Sample records for c2 monitoring adjusted

  1. Constraint Propagation of $C^2$-adjusted Formulation - Another Recipe for Robust ADM Evolution System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Shinkai, Hisa-aki


    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C2. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is pre-determined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  2. Constraint Propagation of $C^2$-adjusted Formulation II -- Another Recipe for Robust BSSN Evolution System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Shinkai, Hisa-aki


    To obtain an evolution system robust against the violation of constraints, we present a new set of evolution systems based on the so-called Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) equations. The idea is to add functional derivatives of the norm of constraints, $C^2$, to the evolution equations, which was proposed by Fiske (2004) and was applied to the ADM formulation in our previous study. We derive the constraint propagation equations, discuss the behavior of constraint damping, and present the results of numerical tests using the gauge-wave and polarized Gowdy wave spacetimes. The construction of the $C^2$-adjusted system is straightforward. However, in BSSN, there are two kinetic constraints and three algebraic constraints; thus, the definition of $C^2$ is a matter of concern. By analyzing constraint propagation equations, we conclude that $C^2$ should include all the constraints, which is also confirmed numerically. By tuning the parameters, the lifetime of the simulations can be increased to 2-10 times...

  3. Role of metabolites and calcineurin inhibition on C2 monitoring in renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N.; Koefoed-Nielsen, P.; Bagger, Sorensen A.


    BACKGROUND: Many transplantation centres have switched to C2 monitoring of cyclosporin-treated renal transplant patients. The rationale is that the C2 correlates best with AUC0-4 (area under the concentration-time curve), which again correlates with rejection and nephrotoxicity. It has also been...... metabolites were added to whole blood from healthy volunteers and the calcineurin phosphatase activity (CaN) was determined. Twenty renal transplant patients at varying times after transplantation had blood samples drawn in the morning before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after intake of their usual dose of cyclosporin...

  4. Adjustments of conflict monitoring in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Bonnin, Camille A; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Gil, Roger; Bouquet, Cédric A


    In Stroop-like tasks, the detection of conflict triggers adjustments of cognitive control to reduce conflict in subsequent trials. The present study tested the hypothesis of an impaired modulation of conflict monitoring in Parkinson's disease (PD). 18 PD patients and 18 healthy control (HC) participants performed a Stroop-like task in 2 conditions differing in terms of incongruent/congruent stimuli ratio. HC participants demonstrated a sustained modulation of interference effect, the interference effect being decreased when the proportion of incongruent stimuli was high. A trial-by-trial analysis also showed that in the HC group, processing an incongruent stimulus reduced interference in the subsequent trial. Unlike controls, PD patients did not demonstrate any transient or sustained reduction of the interference effect. Within the framework of recent models, these results can be interpreted as an impairment of a proactive mode of cognitive control in patients with PD.

  5. Risk-Adjusted Control Charts for Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Albers


    the distribution involved is negative binomial. However, in health care monitoring, (groups of patients will often belong to different risk categories. In the present paper, we will show how information about category membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do take possible heterogeneity into account but refrain from risk-adjustment. Note that in the risk adjusted case several parameters are involved, which will all be typically unknown. Hence, the potentially considerable estimation effects of the new charts will be investigated as well.

  6. Microfluidic system for monitoring of cardiac (H9C2) cell proliferation (United States)

    Kobuszewska, A.; Cwik, P.; Jastrzebska, E.; Brzozka, Z.; Chudy, M.; Renaud, P.; Dybko, A.


    The paper presents the application of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis for investigation of cardiac cell (H9C2 - rat cardiomyoblast) proliferation after verapamil hydrochloride exposure. For this purpose, two different PDMS/glass microsystems with circular microchamber and longitudinal microchannel integrated with Pt/Al electrodes were used. The microchambers were fabricated in PDMS using photolithography and replica moulding techniques. Pt/Al electrodes were fabricated on a 4-inch glass substrate using Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). Solution of verapamil hydrochloride was continuously introduced into the microsystems with H9C2 cell culture (a flow rate of 1 μl/min) for 72 h. The impedance spectra were recorded from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. We confirmed that impedance spectroscopy can be used for non-invasive, label-free and real-time analysis of cardiac cells proliferation based on cells dielectric properties and biological structure.

  7. Response Monitoring and Adjustment: Differential Relations with Psychopathic Traits (United States)

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M. Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn


    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a two-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., post-error slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the two main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  8. Cyclosporine A monitoring in children: abbreviated area under curve formulas and C2 level. (United States)

    Dello Strologo, L; Campagnano, P; Federici, G; Rizzoni, G


    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the most commonly used drug in organ transplantation. To evaluate exposure the gold standard is area under curve (AUC), but this is expensive and requires many blood samples. For this reason, abbreviated formulae have been developed in adults. Data in children are scanty. Formulae cannot be applied in patients taking CsA every 8 h. We tested the abbreviated AUC formula published for adults in renal transplant children on twice daily therapy and we propose a method, requiring three blood samples, for those taking CsA every 8 h. A very good correlation was obtained for both groups. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between CsA concentration 2 h after administration and AUC. A good correlation was found supporting the possible use of this parameter for monitoring CsA therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Detchev


    Full Text Available Digital photogrammetric systems combined with image processing techniques have been used for structural monitoring purposes for more than a decade. For applications requiring sub-millimetre level precision, the use of off-the-shelf DSLR cameras is a suitable choice, especially when the low cost of the involved sensors is a priority. The disadvantage in the use of entry level DSLRs is that there is a trade-off between frame rate and burst rate – a high frame rate is either not available or it cannot be sustained long enough. This problem must be overcome when monitoring a structural element undergoing a dynamic test, where a range of loads are cycled through multiple times a second. In order to estimate deflections during such a scenario, this paper proposes a new least-squares adjustment for sinusoidal fitting. The new technique is capable of processing multiple back-to-back bursts of data within the same adjustment, which synthetically increases the de-facto temporal resolution of the system. The paper describes a beam deformation test done in a structures laboratory. The experimental results were assessed in terms of both their precision and accuracy. The new method increased the effective sampling frequency three-fold, which improved the standard deviations of the estimated parameters with up to two orders of magnitude. A residual RMSE as low as 30 μm was attained, and likewise the RMSE of the computed amplitudes between the photogrammetric system and the control laser transducers was as small as 34 μm.

  10. Risk-adjusted control charts for health care monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim


    Attribute data from high quality processes can be monitored effectively by deciding on whether or not to stop at each time where $r\\geq 1$ failures have occurred. The smaller the degree of change in failure rate during Out-of-Control one wants to be optimally protected against, the larger $r$ should

  11. Risk adjusted control charts for health care monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Attribute data from high quality processes can be monitored effectively by deciding on whether or not to stop at each time where $r\\geq 1$ failures have occurred. The smaller the degree of change in failure rate during Out-of-Control one wants to be optimally protected against, the larger $r$ should

  12. Monitoring the evolutionary process of quality: risk-adjusted charting to track outcomes in intensive care. (United States)

    Cook, David A; Steiner, Stefan H; Cook, Richard J; Farewell, Vern T; Morton, Anthony P


    To present graphical procedures for prospectively monitoring outcomes in the intensive care unit. Observational study: risk-adjusted control chart analysis of a case series. Tertiary referral adult intensive care unit: Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. A total of 3398 intensive care unit admissions from January 1, 1995, to January 1, 1998. Risk-adjusted process control charting procedures for continuous monitoring of intensive care unit outcomes are proposed as quality management tools. A modified Shewhart p chart and cumulative sum process control chart, using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III model mortality prediction for risk adjustment, are presented. The risk-adjusted p chart summarizes performance at arbitrary intervals and plots observed against predicted mortality rate to detect large changes in risk-adjusted mortality. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum procedure is a likelihood-based scoring method that adjusts for estimated risk of death, accumulating evidence from outcomes of all previous patients. It formally tests the hypothesis of a change in the odds of death. In this application, we detected a decrease from above to predicted risk-adjusted mortality. This was temporally related to increased senior staffing levels and enhanced ongoing multidisciplinary review of practice, quality improvement, and educational activities. Formulas and analyses are provided as appendices.

  13. A new risk-adjusted Bernoulli cumulative sum chart for monitoring binary health data. (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Sarto, Simone Del; Marchi, Marco


    To monitor a health event in patients with a specific risk of developing the event, a risk-adjusted cumulative sum chart is needed. The risk-adjusted cumulative sum chart proposed in the literature has some limitations. Setting appropriate control limits is not straightforward, there is no simple formula for constructing them, and they remain sensitive to changes in the underlying risk distribution and the baseline incidence rate. To overcome these limits, we propose a new risk-adjusted Bernoulli cumulative sum chart as a simple and efficient solution. Analyses of simulated and real data sets illustrate the performance and usefulness of the proposed procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Improved implementation of the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart to monitor surgical outcome quality. (United States)

    Keefe, Matthew J; Loda, Justin B; Elhabashy, Ahmad E; Woodall, William H


    The traditional implementation of the risk-adjusted Bernoulli cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart for monitoring surgical outcome quality requires waiting a pre-specified period of time after surgery before incorporating patient outcome information. We propose a simple but powerful implementation of the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart that incorporates outcome information as soon as it is available, rather than waiting a pre-specified period of time after surgery. A simulation study is presented that compares the performance of the traditional implementation of the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart to our improved implementation. We show that incorporating patient outcome information as soon as it is available leads to quicker detection of process deterioration. Deterioration of surgical performance could be detected much sooner using our proposed implementation, which could lead to the earlier identification of problems.

  15. Automatic Adjustments of a Trans-oesophageal Ultrasound Robot for Monitoring Intra-operative Catheters (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyi; Housden, James; Singh, Davinder; Rhode, Kawal


    3D trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has become a powerful tool for monitoring intra-operative catheters used during cardiac procedures in recent years. However, the control of the TOE probe remains as a manual task and therefore the operator has to hold the probe for a long period of time and sometimes in a radiation environment. To solve this problem, an add-on robotic system has been developed for holding and manipulating a commercial TOE probe. This paper focuses on the application of making automatic adjustments to the probe pose in order to accurately monitor the moving catheters. The positioning strategy is divided into an initialization step based on a pre-planning method and a localized adjustments step based on the robotic differential kinematics and related image servoing techniques. Both steps are described in the paper along with simulation experiments performed to validate the concept. The results indicate an error less than 0.5 mm for the initialization step and an error less than 2 mm for the localized adjustments step. Compared to the much bigger live 3D image volume, it is concluded that the methods are promising. Future work will focus on evaluating the method in the real TOE scanning scenario.

  16. Designing, implementing and monitoring social impact mitigation strategies: Lessons from Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loxton, Edwina A., E-mail: [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Schirmer, Jacki, E-mail: [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia); Kanowski, Peter, E-mail: [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart, 7001 (Australia)


    Social impact mitigation strategies are implemented by the proponents of policies and projects with the intent of reducing the negative, and increasing the positive social impacts of their activities, and facilitating the achievement of policy/project goals. Evaluation of mitigation strategies is critical to improving their future success and cost-effectiveness. This paper evaluates two Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Packages (FISAP) implemented in Australia in the 1990s to 2000s as part of broader policy changes that reduced access to timber from publicly owned native forests. It assesses the effectiveness of the structure, design, implementation and monitoring of the FISAPs, and highlights the interactions between these four elements and their influence on social impacts. The two FISAPs were found to be effective in terms of reducing negative impacts, encouraging positive impacts and contributing towards policy goals, although they did not mitigate negative impacts in all cases, and sometimes interacted with external factors and additional policy changes to contribute to significant short and long term negative impacts. -- Highlights: ► Mitigation strategies aim to reduce negative and enhance positive social impacts ► Mitigation strategy design, implementation, and monitoring are critical to success ► Effective mitigation enhanced the capacity of recipients to respond to change ► Mitigation strategies influenced multiple interacting positive and negative impacts ► Success required good communication, transparency, support, resources and timing.

  17. Cryptanalysis of C2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Leander, Gregor


    We present several attacks on the block cipher C2, which is used for encrypting DVD Audio discs and Secure Digital cards. C2 has a 56 bit key and a secret 8 to 8 bit S-box. We show that if the attacker is allowed to choose the key, the S-box can be recovered in 2^24 C2 encryptions. Attacking the ...... bit key for a known S-box can be done in complexity 2^48. Finally, a C2 implementation with a 8 to 8 bit secret S-box (equivalent to 2048 secret bits) and a 56 bit secret key can be attacked in 2^53.5 C2 encryptions on average....

  18. Variable life adjusted display methodology for continuous performance monitoring of carotid endarterectomy. (United States)

    Kuhan, G; McCollum, D P; Renwick, P M; Chetter, I C; McCollum, P T


    Introduction The aim of this study was to use variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) methodology to monitor performance of six vascular surgeons undertaking carotid endarterectomy in a single institution. Materials and methods This was a prospective study with continuous analysis. A risk score model to predict 30-day stroke or death for individual patients was developed from data collected from 839 patients from 1992 to 1999. The model was used to monitor performance of six surgeons from 2000 to 2009. Individual risk factors and 30-day outcomes were analysed and VLAD plots were created for the whole unit and for each surgeon. Results Among the 941 carotid endarterectomies in the performance analysis, 28 adverse events were recorded, giving an overall stroke or death rate of 3.06%. The risk model predicted there would be 33 adverse events. There was no statistical difference between the predicted and the observed adverse events (P > 0.2, χ2 value 1.25, 4 degrees of freedom). The VLAD plot for the whole unit shows an overall net gain in operative performance, although this could have been chance variation. The individual VLAD plot showed that surgeons 1, 2, 3 and 6 to have an overall net gain in the number of successful operations. The changes observed between the surgeons was not significant (P > 0.05) suggesting chance variation only. Conclusions Performance of carotid endarterectomy can be continuously assessed using VLAD methodology for units and individual surgeons. Early identification and correction of performance variation could facilitate improved quality of care.

  19. C2 Agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William; Alberts, David S.; Bernier, Francois

    Agility is the capability to successfully effect, cope with, and/or exploit changes in circumstances. While other factors will also influence outcomes, C2 Agility enables entities to effectively and efficiently employ the resources they have in a timely manner in a variety of missions and circums...

  20. Process monitoring in intensive care with the use of cumulative expected minus observed mortality and risk-adjusted P charts. (United States)

    Cockings, Jerome G L; Cook, David A; Iqbal, Rehana K


    A health care system is a complex adaptive system. The effect of a single intervention, incorporated into a complex clinical environment, may be different from that expected. A national database such as the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme in the UK represents a centralised monitoring, surveillance and reporting system for retrospective quality and comparative audit. This can be supplemented with real-time process monitoring at a local level for continuous process improvement, allowing early detection of the impact of both unplanned and deliberately imposed changes in the clinical environment. Demographic and UK Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) data were prospectively collected on all patients admitted to a UK regional hospital between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2004 in accordance with the ICNARC Case Mix Programme. We present a cumulative expected minus observed (E-O) plot and the risk-adjusted p chart as methods of continuous process monitoring. We describe the construction and interpretation of these charts and show how they can be used to detect planned or unplanned organisational process changes affecting mortality outcomes. Five hundred and eighty-nine adult patients were included. The overall death rate was 0.78 of predicted. Calibration showed excess survival in ranges above 30% risk of death. The E-O plot confirmed a survival above that predicted. Small transient variations were seen in the slope that could represent random effects, or real but transient changes in the quality of care. The risk-adjusted p chart showed several observations below the 2 SD control limits of the expected mortality rate. These plots provide rapid analysis of risk-adjusted performance suitable for local application and interpretation. The E-O chart provided rapid easily visible feedback of changes in risk-adjusted mortality, while the risk-adjusted p chart allowed statistical evaluation. Local analysis of

  1. Predictive analytics tools to adjust and monitor performance metrics for the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando Harald; The ATLAS collaboration


    Having information such as an estimation of the processing time or possibility of system outage (abnormal behaviour) helps to assist to monitor system performance and to predict its next state. The current cyber-infrastructure presents computing conditions in which contention for resources among high-priority data analysis happens routinely, that might lead to significant workload and data handling interruptions. The lack of the possibility to monitor and to predict the behaviour of the analysis process (its duration) and system’s state itself caused to focus on design of the built-in situational awareness analytic tools.

  2. User-Wearable Devices that Monitor Exposure to Blue Light and Recommend Adjustments Thereto (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin (Inventor)


    Described herein are user-wearable devices that include an optical sensor, and methods for use therewith. In certain embodiments, an optical sensor of a user-wearable device (e.g., a wrist-worn device) is used to detect blue light that is incident on the optical sensor and to produce a blue light detection signal indicative thereof, and thus, indicative of the response of the user's intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs). In dependence on the blue light detection signal, there is a determination of a metric indicative of an amount of blue light detected by the optical sensor. The metric is compared to a corresponding threshold, and a user notification is triggered in dependence on results of the comparing, wherein the user notification informs a person wearing the user-wearable device to adjust their exposure to light.

  3. Predictive analytics tools to adjust and monitor performance metrics for the ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration


    Every scientific workflow involves an organizational part which purpose is to plan an analysis process thoroughly according to defined schedule, thus to keep work progress efficient. Having such information as an estimation of the processing time or possibility of system outage (abnormal behaviour) will improve the planning process, provide an assistance to monitor system performance and predict its next state. The ATLAS Production System is an automated scheduling system that is responsible for central production of Monte-Carlo data, highly specialized production for physics groups, as well as data pre-processing and analysis using such facilities as grid infrastructures, clouds and supercomputers. With its next generation (ProdSys2) the processing rate is around 2M tasks per year that is more than 365M jobs per year. ProdSys2 evolves to accommodate a growing number of users and new requirements from the ATLAS Collaboration, physics groups and individual users. ATLAS Distributed Computing in its current stat...

