during 8 different epochs over the course of 20 months. For four brown dwarfs, we also obtained simulataneous $HST$/WFC3 G141 Grism spectra during two epochs and derived light curves in five narrow-band filters. Probing different pressure levels in the atmospheres, the multi-wavelength light curves of our six targets all exhibit variations, and the shape of the light curves evolves over the timescale of a rotation period, ranging from 1.4 h to 13 h. We compare the shapes of the light curves and estimate the phase shifts between the light curves observed at different wavelengths by comparing the phase of the primary Fourier components. We use state-of-the-art atmosphere models to determine the flux contribution of different pressure layers to the observed flux in each filter. We find that the light curves that probe higher pressures are similar and in phase, but are offset and often different from the light curves that probe lower pressures. ...

  7. Galaxy Clusters around radio-loud AGN at 1.3 < z < 3.2 as seen by Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, D; Stern, D; Vernet, J; De Breuck, C; Seymour, N; Brodwin, M; Eisenhardt, P M; Gonzalez, A H; Hatch, N; Jarvis, M; Rettura, A; Stanford, S A; Stevens, J A

    2013-01-01

    We report the first results from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) program, a Cycle 7 and 8 Spitzer Space Telescope snapshot program to investigate the environments of a large sample of obscured and unobscured luminous radio-loud AGN at 1.2 -0.1 (AB), which efficiently selects high-redshift (z > 1.3) galaxies of all types, we identify galaxy cluster member candidates in the fields of the radio-loud AGN. The local density of these IRAC-selected sources is compared to the density of similarly selected sources in blank fields. We find that 92% of the radio-loud AGN reside in environments richer than average. The majority (55%) of the radio-loud AGN fields are found to be overdense at a > 2 {\\sigma} level; 10% are overdense at a > 5 {\\sigma} level. A clear rise in surface density of IRAC-selected sources towards the position of the radio-loud AGN strongly supports an association of the majority of the IRAC-selected sources with the radio-loud AGN. Our results provide solid statistical evidence that radi...

  8. Nereid from space: Rotation, size and shape analysis from Kepler/K2, Herschel and Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Cs; Farkas-Takács, A I; Szabó, Gy M; Szabó, R; Kiss, L L; Molnár, L; Sárneczky, K; Müller, Th G; Mommert, M; Stansberry, J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of Kepler K2 mission Campaign 3 observations of the irregular Neptune satellite, Nereid. We determined a rotation period of P=11.594(+/-)0.017 h and amplitude of dm=0.0328(+/-)00018, confirming previous short rotation periods obtained in ground based observations. The similarities of light curve amplitudes between 2001 and 2015 show that Nereid is in a low-amplitude rotation state nowadays and it could have been in a high-amplitude rotation state in the mid 1960's. Another high-amplitude period is expected in about 30 years. Based on the light curve amplitudes observed in the last 15 years we could constrain the shape of Nereid and obtained a maximum a:c axis ratio of 1.3:1. This excludes the previously suggested very elongated shape of a:c=1.9:1 and clearly shows that Nereid's spin axis cannot be in forced precession due to tidal forces. Thermal emission data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory indicate that Nereid's shape is actually close...

  9. Catalogue of the morphological features in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Endoqui, M; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H

    2015-01-01

    A catalogue of the morphological features for the complete Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G), including 2352 nearby galaxies, is presented. The measurements are made using 3.6 $\\mu$m images, largely tracing the old stellar population; at this wavelength the effects of dust are also minimal. The measured features are the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of bars, rings, ringlenses, and lenses. Measured in a similar manner are also barlenses (lens-like structures embedded in the bars), which are not lenses in the usual sense, being rather the more face-on counterparts of the boxy/peanut structures in the edge-on view. In addition, pitch angles of spiral arm segments are measured for those galaxies where they can be reliably traced. More than one pitch angle may appear for a single galaxy. All measurements are made in a human-supervised manner so that attention is paid to each galaxy. We used isophotal analysis, unsharp masking, and fitting ellipses to measured structures. We find tha...

  10. A Classical Morphological Analysis of Galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Knapen, J; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Elmegreen, D; Ho, L; Zaritsky, D; Courtois, H; Hinz, J; Muñoz-Mateos, J-C; Kim, T; Regan, M; Gadotti, D; de Paz, A Gil; Laine, J; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Comeron, Sebastien; Ferrer, S Erroz; Seibert, M; Mizusawa, T; Holwerda, B; Madore, B

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S4G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs (1959) morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S4G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, p...

