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Sample records for c2d spitzer spectroscopic

  1. The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3 and CH3OH

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and HCOOCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. (...) In this work, we investigate the ~ 8-10 micron region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 micron silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH3- and CH3OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ~9 micron in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH3 nu_2 umbrella mode, and derive abundances with respect to w...

  2. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. IV. Lupus Observed with MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Nicholas L; Mundy, Lee G; Evans, Neal J; Brooke, Timothy Y; Cieza, Lucas A; Spiesman, William J; Rebull, Luisa M; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Lanz, Lauranne; Allen, Lori E; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bourke, Tyler L; Harvey, Paul M; Huard, Tracy L; Jørgensen, Jes K; Koerner, David W; Myers, Philip C; Padgett, Deborah L; Sargent, Annelia I; Teuben, Peter; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Wahhaj, Zahed; Young, Kaisa E

    2007-01-01

    We present maps of 7.78 square degrees of the Lupus molecular cloud complex at 24, 70, and $160\\:\\mu$m. They were made with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument as part of the Spitzer Legacy Program, ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks'' (c2d). The maps cover three separate regions in Lupus, denoted I, III, and IV. We discuss the c2d pipeline and how our data processing differs from it. We compare source counts in the three regions with two other data sets and predicted star counts from the Wainscoat model. This comparison shows the contribution from background galaxies in Lupus I. We also create two color magnitude diagrams using the 2MASS and MIPS data. From these results, we can identify background galaxies and distinguish them from probable young stellar objects. The sources in our catalogs are classified based on their spectral energy distribution (SED) from 2MASS and Spitzer wavelengths to create a sample of young stellar object candidates. ...

  3. A Spitzer c2d Legacy Survey to Identify and Characterize Disks with Inner Dust Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Merín, Bruno; Oliveira, Isa; Herczeg, Gregory J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Evans, Neal J; Cieza, Lucas; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcalá, Juan M; Harvey, Paul M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Bayo, Amelia; Geers, Vincent G; Lahuis, Fred; Prusti, Timo; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Olofsson, Johan; Walter, Frederick M; Chiu, Kuenley

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how disks dissipate is essential to studies of planet formation. However, identifying exactly how dust and gas dissipates is complicated due to difficulty in finding objects clearly in the transition of losing their surrounding material. We use Spitzer IRS spectra to examine 35 photometrically-selected candidate cold disks (disks with large inner dust holes). The infrared spectra are supplemented with optical spectra to determine stellar and accretion properties and 1.3mm photometry to measure disk masses. Based on detailed SED modeling, we identify 15 new cold disks. The remaining 20 objects have IRS spectra that are consistent with disks without holes, disks that are observed close to edge-on, or stars with background emission. Based on these results, we determine reliable criteria for identifying disks with inner holes from Spitzer photometry and examine criteria already in the literature. Applying these criteria to the c2d surveyed star-forming regions gives a frequency of such objects of at...

  4. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-line T Tauri Stars II: New Constraints on the Timescale for Planet Building

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Harvey, Paul; Evans, Neal J; II,; Merin, Bruno; Koerner, David W; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, G A; Brooke, Timothy; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; Lai, Shih-Ping; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C; Spiesman, William; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2007-01-01

    One of the central goals of the Spitzer Legacy Project ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks'' (c2d) is to determine the frequency of remnant circumstellar disks around weak-line T Tauri stars (wTTs) and to study the properties and evolutionary status of these disks. Here we present a census of disks for a sample of over 230 spectroscopically identified wTTs located in the c2d IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 4.8, and 8.0 um) and MIPS (24 um) maps of the Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Perseus Molecular Clouds. We find that ~20% of the wTTs in a magnitude limited subsample have noticeable IR-excesses at IRAC wavelengths indicating the presence of a circumstellar disk. The disk frequencies we find in these 3 regions are ~3-6 times larger than that recently found for a sample of 83 relatively isolated wTTs located, for the most part, outside the highest extinction regions covered by the c2d IRAC and MIPS maps. The disk fractions we find are more consistent with those obtained in recent Spitzer studies of wTTs in young clusters s...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of Spitzer c2d dark clouds (Evans+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Dunham, M. M.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Enoch, M. L.; Merin, B.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Alcala, J. M.; Myers, P. C.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Huard, T. L.; Allen, L. E.; Harvey, P. M.; van Kempen, T.; Blake, G. A.; Koerner, D. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Padgett, D. L.; Sargent, A. I.

    2009-10-01

    The observations here were all obtained by the c2d project or by GTO observations that we have included in our data. They have been described in the publications given hereafter: Five large clouds were selected for the c2d project: Serpens (Eiroa et al., 2008hsf2.book..693E), Perseus (Bally et al., 2008hsf1.book..308B), Ophiuchus (Wilking et al., 2008hsf2.book..351W), Lupus (Comeron, 2008hsf2.book..295C), and Chamaeleon (Luhman, 2008hsf2.book..169L). (5 data files).

  6. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XI. Lupus Observed With IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Merin, Bruno; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcala, Juan M; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul M; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Comeron, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We present c2d Spitzer/IRAC observations of the Lupus I, III and IV dark clouds and discuss them in combination with optical and near-infrared and c2d MIPS data. With the Spitzer data, the new sample contains 159 stars, 4 times larger than the previous one. It is dominated by low- and very-low mass stars and it is complete down to M $\\approx$ 0.1M$_\\odot$. We find 30-40 % binaries with separations between 100 to 2000 AU with no apparent effect in the disk properties of the members. A large majority of the objects are Class II or Class III objects, with only 20 (12%) of Class I or Flat spectrum sources. The disk sample is complete down to ``debris''-like systems in stars as small as M $\\approx$ 0.2 M$_\\odot$ and includes sub-stellar objects with larger IR excesses. The disk fraction in Lupus is 70 -- 80%, consistent with an age of 1 -- 2 Myr. However, the young population contains 20% optically thick accretion disks and 40% relatively less flared disks. A growing variety of inner disk structures is found for l...

  7. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores XI : Infrared and Submillimeter Observations of CB130

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Dunham, Michael M; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bourke, Tyler L; Huard, Tracy L; Shirley, Yancy L; De Vries, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We present new observations of the CB130 region, composed of three separate cores. Using the \\textit{Spitzer Space Telescope} we detected a Class 0 and a Class II object in one of these, CB130-1. The observed photometric data from \\textit{Spitzer} and ground-based telescopes are used to establish the physical parameters of the Class 0 object. SED fitting with a radiative transfer model shows that the luminosity of the Class 0 object is 0.14 $-$ 0.16 L$_{\\odot}$, which is a low luminosity for a protostellar object. In order to constrain the chemical characteristics of the core having the low luminosity object, we compare our molecular line observations to models of lines including abundance variations. We tested both ad hoc step function abundance models and a series of self-consistent chemical evolution models. In the chemical evolution models, we consider a continuous accretion model and an episodic accretion model to explore how variable luminosity affects the chemistry. The step function abundance models c...

  8. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XII. The Perseus YSO Population as Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Kaisa E; Lai, Shih-Ping; Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope mapped the Perseus molecular cloud complex with IRAC and MIPS as part of the c2d Spitzer Legacy project. This paper combines the observations from both instruments giving an overview of low-mass star formation across Perseus from 3.6 to 70 micron. We provide an updated list of young stellar objects with new classifications and source fluxes from previous works, identifying 369 YSOs in Perseus with the Spitzer dataset. By synthesizing the IRAC and MIPS maps of Perseus and building on the work of previous papers in this series (Jorgensen et al. 2006, Rebull et al. 2007), we present a current census of star formation across the cloud and within smaller regions. 67% of the YSOs are associated with the young clusters NGC 1333 and IC 348. The majority of the star formation activity in Perseus occurs in the regions around the clusters, to the eastern and western ends of the cloud complex. The middle of the cloud is nearly empty of YSOs despite containing regions of high visual extinction....

  9. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Weak-Line T Tauri Stars. III. The Transition from Primordial Disks to Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Padgett, Deborah L; Koerner, David W; Case, April; Keller, James R; Merín, Bruno; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Brooke, Tim; Chapman, Nicholas; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 {\\mu}m Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) which are located in the same star forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 {\\mu}m) and the 24 {\\mu}m MIPS band. In the 70 {\\mu}m MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTS survey in the mid to far infrared to date, and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTS. The 70 {\\mu}m photometry for half the c2d WTTS sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, Padgett et al. (2006) and Cieza et al. (2007), are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTS, but just 5% for...

  10. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 2 x 10-3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than Ldisk/L* = 5 x 10-4 in 4 Myr.

  11. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. III. [Ne II], [Fe I], and H-2 gas-phase lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Evans, Neal J.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline E.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a survey of mid-infrared gas-phase lines toward a sample of 76 circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" legacy program. We report the first detections of [ Ne II] and [ Fe I] toward classical T Tauri stars in similar to 20% and similar

  12. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. V. DISCOVERY OF A VeLLO IN THE STARLESSDENSE CORE L328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the discovery of a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO) in the 'starless' dense core L328, using the Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations from near-infrared (NIR) to millimeter wavelengths. The Spitzer 8 μm image indicates that L328 consists of three subcores of which the smallest one may harbor a source, L328-IRS, while two other subcores remain starless. L328-IRS is a Class 0 protostar according to its bolometric temperature (44 K) and the high fraction (∼72%) of its luminosity emitted at submillimeter wavelengths. Its inferred internal luminosity(0.04-0.06 L sun) using a radiative transfer model under the most plausible assumption of its distance as 200 pc is much fainter than for a typical protostar, and even fainter than other VeLLOs studied previously. Note, however, that its inferred luminosity may be uncertain by a factor of 2-3 if we consider two extreme values of the distance of L328-IRS (125 or 310 pc). Low angular resolution observations of CO do not show any clear evidence of a molecular outflow activity. But broad line widths toward L328, and Spitzer and NIR images showing nebulosity possibly tracing an outflow cavity, strongly suggest the existence of outflow activity. Provided that an envelope of at most ∼0.1 M sun is the only mass accretion reservoir for L328-IRS, the star formation efficiency is close to the canonical value ∼30%, and L328-IRS has not yet accreted more than 0.05 M sun, at the assumed distance of 200 pc, L328-IRS is destined to be a brown dwarf.

  13. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores: III: Low Mass Star Formation in a Small Group, L1251B

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J E; Lai, S P; Bourke, T L; Spiesman, B; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Brooke, T Y; Porras, A; Wahhaj, Z; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Francesco, James Di; Lai, Shih-Ping; Bourke, Tyler L.; II, Neal J. Evans; Spiesman, Bill; Myers, Philip C.; Allen, Lori E.; Brooke, Timothy Y.; Porras, Alicia; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a low-mass star-forming region,L1251B, at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. L1251B, where only one protostar, IRAS 22376+7455, was known previously, is confirmed to be a small group of protostars based on observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The most luminous source of L1251B is located 5" north of the IRAS position. A near-infrared bipolar nebula, which is not associated with the brightest object and is located at the southeast corner of L1251B, has been detected in the IRAC bands. OVRO and SMA interferometric observations indicate that the brightest source and the bipolar nebula source in the IRAC bands are deeply embedded disk sources.Submillimeter continuum observations with single-dish telescopes and the SMA interferometric observations suggest two possible prestellar objects with very high column densities. Outside of the small group, many young stellar object candidates have been detected over a larger region of 12' x 12'. Extended emiss...

  14. AST/RO 13CO(J=2-1) and 12CO(J=4-3) Mapping of Southern Spitzer c2d Small Clouds and Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Löhr, A; Lane, A P; Myers, P C; Parshley, S C; Stark, A A; Tothill, N F H

    2007-01-01

    Forty molecular cloud cores in the southern hemisphere from the initial Spitzer Space Telescope Cores-to-Disks (c2d) Legacy program source list have been surveyed in 13CO(2-1), 12CO(4-3), and 12CO(7-6) with the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO). The cores, ten of which contain embedded sources, are located mostly in the Vela, Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, Musca, and Scorpius complexes. 12CO(7-6) emission was undetected in all 40 clouds. We present data of 40 sources in 13CO(2-1) and 12CO(4-3), significant upper limits of 12CO(7-6), as well as a statistical analysis of the observed properties of the clouds. We find the typical 13CO(2-1) linewidth to be 2.0 km/s for cores with embedded stars, and 1.8 km/s for all others. The typical 12CO(4-3) linewidth is 2.6 to 3.7 km/s for cores with known embedded sources, and 1.6 to 2.3 km/s for all others. The average 13CO column density derived from the line intensities was found to be 1.9 x 10^15 cm^(-2) for cores with embedded stars, and ...

  15. Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Héctor; Guerrero, Martin A; Nigoche-Netro, Alberto; Toalá, Jesús A; Fang, Xuan; Rubio, Gabriel M; Kemp, Simon N; Navarro, Silvana G; Corral, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 {\\mu}m that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ~900+/-70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases. The decline of the [Ar III]/[Ne II] line ratio with the stellar effective temperature can be explained either by a true neon enrichment or by high density circumstellar regions of PNe that presumably descend from higher mass progenitor stars.

  16. The Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of S-type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolders, K; Blommaert, J A D L; Hony, S; Van Winckel, H; Decin, L; Van Eck, S; Sloan, G C; Cami, J; Uttenthaler, S; Degroote, P; Barry, D; Feast, M; Groenewegen, M A T; Matsuura, M; Menzies, J; Sahai, R; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A A; Acke, B; Bloemen, S; Cox, N; de Cat, P; Desmet, M; Exter, K; Ladjal, D; Ostensen, R; Saesen, S; van Wyk, F; Verhoest, T; Zima, W

    2012-01-01

    S-type AGB stars are thought to be in the transitional phase between M-type and C-type AGB stars. Because of their peculiar chemical composition, one may expect a strong influence of the stellar C/O ratio on the molecular chemistry and the mineralogy of the circumstellar dust. In this paper, we present a large sample of 87 intrinsic galactic S-type AGB stars, observed at infrared wavelengths with the Spitzer Space Telescope, and supplemented with ground-based optical data. On the one hand, we derive the stellar parameters from the optical spectroscopy and photometry, using a grid of model atmospheres. On the other, we decompose the infrared spectra to quantify the flux-contributions from the different dust species. Finally, we compare the independently determined stellar parameters and dust properties. For the stars without significant dust emission, we detect a strict relation between the presence of SiS absorption in the Spitzer spectra and the C/O ratio of the stellar atmosphere. These absorption bands can...

  17. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. IX. DISCOVERY OF A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT DRIVING A MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE DENSE CORE L673-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter observations of the dense core L673-7 and report the discovery of a low-luminosity, embedded Class 0 protostar driving a molecular outflow. L673-7 is seen in absorption against the mid-infrared background in 5.8, 8, and 24 μm Spitzer images, allowing for a derivation of the column density profile and total enclosed mass of L673-7, independent of dust temperature assumptions. Estimates of the core mass from these absorption profiles range from 0.2to4.5 Msun. Millimeter continuum emission indicates a mass of ∼2 Msun, both from a direct calculation assuming isothermal dust and from dust radiative transfer models constrained by the millimeter observations. We use dust radiative transfer models to constrain the internal luminosity of L673-7, defined to be the luminosity of the central source and excluding the luminosity from external heating, to be Lint = 0.01-0.045 Lsun, with Lint ∼ 0.04 Lsun the most likely value. L673-7 is thus classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO), and is among the lowest luminosity VeLLOs yet studied. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the molecular outflow in the standard manner. From the outflow properties and standard assumptions regarding the driving of outflows, we calculate the time-averaged protostellar mass accretion rate, total protostellar mass accreted, and expected accretion luminosity to be acc>≥1.2 x 10-6 (sin i)/(co2 i) Msun yr-1, Macc≥0.07 1/cos i Msun, and Lacc ≥ 0.36 Lsun, respectively. The discrepancy between this calculated Lacc and the Lint derived from dust radiative transfer models indicates that the current accretion rate is much lower than the average rate over the lifetime of the outflow. Although the protostar embedded within L673-7 is consistent with currently being substellar, it is unlikely to remain as such given the substantial mass reservoir remaining in the core.

  18. Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Galactic Center. I. Spectroscopic Identification from Spitzer/IRS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    An, Deokkeun; Sellgren, Kris; Arendt, Richard G; Boogert, A C Adwin; Robitaille, Thomas P; Schultheis, Mathias; Cotera, Angela S; Smith, Howard A; Stolovy, Susan R

    2011-01-01

    We present results from our spectroscopic study, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, designed to identify massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic Center (GC). Our sample of 107 YSO candidates was selected based on IRAC colors from the high spatial resolution, high sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC images in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), which spans the central ~300 pc region of the Milky Way Galaxy. We obtained IRS spectra over 5um to 35um using both high- and low-resolution IRS modules. We spectroscopically identify massive YSOs by the presence of a 15.4um shoulder on the absorption profile of 15um CO2 ice, suggestive of CO2 ice mixed with CH3OH ice on grains. This 15.4um shoulder is clearly observed in 16 sources and possibly observed in an additional 19 sources. We show that 9 massive YSOs also reveal molecular gas-phase absorption from CO2, C2H2, and/or HCN, which traces warm and dense gas in YSOs. Our results provide the first spectroscopic census of the mas...

  19. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C. A.; Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D. E.; Delbo, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program. The combination of Spitzer derived albedos and diameters with spectroscopic data will enhance our understanding of the NEO population.

  20. Spectroscopic Survey of 1.4 GHz and 24 Micron Sources in the Spitzer First Look Survey with WIYN/Hydra

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, F R; Appleton, P N; Noriega-Crespo, A; Im, M; Clancy, D

    2007-01-01

    We present an optical spectroscopic survey of 24 micron and 1.4 GHz sources, detected in the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey (FLS), using the multi-fiber spectrograph, Hydra, on the WIYN telescope. We have obtained spectra for 772 sources, with flux densities above 0.15 mJy in the infrared, and 0.09 mJy in the radio. The redshifts measured in this survey are mostly in the range 0 < z < 0.4, with a distribution peaking at z = 0.2. Detailed spectral analysis of our sources reveals that the majority are emission-line star-forming galaxies, with star formation rates in the range 0.2-200 Msun/yr. The rates estimated from the H-alpha line fluxes are found to be on average consistent with those derived from the 1.4 GHz luminosities. For these star-forming systems, we find that the 24 micron and 1.4 GHz flux densities follow an infrared-radio correlation, that can be characterized by a value of q24 = 0.83, with a 1-sigma scatter of 0.31. Our WIYN/Hydra database of spectra complements nicely those obtain...

  1. Spectroscopic follow-up of 70{\\mu}m sources in Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, H; Rowan-Robinson, M; Vaccari, M

    2010-01-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up observations of 70{\\mu}m selected galaxies from the SWIRE XMMLSS and Lockman Hole fields. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 293 new sources down to a 70{\\mu}m flux limit of 9mJy and R < 22. The redshift distribution peaks at z ~ 0.3 and has a high redshift tail out to z = 3.5. We perform emission line diagnostics for 91 sources where [OIII], H{\\beta}, [NII], H{\\alpha} and [SII] emission lines are available to determine their power source. We find in our sample 13 QSOs, 1 Seyfert II galaxy, 33 star forming galaxies, 30 composite galaxies, 5 LINERs and 21 ambiguous galaxies. We fit single temperature dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 81 70{\\mu}m sources with 160{\\mu}m photometry to estimate dust temperatures and masses. Assuming the dust emissivity factor ({\\beta}) as 1.5, we determine temperatures in the range ~ 20-60K and dust masses with a range of 10{^6}-10{^9} M{_\\odot}. Plotting these objects in the luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that th...

  2. Spitzer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Kessica

    This proposal is a specific response to the strategic goal of NASA's research program to "discover how the universe works and explore how the universe evolved into its present form." Towards this goal, we propose to mine the Spitzer archive for all observations of galaxy groups and clusters for the purpose of studying galaxy evolution in clusters, contamination rates for Sunyaev Zeldovich cluster surveys, and to provide a database of Spitzer observed clusters to the broader community. Funding from this proposal will go towards two years of support for a Postdoc to do this work. After searching the Spitzer Heritage Archive, we have found 194 unique galaxy groups and clusters that have data from both the Infrared array camera (IRAC; Fazio et al. 2004) at 3.6 - 8 microns and the multiband imaging photometer for Spitzer (MIPS; Rieke et al. 2004) at 24microns. This large sample will add value beyond the individual datasets because it will be a larger sample of IR clusters than ever before and will have sufficient diversity in mass, redshift, and dynamical state to allow us to differentiate amongst the effects of these cluster properties. An infrared sample is important because it is unaffected by dust extinction while at the same time is an excellent measure of both stellar mass (IRAC wavelengths) and star formation rate (MIPS wavelengths). Additionally, IRAC can be used to differentiate star forming galaxies (SFG) from active galactic nuclei (AGN), due to their different spectral shapes in this wavelength regime. Specifically, we intend to identify SFG and AGN in galaxy groups and clusters. Groups and clusters differ from the field because the galaxy densities are higher, there is a large potential well due mainly to the mass of the dark matter, and there is hot X-ray gas (the intracluster medium; ICM). We will examine the impact of these differences in environment on galaxy formation by comparing cluster properties of AGN and SFG to those in the field. Also, we will

  3. The infrared spectrum of the Ne-C2D2 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Fernández, Berta; Farrelly, David

    2015-11-01

    Infrared spectra of Ne-C2D2 are observed in the region of the ν3 fundamental band (asymmetric C-D stretch, ≈2440 cm-1) using a tunable optical parametric oscillator to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion from a cooled nozzle. Like helium-acetylene, this system lies close to the free rotor limit, making analysis tricky because stronger transitions tend to pile up close to monomer (C2D2) rotation-vibration transitions. Assignments are aided by predicted rotational energies calculated from a published ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface. The analysis extends up to the j = 3←2 band, where j labels C2D2 rotation within the dimer, and is much more complete than the limited infrared assignments previously reported for Ne-C2H2 and Ne-C2HD. Two previous microwave transitions within the j = 1 state of Ne-C2D2 are reassigned. Coriolis model fits to the theoretical levels and to the spectrum are compared. Since the variations observed as a function of C2D2 vibrational excitation are comparable to those noted between theory and experiment, it is evident that more detailed testing of theory will require vibrational averaging over the acetylene intramolecular modes.

  4. Infrared intensities and optical constants of crystalline C 2H 4 and C 2D 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Ospina, M. J.; Khanna, R. K.

    Infrared absorption spectra of several thin films of C 2H 4 and C 2D 4 at ˜55 K were investigated at ˜0.6 cm -1 resolution. The integrated band intensities of the infrared active fundamental modes were obtained by a linear fit of the integrated absorbances vs film thickness. An iterative Kramers—Kronig analysis of the absorption data was carried out to obtain the complex refractive indices of crystalline C 2H 4 and C 2D 4 in the regions of absorption bands.

  5. Determination of the Ground Vibrational State Parameters of the C2D4 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, F.; Gromova, O. V.; Buttersack, T.

    2016-07-01

    The object of the study is the C2D4 molecule, as it is important to know its properties to address numerous problems of molecular physics. The analysis of high-resolution spectra of the deuterated ethylene molecule was made in the range of 600-1200 cm-1, specifically bands ν7 and ν12. The results obtained were used to determine high-accurate values of the vibrational-rotational levels of the ground vibrational state of the C2D4 molecule.

  6. Reagent Vibration Effect on the Stereodynamics for the C+CD→C2+D Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ting-Xian; SHI Ying

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD→C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al. Mol. Phys. 98(2000) 1925]. The vector correlation distributions p(θr) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(θr) as well as p(θr,φr) are calculated. In addition, two polarization-dependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework. The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.%We study the effect of the reagent vibration of the CD on the stereodynamics of the C + CD → C2 +D reaction by using the quasi-classical trajectory method at a collision energy of 2.306 kcal/mol on the potential energy surface of the 12A' state [Boggio-Pasqua et al.Mol.Phys.98(2000)1925].The vector correlation distributions p(θΤ) and the dihedral-angle distribution p(φΤ) as well as p(θΤ,φΥ) are calculated.In addition,two polarizationdependent generalized differential cross sections of the product are presented and discussed within a center-of-mass framework.The results show that the effect of reagent vibration can cause obviously different effects on the stereodynamics of the title reaction.The studies of the chemical reaction dynamics of C+CH and its isotopic variants have received much attention theoretically[1-7] and experimentally.[8-11]The systems are very important in the investigation of atmospheric chemistry and combustion.[12]The branching ratios between the channels were measured by using the LIF[13] method.Compared with the rare experimental work,many theoretical studies have been performed on the title reaction.

  7. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  8. Scheduling Spitzer: The SIRPASS Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittman, David S.; Hawkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25, 2003 from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Base. Drifting in a unique Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, Spitzer sees an optically invisible universe dominated by dust and stars. Since 1997, the Spitzer Integrated Resource Planning and Scheduling System (SIRPASS) has helped produce spacecraft activity plans for the Spitzer Space Telescope. SIRPASS is used by members of the Observatory Planning and Scheduling Team to plan, schedule and sequence the Telescope from data made available to them from the science and engineering community. Because of the volume of data that needs to be scheduled, SIRPASS offers a variety of automated assistants to aid in this task. This paper will describe the functional elements of the SIRPASS software system -- emphasizing the role that automation plays in the system -- and will highlight lessons learned for the software developer from a decade of Spitzer Space Telescope operations experience.

  9. Spitzer Observations of Deeply Obscured Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Spoon, H W W; Cami, J; Lahuis, F; Tielens, A G G M; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V

    2005-01-01

    We report on our first results from a mid-infrared spectroscopic study of ISM features in a sample of deeply obscured ULIRG nuclei using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra are extremely rich and complex, revealing absorption features of both amorphous and crystalline silicates, aliphatic hydrocarbons, water ice and gas phase bands of hot CO and warm C_2H_2, HCN and CO_2. PAH emission bands were found to be generally weak and in some cases absent. The features are probing a dense and warm environment in which crystalline silicates and water ice are able to survive but volatile ices, commonly detected in Galactic dense molecular clouds, cannot. If powered largely by star formation, the stellar density and conditions of the gas and dust have to be extreme not to give rise to the commonly detected emission features associated with starburst.

  10. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effects of collision energy (Ecol) and five different H2CO+ vibrational modes on the reaction of H2CO+ with C2D4 over the center-of-mass Ecol range from 0.1 to 2.1 eV. Properties of various complexes and transition states were also examined computationally. Seven product channels are observed. Charge transfer (CT) has the largest cross section over the entire energy range, substantially exceeding the hard sphere cross section at high energies. Competing with CT are six channels involving transfer of one or more hydrogen atoms or protons and one involving formation of propanal, followed by hydrogen elimination. Despite the existence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface, all reactions go by direct mechanisms, except at the lowest collision energies, where short-lived complexes appear to be important. Statistical complex decay appears adequate to account for the product branching at low collision energies, however, even at the lowest energies, the vibrational effects are counter to statistical expectations. The pattern of Ecol and vibrational mode effects provide insight into factors that control reaction and interchannel competition

  11. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. IV. Lupus V and VI Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzi, Loredana; Merın, Bruno; Allen, Lori E; Evans, Neal J; Jørgensen, Jes K; Bourke, Tyler L; Cieza, Lucas A; Dunham, Michael M; Harvey, Paul M; Huard, Tracy L; Peterson, Dawn; Tothill, Nick F H

    2011-01-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer "Core to Disk" (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including 2 transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main sequence star from previous optical, near-IR and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ~79% in Lupus V and ~87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photo-evapo...

  12. Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Cleve, J. Van; Stansberry, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (approximately 0.3 to 4.0 microns) spectroscopy has been successfully employed since the early 1970 s to infer the surface compositions of asteroids. Spectroscopic observations in the thermal infrared (approximately 5 to 40 microns) are similarly promising. Silicate spectra in this range are dominated by Si-O stretch and bend fundamentals, and other minerals have similarly diagnostic bands. Observations in this spectral range are difficult from the ground due to strong telluric absorptions and background emission. Nevertheless, spectral structure has been detected on a few asteroids in the 8 to 14-micron range from the ground, as well as from orbit with the ISO satellite. The Spitzer Space Telescope can observe asteroids with much higher sensitivity over a broader wavelength range than is possible from the ground or was possible with ISO. We present results of measurements of asteroids with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  13. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds. W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours. Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars. This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  14. Study of simple super-critical fluids (CO2, C2D6) through neutron scattering, Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Super-critical fluids are largely used in industrial sectors. However the knowledge of the physical phenomena in which they are involved stays insufficient because of their particular properties. A new model of adjusting molecular structures is proposed, this model has been validated through neutron scattering experiments with high momentum transfer on C2D6. The experimental representation of the critical universal function for C2D6 and CO2 has been obtained through the neutron echo spin and by relying on structure measurements made through neutron elastic scattering at small angles. Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation have been used to feature structure and dynamics. Scattering as well as microscopic molecular density fluctuations have been analysed

  15. Spectroscopic properties of Young Stellar Objects in the Lupus Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mortier, Annelies; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-01-01

    The results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of young stellar objects (YSOs) and pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Lupus Clouds are presented. 92 objects were observed with VLT/FLAMES. All of those objects show IR excess as discovered by the Spitzer Legacy Program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d). After reduction, 54 spectra with good signal-to-noise ratio are spectrally classified. Effective temperatures and luminosities are derived for these objects, and used to construct H-R diagrams for the population. The sample consists mostly of M-type stars, with 10% K-type stars. Individual ages and masses are inferred for the objects according to theoretical evolutionary models. The mean population age is found to be between 3.6 and 4.4 Myr, depending on the model, while the mean mass is found to be ~0.3 M for either model. Together with literature data, the distribution of spectral types is found to be similar to that in Chamaeleon I and IC348. The H{\\alpha} line in emission, fo...

  16. Reactions of NH+sub(n) and ND+sub(n) (n = 0-4) with C2H4 and C2D4 at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rate coefficients and product-ion distributions for NH+n and ND+n (n = 0-4) with both C2H4 and C2D4 are presented. The use of the deuterated species allowed the fraction of each of the product ion types to be determined unambiguously. The data also demonstrate how the technique can be used to obtain information on the mechanisms of relatively complex ion/molecule reactions. (orig.)

  17. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  18. Exoplanet Characterization With Spitzer Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph

    We will analyze our existing Spitzer eclipse data for 11 exoplanets (GJ 436b, WASP-8b, WASP-29b, WASP-11b, TrES-1, WASP-34b, WASP-43b, HD 209458b, HAT-P-30b, HAT-P-13b, and WASP-12b) along with all other Spitzer eclipse and transit data for these systems (723 hours of total data). In combination with transit results, these measurements reveal the surface fluxes emitted by the planets' atmospheres in the six Spitzer bandpasses (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 16, and 24 1-4m), as well as orbital eccentricity and in a few cases possibly even precession rate. The fluxes, in turn, can constrain atmospheric composition and thermal profiles. We propose here to analyze data for these planets using Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer, model-fitting codes; to conduct aggregate analyses; and to develop and share statistical modeling tools. Secondary eclipses provide us with a unique way to characterize exoplanetary atmospheres. Since other techniques like spectroscopy divide the planetary signal into many channels, they require very high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and are only possible for a few planets. Broadband eclipse photometry is thus the only technique that can measure dozens of atmospheres and identify the mechanisms that cause planets at a given irradiation level to behave so differently from one another. Until JWST becomes available, the broad variety of Spitzer data that we already have in hand, along with observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and possibly SOFIA, are our best way to understand the wide diversity of exoplanetary atmospheres. Since 2010, the team has produced six papers from a new, highly modular pipeline that implements optimal methods for analysis of Spitzer photometric time series, and our efficiency is increasing. The sensitivity needed for these measurements is up to 100 times better than Spitzer's design criteria, so careful treatment of systematic error is critically important and first-order approximations rarely work. The new pipeline

  19. The Spitzer ice legacy: Ice evolution from cores to protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Broek, Saskia van den; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bottinelli, Sandrine; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H2O:CO:CO2:CH3OH:NH3:CH4:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H2O of CH4, NH3, and the component of CO2 mixed with H2O typically vary by <25%, indicative of co-formation with H2O. In contrast, some CO and CO2 ice components, XCN and CH3OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN- identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are cons...

  20. A Study of the Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy NGC 855 with Spitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 855 using the narrow-band Ha and Spitzer data. Both the Ha and Spitzer IRAC images confirm star-forming activity in the center of NGC 855. We obtained a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.022 and 0.025 M☉yr-1, respectively, from the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm emission data. The HI observa tion suggests that the star-forming activity might be triggered by a minor merger. We also find that there is a distinct IR emission region in 5.8 and 8.0μm bands, located at about 10 "away from the nucleus of NGC 855. Given the strong 8.0μm but faint Hα emission, we expect that it is a heavily obscured star-forming region, which needs to be confirmed by further optical spectroscopic observations.

  1. Spitzer Science Center within an Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, T.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center's (SSC) evolutionary development approach, coupled with a flexible, scaleable hardware and software architecture has been key in Spitzer's ability to handle an explosion of data products, evolving data definitions, and changing data quality requirements. Spitzer is generating (depending on the campaign and instrument) about 10 TB of pre-archive data every 14 to 20 days. This generally reduces to between 3 TB and 6 TB of standard products, again depending on the campaign and instrument. This paper will discuss (1) the Spitzer Science Center's responses to evolving data, quality, and processing requirements and (2) how robust or not was the original architecture to allow Spitzer to accommodate on-going change.

  2. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer Core to Disk(c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; ∼79% in Lupus V and ∼87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (AV ∼ 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  3. Spitzer Space Telescope : observatory desciption and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Keyur C.; Spath, Stuart R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, the last of the four Great Observatories commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was successfully launched on August 25, 2003 from Kennedy Space Center. The engineering systems for Spitzer were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, and Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. This paper provides an overview of Spitzer, a technical description of all the engineering subsystems, and the associated challenges involved in developing them to satisfy the mission requirements. In addition, this paper describes the performance of the engineering subsystems during the In-Orbit Checkout phase, the Science Verification phase, and the early portions of the Nominal Mission.

  4. An Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Kinetic Isotope Effect of C2H6 and C2D6 Reaction with OH

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fethi

    2015-10-30

    We report experimental and theoretical results for the deuterated kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) of the reaction of OH with ethane (C2H6) and deuterated ethane (C2D6). The reactions were investigated behind reflected shock waves over 800–1350 K by monitoring OH radicals near 306.69 nm using laser absorption. In addition, high level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/cc-pVTZ quantum chemical and statistical rate theory calculations were performed which agreed very well with the experimental findings. The results reported herein provide the first experimental evidence that DKIE for alkanes asymptotes to a value of 1.4 at high temperatures.

  5. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Timlin, John D; Richards, Gordon T; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L; Stone, Robert B; Bauer, Franz E; Brandt, W N; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D; Schneider, Donald P; Urry, C Megan; Wollack, Edward J; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of 115 deg^2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its 'warm' mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5{\\sigma} depths of 6.13 {\\mu}Jy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 {\\mu}Jy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively - depths significantly fainter than WISE. We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically-confirmed quasars (98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > 3.5), where SpIES reco...

  6. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. The Spitzer Warm Mission Science Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer, John R.; Mannings, Vincent; LEVINE, Deborah; Chary, Ranga Ram; Wilson, Gillian; Lacy, Mark; Grillmair, Carl; Carey, Sean; Stolovy, Susan; Ciardi, David; Hora, Joe

    2007-01-01

    After exhaustion of its cryogen, the Spitzer Space telescope will still have a fully functioning two-channel mid-IR camera that will have sensitivities better than any other ground or space-based telescopes until the launch of JWST. This document provides a description of the expected capabilities of Spitzer during its warm mission phase, and provides brief descriptions of several possible very large science programs that could be conducted. This information is intended to serve as input to a...

  8. Luminosity Functions of Spitzer Identified Protostars in Nine Nearby Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kryukova, E; Gutermuth, R A; Pipher, J; Allen, T S; Allen, L E; Myers, P C; Muzerolle, J

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine photometry from 2MASS J, H, and Ks bands and Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands to create 1 - 24 micron spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities (Lbol), we derive a relationship between Lbol, L_MIR (integrated from 1 - 24 microns), and SED slope. Estimations of Lbol for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high mass star forming clouds peak near 1 Lsun and show a tail extending ...

  9. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4formation and destruction processes. Our study will greatly enhance the scientific

  10. Weak-line T Tauri Star Disks I. Initial Spitzer Results from the Cores to Disks Legacy Project

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, D L; Augereau, J; Blake, G A; Brooke, T; Chapman, N; Cieza, L; Evans, N J; Fukagawa, M; Harvey, P; Körner, D W; Lai, S; Mundy, L; Myers, P C; Porras, A; Sargent, A; Spiesman, W; Stapelfeldt, K R; Wahhaj, Z; van Dishoek, E F

    2006-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have observed 90 weak-line and classical T Tauri stars in the vicinity of the Ophiuchus, Lupus, Chamaeleon, and Taurus star-forming regions as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Spitzer Legacy project. In addition to the Spitzer data, we have obtained contemporaneous optical photometry to assist in constructing spectral energy distributions. These objects were specifically chosen as solar-type young stars with low levels of H alpha emission, strong X-ray emission, and lithium absorption i.e. weak-line T Tauri stars, most of which were undetected in the mid-to-far IR by the IRAS survey. Weak-line T Tauri stars are potentially extremely important objects in determining the timescale over which disk evolution may take place. Our objective is to determine whether these young stars are diskless or have remnant disks which are below the detection threshold of previous infrared missions. We find that only 5/83 weak-line T Tauri stars have detectable excess emission between 3.6 and...

  11. Spitzer Photometry of WISE-Selected Brown Dwarf and Hyper-Lumninous Infrared Galaxy Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Roger L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Cushing, Michael C.; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Cohen, Martin; Cutri, Roc M.; Donoso, Emilio; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol; Mace, Gregory; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, Ken; Padgett, Deborah; Petty, Sara; Ressler, Michael E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stanford, Spencer A.; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wright, Edward L.; Wu, Jingwen

    2012-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micrometer photometry and positions for a sample of 1510 brown dwarf candidates identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. Of these, 166 have been spectroscopically classified as objects with spectral types M(1), L(7), T(146), and Y(12). Sixteen other objects are non-(sub)stellar in nature. The remainder are most likely distant L and T dwarfs lacking spectroscopic verification, other Y dwarf candidates still awaiting follow-up, and assorted other objects whose Spitzer photometry reveals them to be background sources. We present a catalog of Spitzer photometry for all astrophysical sources identified in these fields and use this catalog to identify seven fainter (4.5 m to approximately 17.0 mag) brown dwarf candidates, which are possibly wide-field companions to the original WISE sources. To test this hypothesis, we use a sample of 919 Spitzer observations around WISE-selected high-redshift hyper-luminous infrared galaxy candidates. For this control sample, we find another six brown dwarf candidates, suggesting that the seven companion candidates are not physically associated. In fact, only one of these seven Spitzer brown dwarf candidates has a photometric distance estimate consistent with being a companion to the WISE brown dwarf candidate. Other than this, there is no evidence for any widely separated (greater than 20 AU) ultra-cool binaries. As an adjunct to this paper, we make available a source catalog of 7.33 x 10(exp 5) objects detected in all of these Spitzer follow-up fields for use by the astronomical community. The complete catalog includes the Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 m photometry, along with positionally matched B and R photometry from USNO-B; J, H, and Ks photometry from Two Micron All-Sky Survey; and W1, W2, W3, and W4 photometry from the WISE all-sky catalog.

  12. The Spitzer Data Fusion : Contents, Construction and Applications to Galaxy Evolution Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccari, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Data Fusion, a database incorporating far-ultraviolet to far-infrared flux measurements as well as photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for 4.4 million IRAC-selected sources detected over 8 extragalactic fields covering 65 deg$^2$ observed by Spitzer in all IRAC and MIPS bands during its cryogenic mission. Deeper Spitzer observations carried out during its warm mission over 5 sub-fields as part of the SERVS project are also presented and analysed in a similar fashion, detecting 2.8 million IRAC-selected sources over 18 deg$^2$ and merging them with multi-wavelength catalogues within the SERVS Data Fusion. When combined with Herschel SPIRE surveys and radio continuum observations over the same fields, the Spitzer Data Fusion and the SERVS Data Fusion provide an invaluable resource for multi-wavelength galaxy formation and evolution studies at infrared/millimetre/radio wavelengths. The catalogues and their future updates will be released at \\url{http://www.mattiavaccari.net/df/} and on...

  13. Coarticulació i assimilació en fonologia. Dades de moviment lingual sobre els grups consonàntics amb C2=/d/ en català

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Recasens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry technique (EMMA for the investigation of tongue tip and tongue blade activity during the production of Catalan clusters consisting of consonants specified for adjacent places of articulation. C2 of these clusters is /d/ (a dental in Catalan; C1 is either an alveolar (/1/, /n/, /r/, /z/, a post-alveolar (/?/ or an alveopalatal (/?/. Apical and laminal trajectories for these clusters are compared to those for intervocalic /d/ and for intervocalic C 1. Data show the presence of a single dental articulation for /nd/ and /1d/ and of two sequential articulatory places (alveolar for Cl and dental for C2 in the case of the cluster /rd/. The clusters /zd/ and /?d/ are produced with an alveolar place followed by an intermediate place between the dental and the alveolar zone, which indicates progressive co-articulatory effects (or even progressive assimilation from Cl fricative onto C2=/d/. Finally, the production of the sequence /?d/ involves presumably gestural blending resulting into an intermediate location between that for C1 and that for C2. The notion of «articulatory constraint» is discussed in the light of these results.

  14. Two mutant alleles of the human cytochrome P-450dbl gene (P450C2D1) associated with genetically deficient metabolism of debrisoquine and other drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debrisoquine polymorphism is a clinically important genetic defect of drug metabolism affecting 5-10% of individuals in Caucasian populations. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. A full-length cDNA for human cytochrome P-450db1, the deficient enzyme (also designated P450IID1 for P450 family II subfamily D isozyme 1), has recently been cloned. Leukocyte DNA from extensive metabolizers (EMs) or poor metabolizers (PMs) of debrisoquine was examined by Southern analysis. Two polymorphic restriction fragments were associated with the PM phenotype when DNAs from 24 unrelated PM and 29 unrelated EM individuals were probed with P-450db1 cDNA after digestion with Xba I restriction endonuclease and Southern blotting. Seventy-five percent of PMs had either the 44-kb or the 11.5-kb fragment or both. Segregation of these restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the families of six PM probands demonstrated that each of the two fragments is allelic with the 29-kb fragment present in all EM individuals and suggests that they identify two independent mutated alleles of the P-450db1 gene (designated P450C2D1). The Xba I 44-kb fragment and 11.5-kb fragment were in linkage disequilibrium with restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by four and five additional restriction endonucleases, respectively, which can be used to identify the same mutant alleles for the P-450db1 gene

  15. Spitzer v. K2: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Crossfield (Deputy PI), Ian; Akeson, Rachel; Beichman, Charles; Benneke, Bjoern; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Deck, Katherine; Dressing, Courtney; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John; Morales, Farisa; Petigura, Erik; Schlieder, Joshua; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2016-08-01

    We propose to build on our Cycles 11-12 program of Spitzer photometry of planets from the K2 survey by enlarging our sample to interesting exoplanets from the continuing K2 mission. Our team has shown that we can carry out this program end to end, starting with finding interesting candidate stars/planets in the K2 data stream, validating them using both proven Kepler techniques and ground-based observations, selecting and executing the Spitzer observations, and analyzing the Spitzer data in conjunction with the K2 data. To date we have observed or scheduled 38 transits/eclipses of 27 exoplanets. We will observe stars in K2 fields 0 through 15 and foresee executing over 60 AOR's on over 40 exoplanets. In the end, we expect to have a greatly improved characterization of exoplanets and their orbits than would be possible from the K2 data alone. This will be vital for JWST follow-up. In addition to improvements in ephemerides, these Spitzer observations will look for transit timing variations, analyze exoplanet atmospheres, study young exoplanets, and provde early TESS follow-up. This work will add substantially to the extensive exoplanet legacy of the Spitzer mission. This is a Generic Target proposal: The fields to be studied and their visibility windows are known, but until the K2 data is analyzed and the targets vetted, we cannot specify exact AORs.

  16. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer, WISE and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of optical spectroscopic observations of 54 candidate evolved massive stars revealed through the detection of mid-infrared nebulae of various shapes surrounding them with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} and {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer}. These observations, carried out with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) in 2010-2015, led to the discovery of about two dozens emission-line stars, of which 15 stars we classify as candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs). Spectroscopic and photometric monitoring revealed significant changes in the spectra and brightness of four newly identified cLBVs, meaning that they are new members of the class of bona fide LBVs. We present an updated list of the Galactic bona fide LBVs. Currently, this list contains eighteen stars, of which more than 70 per cent are associated with circumstellar nebulae. We also discovered a very rare [WN] star - the central star of the planetary nebula Abell 48, and a WN3 star in a close, eccentric binary s...

  17. Spitzer Operations: Scheduling the Out Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William A.; Effertz, Mark J.; Fisher, Mark E.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Mannings, Vincent; McElroy, Douglas B.; Scire, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Spitzer Warm Mission operations have remained robust and exceptionally efficient since the cryogenic mission ended in mid-2009. The distance to the now exceeds 1 AU, making telecommunications increasingly difficult; however, analysis has shown that two-way communication could be maintained through at least 2017 with minimal loss in observing efficiency. The science program continues to emphasize the characterization of exoplanets, time domain studies, and deep surveys, all of which can impose interesting scheduling constraints. Recent changes have significantly improved on-board data compression, which both enables certain high volume observations and reduces Spitzer's demand for competitive Deep Space Network resources.

  18. Serendipitous discovery of an infrared bow shock near PSR J1549–4848 with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared cometary nebula around PSR J1549–4848 in our Spitzer survey of a few middle-aged radio pulsars. Following the discovery, multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula were carried out. We detected the nebula in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 8.0, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 and 70 μm imaging, and in Spitzer IRS 7.5-14.4 μm spectroscopic observations, and also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey at 12 and 22 μm. These data were analyzed in detail, and we find that the nebula can be described with a standard bow shock shape, and that its spectrum contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and H{sub 2} emission features. However, it is not certain which object drives the nebula. We analyze the field stars and conclude that none of them can be the associated object because stars with a strong wind or mass ejection that usually produce bow shocks are much brighter than the field stars. The pulsar is approximately 15'' away from the region in which the associated object is expected to be located. In order to resolve the discrepancy, we suggest that a highly collimated wind could be emitted from the pulsar and produce the bow shock. X-ray imaging to detect the interaction of the wind with the ambient medium- and high-spatial resolution radio imaging to determine the proper motion of the pulsar should be carried out, which will help verify the association of the pulsar with the bow shock nebula.

  19. Microlens Parallax Measurements with a Warm Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Because Spitzer is an Earth-trailing orbit, losing about 0.1 AU/yr, it is excellently located to perform microlens parallax observations toward the Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC) and the Galactic bulge. These yield the so-called ``projected velocity'' of the lens, which can distinguish statistically among different populations. A few such measurements toward the LMC/SMC would reveal the nature of the lenses being detected in this direction (dark halo objects, or ordinary LMC/SMC stars). Cool Spitzer has already made one such measurement of a (rare) bright red-clump source, but warm (presumably less oversubscribed) Spitzer could devote the extra time required to obtain microlens parallaxes for the more common, but fainter, turnoff sources. Warm Spitzer could observe bulge microlenses for 38 days per year, which would permit up to 24 microlens parallaxes per year. This would yield interesting information on the disk mass function, particularly old brown dwarfs, which at present are inaccessible by other techniques...

  20. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  1. The Ultimate Spitzer Phase Curve Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Feng, Y. Katherina; Fortney, Jonathan; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza; Lewis, Nikole; Line, Michael; Morley, Caroline; Rauscher, Emily; Showman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Exoplanet phase curves are sure to be one of the main enduring legacies of Spitzer. They provide a wealth of information about exoplanet atmospheres, including longitudinal constraints on atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and energy transport, that will continue to open new doors of scientific inquiry and propel future investigations for years to come. The measured heat redistribution efficiency (or ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) shows considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and planet temperature; however, the latest results are inconsistent with current predictions. Instead, a new potential trend is emerging, one that connects heat redistribution efficiency with planet rotation rate. We will test this hypothesis by performing Spitzer phase curve observations of seven exoplanets with physical properties that span the parameter space. We have identified high-contrast targets with short orbital periods around bright host stars to ensure the observations reveal robust phase curve results. Spitzer is uniquely suited for this program because we can achieve our primary goals using broadband photometry. Part of the phase curve legacy will be to combine our archived Spitzer data with transmission and dayside emission spectra from HST and JWST. Adding energy transport and cloud coverage constraints to the measured dayside abundances and thermal profiles will yield a fundamental understanding of these exoplanets' atmospheres that can be leveraged into new avenues of investigation.

  2. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg.2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 105 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  3. THE SPITZER ICE LEGACY: ICE EVOLUTION FROM CORES TO PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ices regulate much of the chemistry during star formation and account for up to 80% of the available oxygen and carbon. In this paper, we use the Spitzer c2d Legacy ice survey, complimented with data sets on ices in cloud cores and high-mass protostars, to determine standard ice abundances and to present a coherent picture of the evolution of ices during low- and high-mass star formation. The median ice composition H2O:CO:CO2:CH3OH:NH3:CH4:XCN is 100:29:29:3:5:5:0.3 and 100:13:13:4:5:2:0.6 toward low- and high-mass protostars, respectively, and 100:31:38:4:-:-:- in cloud cores. In the low-mass sample, the ice abundances with respect to H2O of CH4, NH3, and the component of CO2 mixed with H2O typically vary by 2O. In contrast, some CO and CO2 ice components, XCN, and CH3OH vary by factors 2-10 between the lower and upper quartile. The XCN band correlates with CO, consistent with its OCN- identification. The origin(s) of the different levels of ice abundance variations are constrained by comparing ice inventories toward different types of protostars and background stars, through ice mapping, analysis of cloud-to-cloud variations, and ice (anti-)correlations. Based on the analysis, the first ice formation phase is driven by hydrogenation of atoms, which results in an H2O-dominated ice. At later prestellar times, CO freezes out and variations in CO freezeout levels and the subsequent CO-based chemistry can explain most of the observed ice abundance variations. The last important ice evolution stage is thermal and UV processing around protostars, resulting in CO desorption, ice segregation, and the formation of complex organic molecules. The distribution of cometary ice abundances is consistent with the idea that most cometary ices have a protostellar origin.

  4. Spitzer IRS Pipelines for General Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narron, B.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Ardila, D.; Laher, R. R.

    2008-08-01

    An effort is underway to make the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) data-processing pipelines available for use by astronomers worldwide. This will allow users to reprocess raw data downloaded from the Spitzer archive with customized calibration files, updated operational parameters, and/or a modified list of processing steps. The pipelines will create all standard BCD (basic calibrated data) and post-BCD products, plus additional intermediate products. The pipelines will be made up of newly developed Perl and C-shell ``executive'' scripts, plus the binary-executable modules currently used in operations (the modules' source code will not be distributed, however). The scripts are being designed for ease of use and will facilitate user-customization. The operating systems targeted for support are Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, and possibly Windows.