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring and use of an adjusted body weight strategy for high-dose voriconazole therapy. (United States)

    Richards, Patrick G; Dang, Kimberlyn M; Kauffman, Carol A; Stalker, Kay Lyn; Sudekum, David; Kerr, Lisa; Brinker-Bodley, Michelle; Cheriyan, Beena; West, Nina; Collins, Curtis D; Polega, Shikha; Malani, Anurag N


    A high-dose 12 mg/kg/day (6 mg/kg twice daily) voriconazole regimen was recommended by the CDC to treat patients injected with contaminated methylprednisolone acetate that caused a multi-state fungal outbreak in 2012-13. Therapeutic drug monitoring results of this unique regimen are unknown, as is the most appropriate dosing weight for obese patients. We evaluated voriconazole trough measurements for this dosing scheme, as well as the use of adjusted body weight dosing for obese patients. Voriconazole trough levels were analysed in obese (BMI ≥35 kg/m 2 ) and non-obese (BMI voriconazole troughs were supratherapeutic (>5 mg/L) in 65 (47%) patients, therapeutic (2-5 mg/L) in 57 (41%) patients and subtherapeutic (Voriconazole doses >11 and >8 mg/kg/day produced mainly first steady-state supratherapeutic troughs in 44 obese and 94 non-obese patients, respectively. An initial 12 mg/kg/day was progressively lowered to a median maintenance dose of 8.5 mg/kg/day in the obese and 8.6 mg/kg/day in the non-obese. A high-dose voriconazole regimen produced initial supratherapeutic troughs that required dose adjustment downward by nearly 30%. Adjusted body weight dosing in obese patients resulted in a similar maintenance dose to total body weight dosing in the non-obese, and appears to be a sensible dosing strategy for these patients.

  5. Dose individualization of sunitinib in metastatic renal cell cancer: toxicity-adjusted dose or therapeutic drug monitoring. (United States)

    Sabanathan, Dhanusha; Zhang, Alison; Fox, Peter; Coulter, Sally; Gebski, Val; Balakrishnar, Bavanthi; Chan, Mathew; Liddle, Christopher; Gurney, Howard


    Dose individualization of sunitinib has been proposed using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) or toxicity-adjusted dose (TAD). We prospectively studied aspects of TDM and TAD to inform future trials, namely (1) intrapatient variability (CV) of sunitinib and (2) feasibility of a TAD protocol. Sunitinib dose was adjusted to ensure grade 1 or 2 toxicity on 10-20 days of each 42-day cycle. Total trough levels (TTL) C min of sunitinib and its active metabolite were measured every 6 weeks. In 45 patients with mRCC, 283 TTL samples were assayed over a median 30 weeks (6-108 weeks). Fifteen patients (33%) had an intrapatient CV of >25% in TTL. Ninety-one percent achieved target toxicity with a final sunitinib dose of 25 mg (18%), 37.5 mg (27%), 50 mg (50%), and 62.5 or 75 mg (7%). TTL C min was 100 ng/mL in 7 (15%), 31 (69%), and 7 patients (15.5%), respectively. The median overall survival was 32 months. Sunitinib level has minimal variability in the majority of patients on stable dose. A subset of patients had a significant intrapatient variation, so we recommend two samples 4 to 6 months apart. TAD is feasible for dosing sunitinib and showed a favourable outcome.

  6. A fuzzy logic control in adjustable autonomy of a multi-agent system for an automated elderly movement monitoring application. (United States)

    Mostafa, Salama A; Mustapha, Aida; Mohammed, Mazin Abed; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mahmoud, Moamin A


    Autonomous agents are being widely used in many systems, such as ambient assisted-living systems, to perform tasks on behalf of humans. However, these systems usually operate in complex environments that entail uncertain, highly dynamic, or irregular workload. In such environments, autonomous agents tend to make decisions that lead to undesirable outcomes. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy-logic-based adjustable autonomy (FLAA) model to manage the autonomy of multi-agent systems that are operating in complex environments. This model aims to facilitate the autonomy management of agents and help them make competent autonomous decisions. The FLAA model employs fuzzy logic to quantitatively measure and distribute autonomy among several agents based on their performance. We implement and test this model in the Automated Elderly Movements Monitoring (AEMM-Care) system, which uses agents to monitor the daily movement activities of elderly users and perform fall detection and prevention tasks in a complex environment. The test results show that the FLAA model improves the accuracy and performance of these agents in detecting and preventing falls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjustments of serum lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and their significance in monitoring the treatment in patients with tubercular pyothorax. (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Alam, Mumtaz; Siddiqui, M Faisal; Hasnain, Absar-Ul


    The adjustments and diagnostic significance of polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) profiles of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (LDH: was evaluated in the sera and pleural fluid of patients with tubercular pyothorax. Sera and pleural fluid samples were randomly collected from 72 and 18 patients respectively at two different timings; first, when patients were admitted to the Hospital and second, after an intensive phase of treatment. Sera of 20 healthy individuals served as control. Our results demonstrate significant differences in sera LDH (sLDH) and pleural fluid LDH (pfLDH) isoenzymes. In patients the order of LDH isoenzyme in sera and pleural fluid followed: LDH-5>-4>-2>-3>-1 and LDH-5>-4>-3>-2>-1 respectively. The ranking of activity levels in control was LDH-2>-1>-3>-5>-4. In the second phase of sampling from 31 patients, values of sLDH isoenzymes showed recovery and resembled profiles of controls. Therefore, the sLDH zymograms of patients can be used as the prognostic marker, since they tend to reach the normal level during recovery signifying the effect of chemotherapy in hospitalized patients. Moreover, according to the present findings on LDH-PAGE profiles, the levels of LDH-5 and-4 rise in pyothorax patients significantly (P<0.05). This elevation along with the rise in total LDH activity may, therefore, be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of tubercular pyothorax.

  8. Age-Adjusted Percentage of Adults Aged 18 Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of ... (United States)

    ... Years or Older with Diagnosed Diabetes Performing Daily Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose, United States, 1994–2010 From ... years or older with diagnosed diabetes performing daily self-monitoring of blood glucose increased by 27.9 points, ...

  9. C2 metabolism in Euglena. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masami


    Euglenoids are able to assimilate fatty acids and alcohols with various carbon-chain lengths, and ethanol is known to be one of the best carbon sources to support the growth of Euglena gracilis. Ethanol is first oxidized to acetate by the sequential reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in the mitochondria, and then converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). Acetyl-CoA is metabolized through the glyoxylate cycle which is a modified tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in which isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) function to bypass the two decarboxylation steps of the TCA cycle, enabling the net synthesis of carbohydrates from C2 compounds. ICL and MS form a unique bifunctional enzyme localized in Euglena mitochondria, not in glyoxysome as in other eukaryotes. The unique glyoxylate and glycolate metabolism during photorespiration is also discussed in this chapter.

  10. Process monitoring in intensive care with the use of cumulative expected minus observed mortality and risk-adjusted p charts


    Cockings, Jerome GL; Cook, David A; Iqbal, Rehana K


    Introduction A health care system is a complex adaptive system. The effect of a single intervention, incorporated into a complex clinical environment, may be different from that expected. A national database such as the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme in the UK represents a centralised monitoring, surveillance and reporting system for retrospective quality and comparative audit. This can be supplemented with real-time process monitoring at a local l...

  11. Assessing the Response to Inhaled Albuterol by Monitoring Patient Effort-Related Trends With a Servo-I Ventilator in Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist Mode: A Case Presentation. (United States)

    Snow, Timothy Matthew; Brinck, Matthew J


    Infants with chronic lung disease tend to be difficult to care for due to the heterogeneous nature of both their disease and the treatments required. Multiple types of medications, treatments, and nursing interventions are often needed to attain clinical success, and it is frequently difficult to discern which are effective versus the ones that offer no benefit. This article presents a case study that chronicles the care of an infant with chronic lung disease treated with albuterol. An innovative form of ventilation with monitoring of the electrical activity of the diaphragm with a special sensor-embedded catheter is used to assess the effectiveness of albuterol administration. This case study presents the monitoring of the effectiveness of albuterol in an infant with chronic lung disease measuring the electrical activity of the diaphragm catheter (Edi) and the various monitoring systems on the Servo-i ventilator in Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) Mode. The clinicians followed various respiratory trends monitored by the Servo-i ventilator after albuterol dosing to document the clinical utility of using albuterol in this infant. The monitoring provided by NAVA showed an improvement in both lung mechanics and clinical condition immediately after albuterol administration. The infant had a positive response to albuterol dosing that subsequently led to reduced length of stay, reduced costs, and reduced family anxiety. This type of monitoring could help nurses and clinicians discern whether a given treatment or medication was effective. This method of clinical monitoring could provide a means to assess clinical utility of respiratory medications, treatments, and nursing interventions in certain populations of neonates and infants. The impact of objective monitoring on required sedation, weight gain, ventilator days, length of hospitalization, and overall hospital costs are other possible areas for future research.

  12. Risk-adjusted econometric model to estimate postoperative costs: an additional instrument for monitoring performance after major lung resection. (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Refai, Majed; Xiumé, Francesco; Rocco, Gaetano; Sabbatini, Armando


    The objectives of this study were to develop a risk-adjusted model to estimate individual postoperative costs after major lung resection and to use it for internal economic audit. Variable and fixed hospital costs were collected for 679 consecutive patients who underwent major lung resection from January 2000 through October 2006 at our unit. Several preoperative variables were used to develop a risk-adjusted econometric model from all patients operated on during the period 2000 through 2003 by a stepwise multiple regression analysis (validated by bootstrap). The model was then used to estimate the postoperative costs in the patients operated on during the 3 subsequent periods (years 2004, 2005, and 2006). Observed and predicted costs were then compared within each period by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multiple regression and bootstrap analysis yielded the following model predicting postoperative cost: 11,078 + 1340.3X (age > 70 years) + 1927.8X cardiac comorbidity - 95X ppoFEV1%. No differences between predicted and observed costs were noted in the first 2 periods analyzed (year 2004, $6188.40 vs $6241.40, P = .3; year 2005, $6308.60 vs $6483.60, P = .4), whereas in the most recent period (2006) observed costs were significantly lower than the predicted ones ($3457.30 vs $6162.70, P < .0001). Greater precision in predicting outcome and costs after therapy may assist clinicians in the optimization of clinical pathways and allocation of resources. Our economic model may be used as a methodologic template for economic audit in our specialty and complement more traditional outcome measures in the assessment of performance.

  13. Rapid improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes using weekly intensive multifactorial interventions: structured glucose monitoring, patient education, and adjustment of therapy-a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Pimazoni-Netto, Augusto; Rodbard, David; Zanella, Maria Teresa


    We evaluated intensive intervention in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus involving weekly clinic visits and adjustment of therapy with analysis of three seven-point glucose profiles and intervention from an interdisciplinary staff. Sixty-three patients were randomized to an intensive treatment group that obtained self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) profiles (six or seven values per day, 3 days/week) and were seen in the clinic at Weeks 1-6 and 12. SMBG results were downloaded, analyzed using Accu-Chek(®) 360° software (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), and used to adjust therapy. Control group subjects obtained glucose profiles and had clinic visits only at Weeks 0, 6, and 12. There were highly statistically significant improvements in the intensive treatment group compared with the control group between Weeks 0 and 6 with greater reductions in weekly mean glycemia (WMG) (-76.7±8.9 mg/dL vs. -20.5±8.1 mg/dL), glycemic variability (SD) (-16.3±3.1 mg/dL vs. -5.0±3.1 mg/dL), and glycated hemoglobin (-1.82±0.16% vs. -0.66±0.22%) without significant changes in frequency of hypoglycemia or weight. Improvements were sustained in the intensive treatment group through Week 12. A minimal but statistically significant degree of improvement was seen in the control group at Week 12. This short-term pilot study of an intensive monitoring, educational, and pharmacological interventions program resulted in dramatic improvement of glycemic control within 6 weeks, and these effects are sustained through Week 12. SMBG glucose profiles, calculation of WMG and SD, and graphical displays of glucose data can improve the effectiveness of adjustment of therapy at weekly clinic visits when combined with intensive support from a multidisciplinary team.

  14. Meteorologically-adjusted trend analysis of surface observed ozone at three monitoring sites in Delhi, India: 2007-2011 (United States)

    Biswas, J.; Farooqui, Z.; Guttikunda, S. K.


    It is well known that meteorological parameters have significant impact on surface ozone concentrations. Therefore it is important to remove the effects of meteorology on ozone concentrations to correctly estimate long-term trends in ozone levels due to the alterations in precursor emissions. This is important for the development of effectual control strategies. In this study surface observed ozone trends in New Delhi are analyzed using Komogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter, US EPA ozone adjustment due to weather approach and the classification and regression tree method. The statistical models are applied to the ozone data at three observational sites in New Delhi metropolitan areas, 1) Income Tax Office (ITO) 2) Sirifort and 3) Delhi College of Engineering (DCE). The ITO site is located adjacent to a traffic crossing, Sirifort is an urban site and the DCE site is located in a residential area. The ITO site is also influenced by local industrial emissions. DCE has higher ozone levels than the other two sites. It was found that ITO has lowest ozone concentrations amongst the three sites due to ozone titrating due to industrial and on-road mobile NOx emissions. The statistical methods employed can assess ozone trends at these sites with a high degree of confidence and the results can be used to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies on surface ozone levels in New Delhi.

  15. Rate constant for the reaction C2H5 + HBr → C2H6 + Br. (United States)

    Golden, David M; Peng, Jingping; Goumri, A; Yuan, J; Marshall, Paul


    RRKM theory has been employed to analyze the kinetics of the title reaction, in particular, the once-controversial negative activation energy. Stationary points along the reaction coordinate were characterized with coupled cluster theory combined with basis set extrapolation to the complete basis set limit. A shallow minimum, bound by 9.7 kJ mol(-1) relative to C(2)H(5) + HBr, was located, with a very small energy barrier to dissociation to Br + C(2)H(6). The transition state is tight compared to the adduct. The influence of vibrational anharmonicity on the kinetics and thermochemistry of the title reaction were explored quantitatively. With adjustment of the adduct binding energy by ∼4 kJ mol(-1), the computed rate constants may be brought into agreement with most experimental data in the literature, including new room-temperature results described here. There are indications that at temperatures above those studied experimentally, the activation energy may switch from negative to positive.

  16. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?]. (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I


    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  17. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha


    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  18. Improvement of glycaemia control in subjects with type 2 diabetes by self-monitoring of blood glucose: comparison of two management programs adjusting bedtime insulin dosage. (United States)

    Chen, H-S; Wu, T-E; Jap, T-S; Lin, S-H; Hsiao, L-C; Lin, H-D


    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important for patients treated with insulin to detect asymptomatic hypoglycaemia and to guide patients towards reaching blood glucose goal. This study compared two management programs for adjusting bedtime insulin dose: program 1 (performed by study subjects) vs. program 2 (performed by study subjects and reminded by investigators). This is a prospective, open-level, 28-week randomized trial in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. One hundred subjects treated with oral antidiabetic drugs plus bedtime insulin with glycated haemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) >8.0% were screened and received a structure education package in a 4-week run-in period. Seventy-eight subjects were randomized to two treatment programs (adjust insulin dose by themselves with or without investigators' reminder) and reviewed by the investigators at a 4-week interval clinical visit. The mean SMBG decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater decrease observed in program 2 vs. program 1 (from 198.7 +/- 43.1 to 122.6 +/- 21.9 mg/dl vs. from 194.0 +/- 42.7 to 151.6 +/- 37.7 mg/dl, p Bedtime insulin dose increased in both groups with a greater increase in program 2 (from 14.4 +/- 8.7 to 27.4 +/- 12.8 IU vs. from 14.3 +/- 8.3 to 18.4 +/- 6.2 IU, p weight changes. Systematically titrating bedtime insulin dose added to oral therapy, especially combined with health care reminders, can safely improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control. This regimen may facilitate safe and effective insulin therapy in routine medical practice and improve achievement of recommended standards of diabetes care.

  19. Standardisation for C2-Simulation Interoperation (United States)


    using: • National and NATO operational planning and execution tools: NATO ICC, TBMCS, JADOCS and a UAV ground control station ; • extensive hierarchy of battle space objects such as Organisations, Materiel, Facilities, Features, etc. This taxonomy contains approximately 150...Exploitation of C2‐Sim Interoperability Research to Support the UK Warfighter LtCol Bernardo Neto, Brazilian AF: C2-Simulation Studies in ITA‐GMU

  20. A Topological Model for C2 Organizations (United States)


    Many aspects of C2 are hard to quantify. Topology can be referred as a kind of qualitative math , not the math made of points as usual. Instead, costs, resources and capabilities are important to better define the merit of an organization, understood as the congruence to its mission, adequate mathe - matical construct to capture these higher dimensional relationships. 7. References 16th ICCRTS: Collective C2 in Multinational

  1. Compact toroid injection into C-2U (United States)

    Roche, Thomas; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Asai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Putvinski, S.; Allfrey, I.; Beall, M.; Cordero, M.; Granstedt, E.; Kinley, J.; Morehouse, M.; Sheftman, D.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team


    Sustainment of an advanced neutral beam-driven FRC for a period in excess of 5 ms is the primary goal of the C-2U machine at Tri Alpha Energy. In addition, a criteria for long-term global sustainment of any magnetically confined fusion reactor is particle refueling. To this end, a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun has been developed. Compact toroids (CT) are to be injected perpendicular to the axial magnetic field of C-2U. To simulate this environment, an experimental test-stand has been constructed. A transverse magnetic field of B ~ 1 kG is established (comparable to the C-2U axial field) and CTs are fired across it. As a minimal requirement, the CT must have energy density greater than that of the magnetic field it is to penetrate, i.e., 1/2 ρv2 >=B2 / 2μ0 . This criteria is easily met and indeed the CTs traverse the test-stand field. A preliminary experiment on C-2U shows the CT also capable of penetrating into FRC plasmas and refueling is observed resulting in a 20 - 30% increase in total particle number per single-pulsed CT injection. Results from test-stand and C-2U experiments will be presented.