  11. First simultaneous microlensing observations by two space telescopes: $Spitzer$ & $Swift$ reveal a brown dwarf in event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Sumi, T; Street, R A; Novati, S Calchi; Hundertmark, M; Bozza, V; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Drummond, J; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Tan, T G; Wibking, B; Pogge, R W; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Tsapras, Y; Bachelet, E; Dominik, M; Bramich, D M; Cassan, A; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Ranc, C; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Mao, S; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Freeman, M; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Fukui, A; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Jørgensen, U G; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Peixinho, N; Verma, P; Sbarufatti, B; Kennea, J A; Gehrels, N

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-55$M_J$ brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of $\\sim$5 kpc toward the Galactic bulge. The event was observed by several ground-based groups as well as by $Spitzer$ and $Swift$, allowing the measurement of the physical properties. However, the event is still subject to an 8-fold degeneracy, in particular the well-known close-wide degeneracy, and thus the projected separation between the two lens components is either $\\sim$0.25 AU or $\\sim$45 AU. This is the first microlensing event observed by $Swift$, with the UVOT camera. We study the region of microlensing parameter space to which $Swift$ is sensitive, finding that while for thi...

  12. Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) I : Overview and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, M; Indebetouw, R; Hora, J L; Whitney, B; Blum, R; Reach, W; Bernard, J P; Meade, M; Babler, B; Engelbracht, C W; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C; Cohen, M; Churchwell, E B; Boulanger, F; Frogel, J A; Fukui, Y; Gallagher, J; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Kelly, D; Kawamura, A; Kim, S Y; Latter, W B; Madden, S; Markwick-Kemper, C; Mizuno, A; Mizuno, N; Mould, J; Nota, A; Oey, M S; Olsen, K; Onishi, T; Paladini, R; Panagia, N; Perez-Gonzalez, P; Shibai, H; Shuji, S; Smith, L; Staveley-Smith, L; Tielens, A G G M; Ueta, T; Van Dyk, S D; Volk, K; Werner, M; Zaritsky, D; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Indebetouw, Remy; Hora, Joseph L.; Whitney, Barbara; Blum, Robert; Reach, William; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Meade, Marilyn; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl; Vijh, Uma; Leitherer, Claus; Cohen, Martin; Churchwell, Ed B.; Boulanger, Francois; Frogel, Jay A.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gallagher, Jay; Gorjian, Varoujan; Harris, Jason; Kelly, Douglas; Kawamura, Akiko; Kim, SoYoung; Latter, William B.; Madden, Suzanne; Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Mizuno, Akira; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mould, Jeremy; Nota, Antonella; Olsen, Knut; Onishi, Toshikazu; Paladini, Roberta; Panagia, Nino; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shuji, Sato; Smith, Linda; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Ueta, Toshiya; Dyk, Schuyler Van; Volk, Kevin; Werner, Michael; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    We are performing a uniform and unbiased, ~7x7 degrees imaging survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to survey the agents of a galaxy's evolution (SAGE), the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars in the LMC. The detection of diffuse ISM with column densities >1.2x10^21 H cm^-2 permits detailed studies of dust processes in the ISM. SAGE's point source sensitivity enables a complete census of newly formed stars with masses >3 solar masses that will determine the current star formation rate in the LMC. SAGE's detection of evolved stars with mass loss rates >1x10^-8 solar masses per year will quantify the rate at which evolved stars inject mass into the ISM of the LMC. The observing strategy includes two epochs in 2005, separated by three months, that both mitigate instrumental artifacts and constrain source variability. The SAGE data are non-proprietary. The data processing includes IRAC and MIPS pipelines and a database for mi...

  13. Binarity as a key factor in protoplanetary disk evolution: Spitzer disk census of the eta Chamaeleontis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwman, J; Dominik, C; Feigelson, E D; Henning, T; Tielens, A G G M; Waters, L B F M; Henning, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of planets is directly linked to the evolution of the circumstellar (CS) disk from which they are born. The dissipation timescales of CS disks are, therefore, of direct astrophysical importance in evaluating the time available for planet formation. We employ Spitzer Space Telescope spectra to complete the CS disk census for the late-type members of the ~8 Myr-old eta Chamaeleontis star cluster. Of the 15 K- and M-type members, eight show excess emission. We find that the presence of a CS disk is anti-correlated with binarity, with all but one disk associated with single stars. With nine single stars in total, about 80% retain a CS disk. Of the six known or suspected close binaries the only CS disk is associated with the primary of RECX 9. No circumbinary disks have been detected. We also find that stars with disks are slow rotators with surface values of specific angular momentum j = 2-15 j_sun. All high specific angular momentum systems with j = 20-30 j_sun are confined to the primary stars of ...