  5. The infrared database of extragalactic observables from Spitzer - I. The redshift catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Rupke, David S. N.; Barry, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers on the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical counterparts of the infrared sources detected in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, and the acquisition and validation of redshifts. The IDEOS sample includes all the spectra from the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) of galaxies beyond the Local Group. Optical counterparts were identified from correlation of the extraction coordinates with the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). To confirm the optical association and validate NED redshifts, we measure redshifts with unprecedented accuracy on the IRS spectra (σ(Δz/(1+z)) ˜ 0.0011) by using an improved version of the maximum combined pseudo-likelihood method (MCPL). We perform a multistage verification of redshifts that considers alternate NED redshifts, the MCPL redshift, and visual inspection of the IRS spectrum. The statistics is as follows: the IDEOS sample contains 3361 galaxies at redshift 0 < z < 6.42 (mean: 0.48, median: 0.14). We confirm the default NED redshift for 2429 sources and identify 124 with incorrect NED redshifts. We obtain IRS-based redshifts for 568 IDEOS sources without optical spectroscopic redshifts, including 228 with no previous redshift measurements. We provide the entire IDEOS redshift catalogue in machine-readable formats. The catalogue condenses our compilation and verification effort, and includes our final evaluation on the most likely redshift for each source, its origin, and reliability estimates.

  6. Caltrans Keeps the Spitzer Pipelines Moving

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wen; Laher, Russ; Fowler, John W.; Masci, Frank J.; Moshir, Mehrdad

    2005-01-01

    The computer pipelines used to process digital infrared astronomical images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope require various input calibration-data files for characterizing the attributes and behaviors of the onboard focal-plane-arrays and their detector pixels, such as operability, darkcurrent offset, linearity, non-uniformity, muxbleed, droop, and point-response functions. The telescope has three very different science instruments, each with three or four spectral-band-pass channels, dep...

  7. Spitzer reveals what's behind Orion's Bar

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; O'Dell, C R; McNabb, Ian A; Colgan, Sean W J; Zhuge, Scott Y; Ferland, Gary J; Hidalgo, Sergio A

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of 11 regions SE of the Bright Bar in the Orion Nebula, along a radial from the exciting star theta1OriC, extending from 2.6 to 12.1'. Our Cycle 5 programme obtained deep spectra with matching IRS short-high (SH) and long-high (LH) aperture grid patterns. Most previous IR missions observed only the inner few arcmin. Orion is the benchmark for studies of the ISM particularly for elemental abundances. Spitzer observations provide a unique perspective on the Ne and S abundances by virtue of observing the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) in Orion and H II regions in general. The Ne/H abundance ratio is especially well determined, with a value of (1.01+/-0.08)E-4. We obtained corresponding new ground-based spectra at CTIO. These optical data are used to estimate the electron temperature, electron density, optical extinction, and the S+/S++ ratio at each of our Spitzer positions. That permits an adjustment for the total gas-phase S abundan...

  8. Software Architecture of the Spitzer Archive Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, J.; Wu, X.; Roby, W.; Hoac, A.; Goldina, T.; Hartley, B.

    2007-10-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) provides a set of user tools to support search and retrieval of Spitzer Archive (SA) data via the Internet. This presentation describes the software architecture and design principles that support the Archive Interface subsystem of the SA (Handley 2007). The Archive Interface is an extension of the core components of the Uplink subsystem and provides a set web services to allow open access to the SA data set. Web services technology provides a basis for searching the archive and retrieving data products. The archive interface provides three modes of access: a rich client, a Web browser, and scripts (via Web services). The rich client allows the user to perform complex queries and submit requests for data that are asynchronously down-loaded to the local workstation. Asynchronous down-load is a critical feature given the large volume of a typical data set (on the order of 40~GB). For basic queries and retrieval of data the Web browser interface is provided. For advanced users, scripting languages with web services capabilities (i.e. Perl) can used to query and down-load data from the SA. The archive interface subsystem is the primary means for searching and retrieving data from the SA and is critical to the success of the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  9. SERVS: the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; Afonso, Jose; Alexander, Dave; Best, Philip; Bonfield, David; Castro, Nieves; Cava, Antonio; Chapman, Scott; Dunlop, James; Dyke, Eleanor; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ferguson, Harry; Foucaud, Sebastian; Franceschini, Alberto; Geach, Jim; Gonzales, Eduardo; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Hickey, Samantha; Ivison, Rob; Jarvis, Matt; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Lonsdale, Carol; Maraston, Claudia; McLure, Ross; Mortier, Angela; Oliver, Seb; Ouchi, Masami; Parish, Glen; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petric, Andreea; Pierre, Mauguerite; Readhead, Tony; Ridgway, Susan; Romer, Katherine; Rottgering, Huub; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Sajina, Anna; Seymour, Nick; Smail, Ian; Surace, Jason; Thomas, Peter; Trichas, Markos; Vaccari, Mattia; Verma, Aprajita; Xu, Kevin; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-12-01

    We will use warm Spitzer to image 18deg^2 of sky to microJy depth. This is deep enough to undertake a complete census of massive galaxies from z~6 to ~1 in a volume ~0.8Gpc^3, large enough to overcome the effects of cosmic variance, which place severe limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn from smaller fields. We will greatly enhance the diagnostic power of the Spitzer data by performing most of this survey in the region covered by the near-IR VISTA-VIDEO survey, and in other areas covered by near-IR, Herschel and SCUBA2 surveys. We will build complete near-infrared spectral energy distributions using the superb datasets from VIDEO, in conjunction with our Spitzer data, to derive accurate photometric redshifts and the key properties of stellar mass and star formation rates for a large sample of high-z galaxies. Obscured star formation rates and dust-shrouded BH growth phases will be uncovered by combining the Spitzer data with the Herschel and SCUBA2 surveys. We will thus build a complete picture of the formation of massive galaxies from z~6, where only about 1% of the stars in massive galaxies have formed, to z~1 where ~50% of them haveE Our large volume will allow us to also find examples of rare objects such as high-z quasars (~10-100 at z>6.5), high-z galaxy clusters (~20 at z>1.5 with dark halo masses >10^14 solar masses), and evaluate how quasar activity and galaxy environment affect star formation. This survey makes nearly optimal use of warm Spitzer; (a) all of the complementary data is either taken or will be taken in the very near future, and will be immediately publicly accessible, (b) the slew overheads are relatively small, (c) the observations are deep enough to detect high redshift galaxies but not so deep that source confusion reduces the effective survey area.

  10. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: The life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Antoniou, V; Bernard, J -P; Blum, R D; Boyer, M L; Chan, J; Chen, C -H R; Cohen, M; Dijkstra, C; Engelbracht, C; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gielen, C; Gordon, Karl D; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Hony, S; Hora, J L; Indebetouw, R; Jones, O; Kawamura, A; Lagadec, E; Lawton, B; Leisenring, J M; Madden, S C; Marengo, M; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; McGuire, C; Meixner, M; Mulia, A J; O'Halloran, B; Oliveira, J M; Paladini, R; Paradis, D; Reach, W T; Rubin, D; Sandstrom, K; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Shiao, B; Sloan, G C; Speck, A K; Srinivasan, S; Szczerba, R; Tielens, A G G M; van Aarle, E; Van Dyk, S D; van Loon, J Th; Van Winckel, H; Vijh, Uma P; Volk, K; Whitney, B A; Wilkins, A N; Zijlstra, A A

    2010-01-01

    The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program is a spectroscopic follow-up to the SAGE-LMC photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present an overview of SAGE-Spec and some of its first results. The SAGE-Spec program aims to study the life cycle of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and to provide information essential to the classification of the point sources observed in the earlier SAGE-LMC photometric survey. We acquired 224.6 hours of observations using the InfraRed Spectrograph and the SED mode of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. The SAGE-Spec data, along with archival Spitzer spectroscopy of objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, are reduced and delivered to the community. We discuss the observing strategy, the specific data reduction pipelines applied and the dissemination of data products to the scientific community. Initial science results include the first detection of an extragalactic "21 um" feature towards an evolved star and...

  11. Spitzer Observations of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, Sarah J U

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) in three interacting systems: NGC 5291, Arp105 and Stephan's Quintet. The spectra show bright emission from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nebular lines and warm molecular hydrogen, characteristic of recent episodes of star formation. The PAH emission that falls in the IRAC 8.0 micron band leads to the TDGs having an extremely red IRAC color, with [4.5] - [8.0] > 3. The emission from PAHs is characterized by a model with mainly neutral 100-C PAH atoms.

  12. Spitzer View of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, Georgios E

    2007-01-01

    Using a combination of deep MID-IR observations obtained by IRAC, MIPS and IRS on board Spitzer we investigate the MID-IR properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3, establish a better understanding of their nature and attempt a complete characterisation of the population. With deep mid-infrared and optical observations of ~1000 LBGs covered by IRAC/MIPS and from the ground respectively, we extend the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the LBGs to mid-infrared. Spitzer data reveal for the first time that the mid-infrared properties of the population are inhomogeneous ranging from those with marginal IRAC detections to those with bright rest-frame near-infrared colors and those detected at 24mu MIPS band revealing the newly discovered population of the Infrared Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (ILLBGs). To investigate this diversity, we examine the photometric properties of the population and we use stellar population synthesis models to probe the stellar content of these galaxies. We find that a fract...

  13. A systematic search for the spectra with features of crystalline silicates in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Jiaming; Jiang, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    The crystalline silicates features are mainly reflected in infrared bands. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) collected numerous spectra of various objects and provided a big database to investigate crystalline silicates in a wide range of astronomical environments. We apply the manifold ranking algorithm to perform a systematic search for the spectra with crystalline silicates features in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products available. In total, 868 spectra of 790 sources are found to show the features of crystalline silicate. These objects are cross-matched with the SIMBAD database as well as with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)/DR2. The average spectrum of young stellar objects show a variety of features dominated either by forsterite or enstatite or neither, while the average spectrum of evolved objects consistently present dominant features of forsterite in AGB, OH/IR, post-AGB and planetary nebulae. They are identified optically as early-type stars, evolved stars...

  14. The Euclid/WFIRST Spitzer Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capak, Peter; Arendt, R.; Arnouts, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bouwens, R.; Brinchman, J.; Brodwin, M.; Carollo, M.; Castander, F.; Charlot, S.; Chary, R.-R.; Cohen, J.; Cooray, A.; Conselice, C.; Coupon, J.; Cuby, J.-G.; Culliandre, J.; Davidzon, I.; Dole, H.; Dunlop, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ferrara, A.; Gardner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ho, S.; Ilbert, O.; Jouvel, S.; Kashlinsky, A.; LeFevre, O.; LeFloc'h, E.; Maraston, C.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mei, S.; Mellier, Y.; Mitchell-Wynn, K.; Moustakas, L.; Nayyeri, H.; Paltani, S.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J.; Speagle, J.; Stanford, S.; Stern, D.; Teplitz, H.; Toft, S.

    2016-08-01

    We propose 5286h of Spitzer Legacy Science Time to carry out a precursor survey for Euclid, WFIRST, and JWST. The primary goal is to enable definitive studies of reionization, z>7 galaxy formation, and the first massive black holes. The proposed data will also enhance the cosmological constraints provided by Euclid and WFIRST. The survey will cover 20 square degrees to 2h per pointing, split between the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS) and the North Ecliptic Pole. These are some of the darkest and most observable fields on the sky and have existing multi-wavelength data that will enable immediate science. The survey parameters are designed to enable stellar mass measurement at 33 enabling a direct probe of galaxy growth during the epoch of re-ionization.

  15. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark; SERVS Team

    2009-05-01

    The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) will image a total of 18 deg2 of sky to micro-Jansky depth in the [3.6] and [4.5] micron bands split amongst the SWIRE ELAIS-S1, ELAIS-N1, XMM-LSS, Lockman and CDFS fields. SERVS will have substantial overlap with the VISTA/VIDEO and UKIDSS DXS near-infrared surveys, and the Hermes far-infrared survey with Herschel. Key science goals include: understanding stellar mass assembly in massive galaxies from z 5 to the present across a wide range of environments, studying the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies, and finding quasars at z>6.5. In this talk I shall describe the science possible with SERVS, the data taking and analysis schedule, plans for bandmerging with other surveys, and eventual public release.

  16. Galactic Distribution of Planets Spitzer Microlens Parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Carey, Sean; Yee, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    We will measure the Galactic distribution of planets by obtaining 'microlens parallaxes' of about 700 events, including 18 planetary events, from the comparison of microlens lightcurves observed from Spitzer and Earth, which are separated by 1 AU in projection. As we have demonstrated in two previous programs, the difference in these lightcurves yields both the 'microlens parallax' (ratio of the lens-source relative parallax) to the Einstein radius, and the direction of lens-source relative motion. For planetary events, this measurement directly yields the mass and distance of the planet. For non-planetary events it can be combined with a Galactic model to estimate these quantities with factor 1.4 precision. Hence, the cumulative distributions of planetary events and all events can be compared to determine the relative frequency of planets in the Galactic disk and bulge. The results will be combined with those of current/previous Spitzer campaigns and the current Kepler campaign. This proposal is significantly more sensitive to planets than previous work because it takes advantage of the new KMTNet observing strategy that covers 80 sq.deg at >0.4/hr cadence, 24/7 from 3 southern observatories. This same observing program also provides a unique probe of dark objects. It will yield the first mass-measurement based determination of the isolated-brown-dwarf mass function. Thirteen percent of the observations will specifically target binaries, which will probe systems with dark components (brown dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) that are difficult or impossible to investigate by other methods. The observations and methods from this work are a test bed for WFIRST microlensing.

  17. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. II-the demographics and cosmic evolution of the AGN population

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Mark; Ridgway, Susan E.; Sajina, Anna; Petric, Andreea O.; Gates, Elinor L.; Urrutia, Tanya; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    We present luminosity functions derived from a spectroscopic survey of AGN selected from Spitzer Space Telescope imaging surveys. Selection in the mid-infrared is significantly less affected by dust obscuration. We can thus compare the luminosity functions of the obscured and unobscured AGN in a more reliable fashion than by using optical or X-ray data alone. We find that the AGN luminosity function can be well described by a broken power-law model in which the break luminosity decreases with...

  18. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  19. Deep Spitzer spectroscopy of the `Flying Saucer' edge-on disk: Large grains beyond 50 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, K M; Blake, G A; Van Dishoeck, E F; Dullemond, C P; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2007-01-01

    We present deep Spitzer-IRS low-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda ~ 100) 5-35 micron spectroscopy of the edge-on disk ``the Flying Saucer'' (2MASS J16281370-2431391) in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The spectral energy distribution exhibits the characteristic two-peak shape predicted for a circumstellar disk viewed very close to edge-on. The short-wavelength peak is entirely due to photons scattered off the surface of the disk, while the long-wavelength peak is due to thermal emission from the disk itself. The Spitzer spectrum represents the first spectroscopic detection of scattered light out to 15 micron from a bona-fide, isolated edge-on disk around a T Tauri star. The depth and the wavelength of the mid-infrared "valley" of the SED give direct constraints on the size distribution of large grains in the disk. Using a 2D continuum radiative transfer model, we find that a significant amount of 5-10 micron-sized grains is required in the surface layers of the disk at radii of 50-300 AU. The detection of relati...

  20. Spitzer data at the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexov, Anastasia; Good, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) curates and serves science data sets from NASA’s infrared and submillimeter projects and missions, including IRAS, 2MASS, MSX, SWAS, ISO, IRTS and from the Spitzer Space Telescope. All Spitzer data can be accessed from IRSA’s Spitzer mission page at: http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu/Missions/spitzer.html Spitzer Legacy Enhanced Products along with ancillary data are delivered in six month intervals starting from Fall 2004, until Fall...

  1. Heat conduction in X-ray clusters: Spitzer over 3

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Effective heat conduction in a random variable magnetic field should be equal to one third of the Spitzer's value. Recent observations indicate that this heat conduction is sufficient to account for the bremsstrahlung in cooling X-ray clusters.

  2. Simultaneous Spitzer, HST and VLT Observations of a White Dwarf with an Actively Disintegrating Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siyi; Vanderburg, Andrew; Jura, Michael; Croll, Bryce; Rappaport, Saul; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-02-01

    We have recently discovered a white dwarf where an asteroid is actively disintegrating. Using data from K2, transits with periods less than 5 hours have been detected from at least 6 fragments. Evidence for circumstellar dust was found by comparing UKIDSS and WISE data. High-resolution optical spectroscopic data from Keck show that the host star is heavily polluted with 11 heavy elements and circumstellar gas. We were granted observing time with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Very Large Telescope to obtain a light curve in the ultraviolet and time-resolved ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy. Here, we propose simultaneous observation with Spitzer/IRAC to monitor the short-term variability of the dust disk. We aim to have a complete picture of this rapidly evolving system.

  3. Discovery of a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V; Berdnikov, L N; Langer, N; Grebel, E K; Bestenlehner, J M

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a circular mid-infrared shell around the emission-line star Wray 16-137 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of Wray 16-137 with the Southern African Large Telescope revealed a rich emission spectrum typical of the classical luminous blue variables (LBVs) like P Cygni. Subsequent spectroscopic and photometric observations showed drastic changes in the spectrum and brightness during the last three years, meaning that Wray 16-137 currently undergoes an S Dor-like outburst. Namely, we found that the star has brightened by \\approx 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, while its spectrum became dominated by Fe ii lines. Taken together, our observations unambiguously show that Wray 16-137 is a new member of the family of Galactic bona fide LBVs.

  4. A Short and Personal History of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, born as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and later the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (still SIRTF), was under discussion and development within NASA and the scientific community for more than 30 years prior to its launch in 2003. This brief history chronicles a few of the highlights and the lowlights of those 30 years from the authors personal perspective. A much more comprehensive history of SIRTF/Spitzer has been written by George Rieke (2006).

  5. Downsizing a Great Observatory: Reinventing Spitzer in the Warm Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Dodd, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogen mission to the IRAC warm mission during 2009. This transition involved changing several areas of operations in order to cut the mission annual operating costs to 1/3 of the cryogen mission amount. In spite of this substantial cut back, Spitzer continues to have one of the highest science return per dollar ratio of any of NASA's extended missions. This paper will describe the major operational changes mad...

  6. Spitzer Space Telescope observatory planning and scheduling team

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Stephen J.; Garcia, Lisa J.; Levine, Deborah A.; McElroy, Douglas B.; Mittman, David S.; O'Linger, JoAnn C.; Tyler, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Launched as the space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF) in August, 2003 and renamed in early 2004, the Spitzer space telescope is performing an extended series of science observations at wavelengths ranging from 3 to 180 microns. The California Institute of Technology is the home of the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and operates the science operations system (SOS), which supports science operations of the observatory. A key function supported by the SOS is the long-range planning and short-t...

  7. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of Two Hubble-observed Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjoern; Fraine, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole; Mandell, Avi; Sing, David; Todorov, Kamen

    2015-10-01

    We propose Spitzer secondary eclipse observations of two key exoplanets (WASP-76b and HAT-P-38b) that are approved for transmission spectroscopy by HST/WFC3 in our Large Cycle-23 program. Spitzer eclipse data will provide temperature information needed to determine their atmospheric scale heights, and thereby infer their atmospheric water abundances (proxy for metallicity) from the WFC3 spectra. Potential molecular absorption that falls within the Spitzer bandpasses will also help to measure the atmospheric metallicity of these planets, and will be minimally affected by clouds - that can often frustrate transmission spectroscopy. Beyond the utility to our Hubble analyses, both planets have high scientific value for Spitzer eclipse observations in their own right. WASP-76b is a strongly irradiated and very hot, large radius giant planet. Its combination of strong irradiation and large radius puts it in an atmospheric regime where few planets have been observed by Spitzer in eclipse. HAT-P-38b is a sub-Saturn mass planet in a relatively cool temperature regime (1080 Kelvins) where Kammer et al. recently found that the ratio of planetary brightness temperature in the two Spitzer bands is potentially correlated with planetary mass. The low mass of HAT-P-38b (0.27 Jupiters) gives it substantial leverage to test that correlation.

  8. SPITZER SEARCH FOR DUST DISKS AROUND CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of dust disks have been discovered around white dwarfs (WDs): small dust disks within the Roche limits of their WDs and large dust disks around hot WDs extending to radial distances of 10-102 AU. The majority of the latter WDs are central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). We have therefore used archival Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of PNs to search for CSPNs with IR excesses and to make a comparative investigation of dust disks around stars at different evolutionary stages. We have examined available images of 72 resolved PNs in the Spitzer archive and found 56 of them large enough for the CSPN to be resolved from the PN. Among these, only 42 CSPNs are visible in IRAC and/or MIPS images and selected for photometric measurements. From the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these CSPNs, we find 19 cases with clear IR excess. Of these, seven are [WC]-type stars, two have apparent visual companions that account for the observed excess emission, two are symbiotic CSPNs, and in eight cases the IR excess originates from an extended emitter, likely a dust disk. For some of these CSPNs, we have acquired follow-up Spitzer MIPS images, Infrared Spectrograph spectra, and Gemini NIRI and Michelle spectroscopic observations. The SEDs and spectra show a great diversity in the emission characteristics of the IR excesses, which may imply different mechanisms responsible for the excess emission. For CSPNs whose IR excesses originate from dust continuum, the most likely dust production mechanisms are (1) breakup of bodies in planetesimal belts through collisions and (2) formation of circumstellar dust disks through binary interactions. A better understanding of post-asymptotic giant branch binary evolution as well as debris disk evolution along with its parent star is needed to distinguish between these different origins. Future observations to better establish the physical parameters of the

  9. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer IRS R ∼ 600 spectra (10 - 38 μm) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude of and including the Arches Cluster. Our positions include the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ''Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud MO.13-0.13, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line of sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O+3 and destroy dust grains, releasing iron into the interstellar medium (ISM); the shock effects are particularly noticeable in the center of the Bubble but the highly ionized gas is present in all positions. The H2 lines are formed both in photodissociation regions in the GC and along the line of sight to the GC

  10. The Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.

    2014-04-01

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and MIPS debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. We carried out two separate SED analyses. (1) For all targets, we modeled the IRS and MIPS 70 micron data (where available) assuming that the SEDs were well-described using, zero, one or two temperature black bodies. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. (2) For a subset of 120 targets with 10 and/or 20 micron silicate features, we modeled the data using spherical silicate (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) grains located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or two thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. We present a demographic analysis of the disk properties. For example, we find that the majority of debris disks are better fit using two dust components, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and that the size distribution of dust grains is consistent with a collisional cascade.

  11. On the mid-IR variability of candidate eruptive variables (EXors): a comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniucci, S; Causi, G Li; Lorenzetti, D

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at statistically studying the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects (YSOs), we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 um Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 um. From this comparison we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of the star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigate...

  12. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  13. The impact of Spitzer infrared data on stellar mass estimates - and a revised galaxy stellar mass function at 0 < z < 5

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, F; Hopp, U

    2007-01-01

    Aims: We estimate stellar masses of galaxies in the high redshift universe with the intention of determining the influence of newly available Spitzer/IRAC infrared data on the analysis. Based on the results we probe the mass assembly history of the universe. Methods: We use the GOODS-MUSIC catalog which provides multiband photometry from the U--filter to the 8 mum Spitzer band for almost 15.000 galaxies with either spectroscopic redshifts (for ~7 % of the sample) or photometric ones and apply a standard model fitting technique to estimate stellar masses. Then we repeat our calculations with fixed photometric redshifts excluding Spitzer photometry and directly compare the outcomes to look for systematic deviations. Finally we use our results to compute stellar mass functions and mass densities up to redshift z = 5. Results: We find that stellar masses tend to be overestimated on average if further constraining Spitzer data are not included into the analysis. Whereas up to intermediate redshifts z < 2.5 this...

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG RED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry of 13 redshift 0.4 < z < 1 dust reddened quasars obtained with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We compare properties derived from their infrared spectral energy distributions (intrinsic active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity and far-infrared luminosity from star formation) to the host luminosities and morphologies from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, and black hole masses estimated from optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy. Our results are broadly consistent with models in which most dust reddened quasars are an intermediate phase between a merger-driven starburst triggering a completely obscured AGN, and a normal, unreddened quasar. We find that many of our objects have high accretion rates, close to the Eddington limit. These objects tend to fall below the black hole mass-bulge luminosity relation as defined by local galaxies, whereas most of our low accretion rate objects are slightly above the local relation, as typical for normal quasars at these redshifts. Our observations are therefore most readily interpreted in a scenario in which galaxy stellar mass growth occurs first by about a factor of three in each merger/starburst event, followed sometime later by black hole growth by a similar amount. We do not, however, see any direct evidence for quasar feedback affecting star formation in our objects, for example, in the form of a relationship between accretion rate and star formation. Five of our objects, however, do show evidence for outflows in the [O III]5007 Å emission line profile, suggesting that the quasar activity is driving thermal winds in at least some members of our sample.

  15. Spitzer Surveys of IR Excesses of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y -H; Bilíkovà, J; Riddle, A; Su, K Y -L

    2010-01-01

    IR excesses of white dwarfs (WDs) can be used to diagnose the presence of low-mass companions, planets, and circumstellar dust. Using different combinations of wavelengths and WD temperatures, circumstellar dust at different radial distances can be surveyed. The Spitzer Space Telescope has been used to search for IR excesses of white dwarfs. Two types of circumstellar dust disks have been found: (1) small disks around cool WDs with Teff 100,000 K. The small dust disks are within the Roche limit, and are commonly accepted to have originated from tidally crushed asteroids. The large dust disks, at tens of AU from the central WDs, have been suggested to be produced by increased collisions among Kuiper Belt-like objects. In this paper, we discuss Spitzer IRAC surveys of small dust disks around cool WDs, a MIPS survey of large dust disks around hot WDs, and an archival Spitzer survey of IR excesses of WDs.

  16. Spitzer Surveys of Infrared Excesses of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y -H; Bilíkovà, J; Riddle, A; Su, K Y -L

    2010-01-01

    IR excesses of white dwarfs (WDs) can be used to diagnose the presence of low-mass companions, planets, and circumstellar dust. Using different combinations of wavelengths and WD temperatures, circumstellar dust at different radial distances can be surveyed. The Spitzer Space Telescope has been used to search for IR excesses of white dwarfs. Two types of circumstellar dust disks have been found: (1) small disks around cool WDs with T_eff 100,000 K. The small dust disks are within the Roche limit, and are commonly accepted to have originated from tidally crushed asteroids. The large dust disks, at tens of AU from the central WDs, have been suggested to be produced by increased collisions among Kuiper Belt-like objects. In this paper, we discuss Spitzer IRAC surveys of small dust disks around cool WDs, a MIPS survey of large dust disks around hot WDs, and an archival Spitzer survey of IR excesses of WDs.

  17. Keys to spitzer observations of luminous star forming regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boulanger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones del telescopio espacial Spitzer est an abriendo una nueva perspectiva sobre la formaci on de estrellas masivas en la Galaxia, galaxias cercanas y galaxias infrarrojas. Presentamos resultados de un an alisis de observaciones Spitzer de 30 Dorado junto con im agenes H2 1-0 S(1and Br y espectroscop a infrarroja obtenidas con ISO. Hemos relacionado la distribuci on espacial y espectral de la emisi on infrarroja, con el impacto radiativo y din amico del super c umulo estelar R136 sobre la estructura del medio interestelar y la composici on del polvo. Este an alisis da claves para interpretar las im agenes Spitzer de regiones de formaci on de estrellas masivas y abre perspectivas sobre el impacto de c umulos estelares de alta masa en el medio interestelar.

  18. Star Formation and Extinction in Redshift z~2 Galaxies: Inferences from Spitzer MIPS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, N A; Erb, D K; Fadda, D; Pettini, M; Shapley, A E; Steidel, C C; Yan, L; Adelberger, Kurt L.; Erb, Dawn K.; Fadda, Dario; Pettini, Max; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Steidel, Charles C.; Yan, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Using very deep Spitzer/MIPS 24 micron observations, we present an analysis of the bolometric luminosities (L[bol]) and UV extinction properties of more than 200 spectroscopically identified, optically selected (UGR) z~2 galaxies in the GOODS-N field. The large spectroscopic sample is supplemented with near-IR selected (BzK/DRG) galaxies and submm sources at similar redshifts in the same field, providing a representative collection of relatively massive (M*>1e10 Msun) galaxies at high redshifts. We focus on the redshift range 1.5-2.6, where MIPS is sensitive to the strength of the mid-IR PAH features in the galaxy spectra (rest-frame 5-8.5 micron). We demonstrate, using stacked X-ray data and a subset of galaxies with H-alpha measurements, that L(5-8.5) provides a reliable estimate of L(IR) for most star forming galaxies at z~2. The range of L(IR) in the samples considered extends from ~1e10 to >1e12 Lsun, with a mean of 2e11 Lsun. Using 24 micron observations to infer dust extinction in high redshift galaxie...

  19. The Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hanish, D; Teplitz, H; Desai, V; Armus, L; Brinkworth, C; Brooke, T; Colbert, J; Edwards, L; Fadda, D; Frayer, D; Huynh, M; Lacy, M; Murphy, E; Noriega-Crespo, A; Paladini, R; Scarlata, C; Shenoy, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SAFIRES). This program produces refined mosaics and source lists for all far-infrared extragalactic data taken during the more than six years of the cryogenic operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The SAFIRES products consist of far-infrared data in two wavelength bands (70 um and 160 um) across approximately 180 square degrees of sky, with source lists containing far-infrared fluxes for almost 40,000 extragalactic point sources. Thus, SAFIRES provides a large, robust archival far-infrared data set suitable for many scientific goals.

  20. Spectroscopic data

    CERN Document Server

    Melzer, J

    1976-01-01

    During the preparation of this compilation, many people contributed; the compilers wish to thank all of them. In particular they appreciate the efforts of V. Gilbertson, the manuscript typist, and those of K. C. Bregand, J. A. Kiley, and W. H. McPherson, who gave editorial assistance. They would like to thank Dr. J. R. Schwartz for his cooperation and encouragement. In addition, they extend their grati­ tude to Dr. L. Wilson of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, who gave the initial impetus to this project. v Contents I. I ntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. Organization ofthe Spectroscopic Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Methods of Production and Experimental Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Band Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2...

  1. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archive

  2. X-ray, 1H/13C 2D and 3D NMR studies of the structures of davallene and adipedatol, two triterpenes isolated from American Adiantum capillus-veneris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two triterpenic compounds Davallene 1 and Adipedatol 2 were isolated from the roots of Mexican Adiantum capillus-veneris (Adiantaceae). The structures of both compounds are discussed on the basis of new 2D and 3D NMR spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction data. (author)

  3. Spitzer and DIRBE Studies of the Infrared Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Hauser, Michael; Wright, Edward; Arendt, Rick; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Levenson, Louis

    2011-05-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL), defined as the sky surface brightness of all radiation arising from outside the Milky Way, carries in the 1-5um region the imprint of the nearby Universe, of red-shifted light from the first galaxies, and of any possible pre-galactic contributions. The DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite has measured the total sky brightness, the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIRB), over the entire sky at 3.6um. The CIRB is the sum of the zodiacal light, galactic starlight, radiation from the ISM, and the EBL. Although the determinations of the EBL are presently limited by uncertainties in the zodiacal light model, experiments now under way can reduce those uncertainties. This Spitzer proposal prepares for that reduction by eliminating other uncertainties. We will use Spitzer to determine the point source components of CIRB at 3.6um, the wavelength of the minimum in the bright foreground from interplanetary dust. We will measure essentially all of the stellar contribution, and more than 80% of the integrated light from resolved galaxies; this can be extrapolated using other Spitzer data to determine IGL. The ultimate objective of this type of study is to search for a currently unknown diffuse component of EBL, DEBL. Symbolically, DEBL = EBL-IGL. In this program, we will execute the following steps aimed at reducing the uncertainties in DEBL once the zodiacal uncertainty in CIRB is minimized and a correction for ISM emission is applied: 1. Cross calibrating DIRBE and Spitzer so that EBL and IGL are on the same flux scale; 2. Reducing the uncertainties in EBL by measuring stars as faint as 19th mag at 3.6um. 3. Determining EBL and IGL at six widely separated positions so that the isotropy - and hence the cosmological significance - of any detection of DEBL can be assessed. We emphasize that this important investigation can be carried out only with Spitzer, and this scientific opportunity is perishable due to Spitzer's finite lifetime.

  4. Transit spectrophotometry of the exoplanet HD189733b. II. New Spitzer observations at 3.6 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Desert, J -M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Hebrard, G; Ehrenreich, D; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Parmentier, V; Ferlet, R; Henry, G W

    2010-01-01

    We present a new primary transit observation of the hot-jupiter HD189733b, obtained at 3.6 microns with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. Previous measurements at 3.6 microns suffered from strong systematics and conclusions could hardly be obtained with confidence on the water detection by comparison of the 3.6 and 5.8 microns observations. We use a high S/N Spitzer photometric transit light curve to improve the precision of the near infrared radius of the planet at 3.6 microns. The observation has been performed using high-cadence time series integrated in the subarray mode. We are able to derive accurate system parameters, including planet-to-star radius ratio, impact parameter, scale of the system, and central time of the transit from the fits of the transit light curve. We compare the results with transmission spectroscopic models and with results from previous observations at the same wavelength. We obtained the following system parameters: R_p/R_\\star=0.15566+0.00011-...

  5. A Systematic Search for the Spectra with Features of Crystalline Silicates in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Luo, Ali; Liu, Jiaming; Jiang, Biwei

    2016-06-01

    The crystalline silicate features are mainly reflected in infrared bands. The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) collected numerous spectra of various objects and provided a big database to investigate crystalline silicates in a wide range of astronomical environments. We apply the manifold ranking algorithm to perform a systematic search for the spectra with crystalline silicate features in the Spitzer IRS Enhanced Products available. In total, 868 spectra of 790 sources are found to show the features of crystalline silicates. These objects are cross-matched with the SIMBAD database as well as with the Large Sky Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)/DR2. The average spectrum of young stellar objects shows a variety of features dominated either by forsterite or enstatite or neither, while the average spectrum of evolved objects consistently present dominant features of forsterite in AGB, OH/IR, post-AGB, and planetary nebulae. They are identified optically as early-type stars, evolved stars, galaxies and so on. In addition, the strength of spectral features in typical silicate complexes is calculated. The results are available through CDS for the astronomical community to further study crystalline silicates.

  6. A Combined Spitzer and Herschel Infrared Study of Gas and Dust in the Circumbinary Disk Orbiting V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Sacco, G Germano; Kastner, Joel H; Wilner, David; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Andrews, Sean; Herczeg, Gregory; van der Marel, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic Spitzer and Herschel mid-to-far-infrared study of the circumbinary disk orbiting the evolved (age ~12-23 Myr) close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr. Spitzer IRS spectra show emission lines of [Ne II], H_2 S(1), CO_2 and HCN, while Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectra reveal emission from [O I], OH, and tentative detections of H_2O and high-J transitions of CO. We measure [Ne III]/[Ne II] < 0.13, which is comparable to other X-ray/EUV luminous T Tauri stars that lack jets. We use the H_2 S(1) line luminosity to estimate the gas mass in the relatively warm surface layers of the inner disk. The presence of [O I] emission suggests that CO, H_2O, and/or OH is being photodissociated, and the lack of [C I] emission suggests any excess C may be locked up in HCN, CN and other organic molecules. Modeling of silicate dust grain emission features in the mid-infrared indicates that the inner disk is composed mainly of large (r~5 um) amorphous pyroxene and olivine grains (~86% by mass)...

  7. Spitzer Phase Curve Constraints for WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Kevin B; Bean, Jacob L; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan J; Showman, Adam P; Kataria, Tiffany; Kreidberg, Laura; Feng, Y Katherina

    2016-01-01

    Previous measurements of heat redistribution efficiency (the ability to transport energy from a planet's highly-irradiated dayside to its eternally-dark nightside) show considerable variation between exoplanets. Theoretical models predict a correlation between heat redistribution efficiency and temperature for tidally-locked planets; however, recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WASP-43b spectroscopic phase curve results are inconsistent with current predictions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we obtained a total of three phase curve observations of WASP-43b at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. The first 3.6 micron visit exhibits spurious nightside emission that requires invoking unphysical conditions in our atmospheric retrievals. The two other visits exhibit strong day-night contrasts that are consistent with the HST data. To reconcile the departure from theoretical predictions, WASP-43b would need to have a high-altitude, nightside cloud/haze layer blocking its thermal emission. Clouds/hazes could be produced within...

  8. Mid-to-Far Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Galaxies in the Spitzer First Look Survey Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Wen; Hong Wu; Chen Cao; Xiao-Yang Xia

    2007-01-01

    We made model fitting to the mid-to-far infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for different categories of galaxies in the main extragalactic field of the Spitzer First Look Survey with the aid of spectroscopic information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.We find that the mid-to-far infrared SEDs of HII galaxies, mixture type galaxies and LINERs can be well fitted by the one-parameter (α) dust model of Dale et al. plus the 13 Gyr dust-free elliptical galaxy model. The statistics of α values indicates that all these galaxies tend to be quiescent, although the HII galaxies are relatively more active than the LINERs. The midinfrared SEDs of absorption galaxies are well fitted simply by the 13 Gyr dust-free elliptical galaxy template, and the near-to-mid infrared SEDs of QSOs can be represented by AGN NGC 5506.

  9. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-area Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; de Jong, R. S.; DePoy, D. L.; Drory, N.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; Gronwall, C.; Hill, G. J.; Hopp, U.; Jogee, S.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Marshall, J. L.; McLinden, E.; Mentuch Cooper, E.; Somerville, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Tran, K.-V.; Tuttle, S.; Viero, M.; Wechsler, R.; Zeimann, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ˜ 800 spectroscopy will produce ˜200,000 redshifts from the Lyα emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ˜0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 publication.

  10. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Lau, Ryan; Cao, Yi; Masci, Frank; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Bally, John; Bond, Howard; Whitelock, Patricia; Cody, Ann Marie; Gehrz, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Armus, Lee; Cantiello, Matteo; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Mudumba, Parthasarathy; van Dyk, Schuyler; Boyer, Martha; Phillips, Mark; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Perley, Dan; Gonzalez, Consuelo; Contreras, Carlos; Jones, Olivia; Ressler, Michael; Adams, Scott; Moore, Anna; Cook, David; Fox, Ori; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab; Monson, Andy

    2016-08-01

    Spitzer is pioneering a systematic exploration of the dynamic infrared sky. Our SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) has already discovered 147 explosive transients and 1948 eruptive variables. Of these 147 infrared transients, 35 are so red that they are devoid of optical counterparts and we call them SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). The nature of SPRITEs is unknown and progress on deciphering the explosion physics depends on mid-IR spectroscopy. Multiple physical origins have been proposed including stellar merger, birth of a massive binary, electron capture supernova and stellar black-hole formation. Hence, we propose a modest continuation of SPIRITS, focusing on discovering and monitoring SPRITEs, in preparation for follow-up with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). As the SPRITEs evolve and cool, the bulk of the emission shifts to longer wavelengths. MIRI aboard JWST will be the only available platform in the near future capable of characterizing SPRITEs out to 28um. Specifically, the low resolution spectrometer would determine dust mass, grain chemistry, ice abundance and energetics to disentangle the proposed origins. The re-focused SPIRITS program consists of continued Spitzer monitoring of only those 104 luminous galaxies that are known SPRITE hosts or are most likely to host new SPRITEa. Scaling from the SPIRITS discovery rate, we estimate finding 22 new SPRITEs and 6 new supernovae over the next two years. The SPIRITS team remains committed to extensive ground-based follow-up. The Spitzer observations proposed here are essential for determining the final fates of active SPRITEs as well as bridging the time lag between the current SPIRITS survey and JWST launch.

  11. DECOMPOSING STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS WITH SPITZER MID-INFRARED SPECTRA: LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND CO-EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer 7-38 μm spectra for a 24 μm flux-limited sample of galaxies at z ∼ 0.7 in the COSMOS field. The detailed high-quality spectra allow us to cleanly separate star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) in individual galaxies. We first decompose mid-infrared luminosity functions (LFs). We find that the SF 8 μm and 15 μm LFs are well described by Schechter functions. AGNs dominate the space density at high luminosities, which leads to the shallow bright-end slope of the overall mid-infrared LFs. The total infrared (8-1000 μm) LF from 70 μm selected galaxies shows a shallower bright-end slope than the bolometrically corrected SF 15 μm LF, owing to the intrinsic dispersion in the mid-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We then study the contemporary growth of galaxies and their supermassive black holes (BHs). Seven of the thirty-one luminous infrared galaxies with Spitzer spectra host luminous AGNs, implying an AGN duty cycle of 23% ± 9%. The time-averaged ratio of BH accretion rate and SF rate matches the local MBH - Mbulge relation and the MBH - Mhost relation at z ∼ 1. These results favor co-evolution scenarios in which BH growth and intense SF happen in the same event but the former spans a shorter lifetime than the latter. Finally, we compare our mid-infrared spectroscopic selection with other AGN identification methods and discuss candidate Compton-thick AGNs in the sample. While only half of the mid-infrared spectroscopically selected AGNs are detected in X-ray, ∼90% of them can be identified with their near-infrared spectral indices.

  12. The Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Mehrtens, N; Lanham, C; Lacy, M; Ciardullo, R; Finkelstein, S L; Bassett, R; Behroozi, P; Blanc, G A; de Jong, R S; DePoy, D L; Drory, N; Gawiser, E; Gebhardt, K; Gronwall, C; Hill, G J; Hopp, U; Jogee, S; Kawinwanichakij, L; Marshall, J L; McLinden, E; Cooper, E Mentuch; Somerville, R S; Steinmetz, M; Tran, K -V; Tuttle, S; Viero, M; Wechsler, R; Zeimann, G

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer/HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers $\\sim$deg$^2$ of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey "Stripe 82" region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R $\\sim$ 800 spectroscopy will produce $\\sim$ 200,000 redshifts from the Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 < z < 3.5, and an additional $\\sim$200,000 redshifts from the [OII] emission for galaxies at z < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K-band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, AGN, and environment over a co-moving volume of $\\sim$0.5 Gpc$^3$ at 1.9 < z < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties o...

  13. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Gizis, J E; Rebull, L M; Carey, S J; Krick, J; Ingalls, J G; Lowrance, P; Glaccum, W; Kirkpatrick, J D; Simon, A A; Wong, M H

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in February 2016 to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17-hour duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 $\\mu$m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18-hour light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) and W2 (4.6 $\\mu$m) from the WISE/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude $\\sim$0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude $\\sim$ 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in N...

  14. The Spitzer Local Volume Legacy: Survey Description and Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Johnson, L C; Schuster, M D; Calzetti, D; Engelbracht, C W; de Paz, A Gil; Kennicutt, R C; Lee, J C; Begum, A; Block, M; Dalcanton, J J; Funes, J G; Gordon, K D; Johnson, B D; Marble, A R; Sakai, S; Skillman, E D; Van Zee, L; Walter, F; Weisz, D R; Williams, B; Wu, S -Y; Wu, Y

    2009-01-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, H-alpha, and HST imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc H-alpha and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8um PAH emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks th...

  15. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  16. MN48: a new Galactic bona fide luminous blue variable revealed by Spitzer and SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the candidate evolved massive star MN48 disclosed via detection of a mid-infrared circular shell around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of MN48 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) carried out in 2011--2015 revealed significant changes in the spectrum of this star, which are typical of luminous blue variables (LBVs). The LBV status of MN48 was further supported by photometric monitoring which shows that in 2009--2011 this star has brightened by approx 0.9 and 1 mag in the V and I_c bands, respectively, then faded by approx 1.1 and 1.6 mag during the next four years, and apparently started to brighten again recently. The detected changes in the spectrum and brightness of MN48 make this star the 18th known Galactic bona fide LBV and increase the percentage of LBVs associated with circumstellar nebulae to more than 70 per cent. We discuss the possible birth place of MN48 and sugge...

  17. Mid-Infrared Variability from the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlowski, Szymon; Stern, Daniel; Ashby, Matthew L N; Assef, Roberto J; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A; Croft, S; Dey, Arjun; Eisenhardt, P R; Gonzalez, A; Gorjian, V; Griffith, R; Grogin, N; Ivison, R; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L; Rottgering, H; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I S; van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2010-01-01

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of 474,179 objects in 8.1 deg^2 of the NDWFS Bootes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands. We find that 1.1% of the studied sample meet our standard selection criteria for being classed as a variable source. We require that the 3.6 and 4.5 micron light-curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2 sigma. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBootes survey, radio catalogs, 24 micron-selected AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects. Most of the s...

  18. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W. [Now at Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. (United States); Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M., E-mail: ianws@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  19. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Cristina A; Trilling, David E; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L; Mueller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al. 2010). Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (~0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectru...

  20. Spitzer spectral line mapping of protostellar outflows: I. Basic data and outflow energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, David A; Giannini, Teresa; Melnick, Gary J; Bergin, Edwin A; Yuan, Yuan; Maret, Sebastien; Tolls, Volker; Guesten, Rolf; Kaufman, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward protostellar outflows in the BHR71, L1157, L1448, NGC 2071, and VLA 1623 molecular regions using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, provide detailed maps of the 8 lowest pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen and of the [SI] 25.25 micron and [FeII] 26.0 micron fine structure lines. The molecular hydrogen lines, believed to account for a large fraction of the radiative cooling from warm molecular gas that has been heated by a non-dissociative shock, allow the energetics of the outflows to be elucidated. Within the regions mapped towards these 5 outflow sources, total H2 luminosities ranging from 0.02 to 0.75 L(solar) were inferred for the sum of the 8 lowest pure rotational transitions. By contrast, the much weaker [FeII] 26.0 micron fine structure transition traces faster, dissociative shocks; here, only a small fraction of the fast ...

  1. Observations of Extrasolar Planets During the non-Cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas; Knutson, Heather; Marengo, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Precision infrared photometry from Spitzer has enabled the first direct studies of light from extrasolar planets, via observations at secondary eclipse in transiting systems. Current Spitzer results include the first longitudinal temperature map of an extrasolar planet, and the first spectra of their atmospheres. Spitzer has also measured a temperature and precise radius for the first transiting Neptune-sized exoplanet, and is beginning to make precise transit timing measurements to infer the...

  2. NEOLegacy: The ultimate Spitzer survey of Near Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. NEOs are valuable tracers of the evolution of our Solar System, and are also key components of current and future space exploration. Finally, the study of NEOs is relevant for civil defense through understanding the impact threat. We propose here an efficient and comprehensive survey to measure the diameters, albedos, and lightcurves of 1154 NEOs. We include only targets that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 3000 NEOs -- more than 20% of all known objects. Our primary goal, in line with the planetary science priorities for Spitzer Cycle 13, is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. From this catalog we will calculate an independent estimate of the NEO size distribution, addressing a current controversy, and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We will increase by up to a factor of five the number of NEO lightcurves with relatively well known periods and amplitudes. The legacy value of this project is most evident in the fact that there will not ever in the foreseeable future be another opportunity to measure thousands of NEO diameters and carry out the type of science described above. Our online database will be the single most valuable resource of NEO diameters and albedos for years to come. Only Spitzer is sensitive and efficient enough to create such an important catalog of this scale. Our team has unmatched experience observing NEOs with Spitzer.

  3. Advanced optimal extraction for the Spitzer/IRS

    OpenAIRE

    Lebouteiller, V; Bernard-Salas, J.; Sloan, G. C.; Barry, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new advances in the spectral extraction of point-like sources adapted to the Infrared Spectrograph onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. For the first time, we created a super-sampled point spread function of the low-resolution modules. We describe how to use the point spread function to perform optimal extraction of a single source and of multiple sources within the slit. We also examine the case of the optimal extraction of one or several sources with a complex background. The new...

  4. Spitzer Science operations: the good, the bad, and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A.

    2008-07-01

    We review the Spitzer Space Telescope Science Center operations teams and processes and their interfaces with other Project elements -- what we planned early in the development of the science center, what we had at a launch and what we have now and why. We also explore the checks and balances behind building an organizational structure that supports constructive airing of conflicts and a timely resolution that balances the inputs and provides for very efficient on-orbit operations. For example, what organizational roles are involved in reviewing observing schedules, what constituency do they represent and who has authority to approve or disapprove the schedule.

  5. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-09-18

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors.

  6. SPITZER, GAIA, AND THE POTENTIAL OF THE MILKY WAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-future data from ESA's Gaia mission will provide precise, full phase-space information for hundreds of millions of stars out to heliocentric distances of ∼10 kpc. This ''horizon'' for full phase-space measurements is imposed by the Gaia parallax errors degrading to worse than 10%, and could be significantly extended by an accurate distance indicator. Recent work has demonstrated how Spitzer observations of RR Lyrae stars can be used to make distance estimates accurate to 2%, effectively extending the Gaia, precise-data horizon by a factor of 10 in distance and a factor of 1000 in volume. This Letter presents one approach to exploit data of such accuracy to measure the Galactic potential using small samples of stars associated with debris from satellite destruction. The method is tested with synthetic observations of 100 stars from the end point of a simulation of satellite destruction: the shape, orientation, and depth of the potential used in the simulation are recovered to within a few percent. The success of this simple test with such a small sample in a single debris stream suggests that constraints from multiple streams could be combined to examine the Galaxy's dark matter halo in even more detail—a truly unique opportunity that is enabled by the combination of Spitzer and Gaia with our intimate perspective on our own Galaxy

  7. Survey of Nearby FGK Stars at 160 microns with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, Angelle; Bryden, Geoff; Lisse, Carey; Lawler, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has advanced debris disk science tremendously with a wealth of information on debris disks around nearby A, F, G, K and M stars at 24 and 70 microns with the MIPS photometer and at 8-34 microns with IRS. Here we present 160 micron observations of a small sub-set of these stars. At this wavelength, the stellar photospheric emission is negligible and any detected emission corresponds to cold dust in extended Kuiper belt analogs. However, the Spitzer 160 micron observations are limited in sensitivity by the large beam size which results in significant ''noise'' due to cirrus and extragalactic confusion. In addition, the 160 micron measurements suffer from the added complication of a light leak next to the star's position whose flux is proportional to the near-infrared flux of the star. We are able to remove the contamination from the leak and report 160 micron measurements or upper limits for 24 stars. Three stars (HD 10647, HD 207129, and HD 115617) have excesses at 160 micron that w...

  8. Structure of the Zodiacal Emission by Spitzer Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebélyi, Erika

    2015-08-01

    Dust in the Interplanetary Dust Cloud not just reflects the sunlight (known as zodiacal light) but also has its own thermal emission. At the heliocentric distance of Earth the peak of this emission (with particle size 100 μm) is close to 20 μm. In this study we used the data of four programs completed with the MIPS camera of the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24 μm to probe the large scale brightness distribution as well as the small-scale (subarcmin) structure of the Zodiacal Could. The four programs were:1. The Production of Zodiacal Dust by Asteroids and Comets (ID: 2317)2. High Latitude Dust Bands in the Main Asteroid Belt: Fingerprints of Recent Breakup Events (ID: 20539)3. A New Source of Interplanetary Dust: Type II Dust Trails (ID: 30545)4. First Look Survey - Ecliptic Plane Component (ID: 98)We take into account that while the Spitzer Space Telescope carried out the measurements it was orbiting the Sun at an Earth-trailing orbit and looked at different parts of the Zodiacal Cloud, in many cases looking through the same parts of the cloud from different locations. This gives us the chance to investigate the 3D distribution of zodiacal dust in addition to its large and small scale structure.