  2. Impact of β-lactam antibiotic therapeutic drug monitoring on dose adjustments in critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy. (United States)

    Economou, Caleb J P; Wong, Gloria; McWhinney, Brett; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A


    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and dose adjustments of β-lactam antibiotics administered to critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a 30-bed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). β-Lactam TDM data in our tertiary referral ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, demographic and dosing data were collected for patients administered β-lactam antibiotics while undergoing CRRT. The target trough concentration range was 1-10× the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A total of 111 TDM samples from 76 patients (46 male) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 56.6 ± 15.9 years and weight of 89.1 ± 25.8 kg were identified. The duration of antibiotic therapy was between 2 days and 42 days. TDM identified a need for dose modification of β-lactam antibiotics in 39 (35%) instances; in 27 (24%) samples, TDM values resulted in decreasing the prescribed dose of β-lactam antibiotic whereas an increase in the prescribed dose occurred in 12 (11%) cases. In patients treated for hospital-acquired pneumonia and primary or secondary bacteraemia, the dose was required to be decreased in 10/25 (40%) and 7/46 (15%) cases, respectively, to attain target concentrations. β-Lactam TDM is a useful tool for guiding drug dosing in complex patients such as those receiving CRRT. Although over one-third of patients manifested concentrations outside the therapeutic range, most of these CRRT patients had excessive β-lactam concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. The Distributed Cognitive Components of C2 (United States)


    force behind most C2 research. Kurt Lewin states that, “There is nothing so useful as a good theory” (1951, p. 169). This link provides the... Lewin , 1951) Lewin , K. (1951). Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.). New York: Harper & Row. (Liang

  4. Chiropractic Adjustment (United States)

    ... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...

  5. Transoral vertebroplasty for a C2 aneurysmal bone cyst. (United States)

    Brage, Liberto; Roldán, Héctor; Plata-Bello, Julio; Martel, Diego; García-Marín, Víctor


    Aneurysmal bone cysts at the cervical spine represent a real challenge both diagnostically and therapeutically, especially in young patients. We present an unusual case of a C2 aneurysmal bone cyst expanding in the entire vertebral body in a girl successfully treated with a transoral vertebroplasty. This is a case report study. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with a history of cervical pain and occipital headache after a car accident. Routine x-rays disclosed a C2 lesion. Her neurologic examination was normal. Computed tomography showed a lytic lesion occupying almost the entire body of the C2 vertebra. The cortical bone was intact but notably thinned. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic image with blood inside. Transoral vertebroplasty was selected among other surgical options for the following reasons: (1) to improve the clinical symptoms, and (2) to prevent future vertebral collapse with devastating neurologic consequences. Under general anesthesia and continuous neurophysiological monitoring, we conducted a fluoroscopic-guided transoral vertebroplasty through a Jamshidi needle. A cytology sample from the cystic lesion was taken through the needle. The blood smear showed no tumoral cellularity. There were no complications during surgery or postoperative infections. After 4 years of follow-up, the patient is pain-free and leads a normal life. Transoral vertebroplasty seems to be a direct, safe, and effective technique to stabilize cystic lesions that endanger the stability of C2 and to improve symptoms. Aneurysmal bone cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of lytic lesions at the C2 vertebral body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  7. Command and Control (C2) Agility (Agilite du commandement et du controle (C2)) (United States)


    Space Mapping Guide, an Enablers of Agility Checklist , and C2 Maneuver Guidelines and Procedures. • Develop systems and decision aids that support...called spider charts. The “arms” of the chart correspond to the same dimensions as the cube model for C2 maturity: distribution of decision rights

  8. NATO NEC C2 Maturity Model (United States)


    goes beyond awareness and includes perceptions of a larger picture including cause and effect as well as temporal dynamics. See Understanding...Germany ( Saxony ) dur- ing 2002. It required an endeavour composed of local, state, and national organisations as well as a number of NGOs. 118...Conflicted C2 approach. In other words, the endeavour lacked a common picture of what had happened and what needed to be done which strongly impacted

  9. Monitoring (United States)

    ... Heart Disease and Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitoring Insulin Injection Resources Mental Health and Diabetes Healthy Holiday Eating Lifestyle Resources Improve Medication Taking Spanish Language Resources AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors ...

  10. Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: correlation of C2 haemolytic activity with immunochemical measurements of C2 protein (United States)

    Ruddy, S.; Klemperer, M. R.; Rosen, F. S.; Austen, K. F.; Kumate, J.


    Measurements of the nine components of complement in the serums of 16 members of a kindred have established the diagnosis of hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2). The autosomal recessive mode of inheritance resembles that of previously described families with C2 deficiency. Both C2 activity determinations with a stoichiometric haemolytic assay and C2 protein measurements with electroimmunodiffusion against antibody monospecific for C2 detect the heterozygous deficient state. Antigenic analysis, in vitro reconstitution experiments, and the constant ratio of C2 function to C2 protein indicate that the C2 synthesized by heterozygotes is indistinguishable from normal human C2. Studies of neonatal homozygous deficient serum and maternal heterozygous deficient serum show that transplacental passage of C2 does not occur. C2 deficiency in this family is not associated with clinical defects in host resistance. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4987909

  11. N2C2M2 Experimentation and Validation: Understanding Its C2 Approaches and Implications (United States)


    the organization and execution of the experiments, specifically, Col. Fernando Freire , LtCol. António Flambó, LtCol. José Martins, LtCol. Paulo ...of ELICIT Experimental Data. Paper presented at the 13th ICCRTS, Seattle, USA, 2008. [13.] Manso, Marco, and Paulo Nunes. ELICIT and the Future C2...detailed mapping between C2 CRM variables and ELICIT refer to: MANSO, Marco, and Paulo NUNES. ELICIT and the Future C2: Theoretical Foundations for the

  12. The Rest of the C2 Iceberg (United States)


    exercise.2 As one would expect, however, there is much, much more to the C2 story in terms of who created the plan and whether it will contribute to...rigor to the air tasking process, and significant risks may arise if its contributions —and the reasons they were introduced in the first place—are not... 28. Using three domains to approximate reality has many historical antecedents, includ- ing versions by Plato through J. F. C

  13. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  14. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Overview of C-2U FRC Experimental Program and Plans for C-2W (United States)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Yang, X.; Cappello, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; TAE Team


    Tri Alpha Energy's experimental program has been focused on a demonstration of reliable field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation and sustainment, driven by fast ions via high-power neutral-beam (NB) injection. The world's largest compact-toroid experimental devices, C-2 and C-2U, have successfully produced a well-stabilized, sustainable FRC plasma state with NB injection (input power, PNB 10 + MW; 15 keV hydrogen) and end-on coaxial plasma guns. Remarkable improvements in confinement and stability of FRC plasmas have led to further improved fast-ion build up; thereby, an advanced beam-driven FRC state has been produced and sustained for up to 5 + ms (longer than all characteristic system time scales), only limited by hardware and electric supply constraints such as NB and plasma-gun power supplies. To further improve the FRC performance the C-2U device is being replaced by C-2W featuring higher injected NB power, longer pulse duration as well as enhanced edge-biasing systems and substantially upgraded divertors. Main C-2U experimental results and key features of C-2W will be presented. Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.

  16. C-2W Magnetic Measurement Suite (United States)

    Roche, T.; Thompson, M. C.; Griswold, M.; Knapp, K.; Koop, B.; Ottaviano, A.; Tobin, M.; TAE, Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team


    Commissioning and early operations are underway on C-2W, Tri Alpha Energy's new FRC experiment. The increased complexity level of this machine requires an equally enhanced diagnostic capability. A fundamental component of any magnetically confined fusion experiment is a firm understanding of the magnetic field itself. C-2W is outfitted with over 700 magnetic field probes, 550 internal and 150 external. Innovative in-vacuum annular flux loop / B-dot combination probes will provide information about plasma shape, size, pressure, energy, total temperature, and trapped flux when coupled with establish theoretical interpretations. The massive Mirnov array, consisting of eight rings of eight 3D probes, will provide detailed information about plasma motion, stability, and MHD modal content with the aid of singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis. Internal Rogowski probes will detect the presence of axial currents flowing in the plasma jet in multiple axial locations. Initial data from this array of diagnostics will be presented along with some interpretation and discussion of the analysis techniques used.

  17. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus (United States)

    Chaplin, James E.


    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  18. Nondissociative low energy electron attachment to C2Cl4:C2Cl4- ion lifetime (United States)

    Suess, L.; Parthasarathy, R.; Dunning, F. B.


    The lifetimes of long-lived parent anions formed by nondissociative electron attachment to C2Cl4 are investigated using Rydberg atom techniques. The ions are created through electron transfer in collisions with K(np) Rydberg atoms and their lifetimes are measured using both time-of-flight techniques and a permanent magnet Penning trap designed specifically for heavy ion storage. The data show that low-energy electron attachment to C2Cl4 leads to the formation of C2Cl4- ions with a broad range of lifetimes extending from ˜3 to ˜130 μs, which is attributed to capture by molecules in different initial vibrational states.

  19. The Impact of After-School Peer Contact on Early Adolescent Externalizing Problems Is Moderated by Parental Monitoring, Perceived Neighborhood Safety, and Prior Adjustment. (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Meece, Darrell W.


    Unsupervised after-school peer contact was examined as a risk factor in developing externalizing problems among early adolescents. Longitudinal findings showed that unsupervised peer contact, lack of neighborhood safety, and low monitoring incrementally predicted grade seven externalizing problems, after controlling for family background factors…

  20. Comparison of fatigue strength of C2 pedicle screws, C2 pars screws, and a hybrid construct in C1-C2 fixation. (United States)

    Su, Brian W; Shimer, Adam L; Chinthakunta, Suresh; Salloum, Kanaan; Ames, Christopher P; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Bucklen, Brandon


    A biomechanical study comparing the fatigue strength of different types of C2 fixation in a C1-C2 construct. To determine the pullout strength of a C2 pedicle screw and C2 pars screw after cyclical testing and differentiate differences in stiffness pre- and post-cyclical loading of 3 different C1-C2 fixations. Some surgeons use a short C2 pars screw in a C1-C2 construct, because it is less technically demanding and/or when the vertebral artery is high riding. Difference in construct stiffness between use of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, bilateral C2 pars screws, or a hybrid construct is unknown. Biomechanical testing was performed on 15 specimens. A bicortical C1 lateral mass screw was used in combination with 1 of 3 methods of C2 fixation: (1) bilateral long C2 pedicle screws (LL), (2) bilateral 14-mm C2 pars screws (SS), and (3) unilateral long C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral 14-mm C2 pars screw (LS). Each construct was subject to 16,000 cycles to simulate the immediate postoperative period. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. This was followed by pullout testing. The ability to limit range of motion significantly decreased after cyclical testing in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation for all 3 groups. After loading, the LL and LS groups had less percentage of increase in motion in flexion-extension and lateral bending than the SS group. Overall, the average pullout strength of a pedicle screw was 92% stronger than a pars screw. C2 pedicle screws have twice the pullout strength of C2 pars screws after cyclical loading. In cases in which the anatomy limits placement of bilateral C2 pedicle screws, a construct using a unilateral C2 pedicle screw with a contralateral short pars screw is a viable option and compares favorably with a bilateral C2 pedicle screw construct. N/A.

  1. SROSS C-2 Detections of Gamma Ray Bursts and the SGR 1627-41

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The GRB monitor (GRBM) on board the Indian SROSS C-2 satellite has detected 53 classical gamma ray bursts since its launch in May, 1994 till its re-entry in July, 2001. For a subset of 26 events, locations were obtained from simultaneous observations by other gamma-ray detectors in space. The sky distribution of these ...

  2. Osteoblast viability on hydroxyapatite with well-adjusted submicron and micron surface roughness as monitored by the proliferation reagent WST-1. (United States)

    Holthaus, Marzellus Große; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch


    The impact of the cell surface roughness on titanium alloys used for biomedical implants has been extensively studied, whereas the dependency of human osteoblast viability on hydroxyapatite (HA) submicron and micron surface roughness has hitherto not yet been investigated in detail. Therefore, we investigate in this study the effect of HA substrates with different well-adjusted surface roughness on human osteoblast proliferation using the standard colorimetric reagent WST-1. By grinding, we obtained HA surfaces with six levels of well-defined surface roughness ranging from Sa = 3.36 µm down to 0.13 µm, resulting in hydrophilic contact angles from 11° to 27°. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence measurements confirmed that neither grinding paper residues nor changes of the crystal structure were introduced to the HA substrates by the grinding process. By applying this simple surface treatment, we were able to isolate other effects from surface chemistry, crystal structure, and relative density. The changes of the osteoblast proliferation (WST-1 assay) on these different roughened HA surfaces after 7 days were found to be insignificant (p > 0.05), evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and Tuckey's Multiple Comparison Method. The results of this study show that all roughened HA surfaces, regardless of the microtopography, are biocompatible and allow osteoblast attachment, proliferation, and collagen type I production. The comparison with surface roughness used for standard Ti-based implants yielded that for HA no finishing process is necessary to ensure a sound human osteoblast cell proliferation in vitro.

  3. First-Principles Study of Vacancies in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available MAX phase materials have attracted increased attention due to their unique combination of ceramic and metallic properties. In this study, the properties of vacancies in Ti3AlC2 and Ti3SiC2, which are two of the most widely studied MAX phases, were investigated using first-principles calculations. Our calculations indicate that the stabilities of vacancies in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 differ greatly from those previously reported for Cr2AlC. The order of the formation energies of vacancies is VTi(a > VTi(b > VC > VA for both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2. Although the diffusion barriers for Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 are similar (~0.95 eV, the properties of their vacancies are significantly different. Our results show that the vacancy–vacancy interaction is attractive in Ti3AlC2 but repulsive in Ti3SiC2. The introduction of VTi and VC vacancies results in the lattice constant c along the [0001] direction increasing for both Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2. In contrast, the lattice constant c decreases significantly when VA are introduced. The different effect of VA on the lattice constants is explained by enhanced interactions of nearby Ti layers.

  4. Analysis list: NR2C2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR2C2 Blood,Liver,Uterus + hg19,,

  5. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-2 - Public office. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public office. 1.1402(c)-2 Section 1.1402(c)-2...) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-2 Public office. (a) In general—(1) General rule... public office does not constitute a trade or business. (2) Fee basis public officials—(i) In general. If...

  6. Isotope effect in acetylene C2H2 and C2D2 rotations on Cu(001) (United States)

    Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Tikhodeev, Sergei G.; Paulsson, Magnus; Ueba, Hiromu


    A comprehensive analysis of the elementary processes behind the scanning tunneling microscope controlled rotation of C2H2 and C2D2, isotopologues of a single acetylene molecule adsorbed on the Cu(001) surface, is given, with a focus on the isotope effects. With the help of density-functional theory we calculate the vibrational modes of C2H2 and C2D2 on Cu(001) and estimate the anharmonic couplings between them, using a simple strings-on-rods model. The probability of the elementary processes, nonlinear and combination band, is estimated using the Keldysh diagram technique. This allows us to clarify the main peculiarities and the isotope effects of the C2H2 and C2D2 on Cu(001) rotation, discovered in the pioneering work [B. C. Stipe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1263 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.1263], which have not been previously understood.

  7. High pressure oxidation of C2H4/NO mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-López, J.; Alzueta, M.U.; Rasmussen, C.T.


    An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the interaction between C2H4 and NO has been performed under flow reactor conditions in the intermediate temperature range (600–900K), high pressure (60bar), and for stoichiometries ranging from reducing to oxidizing conditions. The main reaction...... pathways of the C2H4/O2/NOx conversion, the capacity of C2H4 to remove NO, and the influence of the presence of NOx on the C2H4 oxidation are analyzed. Compared to the C2H4/O2 system, the presence of NOx shifts the onset of reaction 75–150K to lower temperatures. The mechanism of sensitization involves...... is removed. This removal is partly explained by the reaction C2H3+NO→HCN+CH2O. However, a second removal mechanism is active in the 700–850K range, which is not captured by the chemical kinetic model. With the present thermochemistry and kinetics, neither formation of nitro-hydrocarbons (CH3NO2, C2H3NO2, C2H...

  8. Felix Spectroscopy of Likely Astronomical Molecular Ions: HC_3O^+, C_2H_3CNH^+, and C_2H_5CNH^+ (United States)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; McCarthy, Michael C.


    Infrared signatures of three molecular ions of relevance to the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres have been detected at the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments, FELIX, at Radboud University (Nijmegen, The Netherlands) in combination with the 4K FELion 22-pole ion trap facility. Mid-infrared vibrational modes of protonated tricarbon monoxide, HC_3O^+, protonated vinyl cyanide, C_2H_3CNH^+, and protonated ethyl cyanide, C_2H_5CNH^+, were detected using resonant photodissociation of the respective Ne-complexes by monitoring the depletion of their cluster mass signal as a function of wavenumber. The infrared fingerprints compare very favorably with results from high-level quantum-chemical calculations performed at the CCSD(T) level of theory.

  9. An Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Kinetic Isotope Effect of C2H6 and C2D6 Reaction with OH

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi


    We report experimental and theoretical results for the deuterated kinetic isotope effect (DKIE) of the reaction of OH with ethane (C2H6) and deuterated ethane (C2D6). The reactions were investigated behind reflected shock waves over 800–1350 K by monitoring OH radicals near 306.69 nm using laser absorption. In addition, high level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(T,Q)Z//MP2/cc-pVTZ quantum chemical and statistical rate theory calculations were performed which agreed very well with the experimental findings. The results reported herein provide the first experimental evidence that DKIE for alkanes asymptotes to a value of 1.4 at high temperatures.