  14. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey: Linking galaxies and halos at z=1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Ashby, Matthew L N; Stanford, S A; Brodwin, Mark; Holder, Gilbert P; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg$^2$ Spitzer-SPT Deep Field survey. Applying flux and color cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$ in the stellar mass range $10^{10}-10^{11}M_\\odot$, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales $>6^{\\prime \\prime}$ (corresponding to physical distances $>0.05$ Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of $\\log(M_{\\rm halo} / M_\\odot) = 12.44\\pm0.08$, 4.5 times higher than the $z=0$ value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale...

  15. Spitzer observations of SN 2014J and properties of mid-IR emission in Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Helou, G; Masci, F; Tinyanont, S; Jencson, J; Cao, Y; Fox, O D; Kromer, M; Amanullah, R; Banerjee, D P K; Joshi, V; Jerkstrand, A; Kankare, E; Prince, T A

    2014-01-01

    SN 2014J in M82 is the closest Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. The proximity allows for detailed studies of supernova physics and provides insights into the circumstellar and interstellar environment. In this work we analyze Spitzer mid-IR data of SN 2014J in the 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m wavelength range, together with several other nearby and well-studied SNe Ia. We compile the first composite mid-IR light-curve templates from our sample of SNe Ia, spanning the range from before peak brightness well into the nebular phase. Our observations indicate that SNe Ia form a very homogeneous class of objects at these wavelengths. Using the low-reddening supernovae for comparison, we constrain possible thermal emission from circumstellar dust around the highly reddened SN 2014J. We also study SNe 2006X and 2007le, where the presence of matter in the circumstellar environment has been suggested. No significant mid-IR excess is detected, allowing us to place the most constraining upper limits to date on the amount of p...

  16. Mid-IR properties of Seyferts: Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of the IRAS 12micron Seyfert sample

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Huang, J; Spinoglio, L; Tommasin, S

    2009-01-01

    We performed an analysis of the mid-infared properties of the 12micron Seyfert sample, a complete unbiased 12micron flux limited sample of local Seyfert galaxies selected from the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, based on low resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board Spitzer Space Telescope. A detailed presentation of this analysis is dicussed in Wu et al. (2009). We find that on average, the 15-30micron slope of the continuum is -0.85+/-0.61 for Seyfert 1s and -1.53+/-0.84 for Seyfert 2s, and there is substantial scatter in each type. Moreover, nearly 32% of Seyfert 1s, and 9% of Seyfert 2s, display a peak in the mid-infrared spectrum at 20micron, which is attributed to an additional hot dust component. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent width decreases with increasing dust temperature, as indicated by the global infrared color of the host galaxies. However, no statistical difference in PAH equivalent width is detected between the two Seyfert types, 1 and 2, of the...

  17. A Spitzer Survey of Protoplanetary Disk Dust in the Young Serpens Cloud: How do Dust Characteristics Evolve with Time?

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Isa; Merin, Bruno; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Lahuis, Fred; Geers, Vincent C; Jorgensen, Jes K; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS mid-infrared (5-35 micron) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (> 3 mJy at 8 micron) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and classified. Background stars (with slope consistent with a reddened stellar spectrum and silicate features in absorption), galaxies (with redshifted PAH features) and a planetary nebula (with high ionization lines) amount to 22% of contamination in this sample, leaving 115 true YSOs. Sources with rising spectra and ice absorption features, classified as embedded Stage I protostars, amount to 18% of the sample. The remaining 82% (94) of the disk sources are analyzed in terms of spectral energy distribution shapes, PAHs and silicate features. The presence, strength and shape of these silicate features are used to infer disk properties for these systems. About 8% of the disks have 30/13 micron flux ratios consistent with cold disks with inner...