  9. Spitzer Observations of Environmental Effects on Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kenney, Jeffrey D P; Abramson, Anne; Howell, Justin H; Murphy, Eric J; Helou, George X

    2008-01-01

    We present the initial results from SPITSOV, the Spitzer Survey of Virgo, which includes MIPS and IRAC observations for a carefully selected sample of 44 Virgo cluster spiral and peculiar galaxies. SPITSOV is part of a multiwavelength campaign to understand the effects of the cluster environment on galaxy evolution. These Virgo galaxies are different from galaxies outside of clusters, since most of them have been significantly modified by their environment. The SPITSOV data can serve the community as the Spitzer sample of nearby cluster spiral galaxies, a complement to the SINGS data for nearby non-cluster galaxies. In this paper we describe the sample, the goals of the study, and present preliminary results in 3 areas: 1) Evidence for ram pressure-induced disturbances in radio morphologies based on changes in the FIR-radio (70um-20cm) correlation; 2) Evidence for ram-pressure stripped extraplanar gas tails from comparisons of dust/PAH (8um) emission and optical dust extinction; 3) Evidence for unobscured sta...

  10. Completing the Legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Ivo; Caputi, Karina; McLeod, Derek; Cowley, Will; Dayal, Pratika; Behroozi, Peter; Ashby, Matt; Franx, Marijn; Dunlop, James; Le Fevre, Olivier; Fynbo, Johan; McCracken, Henry; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Ilbert, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; de Barros, Stephane; Oesch, Pascal; Bouwens, Rychard; Muzzin, Adam; Illingworth, Garth; Stefanon, Mauro; Schreiber, Corentin; Hutter, Anne; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    We propose to complete the legacy of Spitzer/IRAC over COSMOS by extending the deep coverage to the full 1.8 sq degree field, producing a nearly homogenous and contiguous map unparalleled in terms of area and depth. Ongoing and scheduled improvements in the supporting optical-to-NIR data down to ultradeep limits have reconfirmed COSMOS as a unique field for probing the bright end of the z=6-11 universe and the formation of large-scale structures. However, currently only one-third of the field has received sufficiently deep IRAC coverage to match the new optical/near-IR limits. Here we request deep matching IRAC data over the full 1.8 sq degree field to detect almost one million galaxies. The proposed observations will allow us to 1) constrain the galaxy stellar mass function during the epoch of reionization at z=6-8 with ~10,000 galaxies at these redshifts, 2) securely identify the brightest galaxies at 9 discoveries beyond these science goals owing to the unique array of multiwavelength data from the X-ray to the radio. COSMOS is a key target for ongoing and future studies with ALMA and for spectroscopy from the ground, and with the timely addition of the Spitzer Legacy it will prove to be a crucial treasury for efficient planning and early follow-up with JWST.

  11. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Hardy, Ryan A; Cubillos, Patricio E; Hardin, Matthew; Nymeyer, Sarah; Anderson, David R; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M S; Cameron, Andrew Collier

    2013-01-01

    WASP-43b (Hellier et al.; Gillon et al.) is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis a = 0.01526 +/- 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (K7V, Tstar = 4520 +/- 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of Teq = 1440 +/- 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. This has resulted in strong signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) observations and deep eclipses in both Warm Spitzer channels (3.6 and 4.5 microns). The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.346 +/- 0.013% and 1684 +/- 24 K at 3.6 microns and 0.382 +/- 0.015% and 1485 +/- 24 K at 4.5 microns. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347459 +/- 2.1x10-7 days) compared to Gillon et al. and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e = 0.007+0.013-0.004). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths with two previously reported ground-based ...

  12. Models for Temperature and Composition in Uranus from Spitzer, Herschel and Ground-Based Infrared through Millimeter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moreno, Raphel; Encrenaz, Therese; Hartogh, Paul; Jarchow, Christopher; Swinyard, Bruce; Cavalie, Thibault; Moses, Julianne; Burgdorf, Martin; Hammel, Heidi; Line, Michael; Mainzer, Amy K.; Hofstadter, Mark; Sandell, Goran H.; Dowell, C. Darren; Pantin, Eric; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2014-11-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of Uranus in the thermal infrared were combined to create self-consistent models of its global-mean temperature profile and vertical distribution of gases. These were derived from a suite of observations from Spitzer and Herschel, together with ground-based observations from UKIRT, CSO, Gemini, VLT and Subaru. Observations of the collision-induced absorption and quadrupoles of H2 have constrained the temperature structure for pressures of nearly 2 bars down to 0.1 millibars. We coupled the vertical distribution of CH4 in the stratosphere of Uranus with models for the vertical mixing in such a way to be consistent with the mixing ratios of hydrocarbons. Spitzer and Herschel data constrain the abundances of CH3, CH4, C2H2, C2H6, C3H4, C4H2, H2O and CO2. The Spitzer IRS data, in concert with photochemical models, show that the homopause is at much higher atmospheric pressures than for the other outer planets, with the predominant trace constituents for pressures lower than 30 µbar being H2O and CO2. The ratio of the oxygen-bearing molecules is consistent with exogenic origins in KBOs or comets. At millimeter wavelengths, there is evidence that an additional opacity source is required besides the H2 collision-induced absorption and the NH3 absorption needed to match the microwave spectrum; this can reasonably (but not uniquely) be attributed to H2S. This model is of ‘programmatic’ interest because it serves as a standard calibration source; the cross-comparison of its spectrum with model spectra for Mars and Neptune shows consistency to within 3%. Near equinox, the IRS spectra at different longitudes showed rotationally variable stratospheric emission that is consistent with a temperature anomaly ≤10 K near ~0.1-0.2 mbar. Spatial variability of tropospheric temperatures observed in ground-based observations from 2006 to 2011 is generally consistent with Voyager infrared (IRIS) results.

  13. Spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping as a probe of grain growth in IRDCs

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim & Tan (2014) developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using ${\\it Spitzer}$-MIPS ${\\rm 24\\mu m}$ and ${\\it Herschel}$-PACS ${\\rm 70\\mu m}$ images, and by comparing to MIR ${\\it Spitzer}$-IRAC $3$--${\\rm 8\\mu m}$ extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction (SIREX) mapping using ${\\it Spitzer}$-IRS (14 to ${\\rm 38\\mu m}$) data of the same IRDC. These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic ISM that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR-FIR opacity laws that lack the $\\sim{\\rm 12\\mu m}$ an...

  14. HST AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE HD 207129 DEBRIS RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A debris ring around the star HD 207129 (G0V; d = 16.0 pc) has been imaged in scattered visible light with the ACS coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in thermal emission using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope at λ = 70 μm (resolved) and 160 μm (unresolved). Spitzer IRS (λ = 7-35 μm) and MIPS (λ = 55-90 μm) spectrographs measured disk emission at λ> 28 μm. In the HST image the disk appears as a ∼30 AU wide ring with a mean radius of ∼163 AU and is inclined by 600 from pole-on. At 70 μm, it appears partially resolved and is elongated in the same direction and with nearly the same size as seen with HST in scattered light. At 0.6 μm, the ring shows no significant brightness asymmetry, implying little or no forward scattering by its constituent dust. With a mean surface brightness of V = 23.7 mag arcsec-2, it is the faintest disk imaged to date in scattered light. We model the ring's infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) using a dust population fixed at the location where HST detects the scattered light. The observed SED is well fit by this model, with no requirement for additional unseen debris zones. The firm constraint on the dust radial distance breaks the usual grain size-distance degeneracy that exists in modeling of spatially unresolved disks, and allows us to infer a minimum grain size of ∼2.8 μm and a dust size distribution power-law spectral index of -3.9. An albedo of ∼5% is inferred from the integrated brightness of the ring in scattered light. The low-albedo and isotropic scattering properties are inconsistent with Mie theory for astronomical silicates with the inferred grain size and show the need for further modeling using more complex grain shapes or compositions. Brightness limits are also presented for six other main-sequence stars with strong Spitzer excess around which HST detects no circumstellar nebulosity (HD 10472, HD 21997, HD 38206, HD 82943, HD 113556, and HD 138965).

  15. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY FROM THE SPITZER DEEP WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the multi-epoch, mid-infrared Spitzer Deep Wide-Field Survey to investigate the variability of objects in 8.1 deg2 of the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey Booetes field. We perform a Difference Image Analysis of the four available epochs between 2004 and 2008, focusing on the deeper 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. Out of 474, 179 analyzed sources, 1.1% meet our standard variability selection criteria that the two light curves are strongly correlated (r>0.8) and that their joint variance (σ12) exceeds that for all sources with the same magnitude by 2σ. We then examine the mid-IR colors of the variable sources and match them with X-ray sources from the XBooetes survey, radio catalogs, 24 μm selected active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). Based on their mid-IR colors, most of the variable sources are AGNs (76%), with smaller contributions from stars (11%), galaxies (6%), and unclassified objects, although most of the stellar, galaxy, and unclassified sources are false positives. For our standard selection criteria, 11%-12% of the mid-IR counterparts to X-ray sources, 24 μm AGN candidates, and spectroscopically identified AGNs show variability. The exact fractions depend on both the search depth and the selection criteria. For example, 12% of the 1131 known z>1 AGNs in the field and 14%-17% of the known AGNs with well-measured fluxes in all four Infrared Array Camera bands meet our standard selection criteria. The mid-IR AGN variability can be well described by a single power-law structure function with an index of γ ∼ 0.5 at both 3.6 and 4.5 μm, and an amplitude of S 0 ≅ 0.1 mag on rest-frame timescales of 2 yr. The variability amplitude is higher for shorter rest-frame wavelengths and lower luminosities.

  16. Ultradeep Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy in the GOODS Southern Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Armus, L.; Chary, R.; Colbert, J. W.; Frayer, D.; Desai, V.; Blain, A.; Spoon, H.; Charmandaris, V.; Pope, A.; Scott, D.

    2005-12-01

    We present the deepest spectra taken to date by the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint ( ˜ 0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field, at z=1.09 and z=2.69, as likely star-forming galaxies. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in 8-21 micron range (short-low first order and long-low second order), while the higher redshift target was observed from 21-37 microns (long-low first order). Observing times were 3 and 9 hours on-source for SL-1 and LL-2, respectively, and 12 hours for LL-1. We detect strong PAH emission in both targets. We compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS.

  17. A Spitzer Spectrum of the Exoplanet HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Grillmair, C J; Burrows, A; Armus, L; Stauffer, J; Meadows, V; van Cleve, J; Levine, D

    2007-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the 7.5-14.7 micron spectrum for the transiting extrasolar giant planet HD 189733b using the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Though the observations comprise only 12 hours of telescope time, the continuum is well measured and has a flux ranging from 0.6 mJy to 1.8 mJy over the wavelength range, or 0.49 +/- 0.02% of the flux of the parent star. The variation in the measured fractional flux is very nearly flat over the entire wavelength range and shows no indication of significant absorption by water or methane, in contrast with the predictions of most atmospheric models. Models with strong day/night differences appear to be disfavored by the data, suggesting that heat redistribution to the night side of the planet is highly efficient.

  18. Spitzer Observatory Operations -- Increasing Efficiency in Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles P.; Kahr, Bolinda E.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the how's and why's of the Spitzer Mission Operations System's (MOS) success, efficiency, and affordability in comparison to other observatory-class missions. MOS exploits today's flight, ground, and operations capabilities, embraces automation, and balances both risk and cost. With operational efficiency as the primary goal, MOS maintains a strong control process by translating lessons learned into efficiency improvements, thereby enabling the MOS processes, teams, and procedures to rapidly evolve from concept (through thorough validation) into in-flight implementation. Operational teaming, planning, and execution are designed to enable re-use. Mission changes, unforeseen events, and continuous improvement have often times forced us to learn to fly anew. Collaborative spacecraft operations and remote science and instrument teams have become well integrated, and worked together to improve and optimize each human, machine, and software-system element.

  19. Spitzer Observations of Exoplanets Discovered with The Kepler K2 Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Beichman, Charles; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Krick, Jessica; Deck, Katherine; Knutson, Heather; Wong, Ian; Petigura, Erik A; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Greene, Thomas P; Schlieder, Joshua E; Line, Mike; Crossfield, Ian; Howard, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-01-01

    We have used the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} to observe two transiting planetary systems orbiting low mass stars discovered in the \\Kepler \\Ktwo mission. The system K2-3 (EPIC 201367065) hosts three planets while EPIC 202083828 (K2-26) hosts a single planet. Observations of all four objects in these two systems confirm and refine the orbital and physical parameters of the planets. The refined orbital information and more precise planet radii possible with \\Spitzer will be critical for future observations of these and other \\Ktwo targets. For K2-3b we find marginally significant evidence for a Transit Timing Variation between the \\Ktwo and \\Spitzer\\ epochs.

  20. The Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S3MC): Insights into the Life-Cycle of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, Karin M; Draine, Bruce; Bot, Caroline; Stanimirovic, Snezana

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of modeling dust SEDs across the SMC with the aim of mapping the distribution of PAHs in a low-metallicity environment. Using Spitzer Survey of the SMC (S3MC) photometry from 3.6-160 um over the main star-forming regions of the Wing and Bar along with spectral mapping from 5-38 um from the Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (S4MC) in selected regions, we model the dust SED and emission spectrum to determine the fraction of dust in PAHs across the SMC. We use the regions of overlapping photometry and spectroscopy to test the reliability of the PAH fraction as determined from SED fits alone. The PAH fraction in the SMC is low compared to the Milky Way and variable--with relatively high fractions (q_PAH~1-2%) in molecular clouds and low fractions in the diffuse ISM (=0.6%). We use the map of PAH fraction across the SMC to test a number of ideas regarding the production, destruction and processing of PAHs in the ISM. We find weak or no correlation between the PAH fraction and the distr...

  1. Observation of the full 12-hour-long transit of the exoplanet HD80606b. Warm-Spitzer photometry and SOPHIE spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hebrard, G; Diaz, R F; Boisse, I; Bouchy, F; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Moutou, C; Ehrenreich, D; Arnold, L; Bonfils, X; Delfosse, X; Desort, M; Eggenberger, A; Forveille, T; Gregorio, J; Lagrange, A -M; Lovis, C; Pepe, F; Perrier, C; Pont, F; Queloz, D; Santerne, A; Santos, N C; Segransan, D; Sing, D K; Udry, S; Vidal-Madjar, A

    2010-01-01

    We present new observations of a transit of the 111-day-period exoplanet HD80606b. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope and its IRAC camera on the post-cryogenic mission, we performed a 19-hour-long photometric observation of HD80606 that covers the full transit of 13-14 January 2010. We complement this photometric data by new spectroscopic observations that we simultaneously performed with SOPHIE at Haute-Provence Observatory. This provides radial velocity measurements of the first half of the transit that was previously uncovered with spectroscopy. This new data set allows the parameters of this singular planetary system to be significantly refined. We obtained a planet-to-star radius ratio R_p/R_* = 0.1001 +/- 0.0006 that is slightly lower than the one measured from previous ground observations. We detected a feature in the Spitzer light curve that could be due to a stellar spot. We also found a transit timing about 20 minutes earlier than the ephemeris prediction; this could be caused by actual TTVs due to a...

  2. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: The life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Point source classification I

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Paul M; Kemper, F; van Loon, J Th; Sargent, B A; Matsuura, M; Szczerba, R; Volk, K; Zijlstra, A A; Sloan, G C; Lagadec, E; McDonald, I; Jones, O; Gorjian, V; Kraemer, K E; Gielen, C; Meixner, M; Blum, R D; Sewi\\lo, M; Riebel, D; Shiao, B; Chen, C -H R; Boyer, M L; Indebetouw, R; Antoniou, V; Bernard, J -P; Cohen, M; Dijkstra, C; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gordon, Karl D; Harris, J; Hony, S; Hora, J L; Kawamura, A; Lawton, B; Leisenring, J M; Madden, S; Marengo, M; McGuire, C; Mulia, A J; O'Halloran, B; Olsen, K; Paladini, R; Paradis, D; Reach, W T; Rubin, D; Sandstrom, K; Soszyński, I; Speck, A K; Srinivasan, S; Tielens, A G G M; van Aarle, E; Van Dyk, S D; Van Winckel, H; Vijh, Uma P; Whitney, B; Wilkins, A N

    2010-01-01

    We present the classification of 197 point sources observed with the Infrared Spectrograph in the SAGE-Spec Legacy program on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We introduce a decision-tree method of object classification based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership, and variability information, which is used to classify the SAGE-Spec sample of point sources. The decision tree has a broad application to mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys, where supporting photometry and variability information are available. We use these classifications to make deductions about the stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the success of photometric classification methods. We find 90 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 29 young stellar objects, 23 post-AGB objects, 19 red supergiants, eight stellar photospheres, seven background galaxies, seven planetary nebulae, two HII regions and 12 other objects, seven of which remain unclassified.

  3. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy programme: the life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud - Point source classification I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Kemper, F.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sargent, B. A.; Matsuura, M.; Szczerba, R.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O.; Gorjian, V.; Kraemer, K. E.; Gielen, C.; Meixner, M.; Blum, R. D.; Sewiło, M.; Riebel, D.; Shiao, B.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Boyer, M. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Antoniou, V.; Bernard, J.-P.; Cohen, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Harris, J.; Hony, S.; Hora, J. L.; Kawamura, A.; Lawton, B.; Leisenring, J. M.; Madden, S.; Marengo, M.; McGuire, C.; Mulia, A. J.; O'Halloran, B.; Olsen, K.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Reach, W. T.; Rubin, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Soszyński, I.; Speck, A. K.; Srinivasan, S.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Aarle, E.; van Dyk, S. D.; van Winckel, H.; Vijh, Uma P.; Whitney, B.; Wilkins, A. N.

    2011-03-01

    We present the classification of 197 point sources observed with the Infrared Spectrograph in the SAGE-Spec Legacy programme on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We introduce a decision-tree method of object classification based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information, which is used to classify the SAGE-Spec sample of point sources. The decision tree has a broad application to mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys, where supporting photometry and variability information are available. We use these classifications to make deductions about the stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the success of photometric classification methods. We find 90 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 29 young stellar objects, 23 post-AGB objects, 19 red supergiants, eight stellar photospheres, seven background galaxies, seven planetary nebulae, two H II regions and 12 other objects, seven of which remain unclassified.

  4. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J.E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Martins, R. Vieira; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Lim, L.; Reichart, D.; Ivarsen, K.; Haislip, J.

    2016-01-01

    Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each o...

  5. Power Spectrum Analysis of Far-IR Background Fluctuations in Spitzer Maps at 160 Microns

    OpenAIRE

    Grossan, Bruce; Smoot, George F.

    2005-01-01

    We describe data reduction and analysis of fluctuations in the Cosmic Far-IR Background (CFIB) in large maps observed with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) instrument 160 micron detectors. We analyzed the extragalactic First Look Survey (FLS) and the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) Lockman Hole observations, the latter being the largest low-cirrus mapping observation available. In the Lockman Hole map, we measured the power spectrum of the CFIB by fi...

  6. Spitzer observations of two mission-accessible, tiny asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Hora, J.; Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Trilling, D.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A.; Smith, H.; Fazio, G.

    2014-07-01

    Small asteroids are most likely collisional fragments of larger objects and make up a large fraction of the near-Earth-object (NEO) population. Despite their abundance, little is known about the physical properties of these objects, which is mainly due to their faintness, which also impedes their discovery. We report on Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two small NEOs, both of which are of interest as potential spacecraft targets. We observed NEOs 2009 BD using 25 hrs and 2011 MD using ˜20 hrs of Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Channel 2 time. For each target, we have combined the data into maps in the moving frame of the target, minimizing the background confusion. We did not detect 2009 BD and place an upper limit on its flux density, but we detected 2011 MD as a 2.2σ detection. We have analyzed the data on both objects in a combined model approach, using an asteroid thermophysical model and a model of non-gravitational forces acting on the object. As a result, we are able to constrain the physical properties of both objects. In the case of 2009 BD (Mommert et al. 2014), a wealth of existing astrometry data significantly constrains the physical properties of the object. We find two physically possible solutions. The first solution shows 2009 BD as a 2.9±0.3 m-sized massive rock body (bulk density ρ=2.9±0.5 g cm^{-3}) with an extremely high albedo of 0.85_{-0.10}^{+0.20} that is covered with regolith-like material, causing it to exhibit a low thermal inertia (thermal inertia Γ=30_{-10}^{+20} SI units). The second solution suggests 2009 BD to be a 4±1 m-sized asteroid with p_{V}=0.45_{-0.15}^{+0.35} that consists of a collection of individual bare rock slabs (Γ = 2000±1000 SI units, ρ = 1.7_{-0.4}^{+0.7} g cm^{-3}). We are unable to rule out either solution based on physical reasoning. The preliminary analysis of 2011 MD shows this object as a ˜6 m-sized asteroid with an albedo of ˜0.3. Additional constraints on the physical properties of these

  7. The Brightest Galaxies at Cosmic Dawn: Securing the Largest Samples of z=9-11 galaxies for JWST by leveraging the HST archive with Spitzer/IRAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Trenti, Michele; Calvi, Valentina; Bernard, Stephanie; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal; Coe, Dan; Holwerda, Benne; Bradley, Larry; Mason, Charlotte; Schmidt, Kasper; Illingworth, Garth

    2015-10-01

    Hubble's WFC3 has been a game changer for studying early galaxy formation in the first 700 Myr after the Big Bang. Reliable samples of sources up to z~10, which can be discovered only from space, are now constraining the evolution of the galaxy luminosity function into the epoch of reionization. Despite these efforts, the size of the highest redshift galaxy samples (z >9 and especially z > 10) is still very small, particularly at high luminosities (L > L*). To deliver transformational results, much larger numbers of bright z > 9 galaxies are needed both to map out the bright end of the luminosity/mass function and for spectroscopic follow-up (with JWST and otherwise). One especially efficient way of expanding current samples is (1) to leverage the huge amounts of pure-parallel data available with HST to identify large numbers of candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies and (2) to follow up each candidate with shallow Spitzer/IRAC observations to distinguish the bona- fide z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies from z ~ 2 old, dusty galaxies. For this program we are requesting shallow Spitzer/IRAC follow-up of 20 candidate z ~ 9 - 11 galaxies we have identified from 130 WFC3/IR pointings obtained from more than 4 separate HST programs with no existing IRAC coverage. Based on our previous CANDELS/GOODS searches, we expect to confirm 5 to 10 sources as L > L* galaxies at z >= 9. Our results will be used to constrain the bright end of the LF at z >= 9, to provide targets for Keck spectroscopy to constrain the ionization state of the z > 8 universe, and to furnish JWST with bright targets for spectroscopic follow-up studies.

  8. SPITZER, VERY LARGE TELESCOPE, AND VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mid-IR and radio observations of the Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) candidate HD 168625 and its associated nebula. We obtained mid-IR spectroscopic observations using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, and performed mid-IR and radio imaging observations using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope and the Very Large Array with comparable angular resolution. Our spectroscopic observations detected spectral features attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and therefore indicate the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) around the ionized nebula. This result increases the number of LBVs and LBV candidates where a PDR has been found, confirming the importance of such a component in the total mass-loss budget of the central object during this elusive phase of massive star evolution. We have analyzed and compared the mid-IR and radio maps, and derive several results concerning the associated nebula. There is evidence for grain distribution variations across the nebula, with a predominant contribution from bigger grains in the northern part of the nebula while PAH and smaller grains are more concentrated in the southern part. A compact radio component located where there is a lack of thermal dust grains corroborates the presence of a shock in the southern nebula, which could arise as a consequence of the interaction of a fast outflow with the slower, expanding dusty nebula. Such a shock would be a viable means for PAH production as well as for changes in the grain size distribution. Finally, from the detection of a central radio component probably associated with the wind from the central massive supergiant, we derive a current mass-loss rate of M-dot =(1.46±0.15)x10-6 Msun yr-1.

  9. Spitzer IRAC identification of Herschel-ATLAS SPIRE sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sam; Cooray, Asantha; Fleuren, S; Sutherland, W; Khostovan, A A; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bussmann, R S; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Clements, D; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Fritz, J; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Jarvis, M; Maddox, S; Michałowski, M J; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Rigby, E; Scott, D; Smith, D J B; Temi, P; van der Werf, P

    2011-01-01

    We use Spitzer-IRAC data to identify near-infrared counterparts to submillimeter galaxies detected with Herschel-SPIRE at 250 um in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). The IRAC catalogs cover ~ 0.4 deg^2 of the H-ATLAS Science Demonstration Phase field, and are 50% complete to 22.5 and 22.2 mag at 3.6 and 4.5 um, respectively. Using a likelihood ratio analysis that accounts for the separation of SPIRE and IRAC centroids, and the difference in the magnitude distribution of SPIRE counterparts and background IRAC sources, we identify reliable counterparts to 123 SPIRE sources out of the 159 in the IRAC coverage area. We find that, compared to the field population, the SPIRE counterparts occupy a distinct region of 3.6 and 4.5 um color-magnitude space, and we use this property to identify a further 23 counterparts to 13 SPIRE sources. The IRAC identification rate of 86% is significantly higher than has been demonstrated with wide-field ground-based optical and near-IR imaging of Hers...

  10. Spitzer Transit and Secondary Eclipse Photometry of GJ 436b

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Laughlin, Gregory; Seager, Sara; Navarro, Sarah B; Bowman, William C; Horning, Karen

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of infrared (8 micron) transit and secondary eclipse photometry of the hot Neptune exoplanet, GJ436b using Spitzer. The nearly photon-limited precision of these data allow us to measure an improved radius for the planet, and to detect the secondary eclipse. The transit (centered at HJD = 2454280.78149 +/-0.00016) shows the flat-bottomed shape typical of infrared transits, and it precisely defines the planet-to-star radius ratio (0.0839 +/-0.0005), independent of the stellar properties. However, we obtain the planetary radius, as well as the stellar mass and radius, by fitting to the transit curve simultaneously with an empirical mass-radius relation for M-dwarfs (M=R). We find Rs=Ms=0.47 +/-0.02 in solar units, and Rp=27,600 +/-1170 km (4.33 +/-0.18 Earth radii). This radius significantly exceeds the radius of a naked ocean planet, and requires a gasesous hydrogen-helium envelope. The secondary eclipse occurs at phase 0.587 +/-0.005, proving a significant orbital eccentricity (e=0.15 +/-...

  11. SPITZER SAGE Observations of Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, J L; Ellis, R G; Meixner, M; Blum, R D; Latter, W B; Whitney, B A; Meade, M R; Indebetouw, R; Gordon, K; For, B -Q; Block, M; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C

    2007-01-01

    We present IRAC and MIPS images and photometry of a sample of previously known planetary nebulae (PNe) from the SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the 233 known PNe in the survey field, 185 objects were detected in at least two of the IRAC bands, and 161 detected in the MIPS 24 micron images. Color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented using several combinations of IRAC, MIPS, and 2MASS magnitudes. The location of an individual PN in the color-color diagrams is seen to depend on the relative contributions of the spectral components which include molecular hydrogen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), infrared forbidden line emission from the ionized gas, warm dust continuum, and emission directly from the central star. The sample of LMC PNe is compared to a number of Galactic PNe and found to not significantly differ in their position in color-color space. We also explore the potential value of IR PNe luminosity functions (LFs) in the...

  12. Spitzer Observations of two TW Hydrae Association Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Riaz, B; Hmiel, A; Riaz, Basmah; Gizis, John E.; Hmiel, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two TW Hydrae Association brown dwarfs, 2MASSW J1207334-393254 and 2MASSW J1139511-315921, in the IRAC and MIPS 24 micron bands. Based on their IRAC colors, we have classified them as Classical and Weak-line T Tauri stars, respectively. For 2MASSW J1207334-393254, we have found that a flat disk model fits the data very well. This brown dwarf shows the presence of warm (T > 100 K) circumstellar dust close (R < 0.2 AU) to it, and does not display any signs of cleansing of dust within several AU of the star. In comparison with other TWA members that show excess in IR, we suggest that there exists a different disk evolution/dust processing mechanism for stellar and sub-stellar objects. 2MASSW J1139511-315921 does not show any significant excess in any of the IRAC bands, but a small one at 24 micron, which is not significant enough to suggest the presence of warm dust around this star. It shows signs of dust cleansing in the inner several AU, similar to most of...

  13. Eclipsing Binary Trojan Asteroid Patroclus: Thermal Inertia from Spitzer Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Michael; Emery, Joshua P; Harris, Alan W; Mottola, Stefano; Hestroffer, Daniel; Berthier, Jerome; di Martino, Mario

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (8-33 micron) observations of the binary L5-Trojan system (617) Patroclus-Menoetius before, during, and after two shadowing events, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope.F or the first time, we effectively observe changes in asteroid surface temperature in real time, allowing the thermal inertia to be determined very directly. A new detailed binary thermophysical model is presented which accounts for the system's known mutual orbit, arbitrary component shapes, and thermal conduction in the presence of eclipses. We obtain two local thermal-inertia values, representative of the respective shadowed areas: 21+/14 MKS and 6.4+/-1.6 MKS. The average thermal inertia is estimated to be 20+/-15 MKS, potentially with significant surface heterogeneity. This first thermal-inertia measurement for a Trojan asteroid indicates a surface covered in fine regolith. The diameters of Patroclus and Menoetius are 106 +/- 11 and 98+/-10 km, respectively, in agreement with ...

  14. Spitzer's Last Look at the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Greg; Kraemer, Kathleen; Kraemer, K. E.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Gordon, K. D.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boyer, M. L.; Groenewegen, M.; Jones, O. C.; Kemper, F.; Lloyd, J. P.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Srinivasan, S.; van Loon, J. Th.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We will map 30 square degrees of sky covering the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Bridge toward the LMC at 3.6 and 4.5 um, in two epochs in late 2017. Coupled with similar maps obtained in 2008 and surveys in the core of the SMC starting in 2005, the new epochs will give us a temporal baseline of 12 years in the heart of the SMC and 9 years in its outer regions. The Spitzer observations probe deeper than WISE and at higher resolution, allowing us to study fainter sources and sources in more crowded regions in this nearby metal-poor dwarf galaxy. We will use these data to better characterize how variability and dust production are intertwined in the final evolutionary stages of a star's lifetime. The long temporal baseline also enables searches for brown dwarfs near the Sun which are undetectable with Gaia or WISE, and the crowded background formed by the SMC makes any newly discovered brown dwarfs excellent candidates for microlensing studies which would reveal their masses. The long baseline may also reveal transients in star-forming regions in the SMC and in the population of background galaxies. We request 172.1 hours, with no proprietary period, to complete this project.

  15. LBT and Spitzer Spectroscopy of Star-Forming Galaxies at 1 < z < 3: Extinction and Star Formation Rate Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, W; Papovich, C J; Weiner, B J; Rigby, J R; Rex, M; Bian, F; Kuhn, O P; Thompson, D

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 < z < 3 from the LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope and the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. The sample was selected to represent pure, actively star-forming systems, absent of active galactic nuclei. The large lensing magnifications result in high signal-to-noise spectra that can probe faint IR recombination lines, including Pa-alpha and Br-alpha at high redshifts. The sample was augmented by three lensed galaxies with similar suites of unpublished data and observations from the literature, resulting in the final sample of seven galaxies. We use the IR recombination lines in conjunction with H-alpha observations to probe the extinction, Av, of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photomet...

  16. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. II-the demographics and cosmic evolution of the AGN population

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, Mark; Sajina, Anna; Petric, Andreea O; Gates, Elinor L; Urrutia, Tanya; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    We present luminosity functions derived from a spectroscopic survey of AGN selected from Spitzer Space Telescope imaging surveys. Selection in the mid-infrared is significantly less affected by dust obscuration. We can thus compare the luminosity functions of the obscured and unobscured AGN in a more reliable fashion than by using optical or X-ray data alone. We find that the AGN luminosity function can be well described by a broken power-law model in which the break luminosity decreases with redshift. At high redshifts ($z>1.6$), we find significantly more AGN at a given bolometric luminosity than found by either optical quasar surveys or hard X-ray surveys. The fraction of obscured AGN decreases rapidly with increasing AGN luminosity, but, at least at high redshifts, appears to remain at $\\approx 50$\\% even at bolometric luminosities $\\sim 10^{14}L_{\\odot}$. The data support a picture in which the obscured and unobscured populations evolve differently, with some evidence that high luminosity obscured quasar...

  17. A Spitzer mid-infrared spectral survey of mass-losing carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Cioni, M R L; Feast, M W; Groenewegen, M A T; Habing, H J; Hony, S; Lagadec, E; Loup, C; Matsuura, M; Menzies, J W; Sloan, G C; Van Loon, J T; Waters, L B F M; Whitelock, P A; Wood, P R; Lagadec, Eric; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Matsuura, Mikako; Wood, Peter R.; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic survey of mass-losing carbon stars (and one oxygen-rich star) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra cover the wavelength range 5--38 micron. They show varying combinations of dust continuum, dust emission features (SiC, MgS) and molecular absorption bands (C2H2, HCN). A set of four narrow bands, dubbed the Manchester system, is used to define the infrared continuum for dusty carbon stars. The relations between the continuum colours and the strength of the dust and molecular features are studied, and are compared to Galactic stars of similar colours. The circumstellar 7-micron C2H2 band is found to be stronger at lower metallicity, from a comparison of stars in the Galaxy, the LMC and the SMC. This is explained by dredge-up of carbon, causing higher C/O ratios at low metallicity (less O). A possible 10-micron absorption feature seen in our spectra may be due to C3. This band has also been identified with interstellar silicate or silicon-nitrite dust. The ...

  18. Spitzer Infrared Observations and Independent Validation of the Transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7b

    CERN Document Server

    Fressin, Francois; Pont, Frederic; Knutson, Heather A; Charbonneau, David; Mazeh, Tsevi; Aigrain, Suzanne; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henze, Christopher E; Guillot, Tristan; Rauer, Heike

    2011-01-01

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability, and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet - and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed - have been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery, using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b with Spitzer, in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT ...

  19. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  20. AEGIS: A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF SPITZER POWER-LAW GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes a sample of 489 Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) sources in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS), whose spectral energy distributions fit a red power law (PL) from 3.6 to 8.0 μm. The median redshift for sources with known redshifts is (z) = 1.6. Though all or nearly all of the sample galaxies are likely to be active galactic nuclei (AGNs), only 33% were detected in the EGS X-ray survey (AEGIS-X) using 200 ks Chandra observations. The detected sources are X-ray luminous with L X>1043 erg s-1 and moderately to heavily obscured with N H>1022 cm-2. Stacking the X-ray-undetected sample members yields a statistically significant X-ray signal, suggesting that they are on average more distant or more obscured than sources with X-ray detections. The ratio of X-ray to mid-infrared fluxes suggests that a substantial fraction of the sources undetected in X-rays are obscured at the Compton-thick level, in contrast to the X-ray-detected sources, all of which appear to be Compton thin. For the X-ray-detected PL sources with redshifts, an X-ray luminosity L X ∼ 1044 erg s-1 marks a transition between low-luminosity, blue sources dominated by the host galaxy to high-luminosity, red PL sources dominated by nuclear activity. X-ray-to-optical ratios, infrared variability, and 24 μm properties of the sample are consistent with the identification of infrared PL sources as active nuclei, but a rough estimate is that only 22% of AGNs are selected by the PL criteria. Comparison of the PL selection technique and various IRAC color criteria for identifying AGNs confirms that high-redshift samples selected via simple IRAC colors may be heavily contaminated by starlight-dominated objects.

  1. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  2. Spitzer Observations of Exoplanets Discovered with the Kepler K2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles; Livingston, John; Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Krick, Jessica; Deck, Katherine; Knutson, Heather; Wong, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Greene, Thomas P.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Line, Mike; Crossfield, Ian; Howard, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe two transiting planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars discovered in the Kepler K2 mission. The system K2-3 (EPIC 201367065) hosts three planets, while K2-26 (EPIC 202083828) hosts a single planet. Observations of all four objects in these two systems confirm and refine the orbital and physical parameters of the planets. The refined orbital information and more precise planet radii possible with Spitzer will be critical for future observations of these and other K2 targets. For K2-3b we find marginally significant evidence for a transit timing variation between the K2 and Spitzer epochs.

  3. The IC 5146 star forming complex and its surroundings with 2MASS, WISE and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, N A; Bica, E

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the last decade sensitive infrared observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope significantly increased the known population of YSOs associated with nearby molecular clouds. With such a census recent studies have characterized pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and determined parame- ters from different wavelengths. Given the restricted Spitzer coverage of some of these clouds, relative to their extended regions, these YSO populations may represent a limited view of star formation in these regions. We are taking advantage of mid-infrared observations from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which provides an all sky view and therefore full coverage of the nearby clouds, to assess the degree to which their currently known YSO population may be representative of a more complete population. We extend the well established classification method of the Spitzer Legacy teams to archived WISE observations. We have adopted 2MASS photometry as a standard catalogue for comparisons. Besides ...

  4. The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and IRAC Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Martinez, J; Bartlett, J G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Crawford, T M; Dey, A; Dressler, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Galametz, A; Jannuzi, B T; Marrone, D P; Mei, S; Muzzin, A; Pacaud, F; Pierre, M; Stern, D; Vieira, J D

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs...

  5. The Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer I: the redshift catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Rupke, David S N; Barry, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers on the Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS). In this work we describe the identification of optical counterparts of the infrared sources detected in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations, and the acquisition and validation of redshifts. The IDEOS sample includes all the spectra from the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) of galaxies beyond the Local Group. Optical counterparts were identified from correlation of the extraction coordinates with the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). To confirm the optical association and validate NED redshifts, we measure redshifts with unprecedented accuracy on the IRS spectra ({\\sigma}(dz/(1+z))=0.0011) by using an improved version of the maximum combined pseudo-likelihood method (MCPL). We perform a multi-stage verification of redshifts that considers alternate NED redshifts, the MCPL redshift, and visual inspection of the IRS spectrum. The statistics is as follows: the IDEOS sample...

  6. Investigating the long-lived clouds of early L dwarfs with Spitzer and K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizis, John; Lowrance, Patrick; Paudel, Rishi

    2016-08-01

    We propose to monitor two bright L0 dwarfs with Spitzer. Unlike cooler brown dwarfs whose clouds evolve on timescales of hours and days, the best studied L1 dwarf star has a cloud feature that lasted for over two years. This discovery was enabled by Kepler optical photometry combined with Spitzer mid-infrared photometry. The upcoming K2 Campaign 10 happens to include two bright L0 dwarfs, and they will repeated in K2 Campaign 17, providing two uniquely accurate optical light curves that sample timescales from minutes to years. By probing higher altitudes in the L dwarf atmospheres, the Spitzer IRAC photometry would enable us to test whether the optical variability in these two objects also come from long-lived clouds. This would establish whether the Kepler field L1 dwarf is a fluke or whether the weather and cloud lifetimes in warm (~2300K) atmospheres are qualititatively different than in cooler brown dwarfs.

  7. SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND INDEPENDENT VALIDATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH CoRoT-7 b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet—and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed—has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 ± 0.115 mmag at 4.5 μm, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 ± 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 μm did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 μm observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information. Our Spitzer

  8. IRSFRINGE: Interactive tool for fringe removal from Spitzer IRS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    IRS Team at Cornell University

    2016-02-01

    IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).

  9. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  10. The Veritas and Themis asteroid families: 5-14 μm spectra with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Zoe A.; Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto; Ziffer, Julie; Prá, Mario de; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of primitive asteroid families constrain family evolution and composition and conditions in the solar nebula, and reveal information about past and present distributions of volatiles in the solar system. Visible and near-infrared studies of primitive asteroid families have shown spectral diversity between and within families. Here, we aim to better understand the composition and physical properties of two primitive families with vastly different ages: ancient Themis (˜2.5 Gyr) and young Veritas (˜8 Myr). We analyzed the 5 - 14 μm Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of 11 Themis-family asteroids, including eight previously studied by Licandro et al. (2012), and nine Veritas-family asteroids, for a total of 20 asteroids in our sample. We detect a broad 10-μm emission feature, attributed to fine-grained and/or porous silicate regolith, in all 11 Themis-family spectra and six of nine Veritas-family asteroids, with 10-μm spectral contrast ranging from 1% ± 0.1% to 8.5% ± 0.9%. We used thermal modeling to derive diameters, beaming parameters and albedos for our sample. Asteroids in both families have beaming parameters near unity and geometric albedos in the range 0.03 - 0.14. Spectral contrast of the 10-μm silicate emission feature is correlated with beaming parameter and rotation period in the Themis family, and may be related to near-infrared spectral slope for both families. We see no correlations of 10-μm emission with diameter or albedo for either family. Comparison with laboratory spectra of primitive meteorites suggests these asteroids are similar to meteorites with relatively low abundances of phyllosilicates. Overall, our results suggest the Themis and Veritas families are primitive asteroids with variation in composition and/or regolith properties within both families.

  11. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create

  12. DUST EVOLUTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS AROUND HERBIG Ae/Be STARS-THE SPITZER VIEW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhasz, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  13. Waters, dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around herbig ae/be stars—the spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhász, A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Acke, B.; Van Den Ancker, M.; Meeus, G.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  14. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars—the Spitzer view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Juhász; J. Bouwman; T. Henning; B. Acke; M.E. van den Ancker; G. Meeus; C. Dominik; M. Min; A.G.G.M. Tielens; L.B.F.M. Waters

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validi

  15. The Accuracy of the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo', M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with IRAC as part of our on-going (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ("ExploreNEOs"), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall a

  16. Spitzer to the Rescue! Improved Ephemerides Preserve K2 Planets for Future Studies With JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Werner, Michael W.; Beichman, Charles A.; Benneke, Björn; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Gorjian, Varoujan; Knutson, Heather; Krick, Jessica; Livingston, John H.; Petigura, Erik; Spitzer/K2 Study Team

    2016-06-01

    The NASA K2 mission has detected hundreds of planet candidates, including dozens of tantalizing targets for future atmospheric characterization with the James Webb Space Telescope. However, the future transit windows for the longest period planet candidates are poorly constrained because these planets transit only a few times during a 70-80 day K2 observing campaign. We are reducing the uncertainties in the transit times of these planets by conducting follow-up transit observations with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. In addition to reducing the typical timing uncertainty by a factor of five, our Spitzer/IRAC observations allow us to place coarse limits on possible color-dependent differences in transit depth. I will discuss our target selection process and present the results of our ongoing 450-hr Spitzer program. We have already observed 26 transit opportunities of 21 planets and we have an additional three stars scheduled for observation this spring.This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  17. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of Large Magellanic Cloud planetary nebula SMP 83

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J; Houck, [No Value; Morris, PW; Sloan, GC; Pottasch, [No Value; Barry, DJ

    2004-01-01

    The first observations of the infrared spectrum of the LMC planetary nebula SMP 83 as observed by the recently launched Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. The high-resolution (R similar to 600) spectrum shows strong emission lines but no significant continuum. The infrared fine-structure lines a

  18. Impact Summary: The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuck, Timothy; Pompea, S.; Rebull, L.; Gorjian, V.; Howell, S.; Johnson, C.; Kennedy, S.; Thomas, B.; Walentosky, M.; Wheeler, S.; Spitzer Teacher Program Team

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students was a four-year joint project between the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) that concluded in 2009. Through the program, teams of teachers and students were provided with unique opportunities to observe with the Spitzer Space Telescope and work with Spitzer and NOAO scientists. This study finds evidence of significant success. From the eleven major research projects sponsored by the program, 31 scientific posters have been presented, and a number of scientific papers have been published. Records indicate there have been nearly 100 newspaper, radio, and TV reports, and numerous Internet articles reporting on various aspects of teacher and student involvement in the project, and over 100 students feel the program has influenced them to pursue careers in science. This highly successful program has now become the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP), with funding from the NASA ADP program and the archives at IPAC.

  19. Spectroscopically Unlocking Exoplanet Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nikole

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopy plays a critical role in a number of areas of exoplanet research. The first exoplanets were detected by precisely measuring Doppler shifts in high resolution (R ~ 100,000) stellar spectra, a technique that has become known as the Radial Velocity (RV) method. The RV method provides critical constraints on exoplanet masses, but is currently limited to some degree by robust line shape predictions. Beyond the RV method, spectroscopy plays a critical role in the characterization of exoplanets beyond their mass and radius. The Hubble Space Telescope has spectroscopically observed the atmospheres of exoplanets that transit their host stars as seen from Earth giving us key insights into atmospheric abundances of key atomic and molecular species as well as cloud optical properties. Similar spectroscopic characterization of exoplanet atmospheres will be carried out at higher resolution (R ~ 100-3000) and with broader wavelength coverage with the James Webb Space Telescope. Future missions such as WFIRST that seek to the pave the way toward the detection and characterization of potentially habitable planets will have the capability of directly measuring the spectra of exoplanet atmospheres and potentially surfaces. Our ability to plan for and interpret spectra from exoplanets relies heavily on the fidelity of the spectroscopic databases available and would greatly benefit from further laboratory and theoretical work aimed at optical properties of atomic, molecular, and cloud/haze species in the pressure and temperature regimes relevant to exoplanet atmospheres.

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope Research Program for Teachers and Students: Young Stars in IC2118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weehler, C. R.; Herrera, J. M.; Maranto, A. R.; Greer, M. T.; Preis, J. V.; Weston, P. D.; Rebull, L. M.; Roelofsen, T. E.; Sepulveda, B.; Hughes, A. S.; Sharma, N. D.; Spuck, T. S.; Bowser, D. H., II; Ehrhart, B. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope Teacher Program is a collaboration between the Spitzer Science Center and National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Through the program, twelve teachers were selected to submit observing proposals for time on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Young Stars in IC 2118 Project was one of those selected and awarded 62 minutes of Director's discretionary observing time to study a small region of IC 2118 (the Witch Head Nebula), a star forming region of small-mass stars embedded in their natal cloud. The five teachers involved in this project met at the Spitzer Science Center in August and September 2005 to analyze the data received from IRAC and MIPS observations. Six high school students were included in these visits, and several more are working on data analysis at their home schools. We are making tri-color images to identify structure in the ISM, Spectral Energy Distributions to identify cluster members and color plots to determine their stage of development, thereby estimating their ages. We are working toward adapting lessons that can use software that is readily available in public schools to do the data analysis. As teachers develop lesson plans for these activities, they will apply them in their science classes and provide professional development on infrared astronomy and the use of astronomical data to other teachers through in-service training around the country. The team is being mentored by Dr. Luisa Rebull from the Spitzer Science Center. Please see our companion poster, Spuck et al., on our science results using these data.

  1. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, R. A.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Zhu, W.; Gould, A.; Yee, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bennett, D. P.; RoboNet Project, The; Consortium, MiNDSTEp; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Bachelet, E.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Cassan, A.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Dong, Subo; Evans, D. F.; Gu, Sheng-hong; Harkonnen, H.; Hinse, T. C.; Horne, Keith; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Menzies, J.; Mao, S.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Ranc, C.; Tronsgaard Rasmussen, R.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Steele, I. A.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Verma, P.; von Essen, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Wang, Yi-Bo.; Wertz, O.; OGLE Project, The; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Spitzer Team; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; MOA Collaboration; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; KMTNet Modeling Team; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a cold Neptune mplanet = 21 ± 2 M⊕ orbiting a 0.38 M⊙ M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al., which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near to mid-disk and are clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  2. Spitzer Microlensing Program as a Probe for Globular Cluster Planets. Analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    CERN Document Server

    Poleski, Radosław; Christie, Grant W; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Pawlak, M; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Beatty, T G; Eastman, J D; Drummond, J; Friedmann, M; Henderson, M; Johnson, J A; Kaspi, S; Maoz, D; McCormick, J; McCrady, N; Natusch, T; Ngan, H; Porritt, I; Relles, H M; Sliski, D H; Tan, T -G; Wittenmyer, R A; Wright, J T; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bramich, D M; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Jaimes, R Figuera; Wambsganss, J; Schmidt, R; Cassan, A; Ranc, C; Mao, S; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Hundertmark, M P G; Jørgensen, U G; Andersen, M I; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Southworth, G Scarpetta J; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; Verma, P; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ($\\mu_{\\rm cl}$(N,E) = (+0.36+-0.10, +1.42+-0.10) mas/yr) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters, other potential cluster lens events can be verified using our methodology. Additionally, we find that microlens parallax measured using OGLE photometry is consistent with the value found based on the light curve displacement between Earth and Spitzer.

  3. Spitzer Parallax of OGLE-2015-BLG-0966: A Cold Neptune in the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Street, R A; Novati, S Calchi; Hundertmark, M P G; Zhu, W; Gould, A; Yee, J; Tsapras, Y; Bennett, D P; Project, The RoboNet; Jorgensen, U G; Dominik, M; Andersen, M I; Bachelet, E; Bozza, V; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M J; Cassan, A; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Dong, Subo; Evans, D F; Gu, Sheng-hong; Harkonnen, H; Hinse, T C; Horne, Keith; Jaimes, R Figuera; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Menzies, J; Mao, S; Peixinho, N; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Ranc, C; Rasmussen, R Tronsgaard; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Steele, I A; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; Verma, P; von Essen, C; Wambsganss, J; Wang, Yi-Bo; Wertz, O; Project, The OGLE; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymanski, M K; Skowron, J; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Wyrzykowski, L; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C; Pogge, R W; Shvartzvald, Y; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Inayama, K; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; P.,; Tristram, J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of a Cold Neptune m_planet=21+/-2MEarth orbiting a 0.38MSol M dwarf lying 2.5-3.3 kpc toward the Galactic center as part of a campaign combining ground-based and Spitzer observations to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. This is the first time that the complex real-time protocols described by Yee et al. (2015), which aim to maximize planet sensitivity while maintaining sample integrity, have been carried out in practice. Multiple survey and follow-up teams successfully combined their efforts within the framework of these protocols to detect this planet. This is the second planet in the Spitzer Galactic distribution sample. Both are in the near-to-mid disk and clearly not in the Galactic bulge.

  4. Spitzer Infrared Spectrographic point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffle, Paul M E; Jones, O C; Sloan, G C; Kraemer, K E; Woods, Paul M; Boyer, M L; Srinivasan, S; Antoniou, V; Lagadec, E; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; Oliveira, J M; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Szczerba, R; van Loon, J Th; Volk, K; Zijlstra, A A

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust.We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects (YSOs), 4 post-AGB objects, 22 Red Super...

  5. Spitzer IRAC Color Diagnostics for Extended Emission in Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Ybarra, Jason E; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G; Lada, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope has provided an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study we calculate the IRAC color space of UV fluorescent molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine & Li 2007. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV excited and shock excited H$_2$ emission. To test this method we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  6. Evaluating requirements on the Spitzer Mission operations system based on flight operations experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrel, Marc A.; Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope launched in August 2003, and has been in its nominal operations phase since December 2003. This paper will review some of the pre-launch, high-level project requirements in light of our operations experience. We discuss how we addressed some of those requirements pre-launch, what post-launch development we've done based on our experience, and some recommendations for future missions. Some of the requirements we examine in this paper are related to observational efficiency, completeness of data return, on-board storage of science data, and response time for targets of opportunity and data accountability. We also discuss the bearing that mission constraints have had on our solutions. These constraints include Spitzer's heliocentric orbit and resulting declining telecom performance, CPU utilization, relatively high data rate for a deep space mission, and use of both on-board RF power amplifiers, among others.

  7. A Spitzer study of star-forming regions in Virgo Cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, O Ivy

    2008-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of the star formation distribution within three Virgo Cluster galaxies using the 24 micron Spitzer observations from the Spitzer Survey of Virgo (SPITSOV) in combination with H-alpha observations. The purpose of our study is to explore the relationship between the star formation distribution within galaxies and the type (and phase) of interactions experienced within the cluster environment. Neither highly-obscured star formation nor strongly enhanced star-forming regions along the leading edges of galaxies experiencing ICM-ISM interactions were found. However, very unobscured star-forming regions were found in the outer parts of one galaxy (NGC 4402), while relatively obscured star-forming regions were found in the extraplanar regions of another galaxy (NGC 4522). We attribute the observed differences between NGC 4402 and NGC 4522 to the direction of motion of each galaxy through the ICM.