  10. Magnetic properties of HoCoC2, HoNiC2 and their solid solutions (United States)

    Michor, H.; Steiner, S.; Schumer, A.; Hembara, M.; Levytskyy, V.; Babizhetskyy, V.; Kotur, B.


    Magnetic properties of single crystalline HoCoC2 and the evolution of magnetic and structural features in a series of polycrystalline solid solutions HoCo1-xNixC2 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1) are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. The crystal structures of all investigated samples refers to the CeNiC2-type structure (space group Amm 2 and Pearson symbol oS8). Non-isoelectronic substitution of Co by Ni causes a non-linear increase of the unit cell volume and especially a non-monotonous variation of the a and c lattice parameters as well as a pronounced reduction of the C-C bond length of carbon dimers. Temperature dependent magnetization and specific heat measurements reveal a crossover from a ferromagnetic for HoCoC2 with TC = 10.6 (1) K to an antiferromagnetic ground state for HoNiC2 with TN = 2.78 (6) K and a non-monotonous variation of the magnetic ordering temperature with a minimum at intermediate compositions. Crystalline electric field effects of HoCoC2 and HoNiC2 are analysed using combined thermodynamic and magnetic susceptibility data. The electrical resistivity of HoNiC2 displays a distinct anomaly near room temperature which indicates the formation of a charge density wave (CDW) state as earlier reported for several other rare earth nickel dicarbides.

  11. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of human synaptotagmin 1 C2A-C2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Miguel [Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States); Fuson, Kerry L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States); Sutton, R. Bryan, E-mail: [Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States); Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States); Robert, J. Justin [Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0437 (United States)


    Human synaptotagmin C2A-C2B has been expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of this protein are reported here. Synaptotagmin acts as the Ca{sup 2+} sensor for neuronal exocytosis. The cytosolic domain of human synaptotagmin 1 is composed of tandem C2 domains: C2A and C2B. These C2 domains modulate the interaction of synaptotagmin with the phospholipid bilayer of the presynaptic terminus and effector proteins such as the SNARE complex. Human synaptotagmin C2A-C2B has been expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of this protein are reported here. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.37, b = 86.31, c = 140.2 Å. From self-rotation function analysis, there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure determination of the protein using this data is ongoing.

  12. An educational program for insulin self-adjustment associated with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose significantly improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after 12 weeks: a randomized, controlled pilot study. (United States)

    Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida


    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been recommended as a useful tool for improving glycemic control, but is still an underutilized strategy and most diabetic patients are not aware of the actions that must be taken in response to its results and do not adjust their treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an educational program for insulin self-adjustment based on SMBG in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A prospective, randomized, controlled 12-week intervention study was conducted on poorly controlled insulin-requiring patients with T2DM. Twenty-three subjects were randomized to two educational programs: a 2-week basic program with guidance about SMBG and types and techniques of insulin administration (group A, n = 12) and a 6-week program including the basic one and additional instructions about self-titration of insulin doses according to a specific protocol (group B, n = 11). Patients were reviewed after 12 weeks and baseline to endpoint changes in glycated hemoglobin (A1C), insulin doses, body weight and incidence of hypoglycemia were compared by paired and independent Student t-tests. After 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in A1C only in group B, but group comparison showed no significant difference (p = 0.051). A higher percentage of subjects in group B achieved an A1C near the treatment target (self-titrating insulin doses combined with structured SMBG can safely improve glycemic control in poorly controlled insulin-treated T2DM patients. This strategy may facilitate effective insulin therapy in routine medical practice, compensating for any reluctance on the part of physicians to optimize insulin therapy and thus to improve the achievement of recommended targets of diabetes care.

  13. C2 translaminar screw as the optimal choice for atlantoaxial dislocation with C2-C3 congenital fusion. (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjin; Ni, Bin; Li, Songkai; Yang, Jian; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Zhuangchen


    The entry point and trajectory are very important for transarticular screw (TAS) and C2 pedicle screw (PDS) plantation. When the physical size is not large enough for the screw passing through, an accurate entry point is the most important point for successful screw insertion without vertebral artery (VA) injury and spinal cord injury. Once the laminas of C2 and C3 are fused, the normal anatomic mark might disappear and the insertion point would be hard to find. As a result, the complication of TAS or PDS implantation increases rapidly. We used C2 translaminar screws (TLSs) with C1 lateral mass screws as the optimal fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation in order to reduce the risk of VA injury and spinal cord injury. A 37-year-old woman with atlantoaxial dislocation due to obsolete odontoid fracture complained of neck pain and myelopathy. Preoperative CT reconstruction showed C2-C3 fusion and small size of C2 isthmus. The patient underwent posterior atlantoaxial fusion using C1 lateral mass screws and C2 TLSs. The posterior arch of atlas was removed for decompression and fusion was done at C1-C2 joints by grafting bone fragments from the posterior iliac crest. TLSs combined with C1 lateral mass screws might be a useful technique for patients with atlantoaxial dislocation and C2-C3 fusion, especially with small size of C2 isthmus. Also, the fusion of posterior elements between C2 and C3 might be a relative contraindication for TAS fixation.

  14. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes: A post hoc analysis of the effect of insulin dose adjustments on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting β-hydroxybutyrate levels in a phase IIa pilot study. (United States)

    Henry, Robert R; Dandona, Paresh; Pettus, Jeremy; Mudaliar, Sunder; Xu, John; Hansen, Lars


    To investigate the effects of total daily insulin dose (TDD) reductions on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker for diabetic ketosis/ketoacidosis [DKA]) levels, using patient-level data from a 14-day, pilot study of dapagliflozin in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). A post hoc exploratory correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between change in TDD and (1) 24-hour mean glucose, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, and (2) fasting β-hydroxybutyrate, in 70 patients with T1DM receiving insulin and dapagliflozin (1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg) or placebo. The pharmacodynamic effect of dapagliflozin was estimated as a virtual "insulin dose" using 24-hour urinary glucose excretion values and a recognized insulin-to-carbohydrate counting technique. Trends for correlations were observed between change in TDD and 24-hour glucose (day 7: r = -0.264, P = .056) and β-hydroxybutyrate (day 7: r = -0.187, P = .133; day 14: r = -0.274, P = .047). The pharmacodynamic effect of dapagliflozin 5 or 10 mg was estimated as equivalent to ~20% of baseline TDD. Higher mean and maximum β-hydroxybutyrate levels were observed on days 7 and 14 in patients with a TDD reduction >20% vs ≤20%. Over 14 days, decreasing the insulin dose diminished the glucose-lowering effect of dapagliflozin-insulin combination therapy and increased levels of β-hydroxybutyrate. While insulin dose adjustments should always be individualized, these analyses suggest that, as a general rule, TDD reduction in dapagliflozin-treated patients with T1DM should not exceed 20%, to ensure glycaemic control does not deteriorate and to mitigate the potential for an increased risk of DKA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. C2 and C3 pain dermatomes in man. (United States)

    Poletti, C E


    This report defines the C2 and C3 pain dermatomes by the distribution of: the hypalgesia clearing after surgical root decompression; the dysaesthesias produced by electrical root stimulation; and the hypalgesia produced by anaesthetic root block. The C2 pain dermatome, so defined, consists of an occipital parietal area 6-8 cm wide, ascending paramedially from the subocciput to the vertex. The C3 pain dermatome is a craniofacial area including the scalp around the ear, the pinna, the lateral cheek over the angle of the jaw, the submental region and the lateral and anterior aspects of the upper neck. These C2 and C3 pain dermatomes do not overlap and are smaller than the C2 and C3 tactile dermatomes described in the literature.

  16. Terahertz Spectroscopy of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2H2 and 12C2D2 (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, B.; Pearson, J.


    Several fundamental interstellar molecules, e.g., C2H2, CH4 and C3, are completely symmetric molecules and feature no permanent dipole moment and no pure rotation spectrum. As a result they have only previously been observed in the infrared. However, directly observing them with the rest of the molecular column especially when the source is spatially resolved would be very valuable in understanding chemical evolution. Vibrational difference bands provide a means to detect symmetric molecules with microwave precision using terahertz techniques. Herschel, SOFIA and ALMA have the potential to identify a number of vibrational difference bands of light symmetric species. This paper reports laboratory results on 12C2H2 and 12C2D2. Symmetric acetylene isotopologues have two bending modes, the trans bending and the cis bending. Their difference bands are allowed and occur in the microwave, terahertz, and far-infrared wavelengths, with band origins at 3500 GHz for 12C2H2 and 900 GHz for 12C2D2. Twenty 12C2H2 P branch high-J transitions and two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 P Q and R branch transitions have been measured in the 0.2 - 1.6 THz region with precision of 50 to 100 kHz. These lines were modeled together with prior data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2H2 and 12C2D2 with the combined data set, and new frequency and intensity predictions were made to support astrophysics applications. The research was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. S. Y. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program, administrated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA.

  17. Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age (United States)


    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Organizational Change for Improved C2 in the Information Age by Todd A. Beltz CDR USN A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Naval War...reiterated that a SJFHQ is an important step in increasing the ability to respond to… the global security environment.1 This organizational change is an

  18. Simulation Technologies for C2IS Development & Training (United States)


    reels; ces demiers sont modifies (p. ex. fausses balles) ou augmentes (p. ex. equipement laser) afin de permettre Ie realisme sans encourir les risques...Simulation technologies for C2 information system (C2IS) development & training project was known as 12kr before 2003. Briefly designated 2kq when...split off from l2kr in fiscal year 200 1-2002 to become l2kx, which later became project l5al Geospatial technologies for information decisions (GEO

  19. C2 Rising: A Historical View of Our Critical Advantage (United States)


    of six.11 In 1937 Tukhachevskii even conceptualized these C2 functions performed in the air, where a bird’s-eye view would offer maximum awareness to...terminology. • F1, orient shooters: increase shooter/sensor SA and threat warn- ing by providing SA. Battle management and ISR fusion tasks in this...this era seem to stumble upon the need for high-functioning C2 systems. Carrier war rooms, nuclear reactor control rooms, the National Military

  20. The Effect of Aerosols on Pluto's C2 Hydrocarbon Chemistry (United States)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Hue, Vincent; Kammer, Joshua; Filwett, Rachael; Hamel, Mark


    On July 14, 2015 the New Horizons spacecraft flew through the Pluto system, providing critical details about Pluto’s atmosphere. The vertical profiles of N2 and CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 derived from New Horizons Alice transmission data allow the more accurate modeling of Pluto’s atmosphere than in the pre-New Horizons era, and help better understand the physical and photochemical processes in Pluto’s atmosphere. All the measured C2 hydrocarbon densities showed an unexpected inversion between ~100 and 400 km, which suggests that processes other than chemistry play an important role in shaping their vertical profiles. We present here a state-of-the-art Pluto Ion-Neutral-Photochemistry (Pluto INP) model that includes the condensation onto and incorporation into aerosol particles, and evaluate the dominant production and loss processes of C2 hydrocarbons with a special emphasis on the role of aerosol interaction. We found that in order to reproduce the C2 profiles measured by New Horizons, they must stick to and be permanently removed by aerosols - a process different from condensation. We determined through empirical fits to the New Horizons data that the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons and the stickiness of the aerosol particles are inversely related to the available aerosol surface area, which has been inferred from observation to increase as altitude decreases. This counterintuitive relationship between sticking efficiency and available aerosol surfaces indicates that similarly to Titan, Pluto’s aerosols must harden and become less sticky as they age. Such hardening with ageing is both necessary and sufficient to explain the vertical profiles of C2 hydrocarbons in Pluto’s atmosphere.

  1. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism.


    Bellasio, C.


    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-depende...

  2. Two distinct RNase activities of CRISPR-C2c2 enable guide-RNA processing and RNA detection. (United States)

    East-Seletsky, Alexandra; O'Connell, Mitchell R; Knight, Spencer C; Burstein, David; Cate, Jamie H D; Tjian, Robert; Doudna, Jennifer A


    Bacterial adaptive immune systems use CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided nucleic acid cleavage. Although most prokaryotic adaptive immune systems generally target DNA substrates, type III and VI CRISPR systems direct interference complexes against single-stranded RNA substrates. In type VI systems, the single-subunit C2c2 protein functions as an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease (RNase). How this enzyme acquires mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are essential for immune surveillance and how it carries out crRNA-mediated RNA cleavage remain unclear. Here we show that bacterial C2c2 possesses a unique RNase activity responsible for CRISPR RNA maturation that is distinct from its RNA-activated single-stranded RNA degradation activity. These dual RNase functions are chemically and mechanistically different from each other and from the crRNA-processing behaviour of the evolutionarily unrelated CRISPR enzyme Cpf1 (ref. 11). The two RNase activities of C2c2 enable multiplexed processing and loading of guide RNAs that in turn allow sensitive detection of cellular transcripts.

  3. A generalized stoichiometric model of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 photosynthetic metabolism. (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra


    The goal of suppressing photorespiration in crops to maximize assimilation and yield is stimulating considerable interest among researchers looking to bioengineer carbon-concentrating mechanisms into C3 plants. However, detailed quantification of the biochemical activities in the bundle sheath is lacking. This work presents a general stoichiometric model for C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 assimilation (SMA) in which energetics, metabolite traffic, and the different decarboxylating enzymes (NAD-dependent malic enzyme, NADP-dependent malic enzyme, or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) are explicitly included. The SMA can be used to refine experimental data analysis or formulate hypothetical scenarios, and is coded in a freely available Microsoft Excel workbook. The theoretical underpinnings and general model behaviour are analysed with a range of simulations, including (i) an analysis of C3, C2, C2+C4, and C4 in operational conditions; (ii) manipulating photorespiration in a C3 plant; (iii) progressively upregulating a C2 shuttle in C3 photosynthesis; (iv) progressively upregulating a C4 cycle in C2 photosynthesis; and (v) manipulating processes that are hypothesized to respond to transient environmental inputs. Results quantify the functional trade-offs, such as the electron transport needed to meet ATP/NADPH demand, as well as metabolite traffic, inherent to different subtypes. The SMA refines our understanding of the stoichiometry of photosynthesis, which is of paramount importance for basic and applied research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. The upgrade of the Thomson scattering system for measurement on the C-2/C-2U devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, K.; Schindler, T.; Kinley, J.; Deng, B.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    The C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system has been substantially upgraded during the latter phase of C-2/C-2U program. A Rayleigh channel has been added to each of the three polychromators of the C-2/C-2U Thomson scattering system. Onsite spectral calibration has been applied to avoid the issue of different channel responses at different spots on the photomultiplier tube surface. With the added Rayleigh channel, the absolute intensity response of the system is calibrated with Rayleigh scattering in argon gas from 0.1 to 4 Torr, where the Rayleigh scattering signal is comparable to the Thomson scattering signal at electron densities from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. A new signal processing algorithm, using a maximum likelihood method and including detailed analysis of different noise contributions within the system, has been developed to obtain electron temperature and density profiles. The system setup, spectral and intensity calibration procedure and its outcome, data analysis, and the results of electron temperature/density profile measurements will be presented.

  5. L-carnitine protects C2C12 cells against mitochondrial superoxide overproduction and cell death (United States)

    Le Borgne, Françoise; Ravaut, Gaétan; Bernard, Arnaud; Demarquoy, Jean


    AIM To identify and characterize the protective effect that L-carnitine exerted against an oxidative stress in C2C12 cells. METHODS Myoblastic C2C12 cells were treated with menadione, a vitamin K analog that engenders oxidative stress, and the protective effect of L-carnitine (a nutrient involved in fatty acid metabolism and the control of the oxidative process), was assessed by monitoring various parameters related to the oxidative stress, autophagy and cell death. RESULTS Associated with its physiological function, a muscle cell metabolism is highly dependent on oxygen and may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially under pathological conditions. High levels of ROS are known to induce injuries in cell structure as they interact at many levels in cell function. In C2C12 cells, a treatment with menadione induced a loss of transmembrane mitochondrial potential, an increase in mitochondrial production of ROS; it also induces autophagy and was able to provoke cell death. Pre-treatment of the cells with L-carnitine reduced ROS production, diminished autophagy and protected C2C12 cells against menadione-induced deleterious effects. CONCLUSION In conclusion, L-carnitine limits the oxidative stress in these cells and prevents cell death. PMID:28289521

  6. Annual Adjustment Factors (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  7. Curriculum for EPS Hockey E2-C2-juniors


    Heinonen, Aleksi


    Coaching in hockey has changed in direction from coach-centered coaching to player-centered coaching. Nowadays it is more holistic; it is not just coaching tactics and trying to win games at all costs. The way of thinking has changed; instead of the former “what does a team need” way of thinking, nowadays it is more important to ask, “What does an individual need?” This thesis has been written for EPS Hockey E2-C2 juniors and E2-C2 coaches. The Executive Manager of EPS Hockey requested...