  18. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Petric, Andreea [Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Speagle, Josh S.; Silverman, John D. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Carollo, Marcella [ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunlop, James [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Yasuhiro [National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Sec. 4, Tingzhou Rd., Taipei 11677, Taiwan R.O.C. (China); Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting [ASIAA Sinica, AS/NTU. No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Fevre, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Le Floc' h, Emeric [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, Dave [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Nagao, Tohru [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Salvato, Mara [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-08-20

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8 deg{sup 2} Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ∼ 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ∼ 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched.

  19. Spitzer spectral line mapping of protostellar outflows: III - H_2 emission in L1448, BHR71, and NGC2071

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; Neufeld, D; Yuan, Y; Antoniucci, S; Gusdorf, A

    2011-01-01

    Spitzer-IRS maps of H_2 pure rotational lines from S(0) to S(7) in 3 outflows from Class 0 sources - L1448, BHR71, and NGC2071 - are presented. These lines are used, in conjunction with available rovibrational, near-IR H_2 lines, to probe the physical conditions of the warm gas between hundreds and thousands of Kelvin. We have constructed maps of the molecular hydrogen column density, ortho-to-para ratio and volume density, together with the index beta of the power law describing the distribution of gas temperature. In all three outflows, the present ortho-to-para ratio significantly deviates from the high temperature equilibrium of 3, being on average between 2.0 and 2.3. These low values, that reflect the young age of these flows, are found also in regions of relatively high temperature (~ 1000 K), likely indicating that shocks are occurring in a time shorter than that needed for a complete para to ortho conversion. Density maps indicate upper limits close to LTE conditions, i.e. between 10^6-10^7 cm^-3; mo...

  20. The Spitzer Space Telescope Extra-Galactic First Look Survey: 24 micron data reduction, catalog, and source identification

    CERN Document Server

    Fadda, D; Armus, L; Chapman, S C; Choi, P I; Fang, F; Frayer, D T; Heinrichsen, I; Helou, G; Im, M; Lacy, M; Makovoz, D; Marleau, F R; Shupe, D L; Soifer, B T; Squires, G K; Storrie-Lombardi, L J; Surace, J; Teplitz, H I; Wilson, G; Yan, L; Fadda, Dario

    2006-01-01

    We present the reduction of the 24 micron data obtained during the first cosmological survey performed by the Spitzer Space Telescope (First Look Survey, FLS). The survey consists of a shallow observation of 2.5x2 sq deg centered at 17h18m +59d30m (main survey) and a deeper observation of 1x0.5 sq deg centered at 17h17m +59d45m(verification survey). Issues with the reduction of the 24 micron MIPS data are discussed and solutions to attenuate instrumental effects are proposed and applied to the data. Approximately 17000 sources are extracted with a SNR greater than five. The photometry of the point sources is evaluated through PSF fitting using an empirical PSF derived from the data. Aperture corrections and the absolute calibration have been checked using stars in the field. Astrometric and photometric errors depend on the SNR of the source varying between 0.35-1 arcsec and 5-15%, respectively, for sources detected at 20-5 sigma. The flux of the 123 extended sources have been estimated through aperture photom...

  1. A Spitzer Survey of Young Stellar Clusters within One Kiloparsec of the Sun: Cluster Core Extraction and Basic Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gutermuth, R A; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Pipher, J L; Fazio, G G

    2009-01-01

    We present a uniform mid-infrared imaging and photometric survey of 36 young, nearby, star-forming clusters and groups using {\\it Spitzer} IRAC and MIPS. We have confidently identified and classified 2548 young stellar objects using recently established mid-infrared color-based methods. We have devised and applied a new algorithm for the isolation of local surface density enhancements from point source distributions, enabling us to extract the overdense cores of the observed star forming regions for further analysis. We have compiled several basic structural measurements of these cluster cores from the data, such as mean surface densities of sources, cluster core radii, and aspect ratios, in order to characterize the ranges for these quantities. We find that a typical cluster core is 0.39 pc in radius, has 26 members with infrared excess in a ratio of Class II to Class I sources of 3.7, is embedded in a $A_K$=0.8 mag cloud clump, and has a surface density of 60 pc$^{-2}$. We examine the nearest neighbor dista...