  8. Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernbichler Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3 where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles.

  9. SPITZER IRAC COLOR DIAGNOSTICS FOR EXTENDED EMISSION IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Tapia, Mauricio; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexíco, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada BC (Mexico); Lada, Elizabeth A., E-mail: jybarra@astro.unam.mx [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are an invaluable tool for identifying physical processes in star formation. In this study, we calculate the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color space of UV fluorescent H{sub 2} and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using the Cloudy code with PAH opacities from Draine and Li. We create a set of color diagnostics that can be applied to study the structure of PDRs and to distinguish between FUV-excited and shock-excited H{sub 2} emission. To test this method, we apply these diagnostics to Spitzer IRAC data of NGC 2316. Our analysis of the structure of the PDR is consistent with previous studies of the region. In addition to UV excited emission, we identify shocked gas that may be part of an outflow originating from the cluster.

  10. Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of high mass precursors to planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Perea-Calderon, J. V.; Bobrowsky, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS observations of a small sample of heavily obscured IRAS sources displaying both the infrared and OH maser emission characteristic of OH/IR stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), but also radio continuum emission typical of ionized planetary nebulae (PNe), the so-called OHPNe. Our observations show that their mid-infrared spectra are dominated by the simultaneous presence of strong and broad amorphous silicate absorption features together with crystalline silicate f...

  11. Disentangling protostellar evolutionary stages in clustered environments using Spitzer-IRS spectra and comprehensive SED modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Forbrich, Jan; Tappe, Achim; Robitaille, Thomas; Muench, August A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Stolte, Andrea; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    When studying the evolutionary stages of protostars that form in clusters, the role of any intracluster medium cannot be neglected. High foreground extinction can lead to situations where young stellar objects (YSOs) appear to be in earlier evolutionary stages than they actually are, particularly when using simple criteria like spectral indices. To address this issue, we have assembled detailed SED characterizations of a sample of 56 Spitzer-identified candidate YSOs in the clusters NGC 2264 ...

  12. Using Perl in basic science and calibration pipelines for Spitzer Infrared Array Camera data

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, H.; Lowrance, P.; Laher, R.; Surace, J.; Moshir, M.

    2005-01-01

    Object oriented Perl language pipelines generate calibration products and basic calibrated data from raw images taken by the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) onboard NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The pipelines gather input data and control files, initiate database interactions, and manage data flow through C, C++, and Fortran component programs. The compiled component programs perform instrumental signature correction, calibration, and data characterization. Core pipeline functionality is pr...

  13. Spitzer SAGE Infrared Photometry of Massive Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.; Lennon, D.J.; Panagia, N.; Smith, L J; Meixner, M.; Babler, B. L.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M. R.; Gordon, K.D.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R; Whitney, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud, with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3-24 microns in the UBVIJHKs+IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagram...

  14. Characteristic function and Spitzer's law for the winding angle distribution of planar brownian curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the analogy between brownian motion and Quantum Mechanics, we study the winding angle θ of planar brownian curves around a given point, say the origin O. In particular, we compute the characteristic function for the probability distribution of θ and recover Spitzer's law in the limit of infinitely large times. Finally, we study the (large) change in the winding angle distribution when we add a repulsive potential at the origin

  15. Spitzer Power-law AGN Candidates in the Chandra Deep Field-North

    CERN Document Server

    Donley, J L; Pérez-González, P G; Rigby, J R; Alonso-Herrero, A

    2007-01-01

    We define a sample of 62 galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-North whose Spitzer IRAC SEDs exhibit the characteristic power-law emission expected of luminous AGN. We study the multiwavelength properties of this sample, and compare the AGN selected in this way to those selected via other Spitzer color-color criteria. Only 55% of the power-law galaxies are detected in the X-ray catalog at exposures of >0.5 Ms, although a search for faint emission results in the detection of 85% of the power-law galaxies at the > 2.5 sigma detection level. Most of the remaining galaxies are likely to host AGN that are heavily obscured in the X-ray. Because the power-law selection requires the AGN to be energetically dominant in the near- and mid-infrared, the power-law galaxies comprise a significant fraction of the Spitzer-detected AGN population at high luminosities and redshifts. The high 24 micron detection fraction also points to a luminous population. The power-law galaxies comprise a subset of color-selected AGN candidates...

  16. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, I; Rodighiero, G; Franceschini, A; Capak, P L; Mei, S; Vaccari, M; Marchetti, L; Hibon, P; Sedgwick, C; Pearson, C; Serjeant, S; Menèndez-Delmestre, K; Salvato, M; Malkan, M; Teplitz, H I; Hayes, M; Colbert, J; Papovich, C; Devlin, M; Kovacs, A; Scott, K S; Surace, J; Kirkpatrick, J D; Atek, H; Urrutia, T; Scoville, N Z; Takeuchi, T T

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) field. The large area covered (7.7 deg$^2$), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area ($\\approx$4:1), allowing for a significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches a depth of 1.93 and 1.75 $\\mu$Jy (1$\\sigma$) at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC--based catalog, completed with optical, mid-- and far--IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with F$_{3.6\\mu m} \\geq 3\\sigma$. Of these, 10% have an associated 24 $\\mu$m counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrare...

  17. Epsilon Eridani's Planetary Debris Disk: Structure and Dynamics based on Spitzer and CSO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Backman, D; Stapelfeldt, K; Su, K; Wilner, D; Dowell, C D; Watson, D; Stansberry, J; Rieke, G; Megeath, T; Fazio, G; Werner, M

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) images and spectrophotometry of epsilon Eridani at wavelengths from 3.5 to 350 um reveal new details of its bright debris disk. The 350 um map confirms the presence of a ring at r = 11-28 arcsec (35-90 AU) observed previously at longer sub-mm wavelengths. The Spitzer mid- and far-IR images do not show the ring, but rather a featureless disk extending from within a few arcsec of the star across the ring to r ~ 34 arcsec (110 AU). The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the debris system implies a complex structure. A model constrained by the surface brightness profiles and the SED indicates that the sub-mm ring emission is primarily from large (a ~ 135 um) grains, with smaller (a ~ 15 um) grains also present in and beyond the ring. The Spitzer IRS and MIPS SED-mode spectrophotometry data clearly show the presence of spatially compact excess emission at lambda > 15 um that requires the presence of two additional narrow belts of dust within the sub-mm ring's ...

  18. A Pilot Search for Population III Supernova Candidates in the Spitzer/IRAC Dark Field

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Mark I; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Krick, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    We have undertaken a systematic search for candidate supernovae from high-redshift Population III stars in a field that has been observed with repeated imaging on a cadence of 2-3 weeks over a 2.2 year baseline, the Spitzer/IRAC Dark Field. The individual epochs reach a typical 5-sigma depth of 1 uJy in IRAC Channel 1 (3.6 um). Requiring a minimum of four epochs coverage, the total effective area searched is 214 sq arcminutes. The unprecedented depth and multi-epochal nature of these data make it ideal for a first foray to detect transient objects which may be candidate luminous Pair Instability Supernovae from the primordial-metallicity first stars. The search was conducted over a broad range of timescales, allowing for different durations of the putative candidates' light curve plateau phases. All candidates were vetted by inspection of the Spitzer imaging data, as well as deep HST/ACS F814W imaging available over the full field. While many resolved-source objects were found with Spitzer variability, no tra...

  19. Spitzer Transits of the Super-Earth GJ1214b and Implications for Its Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Fraine, Jonathan D; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns wavelength during a 20-day quasi-continuous sequence in May 2011. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a re-analysis of previous transit observations by Desert et al. (2011). In total, we analyse 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 microns, 3 transits at 3.6 microns, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe & Burrows (2012). Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke & Seager (2012) and Howe &a...

  20. The Taurus Spitzer Survey: New Candidate Taurus Members Selected Using Sensitive Mid-Infrared Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; McCabe, C -E; Hillenbrand, L A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Carey, S J; Brooke, T; Huard, T; Terebey, S; Audard, M; Monin, J -L; Fukagawa, M; Guedel, M; Knapp, G R; Menard, F; Allen, L E; Angione, J R; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Bouvier, J; Briggs, K; Dougados, C; Evans, N J; Flagey, N; Guieu, S; Grosso, N; Glauser, A M; Harvey, P; Hines, D; Latter, W B; Skinner, S L; Strom, S; Tromp, J; Wolf, S

    2009-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in 7 mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously-identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ~44 square degree map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ~20% of the bonafide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 candidate new members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, 3 probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, 7 are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candida...

  1. Results of the 2015 Spitzer Exoplanet Data Challenge: Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Carey, Sean J.; Stauffer, John R.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Lowrance, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. At infrared wavelengths secondary eclipses and phase curves are powerful tools for studying a planet’s atmosphere. Extracting information about atmospheres, however, is extremely challenging due to the small differential signals, which are often at the level of 100 parts per million (ppm) or smaller, and require the removal of significant instrumental systematics. For the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5μm InSb detectors that remain active on post-cryogenic Spitzer, the interplay of residual telescope pointing fluctuations with intrapixel gain variations in the moderately under sampled camera is the largest source of time-correlated noise. Over the past decade, a suite of techniques for removing this noise from IRAC data has been developed independently by various investigators. In summer 2015, the Spitzer Science Center hosted a Data Challenge in which seven exoplanet expert teams, each using a different noise-removal method, were invited to analyze 10 eclipse measurements of the hot Jupiter XO-3 b, as well as a complementary set of 10 simulated measurements. In this contribution we review the results of the Challenge. We describe statistical tools to assess the repeatability, reliability, and validity of data reduction techniques, and to compare and (perhaps) choose between techniques.

  2. NEOSurvey: An Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We are carrying out a Spitzer Cycle 11 (2015-2016) Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey in which we are observing 597 known Near Earth Objects (NEOs) in 710 hours of observing time. Each object is observed at 4.5 microns. The primary goal of our program is to use a thermal model to create a catalog of NEO diameters and albedos that can be used for a wide range of science goals. From this catalog we will derive the size distribution of NEOs down to 100 meters and measure the compositional distribution of NEOs as a function of size. We include in our target list only objects that are too faint to be detected by NEOWISE. This catalog is therefore highly complementary to existing and forthcoming samples, and will complete a database of diameters and albedos for nearly 2000 NEOs (including results from our previous Spitzer program, ExploreNEOs, as well as objects observed by NEOWISE). We will present the status of the program and results to date, some nine months into the execution of the program. All observational and model results are published immediately online at nearearthobjects.nau.edu . Support for this work is provided by the Spitzer Science Center.

  3. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  4. Star Formation and the Interstellar Medium In Nearby Tidal Streams (SAINTS): Spitzer Mid-infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging of Intergalactic Star-forming Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, S J U; Smith, B J; Hancock, M

    2014-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant HII regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction ( 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 um emission compared to that at 3.6 um or 24 um separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two color diagrams. The infrared power in two thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from ...

  5. Spitzer Observations of GJ3470b: a Very Low-density Neptune-size Planet Orbiting a Metal-rich M dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Neves, Vasco; Rogers, Leslie; Gillon, Michael; Horch, Elliott; Sullivan, Peter; Bonfils, Xavier; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Santos, Nuno; Seager, Sara; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC 4.5-micron transit photometry of GJ3470b, a Neptune-size planet orbiting a M1.5 dwarf star with a 3.3-day period recently discovered in the course of the HARPS M-dwarf survey. We refine the stellar parameters by employing purely empirical mass-luminosity and surface brightness relations constrained by our updated value for the mean stellar density, and additional information from new near-infrared spectroscopic observations. We derive a stellar mass of M_star = 0.539+0.047-0.043 M_sun and a radius of R_star = 0.568+0.037-0.031 R_sun. We determine the host star of GJ3470b to be metal-rich, with a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.20 +/- 0.10 and an effective temperature of Teff = 3600 +/- 100 K. The revised stellar parameters yield a planetary radius R_pl = 4.83+0.22-0.21 R_Earth that is 13 percent larger than the value previously reported in the literature. We find a planetary mass M_pl = 13.9+1.5-1.4 M_Earth that translates to a very low planetary density, rho_pl = 0.72+0.13-0.12 gcm-3, whic...

  6. Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr-old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-Rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H; Su, Kate

    2011-01-01

    We describe Spitzer IRS spectroscopic observations of the 10 Myr-old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 {\\mu}m to 35 {\\mu}m confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with LD/L\\star ~ 10-3, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr-old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g. HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to pyroxene ratio of ~ 2 also provide...

  7. Complex Hydrocarbon Chemistry in Interstellar and Solar System Ices Revealed: A Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ethane (C2H6) and D6-Ethane (C2D6) Ices Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-08-01

    The irradiation of pure ethane (C2H6/C2D6) ices at 5.5 K, under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was conducted to investigate the formation of complex hydrocarbons via interaction with energetic electrons simulating the secondary electrons produced in the track of galactic cosmic rays. The chemical modifications of the ices were monitored in situ using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during temperature-programmed desorption via mass spectrometry exploiting a quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization (EI-QMS) as well as a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). FTIR confirmed previous ethane studies by detecting six molecules: methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), the ethyl radical (C2H5), 1-butene (C4H8), and n-butane (C4H10). However, the TPD phase, along with EI-QMS, and most importantly, PI-ReTOF-MS, revealed the formation of at least 23 hydrocarbons, many for the first time in ethane ice, which can be arranged in four groups with an increasing carbon-to-hydrogen ratio: C n H2n+2 (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10), C n H2n (n = 3–10), {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-2 (n = 3–10), and {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-4 (n = 4–6). The processing of simple ethane ices is relevant to the hydrocarbon chemistry in the interstellar medium, as ethane has been shown to be a major product of methane, as well as in the outer solar system. These data reveal that the processing of ethane ices can synthesize several key hydrocarbons such as C3H4 and C4H6 isomers, which ha­ve been found to synthesize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like indene (C9H8) and naphtha­lene (C10H8) in the ISM and in hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons such as Titan.

  8. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  9. Signal Processing for Spectroscopic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques allow for studies of materials and organisms on the atomic and molecular level. Examples of such techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy—one of the principal techniques to obtain physical, chemical, electronic and structural information about molecules—and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)—an important medical imaging technique for, e.g., visualization of the internal structure of the human body. The less well-known spectroscopic technique of nucle...

  10. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (∼100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ≲6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ∼106 M ☉ of warm H2 with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 μm, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 μm emission compared to that at 3.6 μm or 24 μm separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ∼30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  11. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, S. J. U.; Higdon, J. L. [Physics Department, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Smith, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Hancock, M. [Bishop Gorman High School, 5959 Hualapai Way, Las Vegas, NV 89148 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (∼100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ≲6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ∼10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} of warm H{sub 2} with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 μm, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 μm emission compared to that at 3.6 μm or 24 μm separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ∼30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  12. SPITZER TRANSITS OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using warm Spitzer at 4.5 μm wavelength during a 20 day quasi-continuous sequence in 2011 May. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a reanalysis of previous transit observations by Désert et al. In total, we analyze 14 transits of GJ1214b at 4.5 μm, 3 transits at 3.6 μm, and 7 new ground-based transits in the I+z band. Our new Spitzer data by themselves eliminate cloudless solar composition atmospheres for GJ1214b, and methane-rich models from Howe and Burrows. Using our new Spitzer measurements to anchor the observed transit radii of GJ1214b at long wavelengths, and adding new measurements in I+z, we evaluate models from Benneke and Seager and Howe and Burrows using a χ2 analysis. We find that the best-fit model exhibits an increase in transit radius at short wavelengths due to Rayleigh scattering. Pure water atmospheres are also possible. However, a flat line (no atmosphere detected) remains among the best of the statistically acceptable models, and better than pure water atmospheres. We explore the effect of systematic differences among results from different observational groups, and we find that the Howe and Burrows tholin-haze model remains the best fit, even when systematic differences among observers are considered.

  13. Physical Properties of Spectroscopically Confirmed Galaxies at z ≥ 6. III. Stellar Populations from SED Modeling with Secure Lyα Emission and Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linhua; Finlator, Kristian; Cohen, Seth H.; Egami, Eiichi; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Fan, Xiaohui; Davé, Romeel; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Mechtley, Matthew; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Clément, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of stellar populations in a sample of spectroscopically confirmed Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyα emitters (LAEs) at 5.7Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope and obtained from the SMOKA, which is operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  14. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC Exoplanetary Eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-04-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths >3 μm, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same data sets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. (2014, 2015) proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to the pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-signal-to-noise-ratio cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over 12 eclipses of the exoplanet XO3b observed during the “Warm Spitzer” era in the 4.5 μm band. The final results are reported, in part, also in Ingalls et al. (2016), together with results obtained with other detrending methods, and over 10 synthetic eclipses that were analyzed for the “IRAC Data Challenge 2015.” Our results are consistent within 1σ with the ones reported in Wong et al. (2014) and with most of the results reported in Ingalls et al. (2016), which appeared on arXiv while this paper was under review. Based on many statistical tests discussed in Ingalls et al. (2016), the wavelet pixel-ICA method performs as well as or better than other state-of-art methods recently developed by other teams to analyze Spitzer/IRAC data, and, in particular, it appears to be the most repeatable and the most reliable, while reaching the photon noise limit, at least for the particular data set analyzed. Another strength of the ICA approach is its highest

  15. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path to Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, V; Udalski, A; Novati, S Calchi; Bond, I A; Han, C; Hundertmark, M; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Henderson, C B; Pogge, R W; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Inayama, K; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, T; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G; Albrow, M D; Park, B -G; Kim, S -L; Lee, C -U; Cha, S -M; Kim, D -J; Lee, Y; Dominik, M; Jørgensen, U G; Andersen, M I; Bramich, D M; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Jaimes, R Figuera; Gu, S -H; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Kuffmeier, M; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Rasmussen, R T; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Surdej, J; Unda-Sanzana, E; von Essen, C; Wang, Y -B; Wertz, O; Maoz, D; Friedmann, M; Kaspi, S

    2016-01-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively breaks a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  16. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Bond, I. A.; Han, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Inayama, K.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Nishioka, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp; Maoz, D.; Friedmann, M.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group

    2016-03-01

    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations.

  17. Finding {\\eta} Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer: I. Candidate Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Kochanek, C S

    2012-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {\\eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {\\eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of 7 nearby (= 40 M_sun star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude.

  18. Planets and Debris Disks: Results from a Spitzer/MIPS Search for Infrared Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Bryden, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Rieke, G. H.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.; Tanner, A. M.; Lawler, S. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Trilling, D. E.; Su, K. Y. L.; Blaylock, M.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Using the MIPS camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have searched for debris disks around 104 stars known from radial velocity studies to have one or more planets. Combining this new data with 42 already published observations of planet-bearing stars, we find that 14 of the 146 systems have IR excess at 24 and/or 70 μm. Only one star, HD 69830, has IR excess exclusively at 24 μm, indicative of warm dust in the inner system analogous to that produced by collisions in the solar system's as...

  19. Spitzer Transits of the Super-Earth GJ1214b and Implications for Its Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Fraine, Jonathan D.; Deming, Drake; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara; Lewis, Nikole K.; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    We observed the transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b using Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns wavelength during a 20-day quasi-continuous sequence in May 2011. The goals of our long observation were to accurately define the infrared transit radius of this nearby super-Earth, to search for the secondary eclipse, and to search for other transiting planets in the habitable zone of GJ1214. We here report results from the transit monitoring of GJ1214b, including a re-analysis of previous transit obse...

  20. Shedding New Light on the 3C 273 Jet with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiyama, Y.; Urry, C. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Jester, S.; van Duyne, J.; Coppi, P.; Sambruna, R. M.; Takahashi, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed infrared imaging of the jet of the quasar 3C 273 at wavelengths 3.6 and 5.8 microns with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. When combined with the radio, optical and X-ray measurements, the IRAC photometry clearly shows that the optical emission is dominated by the high-energy component of the jet, not by the radio synchrotron component, as had been assumed to date. The high-energy component may be due to a second synchrotron component or to IC ...

  1. Spitzer Observations of z ~ 3 Lyman Break Galaxies: Stellar Masses and Mid-Infrared Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rigopoulou, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Papovich, C.; Ashby, M.L.N.; Barmby, P.; Shu, C.; Bundy, K.; Egami, E.; Magdis, G.; Smith, H.; Willner, S. P.; G. Wilson; Fazio, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 using deep mid-infrared and optical observations of the Extended Groth Strip, obtained with IRAC and MIPS on board Spitzer and from the ground, respectively. We focus on LBGs with detections at all four IRAC bands, in particular the 26 galaxies with IRAC 8 micron band (rest--frame K-band) detections. We use stellar population synthesis models and probe the stellar content of these galaxies. Based on bes...

  2. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check ...

  3. A global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b

    CERN Document Server

    Lanotte, A A; Demory, B -O; Fortney, J J; Astudillo, N; Bonfils, X; Magain, P; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Neves, V; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Santos, N; Udry, S

    2014-01-01

    Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims. We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods. We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 {\\mu}m. Adding the high precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar...

  4. Stellar Populations and Mass-Loss in M15: A Spitzer Detection of Dust in the Intra-Cluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; Van Loon, J T; Gordon, K D; Evans, A; Gehrz, R D; Helton, L A; Polomski, E F; Boyer, Martha L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Gordon, Karl D.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Polomski, Elisha F.

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of the galactic globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078), one of the most metal-poor clusters with a [Fe/H] = -2.4. Our Spitzer images reveal a population of dusty red giants near the cluster center, a previously detected planetary nebula (PN) designated K648, and a possible detection of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) arising from mass loss episodes from the evolved stellar population. Our analysis suggests 9 (+/-2) x 10^-4 solar masses of dust is present in the core of M15, and this material has accumulated over a period of approximately 10^6 years, a timescale ten times shorter than the last galactic plane crossing event. We also present Spitzer IRS follow up observations of K648, including the detection of the [NeII] 12.81 micron line, and discuss abundances derived from infrared fine structure lines.

  5. Dissecting the Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams of extreme LMC AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Hernández, D A García; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; Brocato, E; D'Antona, F; Rossi, C

    2014-01-01

    We trace the full evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars ($1 M_{\\odot} \\leq M \\leq 8M_{\\odot}$) during the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase in the {\\it Spitzer} two-color and color-magnitude diagrams. We follow the formation and growth of dust particles in the circumstellar envelope with an isotropically expanding wind, in which gas molecules impinge upon pre--existing seed nuclei, favour their growth. These models are the first able to identify the main regions in the {\\it Spitzer} data occupied by AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The main diagonal sequence traced by LMC extreme stars in the [3.6]-[4.5] vs. [5.8]-[8.0] and [3.6]-[8.0] vs. [8.0] planes are nicely fit by carbon stars models; it results to be an evolutionary sequence with the reddest objects being at the final stages of their AGB evolution. The most extreme stars, with [3.6]-[4.5] $>$ 1.5 and [3.6]-[8.0] $>$ 3, are 2.5-3 $M_{\\odot}$ stars surrounded by solid carbon grains. In higher mass ($>3 M_{\\odot}$) models dust form...

  6. A Spitzer view of protoplanetary disks in the gamma Velorum cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria; Jeffries, R D; Gutermuth, R; Muzerolle, J; Stauffer, J

    2008-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of stars in the young ~5 Myr gamma Velorum stellar cluster. Combining optical and 2MASS photometry, we have selected 579 stars as candidate members of the cluster. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 5 debris disks around A-type stars, and 5-6 debris disks around solar-type stars, indicating that the strong radiation field in the cluster does not completely suppress the production of planetesimals in the disks of cluster members. However, we find some evidence that the frequency of circumstellar primordial disks is lower, and the IR flux excesses are smaller than for disks around stellar populations with similar ages. This could be evidence for a relatively fast dissipation of circumstellar dust by the strong radiation field from the highest mass star(s) in the cluster. Another possibility is that gamma Velorum stellar cluster is slightly older than reported ages and the the low frequency of primordial disks reflects the fa...

  7. Spitzer IRS Spectra of Luminous 8 micron Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, C L; Forrest, W J; Hrivnak, B J; Sahai, R; Egan, M; Frank, A; Barnbaum, C; Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Forrest, William J.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Egan, Michael; Frank, Adam; Barnbaum, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    We have produced an atlas of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of mass-losing, evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These stars were selected to have high mass-loss rates and so contribute significantly to the return of processed materials to the ISM. Our high-quality spectra enable the determination of the chemistry of the circumstellar envelope from the mid-IR spectral features and continuum. We have classified the spectral types of the stars and show that the spectral types separate clearly in infrared color-color diagrams constructed from 2MASS data and synthetic IRAC/MIPS fluxes derived from our IRS spectra. We present diagnostics to identify and classify evolved stars in nearby galaxies with high confidence levels using Spitzer and 2MASS photometry. Comparison of the spectral classes determined using IRS data with the IR types assigned based on NIR colors also revealed a significant number of misclassifications and enabled us to refine the NIR color criteria resulting in more accurate ...

  8. Knot a Bad Idea: Testing BLISS Mapping for Spitzer Space Telescope Eclipse Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Much of transiting exoplanet science relies on high-precision photometry. The current generation of instruments exhibit sensitivity variations greater than the astrophysical signals. For the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope, a popular way to handle this is BiLinearly-Interpolated Subpixel Sensitivity mapping (BLISS). We use examples of posterior probability functions to show that this scheme can misfit or bias astrophysical parameters, and a toy model to show that underestimated uncertainties may even happen in very simple cases. BLISS maps of detector sensitivity can also be unreliable if the noise in the data is low. To know the astrophysical and detector models a priori, we construct a model of \\emph{Spitzer} light curves with $\\sim10^{3}$ data. We compare standard BLISS to a variant in which the knot values are full-fledged parameters in the MCMC, and to a standard polynomial model. Both types of BLISS fit the eclipse depth similarly, and the standard BLISS knots vary...

  9. Repeatability of Spitzer/IRAC exoplanetary eclipses with Independent Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Giuseppe; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The research of effective and reliable detrending methods for Spitzer data is of paramount importance for the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres. To date, the totality of exoplanetary observations in the mid- and far-infrared, at wavelengths $>$3 $\\mu$m, have been taken with Spitzer. In some cases, in the past years, repeated observations and multiple reanalyses of the same datasets led to discrepant results, raising questions about the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. Morello et al. 2014, 2015 proposed a blind-source separation method based on the Independent Component Analysis of pixel time series (pixel-ICA) to analyze IRAC data, obtaining coherent results when applied to repeated transit observations previously debated in the literature. Here we introduce a variant to pixel-ICA through the use of wavelet transform, wavelet pixel-ICA, which extends its applicability to low-S/N cases. We describe the method and discuss the results obtained over twelve eclipses of the exoplanet XO...

  10. Measuring High-Precision Astrometry with the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Esplin, T L

    2015-01-01

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7$^{\\rm th}$ and 8$^{\\rm th}$ order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m arrays of IRAC, ...

  11. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 using Spitzer /IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donovan, Francis T; Harrington, Joseph; Seager, Sara; Madhusudhan, N; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A

    2009-01-01

    With the recent torrent of discoveries of new transiting planets, there have been ample candidates for observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127%+-0.021%, 0.230%+-0.024%, 0.199%+-0.054%, and 0.359%+-0.060%, at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a black body spectrum with Teff = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. However, the planet-to-star flux ratio at 4.5 microns exceeds the expectation from the blackbody emission, which argues for a temperature inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2. The presence or absence of such an inversion in a planetary atmosphere has been predicted to be correlated with the amount of incident flux received by...

  12. The Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS): survey definition and goals

    CERN Document Server

    Mauduit, J -C; Farrah, D; Surace, J A; Jarvis, M; Oliver, S; Maraston, C; Vaccari, M; Marchetti, L; Zeimann, G; Gonzalez-Solares, E A; Pforr, J; Petric, A O; Henriques, B; Thomas, P A; Afonso, J; Rettura, A; Wilson, G; Falder, J T; Geach, J E; Huynh, M; Norris, R P; Seymour, N; Richards, G T; Stanford, S A; Alexander, D M; Becker, R H; Best, P N; Bizzocchi, L; Bonfield, D; Castro, N; Cava, A; Chapman, S; Christopher, N; Clements, D L; Covone, G; Dubois, N; Dunlop, J S; Dyke, E; Edge, A; Ferguson, H C; Foucaud, S; Franceschini, A; Gal, R R; Grant, J K; Grossi, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hickey, S; Hodge, J A; Huang, J -S; Ivison, R J; Kim, M; LeFevre, O; Lehnert, M; Lonsdale, C J; Lubin, L M; McLure, R J; Messias, H; Martinez-Sansigre, A; Mortier, A M J; Nielsen, D M; Ouchi, M; Parish, G; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierre, M; Rawlings, S; Readhead, A; Ridgway, S E; Rigopoulou, D; Romer, A K; Rosebloom, I G; Rottgering, H J A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sajina, A; Simpson, C J; Smail, I; Squires, G K; Stevens, J A; Taylor, R; Trichas, M; Urrutia, T; van Kampen, E; Verma, A; Xu, C K

    2012-01-01

    We present the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), an 18 square degrees medium-deep survey at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the post-cryogenic Spitzer Space Telescope to ~2 microJy (AB=23.1) depth of five highly observed astronomical fields (ELAIS-N1, ELAIS-S1, Lockman Hole, Chandra Deep Field South and XMM-LSS). SERVS is designed to enable the study of galaxy evolution as a function of environment from z~5 to the present day, and is the first extragalactic survey both large enough and deep enough to put rare objects such as luminous quasars and galaxy clusters at z>1 into their cosmological context. SERVS is designed to overlap with several key surveys at optical, near- through far-infrared, submillimeter and radio wavelengths to provide an unprecedented view of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies. In this paper, we discuss the SERVS survey design, the data processing flow from image reduction and mosaicing to catalogs, as well as coverage of ancillary data from other surveys i...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  14. Spitzer infrared spectrograph point source classification in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffle, Paul M. E.; Kemper, F.; Jones, O. C.; Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Woods, Paul M.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Antoniou, V.; Lagadec, E.; Matsuura, M.; McDonald, I.; Oliveira, J. M.; Sargent, B. A.; Sewiło, M.; Szczerba, R.; van Loon, J. Th.; Volk, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are uniquely placed to study the stellar contribution to dust emission. Individual stars can be resolved in these systems even in the mid-infrared, and they are close enough to allow detection of infrared excess caused by dust. We have searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for all Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) staring-mode observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and found that 209 Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) point sources within the footprint of the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) Spitzer Legacy programme were targeted, within a total of 311 staring-mode observations. We classify these point sources using a decision tree method of object classification, based on infrared spectral features, continuum and spectral energy distribution shape, bolometric luminosity, cluster membership and variability information. We find 58 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, 51 young stellar objects, 4 post-AGB objects, 22 red supergiants, 27 stars (of which 23 are dusty OB stars), 24 planetary nebulae (PNe), 10 Wolf-Rayet stars, 3 H II regions, 3 R Coronae Borealis stars, 1 Blue Supergiant and 6 other objects, including 2 foreground AGB stars. We use these classifications to evaluate the success of photometric classification methods reported in the literature.

  15. High Contrast Imaging with Spitzer : Constraining the Frequency of Giant Planets out to 1000 AU separations

    CERN Document Server

    Durkan, Stephen; Carson, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a re-analysis of archival Spitzer IRAC direct imaging surveys encompassing a variety of nearby stars. Our sample is generated from the combined observations of 73 young stars (median age, distance, spectral type = 85 Myr, 23.3 pc, G5) and 48 known exoplanet host stars with unconstrained ages (median distance, spectral type = 22.6 pc, G5). While the small size of Spitzer provides a lower resolution than 8m-class AO-assisted ground based telescopes, which have been used for constraining the frequency of 0.5 - 13 $M_J$ planets at separations of $10 - 10^2$ AU, its exquisite infrared sensitivity provides the ability to place unmatched constraints on the planetary populations at wider separations. Here we apply sophisticated high-contrast techniques to our sample in order to remove the stellar PSF and open up sensitivity to planetary mass companions down to 5\\arcsec\\ separations. This enables sensitivity to 0.5 - 13 $M_J$ planets at physical separations on the order of $10^2 - 10^3$ AU , allow...

  16. Spitzer Mid-to-Far-Infrared Flux Densities of Distant Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Floc'h, Emeric Le; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Rieke, George H; Taylor, Edward N; Armus, Lee; Gawiser, Eric; Huang, Jiasheng; Marcillac, Delphine; Franx, Marijn

    2007-01-01

    We study the infrared (IR) properties of high-redshift galaxies using deep Spitzer 24, 70, and 160 micron data. Our primary interest is to improve the constraints on the total IR luminosities, L(IR), of these galaxies. We combine the Spitzer data in the southern Extended Chandra Deep Field with a K-band-selected galaxy sample and photometric redshifts from the Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile. We used a stacking analysis to measure the average 70 and 160 micron flux densities of 1.5 250 micro-Jy and 1.5 250 micro-Jy have S(70)/S(24) flux ratios comparable to sources with X-ray detections or red rest-frame IR colors, suggesting that warm dust possibly heated by AGN may contribute to the high 24 micron emission. Based on the average 24-160 micron flux densities, nearly all 24 micron-selected galaxies at 1.5 6 x 10^12 solar luminosities are quite rare, with a surface density ~ 30 +/- 10 per sq. deg, corresponding to ~ 2 +/- 1 x 10^-6 Mpc^-3 over 1.5 < z < 2.5.

  17. A Spitzer survey of mid-infrared molecular emission from protoplanetary disks I: Detection rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Meijerink, Rowin; Carr, John S; Najita, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 micron molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H2O, OH, C2H2, HCN and CO2. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H2O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5x10^-4 to 9x10^-3 Lsun, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the 5 transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H...

  18. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  19. Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dweek, Eli; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hwang, Una; Long, Knox X.; Petre, Robert; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P. Frank

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with a neighboring molecular cloud provides a unique opportunity to measure the amount of grain destruction in an SNR shock. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS imaging of the entire SNR at 24, 70, and 160 micrometers shows an extremely good correlation with X-ray emission, indicating that the SNR's IR radiation is dominated by the thermal emission of swept-up interstellar dust, collisionally heated by the hot shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectral observations targeted both the Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) of the SNR where a small cloud has been engulfed by the supernova blast wave and outlying portions of the associated molecular cloud that are yet to be hit by the shock front. Modeling the spectra from both regions reveals the composition and the grain size distribution of the interstellar dust, both in front of and behind the SNR shock front. The comparison shows that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the interstellar medium are destroyed within the BEK, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

  20. Spitzer/MIPS Observations of Stars in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Werner, M W; Mannings, V G; Chen, C; Stauffer, J R; Smith, P S; Song, I; Hines, D; Low, F J

    2008-01-01

    We present Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations at 24 and 70 microns for 30 stars, and at 160 microns for a subset of 12 stars, in the nearby (~30 pc), young (~12 Myr) Beta Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG). In several cases, the new MIPS measurements resolve source confusion and background contamination issues in the IRAS data for this sample. We find that 7 members have 24 micron excesses, implying a debris disk fraction of 23%, and that at least 11 have 70 micron excesses (disk fraction of >=37%). Five disks are detected at 160 microns (out of a biased sample of 12 stars observed), with a range of 160/70 flux ratios. The disk fraction at 24 and 70 microns, and the size of the excesses measured at each wavelength, are both consistent with an "inside-out" infrared excess decrease with time, wherein the shorter-wavelength excesses disappear before longer-wavelength excesses, and consistent with the overall decrease of infrared excess frequency with stellar age, as seen in Spitzer studies of...

  1. Analysis of Spitzer Mid Infrared Spectra of Irradiated Planets: Evidence for Water Vapor?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, Jonathan J

    2007-01-01

    Published mid infrared spectra of transiting planets HD 209458b and HD 189733b, obtained during secondary eclipse by the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, are predominantly featureless. In particular these flux ratio spectra do not exhibit an expected feature arising from water vapor absorption short-ward of 10 microns. Here we suggest that the spectral data for HD 189733b are inconsistent with 8 micron-photometry obtained with Spitzer's InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC), perhaps an indication of problems with the IRS spectra from 7.5-10 microns. The IRAC data, along with previously published secondary eclipse photometry for HD 189733b, are in excellent agreement with a one-dimensional model of HD 189733b that clearly predicts water absorption. We are not able to draw firm conclusions regarding the IRS data for HD 209458b, but spectra predicted by 1D and 3D atmospheres models fit the data adequately, without adjustment of the water abundance or reliance on cloud opacity. We argue that...

  2. Ground-based Optical and SPITZER Infrared Imaging Observations of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner

    CERN Document Server

    Pittichova, Jana; Kelley, Michael S; Reach, William T

    2008-01-01

    We present ground-based optical and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared imaging observations of the ecliptic (Jupiter-family) comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, the parent body of the Draconid meteor stream, during its 2005 apparition. Onset of nucleus activity occurred at a pre-perihelion heliocentric distance, 3.3 AU following a logarithmic slope with heliocentric distance -2.04. Coma colors, (V-R) = 0.524 +/- 0.003, (R-I) = 0.487 +/- 0.004 are redder than solar, yet comparable to colors derived for other Jupiter-family comets. A nucleus radius of 1.82 +/- 0.05 km is derived from photometry at quiescence. Spitzer images post-perihelion exhibit an extensive coma with a prominent dust tail, where excess emission (over the dust continuum) in the 4.5 micron IRAC image arises from volatile gaseous CO and/or CO2. No dust trail was detected (3-sigma surface brightness upper-limit of 0.3 MJy/sr/pixel) along the projected velocity vector of comet 21P in the MIPS 24 micron image suggesting that the number density of trail par...

  3. Multiple Asteroid Systems: Dimensions and Thermal Properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and Ground-Based Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marchis, F; Emery, J P; Mueller, M; Baek, M; Pollock, J; Assafin, M; Martins, R Vieira; Berthier, J; Vachier, F; Cruikshank, D P; Lim, L; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; LaCluyz, A

    2016-01-01

    Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the observations and reliable estimates of their absolute magnitudes. The extracted mid-IR spectra were analyzed using a modified standard thermal model (STM) and a thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account the shape and geometry of the large primary at the time of the Spitzer observation. We derived a reliable estimate of the size, albedo, and beaming factor for each of these asteroids, representing three main taxonomic groups: C, S, and X. For large (volume-equivalent system diameter Deq $\\lt$ 130 km) binary asteroids, the TPM analysis indicates a low thermal inertia ($\\Gamma$ < $\\sim$100 J s-1/2K-1m-2) and their emissivity spectra display strong mineral features, implying that they are covered with a thick layer of thermally insulating regolith. The smaller (surface-equivalent system diameter Deff $\\lt$17 km) asteroids also show some emission lines of minerals, but they are signif...

  4. A SPITZER VIEW OF STAR FORMATION IN THE CYGNUS X NORTH COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new images and photometry of the massive star-forming complex Cygnus X obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. A combination of IRAC, MIPS, UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey, and Two Micron All Sky Survey data are used to identify and classify young stellar objects (YSOs). Of the 8231 sources detected exhibiting infrared excess in Cygnus X North, 670 are classified as class I and 7249 are classified as class II. Using spectra from the FAST Spectrograph at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory and Hectospec on the MMT, we spectrally typed 536 sources in the Cygnus X complex to identify the massive stars. We find that YSOs tend to be grouped in the neighborhoods of massive B stars (spectral types B0 to B9). We present a minimal spanning tree analysis of clusters in two regions in Cygnus X North. The fraction of infrared excess sources that belong to clusters with ≥10 members is found to be 50%-70%. Most class II objects lie in dense clusters within blown out H II regions, while class I sources tend to reside in more filamentary structures along the bright-rimmed clouds, indicating possible triggered star formation.

  5. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars - The Spitzer view

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, A; Henning, Th; Acke, B; Ancker, M E van den; Meeus, G; Dominik, C; Min, M; Tielens, A G G M; Waters, L B F M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validity of standard protoplanetary dust models and studied grain growth and crystal formation. On the basis of the analyzed spectra, the major constituents of protoplanetary dust around Herbig Ae/Be stars are amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry, crystalline forsterite and enstatite and silica. No other solid state features, indicating other abundant dust species, are present in the Spitzer spectra. Deviations of the synthetic spectra from the observations are most likely related to grain shape effects and uncertainties in the iron content of the dust grains. Our analysis revealed that larger grains are more abundant in the disk atmosphere of flatter disks than in that of flared disks, indicating t...

  6. Spitzer observations of MAMBO galaxies: weeding out active nuclei in starbursting proto-ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Serjeant, S; Bertoldi, F; Egami, E; Mortier, A M J; Alonso-Herrero, A; Barmby, P; Bei, L; Dole, H; Engelbracht, C W; Fazio, G G; Frayer, D T; Gordon, K D; Hines, D C; Huang, J S; Le Floc'h, E; Misselt, K A; Miyazaki, S; Morrison, J E; Papovich, C; Pérez-González, P G; Rieke, M J; Rieke, G H; Rigby, J; Rigopoulou, D; Smail, I; Wilson, G; Willner, S P

    2004-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations in five wavebands between 3.6 and 24um of an unbiased sample of 9 luminous, dusty galaxies selected at 1200um by the MAMBO camera on the IRAM 30-m telescope, a population akin to the well-known submm or `SCUBA' galaxies (hereafter SMGs). Owing to the coarse resolution of submm/mm instrumentation, SMGs have traditionally been difficult to identify at other wavelengths. We compare our multi-wavelength catalogs to show that the overlap between 24 and 1200um must be close to complete at these flux levels. We find that all (4/4) of the most secure >=4sigma SMGs have robust >=4sigma counterparts at 1.4GHz, while the fraction drops to 7/9 using all >=3sigma SMGs. We show that combining mid-IR and marginal (>=3sigma) radio detections provides plausible identifications in the remaining cases, enabling us to identify the complete sample. Accretion onto an obscured central engine is betrayed by the shape of the mid-IR continuum emission for several sources, confirming Spitzer's potential ...

  7. Spitzer and JCMT Observations of the Active Galactic Nucleus in the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594)

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D; Joseph, R D; Kennicutt, R C; Murphy, E J; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D T; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-160 micron images, Spitzer mid-infrared spectra, and JCMT SCUBA 850 micron images of the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594), an Sa galaxy with a 10^9 M_solar low luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). The brightest infrared sources in the galaxy are the nucleus and the dust ring. The spectral energy distribution of the AGN demonstrates that, while the environment around the AGN is a prominent source of mid-infrared emission, it is a relatively weak source of far-infrared emission, as had been inferred for AGN in previous research. The weak nuclear 160 micron emission and the negligible polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from the nucleus also implies that the nucleus is a site of only weak star formation activity and the nucleus contains relatively little cool interstellar gas needed to fuel such activity. We propose that this galaxy may be representative of a subset of low ionization nuclear emission region galaxies that are in a quiescent AGN phase because of the lack of gas needed to...

  8. Spitzer IRAC Sparsely Sampled Phase Curve of the Exoplanet WASP-14b

    CERN Document Server

    Krick, J E; Carey, S; von Braun, K; Kane, S R; Ciardi, D; Plavchan, P; Wong, I; Lowrance, P

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a high Spitzer IRAC oversubscription rate, we present a new technique of randomly and sparsely sampling phase curves of hot Jupiters. Snapshot phase curves are enabled by technical advances in precision pointing as well as careful characterization of a portion of the central pixel on the array. This method allows for observations which are a factor of roughly two more efficient than full phase curve observations, and are furthermore easier to insert into the Spitzer observing schedule. We present our pilot study from this program using the exoplanet WASP-14b. Data of this system were taken both as a sparsely sampled phase curve as well as a staring mode phase curve. Both datasets as well as snapshot style observations of a calibration star are used to validate this technique. By fitting our WASP-14b phase snapshot dataset, we successfully recover physical parameters for the transit and eclipse depths as well as amplitude and maximum and minimum of the phase curve shape of this slightly eccentric ...

  9. Spitzer Microlens Measurement of a Massive Remnant in a Well-separated Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Han, C.; Bozza, V.; Friedmann, M.; Hundertmark, M.; and; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Kerr, T.; Pogge, R. W.; Varricatt, W.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Zhu, W.; Spitzer Team; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; OGLE Group; Choi, J.-Y.; Park, H.; Jung, Y. K.; Shin, I.-G.; Albrow, M. D.; Park, B.-G.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; KMTNet Group; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Wise Group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bachelet, E.; Dominik, M.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, Keith; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Menzies, J.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Schmidt, R.; Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.; Mao, S.; Dong, Subo; RoboNet; D'Ago, G.; Scarpetta, G.; Verma, P.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kerins, E.; Skottfelt, J.; MiNDSTEp

    2015-12-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having M1 > 1.35 M⊙ (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH). The system has a projected separation r⊥ = 6.1 ± 0.4 AU and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the “microlens parallax” effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from Spitzer, which lay at 1.25 AU projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near-infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30 m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing BHs and NSs in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous companions. In particular, we discuss lessons that can be applied to future Spitzer and Kepler K2 microlensing parallax observations.

  10. Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, T; Woodward, C E; Roellig, T L; Smith, N; Rudnick, L R; Polomski, E F; Davidson, K; Yuen, L; Onaka, T; Temim, Tea; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Smith, Nathan; Rudnick, Lawrence R.; Polomski, Elisha F.; Davidson, Kris; Yuen, Lunming; Onaka, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We present 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, and 70 micron images of the Crab Nebula obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS cameras, Low- and High-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of selected positions within the nebula, and a near-infrared ground-based image made in the light of [Fe II]1.644 micron. The 8.0 micron image, made with a bandpass that includes [Ar II]7.0 micron, resembles the general morphology of visible H-alpha and near-IR [Fe II] line emission, while the 3.6 and 4.5 micron images are dominated by continuum synchrotron emission. The 24 micron and 70 micron images show enhanced emission that may be due to line emission or the presence of a small amount of warm dust in the nebula on the order of less than 1% of a solar mass. The ratio of the 3.6 and 4.5 micron images reveals a spatial variation in the synchrotron power law index ranging from approximately 0.3 to 0.8 across the nebula. Combining this information with optical and X-ray synchrotron images, we derive a broadband spectrum that re...

  11. Spitzer--IRAC Imagery and Photometry of Ultracompact HII Regions With Extended Emission

    CERN Document Server

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Grave, J M C; Kumar, M S N; Trinidad, M A; Kurtz, S; Kemp, S; Franco, J; Quevedo, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a morphological study performed to a sample of Ultracompact (UC) HII regions with Extended Emission (EE) using Spitzer--IRAC imagery and 3.6 cm VLA conf. D radio-continuum (RC) maps. Some examples of the comparison between maps and images are presented. Usually there is an IR point source counterpart to the peak(s) of RC emission, at the position of the UC source. We find that the predominant EE morphology is the cometary, and in most cases is coincident with IR emission at 8.0 $\\mu$m. Preliminary results of Spitzer--IRAC photometry of a sub-sample of 13 UC HII regions with EE based on GLIMPSE legacy data are also presented. Besides, individual IRAC photometry was performed to 19 UC sources within these 13 regions. We show that UC sources lie on specific locus, both in IRAC color-color and AM-product diagnostic diagrams. Counts of young stellar sources are presented for each region, and we conclude that a proportion of ~ 2%, ~10%, and ~88% of sources in the UC HII regions with EE are...

  12. An investigation of the submillimeter background radiation using SCUBA and Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S; Ashby, M L N; Huang, J S; Webb, T M A; Barmby, P; Lilly, S; Brodwin, M; McCracken, H; Egami, E; Fazio, G G

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the redshift dependence of the contribution to the extragalactic far-infrared/sub-millimeter background from galaxies detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 8um and 24um. Using seven-band optical to mid-infrared photometry, we estimate photometric redshifts for the Spitzer sources which appear to be mostly L* galaxies at a median redshift of z=1.0. These sources, extracted from deep 8um and 24um mosaics of the CUDSS 14-hour field with 5sigma limits of 5.8uJy and 70uJy respectively, exhibit significant 850um and 450um emission as observed by SCUBA. At 850um, after removing >=4sigma sources and those securely identified in our previous cross-matching paper, we measure stacked flux at the significance level of 4.4sigma and 2.9sigma from the full 8um and 24um galaxy catalogue respectively. At 450um, flux is detected from all 8um galaxies at the level of 3.5sigma, while there is no significant emission from the 24um galaxies. We find that the 850um flux is emitted almost exclusively at z>~1.3 fr...

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of optoelectronic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with standard spectroscopic techniques which can be used to analyze semiconductor samples or devices, in both, bulk, micrometer and submicrometer scale. The book aims helping experimental physicists and engineers to choose the right analytical spectroscopic technique in order to get specific information about their specific demands. For this purpose, the techniques including technical details such as apparatus and probed sample region are described. More important, also the expected outcome from experiments is provided. This involves also the link to theory, that is not subject of this book, and the link to current experimental results in the literature which are presented in a review-like style. Many special spectroscopic techniques are introduced and their relationship to the standard techniques is revealed. Thus the book works also as a type of guide or reference book for people researching in optical spectroscopy of semiconductors.

  14. Integrated analysis of spectroscopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic data are analysed by fitting a collisional-radiative model to the emission spectrum of a low-temperature plasma in the wavelength range of visible light. The inference procedure employs Bayesian probability theory and accounts for all measurement and model uncertainties. This allows for the validation of model parameters, such as atomic data obtained in recent close-coupling calculations, which are ore only partly or not at all accessible by beam-type experiments. Initial results indicate that the spectroscopic data contain significant information about some Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission of less prominent spectral lines. (author)

  15. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  16. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Spectroscopy of the 10 Myr Old EF Cha Debris Disk: Evidence for Phyllosilicate-rich Dust in the Terrestrial Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Lisse, Carey M.; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.

    2011-06-01

    We describe Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopic observations of the ~10 Myr old star, EF Cha. Compositional modeling of the spectra from 5 μm to 35 μm confirms that it is surrounded by a luminous debris disk with LD /L sstarf ~ 10-3, containing dust with temperatures between 225 K and 430 K, characteristic of the terrestrial zone. The EF Cha spectrum shows evidence for many solid-state features, unlike most cold, low-luminosity debris disks but like some other 10-20 Myr old luminous, warm debris disks (e.g., HD 113766A). The EF Cha debris disk is unusually rich in a species or combination of species whose emissivities resemble that of finely powdered, laboratory-measured phyllosilicate species (talc, saponite, and smectite), which are likely produced by aqueous alteration of primordial anhydrous rocky materials. The dust and, by inference, the parent bodies of the debris also contain abundant amorphous silicates and metal sulfides, and possibly water ice. The dust's total olivine to the pyroxene ratio of ~2 also provides evidence of aqueous alteration. The large mass volume of grains with sizes comparable to or below the radiation blow-out limit implies that planetesimals may be colliding at a rate high enough to yield the emitting dust but not so high as to devolatize the planetesimals via impact processing. Because phyllosilicates are produced by the interactions between anhydrous rock and warm, reactive water, EF Cha's disk is a likely signpost for water delivery to the terrestrial zone of a young planetary system.