  8. Direct measurements of rate constants for the reactions of CH3 radicals with C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2 at high temperatures. (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Labbe, N J; Sivaramakrishnan, R; Michael, J V


    The shock tube technique has been used to study the reactions CH3 + C2H6 → C2H4 + CH4 + H (1), CH3 + C2H4 → Products + H (2), and CH3 + C2H2 → Products + H (3). Biacetyl, (CH3CO)2, was used as a clean high temperature thermal source for CH3-radicals for all the three reactions studied in this work. For reaction 1, the experiments span a T-range of 1153 K ≤ T ≤ 1297 K, at P ~ 0.4 bar. The experiments on reaction 2 cover a T-range of 1176 K ≤ T ≤ 1366 K, at P ~ 1.0 bar, and those on reaction 3 a T-range of 1127 K ≤ T ≤ 1346 K, at P ~ 1.0 bar. Reflected shock tube experiments performed on reactions 1-3, monitored the formation of H-atoms with H-atom Atomic Resonance Absorption Spectrometric (ARAS). Fits to the H-atom temporal profiles using an assembled kinetics model were used to make determinations for k1, k2, and k3. In the case of C2H6, the measurements of [H]-atoms were used to derive direct high-temperature rate constants, k1, that can be represented by the Arrhenius equation k1(T) = 5.41 × 10(-12) exp(-6043 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1153 K ≤ T ≤ 1297 K) for the only bimolecular process that occurs, H-atom abstraction. TST calculations based on ab initio properties calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS//M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory show excellent agreement, within ±20%, of the measured rate constants. For the reaction of CH3 with C2H4, the present rate constant results, k2', refer to the sum of rate constants, k(2b) + k(2c), from two competing processes, addition-elimination, and the direct abstraction CH3 + C2H4 → C3H6 + H (2b) and CH3 + C2H4 → C2H2 + H + CH4 (2c). Experimental rate constants for k2' can be represented by the Arrhenius equation k2'(T) = 2.18 × 10(-10) exp(-11830 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1176 K ≤ T ≤ 1366 K). The present results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The present study provides the only direct measurement for the high-temperature rate constants for these channels

  9. Far infrared laser interferometry and polarimetry diagnostics for C-2W FRC experiment (United States)

    Deng, Bihe; Rouillard, Mark; Feng, Ping; Beall, Michael; Settles, Greg; Snitchler, Greg; Ziaei, Shawn; TAE Team


    C-2W field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments are focused to resolve major physics issues facing the future of FRC devices. To achieve these goals, it is essential to measure the plasma equilibrium dynamics and monitor plasma fluctuations. One of the critical diagnostics under development is a 14-chord three-wave far infrared (FIR) laser interferometry and polarimetry system, which can provide simultaneous high temporal resolution measurements of density and Faraday rotation profiles with high accuracy. It is based on the previous successful experience of FIR polarimetry and interferometry measurements in C-2U FRC plasmas. The physics considerations and the electro-opto-mechanical design and development of the system will be described, with discussions on challenges and solutions specific to diagnosing the high beta FRC plasmas. Initial experimental data will also be presented.

  10. Does Δm = ΔErest/c2? (United States)

    Redzic, Dragan V.


    We point out a logical possibility, based on special relativity, that the validity of Einstein's 1905 generalization, Δm = ΔErest/c2, might depend on how the energy of a body is defined in special relativity. The analysis is another illustration of the importance of Ockham's razor in special relativity.

  11. Chemical fractionations in meteorites. XI - C2 chondrites (United States)

    Wolf, R.; Richter, G. R.; Woodrow, A. B.; Anders, E.


    Measurements of the compositions of 20 trace elements in the representative C2 chondrites Boriskino, Cold Bokkeveld, Erakot, Essebi, Haripura, Santa Cruz and Al Rais are reported. The contents of Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Cs, Ge, In, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Sn, Te, Tl, U, and Zn were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. The siderophile abundances of the C2 chondrites are found to be less uniform than those of other carbonaceous chondrites, while the C2R chondrite Al Rais is systematically lower in 12 volatiles than the C2M chondrites. Enrichment of Bi and Tl found in Erakot and Haripura indicate the possible presence of the late condensate mysterite. Volatile abundances are shown to agree with matrix contents for meteorites that have suffered little aqueous alteration, however to be 20-30% lower for the more altered meteorites. Finally, the decline of element abundance with volatility is shown to be consistent with the sigmoid curve explained by the two-component model.

  12. Heat tolerance of dairy lactococcal c2 phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Basheer, Aideh; Neve, H.


    Nine Lactococcus lactis c2 phages propagated on different hosts were screened for thermal resistance in skimmed milk. Pronounced variations in thermal resistance were found. Three phages displayed high sensitivity towards heat resulting in >8 log reductions after 70 °C for 5 min, whereas the most...

  13. Invariant Nonrecurrent Fatou Components of Automorphisms of $C^2$


    Jupiter, Daniel; Lilov, Krastio


    We examine invariant nonrecurrent Fatou components of automorphisms of $\\mathbb{C}^2$ in the case where all limit maps are constant. We show that except in special cases there cannot be more than one such limit map. We also briefly examine such Fatou components where the limit maps may be nonconstant. Lastly we present a few examples of such Fatou components.

  14. Tunable C2N Membrane for High Efficient Water Desalination (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Li, Weifeng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen


    Water scarcity represents one of the most serious global problems of our time and challenges the advancements in desalination techniques. Although water-filtering architectures based on graphene have greatly advanced the approach to high performance desalination membranes, the controlled-generation of nanopores with particular diameter is tricky and has stunted its wide applications. Here, through molecular dynamic simulations and first-principles calculations, we propose that the recently reported graphene-like carbon nitride (g-C2N) monolayer can serve as high efficient filters for water desalination. Taking the advantages of the intrisic nanoporous structure and excellent mechanical properties of g-C2N, high water transparency and strong salt filtering capability have been demonstrated in our simulations. More importantly, the “open” and “closed” states of the g-C2N filter can be precisely regulated by tensile strain. It is found that the water permeability of g-C2N is significantly higher than that reported for graphene filters by almost one order of magnitude. In the light of the abundant family of graphene-like carbon nitride monolayered materials, our results thus offer a promising approach to the design of high efficient filteration architectures. PMID:27384666

  15. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-2 - Rules of administration. (United States)


    ....663(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX..., that a separate economic interest exists. (b) Computation of distributable net income for each separate share—(1) General rule. The amount of distributable net income for any share under section 663(c) is...

  16. Two Distinct RNase Activities of CRISPR-C2c2 Enable Guide RNA Processing and RNA Detection


    East-Seletsky, Alexandra; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Knight, Spencer C.; Burstein, David; Cate, Jamie H. D.; Tjian, Robert; Doudna, Jennifer A.


    Bacterial adaptive immune systems employ CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided nucleic acid cleavage1,2. Although generally targeted to DNA substrates3–5, the Type III and Type VI CRISPR systems direct interference complexes against single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) substrates6–9. In Type VI systems, the single-subunit C2c2 protein functions as an RNA-guided RNA endonuclease9,10. How this enzyme a...

  17. The Rate Constant for the Reaction H + C2H5 at T = 295 - 150K (United States)

    Pimentel, Andre S.; Payne, Walter A.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Cody, Regina J.; Stief, Louis J.


    The reaction between the hydrogen atom and the ethyl (C2H3) radical is predicted by photochemical modeling to be the most important loss process for C2H5 radicals in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. This reaction is also one of the major sources for the methyl radicals in these atmospheres. These two simplest hydrocarbon radicals are the initial species for the synthesis of larger hydrocarbons. Previous measurements of the rate constant for the H + C2H5 reaction varied by a factor of five at room temperature, and some studies showed a dependence upon temperature while others showed no such dependence. In addition, the previous studies were at higher temperatures and generally higher pressures than that needed for use in planetary atmospheric models. The rate constant for the reaction H + C2H5 has been measured directly at T = 150, 202 and 295 K and at P = 1.0 Torr He for all temperatures and additionally at P = 0.5 and 2.0 Torr He at T = 202 K. The measurements were performed in a discharge - fast flow system. The decay of the C2H5 radical in the presence of excess hydrogen was monitored by low-energy electron impact mass spectrometry under pseudo-first order conditions. H atoms and C2H5 radicals were generated rapidly and simultaneously by the reaction of fluorine atoms with H2 and C2H6, respectively. The total rate constant was found to be temperature and pressure independent. The measured total rate constant at each temperature are: k(sub 1)(295K) = (1.02+/-0.24)x10(exp -10), k(sub 1)(202K) = (1.02+/-0.22)x10(exp -10) and k(sub 1)(150K) = (0.93+/-0.21)x10(exp -10), all in units of cu cm/molecule/s. The total rate constant derived from all the combined measurements is k(sub 1) = (l.03+/-0.17)x10(exp -10) cu cm/molecule/s. At room temperature our results are about a factor of two higher than the recommended rate constant and a factor of three lower than the most recently published study.

  18. Discovery and Classification of DES15C2kyh (United States)

    Graham, M. L.; Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.


    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15C2kyh discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (340-1025nm) was obtained using LRIS on Keck-I. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  19. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery (United States)

    Nihalani, B R; Hunter, D G


    Surgical management of strabismus remains a challenge because surgical success rates, short-term and long-term, are not ideal. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery has been available for decades as a tool to potentially enhance the surgical outcomes. Intellectually, it seems logical that having a second chance to improve the outcome of a strabismus procedure should increase the overall success rate and reduce the reoperation rate. Yet, adjustable suture surgery has not gained universal acceptance, partly because Level 1 evidence of its advantages is lacking, and partly because the learning curve for accurate decision making during suture adjustment may span a decade or more. In this review we describe the indications, techniques, and published results of adjustable suture surgery. We will discuss the option of ‘no adjustment' in cases with satisfactory alignment with emphasis on recent advances allowing for delayed adjustment. The use of adjustable sutures in special circumstances will also be reviewed. Consistently improved outcomes in the adjustable arm of nearly all retrospective studies support the advantage of the adjustable option, and strabismus surgeons are advised to become facile in the application of this approach. PMID:21760626

  20. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Huang


    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  1. Functional mapping of factor VIII C2 domain. (United States)

    Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Chen, Shu-wen W; Saboulard, Didier; Delcourt, Marc; Négrier, Claude; Plantier, Jean-Luc


    The factor VIII (FVIII) is a cofactor of the coagulation cascade. The FVIII C2 domain is a critical domain that participates in the interactions with the von Willebrand factor and the phospholipidic surfaces. To assess the importance of each residue of this domain in the maintenance of the structure and the function of FVIII, a number (n=139) of mutants were generated by substituting the original residues, from Ser2173 to Gly2325, by an alanine. Mutants were built within a complete B domain-deleted FVIII and expressed in COS-1 cells. Mutant antigen levels and procoagulant activities were measured. Two in silico analyses, a sliding average procedure and an analysis of the mutation energy cost were conducted in parallel on the FVIII structure. Both results were in agreement with the functional data, and illustrated the benefit of using such strategies prior to targeting specific residues in the aim of generating active recombinant molecules. The functional assays identify the residues that are important to maintaining the structure of the C2 domain, mainly those forming β-sheet, and those that can afford substitution, establishing a detailed functional relation with the available crystallographic data. This study provided a comprehensive functional mapping of the FVIII C2 domain and discussed the implication of specific residues in respect to the maintenance in the activity and structure stability, the efficiency in secretion, the binding to phospholipids and the formation of epitope.

  2. Electronically Excited C2 from Laser Photodissociated C60 (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Scott, Carl D.; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.


    Spectral and transient emission measurements are made of radiation from products of laser excitation of buckminsterfullerene (C60) vapor diluted in argon at 973 K. The principal radiation is from the Swan band system of C2 and, at early times, also from a black body continuum. The C2 radiation is observed only when C60 is excited by green (532 nm) and not with IR (1064 nm) laser radiation at energy densities of about 1.5 J/square cm. Transient measurements indicate that there are two characteristic periods of decay of radiation. The first period, lasting about 2 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 0.3 micro seconds. The second period, lasting at least 50 micro seconds, has a characteristic decay time of about 5 micro seconds. These characteristic times are thought to be associated with cooling of C60 molecules or nanosized carbon particles during the early period; and with electronically excited C2 that is a decomposition product of laser excited C60, C58, ... molecules during the later period.

  3. Physiological effects of the TASER C2 conducted energy weapon. (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Seaman, Ronald L; Klages, Curtis M


    In previous studies, exposure to conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (such as TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in leg muscle contraction, acidosis, increased blood electrolytes, and other biochemical and physiological changes. In the current study, experiments were performed to examine the effects of exposures to TASER International's "C2" CEW, which is specifically marketed to civilian rather than law-enforcement users. Ten pigs (Sus scrofa) were sedated with an intramuscular injection of Telezol (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) and intubated. General anesthesia was maintained with an IV propofol infusion. Applications of the C2 device for 30 s resulted in extensive muscle contraction and significant increases in heart rate and hematocrit, and in blood levels of pCO2, lactate, glucose, and potassium, sodium, and calcium ions. Significant decreases were observed in blood oxygen saturation, pO2, and pH. Qualitatively, many of these changes were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. The changes in blood pCO2, pO2, electrolytes, lactate, and pH, however, were greater than in a previous study of three repeated 5-s exposures to the X26 CEW commonly used by law-enforcement personnel. On the basis of the results, potential detrimental effects due to use of the "citizen-version" TASER C2 CEW may be more likely than limited intermittent applications of the X26 CEW.

  4. The rate of the reaction between C2H and C2H2 at interstellar temperatures (United States)

    Herbst, E.; Woon, D. E.


    The reaction between the radical C2H and the stable hydrocarbon C2H2 is one of the simplest neutral-neutral hydrocarbon reactions in chemical models of dense interstellar clouds and carbon-rich circumstellar shells. Although known to be rapid at temperatures > or = 300 K, the reaction has yet to be studied at lower temperatures. We present here ab initio calculations of the potential surface for this reaction and dynamical calculations to determine its rate at low temperature. Despite a small potential barrier in the exit channel, the calculated rate is large, showing that this reaction and, most probably, more complex analogs contribute to the formation of complex organic molecules in low-temperature sources.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  6. University students' adjustment problems. (United States)

    Cherian, V I; Cherian, L


    Considerable information is available on the adjustment problems of first-year university students in developed countries, but comparatively little is known about such problems in Asia and Africa. This study of a representative sample of 1257 first-year students conducted at the University of the North showed that 33 to 85% of the first-year students experienced various adjustment problems.

  7. Theoretical study on the rate constants for the C2H5 + HBr --> C2H6 + Br reaction. (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Li, Ze-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Yao; Xiao, Jing-Fa; Sun, Chia-Chung


    The reaction C(2)H(5) + HBr --> C(2)H(6) + Br has been theoretically studied over the temperature range from 200 to 1400 K. The electronic structure information is calculated at the BHLYP/6-311+G(d,p) and QCISD/6-31+G(d) levels. With the aid of intrinsic reaction coordinate theory, the minimum energy paths (MEPs) are obtained at the both levels, and the energies along the MEP are further refined by performing the single-point calculations at the PMP4(SDTQ)/6-311+G(3df,2p)//BHLYP and QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,2pd)//QCISD levels. The calculated ICVT/SCT rate constants are in good agreement with available experimental values, and the calculate results further indicate that the C(2)H(5) + HBr reaction has negative temperature dependence at T 850 K. The current work predicts that the kinetic isotope effect for the title reaction is inverse in the temperature range from 200 to 482 K, i.e., k(HBr)/k(DBr) < 1. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    iИ1 ИfЕ122Y 128Ж; Е122Y 156Ж; Е150Y 184Ж; Е178Y 184Ж;. Е206Y 156Ж; Е206Y 128Ж; Е178Y 100Ж; Е150Y 100Ж;. Е122Y 72Ж; Е122Y 44Ж; Е150Y 16Ж; Е178Y 16Ж;. Е206Y 44Ж; Е206Y 72ЖgY we obtain the C2-rational cubic spline interpolant. Thus for different values of the tension parameters r and t, ...

  9. C2-domain containing calcium sensors in neuroendocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Houy, Sébastien; Sørensen, Jakob B


    to calcium, trigger the merger of cargo-filled vesicles with the plasma membrane. Low-affinity, fast-kinetics calcium sensors of the synaptotagmin family - especially synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-2 - are the main calcium sensors for fast exocytosis triggering in many cell types. Their functions extend...... the properties and possible interplay of (some of) the major C2-domain containing calcium sensors in calcium-triggered exocytosis. This article is part of a mini review series: "Synaptic Function and Dysfunction in Brain Diseases"....

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethynyl Radical, C2H (United States)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor


    The ethynyl radical, C_2H, is a reactive intermediate important in various combustion processes and also widely observed in the interstellar medium. In spite of extensive previous spectroscopic studies, the characterization of the near infrared transitions from the tilde{X}2Σ+ state to the mixed vibrational overtone and tilde{A}2Π states is incomplete. A strong band of C_2H at 7064 cm-1 was first observed in a neon matrix and assigned as the tilde{A}2Π(002)1 - tilde{X}2Σ+ transition by Forney et al. Subsequent theoretical work of Tarroni and Carter attributed the strong absorptions in this region to transitions terminating in two upper states, each a mixture of vibrationally excited tilde{X} states and different zero-order tilde{A}-state bending levels: a 2Σ+ symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,20,3) and tilde{A}(0,3,0)0κ and a 2Π symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,31,3) and tilde{A}(0,0,2)1. Transitions to them from the zero point level of the tilde{X} state are calculated to differ in energy by less than 10 cm-1 and to be within a factor of two in intensity. Diode laser transient absorption was used to record Doppler-limited spectra between 7020 and 7130 cm-1, using 193 nm photolysis of CF_3C_2H as a source of C_2H. Two interleaved, rotationally resolved bands were observed, consistent with a 2Σ - 2Σ transition at 7088 cm-1 and a 2Π - 2Σ transition at 7108 cm-1, in good accord with the Tarroni and Carter calculation. Progress on the assignment and fitting of the spectra will be reported. Acknowledgements: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. D. Forney, M.E. Jacox, and W.E. Thompson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 178 (1995). R. Tarroni and S. Carter, Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)

  11. Cellular uptake of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin requires oligomerization and acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, H; Blocker, D; Behlke, J; Bergsma-Schutter, W; Brisson, A; Benz, R; Aktories, K


    The actin-ADP-ribosylating binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of two individual proteins, the binding/translocation component C2II and the enzyme component C2I. To elicit its cytotoxic action, C2II binds to a receptor on the cell surface and mediates cell entry of C2I via

  12. [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]4.SnPh2C2O4.C2O4(SnPh32 and [(i-Bu2NH2 2C2O4]3.SnBu2C2O4: SYNTHESIS, INFRARED AND MOSSBAUER STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]4.SnPh2C2O4.C2O4(SnPh32 and [(i-Bu2NH22C2O4]3. SnBu2C2O4 have been synthesized and characterized by infrared and Mossbauer spectroscopies. The suggested structure are discrete (one being a two metallic components, the environments around the tin(IV centres being octahedral and pentagonal bipyramidal, the oxalate anions being monodentate, the cations linking through N-H….O hydrogen bonds the free oxygen atoms of the oxalate. The second metallic component of one of the structures is cis coordinated C2O4(SnPh32.