  2. Optical imaging for the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Data release and notes on interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H; Roa, Javier; Bakos, Judit; Cisternas, Mauricio; Leaman, Ryan; Szymanek, Nik

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) The Spitzer Survey for Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) and its more recently approved extension will lead to a set of 3.6 and 4.5 micron images for 2829 galaxies, which can be used to study many different aspects of the structure and evolution of local galaxies. We collected and re-processed optical images in five bands from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for 1657 galaxies, which are publicly released with the publication of this paper. We observed, in only the g-band, an additional 111 S4G galaxies in the northern hemisphere with the 2.5 m Liverpool Telescope, so that optical imaging is released for 1768 galaxies, or for 62% of the S4G sample. We visually checked all images. We noted interactions and close companions in our optical data set and in the S4G sample, confirming them by determining the galaxies' radial velocities and magnitudes in the NASA-IPAC Extragalactic Database. We find that 17% of the S4G galaxies (21% of those brighter than 13.5 mag) have a close companion (within a radius of...

  3. PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Julia; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Campins, Humberto; Lorenzi, Vania; Licandro, Javier; Morate, David; Tanga, Paolo; Cellino, Alberto; Delbo, Marco

    2015-11-01

    NASA OSIRIS-REx and JAXA Hayabusa 2 sample-return missions have targeted two near-Earth asteroids: (101955) Bennu and (162173) 1999 JU3, respectively. These are primitive asteroids that are believed to originate in the inner belt, where five distinct sources have been identified: four primitive collisional families (Polana, Erigone, Sulamitis, and Clarissa), and a population of low-albedo and low-inclination background asteroids. Identifying and characterizing the populations from which these two NEAs might originate will enchance the science return of the two missions.With this main objective in mind, we initiated in 2010 a spectroscopic survey in the visible and the near-infrared to characterize the primitive collisional families in the inner belt and the low-albedo background population. This is the PRIMitive Asteroids Spectroscopic Survey - PRIMASS. So far we have obtained more than 200 spectra using telescopes located at different observatories. PRIMASS uses a variety of ground based facilities. Most of the spectra have been obtained using the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and the 3.6m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), both located at the El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma, Spain), and the 3.0m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea (Hawai, USA).We present the first results from our on-going survey (de Leon et al. 2015; Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2015; Morate et al. 2015), focused on the Polana and the Erigone primitive families, with visible and near-infrared spectra of more than 200 objects, most of them with no previous spectroscopic data. Our survey is already the largest database of primitive asteroids spectra, and we keep obtaining data on the Sulamitis and the Clarissa families, as well as on the background low-albedo population.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometer for ultra thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashika, Kumiko; Shiota, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    As semiconductor technology has advanced, the films have become thinner and changed to multi-layer films, such as gate dielectric construction. To deal with these trends, we are continuing development of our spectroscopic ellipsometer with elliptical polarization. We chose a Rotating-Analyzer Ellipsometer (RAE) configuration. The incident light in this type of device is usually polarized linearly, because polarizers do not disperse the light. But the incident light in the ellipsometer described in this paper is elliptical, which has a nearly circular polarization. In this paper, we introduce a technique for solving the dispersion problem.

  5. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.;

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous...... overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the complementarity with the ESA Gaia mission. Spectra from the very first observing run of the survey are presented....

  6. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Ira W. Levin

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis.

  7. Spitzer Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud: Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE). I. Overview and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Indebetouw, Remy; Hora, Joseph L.; Whitney, Barbara; Blum, Robert; Reach, William; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Meade, Marilyn; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl; Vijh, Uma; Leitherer, Claus; Cohen, Martin; Churchwell, Ed B.; Boulanger, Francois; Frogel, Jay A.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gallagher, Jay; Gorjian, Varoujan; Harris, Jason; Kelly, Douglas; Kawamura, Akiko; Kim, SoYoung; Latter, William B.; Madden, Suzanne; Markwick-Kemper, Ciska; Mizuno, Akira; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mould, Jeremy; Nota, Antonella; Oey, M. S.; Olsen, Knut; Onishi, Toshikazu; Paladini, Roberta; Panagia, Nino; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Shibai, Hiroshi; Sato, Shuji; Smith, Linda; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ueta, Toshiya; van Dyk, Schuyler; Volk, Kevin; Werner, Michael; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2006-12-01