  17. NEW DEBRIS DISKS AROUND YOUNG, LOW-MASS STARS DISCOVERED WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 24 μm and 70 μm Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of 70 A through M-type dwarfs with estimated ages from 8 Myr to 1.1 Gyr, as part of a Spitzer guaranteed time program, including a re-analysis of some previously published source photometry. Our sample is selected from stars with common youth indicators such as lithium abundance, X-ray activity, chromospheric activity, and rapid rotation. We compare our MIPS observations to empirically derived Ks -[24] colors as a function of the stellar effective temperature to identify 24 μm and 70 μm excesses. We place constraints or upper limits on dust temperatures and fractional infrared luminosities with a simple blackbody dust model. We confirm the previously published 70 μm excesses for HD 92945, HD 112429, and AU Mic, and provide updated flux density measurements for these sources. We present the discovery of 70 μm excesses for five stars: HD 7590, HD 10008, HD 59967, HD 73350, and HD 135599. HD 135599 is also a known Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) excess source, and we confirm the excess at 24 μm. We also present the detection of 24 μm excesses for 10 stars: HD 10008, GJ 3400A, HD 73350, HD 112429, HD 123998, HD 175742, AT Mic, BO Mic, HD 358623 and Gl 907.1. We find that large 70 μm excesses are less common around stars with effective temperatures of less than 5000 K (3.7+7.6-1.1%) than around stars with effective temperatures between 5000 K and 6000 K (21.4+9.5-5.7%), despite the cooler stars having a younger median age in our sample (12 Myr vs. 340 Myr). We find that the previously reported excess for TWA 13A at 70 μm is due to a nearby background galaxy, and the previously reported excess for HD 177724 is due to saturation of the near-infrared photometry used to predict the mid-infrared stellar flux contribution. In the Appendix, we present an updated analysis of dust grain removal timescales due to grain-grain collisions and radiation pressure, Poynting

  18. A Combined Spitzer IRAC/MIPS/IRS and XMM-Newton Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audard, Marc; Briggs, Kevin; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Glauser, Adrian; Guedel, Manuel; Morris, Patrick; Padgett, Deborah; Rebull, Luisa; Skinner, Stephen; Stapelfedlt, Karl; Wolf, Sebastian

    2005-06-01

    We propose to mine the Spitzer IRS data archive to complement our Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and XMM-Newton X-ray surveys of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC). We will combine the Spitzer data with those obtained in the X-ray regime with XMM-Newton. Our goals are i) to reconstruct the detailed spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects in TMC. Our disk models will provide a comprehensive description of the circumstellar disks in young stars; ii) to combine infrared dust and gas modeling with X-ray spectroscopy. We will derive estimates of the total gas masses, of gas-to-dust ratios, and of disk surface ionization; iii) to determine the role of X-ray irradiation for heating, ionization, and disk chemistry. The Spitzer IRAC, MIPS, and IRS data in combination with the XMM-Newton data provide a unique opportunity to study in detail the structure and composition of circumstellar disks and envelopes in stars from the deeply embedded stage to the accretion-free stage of weak-lined T Tauri stars, and to determine the role of X-rays in these systems.

  19. Palomar/triplespec observations of Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm circumstellar shells: Unveiling the natures of their central sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagey, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petric, A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: nflagey@jpl.nasa.gov [Gemini North Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopic observations of the central sources in 17 circumstellar shells from a sample of more than 400 'bubbles' discovered in the Spitzer/MIPSGAL 24 μm survey of the Galactic plane and in the Cygnus-X region. To identify the natures of these shells, we have obtained J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of ∼2600 of the stars at their centers. We observed 14 MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs), WR149, and 2 objects in the Cygnus-X region (WR138a and BD+43 3710), our sample being about 2.5 mag fainter in the K band than previous studies of the central sources of MBs. We use spectroscopic diagnostics and spectral libraries of late- and early-type stars to constrain the natures of our targets. We find five late-type giants. The equivalent widths of their CO 2.29 μm features allow us to determine the spectral types of the stars and hence derive the extinction along the line of sight, distance, and physical size of the shells. We also find 12 early-type stars: in 9 MBs and the 3 comparison objects. We find that the subtype inferred from the near-IR for WR138a (WN9h) and WR149 (WN5h) agrees with that derived from optical observations. A careful analysis of the literature and the environment of BD+43 3710 allows us to rule out the carbon star interpretation previously suggested. Our near-IR spectrum suggests that it is a B5 supergiant. At the centers of the nine MBs, we find a WC5-6 star possibly of low mass, a candidate O5-6 V star, a B0 supergiant, a B/A-type giant, and five luminous blue variable (LBV) candidates. We also report the detections of emission lines arising from at least two shells with typical extents (∼10''), in agreement with those in the mid-IR. We summarize the findings on the natures of the MBs since their discovery, with 30% of them now known. Most MBs with central sources detected in the near- to mid-IR have been identified and are red and blue giants, supergiants, or stars evolving toward these phases

  20. Star Formation in Distant Red Galaxies: Spitzer observations in the Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, T; Egami, E; Fazio, G; Franx, M; Gawiser, E; Herrera, D H; Huang, J; Labbé, I; Lira, P; Marchesini, D; Maza, J; Quadri, R; Rudnick, G; Van der Werf, P P; Webb, Tracy; Dokkum, Pieter van; Egami, Eiichi; Fazio, Giovanni; Franx, Marijn; Gawiser, Eric; Herrera, David; Huang, Jiasheng; Labbe, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Marchesini, Danilo; Maza, Jose; Quadri, Ryan; Rudnick, Gregory; Werf, Paul van der

    2005-01-01

    We present Spitzer 24micron imaging of 1.5 40uJy, and conclude that the bulk of the DRG population are dusty active galaxies. A mid-infrared (MIR) color analysis with IRAC data suggests that the MIR fluxes are not dominated by buried AGN, and we interpret the high detection rate as evidence for a high average star formation rate of = 130+/-30 M/yr. From this, we infer that DRGs are important contributors to the cosmic star formation rate density at z ~ 2, at a level of \\~0.02 M/yr/Mpc^3 to our completeness limit of K_AB = 22.9 mag

  1. Observations of Hot-Jupiter occultations combining Spitzer and Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutson H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the status of an ongoing program which aim at measuring occultations by their parent stars of transiting hot giant exoplanets discovered recently by Kepler. The observations are obtained in the near infrared with WarmSpitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of measuring the mid-occultation times and the relative occultation depths in each band-passes. Our measurements of occultations depths in the Kepler bandpass is turned into the determination of the optical geometric albedo Ag in this wavelength domain. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations. We combine the optical and near infrared planetary emergent fluxes to obtain broad band emergent spectra of individual planet. We finally compare these spectra to hot Jupiter atmospheric models in order broadly distinguishing these atmospheres between different classes of models.

  2. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN THE EJECTA OF OLD CLASSICAL NOVAE FROM LATE-EPOCH SPITZER SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared IRS spectra, supplemented by ground-based optical observations, of the classical novae V1974 Cyg, V382 Vel, and V1494 Aql more than 11, 8, and 4 years after outburst, respectively. The spectra are dominated by forbidden emission from neon and oxygen, though in some cases, there are weak signatures of magnesium, sulfur, and argon. We investigate the geometry and distribution of the late time ejecta by examination of the emission line profiles. Using nebular analysis in the low-density regime, we estimate lower limits on the abundances in these novae. In V1974 Cyg and V382 Vel, our observations confirm the abundance estimates presented by other authors and support the claims that these eruptions occurred on ONe white dwarfs (WDs). We report the first detection of neon emission in V1494 Aql and show that the system most likely contains a CO WD.

  3. Nova V2362 Cygni (Nova Cygni 2006): Spitzer, Swift, and Ground-Based Spectral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David K.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Mazuk, S.; Woodward, Charles; Gehrz, Robert; Rayner, John; Helton, L.A.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Rudy, Richard J.; Russell, Ray W.; Osborne, Julian P.; Page, Kim; Pearson, Richard; Wagner, R. Mark; Puetter, Richard C.; Perry, Raleigh B.; Schwarz, Greg; Vanlandingham, Karen; Black, John; Bode, Michael; Evans, Aneurin; Geballe, Thomas; Greenhouse, Matthew; Hauschildt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Nova V2362 Cygni has undergone a number of very unusual changes. Ground-based spectroscopy initially revealed a normal sequence of events: the object faded and its near-infrared emission lines gradually shifted to higher excitation conditions until about day 100 when the optical fading reversed and the object slowly brightened. This was accompanied by a rise in the Swift X-ray telescope flux and a sudden shift in excitation of the visible and IR spectrum back to low levels. The new lower excitation spectrum revealed broad line widths and many P-Cygni profiles, all indicative of the ejection of a second shell. Eventually, dust formed, the X-ray brightness -- apparently unaffected by dust formation -- peaked and then declined, and the object faded at all wavelengths. The Spitzer dust spectra revealed a number of solid-state emission features that, at this time, are not identified.

  4. Spitzer Mid-infrared Study of Compact HII Regions in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Chatzopoulos, E

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the mid-infrared properties and dust content of a sample of 27 HII ``blobs'', a rare class of compact HII regions in the Magellanic Clouds. A unique feature of this sample is that even though these HII regions are of high and low excitation they have nearly the same physical sizes ~1.5-3 pc. We base our analysis on archival 3-8 microns infrared imagery obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that despite their youth, sub-solar metallicity and varied degrees of excitation, the mid-infrared colors of these regions are similar to those of typical HII regions. Higher excitation ``blobs'' (HEBs) display stronger 8 micron emission and redder colors than their low-excitation counterparts (LEBs).

  5. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations in Deep Spitzer IRAC Images: Data Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, R G; Moseley, S H; Mather, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the data reduction and analysis procedures that have been employed in our previous studies of spatial fluctuation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) using deep Spitzer IRAC observations. The self-calibration we apply removes a strong instrumental signal from the fluctuations which would otherwise corrupt our results. The procedures and results for masking bright sources, and modeling faint sources down to levels set by the instrumental noise are presented. Various tests are performed to demonstrate that the resulting power spectra of these fields are not dominated by instrumental or procedural effects. These tests indicate that the large scale (>~30') fluctuations that remain in the deepest fields are not directly related to the galaxies that are bright enough to be individually detected. We provide the parameterization of these power spectra in terms of separate instrument noise, shot noise, and power law components. Our measurements of spatial fluctuations ...

  6. The Early Years: Lyman Spitzer, Jr. and the Physics of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the interstellar medium and the early work of Lyman Spitzer, Jr. are reviewed here in the context of the remarkable observation in the early 1950's that star formation continues in the present age. Prior to this observation, stars were thought to have formed only at the beginning of the universe. The main debate in the 1930's was whether stars had the young age of ~3 Gyr suggested by the expansion of the universe and the meteorites, or the old age of 10^{13} yr suggested by thermalized stellar motions. The adoption of Ambartsumian's claim of modern-day star formation was slow and mixed in the early 1950's. While some astronomers like Adriaan Blaauw immediately followed, adding more from their own data, others were slow to change. By the end of the 1950's, Lyman had deduced the basic theory for star formation that we would recognize today.

  7. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  8. FINDING {eta} CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S., E-mail: khan@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby ({approx}< 4 Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs. We find 34 candidates with a flat or rising mid-IR spectral energy distributions toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths that emit >10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 {mu}m) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 {+-} 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of {eta} Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like {eta} Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M{sub Sun} star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 {mu}m, allowing identification of {eta} Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  9. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a min, increases with stellar luminosity, L *, but the dependence of a min on L * is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation

  10. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. I. CONTINUUM ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, Guaranteed Time Observers, Legacy Teams, and General Observers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates. We calibrated the spectra of 571 candidates, including 64 new IRAS and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) debris disks candidates, modeled their stellar photospheres, and produced a catalog of excess spectra for unresolved debris disks. For 499 targets with IRS excess but without strong spectral features (and a subset of 420 targets with additional MIPS 70 μm observations), we modeled the IRS (and MIPS data) assuming that the dust thermal emission was well-described using either a one- or two-temperature blackbody model. We calculated the probability for each model and computed the average probability to select among models. We found that the spectral energy distributions for the majority of objects (∼66%) were better described using a two-temperature model with warm (T gr ∼ 100-500 K) and cold (T gr ∼ 50-150 K) dust populations analogous to zodiacal and Kuiper Belt dust, suggesting that planetary systems are common in debris disks and zodiacal dust is common around host stars with ages up to ∼1 Gyr. We found that younger stars generally have disks with larger fractional infrared luminosities and higher grain temperatures and that higher-mass stars have disks with higher grain temperatures. We show that the increasing distance of dust around debris disks is inconsistent with self-stirred disk models, expected if these systems possess planets at 30-150 AU. Finally, we illustrate how observations of debris disks may be used to constrain the radial dependence of material in the minimum mass solar nebula

  11. High Contrast Imaging with Spitzer: Constraining the Frequency of Giant Planets out to 1000 au Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Stephen; Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C.

    2016-06-01

    We report results of a re-analysis of archival Spitzer IRAC direct imaging surveys encompassing a variety of nearby stars. Our sample is generated from the combined observations of 73 young stars (median age, distance, spectral type = 85 Myr, 23.3 pc, G5) and 48 known exoplanet host stars with unconstrained ages (median distance, spectral type = 22.6 pc, G5). While the small size of Spitzer provides a lower resolution than 8 m class AO-assisted ground-based telescopes, which have been used for constraining the frequency of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 10–102 au, its exquisite infrared sensitivity provides the ability to place unmatched constraints on the planetary populations at wider separations. Here we apply sophisticated high-contrast techniques to our sample in order to remove the stellar point-spread function and to open up sensitivity to planetary mass companions down to 5″ separations. This enables sensitivity to 0.5–13 M J planets at physical separations on the order of 102–103 au, allowing us to probe a parameter space that has not previously been systematically explored to any similar degree of sensitivity. Based on a color and proper motion analysis, we do not record any planetary detections. Exploiting this enhanced survey sensitivity, employing Monte Carlo simulations with a Bayesian approach, and assuming a mass distribution of {dn}/{dm}\\propto {m}-1.31, we constrain (at 95% confidence) a population of 0.5–13 M J planets at separations of 100–1000 au with an upper frequency limit of 9%.

  12. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: pcubillos@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  13. The Spitzer/Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Berger, Edo; Butler, Nathaniel; Cenko, S. Bradley; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cucchiara, Antonino; Ellis, Richard; Fong, Wen-fai; Fruchter, Andrew; Fynbo, Johan; Gehrels, Neil; Graham, John; Greiner, Jochen; Hjorth, Jens; Hunt, Leslie; Jakobsson, Pall; Kruehler, Thomas; Laskar, Tanmoy; Le Floc'h, Emerich; Levan, Andrew; Levesque, Emily; Littlejohns, Owen; Malesani, Daniele; Michalowski, Michal; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Salvaterra, Ruben; Schulze, Steve; Schady, Patricia; Tanvir, Nial; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Vergani, Susanna; Watson, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts act as beacons to the sites of star-formation in the distant universe. GRBs reveal galaxies too faint and star-forming regions too dusty to characterize in detail using any other method, and provide a powerful independent constraint on the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density at high-redshift. However, a full understanding of the GRB phenomenon and its relation to cosmic star-formation requires connecting the observations obtained from GRBs to the properties of the galaxies hosting them. The large majority of GRBs originate at moderate to high redshift (z>1) and Spitzer has proven crucial for understanding the host population, given its unique ability to observe the rest-frame NIR and its unrivaled sensitivity and efficiency. We propose to complete a comprehensive public legacy survey of the Swift GRB host population to build on our earlier successes and push beyond the statistical limits of previous, smaller efforts. Our survey will enable a diverse range of GRB and galaxy science including: (1) to quantitatively and robustly map the connection between GRBs and cosmic star-formation to constrain the GRB progenitor and calibrate GRB rate-based measurements of the high-z cosmic star-formation rate; (2) to constrain the luminosity function of star-forming galaxies at the faint end and at high redshift; (3) to understand how the ISM properties seen in absorption in high-redshift galaxies unveiled by GRBs - metallicity, dust column, dust properties - connect to global properties of the host galaxies such as mass and age. Building on a decade of experience at both observatories, our observations will create an enduring joint Swift-Spitzer legacy sample - providing the definitive resource with which to examine all aspects of the GRB/galaxy connection for years to come and setting the stage for intensive JWST follow-up of the most interesting sources from our sample.

  14. A deep Spitzer survey of circumstellar disks in the young double cluster, h and χ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze very deep Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) photometry of ∼12, 500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and χ Persei, building upon our earlier, shallower Spitzer Cycle 1 studies. Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 μm and 24 μm, indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 μm excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems, but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 μm reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, though similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide constraints. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nominal cluster ages, the e-folding times (τ0) for the frequency of warm dust and gas are 2.75 Myr and 1.75 Myr, respectively. Assuming a revised set of ages for some clusters, these timescales increase to 5.75 and 3.75 Myr, respectively, implying a significantly longer typical protoplanetary disk lifetime than previously thought. In both cases, the transitional disk duration, averaged over multiple evolutionary pathways, is ≈1 Myr. Finally, 24 μm excess frequencies for 4-6 M ☉ stars appear lower than for 1-2.5 M ☉ stars in other 10-30 Myr old clusters.

  15. Massive galaxies at 1-6 from the Spitzer-SERVS plus VISTA-VIDEO surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajina, Anna; Capozzi, Diego; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Pforr, Janine; Messias, Hugo; Farrah, Duncan; Gonzales-Solares, Eduardo; Jarvis, Matt; Marchesini, Danilo; Marchetti, Lucia; Mauduit, Jean-Claude; Vaccari, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    We exploit the uniqueness of the Spitzer Representative Volume Survey (SERVS), which provides Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um imaging down to A 23 for a total area of 18 sq.deg., to probe massive galaxies out to 6 within a representative cosmic volume. We focus on the 1.5 sq.deg. area inside the XMM-LSS field, where we combine SERVS with VISTA-VIDEO ZYJHK_S data (down to A 24 at H and K_S). We select extremely red galaxies as either those with H-m3.6>1.6 (HIEROs) and/or K_S-m4.5>1.6 (KIEROs), and calculate their photometric redshifts and stellar population properties using different stellar population models and fitting codes. We find that (H/K)IEROs have a redshift distribution that covers 1-6; are massive (median log(Mstar/Msun)=10.8); and dusty (median E(B-V)=0.4). They have significant star-formation rates (typically 10-100Msun/yr) based on both our stellar population fitting and the fact that ~50% have MIPS24\\um and/or SPIRE250um detections. A comparison with recent stellar mass function estimates, suggests that (H/K)IERO samples contain a large fraction of the Mstar>10^11Msun galaxies at 2-5. Our study also reveals five z>5 candidates, all with Mstar>10^11Msun. Our results suggest that, over the full area of overlap between SERVS and VIDEO, we will find >10,000 (H/K)IEROs, including a few tens of z>5 massive galaxies, allowing an exceptional probe into the build-up of the stellar mass in the universe.

  16. FINDING η CAR ANALOGS IN NEARBY GALAXIES USING SPITZER. I. CANDIDATE SELECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby (∼105 L☉ in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 μm) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 ± 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of η Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like η Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M☉ star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 μm, allowing identification of η Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  17. The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey: A Mid-infrared Atlas of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, N. J.; Zezas, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Lanz, L.; Smith, Howard. A.; Willner, S. P.; Klein, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Spitzer Interacting Galaxies Survey is a sample of 103 nearby galaxies in 48 systems, selected using association likelihoods and therefore free from disturbed morphology biases. All galaxies have been observed with Infrared Array Camera and MIPS 24 μm bands from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This catalog presents the global flux densities and colors of all systems and correlations between the interacting systems and their specific star formation rate (sSFR). This sample contains a wide variety of galaxy interactions with systems ranging in mass, mass ratios, and gas-content as well as interaction strength. This study seeks to identify the process of triggering star formation in galaxy interactions, therefore, we focus on the non-active galactic nucleus spiral galaxies only. From this subset of 70 spiral galaxies we have determined that this sample has enhanced sSFR compared to a sample of non-interacting field galaxies. Through optical data we have classified each system by “interaction strength” the strongly interacting (Stage 4) galaxies have higher sSFR values than the weakly (Stage 2) and moderately (Stage 3) interacting systems. However, the Stage 2 and 3 systems have statistically identical sSFR properties, despite the lack of optical interaction signatures exhibited by the Stage 2 galaxies. We suggest that the similarity of sSFR in these stages could be a consequence of some of these Stage 2 systems actually being post-perigalactic and having had sufficient time for their tidal features to fade to undetectable levels. This interpretation is consistent with the correlation of sSFR with separation, which we have determined to have little variation up to 100 kpc.

  18. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  19. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity

  20. Spitzer Space Telescope Leads NASA's Great Observatories to Uncover Black Holes and Other Hidden Objects in the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers unveiled the deepest images from NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope today, and announced the detection of distant objects -- including several supermassive black holes -- that are nearly invisible in even the deepest images from telescopes operating at other wavelengths. Mark Dickinson, of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz., and Principal Investigator for the new observations, says, "With these ultra-deep Spitzer images, we are easily seeing objects throughout time and space, out to redshifts of 6 or more, where the most distant known galaxies lie. Moreover, we see some objects that are completely invisible to optical telescopes, but whose existence was hinted at by previous observations from the Chandra and Hubble Observatories." Seven of the objects detected in the Spitzer images may be part of the long-sought population of "missing" supermassive black holes that powered the bright cores of the earliest active galaxies. The discovery finally completes a full accounting of all the X-ray sources seen in one of the deepest surveys of the universe ever taken. This detective story required no less than the combined power of NASA's three Great Observatories in space -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Each observatory works with different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, from the high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects, through visible light with Hubble, and into the infrared with Spitzer. The combination of these telescopes yields far more information than any single instrument would. All three telescopes peered out to distances of up to 13 billion light-years toward a small patch of the southern sky containing more than 10,000 galaxies, in a coordinated project called the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (or GOODS, for short). Chandra images detected over two hundred X-ray sources believed to be supermassive black holes lying in the centers of young

  1. A Precise Determination of the Mid-Infrared Interstellar Extinction Law Based on the APOGEE Spectroscopic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Mengyao; Gao, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen

    2016-01-01

    A precise measure of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction law is crucial to the investigation of the properties of interstellar dust, especially of the grains in the large size end. Based on the stellar parameters derived from the SDSS-III/APOGEE spectroscopic survey, we select a large sample of G- and K-type giants as the tracers of the Galactic mid-infrared extinction. We calculate the intrinsic stellar color excesses from the stellar effective temperatures and use them to determine the mid-infrared extinction for a given line of sight. For the entire sky of the Milky Way surveyed by APOGEE, we derive the extinction (relative to the K$_{\\rm S}$ band at wavelength $\\lambda=2.16\\mu$m) for the four \\emph{WISE} bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22$\\mu$m, the four \\emph{Spitzer}/IRAC bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8$\\mu$m, the \\emph{Spitzer}/MIPS24 band at 23.7$\\mu$m and for the first time, the \\emph{AKARI}/S9W band at 8.23$\\mu$m. Our results agree with previous works in that the extinction curve is flat in the ~3--8$\\m...

  2. Spectroscopic Analysis of Geminid Meteors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří

    Paris: International Meteor Organization, 2010 - (Rendtel, J.), s. 42-51 ISBN 978-2-87355-021-9. [International Meteor Conference, Bereges, France. Bareges (FR), 07.06.2007-10.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Geminid meteors * spectroscopic analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  3. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  4. Multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is an established technique, particularly useful for thickness measurements of thin films. It measures polarization rotation after a single reflection of a beam of light on the measured substrate at a given incidence angle. In this paper, we report the development of multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry where the light beam reflects multiple times on the sample. We have investigated both theoretically and experimentally the effect of sample reflectivity, number of reflections (passes), angles of incidence and detector dynamic range on ellipsometric observables tanΨ and cosΔ. The multiple pass approach provides increased sensitivity to small changes in Ψ and Δ, opening the way for single measurement determination of optical thickness T, refractive index n and absorption coefficient k of thin films, a significant improvement over the existing techniques. Based on our results, we discuss the strengths, the weaknesses and possible applications of this technique. - Highlights: • We present multi-pass spectroscopic ellipsometry (MPSE), a multi-pass approach to ellipsometry. • Different detectors, samples, angles of incidence and number of passes were tested. • N passes improve polarization ratio sensitivity to the power of N. • N reflections improve phase shift sensitivity by a factor of N. • MPSE can significantly improve thickness measurements in thin films

  5. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  6. The Spitzer Microlensing Program as a Probe for Globular Cluster Planets: Analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleski, Radosław; Zhu, Wei; Christie, Grant W.; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE group; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Carey, S.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Pogge, R. W.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Wibking, B.; Yee, J. C.; Spitzer team; Beatty, T. G.; Eastman, J. D.; Drummond, J.; Friedmann, M.; Henderson, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Kaspi, S.; Maoz, D.; McCormick, J.; McCrady, N.; Natusch, T.; Ngan, H.; Porritt, I.; Relles, H. M.; Sliski, D. H.; Tan, T.-G.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Wright, J. T.; μFUN group; Street, R. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Bramich, D. M.; Horne, K.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Menzies, J.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Wambsganss, J.; Schmidt, R.; Cassan, A.; Ranc, C.; Mao, S.; project, RoboNet; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Hundertmark, M. P. G.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Andersen, M. I.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D’Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Rasmussen, R. T.; Scarpetta, G.; Southworth, J.; Surdej, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Verma, P.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.-B.; Wertz, O.; MiNDSTEp group

    2016-05-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters. We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 ({{\\boldsymbol{μ }}}{cl}(N,E)=(+0.36+/- 0.10,+1.42+/- 0.10) {{mas}} {{{yr}}}-1) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters, other potential cluster lens events can be verified using our methodology. Additionally, we find that microlens parallax measured using Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE) photometry is consistent with the value found based on the light curve displacement between the Earth and Spitzer.

  7. Low False-Positive Rate of Kepler Candidates Estimated From A Combination Of Spitzer And Follow-Up Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Ballard, Sarah; Bryson, Stephen T; Knutson, Heather A; Batalha, Natalie M; Borucki, William J; Brown, Timothy M; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) NASA's Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates, yet only a small subset have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) amongst the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 microns. We use these observations to measures the candidate's transit depths and infrared magnitudes. A bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a f...

  8. The Galaxy Mass Function at High-Redshift from the Largest Available Spitzer-Based Survey (SERVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Maraston, Claudia; Lacy, Mark; Capozzi, Diego

    2015-08-01

    We exploit the largest (18 deg2) and deepest (AB = 23.1) galaxy and QSO survey available up to date of five highly observed astronomical fields (SERVS) to derive the galaxy stellar mass function and detailed galaxy properties as a function of cosmic time. SERVS obtained Spitzer 3.6µm and 4.5µm magnitudes for ~1 million galaxies up to redshift ~6, which we complement with multi-wavelength data from other on-going surveys, including VIDEO, GALEX, CFHTLS, UKIDSS, etc. in order to perform full SED fitting to models. The power of Spitzer data is its sensitivity to evolved stars at high-redshift, which allows us to better constrain the galaxy star formation histories. The wide area and depth of SERVS was designed precisely to capture the light from the most massive galaxies up to high-redshift. Results and comparison with the literature will be presented.

  9. The (w)hole survey: an unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; van Terwisga, Sierk; Merin, Bruno; Herczeg, Gregory; Ligterink, Niels F W; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen SED-selected candidates have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased towards the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Using color criteria we have selected a sample of ~150 candidates, and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer and VRIJHK photometry of V582 Mon (Arulanantham+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, N. A.; Herbst, W.; Cody, A. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L. M.; Agol, E.; Windemuth, D.; Marengo, M.; Winn, J. N.; Hamilton, C. M.; Mundt, R.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Gutermuth, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have continued to obtain ground-based optical and near-infrared photometry over the last two years using A Novel Dual Imaging CAMera (ANDICAM) on the 1.3m telescope at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The instrument is operated by the SMARTS consortium. Data were collected almost nightly from 2013 October through 2014 April. Observations were resumed in 2014 September and continued until 2015 April. Each night, four 150s exposures were obtained in each of the three optical bands (VRI) along with 10-15 dithered exposures (30s each) in the near-infrared bands (JHK). All images have a 10.2'*10.2' field of view. The data acquisition and reduction processes are discussed briefly in Appendix A, and a more complete description is given by Windemuth & Herbst 2014 (cat. J/AJ/147/9). The VRIJHK magnitudes from the last two observing seasons have been added to the entire set of CCD data obtained since 1995, which is presented here as Table1. Images of KH 15D were collected with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during six observational runs with five separate PI's spanning three distinct epochs since 2004 (2004 Mar 6 and 2004 Oct 08, PI Giovanni Fazio, Program ID=37; 2004 Oct 5-12 and 2005 Oct 21-29, PI Massimo Marengo, Program ID=3441; 2006 Mar 23-27, PI Eric Agol, Program ID=3469; 2008 Nov 1-2, PI Lucas A. Cieza, Program ID=50773). The fifth set of observations was obtained by the CSI 2264 team (PI=John R. Stauffer, Program ID=61027, 80040) as part of a large campaign to monitor young variable objects in NGC2264 (Cody et al. 2014, cat. J/AJ/147/82). These data were obtained over 28 consecutive days of observation in 2011 December (2011 Dec 3-2012 Jan 1). A final set of observations was obtained on eight nights between 2013 December and 2014 January (2013 Dec 22-2014 Jan 20, PI William Herbst, Program ID=90154, 90098). The full set of Spitzer photometry at all epochs is given in Table3. (2 data files).

  11. EVIDENCE FOR DUST EVOLUTION WITHIN THE TAURUS COMPLEX FROM SPITZER IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer images of the Taurus Complex (TC). We take advantage of the sensitivity and the spatial resolution of the observations to characterize the diffuse infrared (IR) emission across the cloud. This work highlights evidence of dust evolution within the translucent sections of the archetype reference for studies of quiescent molecular clouds. We combine the Spitzer 160 μm and IRAS 100 μm observations to produce a dust temperature map and a far-IR (FIR) dust opacity map at 5' resolution. The average dust temperature is about 14.5 K with a dispersion of ±1 K across the cloud. The FIR dust opacity is tightly correlated with the extinction derived from Two Micron All Sky Survey stellar colors and is a factor of 2 larger than the average value for the diffuse interstellar medium. This opacity increase and the attenuation of the radiation field both contribute to account for the lower emission temperature of the large grains. The structure of the TC significantly changes in the mid-IR (MIR) images that trace emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs). We focus our analysis of the MIR emission to a range of ecliptic latitudes away from the zodiacal bands and where the zodiacal light residuals are small. Within this cloud area, there are no 8 and 24 μm counterparts to the brightest 160 μm emission features. Conversely, the 8 and 24 μm images reveal filamentary structure that is strikingly inconspicuous in the 160 μm and extinction maps. The IR colors vary over subparsec distances across this filamentary structure. We compare the observed colors with model calculations quantifying the impact of the radiation field intensity and the abundance of stochastically heated particles on the dust spectral energy distribution. To match the range of observed colors, we have to invoke variations by a factor of a few of both the interstellar radiation field and the abundance of PAHs and VSGs. We conclude that within this

  12. The climate of HD 189733b from fourteen transits and eclipses measured by Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agol, E.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Cowan, Nicolas B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knutson, Heather A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Deming, Drake; /NASA, Goddard; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Henry, Gregory W.; /Tennessee State U.; Charbonneau, David; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of six transits and six eclipses of the transiting planet system HD 189733 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC camera at 8 microns, as well as a re-analysis of previously published data. We use several novel techniques in our data analysis, the most important of which is a new correction for the detector 'ramp' variation with a double-exponential function which performs better and is a better physical model for this detector variation. Our main scientific findings are: (1) an upper limit on the variability of the day-side planet flux of 2.7% (68% confidence); (2) the most precise set of transit times measured for a transiting planet, with an average accuracy of 3 seconds; (3) a lack of transit-timing variations, excluding the presence of second planets in this system above 20% of the mass of Mars in low-order mean-motion resonance at 95% confidence; (4) a confirmation of the planet's phase variation, finding the night side is 64% as bright as the day side, as well as an upper limit on the night-side variability of 17% (68% confidence); (5) a better correction for stellar variability at 8 micron causing the phase function to peak 3.5 hours before secondary eclipse, confirming that the advection and radiation timescales are comparable at the 8 micron photosphere; (6) variation in the depth of transit, which possibly implies variations in the surface brightness of the portion of the star occulted by the planet, posing a fundamental limit on non-simultaneous multi-wavelength transit absorption measurements of planet atmospheres; (7) a measurement of the infrared limb-darkening of the star, which is in good agreement with stellar atmosphere models; (8) an offset in the times of secondary eclipse of 69 seconds, which is mostly accounted for by a 31 second light travel time delay and 33 second delay due to the shift of ingress and egress by the planet hot spot; this confirms that the phase variation is due to an offset hot

  13. Searching for gas emission lines in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of young stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Skinner, S. L.; Carmona, A.; Glauser, A. M.; Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Our knowledge of circumstellar disks has traditionally been based on studies of dust. However, gas dominates the disk mass and its study is key to our understanding of accretion, outflows, and ultimately planet formation. The Spitzer Space Telescope provides access to gas emission lines in the mid-infrared, providing crucial new diagnostics of the physical conditions in accretion disks and outflows. Aims: We seek to identify gas emission lines in mid-infrared spectra of 64 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus. Using line luminosities and other known star-disk-outflow parameters, we aim to identify correlations that will help to constrain gas heating, excitation mechanisms, and the line formation. Methods: We have based our study on Spitzer observations using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), mainly with the high-resolution modules. Line luminosities (or 3σ upper limits) have been obtained by fitting Gaussian profiles to the lines. We have further searched for correlations between the line luminosities and different parameters related to the star-disk system. Results: We have detected H2 (17.03, 28.22 μm) emission in 6 objects, [Ne II] (12.81 μm) emission in 18 objects, and [Fe II] (17.93, 25.99 μm) emission in 7 objects. [Ne II] detections are found primarily in Class II objects. The luminosity of the [Ne II] line (LNeII) is in general higher for objects known to drive jets than for those without known jets, but the two groups are not statistically distinguishable. LNeII is correlated with X-ray luminosity, but for Class II objects only. LNeII is also correlated with disk mass and accretion rate when the sample is divided into high and low accretors. Furthermore, we find correlations of LNeII with mid-IR continuum luminosity and with luminosity of the [O I] (6300 Å) line, the latter being an outflow tracer. L [FeII] correlates with Ṁacc. No correlations were found between LH2 and several tested parameters. Conclusions: Our study reveals a general trend

  14. SPITZER-IRAC SURVEY OF MOLECULAR JETS IN VELA-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Nisini, B.; Salama, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy); De Luca, M. [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Strafella, F.; Maiolo, B.; Maruccia, Y. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita del Salento, CP 193, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Elia, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Massi, F.; Olmi, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We present a survey of H{sub 2} jets from young protostars in the Vela-D molecular cloud (VMR-D), based on Spitzer-IRAC data between 3.6 {mu}m and 8.0 {mu}m. Our search has led to the identification of 15 jets (two new discoveries) and about 70 well-aligned knots within 1.2 deg{sup 2}. We compare the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) maps with observations of the H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line at 2.12 {mu}m, with a Spitzer-MIPS map at 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m, and with a map of the dust continuum emission at 1.2 mm. From such a comparison, we find a tight association between molecular jets and dust peaks. The jet candidate exciting sources have been searched for in the published catalog of the young stellar objects of VMR-D. In particular, we searched for all the sources of Class II or (preferentially) earlier which are located close to the jet center and aligned with it. Furthermore, the association between jet and exciting source was validated by estimating the differential extinction between the jet opposite lobes. We are able to find a best-candidate exciting source in all but two jets, for which two alternative candidates are given. Four exciting sources are not (or very barely) observed at wavelengths shorter than 24 {mu}m, suggesting that they are very young protostars. Three of them are also associated with the most compact jets (projected length {approx}<0.1 pc). The exciting source spectral energy distributions (SEDs) have been constructed and modeled by means of all the available photometric data between 1.2 {mu}m and 1.2 mm. From SEDs fits, we derive the main source parameters, which indicate that most of them are low-mass protostars. A significant correlation is found between the projected jet length and the [24]-[70] color, which is consistent with an evolutionary scenario according to which shorter jets are associated with younger sources. A rough correlation is found between IRAC line cooling and exciting source bolometric luminosity, in agreement with the previous

  15. Selection of AGN candidates in the GOODS-South Field through Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm variability

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Judit; Alonso Herrero, Almudena; Pérez González, Pablo Guillermo; Hernán Caballero, Antonio; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Villar, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies showing mid-infrared variability in data taken in the deepest Spitzer/MIPS 24 mu m surveys in the Great Observatory Origins Deep Survey South field. We divide the data set in epochs and subepochs to study the long-term (months-years) and the short-term (days) variability. We use a chi^(2)-statistics method to select active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates with a probability

  16. Spitzer Sage Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Star Formation and ~1000 New Candidate Young Stellar Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, B. A.; Sewilo, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Robitaille, T. P.; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K; Meade, M. R.; Babler, B. L.; Harris, J.; Hora, J. L.; Bracker, S.; Povich, M. S.; Churchwell, E. B.; Engelbracht, C. W.; For, B. -Q.

    2008-01-01

    We present ~1000 new candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud selected from Spitzer Space Telescope data, as part of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) Legacy program. The YSOs, detected by their excess infrared (IR) emission, represent early stages of evolution, still surrounded by disks and/or infalling envelopes. Previously, fewer than 20 such YSOs were known. The candidate YSOs were selected from the SAGE Point Source Catalog from regions o...

  17. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Kemper, F; Ling, B; Volk, K

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previ...

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud ---polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at low metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, Mikako; Evans, T Lloyd; Volk, Kevin M; Hrivnak, Bruce J; Sloan, G C; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Kraemer, Kathleen E; Peeters, Els; Szczerba, R; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, Albert A; Hony, S; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamath, Devika; Lagadec, Eric; Parker, Quentin A; Reid, Warren A; Shimonishi, Takashi; Van Winckel, H; Woods, Paul M; Kemper, F; Meixner, Margaret; Otsuka, M; Sahai, R; Sargent, B A; Hora, J L; McDonald, Iain

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) features that were found in Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of carbon-rich post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part describes our Spitzer spectral observing programme of 24 stars including post-AGB candidates. The latter half of this paper presents the analysis of PAH features in 20 carbon-rich post-AGB stars in the LMC, assembled from the Spitzer archive as well as from our own programme. We found that five post-AGB stars showed a broad feature with a peak at 7.7 micron, that had not been classified before. Further, the 10--13 micron PAH spectra were classified into four classes, one of which has three broad peaks at 11.3, 12.3 and 13.3 micron rather than two distinct sharp peaks at 11.3 and 12.7 micron, as commonly found in HII regions. Our studies suggest that PAHs are gradually processed while the central stars evolve from post-AGB phase to PNe,...

  19. Spitzer Observations of Var Her 04: Possible Detection of Dust Formation in a Super-Outbursting TOAD

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardi, D R; Hoard, D W; Howell, S B; Van Belle, G T; Ciardi, David R.; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B.; Belle, Gerard T. van

    2006-01-01

    We present four MIPS (24 \\micron) and two IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 \\micron) Spitzer observations of the newly discovered Tremendous Outburst Amplitude Dwarf nova (TOAD) Var Her 04 during decline from super-outburst. The four MIPS observations span 271 days and the two IRAC observations span 211 days. Along the line-of-sight to Var Her 04, there is a foreground M-star within 1\\arcsec of the variable; as a result, all of the Spitzer photometry presented in this paper is a blend of the foreground M-star and Var Her 04. We estimate the quiescent level of the TOAD to be $\\Delta V=4-5$ magnitudes below that of the M-star. Based upon the spectral energy distribution and the 2MASS colors, we find the M-star to be an M3.5V dwarf at a distance of 80-130 pc. Based upon its outburst amplitude and quiescent apparent magnitude, we estimate the distance to Var Her 04 to be 200-400 pc, suggesting that the line-of-sight foreground star is physically unrelated to the cataclysmic variable. All of the Spitzer photometry is c...

  20. High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  1. Spectroscopic properties of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of composition and spectroscopic properties of porous silicon (por-Si) surface has been done. Complex of photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), thermostimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE), electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy methods have been applied to study the chemical composition of the surface, that plays a decisive role in light-emitting properties of pot-Si. The studies were done on the composition of por-Si real surface containing pure silicon or SiHy species mixture with silicon oxides and carbon atoms as well as background impurities of chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen. (author)

  2. Infrared Spectroscopy of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 using the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sitko, Michael L; Kelley, Michael S; Polomski, Elisha F; Lynch, David K; Russell, Ray W; Kimes, Robin L; Whitney, Barbara A; Wolff, Michael J; Harker, David E

    2011-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to observe the 5-37 micron thermal emission of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3), components B and C. We obtained low spectral resolution (R ~ 100) data over the entire wavelength interval, along with images at 16 and 22 micron. These observations provided an unprecedented opportunity to study nearly pristine material from the surface and what was until recently the interior of an ecliptic comet - cometary surface having experienced only two prior perihelion passages, and including material that was totally fresh. The spectra were modeled using a variety of mineral types including both amorphous and crystalline components. We find that the degree of silicate crystallinity, ~ 35%, is somewhat lower than most other comets with strong emission features, while its abundance of amorphous carbon is higher. Both suggest that SW3 is among the most chemically primitive solar system objects yet studied in detail, and that it formed earlier or far...

  3. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-Cryogenic Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, James G; Carey, S J; Stauffer, John R; Lawrence, Patrick J; Grillmair, Carl J; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M; Morello, G; Stevenson, Kevin B; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5{\\mu}m dataset, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3 b system during secondary eclipse, using 7 different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 150 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 2 of the photon noise limit. Nearly all methods accurately assess their own errors: for these methods the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10-epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated datas...

  4. A Spitzer IRS Spectral Atlas of Luminous 8 micron Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, C L; Forrest, W J; Hrivnak, B J; Sahai, R; Egan, M; Frank, A; Barnbaum, C; Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Forrest, William J.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Egan, Michael; Frank, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We present an atlas of Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of highly luminous, compact mid-infrared sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Sources were selected on the basis of infrared colors and 8 micron (MSX) fluxes indicative of highly evolved, intermediate- to high-mass stars with current or recent mass loss at large rates. We determine the chemistry of the circumstellar envelope from the mid-IR continuum and spectral features and classify the spectral types of the stars. In the sample of 60 sources, we find 21 Red Supergiants (RSGs), 16 C-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, 11 HII regions, 4 likely O-rich AGB stars, 4 Galactic O-rich AGB stars, 2 OH/IR stars, and 2 B[e] supergiants with peculiar IR spectra. We find that the overwhelming majority of the sample AGB stars (with typical IR luminosities ~1.0E4 L_sun) have C-rich envelopes, while the O-rich objects are predominantly luminous RSGs with L_IR ~ 1.0E5 L_sun. We determine mean bolometric corrections to the stellar K-b...

  5. Spitzer IRS-based Classification of Luminous 8 Micron Sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Thorndike, S L; Hrivnak, B J; Sahai, R; Egan, M; Thorndike, Stephen L.; Buchanan, Joel H. Kastner & Catherine; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Egan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To ascertain the nature of the brightest mid-infrared sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we have applied the Buchanan et al. (2006) 2MASS-MSX color classification system, which is based on the results of Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy, to a mid-infrared flux-limited sample of 254 LMC objects for which 2MASS and MSX photometry is available. We find 72 sources are most likely H II regions; 49 sources are identified as oxygen rich objects, where 42 of these are red supergiants and 7 are likely oxygen rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars; 77 sources are identified as carbon-rich AGB stars; and 7 objects are found to be foreground Mira variables in the halo of the Milky Way. An additional 49 objects cannot be reliably classified based on their positions in 2MASS/MSX color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. The very large ratio of carbon-rich to oxygen-rich objects among the luminous and heavily dust-enshrouded AGB stars in our sample (~10:1) is consistent with the hypothesis that carbon stars ...

  6. A Post-AGB Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud Observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Kraemer, K E; Bernard-Salas, J; Price, S D; Egan, M P; Wood, P R; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, Stephan D.; Egan, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    We have observed an evolved star with a rare combination of spectral features, MSX SMC 029, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the low-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. A cool dust continuum dominates the spectrum of MSX SMC 029. The spectrum also shows both emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and absorption at 13.7 micron from C2H2, a juxtaposition seen in only two other sources, AFGL 2688 and IRAS 13416-6243, both post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects. As in these sources, the PAH spectrum has the unusual trait that the peak emission in the 7-9 micron complex lies beyond 8.0 micron. In addition, the 8.6 micron feature has an intensity as strong as the C-C modes which normally peak between 7.7 and 7.9 micron. The relative flux of the feature at 11.3 micron to that at 8 micron suggests that the PAHs in MSX SMC 029 either have a low ionization fraction or are largely unprocessed. The 13-16 micron wavelength region shows strong absorpti...

  7. Reverberation mapping the torus in 12 Active Galactic Nuclei using Spitzer and optical light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from a ~2.5 year monitoring campaign using the Spitzer Space Telescope during its "warm" mission. 12 low-redshift broad-line AGN were observed at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, with a 3 day cadence during the first 17 months and a 30 day cadence for the remaining 12 months. Contemporaneous optical observations were also obtained from several ground-based telescopes. Significant IR variability was observed in 11 of the 12 objects, with typical timescales ~100 days and relative amplitudes ranging from ~10% to ~100%. We present cross-correlation analyses of the IR and optical light curves for the sample as a whole and discuss in detail the case of NGC6418, which exhibits the largest variability amplitude. In this object, the IR-optical lag implies that the dust emitting at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is located at a distance 1 light-month from the source of the AGN UV--optical continuum. This is consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~2 than the corresponding lower limit for a "standard" ISM dust composition.

  8. Revisiting Spitzer transit observations with Independent Component Analysis: new results for the GJ436 system

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, G; Tinetti, G; Howarth, I D; Micela, G; Allard, F

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important to investigate the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility to extract conclusively an atmospheric signal; those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. (2014) to analyze 3.6 {\\mu}m transit light-curves of the hot Jupiter HD189733b; it performes an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on a set of pixel-light-curves, i.e. time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques ...

  9. Morphological Parameters of Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; Comeron, S; Meidt, S; Sheth, K; Laine, S; Hinz, J L; Regan, M W; Gil-de-Paz, A; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Seibert, M; Kim, T; Mizusawa, T; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Laine, J; Gadotti, D A; Zaritsky, D; Erroz-Ferrer, S; Ho, L C; Knapen, J H; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Pirzkal, N

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of galaxies can be quantified to some degree using a set of scale-invariant parameters. Concentration (C), Asymmetry (A), Smoothness (S), the Gini index (G), relative contribution of the brightest pixels to the second order moment of the flux (M20), ellipticity (E), and the Gini index of the second order moment (GM) have all been applied to morphologically classify galaxies at various wavelengths. Here we present a catalog of these parameters for the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), a volume-limited near-infrared imaging survey of nearby galaxies using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels of the IRAC camera. Our goal is to provide a reference catalog of near-infrared quantified morphology for high-redshift studies and galaxy evolution models with enough detail to resolve stellar mass morphology. We explore where normal, non-interacting galaxies -those typically found on the Hubble tuning fork- lie in this parameter space and show that there is a tight relation between Concentra...

  10. Si and Fe depletion in Galactic star-forming regions observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Yoko; Miyata, Takashi; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of the mid-infrared spectroscopy of 14 Galactic star-forming regions with the high-resolution modules of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detected [SiII] 35um, [FeII] 26um, and [FeIII] 23um as well as [SIII] 33um and H2 S(0) 28um emission lines. Using the intensity of [NII] 122um or 205um and [OI] 146um or 63um reported by previous observations in four regions, we derived the ionic abundance Si+/N+ and Fe+/N+ in the ionized gas and Si+/O0 and Fe+/O0 in the photodissociation gas. For all the targets, we derived the ionic abundance of Si+/S2+ and Fe2+/S2+ for the ionized gas. Based on photodissociation and HII region models the gas-phase Si and Fe abundance are suggested to be 3-100% and <8% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the ionized gas and 16-100% and 2-22% of the solar abundance, respectively, for the photodissociation region gas. Since the [FeII] 26um and [FeIII] 23um emissions are weak, the high sensitivity of the IRS enables to de...

  11. The $Spitzer$ infrared spectrograph survey of protoplanetary disks in Orion A: I. disk properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K H; Manoj, P; Forrest, W J; Furlan, Elise; Najita, Joan; Sargent, Benjamin; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Adame, Lucía; Espaillat, Catherine; Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, James; McClure, M K

    2016-01-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by $Spitzer$/IRS. We also present the follow-up observation of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from IRTF/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks to those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (ONC and L1641) and to the sub-groups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks vs. radially continuous full disks. Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) Mass accretion rate of transitional disks and that of radially continuous full disks are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The m...

  12. DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS: OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLEIADES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer MIPS observations at 24 μm of 37 solar-type stars in the Pleiades and combine them with previous observations to obtain a sample of 71 stars. We report that 23 stars, or 32% ± 6.8%, have excesses at 24 μm at least 10% above their photospheric emission. We compare our results with studies of debris disks in other open clusters and with a study of A stars to show that debris disks around solar-type stars at 115 Myr occur at nearly the same rate as around A-type stars. We analyze the effects of binarity and X-ray activity on the excess flux. Stars with warm excesses tend not to be in equal-mass binary systems, possibly due to clearing of planetesimals by binary companions in similar orbits. We find that the apparent anti-correlations in the incidence of excess and both the rate of stellar rotation and also the level of activity as judged by X-ray emission are statistically weak.

  13. High-contrast Imaging with Spitzer: Deep Observations of Vega, Fomalhaut, and epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Janson, Markus; Carson, Joseph C; Thalmann, Christian; Lafreniere, David; Amara, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Stars with debris disks are intriguing targets for direct imaging exoplanet searches, both due to previous detections of wide planets in debris disk systems, as well as commonly existing morphological features in the disks themselves that may be indicative of a planetary influence. Here we present observations of three of the most nearby young stars, that are also known to host massive debris disks: Vega, Fomalhaut, and eps Eri. The Spitzer Space Telescope is used at a range of orientation angles for each star, in order to supply a deep contrast through angular differential imaging combined with high-contrast algorithms. The observations provide the opportunity to probe substantially colder bound planets (120--330 K) than is possible with any other technique or instrument. For Vega, some apparently very red candidate point sources detected in the 4.5 micron image remain to be tested for common proper motion. The images are sensitive to ~2 Mjup companions at 150 AU in this system. The observations presented he...

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Cosmic Far-IR Background Fluctuations in Spitzer 160 Micron Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Grossan, B; Grossan, Bruce; Smoot, George F.

    2005-01-01

    We describe preliminary data reduction and analysis of fluctuations in the Cosmic Far-IR Background (CFIB) in large maps observed with the Spitzer Observatory MIPS instrument 160 um detectors. The maps were made with an observation plan not optimized for background observations, and show striping, "memory effects", and other artifacts of Ge detectors. Nonetheless, we are able to present a preliminary power spectrum analysis of the SWIRE Lockman Hole Field. We have measured the power spectrum of the CFIB in this field by fitting a power law to the IR cirrus, the dominant foreground contaminant, and subtracting this cirrus signal. The CFIB power spectrum at mid - high k (k > 2 x10^-1 arc min^-1), is consistent with previous measurements of a flat component. At lower k, however, the power spectrum is clearly not flat, decreasing from our lowest frequencies (k ~ 3 x 10^-2 arc min^-1) and flattening at mid-frequencies (k > 1 - 2 x 10^-1 arc min^-1). This behavior is consistent with the gross characteristics of pre...