  13. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team


    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  14. Characterization of the C-2W Plasma Guns (United States)

    Dubois, Ami; Sokolov, Vladimir; Korepanov, Sergey; Osin, Dima; Player, Gabriel; TAE Team


    Previous use of coaxial arc discharge plasma guns on the C-2U device exhibited great success in plasma stabilization and improved confinement. On the C-2W experiment, arc discharge plasma guns will again be used to facilitate the electrical connection between the plasma core and the divertor electrodes in order to maintain the electrode edge biasing and induce E x B shear to control plasma rotation. Each plasma gun contains an internal solenoid used to shape the plasma stream. Characterization of electron density (ne) , electron temperature (Te) , floating potential (Vf) , and total plasma flux in an arc discharge lasting 6 ms without the internal solenoid are presented. A Langmuir probe located 27 cm axially outside of the plasma gun anode measures a bell-like radial ne profile with peak ne 1018 m-3 and Te 2 - 10 eV. Observed spectral lines of impurity ions provide an estimate of Te, and Balmer series line ratios of the main ion component are used to evaluate ne at both the probe location and near the plasma gun anode. A calorimeter measures the plasma flux to be constant and equivalent to 1 kA.

  15. First fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) measurements and simulations on C-2U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolte, N. G., E-mail:; Gupta, D.; Onofri, M.; Dettrick, S.; Granstedt, E. M.; Petrov, P. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Stagner, L. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    The first measurements of fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) radiation have been acquired on C-2U, Tri Alpha Energy’s advanced, beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC). These measurements are also forward modeled by FIDASIM. This is the first measurement and simulation of FIDA carried out on an FRC topology. FIDA measurements are made of Doppler-shifted Balmer-alpha light from neutralized fast ions using a bandpass filter and photomultiplier tube. One adjustable line-of-sight measured signals at eight locations and eight times during the FRC lifetime over 26 discharges. Filtered signals include only the highest energy ions (>6 keV) and share some salient features with the FIDASIM result. Highly Doppler-shifted beam radiation is also measured with a high-speed camera and is spatially well-correlated with FIDASIM.

  16. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration. (United States)

    Schmitz, L; Ruskov, E; Deng, B H; Gota, H; Gupta, D; Tuszewski, M; Douglass, J; Peebles, W A; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T


    A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range kρs ≤ 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ≤ f ≤ 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3-5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10(13) ≤ ne ≤ 1 × 10(14) cm(-3), and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

  17. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, L., E-mail:; Peebles, W. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ruskov, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Tuszewski, M.; Douglass, J.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    A versatile heterodyne Doppler Backscattering (DBS) system is used to measure density fluctuation levels (in the wavenumber range kρ{sub s} ≤ 50), and the toroidal E × B flow velocity in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). Six tunable frequencies in three waveguide bands (26 GHz ≤ f ≤ 90 GHz) are launched using monostatic beam optics, via a quasi-optical beam combiner/polarizer and an adjustable parabolic focusing mirror (inside the vacuum enclosure) achieving Gaussian beam spot sizes of 3–5.5 cm at the X/O-mode cutoff. The DBS system covers plasma densities of 0.8 × 10{sup 13} ≤ n{sub e} ≤ 1 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, and provides access to the FRC core (up to the field null) and across the FRC separatrix into the scrape-off layer plasma.

  18. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu


    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  19. Detection of NO sub x,C2H4 concentrations by using CO and CO2 lasers (United States)

    Gengchen, W.; Qinxin, K.


    A laser, especially the infrared line tunable laser, opens up a new way to monitor the atmospheric environment, and already has gotten effective practical application. One of the most serious problems in open path remote measurement at atmospheric pressure is the broadening effect which leads to increased linewidths, spectral interferences, and, as a result, tends to reduce detection sensitivity, so measuring laser wavelengths should be selected carefully, and interaction between the measuring wavelength and gas to be measured must be known very well. Therefore, N2O, No, NO2, CH4, NH3 and C2H4 absorption properties at some lines of CO and CO2 line tunable lasers were studied. The absorption coefficients of NO, NO2, and C2H4; some results on detection of NO sub x, C2H4 concentrations in both laboratory and field; and selection of measuring wavelengths and error analysis are discussed.

  20. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.


    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  1. Weighted triangulation adjustment (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.


    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  2. Cyclosporine C2 levels have impact on incidence of rejection in de novo lung but not heart transplant recipients: the NOCTURNE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin; Nilsson, Folke; Sipponen, Jorma


    BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CsA) absorption varies early after transplantation and can be accurately assessed by the area under the absorption curve (AUC). The 2-hour post-dose (C2) level of CsA in whole blood is reported to be a useful surrogate marker of CsA AUC in kidney and liver transplant...... monitoring, but should be further explored in thoracic organ recipients. METHODS: In a 12-month study we included de novo lung (n = 95) and heart (n = 96) recipients. All participants received cyclosporine (Sandimmun Neoral) monitored by C0 and blood was collected for analysis of C2 retrospectively....... Abbreviated AUC (AUC(0-4)) was measured at 7 days and 3 months. Primary outcome was C2 relation to the frequency of acute cellular rejection (ACR) needing treatment and possible decline in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). Recipients were divided into lower, middle and upper third C2 groups based...

  3. The role of C2-C7 and O-C2 angle in the development of dysphagia after cervical spine surgery. (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Yu, Jie


    Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed that dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyngeal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between cervical lordosis and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery (AC and PC). Three hundred fifty-four patients were reviewed in this retrospective clinical study, including 172 patients who underwent the AC procedure and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were measured. Changes in the O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle = postoperative O-C2 angle - preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle = postoperative C2-C7 angle - preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. Results showed that 12.8 % of AC and 9.4 % of PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When the dC2-C7 angle is greater than 5°, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, gender, BMI, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. No relationship was found between the dC2-C7 angle and the degree of

  4. The Effects of Strategic Communication Principles on C2 Agility, Complexity/Uncertainty, and C2 Maturity (United States)


    research into perceptions and attitudes of groups; content analysis of information products ( books , 7 magazines, stories, editorials, and etc...and TV, but just leaflets, in a country with widespread illiteracy . Therefore, UNOSOM HQ’s responsibility to detect, monitor, and assess the target

  5. Finding the RITE Acquisition Environment for Navy C2 Software (United States)


    information. Information provides a source of power but can also be an incapacitating weakness if not protected. Mastering the information domain is...As the lead systems engineer for the DoD Application Storefront, he is responsible for monitoring the design and development of product architecture ...Information provides a source of power but can also be an incapacitating weakness if not protected. Mastering the information domain is critical to

  6. C-2-C market relations and word of mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Most market research focuses on business-to-business and business- to-consumer interactions to explain the structure and dynamics of the market. Meanwhile, negligible effort has been invested in researching consumer-to-consumer interaction and its impact on companies’ behaviour and purchase decision-making, which determines business performance. The greatest challenge for marketers at the beginning of the 21st century is this third relationship dimension, consumer-to-consumer interaction: how consumers influence each other’s attitudes, expectations, perceptions, preferences, satisfaction, loyalty, and purchasing decisions, and, importantly, the possibility of incorporating consumers into businesses’ marketing programmes. Despite the existence of a multitude of media and different forms of communication between businesses and the market, such as newspapers, periodicals, billboards, television etc., a considerable portion of information is communicated to consumers informally, mostly in the form of word-of-mouth. The information received by consumers through this communication form - from family and similar individuals -is very often accepted as more reliable and certain than information transmitted through formal communication channels. What is often neglected when studying the phenomenon of word-of-mouth communication is the fact that its efficiency and effect also depend on the type and character of the interaction between the consumers themselves. This paper aims to investigate the extent to which the nature of customer to-customer (C2C interaction influences the effect of word-of-mouth communication.

  7. Adjustment of International Students. (United States)

    Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.; And Others


    International students (N=747) completed a questionnaire to obtain information about their adjustment so that special services could be developed for them. Homesickness was their greatest area of concern, as well as housing, social relationships, the English language, and finances. (RC)

  8. Adjustment to Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solinge, H.; Krauss Withbourne, S.


    Retirement is an important life course event that marks the start of a new life stage in which work is no longer dominant. Thus, employees have to adjust to the significant life changes that accompany the transition and seek to achieve psychological comfort with their retirement life. This entry

  9. Rural to Urban Adjustment (United States)

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  10. Psychosocial adjustment following ostomy. (United States)

    Follick, M J; Smith, T W; Turk, D C


    Ostomy patients have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment difficulties. The present study, based on the biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1977) of chronic illness, examined a range of post-surgical adjustment difficulties in a sample of 131 ostomy patients. The patient population reported experiencing a significant number of technical, emotional, social, marital/family, and sexual difficulties post-surgically. Technical difficulties were associated with impaired emotional, social, and marital/family functioning. Emotional difficulties were also associated with problematic social, marital/family adjustment, and impaired sexual functioning. Technical problems, emotional difficulties, and social problems were all associated with the patient's perception of having received inadequate preparatory information. Marital/family and sexual maladjustment, on the other hand, were associated with low levels of perceived social support. The results of this investigation are interpreted as supporting the biopsychosocial model of chronic illness, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed as well as their relation to previous research on adjustment to stressful medical procedures.

  11. Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures


    Shaik, Saleem


    Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.

  12. Incisor adjustment in rabbits. (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi


    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  13. Production of mono- and polyclonal antibodies to Citrus leprosis virus C2 and their application in triple antibody sandwich ELISA and immunocapture RT-PCR diagnostic assays. (United States)

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Leon, M G; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H


    The newly discovered Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2) is one of the causal virus of citrus leprosis disease complex; which leads to substantial loss of citrus production in the states of Meta and Casanare of Colombia. Specific and sensitive detection methods are needed to monitor the dissemination of CiLV-C2 in Colombia, and to prevent introduction of CiLV-C2 to other citrus growing countries. Toward this end, putative coat protein gene (CPG) of CiLV-C2 was amplified from CiLV-C2 infected citrus tissues. The CPG was cloned, expressed and purified a recombinant coat protein of ∼31kDa which used to generate monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Four monoclonal antibodies and two polyclonal antisera were selected as being specific following Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody MAb E5 and polyclonal antiserum PAb UF715 were selected testing with an extract of CiLV-C2 infected leaves using triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). In addition, an immunocapture RT-PCR was standardized using MAb E5 for specific and sensitive detection of CiLV-C2. The standardized TAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR were able to detect CiLV-C2 in the extracts of symptomatic citrus leprosis tissues up to the dilutions of 1:160 and 1:2580, respectively. Result demonstrated that CiLV-C2 is present in citrus orchards in Meta and Casanare citrus growing areas of Colombia. TAS-ELISA could be used for routine detection of CiLV-C2, epidemiological studies, and for border inspections for quarantine purposes. IC-RT-PCR could be valuable for CiLV-C2 validation and viral genome analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Command Center Training Tool (C2T2) (United States)

    Jones, Phillip; Drucker, Nich; Mathews, Reejo; Stanton, Laura; Merkle, Ed


    This abstract presents the training approach taken to create a management-centered, experiential learning solution for the Virginia Port Authority's Port Command Center. The resultant tool, called the Command Center Training Tool (C2T2), follows a holistic approach integrated across the training management cycle and within a single environment. The approach allows a single training manager to progress from training design through execution and AAR. The approach starts with modeling the training organization, identifying the organizational elements and their individual and collective performance requirements, including organizational-specific performance scoring ontologies. Next, the developer specifies conditions, the problems, and constructs that compose exercises and drive experiential learning. These conditions are defined by incidents, which denote a single, multi-media datum, and scenarios, which are stories told by incidents. To these layered, modular components, previously developed meta-data is attached, including associated performance requirements. The components are then stored in a searchable library An event developer can create a training event by searching the library based on metadata and then selecting and loading the resultant modular pieces. This loading process brings into the training event all the previously associated task and teamwork material as well as AAR preparation materials. The approach includes tools within an integrated management environment that places these materials at the fingertips of the event facilitator such that, in real time, the facilitator can track training audience performance and resultantly modify the training event. The approach also supports the concentrated knowledge management requirements for rapid preparation of an extensive AAR. This approach supports the integrated training cycle and allows a management-based perspective and advanced tools, through which a complex, thorough training event can be developed.

  15. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank


    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  16. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten


    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...

  17. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.


    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  18. First line shape analysis and spectroscopic parameters for the ν11 band of 12C2H4

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami


    An accurate knowledge of line intensities, collisional broadening coefficients and narrowing parameters is necessary for the interpretation of high-resolution infrared spectra of the Earth and other planetary atmospheres. One of the most promising spectral domains for (C2H4)-C-12 monitoring in such environments is located near the 336 gm window, through its v(11) C-H stretching mode. In this paper, we report an extensive study in which we precisely determine spectroscopic parameters of (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band at 297 +/- 1 K, using a narrow Difference-Frequency-Generation (DFG) laser with 10(-4) cm(-1) resolution. Absorption measurements were performed in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) spectral window to investigate 32 lines corresponding to where, J\\'ka\\',kc\\'<- Jka,kc, 5 <= J <= 7; 0.5 <= K-a <= 6 and 1 <= K-c <= 14. Spectroscopic parameters are retrieved using either Voigt or appropriate Galatry profile to simulate the measured (C2H4)-C-12 line shape. Line intensities along with self-broadening coefficients are reported for all lines. Narrowing coefficients for each isolated line are also derived. To our knowledge, the current study reports the first extensive spectroscopic parameter measurements of the (C2H4)-C-12 v(11) band in the 2975-2980 cm(-1) range. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.


    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  20. Pillar-Layered Metal-Organic Framework with Sieving Effect and Pore Space Partition for Effective Separation of Mixed Gas C2H2/C2H4. (United States)

    Hong, Xu-Jia; Wei, Qin; Cai, Yue-Peng; Wu, Bing-Bing; Feng, Hai-Xing; Yu, Ying; Dong, Ren-Feng


    The removal of acetylene from the industrial feed gas to purify the ethylene is an important and challenging issue. The adsorption-based separation is a more environmentally friendly and cost-effective method compared to the current removal approaches such as partial hydrogenation and solvent extraction, while facing the challenge of developing materials with high C 2 H 2 /C 2 H 4 selectivity and C 2 H 2 capacity. Herein, by expanding mixed-metal organic frameworks (M'MOFs) structure with high C 2 H 2 /C 2 H 4 selectivity, we report a pillar-layered MOF, {[Cd 5 (MPCZ) 2 (BDC) 3 (NO 3 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ]·G} n (MECS-5), which not only inherits the sieving effects of M'MOF series but also develops its own characteristic-the 2D layer with expanding space and the plane pore-partition group to "cover" it. MECS-5 shows higher ideal adsorption solution theory C 2 H 2 /C 2 H 4 selectivity than the most reported MOFs, especially more than 5 times higher than MOF-74 series while displaying great enhancement in the C 2 H 2 capacity, more than 2 times higher compared to the M'MOF. The column breakthrough experiment further proves the possibility of MECS-5a for real industrial ethylene purification.

  1. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron


    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  2. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P


    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  3. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup


    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  4. 26 CFR 40.6302(c)-2 - Special rules for September. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special rules for September. 40.6302(c)-2 Section 40.6302(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.6302(c)-2 Special rules for September. (a) In general—(1) Separate deposits required...

  5. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(2)-1 - Earnings and profits. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earnings and profits. 1.381(c)(2)-1 Section 1.381(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(2)-1 Earnings and profits. (a) In...

  6. 26 CFR 1.661(c)-2 - Illustration of the provisions of section 661. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Illustration of the provisions of section 661. 1.661(c)-2 Section 1.661(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Distribute Corpus § 1.661(c)-2 Illustration of the provisions of section 661. The provisions of section 661...

  7. Grafting of carboxyl groups using CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed plasma: Theoretical modeling and XPS derivatization (United States)

    Manakhov, Anton; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philip; Michlíček, Miroslav; Permyakova, Elizaveta; Dvořáková, Eva; Polčák, Josef; Popov, Zakhar; Visotin, Maxim; Shtansky, Dmitry V.


    The grafting of carboxyl groups enhances cell adhesion and can be used for immobilization of different biomolecules onto plasma-treated materials. The process, however, was not well optimized due to lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of carboxylic group incorporation into plasma and their grafting to polymer surface. In this work the deposition of COOH plasma polymers from CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed discharge has been studied depending on the gas mixture and duty cycle. We have demonstrated that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma with adjustable thickness of COOH functionalized layer and high stability of the grafted functions in water is a better solution for the COOH surface functionalization compared to the thoroughly analyzed CO2 plasma. The concentration of different carbon environments and the density of COOH groups have been measured by using chemical derivatization combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma mainly contains ester groups (COOC), the COOH/COOC ratio being between 0.03 and 0.08. The water stability of the COOH groups was significantly higher compared to ester environment, so immersing in water for 24 h allowed to increase the COOH/COOC ratio by a factor of 3. The mechanisms of the CO2 molecule attachment to hydrocarbon chains on the polymer surface and those located inside the plasma were modeled using ab initio calculations.