    We are performing a uniform and unbiased imaging survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC; ~7deg×7deg) using the IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, and 160 μm) instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey, these agents being the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars in the LMC. This paper provides an overview of the SAGE Legacy project, including observing strategy, data processing, and initial results. Three key science goals determined the coverage and depth of the survey. The detection of diffuse ISM with column densities >1.2×1021 H cm-2 permits detailed studies of dust processes in the ISM. SAGE's point-source sensitivity enables a complete census of newly formed stars with masses >3 Msolar that will determine the current star formation rate in the LMC. SAGE's detection of evolved stars with mass-loss rates >1×10-8 Msolar yr-1 will quantify the rate at which evolved stars inject mass into the ISM of the LMC. The observing strategy includes two epochs in 2005, separated by 3 months, that both mitigate instrumental artifacts and constrain source variability. The SAGE data are nonproprietary. The data processing includes IRAC and MIPS pipelines and a database for mining the point-source catalogs, which will be released to the community in support of Spitzer proposal cycles 4 and 5. We present initial results on the epoch 1 data for a region near N79 and N83. The MIPS 70 and 160 μm images of the diffuse dust emission of the N79/N83 region reveal a similar distribution to the gas emissions, especially the H I 21 cm emission. The measured point-source sensitivity for the epoch 1 data is consistent with expectations for the survey. The point-source counts are highest for the IRAC 3.6 μm band and decrease dramatically toward longer wavelengths, consistent with the fact that stars dominate the point-source catalogs and the dusty objects detected at the longer wavelengths are rare

  8. A CLASSICAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GALAXIES IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Kim, Taehyun [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Knapen, Johan H. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sébastien [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Debra [Vassar College, Deparment of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Courtois, Helene [Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Lyon (France); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Paz, Armando Gil de [Departmento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín [University of Rio de Janeiro, Observatorio de Valongo, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S{sup 4}G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S{sup 4}G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, pure disk galaxies) in the range Scd-Im. The most common family classification for mid-IR types S0/a to Sc is SA while that for types Scd to Sm is SB. The bars in these two type domains are very different in mid-IR structure and morphology. This paper examines the bar, ring, and type classification fractions in the sample, and also includes several montages of images highlighting the various kinds of “stellar structures” seen in mid-IR galaxy morphology.

  9. Spitzer observations of the type IA supernova remnant N103B: Kepler's older cousin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Long, Knox S. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA AMES Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Hendrick, Sean P., E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Physics Department, Millersville University, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm{sup –3}, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show Hα emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the '18 μm' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 μm. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  10. DEEP SPITZER 24 μm COSMOS IMAGING. I. THE EVOLUTION OF LUMINOUS DUSTY GALAXIES-CONFRONTING THE MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first results obtained from the identification of ∼30,000 sources in the Spitzer/24 μm observations of the COSMOS field at S24μm ∼> 80 μJy. Using accurate photometric redshifts (σ z ∼ 0.12 at z ∼ 2 for 24 μm sources with i + ∼ 2) contribute only marginally to the cosmic infrared background. Assuming flux-limited selections at optical wavelengths, we also find that the fraction of i +-band sources with 24 μm detection strongly increases up to z ∼ 2 as a consequence of the rapid evolution that star-forming galaxies have undergone with look-back time. Nonetheless, this rising trend shows a clear break at z ∼ 1.3, probably due to k-correction effects implied by the complexity of spectral energy distributions in the mid-infrared. Finally, we compare our results with the predictions from different models of galaxy formation. We note that semianalytical formalisms currently fail to reproduce the redshift distributions observed at 24 μm. Furthermore, the simulated galaxies at S 24μm > 80 μJy exhibit R-K colors much bluer than observed and the predicted K-band fluxes are systematically underestimated at z ∼> 0.5. Unless these discrepancies mainly result from an incorrect treatment of extinction in the models they may reflect an underestimate of the predicted density of high-redshift massive sources with strong ongoing star formation, which would point to more fundamental processes and/or parameters (e.g., initial mass function, critical density to form stars, feedback,...) that are still not fully controlled in the simulations. The most recent backward evolution scenarios reproduce reasonably well the flux/redshift distribution of 24 μm sources up to z ∼ 3, although none of them is able to exactly match our results at all redshifts.