  15. The Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud: FIR Emission and Cold Gas in the SMC

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, A; Stanimirovic, S; Mizuno, N; Israel, F; Bot, C; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Mizuno, Norikazu; Israel, Frank; Bot, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    We present new far infrared maps of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 24, 70, and 160 microns obtained as part of the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S3MC,Bolatto et al. 2006). These maps cover most of the active star formation in the SMC Bar and the more quiescent Wing. We combine our maps with literature data to derive the dust surface density across the SMC. We find a total dust mass of Mdust = 3 10^5 Msun, implying a dust-to-hydrogen ratio over the region studied of log D/H = -2.86, or 1-to-700, which includes H_2. Assuming the dust to trace the total gas column, we derive H_2 surface densities across the SMC. We find a total H_2 mass M_H2 = 3.2 10^7 Msun in a distribution similar to that of the CO, but more extended. We compare profiles of CO and H_2 around six molecular peaks and find that on average H_2 is more extended than CO by a factor of \\sim 1.3. The implied CO-to-H_2 conversion factor over the whole SMC is XCO = 13 +/- 1 10^21 cm^-2 (K km/s)^-1. Over the volume occupied by CO we ...

  16. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE 3D LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the data from the Spitzer Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) to investigate the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates. In previous studies of GLIMPSE I and II data, we have shown that these MIR data are very useful in distinguishing PNs from other emission-line objects. In the present paper, we focus on the PNs in the field of the GLIMPSE 3D survey, which has a more extensive latitude coverage. We found a total of 90 Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs and 101 known PNs to have visible MIR counterparts in the GLIMPSE 3D survey area. The images and photometry of these PNs are presented. Combining the derived IRAC photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm with the existing photometric measurements from other infrared catalogs, we are able to construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these PNs. Among the most notable objects in this survey is the PN M1-41, whose GLIMPSE 3D image reveals a large bipolar structure of more than 3 arcmin in extent.

  17. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly-Lensed Herschel-Selected Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Brian; Nayyeri, J A Calanog H; Timmons, N; Casey, C; Baes, M; Chapman, S; Dannerbauer, H; Da Cunha, E L; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Magdis, G; Michalowski, M J; Oteo, I; Riechers, D A; Scott, D; Smith, M W L; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Vaccari, M; Viaene, S; Vieira, J D; Vaccari, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution and stellar masses of six Herschel- selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5um. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2 arcseconds, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measu...

  18. A Spitzer View of Star Formation in the Cygnus X North Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Beerer, I M; Hora, J L; Gutermuth, R A; Bontemps, S; Megeath, S T; Schneider, N; Motte, F; Carey, S; Simon, R; Keto, E; Smith, H A; Allen, L E; Fazio, G G; Kraemer, K E; Price, S; Mizuno, D; Adams, J D; Hernandez, J; Lucas, P W

    2010-01-01

    We present new images and photometry of the massive star forming complex Cygnus X obtained with IRAC and MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope. A combination of IRAC, MIPS, UKIDSS, and 2MASS data are used to identify and classify young stellar objects. Of the 8,231 sources detected exhibiting infrared excess in Cygnus X North, 670 are classified as Class I and 7,249 are classified as Class II. Using spectra from the FAST spectrograph at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory and Hectospec on the MMT, we spectrally typed 536 sources in the Cygnus X complex to identify the massive stars. We find that YSOs tend to be grouped in the neighborhoods of massive B stars (spectral types B0 to B9). We present a minimal spanning tree analysis of clusters in two regions in Cygnus X North. The fraction of infrared excess sources that belong to clusters with >10 members is found to be 50--70%. Most Class II objects lie in dense clusters within blown out HII regions, while Class I sources tend to reside in more filamentary structures...

  19. Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

    2014-01-01

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

  20. Fully Sampled Maps of Ices and Silicates in Front of Cepheus A East with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnentrucker, P; Gerakines, P A; Bergin, E A; Melnick, G J; Forrest, W J; Pipher, J L; Whittet, D C B

    2007-01-01

    We report the first fully sampled maps of the distribution of interstellar CO2 ices, H2O ices and total hydrogen nuclei, as inferred from the 9.7 micron silicate feature, toward the star-forming region Cepheus A East with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that the column density distributions for these solid state features all peak at, and are distributed around, the location of HW2, the protostar believed to power one of the outflows observed in this star-forming region. A correlation between the column density distributions of CO2 and water ice with that of total hydrogen indicates that the solid state features we mapped mostly arise from the same molecular clumps along the probed sight lines. We therefore derive average CO2 ice and water ice abundances with respect to the total hydrogen column density of X(CO2)_ice~1.9x10^-5 and X(H2O)_ice~7.5x10^-5. Within errors, the abundances for both ices are relatively constant over the mapped region exhibiting both ice absorptions. The ...

  1. The properties of asteroid (2867) Steins from Spitzer observations and OSIRIS shape reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Groussin, O; Fornasier, S; Jorda, L

    2011-01-01

    We report on the thermal properties and composition of asteroid (2867) Steins derived from an analysis of new Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) observations performed in March 2008, in addition to previously published SST observations performed in November 2005. We consider the three-dimensional shape model and photometric properties derived from OSIRIS images obtained during the flyby of the Rosetta spacecraft in September 2008, which we combine with a thermal model to properly interpret the observed SST thermal light curve and spectral energy distributions. We obtain a thermal inertia in the range 100\\pm50 JK-1m-2s-1/2 and a beaming factor (roughness) in the range 0.7-1.0. We confirm that the infrared emissivity of Steins is consistent with an enstatite composition. The November 2005 SST thermal light curve is most reliably interpreted by assuming inhomogeneities in the thermal properties of the surface, with two different regions of slightly different roughness, as observed on other small bodies, such as the n...

  2. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectral Maps of the Superwind in M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Lehnert, M D; Guillard, P; Heckman, T; Draine, B; Hollenbach, D; Walter, F; Sheth, K; Smith, J D; Shopbell, P; Boulanger, F; Surace, J; Hoopes, C; Engelbracht, C

    2015-01-01

    We have mapped the superwind/halo region of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 in the mid-infrared with $Spitzer-IRS$. The spectral regions covered include the H$_2 S(1)-S(3)$, [NeII], [NeIII] emission lines and PAH features. We estimate the total warm H$_2$ mass and the kinetic energy of the outflowing warm molecular gas to be between $M_{warm}\\sim5-17\\times10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ and $E_{K}\\sim6-20\\times10^{53}$ erg. Using the ratios of the 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 micron PAH features in the IRS spectra, we are able to estimate the average size and ionization state of the small grains in the superwind. There are large variations in the PAH flux ratios throughout the outflow. The 11.3/7.7 and the 6.2/7.7 PAH ratios both vary by more than a factor of five across the wind region. The Northern part of the wind has a significant population of PAH's with smaller 6.2/7.7 ratios than either the starburst disk or the Southern wind, indicating that on average, PAH emitters are larger and more ionized. The warm molecular gas to PAH f...

  3. Spitzer MIPS 24 and 70 micron Imaging near the South Ecliptic Pole: Maps and Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Kimberly S; Braglia, Filiberto G; Borys, Colin; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Truch, Matthew D P; Valiante, Elisabetta; Viero, Marco P

    2010-01-01

    We have imaged an 11.5 sq. deg. region of sky towards the South Ecliptic Pole (RA = 04h43m, Dec = -53d40m, J2000) at 24 and 70 microns with MIPS, the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. This region is coincident with a field mapped at longer wavelengths by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope. We discuss our data reduction and source extraction procedures. The median depths of the maps are 47 microJy/beam at 24 micron and 4.3 mJy/beam at 70 micron. At 24 micron, we identify 93098 point sources with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >5, and an additional 63 resolved galaxies; at 70 micron, we identify 891 point sources with SNR >6. From simulations, we determine a false detection rate of 1.8% (1.1%) for the 24 micron (70 micron) catalog. The 24 and 70 micron point-source catalogs are 80% complete at 230 microJy and 11 mJy, respectively. These mosaic images and source catalogs will be available to the public through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive.

  4. The Stellar Population in the Galactic Center: Insights from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotera, A [SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Rd., Mountain View, CA (United States); Stolovy, S [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology (United States); Ramirez, S [IPAC, California Institute of Technology (United States); Arendt, R [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Law, C [Northwestern University (United States); Sellgren, K [Ohio State University (United States); Gezari, D [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Yusef-Zadeh, F [Northwestern University (United States); Smith, H [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University (United States); Whitney, B [Space Science Institute (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The SpitzerIRAC observations (Stolovy et al., these proceedings) of the central 265 pc x 210 pc provide an opportunity to study the relationships between massive stars, gas, and dust in the Galactic Center at unprecedented resolution. The observations are inclusive of the three known extremely dense clusters of massive hot young stars which ionize the unusual thermal filaments seen at both radio wavelengths and in PAH emission in the IRAC images. Here we explore the effects of the massive stars, particularly in regions including the Quintuplet and Arches clusters, on the nearby diffuse ISM emission (see also Simpson et al. these proceedings). We discuss the diagnostics available using the IRAC colors, and what these show us in regards to known massive stars. Finally, we discuss the 1-8 {mu}m SEDs which are currently under construction, and the preliminary results using a novel SED fitting program to determine the stellar type and extinction to all available point sources in the survey region.

  5. Point Sources from a Spitzer IRAC Survey of the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, Solange V; Sellgren, Kris; Stolovy, Susan R; Cotera, Angela; Smith, Howard A; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained Spitzer/IRAC observations of the central 2.0 x 1.4 degrees (~280 x 200 pc) of the Galaxy at 3.6-8.0 microns. A point source catalog of 1,065,565 objects is presented. The catalog includes magnitudes for the point sources at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns, as well as JHK photometry from 2MASS. The point source catalog is confusion limited with average limits of 12.4, 12.1, 11.7, and 11.2 magnitudes for [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0], respectively. We find that the confusion limits are spatially variable because of stellar surface density, background surface brightness level, and extinction variations across the survey region. The overall distribution of point source density with Galactic latitude and longitude is essentially constant, but structure does appear when sources of different magnitude ranges are selected. Bright stars show a steep decreasing gradient with Galactic latitude, and a slow decreasing gradient with Galactic longitude, with a peak at the position of the Galactic center. Fr...

  6. The Stellar Population in the Galactic Center: Insights from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SpitzerIRAC observations (Stolovy et al., these proceedings) of the central 265 pc x 210 pc provide an opportunity to study the relationships between massive stars, gas, and dust in the Galactic Center at unprecedented resolution. The observations are inclusive of the three known extremely dense clusters of massive hot young stars which ionize the unusual thermal filaments seen at both radio wavelengths and in PAH emission in the IRAC images. Here we explore the effects of the massive stars, particularly in regions including the Quintuplet and Arches clusters, on the nearby diffuse ISM emission (see also Simpson et al. these proceedings). We discuss the diagnostics available using the IRAC colors, and what these show us in regards to known massive stars. Finally, we discuss the 1-8 μm SEDs which are currently under construction, and the preliminary results using a novel SED fitting program to determine the stellar type and extinction to all available point sources in the survey region

  7. Nereid from space: rotation, size and shape analysis from K2, Herschel and Spitzer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Farkas-Takács, A. I.; Szabó, G. M.; Szabó, R.; Kiss, L. L.; Molnár, L.; Sárneczky, K.; Müller, T. G.; Mommert, M.; Stansberry, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of K2 mission Campaign 3 observations of the irregular Neptune satellite, Nereid. We determined a rotation period of P = 11.594±0.017 h and amplitude of Δm = 0.0328m ± 0.0018m, confirming previous short rotation periods obtained in ground-based observations. The similarities of light-curve amplitudes between 2001 and 2015 show that Nereid is in a low-amplitude rotation state nowadays and it could have been in a high-amplitude rotation state in the mid-1960s. Another high-amplitude period is expected in about 30 yr. Based on the light-curve amplitudes observed in the last 15 yr, we could constrain the shape of Nereid and obtained a maximum a:c axis ratio of 1.3:1. This excludes the previously suggested very elongated shape of a:c ≈ 1.9:1 and clearly shows that Nereid's spin axis cannot be in forced precession due to tidal forces. Thermal emission data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory indicate that Nereid's shape is actually close to the a:c axis ratio limit of 1.3:1 we obtained, and it has a very rough, highly cratered surface.

  8. A Spitzer/IRAC Characterization of Galactic AGB and RSG Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Megan; Hora, Joseph L; Fazio, Giovanni G

    2015-01-01

    We present new Spitzer/IRAC observations of 55 dusty Long Period Variables (LPVs, 48 AGB and 6 RSG stars) in the Galaxy that have different chemistry, variability type, and mass-loss rate. O-rich AGB stars (including intrinsic S-type) tend to have redder [3.6]-[8.0] colors than carbon stars for a given [3.6]-[4.5] color due to silicate features increasing the flux in the 8.0 {\\mu}m IRAC band. For colors including the 5.8 {\\mu}m band, carbon stars separate into two distinct sequences, likely due to a variable photospheric C$_3$ feature that is only visible in relatively unobscured, low mass-loss rate sources. Semiregular variables tend to have smaller IR excess in [3.6]-[8.0] color than Miras, consistent with the hypothesis that semiregular variables lose mass discontinuously. Miras have redder colors for longer periods while semiregular variables do not. Galactic AGB stars follow the period-luminosity sequences found for the Magellanic Clouds. Mira variables fall along the fundamental pulsation sequence, whil...

  9. SPARC: Mass Models for 175 Disk Galaxies with Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves): a sample of 175 nearby galaxies with new surface photometry at 3.6 um and high-quality rotation curves from previous HI/Halpha studies. SPARC spans a broad range of morphologies (S0 to Irr), luminosities (~5 dex), and surface brightnesses (~4 dex). We derive [3.6] surface photometry and study structural relations of stellar and gas disks. We find that both the stellar mass-HI mass relation and the stellar radius-HI radius relation have significant intrinsic scatter, while the HI mass-radius relation is extremely tight. We build detailed mass models and quantify the ratio of baryonic-to-observed velocity (Vbar/Vobs) for different characteristic radii and values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) at [3.6]. Assuming M/L=0.5 Msun/Lsun (as suggested by stellar population models) we find that (i) the gas fraction linearly correlates with total luminosity, (ii) the transition from star-dominated to gas-dominated galaxies roughly correspond...

  10. Spitzer observations of the N157B supernova remnant and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Micelotta, E R; Israel, F P; 10.1051/0004-6361/200809849

    2009-01-01

    (Aims): We study the LMC interstellar medium in the field of the nebula N157B, which contains a supernova remnant, an OB association, ionized gas, and high-density dusty filaments in close proximity. We investigate the relative importance of shock excitation by the SNR and photo-ionization by the OB stars, as well as possible interactions between the supernova remnant and its environment. (Methods): We apply multiwavelength mapping and photometry, along with spatially resolved infrared spectroscopy, to identifying the nature of the ISM using new infrared data from the Spitzer space observatory and X-ray, optical, and radio data from the literature. (Results): The N157B SNR has no infrared counterpart. Infrared emission from the region is dominated by the compact blister-type HII region associated with 2MASS J05375027-6911071 and excited by an O8-O9 star. This object is part of an extended infrared emission region that is associated with a molecular cloud. We find only weak emission from the shock-indicator [F...

  11. Spitzer Observations of M33 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Brunner, Gregory; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Erickson, Edwin F; Haas, Michael R; Citron, Robert I

    2008-01-01

    We have observed emission lines of [S IV] 10.51, H(7-6) 12.37, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71 um in a number of extragalactic H II regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. A previous paper presented our data and analysis for the substantially face-on spiral galaxy M83. Here we report our results for the local group spiral galaxy M33. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph with the short wavelength, high resolution module. The above set of five lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne (Ne+, Ne++) and S (S++, S3+) for H II regions, we can estimate the Ne/H, S/H, and Ne/S ratios. We find from linear least-squares fits that ...

  12. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center: Shocked Gas in the Radio Arc Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Rubin, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra (R ~600, 10 - 38 micron) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude and spanning plus/minus 0.3 degrees in latitude. Our positions include the Arches Cluster, the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ``Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line-of-sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [S IV], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H_2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The Ne/H and S/H abundance ratios are ~ 1.6 times that of the Orion Nebula. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O^{+3} and destroy dust grains, ...

  13. Spitzer Observations of M83 and the Hot Star, H II Region Connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, R H; Colgan, S W J; Dufour, R J; Ray, K L; Erickson, E F; Haas, M R; Pauldrach, A W A; Citron, R I; Rubin, Robert H.; Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W.J.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Ray, Katherine L.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W.A.; Citron, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    We have undertaken a program to observe emission lines of SIV 10.5, NeII 12.8, NeIII 15.6, & SIII 18.7 um in a number of extragalactic HII regions with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report our results for the nearly face-on spiral galaxy M83. The nebulae selected cover a wide range of galactocentric radii (R_G). The observations were made with the Infrared Spectrograph in the short wavelength, high dispersion configuration. The above set of 4 lines is observed cospatially, thus permitting a reliable comparison of the fluxes. From the measured fluxes, we determine the ionic abundance ratios including Ne++/Ne+, S3+/S++, and S++/Ne+ and find that there is a correlation of increasingly higher ionization with larger R_G. By sampling the dominant ionization states of Ne and S for HII regions, Ne/S ~ (Ne+ + Ne++)/(S++ + S3+). Our findings of ratios that exceed the benchmark Orion value are more likely due to other effects than a true gradient in Ne/S. Both Ne and S are primary elements produced in alpha- chain...

  14. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Ravandi, Masoud Rafiei; Ashby, Matthew L N; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T J; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 hours of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 \\mu m. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4$.\\!\\!^\\circ$4 and 6$.\\!\\!^\\circ$6 along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426,529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6]$\\,=\\,$19.0$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2, [4.5]$\\,=\\,$18.7$\\,\\pm\\,$0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterising point sources in the outer radii.

  15. The extended disc and halo of the Andromeda galaxy observed with Spitzer-IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei Ravandi, Masoud; Barmby, Pauline; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Laine, Seppo; Davidge, T. J.; Zhang, Jenna; Bianchi, Luciana; Babul, Arif; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first results from an extended survey of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 41.1 h of observations by Spitzer-IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 µm. This survey extends previous observations to the outer disc and halo, covering total lengths of 4.4° and 6.6° along the minor and major axes, respectively. We have produced surface brightness profiles by combining the integrated light from background-corrected maps with stellar counts from a new catalogue of point sources. Using auxiliary catalogues, we have carried out a statistical analysis in colour-magnitude space to discriminate M31 objects from foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies. The catalogue includes 426 529 sources, of which 66 per cent have been assigned probability values to identify M31 objects with magnitude depths of [3.6] = 19.0 ± 0.2, [4.5] = 18.7 ± 0.2. We discuss applications of our data for constraining the stellar mass and characterizing point sources in the outer radii.

  16. Spitzer Spectroscopy of Mass Loss and Dust Production by Evolved Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Kraemer, K E; Wood, P R; Nieusma, J; Bernard-Salas, J; Devost, D; Houck, J R

    2010-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 35 long-period variables and four Cepheid variables in the vicinity of 23 Galactic globular clusters using the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The long-period variables in the sample cover a range of metallicities from near solar to about 1/40th solar. The dust mass-loss rate from the stars increases with pulsation period and bolometric luminosity. Higher mass-loss rates are associated with greater contributions from silicate grains. The dust mass-loss rate also depends on metallicity. The dependence is most clear when segregating the sample by dust composition, less clear when segregating by bolometric magnitude, and absent when segregating by period. The spectra are rich in solid-state and molecular features. Emission from alumina dust is apparent across the range of metallicities. Spectra with a 13-um dust emission feature, as well as an associated feature at 20 um, also appear at most metallicities. Molecular features in the spectra include H_2O bands at ...

  17. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Morello, Giuseppe; Tinetti, Giovanna; Peres, Giovanni; Micela, Giuseppina; Howarth, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyse two exoplanetary transit lightcurves of the exoplanet HD189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6$\\mu$m during the "cold" era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterise the atmosphere of the planet HD189733b. Previous analyses of the same datasets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such "admission of ignorance" may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor $1.6$. This is a worthwhile t...

  18. Revisiting Spitzer Transit Observations with Independent Component Analysis: New Results for Exoplanetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D.; Micela, G.

    2015-10-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyse several exoplanetary transit lightcurves of a few exoplanets recorded with the infrared camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope during the "cold" era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterise the atmospheres of the planets. Previous analyses of the same datasets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. We obtained for the first time coherent and repeatable results over different epochs for the exoplanets HD189733b and GJ436b[Morello et al.(2014), Morello et al.(2015)]. The technique has been also tested on simulated datasets with different instrument properties, proving its validity in a more general context [Morello et al.(2015b)]. We will present here the technique, and the results of its application to different observations, in addition to the already published ones. A uniform re-analysis of other archive data with this technique will provide improved parameters for a list of exoplanets, and in particular some other results debated in the literature.

  19. Spitzer Observations of G Dwarfs in the Pleiades: Circumstellar Debris Disks at 100 Myr Age

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Carpenter, J; Hillenbrand, L; Backman, D; Meyer, M R; Kim, J S; Silverstone, M D; Young, E; Hines, D C; Soderblom, D R; Mamajek, E E; Morris, P; Bouwman, J; Strom, S E

    2005-01-01

    Fluxes and upper limits in the wavelength range from 3.6 to 70 microns from the Spitzer Space Telescope are provided for twenty solar-mass Pleiades members. One of these stars shows a probable mid-IR excess and two others have possible excesses, presumably due to circumstellar debris disks. For the star with the largest, most secure excess flux at MIPS wavelengths, HII1101, we derive Log(L[dust]/L[Sun]) ~ -3.8 and an estimated debris disk mass of 4.2 x 10^-5 M(Earth) for an assumed uniform dust grain size of 10 microns If the stars with detected excesses are interpreted as stars with relatively recent, large collision events producing a transient excess of small dust particles, the frequency of such disk transients is about ~ 10 % for our ~ 100 Myr, Pleiades G dwarf sample. For the stars without detected 24-70 micron excesses, the upper limits to their fluxes correspond to approximate 3 sigma upper limits to their disk masses of 6 x 10^-6 M(Earth) using the MIPS 24 micron upper limit, or 2 x 10^-4 M(Earth) us...

  20. Molecular Cooling as a Probe of Star Formation: Spitzer Looking Forward to Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin A.; Maret, Sebastien; Yuan, Yuan; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Green, Joel D.; Watson, Dan M.; Harwit, Martin O.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Werner, Michael W.; Willacy, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We explore here the question of how cloud physics can be more directly probed when one observes the majority of cooling emissions from molecular gas. For this purpose we use results from a recent Spitzer Space Telescope study of the young cluster of embedded objects in NGC1333. For this study we mapped the emission from eight pure H2 rotational lines, from S(0) to S(7). The H2 emission appears to be associated with the warm gas shocked by the multiple outflows present in the region. The H2 lines are found to contribute to 25 - 50% of the total outflow luminosity, and can be used to more directly ascertain the importance of star formation feedback on the natal cloud. From these lines, we determine the outflow mass loss rate and, indirectly, the stellar infall rate, the outflow momentum and the kinetic energy injected into the cloud over the embedded phase. The latter is found to exceed the binding energy of individual cores, suggesting that outflows could be the main mechanism for cores disruption. Given the recent launch of Herschel and the upcoming operational lifetime of SOFIA we discuss how studies of molecular cooling can take a step beyond understanding thermal balance to exploring the origin, receipt, and transfer of energy in atomic and molecular gas in a wide range of physical situations.

  1. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  2. Spitzer observations of the Orion OB1 association: disk census in the low mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Briceño, C; Hartmann, L; Vivas, A K; Muzerolle, J; Downes, J; Allen, L; Gutermuth, R

    2007-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of two fields in the Orion OB1 association. We report here IRAC/MIPS observations for 115 confirmed members and 41 photometric candidates of the ~10 Myr 25 Orionis aggregate in the OB1a subassociation, and 106 confirmed members and 65 photometric candidates of the 5 Myr region located in the OB1b subassociation. The 25 Orionis aggregate shows a disk frequency of 6% while the field in the OB1b subassociation shows a disk frequency of 13%. Combining IRAC, MIPS and 2MASS photometry we place stars bearing disks in several classes: stars with optically thick disks (class II systems), stars with an inner transitional disks (transitional disk candidates) and stars with "evolved disks"; the last exhibit smaller IRAC/MIPS excesses than class II systems. In all, we identify 1 transitional disk candidate in the 25 Orionis aggregate and 3 in the OB1b field; this represents ~10% of the disk bearing stars, indicating that the transitional disk phase can be relatively fast...

  3. A SPITZER IRS SURVEY OF NGC 1333: INSIGHTS INTO DISK EVOLUTION FROM A VERY YOUNG CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the λ = 5-36 μm Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 79 young stellar objects in the very young nearby cluster NGC 1333. NGC 1333's youth enables the study of early protoplanetary disk properties, such as the degree of settling and the formation of gaps and clearings. We construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using our IRS data as well as published photometry and classify our sample into SED classes. Using 'extinction-free' spectral indices, we determine whether the disk, envelope, or photosphere dominates the spectrum. We analyze the dereddened spectra of objects that show disk-dominated emission using spectral indices and properties of silicate features in order to study the vertical and radial structure of protoplanetary disks in NGC 1333. At least nine objects in our sample of NGC 1333 show signs of large (several AU) radial gaps or clearings in their inner disk. Disks with radial gaps in NGC 1333 show more nearly pristine silicate dust than their radially continuous counterparts. We compare properties of disks in NGC 1333 to those in three other well-studied regions, Taurus-Auriga, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon I, and find no difference in their degree of sedimentation and dust processing.

  4. Spitzer Space Telescope Measurements of Dust Reverberation Lags in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 6418

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, Billy; Richmond, Michael; Robinson, Andrew; Axon, David J; Horne, Keith; Almeyda, Triana; Fausnaugh, Michael; Peterson, Bradley M; Bottorff, Mark; Gallimore, Jack; Eltizur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Marconi, Alessandro; Capetti, Alessandro; Batcheldor, Dan; Buchanan, Catherine; Stirpe, Giovanna; Kishimoto, Makoto; Packham, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Tadhunter, Clive; Upton, John; Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\\mu$m and 3.6 $\\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-inf...

  5. A Deep Spitzer Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Double Cluster, h and chi Persei

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Ryan; Rieke, George; Kenyon, Scott J; Balog, Zoltan; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-01-01

    We analyze very deep IRAC and MIPS photometry of $\\sim$ 12,500 members of the 14 Myr old Double Cluster, h and $\\chi$ Persei, building upon on our earlier, shallower Spitzer studies (Currie et al. 2007a, 2008a). Numerous likely members show infrared (IR) excesses at 8 {\\mu}m and 24 $\\mu$m indicative of circumstellar dust. The frequency of stars with 8 $\\mu$m excess is at least 2% for our entire sample, slightly lower (higher) for B/A stars (later type, lower-mass stars). Optical spectroscopy also identifies gas in about 2% of systems but with no clear trend between the presence of dust and gas. Spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of 18 sources with detections at optical wavelengths through MIPS 24 $\\mu m$ reveals a diverse set of disk evolutionary states, including a high fraction of transitional disks, although similar data for all disk-bearing members would provide better constraints. We combine our results with those for other young clusters to study the global evolution of dust/gas disks. For nomi...

  6. AGB stars in the SMC: evolution and dust properties based on Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Ventura, P; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; Rossi, C

    2015-01-01

    We study the population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by means of full evolutionary models of stars of mass 1Msun < M < 8Msun, evolved through the thermally pulsing phase. The models also account for dust production in the circumstellar envelope. We compare Spitzer infrared colours with results from theoretical modelling. We show that ~75% of the AGB population of the SMC is composed by scarcely obscured objects, mainly stars of mass M < 2.5Msun at various metallicity, formed between 700 Myr and 5 Gyr ago; ~ 70% of these sources are oxygen--rich stars, while ~ 30% are C-stars. The sample of the most obscured AGB stars, accounting for ~ 25% of the total sample, is composed almost entirely by carbon stars. The distribution in the colour-colour ([3.6]-[4.5], [5.8]-[8.0]) and colour-magnitude ([3.6]-[8.0], [8.0]) diagrams of these C-rich objects, with a large infrared emission, traces an obscuration sequence, according to the amount of carbonaceous dust in the...

  7. Spatial variations of PAH properties in M17SW revealed by Spitzer/IRS spectral mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, M; Ishihara, D; Oyabu, S; Suzuki, T; Onaka, T; Nagayama, T; Umemoto, T; Minamidani, T; Nishimura, A; Matsuo, M; Fujita, S; Tsuda, Y; Kohno, M; Ohashi, S

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br$\\gamma$ and Nobeyama 45-m/FOREST $^{13}$CO ($J$=1--0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 $\\mu$m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the HII region traced by Br$\\gamma$ and the molecular cloud traced by $^{13}$CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially-resolved maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7 $\\mu$m/PAH 11.3 $\\mu$m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the ionization degree of PAHs is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find tha...

  8. Evolution of brown dwarf disks: A Spitzer survey in Upper Scorpius

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, A; Wood, K; Meeus, G; Stelzer, B; Walker, C; O'Sullivan, M; Scholz, Alexander; Jayawardhana, Ray; Wood, Kenneth; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Stelzer, Beate; Walker, Christina; Sullivan, Mark O'

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out a Spitzer survey for brown dwarf (BD) disks in the ~5 Myr old Upper Scorpius (UpSco) star forming region, using IRS spectroscopy from 8 to 12\\mu m and MIPS photometry at 24\\mu m. Our sample consists of 35 confirmed very low mass members of UpSco. Thirteen objects in this sample show clear excess flux at 24\\mu m, explained by dust emission from a circum-sub-stellar disk. Objects without excess emission either have no disks at all or disks with inner opacity holes of at least ~5 AU radii. Our disk frequency of 37\\pm 9% is higher than what has been derived previously for K0-M5 stars in the same region (on a 1.8 sigma confidence level), suggesting a mass-dependent disk lifetime in UpSco. The clear distinction between objects with and without disks as well as the lack of transition objects shows that disk dissipation inside 5 AU occurs rapidly, probably on timescales of <~10^5 years. For the objects with disks, most SEDs are uniformly flat with flux levels of a few mJy, well modeled as emiss...

  9. A uniform analysis of HD 209458b Spitzer/IRAC light curves with Gaussian process models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas M.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Gibson, Neale; Barstow, Joanna K.; Amundsen, David S.; Tremblin, Pascal; Mourier, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera primary transit and secondary eclipse light curves measured for HD 209458b, using Gaussian process models to marginalize over the intrapixel sensitivity variations in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels and the ramp effect in the 5.8 and 8.0 μm channels. The main advantage of this approach is that we can account for a broad range of degeneracies between the planet signal and systematics without actually having to specify a deterministic functional form for the latter. Our results do not confirm a previous claim of water absorption in transmission. Instead, our results are more consistent with a featureless transmission spectrum, possibly due to a cloud deck obscuring molecular absorption bands. For the emission data, our values are not consistent with the thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere that was originally inferred from these data. Instead, we agree with another re-analysis of these same data, which concluded a non-inverted atmosphere provides a better fit. We find that a solar-abundance clear-atmosphere model without a thermal inversion underpredicts the measured emission in the 4.5 μm channel, which may suggest the atmosphere is depleted in carbon monoxide. An acceptable fit to the emission data can be achieved by assuming that the planet radiates as an isothermal blackbody with a temperature of 1484 ± 18 K.

  10. SPITZER survey of dust grain processing in stable discs around binary post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gielen, C; Min, M; Waters, L B F M; Evans, T Lloyd

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the mineralogy and dust processing in the circumbinary discs of binary post-AGB stars using high-resolution TIMMI2 and SPITZER infrared spectra. Methods: We perform a full spectral fitting to the infrared spectra using the most recent opacities of amorphous and crystalline dust species. This allows for the identification of the carriers of the different emission bands. Our fits also constrain the physical properties of different dust species and grain sizes responsible for the observed emission features. Results: In all stars the dust is oxygen-rich: amorphous and crystalline silicate dust species prevail and no features of a carbon-rich component can be found, the exception being EPLyr, where a mixed chemistry of both oxygen- and carbon-rich species is found. Our full spectral fitting indicates a high degree of dust grain processing. The mineralogy of our sample stars shows that the dust is constituted of irregularly shaped and relatively large grains, with typical grain sizes larger tha...

  11. Spitzer Space Telescope spectral observations of AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Bernard-Salas, J; Menzies, J W; Sloan, G C; Whitelock, P A; Wood, P R; Cioni, M -R L; Feast, M W; Lagadec, E; van Loon, J Th; Groenewegen, M A T; Harris, G J

    2007-01-01

    We have observed five carbon-rich AGB stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, using the Infrared Spectrometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The stars were selected from a near-infrared survey of Fornax and include the three reddest stars, with presumably the highest mass-loss rates, in that galaxy. Such carbon stars probably belong to the intermediate-age population (2-8 Gyr old and metallicity of [Fe/H] -1) of Fornax. The primary aim of this paper is to investigate mass-loss rate, as a function of luminosity and metallicity, by comparing AGB stars in several galaxies with different metallicities. The spectra of three stars are fitted with a radiative transfer model. We find that mass-loss rates of these three stars are 4-7x10^-6 Msun yr-1. The other two stars have mass-loss rates below 1.3x10^-6 Msun yr-1. We find no evidence that these rates depend on metallicity, although we do suggest that the gas-to-dust ratio could be higher than at solar metallicity, in the range 240 to 800. The C2H...

  12. A uniform analysis of HD209458b Spitzer/IRAC lightcurves with Gaussian process models

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Thomas M; Gibson, Neale; Barstow, Joanna K; Amundsen, David S; Tremblin, Pascal; Mourier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of Spitzer/IRAC primary transit and secondary eclipse lightcurves measured for HD209458b, using Gaussian process models to marginalise over the intrapixel sensitivity variations in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron channels and the ramp effect in the 5.8 micron and 8.0 micron channels. The main advantage of this approach is that we can account for a broad range of degeneracies between the planet signal and systematics without actually having to specify a deterministic functional form for the latter. Our results do not confirm a previous claim of water absorption in transmission. Instead, our results are more consistent with a featureless transmission spectrum, possibly due to a cloud deck obscuring molecular absorption bands. For the emission data, our values are not consistent with the thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere that was originally inferred from these data. Instead, we agree with another re-analysis of these same data, which concluded a non-inverted atmosphere provides a b...

  13. Spitzer and z' Secondary Eclipse Observations of the Highly Irradiated Transiting Brown Dwarf KELT-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Thomas G; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Gaudi, B Scott; Bruns, Jacob M; Showman, Adam P; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert; Stassun, Keivan G; Kielkopf, John F

    2013-01-01

    We present secondary eclipse observations of the highly irradiated transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure secondary eclipse depths of 0.195+/-0.010% at 3.6um and 0.200+/-0.012% at 4.5um, corresponding to a fairly grey color of [3.6]-[4.5]=0.07+/-0.11. Using four separate ground-based light curves, we find tentative evidence for the secondary eclipse in the z' band with a depth of 0.049+/-0.023%. These observations suggest that the amount of heat redistribution in the atmosphere to the night side is very low, and prefer a model in which there is no TiO inversion and a strong substellar hotspot. However, models with no TiO and a more mild hotspot, or with TiO absorption and complete dayside redistribution, are only marginally disfavored. The eclipse timings and durations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of KELT-1b is consistent with circular to better than a percent. These observations represent the first constraints on the atmospheric dynamics of a highly irradiated...

  14. Spitzer IRS Observations of Disks around Brown Dwarfs in the TW Hydra Association

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, A L; Espaillat, C; D'Alessio, P; Adame, L; Calvet, N; Forrest, W J; Sargent, B; Hartmann, L; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J

    2008-01-01

    Using SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, we have obtained infrared spectra from 0.7 to 30um for three young brown dwarfs in the TW Hydra Association (~10 Myr), 2M J1207-3932, 2M J1139-3159, and SS J1102-3431. The spectral energy distribution for 2M J1139-3159 is consistent with a stellar photosphere for the entire wavelength range of our data while the other two objects exhibit significant excess emission at >5um. We are able to reproduce the excess emission from each brown dwarf using our models of irradiated accretion disks. According to our model fits, both disks have experienced a high degree of dust settling. We also find that silicate emission at 10 and 20um is absent from the spectra of these disks, indicating that grains in the upper disk layers have grown to sizes larger than ~5um. Both of these characteristics are consistent with previous observations of decreasing silicate emission with lower stellar masses and older ages. These trends suggest that e...

  15. Models of the Eta Corvi debris disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, J; Bryden, G; Defrère, D; Mennesson, B; Millan-Gabet, R; Boccaletti, A

    2015-01-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogues to small body populations of the Solar System, often however with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star Eta Corvi is especially striking as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ~1.4 Gyr. We undertake to construct a consistent model of the system able to explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectro-photometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries a...

  16. Spitzer Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of Ices Toward Extincted Background Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Knez, C; Blake, G A; Boogert, A C A; Kessler-Silacci, J E; Lahuis, F; Pontoppidan, K M; Van Dishoeck, E F

    2005-01-01

    A powerful way to observe directly the solid state inventory of dense molecular clouds is by infrared spectroscopy of background stars. We present Spitzer/IRS 5-20 micron spectra of ices toward stars behind the Serpens and Taurus molecular clouds, probing visual extinctions of 10-34 mag. These data provide the first complete inventory of solid-state material in dense clouds before star formation begins. The spectra show prominent 6.0 and 6.85 micron bands. In contrast to some young stellar objects (YSOs), most (~75%) of the 6.0 micron band is explained by the bending mode of pure water ice. In realistic mixtures this number increases to 85%, because the peak strength of the water bending mode is very sensitive to the molecular environment. The strength of the 6.85 micron band is comparable to what is observed toward YSOs. Thus, the production of the carrier of this band does not depend on the energetic input of a nearby source. The spectra show large abundances of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (20-40% wi...

  17. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF EXTENDED LYMAN-α CLOUDS IN THE SSA22 FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm study of extended Lyman-α clouds (or Lyman-α Blobs, LABs) within the SSA22 filamentary structure at z = 3.09. We detect 6/26 LABs in all IRAC filters, four of which are also detected at 24 μm, and find good correspondence with the 850 μm measurements of Geach et al. An analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, near- and mid-infrared colors reveals that these six systems exhibit signs of nuclear activity (active galactic nucleus (AGN)) and/or extreme star formation. Notably, they have properties that bridge galaxies dominated by star formation (Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs)) and those with AGNs (LBGs classified as QSOs). The LAB systems not detected in all four IRAC bands, on the other hand, are, as a group, consistent with pure star-forming systems, similar to the majority of the LBGs within the filament. These results indicate that the galaxies within LABs do not comprise a homogeneous population, though they are also consistent with scenarios in which the gas halos are ionized through a common mechanism such as galaxy-scale winds driven by the galaxies within them, or gravitational heating of the collapsing cloud itself.

  18. Spitzer spectra of evolved stars in omega Centauri and their low-metallicity dust production

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Iain; Sloan, Gregory C; Dupree, Andrea K; Zijlstra, Albert A; Boyer, Martha L; Gehrz, Robert D; Evans, Aneurin; Woodward, Charles E; Johnson, Christian I

    2011-01-01

    Dust production is explored around 14 metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.91 to -0.98) giant stars in the Galactic globular cluster omega Centauri using new Spitzer IRS spectra. This sample includes the cluster's post-AGB and carbon stars and is thus the first representative spectral study of dust production in a metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) population. Only the more metal rich stars V6 and V17 ([Fe/H] = -1.08, -1.06) exhibit silicate emission, while the five other stars with mid-infrared excess show only a featureless continuum which we argue is caused by metallic iron dust grains. We examine the metallicity of V42, and find it is likely part of the metal-rich population ([Fe/H] ~ -0.8). Aside from the post-AGB star V1, we find no star from the cluster's bulk, metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.5) population - including the carbon stars - to be producing detectable amounts of dust. We compare the dust production to the stars' H-alpha line profiles obtained at the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, finding pulsa...

  19. Spitzer 24 um Excesses for Bright Galactic Stars in Bootes and First Look Survey Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hovhannisyan, L R; Weedman, D W; Le Floc'h, E; Houck, J R; Soifer, B T; Brand, K; Dey, A; Jannuzi, B T

    2009-01-01

    Optically bright Galactic stars (V 1 mJy are identified in Spitzer mid-infrared surveys within 8.2 square degrees for the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey and within 5.5 square degrees for the First Look Survey (FLS). 128 stars are identified in Bootes and 140 in the FLS, and their photometry is given. (K-[24]) colors are determined using K magnitudes from the 2MASS survey for all stars in order to search for excess 24 um luminosity compared to that arising from the stellar photosphere. Of the combined sample of 268 stars, 141 are of spectral types F, G, or K, and 17 of these 141 stars have 24 um excesses with (K-[24]) > 0.2 mag. Using limits on absolute magnitude derived from proper motions, at least 8 of the FGK stars with excesses are main sequence stars, and estimates derived from the distribution of apparent magnitudes indicate that all 17 are main sequence stars. These estimates lead to the conclusion that between 9% and 17% of the main sequence FGK field stars in these samples have 24 u...

  20. NEOSurvey 1: Initial results from the Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Survey of Near Earth Object Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, David E; Hora, Joseph; Chesley, Steve; Emery, Joshua; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are small Solar System bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth's orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey --- a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in eta, the beaming parameter used in our thermal modelin...

  1. Dust-corrected surface photometry of M 31 from the Spitzer far infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, Elmo; Tenjes, Peeter; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912186

    2009-01-01

    We create a model for recovering the intrinsic, absorption-corrected surface brightness distribution of a galaxy and apply the model to the M31. We construct a galactic model as a superposition of axially symmetric stellar components and a dust disc to analyse the intrinsic absorption efects. Dust column density is assumed to be proportional to the far-infrared flux of the galaxy. Along each line of sight, the observed far-infrared spectral energy distribution is approximated with modified black body functions considering dust components with different temperatures, allowing to determine the temperatures and relative column densities of the dust components. We apply the model to the nearby galaxy M31 using the Spitzer Space Telescope far-infrared observations for mapping dust distribution and temperature. A warm and a cold dust component are distinguished. The temperature of the warm dust in M31 varies between 56 and 60 K and is highest in the spiral arms; the temperature of the cold component is mostly 15-19...

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon emission in Spitzer/IRS maps I: Catalog and simple diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, D J; Moya, L G V; Otaguro, J N; Sorkhou, S; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G G M; Peeters, E

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic HII regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5--15 $\\mu$m. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of $\\sim$4" in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the PAH emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 $\\mu$m, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 $\\mu$m. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups, the first comprising the HII regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources, the reflection nebu...

  3. Spitzer SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud II : Evolved Stars and Infrared Color Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, R D; Olsen, K A; Frogel, J A; Werner, M; Meixner, M; Markwick-Kemper, F; Indebetouw, R; Whitney, B; Meade, M; Babler, B; Churchwell, E B; Gordon, K; Engelbracht, C W; Misselt, K; Vijh, U; Leitherer, C; Volk, K; Points, S; Reach, W; Hora, J L; Bernard, J P; Boulanger, F; Bracker, S; Cohen, M; Fukui, Y; Gallagher, J; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Kelly, D; Kawamura, A; Latter, W B; Madden, S; Mizuno, A; Mizuno, N; Nota, A; Oey, M S; Onishi, T; Paladini, R; Panagia, N; Perez-Gonzalez, P; Shibai, H; Sato, S; Smith, L; Staveley-Smith, L; Tielens, A G G M; Ueta, T; Van Dyk, S D; Zaritsky, D

    2006-01-01

    Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) are presented for the Spitzer SAGE (Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution) survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). IRAC and MIPS 24 um epoch one data are presented. These data represent the deepest, widest mid-infrared CMDs of their kind ever produced in the LMC. Combined with the 2MASS survey, the diagrams are used to delineate the evolved stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud as well as Galactic foreground and extragalactic background populations. Some 32000 evolved stars brighter than the tip of the red giant branch are identified. Of these, approximately 17500 are classified as oxygen-rich, 7000 carbon-rich, and another 1200 as ``extreme'' asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Brighter members of the latter group have been called ``obscured'' AGB stars in the literature owing to their dusty circumstellar envelopes. A large number (1200) of luminous oxygen--rich AGB stars/M supergiants are also identified. Finally, there is strong evidence from the 24 u...

  4. Spitzer View of Massive Star Formation in the Tidally Stripped Magellanic Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C -H Rosie; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko; Gordon, Karl D; Sewiło, Marta; Whitney, Barbara A; Fukui, Yasuo; Madden, Suzanne C; Meade, Marilyn R; Meixner, Margaret; Oliveira, Joana M; Robitaille, Thomas P; Seale, Jonathan P; Shiao, Bernie; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper we present analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., {\\it in situ, current} massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using {\\it Spitzer} mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are $\\sim10 M_\\odot$, $\\ll45 M_\\odot$ found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and...

  5. Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: Kepler's Older Cousin?

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Winkler, P Frank; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the "18 $\\mu$m" silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense...

  6. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Popov, S. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Wachter, S., E-mail: posselt@psu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königsstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ∼10% to ∼20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  7. Spitzer Microlens Measurement of a Massive Remnant in a Well-Separated Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Gould, A; Han, C; Bozza, V; Friedmann, M; Hundertmark, M; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Novati, S Calchi; Carey, S; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Kerr, T; Pogge, R W; Varricatt, W; Wibking, B; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzyński, G; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Choi, J -Y; Park, H; Jung, Y K; Shin, I -G; Albrow, M D; Park, B -G; Kim, S -L; Lee, C -U; Cha, S -M; Kim, D -J; Lee, Y; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Street, R A; Tsapras, Y; Bachelet, E; Dominik, M; Bramich, D M; Horne, Keith; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Jaimes, R Figuera; Wambsganss, J; Schmidt, R; Cassan, A; Ranc, C; Mao, S; Dong, Subo; D'Ago, G; Scarpetta, G; Verma, P; Jørgensen, U G; Kerins, E; Skottfelt, J

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection and mass measurement of a binary lens OGLE-2015-BLG-1285La,b, with the more massive component having $M_1>1.35\\,M_\\odot$ (80% probability). A main-sequence star in this mass range is ruled out by limits on blue light, meaning that a primary in this mass range must be a neutron star or black hole. The system has a projected separation $r_\\perp= 6.1\\pm 0.4\\,{\\rm AU}$ and lies in the Galactic bulge. These measurements are based on the "microlens parallax" effect, i.e., comparing the microlensing light curve as seen from $Spitzer$, which lay at $1.25\\,{\\rm AU}$ projected from Earth, to the light curves from four ground-based surveys, three in the optical and one in the near infrared. Future adaptive optics imaging of the companion by 30m class telescopes will yield a much more accurate measurement of the primary mass. This discovery both opens the path and defines the challenges to detecting and characterizing black holes and neutron stars in wide binaries, with either dark or luminous com...

  8. Reliability, validity and discriminatory ability of Spitzer's QL-index in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T O; Morad, Z

    1998-12-01

    Quality of life outcome (QOL) on dialysis is important. We determined the measurement properties of Spitzer's QL-index, a QOL measure, in our patients on chronic haemodialysis. The QL-index measures 5 dimensions of QOL (activity, daily activities, general health, social support and psychological outlook). 59 haemodialysis (HD) patients from 2 centres were rated by 5 raters. Inter-rater agreement for the total score was good with a mean intra-class correlation coefficient 0.66 (range 0.47-0.81). That for dimension scores however was poor (weighted kappa range 0.07-1). Systematic differences between raters were also observed. Intra-rater agreement was generally better than inter-rater agreement. Significant gradients in scores were observed by age, serum albumin, comorbid disorders, previous hospitalisation, capacity for self care HD and rehabilitation status thus providing evidence for construct validity. The distribution of total scores was skewed indicating poor discriminatory ability. Nevertheless, QL-index has acceptable measurement properties for application in dialysis patients. PMID:10971983

  9. Spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the early-type spectroscopic binary HD 161853 in the centre of an H II region

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R; Barbá, R H; Arias, J I; Apellániz, J Maíz; Walborn, N R; Sota, A; Alfaro, E J

    2015-01-01

    We study the O-type star HD 161853, which has been noted as a probable double-lined spectroscopic binary system. We secured high-resolution spectra of HD 161853 during the past nine years. We separated the two components in the system and measured their respective radial velocities for the first time. We confirm that HD 161853 is an $\\sim$1 Ma old binary system consisting of an O8 V star ($M_{\\rm A,RV} \\geq 22$ M$_\\odot$) and a B1--3 V star ($M_{\\rm B,RV} \\geq 7.2$ M$_\\odot$) at about 1.3 kpc. From the radial velocity curve, we measure an orbital period $P$ = 2.66765$\\pm$0.00001 d and an eccentricity $e$ = 0.121$\\pm$0.007. Its $V$-band light curve is constant within 0.014 mag and does not display eclipses, from which we impose a maximum orbital inclination $i=54$ deg. HD 161853 is probably associated with an H II region and a poorly investigated very young open cluster. In addition, we detect a compact emission region at 50 arcsec to HD 161853 in 22$\\mu$m-WISE and 24$\\mu$m-Spitzer images, which may be identif...

  10. Spectroscopic studies in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the spectroscopic studies in JT-60 which was constructed to explore the break-even plasma. The content is as follows; (1) In order to study impurity behaviors in the JT-60 plasma, a spectroscopic diagnostic system, which is capable of measuring many spectra of impurity ions and their spatial distributions, has been developed. (2) A Rowland-type grazing incidence monochromator has been absolutely calibrated with a branching ratio method. And multi-channel spectrometers have been absolutely calibrated in the wavelength region of 275-1250A using synchrotron radiation. (3) The transport coefficients (D, cv) for impurity have been measured by observing the time evolutions of line intensities of titanium in ohmically heated and neutral beam heated discharges. (4) Impurity contents have been measured in limited discharges and diverted discharges with different materials for the first wall, namely metallic wall and graphite wall. (5) For the Lyman-α line of TiXXII, the intensity ratio of its fine structure components (1 2S1/2 - 2 2P1/2,3/2) has been measured in discharges with various heating modes. (6) Energy levels and oscillator strengths have been calculated for MoXV-XL. (J.P.N.)

  11. Large Binocular Telescope and Spitzer Spectroscopy of Star-forming Galaxies at 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujopakarn, W.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C. J.; Weiner, B. J.; Rigby, J. R.; Rex, M.; Bian, F.; Kuhn, O. P.; Thompson, D.

    2012-08-01

    We present spectroscopic observations in the rest-frame optical and near- to mid-infrared wavelengths of four gravitationally lensed infrared (IR) luminous star-forming galaxies at redshift 1 LUCIFER instrument on the Large Binocular Telescope and the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. The sample was selected to represent pure, actively star-forming systems, absent of active galactic nuclei. The large lensing magnifications result in high signal-to-noise spectra that can probe faint IR recombination lines, including Paα and Brα at high redshifts. The sample was augmented by three lensed galaxies with similar suites of unpublished data and observations from the literature, resulting in the final sample of seven galaxies. We use the IR recombination lines in conjunction with Hα observations to probe the extinction, Av , of these systems, as well as testing star formation rate (SFR) indicators against the SFR measured by fitting spectral energy distributions to far-IR photometry. Our galaxies occupy a range of Av from ~0 to 5.9 mag, larger than previously known for a similar range of IR luminosities at these redshifts. Thus, estimates of SFR even at z ~ 2 must take careful count of extinction in the most IR luminous galaxies. We also measure extinction by comparing SFR estimates from optical emission lines with those from far-IR measurements. The comparison of results from these two independent methods indicates a large variety of dust distribution scenarios at 1 < z < 3. Without correcting for dust extinction, the Hα SFR indicator underestimates the SFR; the size of the necessary correction depends on the IR luminosity and dust distribution scenario. Individual SFR estimates based on the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission line luminosity do not show a systematic discrepancy with extinction, although a considerable, ~ 0.2 dex, scatter is observed. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT

  12. The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey (TESIS)

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Ceca, R D; Severgnini, P; Braito, V; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2003-01-01

    We are carrying on a near-IR very low resolution spectroscopic follow-up in parallel with XMM-Newton observations of a complete sample of ~30 bright (K'<18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected over an area of 360 arcmin^2 of the MUNICS survey. We here present the preliminary results of the spectroscopic and X-ray data analysis.