  8. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren


    BACKGROUND: Recently, 2-h samples (C2) have been found superior to trough levels for therapeutic monitoring of transplanted patients receiving cyclosporin. The present study was undertaken to see if the same was the case for tacrolimus. METHODS: Blood tacrolimus levels were determined in 21 conse...

  9. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  10. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...

  11. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording. (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P


    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  12. Safety Issues and Neurological Improvement following C1- C2 Fusion using C1 Lateral Mass and C2 Pedicle Screw in Atlantoaxial Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Kwan


    Full Text Available The evolution of instrumentation methods for C1-C2 fusion from the use of posterior wiring methods to transarticular screws and C1 lateral mass with C2 pedicle screw construct have improved fusion rates to almost 100%. However, the C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw technique is technically demanding. This is a prospective review of a series of ten patients who was planned for C1-C2 fusion using C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw technique between January 2007 and June 2009. The procedure was converted to occipital cervical fusion due to a fracture of a hypoplastic lateral mass-posterior arch complex in one patient and Gallie fusion due to a vertebral artery injury in another. Eight patients underwent the C1-C2 fusion using C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw successfully without any complications. The union rate was 100% with an average union time of 5.3 months (range from 3 to 8 months. Postoperatively, the patients achieved an average of one Frankel grade neurological improvement. In conclusion, this technique provides an excellent union rate and good neurological recovery.

  13. Analysis of Protein-Lipid Interactions Using Purified C2 Domains. (United States)

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Schapire, Arnaldo L; Botella, Miguel A; Rosado, Abel


    C2 domains (C2s) are regulatory protein modules identified in eukaryotic proteins targeted to cell membranes. C2s were initially characterized as independently folded Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipids binding domains; however, later studies have shown that C2s have evolutionarily diverged into Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent forms. These forms interact and regulate their affinity to diverse lipid species using different binding mechanisms. In this protocol we describe a biochemical approach to produce, purify, and solubilize functional C2 domains bound to GST for the identification of their putative Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent lipid-binding partners.

  14. A cluster of Enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C2 in a nursery school, Italy, 2014. (United States)

    Medici, Maria Cristina; Tummolo, Fabio; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; De Conto, Flora; Chezzi, Carlo; Dodi, Icilio; Calderaro, Adriana


    During October 2014, enterovirus (EV) RNA was detected in the stools of four children attending the same class in a nursery school, and hospitalized with mild febrile and vomiting disease in Parma, Italy. Upon sequencing, the viruses were characterized as EV71 subgenogroup C2. Phylogenetic analysis of the four EV71 C2 viruses allowed the distinction of a diverging lineage within subgenogroup C2, containing the Italian EV71 C2 strains and viruses detected in France in 2013. The identification of an outbreak of EV71 C2 in Italy extended information on the geographic diffusion and clinical relevance of these viruses in Europe.

  15. Observation of mixed acetylene - Nitrous oxide trimers: Infrared spectra of C2H2-(N2O)2 and (C2H2)2-N2O (United States)

    Sheybani-Deloui, S.; Yousefi, M.; Norooz Oliaee, J.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.


    Infrared spectra of the lowest energy isomers of C2H2-(N2O)2 and (C2H2)2-N2O were observed in the region of the ν1 fundamental band of the N2O monomer (∼2224 cm-1) using a tunable diode laser and/or a CW quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion. One infrared band was measured for each trimer. The band for C2H2-(N2O)2 corresponds to the out-of-phase vibrations of the pair of equivalent N2O monomers. It is blue shifted by about 10 cm-1 with respect to the free N2O monomer. The band for (C2H2)2-N2O is slightly less blue shifted (centered at 2232.81 cm-1). It can be simulated as a predominately a-type band. In addition to the normal isotopologues, the corresponding bands for C2D2-(N2O)2 and (C2D2)2-N2O were also observed. The structures of these trimers are similar to those of the lowest energy isomers of the analogous OCS - acetylene trimers reported previously, that is, a twisted barrel with C2 symmetry for C2H2-(N2O)2 and a distorted T-shaped acetylene dimer with a coplanar N2O beside the stem of the T for (C2H2)2-N2O. Here, we present our observation and experimental results, which agree well with calculations based on distributed multipole pair potentials.

  16. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of ^{12}C_2H_2 and ^{12}C_2D_2 (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam


    Symmetric molecules have no permanent dipole moment and are undetectable by rotational spectroscopy. Their interstellar observations have previously been limited to mid-infrared vibration-rotation spectroscopy. Although relatively weak, vibrational difference bands provide a means for detection of non polar molecules by terahertz techniques with microwave precision. Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA have the potential to identify a number of difference bands of light symmetric species, e.g., C_2H_2, CH_4 and C_3. This paper reports the results of the laboratory study on ^{12}C_2H_2 and ^{12}C_2D_2. The symmetric isotopomers of acetylene have two bending modes, the trans bending ν_4 (^1{π}_g), and the cis bending ν_5 (^1{π}_u). For ^{12}C_2H_2, the two bending modes occur at 612 and 729 cm^{-1}, respectively. For ^{12}C_2D_2, the two bending modes occur at 511 and 538 cm^{-1}. The ν_5-ν_4 difference bands are allowed and occur in the microwave, terahertz, and far-infrared wavelengths, with band origins at 117 cm^{-1} (3500 GHz) for ^{12}C_2H_2 and 27 cm^{-1} (900 GHz) for ^{12}C_2D_2. Two hundred and fifty-one ^{12}C_2D_2 transitions, which are from ν_5-ν_4, (ν_5+ν_4)-2ν_4 and 2ν_5-(ν_5+ν_4) bands, have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region, and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The precision of these measurements is estimated to be from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν_4 and ν_5 of ^{12}C_2D_2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for ^{12}C_2D_2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. The experiments on ^{12}C_2H_2 are in progress and ten P branch lines have been observed. We will present the ^{12}C_2H_2 results to date.

  17. Laser-induced resonant excitation of ethylene molecules in C2H4/C2H2/O2 reactions to enhance diamond deposition (United States)

    Ling, H.; Sun, J.; Han, Y. X.; Gebre, T.; Xie, Z. Q.; Zhao, M.; Lu, Y. F.


    Vibrational resonant excitation of ethylene (C2H4) molecules using a carbon dioxide laser was employed to promote reactions in precursors of ethylene, acetylene (C2H2), and oxygen to enhance diamond deposition. One of the vibrational modes (CH2 wag mode, v7) of the C2H4 molecules was selected to achieve the resonant excitation in the reactions. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the effects of laser resonant excitation on the reactions for diamond deposition. The optical emissions of CH and C2 species were enhanced with the laser excitation, indicating that there are more active species generated in the reactions. Thicknesses and grain sizes of the deposited films were increased correspondingly. Temperature calculations from the line set in the R-branch of CH emission spectra indicated that a nonthermal process is involved in the enhanced diamond deposition.

  18. Um estudo teórico relativo à não-linearidade da ligação de hidrogênio em sistemas heterocíclicos C2H4O-C2H2 e C2H4S-C2H2 A theoretical study about the non-linearity of the hydrogen bonding in the C2H4O-C2H2 and C2H4S-C2H2 heterocyclic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz G. Oliveira


    Full Text Available B3LYP/6-31G(d,p calculations were used to determine the optimized geometries of the C2H4O-C2H2 and C2H4S-C2H2 heterocyclic hydrogen-bonded complexes. Results of structural, rotational, electronic and vibrational parameters indicate that the hydrogen bonding is non-linear due to the pi bond of the acetylene interacting with the hydrogen atoms of the methyl groups of the three-membered rings. Moreover, the theoretical investigation showed that the non-linearity is much more intriguing, since there is a structural disjunction on the acetylene within the heterocyclic system.

  19. Torsional excitation in the 2CH vibrational overtone of the C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O van der Waals complexes (United States)

    Lauzin, C.; Didriche, K.; Földes, T.; Herman, M.


    Infrared spectra of the weakly-bound C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O complexes in the region of the 2CH acetylene overtone band (∼1.52 µm) were recorded using CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy in a continuous supersonic expansion. A new, c-type combination band is observed in each case. The rotational analysis of low J, K lines is performed and rotational constants are obtained. The band origins are 40.491(2) and 40.778(2) cm-1 higher in energy than the 2CH excitation bands for C2H2-CO2 and C2H2-N2O, respectively. The combination band is assigned in each case as involving intermolecular torsional excitation combined to 2CH. The values of the torsional vibrational frequency and of the xCH/torsion anharmonicity constant are briefly discussed.

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the Reaction C2H5 + O2 (+ M) → C2H5O2 (+ M). (United States)

    Fernandes, Ravi X; Luther, Klaus; Marowsky, Gerd; Rissanen, Matti P; Timonen, Raimo; Troe, Jürgen


    The reaction C2H5 + O2 (+ M) → C2H5O2 (+ M) was studied at 298 K at pressures of the bath gas M = Ar between 100 and 1000 bar. The transition from the falloff curve of an energy transfer mechanism to a high pressure range with contributions from the radical complex mechanism was observed. Further experiments were done between 188 and 298 K in the bath gas M = He at pressures in the range 0.7-2.0 Torr. The available data are analyzed in terms of unimolecular rate theory. An improved analytical representation of the temperature and pressure dependence of the rate constant is given for conditions where the chemical activation process C2H5 + O2 (+ M) → C2H4 + HO2 (+ M) is only of minor importance.

  1. FTIR time-series of biomass burning products (HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH) at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) and comparisons with model data (United States)

    Vigouroux, C.; Stavrakou, T.; Whaley, C.; Dils, B.; Duflot, V.; Hermans, C.; Kumps, N.; Metzger, J.-M.; Scolas, F.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Müller, J.-F.; Jones, D. B. A.; Li, Q.; De Mazière, M.


    Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E), situated in the Indian Ocean at about 800 km east of Madagascar, is appropriately located to monitor the outflow of biomass burning pollution from Southern Africa and Madagascar, in the case of short-lived compounds, and from other Southern Hemispheric landmasses such as South America, in the case of longer-lived species. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption observations are sensitive to a large number of biomass burning products. We present in this work the FTIR retrieval strategies, suitable for very humid sites such as Reunion Island, for hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH). We provide their total columns time-series obtained from the measurements during August-October 2004, May-October 2007, and May 2009-December 2010. We show that biomass burning explains a large part of the observed seasonal and interannual variability of the chemical species. The correlations between the daily mean total columns of each of the species and those of CO, also measured with our FTIR spectrometer at Reunion Island, are very good from August to November (R ≥ 0.86). This allows us to derive, for that period, the following enhancement ratios with respect to CO: 0.0047, 0.0078, 0.0020, 0.012, and 0.0046 for HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH, respectively. The HCN ground-based data are compared to the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, while the data for the other species are compared to the IMAGESv2 model. We show that using the HCN/CO ratio derived from our measurements (0.0047) in GEOS-Chem reduces the underestimation of the modeled HCN columns compared with the FTIR measurements. The comparisons between IMAGESv2 and the long-lived species C2H6 and C2H2 indicate that the biomass burning emissions used in the model (from the GFED3 inventory) are probably underestimated in the late September-October period for all years of measurements, and especially in

  2. Rate Constant and RRKM Product Study for the Reaction Between CH3 and C2H3 at T = 298K (United States)

    Thorn, R. Peyton, Jr.; Payne, Walter A., Jr.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Stief, Louis J.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Tardy, D. C.


    The total rate constant k1 has been determined at P = 1 Torr nominal pressure (He) and at T = 298 K for the vinyl-methyl cross-radical reaction CH3 + C2H3 yields products. The measurements were performed in a discharge flow system coupled with collision-free sampling to a mass spectrometer operated at low electron energies. Vinyl and methyl radicals were generated by the reactions of F with C2H4 and CH4, respectively. The kinetic studies were performed by monitoring the decay of C2H3 with methyl in excess, 6 rate coefficient was determined to be k1(298 K) = (1.02 +/- 0.53)x10(exp -10) cubic cm/molecule/s with the quoted uncertainty representing total errors. Numerical modeling was required to correct for secondary vinyl consumption by reactions such as C2H3 + H and C2H3 + C2H3. The present result for k1 at T = 298 K is compared to two previous studies at high pressure (100-300 Torr He) and to a very recent study at low pressure (0.9-3.7 Torr He). Comparison is also made with the rate constant for the similar reaction CH3 + C2H5 and with a value for k1 estimated by the geometric mean rule employing values for k(CH3 + CH3) and k(C2H3 + C2H3). Qualitative product studies at T = 298 K and 200 K indicated formation of C3H6, C2H2, and C2H5 as products of the combination-stabilization, disproportionation, and combination-decomposition channels, respectively, of the CH3 + C2H3 reaction. We also observed the secondary C4H8 product of the subsequent reaction of C3H5 with excess CH3; this observation provides convincing evidence for the combination-decomposition channel yielding C3H5 + H. RRKM calculations with helium as the deactivator support the present and very recent experimental observations that allylic C-H bond rupture is an important path in the combination reaction. The pressure and temperature dependencies of the branching fractions are also predicted.

  3. Dynamics of C2 formation in laser-produced carbon plasma in helium environment (United States)

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.; Polek, M.


    We investigated the role of helium ambient gas on the dynamics of C2 species formation in laser-produced carbon plasma. The plasma was produced by focusing 1064 nm pulses from an Nd:YAG laser onto a carbon target. The emission from the C2 species was studied using optical emission spectroscopy, and spectrally resolved and integrated fast imaging. Our results indicate that the formation of C2 in the plasma plume is strongly affected by the pressure of the He gas. In vacuum, the C2 emission zone was located near the target and C2 intensity oscillations were observed both in axial and radial directions with increasing the He pressure. The oscillations in C2 intensity at higher pressures in the expanding plume could be caused by various formation zones of carbon dimers.

  4. The synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure


    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G


    In this report the synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature is described. [2-13C]Acetone was converted into the oxime with hydroxy hydrochloridelamine and sodium carbonate. Treatment with hypobromic acid resulted in 2-13C]2-bromo-2-nitropropane. Hydrogenation with sodium borohydride gave [2-13C]2-nitropropane in 14,3% overall yield.

  5. First observation of the M1 transition ψ(3686)→γη(c)(2S). (United States)

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; An, Z H; Bai, J Z; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, X; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Feng, C Q; Ferroli, R B; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, B; Huang, G M; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jia, L K; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leung, J K C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, N B; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Liu, B J; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, C Y; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P L; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X H; Liu, Y; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, H; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales Morales, C; Motzko, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Pun, C S J; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Schulze, J; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X D; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Thorndike, E H; Tian, H L; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B Q; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, H; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Xu, Y; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, T; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yu, L; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J G; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, T R; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, B; Zhong, J; Zhou, L; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, X W; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H; Zuo, J X


    Using a sample of 106×10(6) ψ(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, we have made the first measurement of the M1 transition between the radially excited charmonium S-wave spin-triplet and the radially excited S-wave spin-singlet states: ψ(3686)→γη(c)(2S). Analyses of the processes ψ(3686)→γη(c)(2S) with η(c)(2S)→K(S)(0)K(±)π(∓) and K(+)K(-)π(0) give an η(c)(2S) signal with a statistical significance of greater than 10 standard deviations under a wide range of assumptions about the signal and background properties. The data are used to obtain measurements of the η(c)(2S) mass (M(η(c)(2S))=3637.6±2.9(stat)±1.6(syst) MeV/c(2)), width (Γ(η(c)(2S))=16.9±6.4(stat)±4.8(syst) MeV), and the product branching-fraction (B(ψ(3686)→γη(c)(2S))×B(η(c)(2S)→KKπ)=(1.30±0.20(stat)±0.30(syst))×10(-5)). Combining our result with a BABAR measurement of B(η(c)(2S)→KKπ), we find the branching fraction of the M1 transition to be B(ψ(3686)→γη(c)(2S))=(6.8±1.1(stat)±4.5(syst))×10(-4).

  6. A microporous metal-organic framework for selective C2H2 and CO2 separation (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Guang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Chen, Banglin


    A quartzlike metal-organic framework with interesting one dimensional channel has been synthesized. It exhibits considerable acetylene and carbon dioxide uptake of 41.5 and 24.6 cm3 g-1, respectively, and relatively high selectivity for separation of C2H2/C2H4, C2H2/CH4, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 at ambient condition.

  7. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease. (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Geenen, Rinie; Kuijer, Roeline; van Middendorp, Henriët


    This Review discusses physiological, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive aspects of psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Reviewing the reports of the past decade, we identify four innovative and promising themes that are relevant for understanding and explaining psychological adjustment. In particular, the emphasis on the reasons why people fail to achieve a healthy adjustment has shifted to the identification of factors that help patients make that adjustment. To promote psychological adjustment, patients should remain as active as is reasonably possible, acknowledge and express their emotions in a way that allows them to take control of their lives, engage in self-management, and try to focus on potential positive outcomes of their illness. Patients who can use these strategies have the best chance of successfully adjusting to the challenges posed by a chronic illness.

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of C2F5CHO: mechanism of the C2F5C(O)O-2+HO2 reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Hurley, MD; Wallington, TJ


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the gas-phase reaction of C2F5C(O) with HO2 radicals in 100-700 Torr of air, or O-2, diluent at 296 K. The reaction proceeds by two pathways leading to formation of C2F5C(O)OH and O-3 in ayield of 24 +/- 4% and C2F5C(O)O radicals, OH radicals and O-2...... in a yield of 76 +/- 4 The gas phase reaction of CnF2n+1C(O)O-2 with HO2 radicals offers a potential explanation for at least part of the observed environmental burden of fluorinated carboxylic acids, CnF2n+1C(O)OH. As part of this work an upper limit for the rate constant of reaction of Cl atorns with C2F5C......(O)OH at 296 K was determined; k(Cl + C2F5C(O)OH)

  9. Age and adjustment to night work.


    Härmä, M I; Hakola, T; Akerstedt, T.; Laitinen, J T


    OBJECTIVE--The study was designed to examine the effects of age on sleep and the circadian rhythms during consecutive night shifts. METHODS--Two groups of letter sorters (19-29 (n = 7) and 53-59 (n = 7) years of age were studied in a sleep laboratory under closely controlled conditions. After two baseline days, circadian adjustment to three night shifts was monitored by continuous measurement of rectal temperature, salivary melatonin, and sleep-wakefulness during the night shifts. RESULTS--Ag...