  11. THE COMPLEX PHYSICS OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS AS REVEALED BY HERSCHEL AND SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Faro, B.; Franceschini, A.; Vaccari, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Feltre, A.; Marchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo Osservatorio, 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silva, L. [INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgarella, D.; Buat, V. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Farrah, D.; Hurley, P. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Solares, E. A. Gonzalez [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Magdis, G., E-mail: barbara.lofaro@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-01-10

    We combine far-infrared photometry from Herschel (PEP/HerMES) with deep mid-infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer to investigate the nature and the mass assembly history of a sample of 31 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) at z {approx} 1 and 2 selected in GOODS-S with 24 {mu}m fluxes between 0.2 and 0.5 mJy. We model the data with a self-consistent physical model (GRASIL) which includes a state-of-the-art treatment of dust extinction and reprocessing. We find that all of our galaxies appear to require massive populations of old (>1 Gyr) stars and, at the same time, to host a moderate ongoing activity of star formation (SFR {<=} 100 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). The bulk of the stars appear to have been formed a few Gyr before the observation in essentially all cases. Only five galaxies of the sample require a recent starburst superimposed on a quiescent star formation history. We also find discrepancies between our results and those based on optical-only spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting for the same objects; by fitting their observed SEDs with our physical model we find higher extinctions (by {Delta}A {sub V} {approx} 0.81 and 1.14) and higher stellar masses (by {Delta}log(M {sub *}) {approx} 0.16 and 0.36 dex) for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively. The stellar mass difference is larger for the most dust-obscured objects. We also find lower SFRs than those computed from L {sub IR} using the Kennicutt relation due to the significant contribution to the dust heating by intermediate-age stellar populations through 'cirrus' emission ({approx}73% and {approx}66% of the total L {sub IR} for z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 2 (U)LIRGs, respectively).

  12. Mid- and far-infrared luminosity functions and galaxy evolution from multiwavelength Spitzer observations up to z ~ 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Franceschini, A.; Tresse, L.; Le Fevre, O.; Le Brun, V.; Mancini, C.; Matute, I.; Cimatti, A.; Marchetti, L.; Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Bardelli, S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Shupe, D.; Surace, J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Bondi, M.; de la Torre, S.; Vergani, D.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Studies of the infrared (IR) emission of cosmic sources have proven essential to constraining the evolutionary history of cosmic star formation and the gravitational accretion of nuclear black holes, because many of these events occur inside heavily dust-extinguished environments. Aims: The Spitzer Space Telescope has provided a large amount of data to constrain the nature and cosmological evolution of infrared source populations. In the present paper we exploit a large homogeneous dataset to derive a self-consistent picture of IR emission based on the time-dependent λ_eff = 24, 15, 12, and 8 μm monochromatic and bolometric IR luminosity functions (LF) over the full 0 1.5. Based on the multiwavelength information available in these areas, we constrain the LFs at 8, 12, 15, and 24 μm. We also infer the total IR luminosities from our best-fit model of the observed SEDs of each source, and use this to derive the bolometric (8-1000 μm) LF and comoving volume emissivity to z ~ 2.5. Results: In the redshift interval 0 1. The mean redshift of the peak in the source number density shifts with luminosity: the brightest IR galaxies appear to form stars at earlier cosmic times (z > 1.5), while star formation in the less luminous galaxies continues until more recent epochs (z ~ 1 for LIR 1. We also appear to measure a difference in the evolutionary rate of the source number densities as a function of luminosity, which is consistent with the downsizing evolutionary patterns reported for other samples of cosmic sources.

  13. Spitzer observations of the type IA supernova remnant N103B: Kepler's older cousin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm–3, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show Hα emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the '18 μm' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 μm. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  14. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper

  15. Grating Spectroscopes and How to Use Them

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M

    2012-01-01

    Transmission grating spectroscopes look like simple filters and are designed to screw into place on the eyepiece tube of a telescope for visual use, or into a camera adapter for digicam or CCD imaging. They are relatively inexpensive and by far the easiest type of astronomical spectroscope to use, and so are the starting point for most beginners. Using the most popular commercially made filter gratings - from Rainbow Optics in the United States to Star Analyser in the United Kingdon - as examples, the book provides all the information needed to set up and use the grating to obtain stellar spectra. It also presents methods of analyzing the results. No heavy mathematics or formulas are involved, although a reasonable level of proficiency in using an astronomic telescope and, if relevant, imaging camera, is assumed. This book contains many practical hints and tips - something that is almost essential to success when starting out. It encourages new users to get quick results, and by following the worked examples,...