  13. A Tale of Three Galaxies: Deciphering the Infrared Emission of the Spectroscopically Anomalous Galaxies IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739 and SDSS J0808+3948

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei; Nikutta, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The \\textit{Spitzer}/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of three spectroscopically anomalous galaxies (IRAS~F10398+1455, IRAS~F21013-0739 and SDSS~J0808+3948) are modeled in terms of a mixture of warm and cold silicate dust, and warm and cold carbon dust. Their unique infrared (IR) emission spectra are characterized by a steep $\\simali$5--8$\\mum$ emission continuum, strong emission bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, and prominent silicate emission. The steep $\\simali$5--8$\\mum$ emission continuum and strong PAH emission features suggest the dominance of starbursts, while the silicate emission is indicative of significant heating from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). With warm and cold silicate dust of various compositions ("astronomical silicate," amorphous olivine, or amorphous pyroxene) combined with warm and cold carbon dust (amorphous carbon, or graphite), we are able to closely reproduce the observed IR emission of these %spectroscopically anomalous galaxies. We find that the dust tempe...

  14. Very Small Particles and Chemistry in Photodissociation Regions: from ISO to Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joblin, C.; Abergel, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Berne, O.; Boulanger, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Compiègne, M.; Deville, Y.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J.; Habart, E.; Le Bourlot, J.; Maillard, J.-P.; Rapacioli, M.; Reach, W.; Simon, A.; Smith, J.-D.; Teyssier, D.; Verstraete, L.

    PAH emission. They proposed that VSGs could be aggregates of PAHs which photoevaporate at the surface of clouds. This work can now continue thanks to the unique spectro-imagery capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope. With the spectrometer IRS, spectro-imagery studies are possible in the 5-35 μm range, giving the possibility to better characterize the VSG emission and therefore the chemical identity of this dust population. Second, the spectrometer IRS allows to access to the full set of rotational lines of H2: 0-0 S(0), S(1), S(2) and S(3) at 28.2, 17.0, 12.3 and 9.7 μm. The interpretation of the line intensities with a PDR model allows to derive precise information on the formation mechanism of H2, in particular the formation rate and the ortho-to-para ratio (Le Bourlot (2000)). Finally, the spectro-imagery data obtained with IRS will be soon combined to MIPS-SED observations between 55 and 95 μm in order to follow the spatial evolution of the abundance and size distribution of the different dust populations including large grains. The Spitzer data will be presented. Our sources were selected in order to span a broad range of physical conditions (radiation field, geometry and density). Interpretation is in progress using PDR, radiative transfer and dust models developped by our team. The obtained data is clearly a benchmark for models describing the nature and evolution of all dust populations as well as for the excitation and formation of H2. Complementary work includes ground-based observations, blind source separation analysis and laboratory/theoretical work.

  15. A Spitzer search for transits of radial velocity detected super-Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike hot Jupiters or other gas giants, super-Earths are expected to have a wide variety of compositions, ranging from terrestrial bodies like our own to more gaseous planets like Neptune. Observations of transiting systems, which allow us to directly measure planet masses and radii and constrain atmospheric properties, are key to understanding the compositional diversity of the planets in this mass range. Although Kepler has discovered hundreds of transiting super-Earth candidates over the past 4 yr, the majority of these planets orbit stars that are too far away and too faint to allow for detailed atmospheric characterization and reliable mass estimates. Ground-based transit surveys focus on much brighter stars, but most lack the sensitivity to detect planets in this size range. One way to get around the difficulty of finding these smaller planets in transit is to start by choosing targets that are already known to host super-Earth sized bodies detected using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Here we present results from a Spitzer program to observe six of the most favorable RV-detected super-Earth systems, including HD 1461, HD 7924, HD 156668, HIP 57274, and GJ 876. We find no evidence for transits in any of their 4.5 μm flux light curves, and place limits on the allowed transit depths and corresponding planet radii that rule out even the most dense and iron-rich compositions for these objects. We also observed HD 97658, but the observation window was based on a possible ground-based transit detection that was later ruled out; thus the window did not include the predicted time for the transit detection recently made by the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars space telescope.

  16. SPITZER SAGE INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 μm in the UBVIJHKs +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among ∼900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L sun ≥ 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.

  17. SPITZER IRAC SECONDARY ECLIPSE PHOTOMETRY OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANET HAT-P-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the transiting giant exoplanet HAT-P-1b during its secondary eclipse. This planet lies near the postulated boundary between the pM and pL-class of hot Jupiters, and is important as a test of models for temperature inversions in hot Jupiter atmospheres. We derive eclipse depths for HAT-P-1b, in units of the stellar flux, that are: 0.080% ± 0.008% [3.6 μm], 0.135% ± 0.022% [4.5 μm], 0.203% ± 0.031% [5.8 μm], and 0.238% ± 0.040% [8.0 μm]. These values are best fit using an atmosphere with a modest temperature inversion, intermediate between the archetype inverted atmosphere (HD 209458b) and a model without an inversion. The observations also suggest that this planet is radiating a large fraction of the available stellar irradiance on its dayside, with little available for redistribution by circulation. This planet has sometimes been speculated to be inflated by tidal dissipation, based on its large radius in discovery observations, and on a non-zero orbital eccentricity allowed by the radial velocity data. The timing of the secondary eclipse is very sensitive to orbital eccentricity, and we find that the central phase of the eclipse is 0.4999 ± 0.0005. The difference between the expected and observed phase indicates that the orbit is close to circular, with a 3σ limit of |e cos ω| < 0.002.

  18. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautista, Manuel [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI 49008-5252 (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  19. Discovery of the Dust-Enshrouded Progenitor of SN 2008S with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, José L.; Kistler, Matthew D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Yüksel, Hasan; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Beacom, John F.; Martini, Paul; Pasquali, Anna; Bechtold, Jill

    2008-07-01

    We report the discovery of the progenitor of the recent Type IIn SN 2008S in the nearby galaxy NGC 6946. Surprisingly, it was not found in deep, preexplosion optical images of its host galaxy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope, but only through examination of archival Spitzer mid-IR data. A source coincident with the SN 2008S position is clearly detected in the 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm IRAC bands, showing no evident variability in the 3 years prior to the explosion, yet is undetected at 3.6 and 24 μm. The distinct presence of ~440 K dust, along with stringent LBT limits on the optical fluxes, suggests that the progenitor of SN 2008S was engulfed in a shroud of its own dust. The inferred luminosity of ≈3.5 × 104 L⊙ implies a modest mass of ~10 M⊙. We conclude that objects like SN 2008S are not exclusively associated with the deaths or outbursts of very massive η Carinae-like objects. This conclusion holds based solely on the optical flux limits even if our identification of the progenitor with the mid-IR source is incorrect. Based in part on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.

  20. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  1. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  2. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE CHAMAELEON I STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 5-36 μm mid-infrared spectra of 82 young stars in the ∼2 Myr old Chamaeleon I star-forming region, obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We have classified these objects into various evolutionary classes based on their spectral energy distributions and the spectral features seen in the IRS spectra. We have analyzed the mid-IR spectra of Class II objects in Chamaeleon I in detail, in order to study the vertical and radial structure of the protoplanetary disks surrounding these stars. We find evidence for substantial dust settling in most protoplanetary disks in Chamaeleon I. We have identified several disks with altered radial structures in Chamaeleon I, among them transitional disk candidates which have holes or gaps in their disks. Analysis of the silicate emission features in the IRS spectra of Class II objects in Cha I shows that the dust grains in these disks have undergone significant processing (grain growth and crystallization). However, disks with radial holes/gaps appear to have relatively unprocessed grains. We further find the crystalline dust content in the inner (∼<1-2 AU) and the intermediate (∼<10 AU) regions of the protoplanetary disks to be tightly correlated. We also investigate the effects of accretion and stellar multiplicity on the disk structure and dust properties. Finally, we compare the observed properties of protoplanetary disks in Cha I with those in slightly younger Taurus and Ophiuchus regions and discuss the effects of disk evolution in the first 1-2 Myr.

  3. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyze two exoplanetary transit light curves of the exoplanet HD 189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 μm during the 'cold' era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterize the atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b. Previous analyses of the same data sets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such 'admission of ignorance' may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor 1.6. This is a worthwhile tradeoff for much higher objectivity, necessary for trustworthy claims. Our main results are (1) improved and robust values of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) new measurements of the transit depths at 3.6 μm, (3) consistency between the parameters estimated from the two observations, (4) repeatability of the measurement within the photometric level of ∼2 × 10–4 in the IR, and (5) no evidence of stellar variability at the same photometric level within one year.

  4. A new look at Spitzer primary transit observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E6BT (United Kingdom); Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, via Archirafi I-90123, Italy. (Italy); Micela, G., E-mail: giuseppe.morello.11@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica (previously Dipartimento di Fisica), Specola Universitaria, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1 I-90123 (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Blind source separation techniques are used to reanalyze two exoplanetary transit light curves of the exoplanet HD 189733b recorded with the IR camera IRAC on board the Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 μm during the 'cold' era. These observations, together with observations at other IR wavelengths, are crucial to characterize the atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b. Previous analyses of the same data sets reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of the reanalyses. The method we used here is based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) statistical technique, which ensures a high degree of objectivity. The use of ICA to detrend single photometric observations in a self-consistent way is novel in the literature. The advantage of our reanalyses over previous work is that we do not have to make any assumptions on the structure of the unknown instrumental systematics. Such 'admission of ignorance' may result in larger error bars than reported in the literature, up to a factor 1.6. This is a worthwhile tradeoff for much higher objectivity, necessary for trustworthy claims. Our main results are (1) improved and robust values of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) new measurements of the transit depths at 3.6 μm, (3) consistency between the parameters estimated from the two observations, (4) repeatability of the measurement within the photometric level of ∼2 × 10{sup –4} in the IR, and (5) no evidence of stellar variability at the same photometric level within one year.

  5. Spitzer view of massive star formation in the tidally stripped Magellanic Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Seale, Jonathan P.; Shiao, Bernie [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sewiło, Marta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitney, Barbara A.; Meade, Marilyn R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furocho, Chikusaku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oliveira, Joana M.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Robitaille, Thomas P., E-mail: rchen@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20

    The Magellanic Bridge is the nearest low-metallicity, tidally stripped environment, offering a unique high-resolution view of physical conditions in merging and forming galaxies. In this paper, we present an analysis of candidate massive young stellar objects (YSOs), i.e., in situ, current massive star formation (MSF) in the Bridge using Spitzer mid-IR and complementary optical and near-IR photometry. While we definitely find YSOs in the Bridge, the most massive are ∼10 M {sub ☉}, <<45 M {sub ☉} found in the LMC. The intensity of MSF in the Bridge also appears to be decreasing, as the most massive YSOs are less massive than those formed in the past. To investigate environmental effects on MSF, we have compared properties of massive YSOs in the Bridge to those in the LMC. First, YSOs in the Bridge are apparently less embedded than in the LMC: 81% of Bridge YSOs show optical counterparts, compared to only 56% of LMC sources with the same range of mass, circumstellar dust mass, and line-of-sight extinction. Circumstellar envelopes are evidently more porous or clumpy in the Bridge's low-metallicity environment. Second, we have used whole samples of YSOs in the LMC and the Bridge to estimate the probability of finding YSOs at a given H I column density, N(H I). We found that the LMC has ∼3 × higher probability than the Bridge for N(H I) >12 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, but the trend reverses at lower N(H I). Investigating whether this lower efficiency relative to H I is due to less efficient molecular cloud formation or to less efficient cloud collapse, or to both, will require sensitive molecular gas observations.

  6. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 μm in the UBVIJHKs +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 μm in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  7. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  8. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  9. A NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST PROTOTYPE FOR z ∼ 7 LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES: SPITZER-IRS AND X-SHOOTER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 031203

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies have been studied extensively in optical photometry and spectroscopy. Here we present the first mid-infrared spectrum of a GRB host, HG 031203. It is one of the nearest GRB hosts at z = 0.1055, allowing both low- and high-resolution spectroscopy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). Medium-resolution UV to K-band spectroscopy with the X-shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope is also presented, along with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry, as well as radio and submillimeter observations. These data allow us to construct a UV to radio spectral energy distribution with almost complete spectroscopic coverage from 0.3 to 35 μm of a GRB host galaxy for the first time, potentially valuable as a template for future model comparisons. The IRS spectra show strong, high-ionization fine structure line emission indicative of a hard radiation field in the galaxy—in particular the [S IV]/[S III] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios—suggestive of strong ongoing star formation and a very young stellar population. The absence of any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission supports these conclusions, as does the probable hot peak dust temperature, making HG 031203 similar to the prototypical blue compact dwarf galaxy (BCD), II Zw 40. The selection of HG 031203 via the presence of a GRB suggests that it might be a useful analog of very young star-forming galaxies in the early universe, and hints that local BCDs may be used as more reliable analogs of star formation in the early universe than typical local starbursts. We look at the current debate on the ages of the dominant stellar populations in z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 galaxies in this context. The nebular line emission is so strong in HG 031203 that at z ∼ 7, it can reproduce the spectral energy distributions of z-band dropout galaxies with elevated IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm fluxes without the need to invoke a 4000 Å break. Indeed, photometry of HG 031203 shows elevation of the broadband V

  10. Infrared properties of Active OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds from the Spitzer SAGE Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D.J.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.; Köhlinger, F.; Panagia, N.; van Loon, J. Th.; Evans, C. J.; Smith, L J; Meixner, M.; Gordon, K; teams, the SAGE

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties of 4922 spectroscopically confirmed massive stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, focusing on the active OB star population. Besides OB stars, our sample includes yellow and red supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars, Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and supergiant B[e] stars. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in the SMC, respectively, when compared t...

  11. Two Eyes on the Prize: Revealing the Complete Architectures of Planetary Systems through Transit Timing with Kepler and Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrycky, Daniel; Stevenson, Kevin; Ballard, Sarah; Agol, Eric; Holman, Matthew; Bean, Jacob; Ragozzine, Darin

    2013-11-01

    The transit timing variation (TTV) technique has recently become a crucial method for determining the complete architectures (i.e., planet masses, orbital eccentricities, inclinations, and resonant properties) of extrasolar planetary systems. This technique has blossomed because of the Kepler mission's discovery of systems with multiple transiting planets and individual planets exhibiting very large TTVs. All of Kepler's results in this area so far have been for relatively short-period planets, but Kepler has also discovered dynamically-interacting systems with planets that have longer periods, similar to those of the Solar System. However, the ill-timed failure of the Kepler telescope has left us with an incomplete picture of these systems due to a lack of the required time baseline. Fortunately, Spitzer is positioned to leverage the unique potential that these planets offer, by extending the time baseline of transit observations. We propose to observe transits of seven Kepler-discovered planets in four particularly compelling systems to precisely determine their transit times. Combining the legacy Kepler transit times with the new times from Spitzer will give us the baseline that is needed to confirm and characterize these dynamically interacting systems of planets. This information will allow us to assess the complete architectures of these systems -- we will discover planets that do not transit and determine the masses and orbital properties of all the planets. For 6 planets in these systems, the TTVs will allow us to measure the planetary masses to better than 20%, which will approximately double the number of cool giant planets with known masses and radii. Several of the systems have mean-motion resonances between the planets, and characterizing these interactions yields information on the formation and migration of giant planets. The required precision and duration of these observations render Spitzer the only remaining instrument capable of such study.

  12. How to restore the fiduciary relationship. An interview with Eliot Spitzer. Interview by Louise O'Brien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Eliot

    2004-05-01

    Eliot Spitzer's investigations into the mutual fund and investment-banking industries have made the New York State attorney general the de facto flag bearer of corporate reform. His exposure of conflicts of interest between investment bankers and research analyst in Wall Street firms led to the $1.4 billion global settlement between regulators and banking houses in 2003. In this interview, Spitzer describes the challenge of protecting public markets from conflicts of interest, paying particular attention to how such conflicts get institutionalized in an industry. "The cases that have gotten me and my fellow regulators most upset are the ones where we've seen senior management being tolerant of rank abuses," he says. "Because then you know that the entire structure is rotten." He also points the finger squarely at boards, maintaining that board members are drawn from pools of company and industry insiders. He cites "a void in values in a lot of boardrooms," holding up executive compensation as a powerful example. "Board compensation committees ... are self-selected and interwoven--it's a rigged marketplace." He continues, "It would be interesting to see what the world would look like if CEO pay packages had to be submitted to shareholder votes." Spitzer suggests that what's really needed is for all business leaders to reinstill throughout their organizations the critical notion of a fiduciary duty--whether it is to the shareholder or to the customer. Using the mutual fund industry as an example, he also contrasts the value of enforcement with that of regulation and articulates an important--and surprisingly limited--role for government in protecting free markets. PMID:15146737

  13. THE SPITZER VIEW OF LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION. III. FINE-STRUCTURE LINES, AROMATIC FEATURES, AND MOLECULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present low- and high-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, supplemented by Infrared Array Camera and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer measurements, of 22 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. The BCD sample spans a wide range in oxygen abundance (12+log(O/H) between 7.4 and 8.3), and hardness of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra provide us with a rich set of diagnostics to probe the physics of star and dust formation in very low metallicity environments. We find that metal-poor BCDs have harder ionizing radiation than metal-rich galaxies: [O IV] emission is ∼>4 times as common as [Fe II] emission. They also have a more intense ISRF, as indicated by the 71 to 160 μm luminosity ratio. Two-thirds of the sample (15 BCDs) show polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, although the fraction of PAH emission normalized to the total infrared (IR) luminosity is considerably smaller in metal-poor BCDs (∼0.5%) than in metal-rich star-forming galaxies (∼10%). We find several lines of evidence for a deficit of small PAH carriers at low metallicity, and attribute this to destruction by a hard, intense ISRF, only indirectly linked to metal abundance. Our IRS spectra reveal a variety of H2 rotational lines, and more than a third of the objects in our sample (eight BCDs) have ∼>3σ detections in one or more of the four lowest-order transitions. The warm gas masses in the BCDs range from 103 Msun to 108 Msun, and can be comparable to the neutral hydrogen gas mass; relative to their total IR luminosities, some BCDs contain more H2 than Spitzer Nearby Galaxy Survey galaxies.

  14. The Spitzer microlensing program as a probe for globular cluster planets : analysis of OGLE-2015-BLG-0448

    OpenAIRE

    Poleski, Radosław; Zhu, Wei; Christie, Grant W.; Udalski, Andrzej; Gould, Andrew; Bachelet, Etienne; Skottfelt, Jesper; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozłowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    The microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-0448 was observed by Spitzer and lay within the tidal radius of the globular cluster NGC 6558. The event had moderate magnification and was intensively observed, hence it had the potential to probe the distribution of planets in globular clusters.We measure the proper motion of NGC 6558 μcl(N, E)=(+0.36 ± 0.10,+1.42 ± 0.10) mas yr-1) as well as the source and show that the lens is not a cluster member. Even though this particular event does not probe the d...

  15. Selection of AGN candidates in the GOODS-South Field through SPITZER/MIPS 24 microns variability

    OpenAIRE

    García-González, Judit; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Villar, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies showing mid-infrared variability in the deepest Spitzer/MIPS 24 $\\mu$m surveys in the GOODS-South field. We divide the dataset in epochs and subepochs to study the long-term (months-years) and the short-term (days) variability. We use a $\\chi^2$-statistics method to select AGN candidates with a probability $\\leq$ 1% that the observed variability is due to statistical errors alone. We find 39 (1.7% of the parent sample) sources that show long-term variability and...

  16. Explorations Beyond the Snow Line: Spitzer/IRS Spectra of Debris Disks Around Solar-Type Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, S. M.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Ciardi, D. R.; Tanner, A. M.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Lisse, C. M.; Harker, D. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have observed 152 nearby solar-type stars with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Including stars that met our criteria but were observed in other surveys, we get an overall success rate for finding excesses in the long-wavelength IRS band (30-34 μm) of 11.8% ± 2.4%. The success rate for excesses in the short-wavelength band (8.5-12 μm) is ~1% including sources from other surveys. For stars with no excess at 8.5-12 μm, the IRS data set 3σ limits of around 1000 ...

  17. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density nc=(0.7−0.6+6.3)×10−7 h3 Mpc−3 and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h –1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than Mmin=1.5−0.7+0.9×1014 h−1 M⊙. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to Mmean=1.9−0.8+1.0×1014 h−1 M⊙; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters

  18. Spitzer as Microlens Parallax Satellite: Mass Measurement for the OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L Planet and its Host Star

    OpenAIRE

    Udalski, A; Yee, J. C.; Gould, A.; Carey, S.; Zhu, W; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector ${\\mathbf \\pi}_{\\rm E}$, and so the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses $m \\sim 0.5\\,M_{\\rm jup}$ and $M\\sim 0.7\\,M_\\odot$ and are separated by $a_\\perp\\sim 3.1$ AU in projection. The main source of uncertainty in all these numbers (approximately 30%, 30%, and 20%) is the relat...

  19. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-wavelength View of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.;

    2011-01-01

    retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main....... Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs...

  20. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  1. NIR spectroscopic observation of massive galaxies in the protocluster at z = 3.09

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Mariko; Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tanaka, Ichi

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the $K$-band selected candidate galaxies in the protocluster at $z=3.09$ in the SSA22 field. We observed 67 candidates with $K_{\\rm AB}1.4$), hyper extremely red objects (HEROs; $J-K_{\\rm AB}>2.1$), {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 $\\mu$m sources, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as well as the counterparts of Ly$\\alpha$ blobs and the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm sources in the SSA22 field are also found to be the protocluster members. The mass of the SSA22 protocluster is estimated to be $\\sim2-5\\times10^{14}~M_{\\odot}$ and this system is plausibly a progenitor of the most massive clusters of galaxies in the current Universe. The reddest ($J-K_{\\rm AB}\\geq 2.4$) protocluster galaxies are massive galaxies with $M_{\\rm star}\\sim10^{11}~M_{\\odot}$ showing quiescent star formation activities and plausibly dominated by old stellar populations. Most of these massive quiescent galaxies host moderately luminous AGNs detected by X-ray. There are no significant differences ...

  2. Coupled Blind Signal Separation and Spectroscopic Database Fitting of the Mid Infrared PAH Features

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, M J F; Boersma, C; Allamandola, L J; Tielens, A G G M

    2011-01-01

    The aromatic infrared bands (AIBs) observed in the mid infrared spectrum are attributed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). We observe the NGC 7023-North West (NW) PDR in the mid-infrared (10 - 19.5 micron) using the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), on board Spitzer. Clear variations are observed in the spectra, most notably the ratio of the 11.0 to 11.2 micron bands, the peak position of the 11.2 and 12.0 micron bands, and the degree of asymmetry of the 11.2 micron band. The observed variations appear to change as a function of position within the PDR. We aim to explain these variations by a change in the abundances of the emitting components of the PDR. A Blind Signal Separation (BSS) method, i.e. a Non-Negative Matrix Factorization algorithm is applied to separate the observed spectrum into components. Using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, these extracted signals are fit. The observed signals alone were also fit using the database and these components are compared to the BSS components. Th...

  3. Electron Energy Distribution in Hotspots of Cygnus A:Filling the Gap with Spitzer Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of Cyg A with the Infrared Array Camera at 4.5 (micro)m and 8.0 (micro)m, resulting in the detection of the high-energy tails or cut-offs in the synchrotron spectra for all four hotspots of this archetype radio galaxy. When combined with the other data collected (and re-analyzed) from the literature, our observations allow for detailed modeling of the broad-band (radio-to-X-ray) emission for the brightest spots A and D. We confirm that the X-ray flux detected previously from these features is consistent with the synchrotron self-Compton radiation for the magnetic field intensity B ∼ 170 (micro)G in spot A, and B ∼ 270 (micro)G in spot D. We also find that the energy density of the emitting electrons is most likely larger by a factor of a few than the energy density of the hotspots magnetic field. We construct energy spectra of the radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. We find that for both hotspots A and D these spectra are consistent with a broken power-law extending from at least 100MeV up to ∼ 100GeV, and that the spectral break corresponds almost exactly to the proton rest energy of ∼ 1GeV. We argue that the shape of the electron continuum most likely reflects two different regimes of the electron acceleration process taking place at mildly relativistic shocks, rather than resulting from radiative cooling and/or absorption e.ects. In this picture the protons inertia defines the critical energy for the hotspot electrons above which Fermi-type acceleration processes may play a major role, but below which the operating acceleration mechanism has to be of a different type. At energies ∼> 100 GeV, the electron spectra cut-off/steepen again, most likely as a result of spectral aging due to radiative loss effects. We discuss several implications of the presented analysis for the physics of extragalactic jets

  4. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral mapping observations of 15 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). In this paper, we investigate the spatial variations of the mid-IR emission which includes fine structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, polycyclic aromatic features (PAHs), continuum emission, and the 9.7 μm silicate feature. We also compare the nuclear and integrated spectra. We find that the star formation takes place in extended regions (several kpc) as probed by the PAH emission, as well as the [Ne II]12.81 μm and [Ne III]15.56 μm emissions. The behavior of the integrated PAH emission and 9.7 μm silicate feature is similar to that of local starburst galaxies. We also find that the minima of the [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratio tends to be located at the nuclei and its value is lower than that of H II regions in our LIRGs and nearby galaxies. It is likely that increased densities in the nuclei of LIRGs are responsible for the smaller nuclear [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratios. This includes the possibility that some of the most massive stars in the nuclei are still embedded in ultracompact H II regions. In a large fraction of our sample, the 11.3 μm PAH emission appears more extended than the dust 5.5 μm continuum emission. We find a dependency of the 11.3 μm PAH/7.7 μm PAH and [Ne II]12.81 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratios with the age of the stellar populations. Smaller and larger ratios, respectively, indicate recent star formation. The estimated warm (300 K 8 M sun, which are similar to those found in ULIRGs, local starbursts, and Seyfert galaxies. Finally we find that the [Ne II]12.81 μm velocity fields for most of the LIRGs in our sample are compatible with a rotating disk at ∼kpc scales, and they are in a good agreement with Hα velocity fields.

  5. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF COMET 73P/SCHWASSMANN-WACHMANN 3 USING THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to observe the 5-37 μm thermal emission of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 (SW3), components B and C. We obtained low spectral resolution (R ∼ 100) data over the entire wavelength interval, along with images at 16 and 22 μm. These observations provided an unprecedented opportunity to study nearly pristine material from the surface and what was until recently the interior of an ecliptic comet-the cometary surface having experienced only two prior perihelion passages, and including material that was totally fresh. The spectra were modeled using a variety of mineral types including both amorphous and crystalline components. We find that the degree of silicate crystallinity, ∼35%, is somewhat lower than most other comets with strong emission features, while its abundance of amorphous carbon is higher. Both suggest that SW3 is among the most chemically primitive solar system objects yet studied in detail, and that it formed earlier or farther from the Sun than the bulk of the comets studied so far. The similar dust compositions of the two fragments suggest that these are not mineralogically heterogeneous, but rather uniform throughout their volumes. The best-fit particle size distribution for SW3B has a form dn/da ∼ a-3.5, close to that expected for dust in collisional equilibrium, while that for SW3C has dn/da ∼ a-4.0, as seen mostly in active comets with strong directed jets, such as C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp. The total mass of dust in the comae plus nearby tail, extrapolated from the field of view of the IRS peak-up image arrays, is (3-5) x 108 kg for B and (7-9) x 108 kg for C. Atomic abundances derived from the spectral models indicate a depletion of O compared to solar photospheric values, despite the inclusion of water ice and gas in the models. Atomic C may be solar or slightly sub-solar, but its abundance is complicated by the potential contribution of spectrally featureless mineral

  6. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  7. A Precise Determination of the Mid-infrared Interstellar Extinction Law Based on the APOGEE Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mengyao; Jiang, B. W.; Gao, Jian; Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Shu; Li, Aigen

    2016-06-01

    A precise measure of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction law is crucial for investigating the properties of interstellar dust, especially larger-sized grains. Based on the stellar parameters derived from the SDSS-III/Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectroscopic survey, we select a large sample of G-type and K-type giants as the tracers of the Galactic mid-infrared extinction. We calculate the intrinsic stellar color excesses from the stellar effective temperatures and use them to determine the mid-infrared extinction for a given line of sight. For the entire sky of the Milky Way surveyed by APOGEE, we derive the extinctions (relative to {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, the K S-band extinction at wavelength λ = 2.16 μm) for the four Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) bands at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm, the four Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera bands at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm, the Spitzer/MIPS24 band at 23.7 μm, and, for the first time, the AKARI/S9W band at 8.23 μm. Our results agree with previous works in that the extinction curve is flat in the ∼3–8 μm wavelength range and is generally consistent with the {R}V = 5.5 model curve, except our determination exceeds the model prediction in the WISE/W4 band. Although some previous works found that the mid-IR extinction law appears to vary with the extinction depth {A}{{{K}}{{S}}}, no noticeable variation has been found in this work. The uncertainties are analyzed in terms of the bootstrap resampling method and Monte-Carlo simulation and are found to be rather small.

  8. A view of the narrow-line region in the infrared: active galactic nuclei with resolved fine-structure lines in the Spitzer archive

    OpenAIRE

    Dasyra, K. M.; Ho, L. C.; Netzer, H.; Combes, F; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Sturm, E.; Armus, L.; Elbaz, D.

    2011-01-01

    We queried the Spitzer archive for high-resolution observations with the Infrared Spectrograph of optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for the purpose of identifying sources with resolved fine-structure lines that would enable studies of the narrow-line region (NLR) at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining 298 Spitzer spectra with 6 Infrared Space Observatory spectra, we present kinematic information of the NLR for 81, z ≾ 0.3 AGNs. We used the [Ne v], [O iv], [Ne iii], and...

  9. Spitzer Observations of the Lambda Orionis cluster I: the frequency of young debris disks at 5 Myr

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Jesús; Hartmann, L; Muzerolle, J; Gutermuth, R; Stauffer, J

    2009-01-01

    We present IRAC/MIPS Spitzer observations of intermediate-mass stars in the 5 Myr old Lambda Orionis cluster. In a representative sample of stars earlier than F5 (29 stars), we find a population of 9 stars with a varying degree of moderate 24um excess comparable to those produced by debris disks in older stellar groups. As expected in debris disks systems, those stars do not exhibit emission lines in their optical spectra. We also include in our study the star HD 245185, a known Herbig Ae object which displays excesses in all Spitzer bands and shows emission lines in its spectrum. We compare the disk population in the Lambda Orionis cluster with the disk census in other stellar groups studied using similar methods to detect and characterize their disks and spanning a range of ages from 3 Myr to 10 Myr. We find that for stellar groups of 5 Myr or older the observed disk frequency in intermediate mass stars (with spectral types from late B to early F) is higher than in low mass stars (with spectral types K and ...

  10. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Yasuki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$ images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140 and 160 ${\\mu}{\\rm m}$, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm and cold dust components by decomposing 6-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of the total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morpholog...

  11. SPITZER AS A MICROLENS PARALLAX SATELLITE: MASS MEASUREMENT FOR THE OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L PLANET AND ITS HOST STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udalski, A.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Yee, J. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gould, A.; Zhu, W.; Pogge, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carey, S. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Calchi Novati, S. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We combine Spitzer and ground-based observations to measure the microlens parallax vector π{sub E}, and thus the mass and distance of OGLE-2014-BLG-0124L, making it the first microlensing planetary system with a space-based parallax measurement. The planet and star have masses of m ∼ 0.5 M {sub jup} and M ∼ 0.7 M {sub ☉} and are separated by a ∼ 3.1 AU in projection. The main source of uncertainty in all of these numbers (approximately 30%, 30%, and 20%) is the relatively poor measurement of the Einstein radius θ{sub E}, rather than uncertainty in π{sub E}, which is measured with 2.5% precision. This compares to 22% based on OGLE data alone, implying that the Spitzer data provide not only a substantial improvement in the precision of the π{sub E} measurement, but also the first independent test of a ground-based π{sub E} measurement.

  12. A Spitzer MIPS Study of 2.5-2.0 M\\odot Stars in Scorpius-Centaurus

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Christine H; Mamajek, Eric E; Su, Kate Y L; Bitner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {\\mu}m and 70 {\\mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {\\mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25+6%), 36/131 (27+4%), and 23/95 (24+5%) for Upper Scorpius (\\sim11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus (\\sim15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux (\\sim17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from LIR/L\\ast = 1e-6 to 1e-2 and grain temperatures ranging from Tgr = 40 - 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {\\mu}m and 70 {\\mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A type stars ...

  13. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-Wavelength View of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Dawn E; Bourke, Tyler L; Forbrich, Jan; Gutermuth, Robert A; Jorgensen, Jes K; Allen, Lori E; Patten, Brian M; Dunham, Michael M; Harvey, Paul M; Merin, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L; Cieza, Lucas A; Huard, Tracy L; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg^2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M_o Myr^-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface ...

  14. The Initial Conditions of Stellar Protocluster Formation: III. The Herschel counterparts of the Spitzer Dark Cloud catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Peretto, N; Fuller, G A; Traficante, A; Molinari, S; Thompson, M A; Ward-Thompson, D

    2016-01-01

    Galactic plane surveys of pristine molecular clouds are key for establishing a Galactic-scale view of the earliest stages of star formation. For this reason Peretto & Fuller (2009) built an unbiased sample of IRDCs in the 10 deg < |l| < 65 deg, |b|<1 deg region of the Galactic plane using Spitzer 8micron extinction. However, in absorption studies, intrinsic fluctuations in the mid-infrared background can be mis-interpreted as foreground clouds. The main goal of the study presented here is to disentangle real clouds in the Spitzer Dark Cloud (SDC) catalogue from artefacts due to fluctuations in the mid-infrared background. We constructed H_2 column density maps at ~18" resolution using the 160micron and 250micron data from the Herschel Galactic plane survey Hi-GAL. We also developed an automated detection scheme that confirms the existence of a SDC through its association with a peak on these Herschel column density maps. Detection simulations, along with visual inspection of a small sub-sample of...

  15. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-04-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  16. Mid- and far-infrared properties of Spitzer Galactic bubbles revealed by the AKARI all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kokusho, Takuma; Kondo, Akino; Shichi, Kazuyuki; Ukai, Sota; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuta

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a statistical study on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of Galactic IR bubbles observed by Spitzer. Using the Spitzer 8 μm images, we estimated the radii and covering fractions of their shells, and categorized them into closed, broken, and unclassified bubbles with our data analysis method. Then, using the AKARI all-sky images at wavelengths of 9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm, we obtained the spatial distributions and the luminosities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), warm, and cold dust components by decomposing six-band spectral energy distributions with model fitting. As a result, 180 sample bubbles show a wide range of total IR luminosities corresponding to the bolometric luminosities of a single B-type star to many O-type stars. For all the bubbles, we investigated relationships between the radius, luminosities, and luminosity ratios, and found that there are overall similarities in the IR properties among the bubbles regardless of their morphological types. In particular, they follow a power-law relation with an index of ˜3 between the total IR luminosity and radius, as expected from the conventional picture of the Strömgren sphere. The exceptions are large broken bubbles; they indicate higher total IR luminosities, lower fractional luminosities of the PAH emission, and dust heating sources located nearer to the shells. We discuss the implications of those differences for a massive star-formation scenario.

  17. THE MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CEPHEIDS DERIVED FROM SPITZER ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we derive the Spitzer IRAC band period-luminosity (P-L) relations for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids, by matching the Spitzer archival SAGE-SMC data with the OGLE-III SMC Cepheids. We find that the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm band P-L relations can be better described using two P-L relations with a break period at log(P) = 0.4: this is consistent with similar results at optical wavelengths for SMC P-L relations. The 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm band P-L relations do not extend to sufficiently short periods to enable a similar detection of a slope change at log(P) = 0.4. The slopes of the SMC P-L relations, for log(P) > 0.4, are consistent with their Large Magellanic Cloud counterparts that were derived from a similar data set. They are also in agreement with those obtained from a small sample of Galactic Cepheids with parallax measurements.

  18. Spitzer IRS (8-30 micron) Spectra of Basaltic Asteroids 1459 Magnya and 956 Elisa: Mineralogy and Thermal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from Spitzer IRS (Infrared Spectrograph) spectroscopy of 956 Elisa, 1459 Magnya, and other small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Program targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vestoids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan. The preliminary thermal model (STM) fit to the 5--35 micron spectrum of 956 Elisa gives a radius of 5.4 +/- 0.3 km and a subsolar- point temperature of 282.2 +/- 0.5 K. This temperature corresponds to eta approximately equals 1.06 +/- 0.02, which is substantially higher than the eta approximately equals 0.756 characteristic of large main-belt asteroids. Unlike 4 Vesta and other large asteroids, therefore, 956 Elisa has significant thermal inertia in its surface layer. The wavelength of the Christiansen feature (emissivity maximum near 9 micron), the positions and shapes of the narrow maxima (10 micron, 11 micron) within the broad 9--14 micron silicate band, and the 19--20 micron minimum are consistent with features found in the laboratory spectra of diogenites and of low-Ca pyroxenes of similar composition (Wo<5, En50-En75).

  19. The physical properties of Spitzer/IRS galaxies derived from their UV to 22 $\\mu$m spectral energy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Vika, Marina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Xilouris, Emmanuel M; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2016-01-01

    We provide the basic integrated physical properties of all the galaxies contained in the full CASSIS with available broad-band photometry from UV to 22 $\\mu$m. We have collected photometric measurements in 14 wavelengths from available public surveys in order to study the SED of each galaxy in CASSIS, thus constructing a final sample of 1,146 galaxies in the redshift range 0Spitzer/IRS galaxies are star-forming and lie on or above the star-forming MS of the corresponding redshift. Moreover, the emission of Spitzer/IRS galaxies with z<0.1 is mostly dominated by star-formation, galaxies in the mid-redshift bin are a mixture of star forming and AGN galaxies, wh...

  20. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF TWO MASSIVE RED-SEQUENCE-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS AT z ∼ 1.2 IN THE SpARCS-NORTH CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) is a deep z'-band imaging survey covering the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) Legacy fields designed to create the first large homogeneously selected sample of massive clusters at z > 1 using an infrared adaptation of the cluster red-sequence method. We present an overview of the northern component of the survey which has been observed with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)/MegaCam and covers 28.3 deg2. The southern component of the survey was observed with Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)/MOSAICII, covers 13.6 deg2, and is summarized in a companion paper by Wilson et al. We also present spectroscopic confirmation of two rich cluster candidates at z ∼ 1.2. Based on Nod-and-Shuffle spectroscopy from GMOS-N on Gemini, there are 17 and 28 confirmed cluster members in SpARCS J163435+402151 and SpARCS J163852+403843 which have spectroscopic redshifts of 1.1798 and 1.1963, respectively. The clusters have velocity dispersions of 490 ± 140 km s-1 and 650 ± 160 km s-1, respectively, which imply masses (M 200) of (1.0 ± 0.9) x 1014 M sun and (2.4 ± 1.8) x 1014 M sun. Confirmation of these candidates as bonafide massive clusters demonstrates that two-filter imaging is an effective, yet observationally efficient, method for selecting clusters at z > 1.

  1. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Massive Red-sequence-selected Galaxy Clusters at Z Approximately Equal to 1.2 in the Sparcs-North Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, H.K.C.; Hoekstra, Henk; Gilbank, David; Surace, Jason; Lacy, Mark; Blindert, Kris; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Demarco, Ricardo; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gladders, Mike; Lonsdale, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) is a deep z -band imaging survey covering the Spitzer SWIRE Legacy fields designed to create the first large homogeneously-selected sample of massive clusters at z > 1 using an infrared adaptation of the cluster red-sequence method. We present an overview of the northern component of the survey which has been observed with CFHT/MegaCam and covers 28.3 deg(sup 2). The southern component of the survey was observed with CTIO/MOSAICII, covers 13.6 deg(sup 2), and is summarized in a companion paper by Wilson et al. (2008). We also present spectroscopic confirmation of two rich cluster candidates at z approx. 1.2. Based on Nod-and- Shuffle spectroscopy from GMOS-N on Gemini there are 17 and 28 confirmed cluster members in SpARCS J163435+402151 and SpARCS J163852+403843 which have spectroscopic redshifts of 1.1798 and 1.1963, respectively. The clusters have velocity dispersions of 490 +/- 140 km/s and 650 +/- 160 km/s, respectively which imply masses (M(sub 200)) of (1.0 +/- 0.9) x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass and (2.4 +/- 1.8) x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass. Confirmation of these candidates as bonafide massive clusters demonstrates that two-filter imaging is an effective, yet observationally efficient, method for selecting clusters at z > 1.

  2. Arquitectura wormhole per a una NoC 2D-Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Aquest projecte presenta la implementació d'un disseny, i la seva posterior síntesi en una FPGA, d'una arquitectura de tipus wormhole packet switching per a una infraestructura de NetWork-On-Chip amb una topologia 2D-Mesh. Agafant un router circuit switching com a punt de partida, s'han especificat els mòduls en Verilog per tal d'obtenir l'arquitectura wormhole desitjada. Dissenyar la màquina de control per governar els flits que conformen els paquets dins la NoC,i afegir les cues a la sortid...

  3. SPITZER MID-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF POWERFUL 2 JY AND 3CRR RADIO GALAXIES. I. EVIDENCE AGAINST A STRONG STARBURST-AGN CONNECTION IN RADIO-LOUD AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra for complete samples of 46 2 Jy radio galaxies (0.05 75%) than their more extended counterparts (≈15%-25%). We discuss this result in the context of a possible bias toward the selection of compact radio sources triggered in gas-rich environments.

  4. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  5. Spectroscopic properties of quartz glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this work the results of influence of 60Co gamma-radiation on spectroscopic properties of KI type quartz glasses are presented. The samples were cut in the plate form with 3 mm thickness and 25 mm diameter preliminary, the surfaces were ground and polished. First of all it was necessary to study optical absorption of these glasses and define absorption bands (AB) if they belong to defect or impurity centers. For this purpose the optical absorption spectra and X-ray luminescence spectra (XL) of initial not irradiated samples and then after 60Co gamma-irradiation to the maximal dose of 1.2x108 R at temperature 300 K were measured. The analyses of the absorption spectra showed that at this dose the intensity of AB increases sharply. It is probably caused by increase of the centers which existed in not irradiated samples. After gamma-irradiation of KI type quartz glasses the AB at 215 nm appears in UV spectral range, which is caused by three-coordinated silicon atoms with a non coupled electron (E/-centre). With increasing of irradiation dose the AB at 215 nm increases that testifies about radiation induced creation of structural defects responsible for E/ centers. It has also been established that under gamma-irradiation an additional AB appears at 550 nm, caused by localization of holes on oxygen of those tetrahedrons where aluminum atoms replace silicon, the intensity which strongly depends on the absorbed dose too. These centers can cause optical luminescence. Indeed, XL luminescence spectra contain the bands at 402 nm and 550 nm which have an impurity character. According to the literary data, these bands are absent in crystal quartz. These centers are probably connected with non bridging oxygen ions existing in quartz glasses due to presence of metal impurity. The XL band at 402 nm belongs to - Si-Ge- type defects. The comparison of the results with the literary data allow us to assume that Al and Ge impurities play the special role in appearing of

  6. Multivariate statistical mapping of spectroscopic imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karl; Govind, Varan; Sharma, Khema; Studholme, Colin; Maudsley, Andrew A; Schuff, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    For magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging studies of the brain, it is important to measure the distribution of metabolites in a regionally unbiased way; that is, without restrictions to a priori defined regions of interest. Since magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging provides measures of multiple metabolites simultaneously at each voxel, there is furthermore great interest in utilizing the multidimensional nature of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for gains in statistical power. Voxelwise multivariate statistical mapping is expected to address both of these issues, but it has not been previously employed for spectroscopic imaging (SI) studies of brain. The aims of this study were to (1) develop and validate multivariate voxel-based statistical mapping for magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and (2) demonstrate that multivariate tests can be more powerful than univariate tests in identifying patterns of altered brain metabolism. Specifically, we compared multivariate to univariate tests in identifying known regional patterns in simulated data and regional patterns of metabolite alterations due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating brain disease of the motor neurons. PMID:19953514

  7. The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G): Multi-component Decomposition Strategies and Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko; Comerón, Sebastien; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Buta, Ron; Sheth, Kartik; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ho, Luis; Knapen, Johan; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Laine, Seppo; Cisternas, Mauricio; Kim, Taehyun; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Regan, Michael; Hinz, Joannah L.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Mizusawa, Trisha; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Meidt, Sharon E.; Querejeta, Miguel

    2015-07-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is a deep 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 2352 nearby (web page (www.oulu.fi/astronomy/S4G_PIPELINE4/MAIN). These products include all the input data and decomposition files in electronic form, making it easy to extend the decompositions to suit specific science purposes. We also provide our IDL-based visualization tools (GALFIDL) developed for displaying/running GALFIT-decompositions, as well as our mask editing procedure (MASK_EDIT) used in data preparation. A detailed analysis of the bulge, disk, and bar parameters derived from multi-component decompositions will be published separately.

  8. Spitzer IRAC observations of IR excess in Holmberg IX X-1: A circumbinary disk or a variable jet?

    CERN Document Server

    Dudik, R P; Roberts, T P; Grise, F; Singh, A; Pagano, R; Winter, L M

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometric observations of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Source (ULX, X-1) in Holmberg IX. We construct a spectral energy distribution (SED) for Holmberg IX X-1 based on published optical, UV and X-ray data combined with the IR data from this analysis. We modeled the X-ray and optical data with disk and stellar models, however we find a clear IR excess in the ULX SED that cannot be explained by fits or extrapolations of any of these models. Instead, further analysis suggests that the IR excess results either from dust emission, possibly from a circumbinary disk or from a variable jet.

  9. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  10. The Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Short Orbital Period Polar EF Eridani from the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Ciardi, David R; Wachter, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared (5.5-14.5 micron) spectrum of a highly magnetic cataclysmic variable, EF Eridani, obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectrum displays a relatively flat, featureless continuum. A spectral energy distribution model consisting of a 9500 K white dwarf, L5 secondary star, cyclotron emission corresponding to a B~13 MG white dwarf magnetic field, and an optically thin circumbinary dust disk is in reasonable agreement with the extant 2MASS, IRAC, and IRS observations of EF Eri. Cyclotron emission is ruled out as a dominant contributor to the infrared flux density at wavelengths >3 microns. The spectral energy distribution longward of ~5 microns is dominated by dust emission. Even longer wavelength observations would test the model's prediction of a continuing gradual decline in the circumbinary disk-dominated region of the spectral energy distribution.

  11. Correcting the analysis of "IR Anisotropies in Spitzer Goods Images..." by Cooray et al (2006) (astro-ph/0612609)

    CERN Document Server

    Kashlinsky, A

    2007-01-01

    We point out that in their analysis of the deep Spitzer images, Cooray et al (2006) perform Fourier transform on maps which have very few pixels left (only 20 to 30 percent). For such deeply cut maps one cannot reliably compute large-scale map properties using Fourier transforms. Instead the maps must be analyzed via the correlation function, $C(\\theta)$, which is immune to mask effects. We find, when computing $C(\\theta)$ for their maps, that removing ACS/HST galaxies does not lead to appreciable change in the correlation properties of the remaining diffuse emission. This implies that these galaxies cannot be responsible for the CIB fluctuations detected in Kashlinsky et al (2005, 2007), contrary to the claims of Cooray et al (2006).

  12. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.

  13. SPITZER EVIDENCE FOR A LATE-HEAVY BOMBARDMENT AND THE FORMATION OF UREILITES IN {eta} CORVI At {approx}1 Gyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Morlok, A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, The Open University, Milton-Keynes (United Kingdom); Watson, D. M.; Manoj, P.; Sheehan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Currie, T. M. [NASA-GSFC, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Sitko, M. L., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: wyatt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: a.morlok@open.ac.uk, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: manoj@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: psheeha2@mail.rochester.edu, E-mail: thayne.m.currie@nasa.gov, E-mail: philippe.thebault@obspm.fr, E-mail: sitko@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 475 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We have analyzed Spitzer and NASA/IRTF 2-35 {mu}m spectra of the warm, {approx}350 K circumstellar dust around the nearby MS star {eta} Corvi (F2V, 1.4 {+-} 0.3 Gyr). The spectra show clear evidence for warm, water- and carbon-rich dust at {approx}3 AU from the central star, in the system's terrestrial habitability zone. Spectral features due to ultra-primitive cometary material were found, in addition to features due to impact produced silica and high-temperature carbonaceous phases. At least 9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} kg of 0.1-100 {mu}m warm dust is present in a collisional equilibrium distribution with dn/da {approx} a{sup -3.5}, the equivalent of a 130 km radius Kuiper Belt object (KBO) of 1.0 g cm{sup 3} density and similar to recent estimates of the mass delivered to the Earth at 0.6-0.8 Gyr during the late-heavy bombardment. We conclude that the parent body was a Kuiper Belt body or bodies which captured a large amount of early primitive material in the first megayears of the system's lifetime and preserved it in deep freeze at {approx}150 AU. At {approx}1.4 Gyr they were prompted by dynamical stirring of their parent Kuiper Belt into spiraling into the inner system, eventually colliding at 5-10 km s{sup -1} with a rocky planetary body of mass {<=}M{sub Earth} at {approx}3 AU, delivering large amounts of water (>0.1% of M{sub Earth'sOceans}) and carbon-rich material. The Spitzer spectrum also closely matches spectra reported for the Ureilite meteorites of the Sudan Almahata Sitta fall in 2008, suggesting that one of the Ureilite parent bodies was a KBO.

  14. Quantum Cascade Laser for Spectroscopic Gas Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sletbakk, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    In this project it has been focused on the use of a 7.42 um, 4 mW Quantum Cascade Laser in trace gas detection spectroscopy. Norsk Elektro Optikk (NEO) is in possession of a Nanoplus G2102/DFB2/5-12 QCL laser, that can be used in spectroscopic detection of H2O, CO2 and SO2 It has been attempted to construct a setup that can be used for spectroscopic measurements using a self constructed current driver module to produce current pulses for the QCL. The QCL is operated in pulsed mode, with puls...

  15. Spectroscopic databases - A tool for structure elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic databases have developed to useful tools in the process of structure elucidation. Besides the conventional library searches, new intelligent programs have been added, that are able to predict structural features from measured spectra or to simulate for a given structure. The example of the C13NMR/IR database developed at BASF and available on STN is used to illustrate the present capabilities of online database. New developments in the field of spectrum simulation and methods for the prediction of complete structures from spectroscopic information are reviewed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs

  16. Development of a THz spectroscopic imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a real-time THz imaging system based on the two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic (EO) sampling technique. Employing the 2D EO-sampling technique, we can obtain THz images using a CCD camera at a video rate of up to 30 frames per second. A spatial resolution of 1.4 mm was achieved. This resolution was reasonably close to the theoretical limit determined by diffraction. We observed not only static objects but also moving ones. To acquire spectroscopic information, time-domain images were collected. By processing these images on a computer, we can obtain spectroscopic images. Spectroscopy for silicon wafers was demonstrated

  17. A spectroscopic analysis of three supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic analysis based on high S/N, high dispersion spectra, is presented for four stars suspected to be G or K supergiants lying out of the galactic plane, or having peculiar high velocities. This analysis shows that three of them (HD 45829, HD 63700 and HD 68752) are likely to be normal supergiants (-6 v < - 3), though closer to us than formerly considered; the remaining star (HD 75289) is a metal-rich dwarf, erroneously classified as a supergiant. All stars show variable radial velocities; they are likely to be spectroscopic binaries. A preliminary orbit is obtained for HD 63700. (author)

  18. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Asplund, M.;

    2012-01-01

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous o...

  19. 8th Czechoslovak spectroscopic conference. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 of the conference proceedings contains abstracts of 17 invited papers, 101 poster presentations and 7 papers of instrument manufacturers, devoted to special spectroscopic techniques including X-ray microanalysis, X-ray spectral analysis, Moessbauer spectrometry, mass spectrometry, instrumental activation analysis and other instrumental radioanalytical methods, electron spectrometry, and techniques of environmental analysis. Sixty abstracts were inputted in INIS. (A.K.)

  20. Crystallization and spectroscopic studies of manganese malonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varghese Mathew; Jochan Joseph; Sabu Jacob; K E Abraham

    2010-08-01

    The preparation of manganese malonate crystals by gel method and its spectroscopic studies are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the crystalline nature. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the crystals are recorded and the vibrational assignments are given with possible explanations. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is used to measure the bandgap (g) of the material.

  1. TESIS - The TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, P; Severgnini, P; Ceca, R D; Bender, R; Drory, N; Feulner, G; Ghinassi, F; Hopp, U; Mannucci, F; Maraston, C

    2002-01-01

    A near-IR low-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of a complete sample of K1.2 and at estimating their spatial density to put constraints on the galaxy formation and evolution models. In this proceeding, the preliminary analysis of the first spectra obtained is presented.

  2. The MIT bagmodel and some spectroscopic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author studies the MIT bag model in a simple approximation and applies it to the static properties of the light hadrons. Another approximation is then studied, better adapted to the study of all-quark states with baryon number B = 2 to 6. Finally, the spectroscopic properties of the Q2 anti Q2 system is investigated. (G.T.H.)

  3. Spatial spectroscopic diagnostics of planetary nebulae. VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical properties of the kernel function of the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind of spatial spectroscopic diagnostics of planetary nebulae, are studied and briefly discussed. Samples of some kernel functions are shown as three-dimensional axonometric figures. A simple reason is given for inherent limitations of the regularization techniques used. (author). 12 figs., 2 refs

  4. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J.R.; Mészárosová, Hana; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlický, Marian; de Andrade, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2009), s. 54-57. ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun istrumentation * spectroscope * corona * radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.079, year: 2009

  5. Spectroscopic Classification of Three PSST Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P.; Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained spectroscopic observations on 2016 April 6 UT (range 3000-10600 Angstroms) of three transients reported by the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST; Huber et al., ATel #7153; http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/) using IMACS mounted on the 6.5m Magellan/Baade Telescope.

  6. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm (also known as PTSS-16hxs), discovered 20160613.771 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  7. NIR SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES IN THE PROTOCLUSTER AT z = 3.09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Mariko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Yamada, Toru; Ichikawa, Takashi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kajisawa, Masaru [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Yuichi [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the K-band-selected candidate galaxies in the protocluster at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field. We observed 67 candidates with K {sub AB} < 24 and confirmed redshifts of the 39 galaxies at 2.0 < z {sub spec} < 3.4. Of the 67 candidates, 24 are certainly protocluster members with 3.04 ≤ z {sub spec} ≤ 3.12, which are massive red galaxies that have been unidentified in previous optical observations of the SSA22 protocluster. Many distant red galaxies (J – K {sub AB} > 1.4), hyper extremely red objects (J – K {sub AB} > 2.1), Spitzer MIPS 24 μm sources, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) as well as the counterparts of Lyα blobs and the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm sources in the SSA22 field are also found to be protocluster members. The mass of the SSA22 protocluster is estimated to be ∼2-5 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, and this system is plausibly a progenitor of the most massive clusters of galaxies in the current universe. The reddest (J – K {sub AB} ≥ 2.4) protocluster galaxies are massive galaxies with M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} showing quiescent star formation activities and plausibly dominated by old stellar populations. Most of these massive quiescent galaxies host moderately luminous AGNs detected by X-ray. There are no significant differences in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ emission line ratios and [O III] λ5007 line widths and spatial extents of the protocluster galaxies from those of massive galaxies at z ∼ 2-3 in the general field.

  8. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    CERN Document Server

    Novati, S Calchi; Udalski, A; Menzies, J W; Bond, I A; Shvartzvald, Y; Street, R A; Hundertmark, M; Beichman, C A; Yee, J C; Carey, S; Poleski, R; Skowron, J; Kozlowski, S; Mroz, P; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Szymanski, M K; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J P; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Coutures, C; Danielski, C; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Lonvcaric, K; McDougall, A; Morales, J C; Ranc, C; Zhu, W; Abe, F; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Fukunaga, D; Inayama, K; Koshimoto, N; Namba, S; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Friedmann, M; Bachelet, E; Jaimes, R Figuera; Bramich, D M; Tsapras, Y; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Kains, N; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Jorgensen, U G; Alsubai, K A; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Haugbolle, T; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Wertz, O; Zarucki, M; Gaudi, B S; Pogge, R W; DePoy, D L

    2014-01-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ~1 AU West of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  9. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calchi Novati, S.; Gould, A.; Udalski, A.; Menzies, J. W.; Bond, I. A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Street, R. A.; Hundertmark, M.; Beichman, C. A.; Yee, J. C.; Carey, S.; Poleski, R.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Pietrzyński, G.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; OGLE Collaboration; Albrow, M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Cassan, A.; Coutures, C.; Danielski, C.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donatowicz, J.; Lončarić, K.; McDougall, A.; Morales, J. C.; Ranc, C.; Zhu, W.; PLANET Collaboration; Abe, F.; Barry, R. K.; Bennett, D. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Inayama, K.; Koshimoto, N.; Namba, S.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wakiyama, Y.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Friedmann, M.; Wise Group; Bachelet, E.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Tsapras, Y.; Horne, K.; Snodgrass, C.; Wambsganss, J.; Steele, I. A.; Kains, N.; RoboNet Collaboration; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Alsubai, K. A.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Haugbølle, T.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Wertz, O.; Zarucki, M.; MiNDSTEp Consortium; Gaudi, B. S.; Pogge, R. W.; DePoy, D. L.; μFUN Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ˜1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun’s galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  10. EXPLORATIONS BEYOND THE SNOW LINE: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF DEBRIS DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed 152 nearby solar-type stars with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Including stars that met our criteria but were observed in other surveys, we get an overall success rate for finding excesses in the long-wavelength IRS band (30-34 μm) of 11.8% ± 2.4%. The success rate for excesses in the short-wavelength band (8.5-12 μm) is ∼1% including sources from other surveys. For stars with no excess at 8.5-12 μm, the IRS data set 3σ limits of around 1000 times the level of zodiacal emission present in our solar system, while at 30-34 μm data set limits of around 100 times the level of our solar system. Two stars (HD 40136 and HD 10647) show weak evidence for spectral features; the excess emission in the other systems is featureless. If the emitting material consists of large (10 μm) grains as implied by the lack of spectral features, we find that these grains are typically located at or beyond the snow line, ∼1-35 AU from the host stars, with an average distance of 14 ± 6 AU; however, smaller grains could be located at significantly greater distances from the host stars. These distances correspond to dust temperatures in the range ∼50-450 K. Several of the disks are well modeled by a single dust temperature, possibly indicative of a ring-like structure. However, a single dust temperature does not match the data for other disks in the sample, implying a distribution of temperatures within these disks. For most stars with excesses, we detect an excess at both IRS and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. Only three stars in this sample show a MIPS 70 μm excess with no IRS excess, implying that very cold dust is rare around solar-type stars.

  11. HUBBLE AND SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND THE NEARBY K DWARF HD 92945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first resolved images of the debris disk around the nearby K dwarf HD 92945, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST 's) Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our F606W (Broad V) and F814W (Broad I) coronagraphic images reveal an inclined, axisymmetric disk consisting of an inner ring about 2.''0-3.''0 (43-65 AU) from the star and an extended outer disk whose surface brightness declines slowly with increasing radius approximately 3.''0-5.''1 (65-110 AU) from the star. A precipitous drop in the surface brightness beyond 110 AU suggests that the outer disk is truncated at that distance. The radial surface-density profile is peaked at both the inner ring and the outer edge of the disk. The dust in the outer disk scatters neutrally but isotropically, and it has a low V-band albedo of 0.1. This combination of axisymmetry, ringed and extended morphology, and isotropic neutral scattering is unique among the 16 debris disks currently resolved in scattered light. We also present new infrared photometry and spectra of HD 92945 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Multiband Imaging Photometer and InfraRed Spectrograph. These data reveal no infrared excess from the disk shortward of 30 μm and constrain the width of the 70 μm source to ∼min = 4.5 μm and a size distribution proportional to a -3.7 throughout the disk, but with maximum grain sizes of 900 μm in the inner ring and 50 μm in the outer disk. Together, our HST and Spitzer observations indicate a total dust mass of ∼0.001M+. However, our observations provide contradictory evidence of the dust's physical characteristics: its neutral V-I color and lack of 24 μm emission imply grains larger than a few microns, but its isotropic scattering and low albedo suggest a large population of submicron-sized grains. If grains smaller than a few microns are absent, then stellar radiation pressure may be the cause only if the dust is composed of highly absorptive materials like graphite. The dynamical

  12. An empirical mass-loss law for Population II giants from the Spitzer-IRAC survey of Galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origlia, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Fabbri, S.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Dalessandro, E.; Rich, R. M.; Valenti, E.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: The main aim of the present work is to derive an empirical mass-loss (ML) law for Population II stars in first and second ascent red giant branches. Methods: We used the Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry obtained in the 3.6-8 μm range of a carefully chosen sample of 15 Galactic globular clusters spanning the entire metallicity range and sampling the vast zoology of horizontal branch (HB) morphologies. We complemented the IRAC photometry with near-infrared data to build suitable color-magnitude and color-color diagrams and identify mass-losing giant stars. Results: We find that while the majority of stars show colors typical of cool giants, some stars show an excess of mid-infrared light that is larger than expected from their photospheric emission and that is plausibly due to dust formation in mass flowing from them. For these stars, we estimate dust and total (gas + dust) ML rates and timescales. We finally calibrate an empirical ML law for Population II red and asymptotic giant branch stars with varying metallicity. We find that at a given red giant branch luminosity only a fraction of the stars are losing mass. From this, we conclude that ML is episodic and is active only a fraction of the time, which we define as the duty cycle. The fraction of mass-losing stars increases by increasing the stellar luminosity and metallicity. The ML rate, as estimated from reasonable assumptions for the gas-to-dust ratio and expansion velocity, depends on metallicity and slowly increases with decreasing metallicity. In contrast, the duty cycle increases with increasing metallicity, with the net result that total ML increases moderately with increasing metallicity, about 0.1 M⊙ every dex in [Fe/H]. For Population II asymptotic giant branch stars, we estimate a total ML of ≤0.1 M⊙, nearly constant with varying metallicity. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  13. The (w)hole survey: An unbiased sample study of transition disk candidates based on Spitzer catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marel, N.; Verhaar, B. W.; van Terwisga, S.; Merín, B.; Herczeg, G.; Ligterink, N. F. W.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding disk evolution and dissipation is essential for studies of planet formation. Transition disks, i.e., disks with large dust cavities and gaps, are promising candidates of active evolution. About two dozen candidates, selected by their spectral energy distribution (SED), have been confirmed to have dust cavities through millimeter interferometric imaging, but this sample is biased toward the brightest disks. The Spitzer surveys of nearby low-mass star-forming regions have resulted in more than 4000 young stellar objects. Using color criteria, we selected a sample of ~150 candidates and an additional 40 candidates and known transition disks from the literature. The Spitzer data were complemented by new observations at longer wavelengths, including new JCMT and APEX submillimeter photometry, and WISE and Herschel-PACS mid- and far-infrared photometry. Furthermore, optical spectroscopy was obtained and stellar types were derived for 85% of the sample, including information from the literature. The SEDs were fit to a grid of RADMC-3D disk models with a limited number of parameters: disk mass, inner disk mass, scale height and flaring, and disk cavity radius, where the latter is the main parameter of interest. About 72% of our targets possibly have dust cavities based on the SED. The derived cavity sizes are consistent with imaging/modeling results in the literature, where available. Trends are found with Ldisk over L∗ ratio and stellar mass and a possible connection with exoplanet orbital radii. A comparison with a previous study where color observables are used reveals large overlap between their category of planet-forming disks and our transition disks with cavities. A large number of the new transition disk candidates are suitable for follow-up observations with ALMA. Full Tables 4, 5, A.1-A.3, C.1, and D.1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  14. Bright galaxies at z=9-11 from pure-parallel HST observations: Building a unique sample for JWST with Spitzer/IRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stephanie; Trenti, Michele; Bouwens, Rychard

    2016-08-01

    The combination of observations taken by Hubble and Spitzer revealed the unexpected presence of sources as bright as our own Milky Way as early as 400 Myr after the Big Bang, potentially highlighting a new highly efficient regime for star formation in L>L* galaxies at very early times. Yet, the sample of high-quality z>8 galaxies that have both HST and Spitzer/IRAC imaging is still very small, particularly at high luminosities. We propose here to remedy this situation and efficiently follow-up with Spitzer/IRAC the most promising z>8 sources from our Hubble Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey, which covers a footprint on the sky similar to CANDELS, provides a deeper search than ground-based surveys like UltraVISTA, and is robust against cosmic variance because of its 180 independent lines of sight. The proposed new 3.6 micron observations will continue the Spitzer cycle 12 BORG911 program and target 15 additional fields, leveraging over 300 new HST orbits (350 sqarcmin) to identify a final sample of about 5 to 10 bright galaxies at z >= 8.5. For optimal time use (just over 22 hours), our goal is to readily discriminate between z>8 sources (undetected or marginally detected in IRAC) and z~2 interlopers (strongly detected in IRAC) with just 1-2 hours per pointing. The high-quality candidates that we will identify with IRAC will be ideal targets for further studies to investigate the reionization state of the inter-galactic medium through near-IR Keck/VLT spectroscopy. They will also be uniquely suited to measurement of the redshift and stellar population properties through JWST/NIRSPEC observations, with the potential to elucidate how the first generations of stars are assembled in the earliest stages of the epoch of reionization.

  15. G313.3+00.3: A New Planetary Nebula discovered by the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Martin; Green, Anne J.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Babler, Brian; Indebetouw, Remy; Whitney, Barbara A.; Watson, Christer; Wolfire, Mark; Wolff, Mike J.; Mathis, John S.; Churchwell, Edward B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new planetary nebula, first identified in images from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, although not recognized at that time. Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the GLIMPSE Legacy program have rediscovered the object. The high-resolution radio and infrared images enable the identification of the central star or its wind, the recognition of the radio emission as thermal, and the probable presence of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in and around the so...

  16. The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e. spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross-sections for bands in the ultraviolet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for 42 molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  17. Photometric and spectroscopic investigation of TW Draconis

    CERN Document Server

    Zejda, M; Harmanec, P; Slechta, M; Mikulasek, Z; Zverko, J; Svoboda, P; Krticka, J

    2010-01-01

    Context. TW Draconis is one of the best studied Algol-type eclipsing binaries. There is significant evidence for miscellaneous physical processes between interacting binary components manifesting themselves by period and light curve changes. Aims. Obtaining new set of photometric and spectroscopic observations, we analysed them together with the older spectroscopic and photometric data to build model of this eclipsing system with respect to observed changes of O-C diagram and light curve. Methods. Reduction of new spectra was carried out in the IRAF and SPEFO programs. Radial velocities were determined manually using SPEFO, by CCF using the Zverko's code and from the program KOREL. Orbital elements were derived with the FOTEL program and via disentangling with KOREL. The final combined solution was obtained with the programs PHOEBE and FOTEL. Results. Photometry shows small irregularities in light curves as a results of pulsating of one component and spot activity. Using net of KOREL outputs we found the mass...

  18. Structural and spectroscopic studies of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Laitenberger, P

    1996-01-01

    and on a 10ML thick Ar spacer layer, a remarkable substrate dependence is revealed. A new STM-based technique for fabricating simple metal-structures with dimensions in the 10-100nm regime which are partially electrically isolated from their environment was developed in collaboration with Dr. L. A. Silva. This technique employs the STM tip as a mechanical nanofabrication tool to machine gaps into a thin metallic film deposited on an insulating substrate, which laterally confine and electrically isolate the desired metal regions. Several metal structures, such as nanoscale wires and pads, were successfully created. Finally, the conceptual basis and present stage of construction of a new surface analytical tool, the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS), is discussed. The SPELS offers the exciting prospect of collecting structural as well as spectroscopic information with a spatial resolution of a few nanometres. Once successfully developed, it will be ideally suited for spectroscopic studies of nanos...

  19. Spectroscopic follow up of Kepler planet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latham..[], D. W.; Cochran, W. D.; Marcy, G.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic follow-up observations play a crucial role in the confirmation and characterization of transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. The most challenging part of this work is the determination of radial velocities with a precision approaching 1 m/s in order to derive masses from...... spectroscopic orbits. The most precious resource for this work is HIRES on Keck I, to be joined by HARPS-North on the William Herschel Telescope when that new spectrometer comes on line in two years. Because a large fraction of the planet candidates are in fact stellar systems involving eclipsing stars and not...... planets, our strategy is to start with reconnaissance spectroscopy using smaller telescopes, to sort out and reject as many of the false positives as possible before going to Keck. During the first Kepler observing season in 2009, more than 100 nights of telescope time were allocated for this work, using...

  20. Spectroscopic diagnostics of laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed phenomenological study of the spectroscopic analysis of laser produced plasmas is presented in this dissertation. High resolution x-ray spectroscopic data have been obtained in pellet implosion experiments using the 24 beam Omega laser system at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Line broadening theory was applied to diagnose plasma core temperatures and densities from observed spectral line shapes; detailed atomic physics models were constructed to diagnose core parameters from sensitive line intensity ratios. This study attempts to systematically observe the effects of opacity on the diagnostics by a self consistent analysis of x-ray spectra obtained from implosions of argon and neon filled glass microballoons differing in diameter, wall thickness, and Ar/Ne fill ratio. The subsequent analysis then includes opacity effects through the use of a radiation transport model for the spectral lines; atomic physics models are studied and the final results systematically compared with the experimental results

  1. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. Erratum: “Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars” (2014, AJ, 148, 86)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2015-02-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer IRS SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near infrared - Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars were chosen from the luminous and red extreme "tip" of the color magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich "stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near infrared and mid infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type exhibits CO 2.3 micron band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates the object has a circumstellar disk.

  3. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  4. Spitzer Secondary Eclipses of the Dense, Modestly-irradiated, Giant Exoplanet HAT-P-20b Using Pixel-Level Decorrelation

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Kammer, Joshua; Fulton, Benjamin J; Ingalls, James; Carey, Sean; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J; Todorov, Kamen; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fraine, Jonathan; Langton, Jonathan; Morley, Caroline; Showman, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    HAT-P-20b is a giant exoplanet that orbits a metal-rich star. The planet itself has a high total density, suggesting that it may also have a high metallicity in its atmosphere. We analyze two eclipses of the planet in each of the 3.6- and 4.5 micron bands of Warm Spitzer. These data exhibit intra-pixel detector sensitivity fluctuations that were resistant to traditional decorrelation methods. We have developed a simple, powerful, and radically different method to correct the intra-pixel effect for Warm Spitzer data, which we call pixel-level decorrelation (PLD). PLD corrects the intra-pixel effect very effectively, but without explicitly using - or even measuring - the fluctuations in the apparent position of the stellar image. We illustrate and validate PLD using synthetic and real data, and comparing the results to previous analyses. PLD can significantly reduce or eliminate red noise in Spitzer secondary eclipse photometry, even for eclipses that have proven to be intractable using other methods. Our succe...

  5. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  6. Warm Spitzer Photometry of the Transiting Exoplanets CoRoT-1 and CoRoT-2 at Secondary Eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, Drake; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan J; Charbonneau, David; Cowan, Nicolas B; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K

    2010-01-01

    We measure secondary eclipses of the hot giant exoplanets CoRoT-1 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, and CoRoT-2 at 3.6 microns, both using Warm Spitzer. We find that the Warm Spitzer mission is working very well for exoplanet science. For consistency of our analysis we also re-analyze archival cryogenic Spitzer data for secondary eclipses of CoRoT-2 at 4.5 and 8 microns. We compare the total data for both planets, including optical eclipse measurements by the CoRoT mission, and ground-based eclipse measurements at 2 microns, to existing models. Both planets exhibit stronger eclipses at 4.5 than at 3.6 microns, which is often indicative of an atmospheric temperature inversion. The spectrum of CoRoT-1 is best reproduced by a 2460K blackbody, due either to a high altitude layer that strongly absorbs stellar irradiance, or an isothermal region in the planetary atmosphere. The spectrum of CoRoT-2 is unusual because the 8 micron contrast is anomalously low. Non-inverted atmospheres could potentially produce the CoRoT-2 spect...

  7. SPECTROSCOPIC GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buzzoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some relevant properties of the observed changes of H , Mg2, and Fei Lick indices across the surface of 25 bright elliptical galaxies. The impact of these spectroscopic gradients is brie y discussed, in the framework of the leading physical mechanisms that led to galaxy formation. In particular, three relevant evolutionary scenarios are sketched, each one able, in principle, to consistently match galaxy spectral properties and e ectively constrain the composing stellar populations in these systems.

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of unstudied southern PNe

    OpenAIRE

    Emprechtinger, M.; Forveille, T.; S. Kimeswenger

    2004-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic investigation of two hitherto unstudied galactic planetary nebulae (MeWe 1-10 and MeWe 1-11) and one candidate object (MeWe 2-5). The candidate object clearly has been identified as a bipolar hourglass shaped PN. The galactic foreground extinction was derived and using photoionization models with CLOUDY the two round objects were classified as highly evolved nebulae.

  9. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  10. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  11. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (Tα) emission from a fusion plasma. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the Hα, Dα, Tα spectrum in the current D-T a experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D and T are separated by spectral analysis. The Tα line was measurable at concentrations Tα/(Hα + Dα + Tα) down to 2%

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Spectroscopic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, A M; Brough, S; Owers, M S; Bauer, A E; Gunawardhana, M L P; Cluver, M E; Colless, M; Foster, C; Lara-Lopez, M A; Roseboom, I; Sharp, R; Steele, O; Thomas, D; Baldry, I K; Brown, M J I; Liske, J; Norberg, P; Robotham, A S G; Bamford, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Drinkwater, M J; Loveday, J; Meyer, M; Peacock, J A; Tuffs, R; Agius, N; Alpaslan, M; Andrae, E; Cameron, E; Cole, S; Ching, J H Y; Christodoulou, L; Conselice, C; Croom, S; Cross, N J G; De Propris, R; Delhaize, J; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Ellis, S; Frenk, C S; Graham, A; Grootes, M W; Haussler, B; Heymans, C; Hill, D; Hoyle, B; Hudson, M; Jarvis, M; Johansson, J; Jones, D H; van Kampen, E; Kelvin, L; Kuijken, K; Lopez-Sanchez, A; Maddox, S; Madore, B; Maraston, C; McNaught-Roberts, T; Nichol, R C; Oliver, S; Parkinson, H; Penny, S; Phillipps, S; Pimbblet, K A; Ponman, T; Popescu, C C; Prescott, M; Proctor, R; Sadler, E M; Sansom, A E; Seibert, M; Staveley-Smith, L; Sutherland, W; Taylor, E; Van Waerbeke, L; Vazquez-Mata, J A; Warren, S; Wijesinghe, D B; Wild, V; Wilkins, S

    2013-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey is a multiwavelength photometric and spectroscopic survey, using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope to obtain spectra for up to ~300000 galaxies over 280 square degrees, to a limiting magnitude of r_pet < 19.8 mag. The target galaxies are distributed over 0spectroscopic reduction and analysis pipeline. We present the steps involved in taking the raw two-dimensional spectroscopic images through to flux-calibrated one-dimensional spectra. The resulting GAMA spectra cover an observed wavelength range of 3750

  14. The Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, S; Kirshner, R P; Mandel, K S; Berlind, P; Calkins, M; Challis, P; Garnavich, P M; Jha, S W; Modjaz, M; Riess, A G; Schmidt, B P

    2012-01-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the FLWO 1.5m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. We study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SN Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SN Ia with broader lines. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II 6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ~0 to ~400 km/s/day considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B-V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more ...

  15. Versatile applications of a spectroscopic pagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of hidden radioactive material and subsequent identification of the radionuclide is the primary purpose of the new Spectroscopic Personal Radiation Detector RadEye SPRD. But beyond this primary mission, the device can be used for a large range of other applications in the field of general radiation protection, research and education. It allows precise low level gamma dose rate measurement as well as a good indication of the high energy secondary charged cosmic radiation. The built-in permanent spectral analysis of the background radiation enables the detection of small contributions originating from practically all relevant artificial radionuclides, including heavily shielded industrial gamma, beta, and neutron sources. Since the RadEye SPRD was designed with the same form factor and dimensions as any other RadEye pager, the fleet of useful accessories, such as telepoles and special measurement adapters are readily available. E.g. in an emergency situation quick spectroscopic field measurements of contaminated food can be performed using a portable sample changer and shielding. Another interesting application is enabled by the extremely low power consumptions of the spectroscopic pager: Set into an automatic mode, up to 200 1h-spectra can be collected anywhere - without any interaction or infrastructure.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of the transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, W.T.; Conway, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The challenging opportunity to develop insights into both atomic structure and the effects of bonding in compounds makes the study of actinide spectroscopy a particularly fruitful and exciting area of scientific endeavor. It is also the interpretation of f-element spectra that has stimulated the development of the most sophisticated theoretical modeling attempted for any elements in the periodic table. The unique nature of the spectra and the wealth of fine detail revealed make possible sensitive tests of both physical models and the results of Hartree-Fock type ab initio calculations. This paper focuses on the unique character of heavy actinide spectroscopy. It discusses how it differs from that of the lighter member of the series and what are the special properties that are manifested. Following the introduction, the paper covers the following: (1) the role of systematic studies and the relationships of heavy-actinide spectroscopy to ongoing spectroscopic investigations of the lighter members of the series; (2) atomic (free-ion) spectra which covers the present status of spectroscopic studies with transplutonium elements, and future needs and directions in atomic spectroscopy; (3) the spectra of actinide compounds which covers the present status and future directions of spectroscopic studies with compounds of the transplutonium elements; and other spectroscopies. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenging opportunity to develop insights into both atomic structure and the effects of bonding in compounds makes the study of actinide spectroscopy a particularly fruitful and exciting area of scientific endeavor. It is also the interpretation of f-element spectra that has stimulated the development of the most sophisticated theoretical modeling attempted for any elements in the periodic table. The unique nature of the spectra and the wealth of fine detail revealed make possible sensitive tests of both physical models and the results of Hartree-Fock type ab initio calculations. This paper focuses on the unique character of heavy actinide spectroscopy. It discusses how it differs from that of the lighter member of the series and what are the special properties that are manifested. Following the introduction, the paper covers the following: (1) the role of systematic studies and the relationships of heavy-actinide spectroscopy to ongoing spectroscopic investigations of the lighter members of the series; (2) atomic (free-ion) spectra which covers the present status of spectroscopic studies with transplutonium elements, and future needs and directions in atomic spectroscopy; (3) the spectra of actinide compounds which covers the present status and future directions of spectroscopic studies with compounds of the transplutonium elements; and other spectroscopies. 1 figure, 2 tables

  18. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8 deg2 Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M * > 1010 M ☉ star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M * ≳ 1011.5 M ☉. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ∼ 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ∼ 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched

  19. Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope: Smog check for comets

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, William T; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 23 comets using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope in wide filters centered at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Emission in the 3.6 micron filter arises from sunlight scattered by dust grains; these images generally have a coma near the nucleus and a tail in the antisolar direction due to dust grains swept back by solar radiation pressure. The 4.5 micron filter contains the same dust grains, as well as strong emission lines from CO2 and CO gas; these show distinct morphologies, in which cases we infer they are dominated by gas. Based on the ratio of 4.5 to 3.6 micron brightness, we classify the survey comets as CO2+CO "rich" and "poor." This classification is correlated with previous classifications by A'Hearn based on carbon-chain molecule abundance, in the sense that comets classified as "depleted" in carbon-chain molecules are also "poor" in CO2+CO. The gas emission in the IRAC 4.5 micron images is characterized by a smooth morphology, typically a fan in the sunward hemisphere with a ...

  20. The Spitzer Space Telescope Extra-Galactic First Look Survey: 24 micron data reduction, catalog, and source identification

    CERN Document Server

    Fadda, D; Armus, L; Chapman, S C; Choi, P I; Fang, F; Frayer, D T; Heinrichsen, I; Helou, G; Im, M; Lacy, M; Makovoz, D; Marleau, F R; Shupe, D L; Soifer, B T; Squires, G K; Storrie-Lombardi, L J; Surace, J; Teplitz, H I; Wilson, G; Yan, L; Fadda, Dario

    2006-01-01

    We present the reduction of the 24 micron data obtained during the first cosmological survey performed by the Spitzer Space Telescope (First Look Survey, FLS). The survey consists of a shallow observation of 2.5x2 sq deg centered at 17h18m +59d30m (main survey) and a deeper observation of 1x0.5 sq deg centered at 17h17m +59d45m(verification survey). Issues with the reduction of the 24 micron MIPS data are discussed and solutions to attenuate instrumental effects are proposed and applied to the data. Approximately 17000 sources are extracted with a SNR greater than five. The photometry of the point sources is evaluated through PSF fitting using an empirical PSF derived from the data. Aperture corrections and the absolute calibration have been checked using stars in the field. Astrometric and photometric errors depend on the SNR of the source varying between 0.35-1 arcsec and 5-15%, respectively, for sources detected at 20-5 sigma. The flux of the 123 extended sources have been estimated through aperture photom...

  1. R CrB Candidates in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Observations of Cold, Featureless Dust with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, K E; Wood, P R; Price, S D; Egan, M P; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Price, Stephan D.; Egan, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    We observed 36 evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the low-resolution mode of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Two of these stars, MSX SMC 014 and 155, have nearly featureless spectral energy distributions over the IRS wavelength range (5.2-35 um) and F_nu peaking at ~8-9 um. The data can be fit by sets of amorphous carbon shells or by single 600-700 K blackbodies. The most similar spectra found in extant spectral databases are of R CrB, although the spectral structure seen in R CrB and similar stars is much weaker or absent in the SMC sources. Both SMC stars show variability in the near-infrared. Ground-based visual spectra confirm that MSX SMC 155 is carbon-rich, as expected for R CrB (RCB) stars, and coincides with an object previously identified as an RCB candidate. The temperature of the underlying star is lower for MSX SMC 155 than for typical RCB stars. The strength of the C_2 Swan bands and the low temperature suggest that it may be a rare DY Per-type...

  2. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Observations of Five Cool Gas Giant Planets and Empirical Trends in Cool Planet Emission Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kammer, Joshua A; Line, Michael R; Fortney, Jonathan J; Deming, Drake; Burrows, Adam; Cowan, Nicolas B; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Agol, Eric; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fulton, Benjamin J; Howard, Andrew W; Laughlin, Gregory P; Lewis, Nikole K; Morley, Caroline V; Moses, Julianne I; Showman, Adam P; Todorov, Kamen O

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron secondary eclipse observations of five new cool (<1200 K) transiting gas giant planets: HAT-P-19b, WASP-6b, WASP-10b, WASP-39b, and WASP-67b. We compare our measured eclipse depths to the predictions of a suite of atmosphere models and to eclipse depths for planets with previously published observations in order to constrain the temperature- and mass-dependent properties of gas giant planet atmospheres. We find that the dayside emission spectra of planets less massive than Jupiter require models with efficient circulation of energy to the night side and/or increased albedos, while those with masses greater than that of Jupiter are consistently best-matched by models with inefficient circulation and low albedos. At these relatively low temperatures we expect the atmospheric methane to CO ratio to vary as a function of metallicity, and we therefore use our observations of these planets to constrain their atmospheric metallicities. We find that the most massi...

  3. STAR FORMATION AT 4 < z < 6 FROM THE SPITZER LARGE AREA SURVEY WITH HYPER-SUPRIME-CAM (SPLASH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Capak, Peter; Masters, Dan; Petric, Andreea [Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Speagle, Josh S.; Silverman, John D. [Kavli IPMU, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Carollo, Marcella [ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunlop, James [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Yasuhiro [National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Sec. 4, Tingzhou Rd., Taipei 11677, Taiwan R.O.C. (China); Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting [ASIAA Sinica, AS/NTU. No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Fevre, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Le Floc' h, Emeric [Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, Dave [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Nagao, Tohru [Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Salvato, Mara [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-08-20

    Using the first 50% of data collected for the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam observations on the 1.8 deg{sup 2} Cosmological Evolution Survey we estimate the masses and star formation rates of 3398 M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} star-forming galaxies at 4 < z < 6 with a substantial population up to M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ☉}. We find that the strong correlation between stellar mass and star formation rate seen at lower redshift (the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies) extends to z ∼ 6. The observed relation and scatter is consistent with a continued increase in star formation rate at fixed mass in line with extrapolations from lower-redshift observations. It is difficult to explain this continued correlation, especially for the most massive systems, unless the most massive galaxies are forming stars near their Eddington-limited rate from their first collapse. Furthermore, we find no evidence for moderate quenching at higher masses, indicating quenching either has not occurred prior to z ∼ 6 or else occurs rapidly, so that few galaxies are visible in transition between star-forming and quenched.

  4. First simultaneous microlensing observations by two space telescopes: $Spitzer$ & $Swift$ reveal a brown dwarf in event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

    CERN Document Server

    Shvartzvald, Y; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Sumi, T; Street, R A; Novati, S Calchi; Hundertmark, M; Bozza, V; Beichman, C; Bryden, G; Carey, S; Drummond, J; Fausnaugh, M; Gaudi, B S; Henderson, C B; Tan, T G; Wibking, B; Pogge, R W; Yee, J C; Zhu, W; Tsapras, Y; Bachelet, E; Dominik, M; Bramich, D M; Cassan, A; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Ranc, C; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Menzies, J; Mao, S; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Freeman, M; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Fukui, A; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Nishioka, T; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N J; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Jørgensen, U G; Burgdorf, M J; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Evans, D F; Hinse, T C; Kains, N; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Peixinho, N; Verma, P; Sbarufatti, B; Kennea, J A; Gehrels, N

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-55$M_J$ brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of $\\sim$5 kpc toward the Galactic bulge. The event was observed by several ground-based groups as well as by $Spitzer$ and $Swift$, allowing the measurement of the physical properties. However, the event is still subject to an 8-fold degeneracy, in particular the well-known close-wide degeneracy, and thus the projected separation between the two lens components is either $\\sim$0.25 AU or $\\sim$45 AU. This is the first microlensing event observed by $Swift$, with the UVOT camera. We study the region of microlensing parameter space to which $Swift$ is sensitive, finding that while for thi...

  5. Tracing the Energetics and Evolution of Dust with Spitzer: a Chapter in the History of the Eagle Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Flagey, N; Noriega-Crespo, A; Paladini, R; Montmerle, T; Carey, S J; Gagné, M; Shenoy, S

    2011-01-01

    The Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys have revealed a wealth of details of the Galactic plane. We use them to study the energetics and dust properties of M16, one of the best known SFR. We present MIPSGAL observations of M16 at 24 and 70 $\\mu$m and combine them with previous IR data. The MIR image shows a shell inside the molecular borders of the nebula. The morphologies at 24 and 70 $\\mu$m are different, and its color ratio is unusually warm. The FIR image resembles the one at 8 $\\mu$m that enhances the molecular cloud. We measure IR SEDs within the shell and the PDRs. We use the DUSTEM model to fit the SEDs and constrain dust temperature, dust size distribution, and ISRF intensity relative to that provided by the star cluster NGC6611. Within the PDRs, the dust temperature, the dust size distribution, and the ISRF intensity are in agreement with expectations. Within the shell, the dust is hotter and an ISRF larger than that provided by NGC6611 is required. We quantify two solutions. (1) The size distributi...

  6. Galaxy Clusters around radio-loud AGN at 1.3 < z < 3.2 as seen by Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Wylezalek, D; Stern, D; Vernet, J; De Breuck, C; Seymour, N; Brodwin, M; Eisenhardt, P M; Gonzalez, A H; Hatch, N; Jarvis, M; Rettura, A; Stanford, S A; Stevens, J A

    2013-01-01

    We report the first results from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) program, a Cycle 7 and 8 Spitzer Space Telescope snapshot program to investigate the environments of a large sample of obscured and unobscured luminous radio-loud AGN at 1.2 -0.1 (AB), which efficiently selects high-redshift (z > 1.3) galaxies of all types, we identify galaxy cluster member candidates in the fields of the radio-loud AGN. The local density of these IRAC-selected sources is compared to the density of similarly selected sources in blank fields. We find that 92% of the radio-loud AGN reside in environments richer than average. The majority (55%) of the radio-loud AGN fields are found to be overdense at a > 2 {\\sigma} level; 10% are overdense at a > 5 {\\sigma} level. A clear rise in surface density of IRAC-selected sources towards the position of the radio-loud AGN strongly supports an association of the majority of the IRAC-selected sources with the radio-loud AGN. Our results provide solid statistical evidence that radi...

  7. MARCS-Model Stellar Atmospheres, and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer-IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L

    2004-01-01

    We describe state-of-the-art MARCS-code model atmospheres generated for a group of A dwarf, G dwarf, and late-G to mid-K giant standard stars, selected to photometrically calibrate the Spitzer-IRS, and compare the synthetic spectra to observations of HR 6688, HR 6705, and HR 7891. The general calibration processes and uncertainties are briefly described, and the differences between various templated composite spectra of the standards are addressed. In particular, a contrast between up-to-date model atmospheres and previously published composite and synthetic spectra is illustrated for wavelength ranges around 8um (where the SiO Delta(v) = 1 band occurs for the cooler standards) and lambda greater than 20um, where the use of the Engelke function will lead to increasingly large discrepancies due to the neglect of gravity in cool stars. At this point, radiometric requirements are being met, absolute flux calibration uncertainties (1-sigma) are ~20% in the SH and LH, and ~15% in the SL and LL data, and order-to-o...

  8. Spitzer Evidence for a Late Heavy Bombardment and the Formation of Urelites in {\\eta} Corvi at ~1 Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Chen, C H; Morlok, A; Watson, D M; Manoj, P; Sheehan, P; Currie, T M; Thebault, P; Sitko, M L

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed Spitzer and NASA/IRTF 2 - 35 \\mum spectra of the warm, ~350 K circumstellar dust around the nearby MS star {\\eta} Corvi (F2V, 1.4 \\pm 0.3 Gyr). The spectra show clear evidence for warm, water- and carbon-rich dust at ~3 AU from the central star, in the system's Terrestrial Habitability Zone. Spectral features due to ultra-primitive cometary material were found, in addition to features due to impact produced silica and high temperature carbonaceous phases. At least 9 x 10^18 kg of 0.1 - 100 \\mum warm dust is present in a collisional equilibrium distribution with dn/da ~ a^-3.5, the equivalent of a 130 km radius KBO of 1.0 g/cm^3 density and similar to recent estimates of the mass delivered to the Earth at 0.6 - 0.8 Gyr during the Late Heavy Bombardment. We conclude that the parent body was a Kuiper-Belt body or bodies which captured a large amount of early primitive material in the first Myrs of the system's lifetime and preserved it in deep freeze at ~150 AU. At ~1.4 Gyr they were prompted by...

  9. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey: Linking galaxies and halos at z=1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Ashby, Matthew L N; Stanford, S A; Brodwin, Mark; Holder, Gilbert P; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg$^2$ Spitzer-SPT Deep Field survey. Applying flux and color cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$ in the stellar mass range $10^{10}-10^{11}M_\\odot$, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales $>6^{\\prime \\prime}$ (corresponding to physical distances $>0.05$ Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of $\\log(M_{\\rm halo} / M_\\odot) = 12.44\\pm0.08$, 4.5 times higher than the $z=0$ value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale...

  10. Variation in the dust emissivity index across M33 with Herschel and Spitzer (HerM33es)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S; Xilouris, E M; Kramer, C; Boquien, M; Combes, F; Henkel, C; Relano, M; Verley, S; Gratier, P; Israel, F; Wiedner, M C; Roellig, M; Schuster, K F; van derWerf, P

    2013-01-01

    We study the wavelength dependence of the dust emission as a function of position and environment across the disk of M33 at a linear resolution of 160 pc using Spitzer and Herschel photometric data. Expressing the emissivity of the dust as a power law, the power-law exponent (beta) is estimated from two independent approaches designed to properly treat the degeneracy between beta and the dust temperature. Both beta and the dust temperature are higher in the inner disk than in the outer disk, contrary to reported beta-T anti-correlations found in other sources. In the cold + warm dust model, the warm component and the ionized gas (Halpha) have a very similar distribution across the galaxy, demonstrating that the model separates the components in an appropriate fashion. The flocculent spiral arms and the dust lanes are evident in the map of the cold component. Both cold and warm dust column densities are high in star forming regions and reach their maxima toward the giant star forming complexes NGC604 and NGC59...

  11. Spitzer observations of extragalactic H II regions III: NGC 6822 and the hot star, H II region connection

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Robert H; Colgan, Sean W J; Dufour, Reginald J; Kader, Justin; McNabb, Ian A; Pauldrach, Adalbert W A; Weber, Johann A

    2016-01-01

    Using the short-high module of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have measured the [S IV] 10.51, [Ne II] 12.81, [Ne III] 15.56, and [S III] 18.71-micron emission lines in 9 H II regions in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These lines arise from the dominant ionization states of the elements neon (Ne$^{++}$, Ne$^+$) and sulphur (S$^{3+}$, S$^{++}$), thereby allowing an analysis of the neon to sulphur abundance ratio as well as the ionic abundance ratios Ne$^+$/Ne$^{++}$ and S$^{3+}$/S$^{++}$. By extending our studies of H II regions in M83 and M33 to the lower metallicity NGC 6822, we increase the reliability of the estimated Ne/S ratio. We find that the Ne/S ratio appears to be fairly universal, with not much variation about the ratio found for NGC 6822: the median (average) Ne/S ratio equals 11.6 (12.2$\\pm$0.8). This value is in contrast to Asplund et al.'s currently best estimated value for the Sun: Ne/S = 6.5. In addition, we continue to test the predicted ionizing spectral e...

  12. Spitzer/MIPS Infrared Imaging of M31: Further Evidence for a Spiral/Ring Composite Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, K D; Engelbracht, C W; Rieke, G H; Misselt, K A; Latter, W B; Young, E T; Ashby, M L N; Barmby, P; Gibson, B K; Hines, D C; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Levine, D A; Marleau, F R; Noriega-Crespo, A; Stolovy, S; Thilker, D A; Werner, M W; Gordon, Karl D.

    2006-01-01

    New images of M31 at 24, 70, and 160 micron taken with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) reveal the morphology of the dust in this galaxy. This morphology is well represented by a composite of two logarithmic spiral arms and a circular ring (radius ~10 kpc) of star formation offset from the nucleus. The two spiral arms appear to start at the ends of a bar in the nuclear region and extend beyond the star forming ring. As has been found in previous work, the spiral arms are not continuous but composed of spiral segments. The star forming ring is very circular except for a region near M32 where it splits. The lack of well defined spiral arms and the prominence of the nearly circular ring suggests that M31 has been distorted by interactions with its satellite galaxies. Using new dynamical simulations of M31 interacting with M32 and NGC 205 we find that, qualitatively, such interactions can produce an offset, split ring like that seen in the MIPS images.

  13. A Classical Morphological Analysis of Galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, R; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, A; Knapen, J; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Elmegreen, D; Ho, L; Zaritsky, D; Courtois, H; Hinz, J; Muñoz-Mateos, J-C; Kim, T; Regan, M; Gadotti, D; de Paz, A Gil; Laine, J; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Comeron, Sebastien; Ferrer, S Erroz; Seibert, M; Mizusawa, T; Holwerda, B; Madore, B

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is the largest available database of deep, homogeneous middle-infrared (mid-IR) images of galaxies of all types. The survey, which includes 2352 nearby galaxies, reveals galaxy morphology only minimally affected by interstellar extinction. This paper presents an atlas and classifications of S4G galaxies in the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage (CVRHS) system. The CVRHS system follows the precepts of classical de Vaucouleurs (1959) morphology, modified to include recognition of other features such as inner, outer, and nuclear lenses, nuclear rings, bars, and disks, spheroidal galaxies, X patterns and box/peanut structures, OLR subclass outer rings and pseudorings, bar ansae and barlenses, parallel sequence late-types, thick disks, and embedded disks in 3D early-type systems. We show that our CVRHS classifications are internally consistent, and that nearly half of the S4G sample consists of extreme late-type systems (mostly bulgeless, p...

  14. Explorations Beyond the Snow Line: Spitzer/IRS Spectra of Debris Disks Around Solar-Type Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, S M; Bryden, G; Ciardi, D R; Tanner, A M; Su, K Y L; Stapelfeldt, K R; Lisse, C M; Harker, D E

    2009-01-01

    We have observed 152 nearby solar-type stars with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Including stars that met our criteria but were observed in other surveys, we get an overall success rate for finding excesses in the long wavelength IRS band (30-34 micron) of 11.8% +/- 2.4%. The success rate for excesses in the short wavelength band (8.5-12 micron) is ~1% including sources from other surveys. For stars with no excess at 8.5-12 microns, the IRS data set 3 sigma limits of around 1,000 times the level of zodiacal emission present in our solar system, while at 30-34 microns set limits of around 100 times the level of our solar system. Two stars (HD 40136 and HD 10647) show weak evidence for spectral features; the excess emission in the other systems is featureless. If the emitting material consists of large (10 micron) grains as implied by the lack of spectral features, we find that these grains are typically located at or beyond the snow line, ~1-35 AU from the host stars, with an a...

  15. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS I/II OBJECTS IN TAURUS: COMPOSITION AND THERMAL HISTORY OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ICES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15.2 micron ice features are made, using publicly available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water-ice with ∼12% CO2 (abundance relative to H2O), ∼>2%-9% CH3OH, ∼14% NH3, ∼3% CH4, ∼2% H2CO, ∼0.6% HCOOH, and ∼0.5% SO2. We find CO2/H2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profiles vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH+4 and CH3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally processed ice fractions and their implications for CO2 formation and evolution. Comparison of our spectral fits with cold molecular cloud sight lines indicates abundant prestellar ice environments made even richer by the radiative effects of protostars. Our results add additional constraints and a finer level of detail to current full-scale models of protostellar and protoplanetary systems.

  16. Spitzer spectral line mapping of protostellar outflows: III - H_2 emission in L1448, BHR71, and NGC2071

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; Neufeld, D; Yuan, Y; Antoniucci, S; Gusdorf, A

    2011-01-01

    Spitzer-IRS maps of H_2 pure rotational lines from S(0) to S(7) in 3 outflows from Class 0 sources - L1448, BHR71, and NGC2071 - are presented. These lines are used, in conjunction with available rovibrational, near-IR H_2 lines, to probe the physical conditions of the warm gas between hundreds and thousands of Kelvin. We have constructed maps of the molecular hydrogen column density, ortho-to-para ratio and volume density, together with the index beta of the power law describing the distribution of gas temperature. In all three outflows, the present ortho-to-para ratio significantly deviates from the high temperature equilibrium of 3, being on average between 2.0 and 2.3. These low values, that reflect the young age of these flows, are found also in regions of relatively high temperature (~ 1000 K), likely indicating that shocks are occurring in a time shorter than that needed for a complete para to ortho conversion. Density maps indicate upper limits close to LTE conditions, i.e. between 10^6-10^7 cm^-3; mo...

  17. Spitzer IRS Observations of Class I/II Objects in Taurus: Composition, Temperature and Thermal History of the Circumstellar Ices

    CERN Document Server

    Zasowski, G; Watson, Dan M; Furlan, E; Bohac, C J; Hull, C; Green, J D

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of Taurus-Auriga Class I/II protostars obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph. Detailed spectral fits to the 6 and 15 micron features are made, using publicly-available laboratory data, to constrain the molecular composition, abundances, and levels of thermal processing along the lines of sight. We provide an inventory of the molecular environments observed, which have an average composition dominated by water ice with ~12% CO_2 (abundance relative to H_2O), >~2-9% CH_3OH, <~14% NH_3, ~4% CH_4, ~2% H_2CO, ~0.6% HCOOH, and ~0.5% SO_2. We find CO_2/H_2O ratios nearly equivalent to those observed in cold clouds and lines of sight toward the galactic center. The unidentified 6.8 micron profile shapes vary from source to source, and it is shown to be likely that even combinations of the most common candidates (NH_4+ and CH_3OH) are inadequate to explain the feature fully. We discuss correlations among SED spectral indices, abundance ratios, and thermally-processed ice fractions ...

  18. A Spitzer Study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. III. Dust Production and Gas Return in Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    We present the third and final part of a census of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher-metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight IR excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30% - 40% in the optical AGB within the 1 sigma errors for all of the galaxies in our samp...

  19. Catalogue of the morphological features in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G)

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Endoqui, M; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H

    2015-01-01

    A catalogue of the morphological features for the complete Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G), including 2352 nearby galaxies, is presented. The measurements are made using 3.6 $\\mu$m images, largely tracing the old stellar population; at this wavelength the effects of dust are also minimal. The measured features are the sizes, ellipticities, and orientations of bars, rings, ringlenses, and lenses. Measured in a similar manner are also barlenses (lens-like structures embedded in the bars), which are not lenses in the usual sense, being rather the more face-on counterparts of the boxy/peanut structures in the edge-on view. In addition, pitch angles of spiral arm segments are measured for those galaxies where they can be reliably traced. More than one pitch angle may appear for a single galaxy. All measurements are made in a human-supervised manner so that attention is paid to each galaxy. We used isophotal analysis, unsharp masking, and fitting ellipses to measured structures. We find tha...

  20. Obscured star formation in intermediate-density environments: A Spitzer study of the Abell 901/902 supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gallazzi, A; Wolf, C; Gray, M E; Papovich, C; Barden, M; Peng, C Y; Meisenheimer, K; Heymans, C; Van Kampen, E; Gilmour, R; Balogh, M; McIntosh, D H; Bacon, D; Barazza, F D; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Jahnke, K; Jogee, S; Lane, K; Robaina, A R; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We explore the amount of obscured star-formation as a function of environment in the A901/902 supercluster at z=0.165 in conjunction with a field sample drawn from the A901 and CDFS fields, imaged with HST as part of the STAGES and GEMS surveys. We combine the COMBO-17 near-UV/optical SED with Spitzer 24um photometry to estimate both the unobscured and obscured star formation in galaxies with Mstar>10^{10}Msun. We find that the star formation activity in massive galaxies is suppressed in dense environments, in agreement with previous studies. Yet, nearly 40% of the star-forming galaxies have red optical colors at intermediate and high densities. These red systems are not starbursting; they have star formation rates per unit stellar mass similar to or lower than blue star-forming galaxies. More than half of the red star-forming galaxies have low IR-to-UV luminosity ratios, relatively high Sersic indices and they are equally abundant at all densities. They might be gradually quenching their star-formation, poss...