  16. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  17. Spectroscopic enhancement in nanoparticles embedded glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    This presentation provides an overview of the recent progress in the enhancement of the spectroscopic characteristics of the glass embedded with nanoparticles (NPs). Some of our research activities with few significantly new results are highlighted and facilely analyzed. The science and technology dealing with the manipulation of the physical properties of rare earth doped inorganic glasses by embedding metallic NPs or nanoclusters produce the so-called 'nanoglass'. Meanwhile, the spectroscopic enhancement relates the intensity of the luminescence measured at certain transition. The enhancement which expectedly due to the 'plasmonics wave' (referring to the coherent coupling of photons to free electron oscillations called plasmon) occurs at the interface between a conductor and a dielectric. Plasmonics being an emerging concept in advanced optical material of nanophotonics has given this material the ability to exploit the optical response at nanoscale and opened up a new avenue in metal-based glass optics. There is a vast array of plasmonic NPs concepts yet to be explored, with applications spanning solar cells, (bio) sensing, communications, lasers, solid-state lighting, waveguides, imaging, optical data transfer, display and even bio-medicine. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can enhance the optical response of nanoglass by orders of magnitude as observed. The luminescence enhancement and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are new paradigm of research. The enhancement of luminescence due to the influence of metallic NPs is the recurring theme of this paper.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of nitroaromatic landmine signature explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.; Manrique-Bastidas, Cesar A.; Blanco, Alejandro; Primera, Oliva M.; Pacheco, Leonardo C.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Castro, Miguel E.; Mina, Nairmen

    2004-09-01

    TNT and DNT are important explosives used as base charges of landmines and other explosive devices. They are often combined with RDX in specific explosive formulations. Their detection in vapor phase as well as in soil in contact with the explosives is important in landmine detection technology. The spectroscopic signatures of nitroaromatic compounds in neat forms: crystals, droplets, and recrystallized samples were determined by Raman Microspectroscopy (RS), Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) and Fiber Optics Coupled - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FOC-FTIR) using a grazing angle (GA) probe. TNT exhibits a series of characteristic bands: vibrational signatures, which allow its detection in soil. The spectroscopic signature of neat TNT is dominated by strong bands about 1380 and 2970 cm-1. The intensity and position of these bands were found remarkably different in soil samples spiked with TNT. The 1380 cm-1 band is split into a number of bands in that region. The 2970 cm-1 band is reduced in intensity and new bands are observed about 2880 cm-1. The results are consistent with a different chemical environment of TNT in soil as compared to neat TNT. Interactions were found to be dependent on the physical source of the explosive. In the case of DNT-sand interactions, shifts in vibrational frequencies of the explosives as well as the substrates were found.

  19. A Spectroscopic Study of Kepler Asteroseismic Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Latham, D W; Jerzykiewicz, M

    2009-01-01

    Reported are spectroscopic observations of 15 candidates for Kepler primary asteroseismic targets and 14 other stars in the Kepler field, carried out at three observatories (see the footnote). For all these stars, the radial velocities, effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and the projected rotational velocity are derived from two separate sets of data by means of two independent methods. In addition, MK type is estimated from one of these sets of data. Three stars, HIP 94335, HIP 94734, and HIP 94743, are found to have variable radial-velocity. For HIP 94335 = FL Lyr, a well-known Algol-type eclipsing variable and a double-lined spectroscopic binary, the orbital elements computed from our data agree closely with those of Popper et al. For HIP 94734 and HIP 94743 = V2077 Cyg, which we discover to be single-lined systems, orbital elements are derived. In addition, from our value of the orbital period and the Hipparcos epoch photometry, HIP 94743 is demonstrated to be a detached eclipsing binary...

  20. Spectroscopic studies of pulsed-power plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed spectroscopic diagnostic techniques are used to investigate the plasma behavior in a Magnetically Insulated Ion Diode, a Plasma Opening Switch, and a gas-puffed Z-pinch. Measurements with relatively high spectral, temporal, and spatial resolutions are performed. The particle velocity and density distributions within a few tens of microns from the dielectric-anode surface are observed using laser spectroscopy. Collective fluctuating electric fields in the plasma are inferred from anisotropic Stark broadening. For the Plasma Opening Switch experiment, a novel gaseous plasma source was developed which is mounted inside the high-voltage inner conductor. The properties of this source, together with spectroscopic observations of the electron density and particle velocities of the injected plasma, are described. Emission line intensities and spectral profiles give the electron kinetic energies during the switch operation and the ion velocity distributions. Secondary plasma ejection from the electrodes is also studied. In the Z-pinch experiment, spectral emission-line profiles are studied during the implosion phase. Doppler line shifts and widths yield the radial velocity distributions for various charge states in various regions of the plasma. Effects of plasma ejection from the cathode are also studied