  10. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank


    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  11. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D


    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  12. Separatrix E × B Shear Flows and Turbulence Propagation in the C-2U FRC; Reflectometry Upgrades for C-2W (United States)

    Schmitz, Lothar; Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Holod, Ihor; Lin, Zhihong; Deng, Bihe; Gota, Hiroshi; Tajima, Toshihiko; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team


    Ion-scale modes were shown to be stable in the C-2/C-2U FRC core, in agreement with gyrokinetic simulation results, with a characteristic inverted toroidal wavenumber spectrum confirmed via Doppler Backscattering (DBS). Multi-scale turbulence (2 FRC core. Recent detailed analysis of turbulence interaction with large-scale E ×B flow near the FRC separatrix, via DBS, also confirm radial inward turbulence propagation, but the radial turbulence correlation length exhibits a pronounced minimum just outside the separatrix at all wavenumbers, indicating effective radial transport barrier formation. An advanced Doppler Backscattering diagnostic design for C-2W, and prospects for simultaneous measurements of magnetic fluctuations via Cross-Polarization Scattering (CPS) will be discussed.

  13. Extended phase diagram of R NiC2 family: Linear scaling of the Peierls temperature (United States)

    Roman, Marta; Strychalska-Nowak, Judyta; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Kolincio, Kamil K.


    Physical properties for the late-lanthanide-based R NiC2 (R =Dy , Ho, Er, and Tm) ternary compounds are reported. All the compounds show antiferromagnetic ground state with the Néel temperature ranging from 3.4 K for HoNiC2 to 8.5 K for ErNiC2. The results of the transport and galvanomagnetic properties confirm a charge density wave state at and above room temperature with transition temperatures TCDW=284 , 335, 366, and 394 K for DyNiC2, HoNiC2, ErNiC2, and TmNiC2, respectively. The Peierls temperature TCDW scales linearly with the unit cell volume. A similar linear dependence has been observed for the temperature of the lock-in transition T1 as well. Beyond the intersection point of the trend lines, the lock-in transition is no longer observed. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate an extended phase diagram for the R NiC2 family.

  14. The synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquemijns M; Zomer G


    In this report the synthesis of [2-13C]2-nitropropane at room temperature is described. [2-13C]Acetone was converted into the oxime with hydroxy hydrochloridelamine and sodium carbonate. Treatment with hypobromic acid resulted in 2-13C]2-bromo-2-nitropropane. Hydrogenation with sodium borohydride

  15. Structural investigation of the ZnSe(001)-c(2×2) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigand, W.; Müller, A.; Kilian, L.


    Zinc selenide is a model system for II-VI compound semiconductors. The geometric structure of the clean (001)-c(2x2) surface has recently been the subject of intense debate. We report here a surface x-ray-diffraction study on the ZnSe(001)-c(2x2) surface performed under ultrahigh vacuum using syn...

  16. 77 FR 40928 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Granting Approval of... (United States)


    ... Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (``CBOE'') building in Chicago, Illinois.\\8\\ C2's main trading engine is located on the East Coast, thus there would be geographic diversity between the DRF and the... provides for geographic diversity between the DRF and C2's main trading system; references the written...

  17. Fast response dry-type artificial molecular muscles with [c2]daisy chains (United States)

    Iwaso, Kazuhisa; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira


    Hierarchically organized myosin and actin filaments found in biological systems exhibit contraction and expansion behaviours that produce work and force by consuming chemical energy. Inspired by these naturally occurring examples, we have developed photoresponsive wet- and dry-type molecular actuators built from rotaxane-based compounds known as [c2]daisy chains (specifically, [c2]AzoCD2 hydrogel and [c2]AzoCD2 xerogel). These actuators were prepared via polycondensation between four-armed poly(ethylene glycol) and a [c2]daisy chain based on α-cyclodextrin as the host component and azobenzene as a photoresponsive guest component. The light-induced actuation arises from the sliding motion of the [c2]daisy chain unit. Ultraviolet irradiation caused the gels to bend towards the light source. The response of the [c2]AzoCD2 xerogel, even under dry conditions, is very fast (7° every second), which is 10,800 times faster than the [c2]AzoCD2 hydrogel (7° every 3 h). In addition, the [c2]AzoCD2 xerogel was used as a crane arm to lift an object using ultraviolet irradiation to produce mechanical work.

  18. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 acceleratesmushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Vos, A.M.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J.P.; Gehrmann, T.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.


    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom

  19. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.; Vos, A.M.; Scholtmeijer, K; Hendrix, Eddy; Baars, Johan J; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J; Lugones, L.G.; Wösten, HAB

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom

  20. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Vos, Aurin M.; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J.P.; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J.T.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.


    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 15C8H-32C2B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ain>H 15C8H FNIKD-TYMHW ...> GGG- EEEEture> ATOM 1815 CA PHE H 27 28.7...tryIDChain>32C2B YSISSDYAWNW ucture> EEture...pdbChain> 32C2B GYISY-SGSTS >EEEE - EEE...ce>AQIDPANGNTK >EEEE EEE> ATOM 2

  2. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(2)-1 - Domestic service. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic service. 31.3306(c)(2)-1 Section 31.3306(c)(2)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Domestic service. (a) In a private home. (1) Services of a household nature performed by an employee in or...

  3. Electron Attachment to C2 Fluorocarbon Radicals at High Temperature (Postprint) (United States)


    constant curve for C2F3. Figure 3 shows an extrap - olation of the electron attachment rate constant for C2F3 as a function of Tgas and Tel similar to...weight to the use of kinetic modeling to extrap - olate data taken over narrower ranges. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The project was funded by the United States Air

  4. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sin- tering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% Cr3C2–25 wt% NiCr was sintered at four different temperatures and characterized for its microstructure and mechanical properties.

  5. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system. (United States)


    ... Test Systems § 866.5250 Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement C1 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system is a device that consists of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator...

  6. 26 CFR 1.652(c)-2 - Death of individual beneficiaries. (United States)


    ... distributable net income of the taxable year of the trust determines the extent to which the income required to... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death of individual beneficiaries. 1.652(c)-2 Section 1.652(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...

  7. Cytoprotective Effect of Hispidin against Palmitate-Induced Lipotoxicity in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Myoung Park


    Full Text Available It is well known that Phellinus linteus, which produces hispidin and its derivatives, possesses antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated whether hispidin has protective effects on palmitate-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Our results showed that palmitate treatment in C2C12 myotubes increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, pretreatment of hispidin for 8 h improved the survival of C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. Hispidin also inhibited palmitate-induced apoptotic nuclear condensation in C2C12 myotubes. In addition, we found that hispidin can suppress cleavage of caspase-3, expression of Bax, and NF-κB translocation. Therefore, these results suggest that hispidin is capable of protecting C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Magnetism and charge density waves in R NiC2 (R =Ce,Pr,Nd ) (United States)

    Kolincio, Kamil K.; Roman, Marta; Winiarski, Michał J.; Strychalska-Nowak, Judyta; Klimczuk, Tomasz


    We have compared the magnetic, transport, galvanomagnetic, and specific-heat properties of CeNiC2, PrNiC2, and NdNiC2 to study the interplay between charge density waves (CDW) and magnetism in these compounds. The negative magnetoresistance in NdNiC2 is discussed in terms of the partial destruction of charge density waves and an irreversible phase transition stabilized by the field-induced ferromagnetic transformation is reported. For PrNiC2 we demonstrate that the magnetic field initially weakens the CDW state, due to the Zeeman splitting of conduction bands. However, the Fermi surface nesting is enhanced at a temperature related to the magnetic anomaly.

  9. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability. (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi


    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare.

  10. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment. (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.


    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  11. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  12. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction. (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  13. EXO70C2 is a key regulatory factor for optimal tip growth of pollen

    KAUST Repository

    Synek, Lukas


    The exocyst, an eukaryotic tethering complex, co-regulates targeted exocytosis as an effector of small GTPases in polarized cell growth. In land plants, several exocyst subunits are encoded by double or triple paralogs, culminating in tens of EXO70 paralogs. Out of 23 Arabidopsis EXO70 isoforms, we analyzed seven isoforms expressed in pollen. Genetic and microscopic analyses of single mutants in EXO70A2, C1, C2, F1, H3, H5, and H6 genes revealed that only a loss-of-function EXO70C2 allele resulted in a significant male-specific transmission defect (segregation 40%:51%:9%) due to aberrant pollen tube growth. Mutant pollen tubes grown in vitro exhibited enhanced growth rate and a decreased thickness of the tip cell wall, causing tip bursts. However, exo70C2 pollen tubes could frequently recover and restart their speedy elongation, resulting in a repetitive stop-and-go growth dynamics. A pollen-specific depletion of the closest paralog, EXO70C1, using ami-RNA in the exo70C2 mutant background resulted in a complete pollen-specific transmission defect, suggesting redundant functions of EXO70C1 and EXO70C2. Both EXO70C1 and EXO70C2, GFP-tagged and expressed under their native promoters, localized in the cytoplasm of pollen grains, pollen tubes, and also root trichoblast cells. Expression of EXO70C2-GFP complemented aberrant growth of exo70C2 pollen tubes. The absent EXO70C2 interactions with core exocyst subunits in the yeast two-hybrid assay, cytoplasmic localization, and genetic effect suggest an unconventional EXO70 function possibly as a regulator of exocytosis outside the exocyst complex. In conclusion, EXO70C2 is a novel factor contributing to the regulation of optimal tip growth of Arabidopsis pollen tubes.

  14. PI3K-C2α knockdown decreases autophagy and maturation of endocytic vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Merrill

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K family members are involved in diverse cellular fates including cell growth, proliferation, and survival. While many molecular details are known about the Class I and III PI3Ks, less is known about the Class II PI3Ks. To explore the function of all eight PI3K isoforms in autophagy, we knock down each gene individually and measure autophagy. We find a significant decrease in autophagy following siRNA-mediated PIK3C2A (encoding the Class 2 PI3K, PI3K-C2α knockdown. This defective autophagy is rescued by exogenous PI3K-C2α, but not kinase-dead PI3K-C2α. Using confocal microscopy, we probe for markers of endocytosis and autophagy, revealing that PI3K-C2α colocalizes with markers of endocytosis. Though endocytic uptake is intact, as demonstrated by transferrin labeling, PIK3C2A knockdown results in vesicle accumulation at the recycling endosome. We isolate distinct membrane sources and observe that PI3K-C2α interacts with markers of endocytosis and autophagy, notably ATG9. Knockdown of either PIK3C2A or ATG9A/B, but not PI3KC3, results in an accumulation of transferrin-positive clathrin coated vesicles and RAB11-positive vesicles at the recycling endosome. Taken together, these results support a role for PI3K-C2α in the proper maturation of endosomes, and suggest that PI3K-C2α may be a critical node connecting the endocytic and autophagic pathways.

  15. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, J.W.; Aarnoutse, R.E.


    The importance of dose adjustments of antimicrobials based on measured concentrations in an individual ('therapeutic drug monitoring', TDM) is increasingly recognized. There are several reasons for this. First, there is a better understanding of the relationships between doses administered,

  16. Simultaneous investigation of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, Krebs cycle metabolism and pH, using hyperpolarized [1,2-(13)C2]pyruvate in vivo. (United States)

    Chen, Albert P; Hurd, Ralph E; Schroeder, Marie A; Lau, Angus Z; Gu, Yi-ping; Lam, Wilfred W; Barry, Jennifer; Tropp, James; Cunningham, Charles H


    (13)C MR spectroscopy studies performed on hearts ex vivo and in vivo following perfusion of prepolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate have shown that changes in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux may be monitored non-invasively. However, to allow investigation of Krebs cycle metabolism, the (13)C label must be placed on the C2 position of pyruvate. Thus, the utilization of either C1 or C2 labeled prepolarized pyruvate as a tracer can only afford a partial view of cardiac pyruvate metabolism in health and disease. If the prepolarized pyruvate molecules were labeled at both C1 and C2 positions, then it would be possible to observe the downstream metabolites that were the results of both PDH flux ((13)CO(2) and H(13)CO(3)(-)) and Krebs cycle flux ([5-(13)C]glutamate) with a single dose of the agent. Cardiac pH could also be monitored in the same experiment, but adequate SNR of the (13)CO(2) resonance may be difficult to obtain in vivo. Using an interleaved selective RF pulse acquisition scheme to improve (13)CO(2) detection, the feasibility of using dual-labeled hyperpolarized [1,2-(13)C(2)]pyruvate as a substrate for dynamic cardiac metabolic MRS studies to allow simultaneous investigation of PDH flux, Krebs cycle flux and pH, was demonstrated in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant $C(2) $ C 2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure (United States)

    Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de


    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two

  18. Trends and variations in CO, C2H6, and HCN in the Southern Hemisphere point to the declining anthropogenic emissions of CO and C2H6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Jones


    Full Text Available We analyse the carbon monoxide (CO, ethane (C2H6 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN partial columns (from the ground to 12 km derived from measurements by ground-based solar Fourier Transform Spectroscopy at Lauder, New Zealand (45° S, 170° E, and at Arrival Heights, Antarctica (78° S, 167° E, from 1997 to 2009. Significant negative trends are calculated for all species at both locations, based on the daily-mean observed time series, namely CO (−0.94 ± 0.47% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.37 ± 1.18% yr−1 and HCN (−0.93 ± 0.47% yr−1 at Lauder and CO (−0.92 ± 0.46% yr−1, C2H6 (−2.82 ± 1.37% yr−1 and HCN (−1.41 ± 0.71% yr−1 at Arrival Heights. The uncertainties reflect the 95% confidence limits. However, the magnitudes of the trends are influenced by the anomaly associated with the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation event at the beginning of the time series reported. We calculate trends for each month from 1997 to 2009 and find negative trends for all months. The largest monthly trends of CO and C2H6 at Lauder, and to a lesser degree at Arrival Heights, occur during austral spring during the Southern Hemisphere tropical and subtropical biomass burning period. For HCN, the largest monthly trends occur in July and August at Lauder and around November at Arrival Heights. The correlations between CO and C2H6 and between CO and HCN at Lauder in September to November, when the biomass burning maximizes, are significantly larger that those in other seasons. A tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to simulate CO, C2H6, and HCN partial columns for the period of 1997–2009, using interannually varying biomass burning emissions from GFED3 and annually periodic but seasonally varying emissions from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model-simulated partial columns of these species compare well with the measured partial columns and the model accurately reproduces seasonal cycles of all three species at both locations. However

  19. Inoculation of Phaseolus vulgaris with the nodule-endophyte Agrobacterium sp. 10C2 affects richness and structure of rhizosphere bacterial communities and enhances nodulation and growth. (United States)

    Chihaoui, Saif-Allah; Trabelsi, Darine; Jdey, Ahmed; Mhadhbi, Haythem; Mhamdi, Ridha


    Agrobacterium sp. 10C2 is a nonpathogenic and non-symbiotic nodule-endophyte strain isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris. The effect of this strain on nodulation, plant growth and rhizosphere bacterial communities of P. vulgaris is investigated under seminatural conditions. Inoculation with strain 10C2 induced an increase in nodule number (+54 %) and plant biomass (+16 %). Grains also showed a significant increase in phosphorus (+53 %), polyphenols (+217 %), flavonoids (+62 %) and total antioxidant capacity (+82 %). The effect of strain 10C2 on bacterial communities was monitored using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. When the initial soil was inoculated with strain 10C2 and left 15 days, the Agrobacterium strain did not affect TRF richness but changed structure. When common bean was sown in these soils and cultivated during 75 days, both TRF richness and structure were affected by strain 10C2. TRF richness increased in the rhizosphere soil, while it decreased in the bulk soil (root free). The taxonomic assignation of TRFs induced by strain 10C2 in the bean rhizosphere revealed the presence of four phyla (Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) with a relative preponderance of Firmicutes, represented mainly by Bacillus species. Some of these taxa (i.e., Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus senegalensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus and Paenibacillus koreensis) are particularly known for their plant growth-promoting potentialities. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of strain 10C2 observed on plant growth and grain quality are explained at least in part by the indirect effect through the promotion of beneficial microorganisms.

  20. Adjusted Clinical Groups: a patient classification system through risk adjustment


    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials. Barcelona, España. Médico doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública.; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol. Badalona, Barcelona, España. médica especialista en Documentación Médica.


    Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) are risk adjustment systems that classify people according to their age, sex and medical conditions, these people have a similar consumption of health resources over a given period of time. They were developed by Starfield and Weiner (Johns Hopkins University, USA, 1991), and their objective is to measure the degree of illness among patients based on the levels of comorbidity. Their main applications are: a) the evaluation of the efficiency in the use of hea...

  1. Pharmaceutical Activation or Genetic Absence of ClC-2 Alters Tight Junctions During Experimental Colitis. (United States)

    Jin, Younggeon; Pridgen, Tiffany A; Blikslager, Anthony T


    We have previously reported that the ClC-2 chloride channel has an important role in regulation of tight junction barrier function during experimental colitis, and the pharmaceutical ClC-2 activator lubiprostone initiates intestinal barrier repair in ischemic-injured intestine. Thus, we hypothesized that pharmaceutical ClC-2 activation would have a protective and therapeutic effect in murine models of colitis, which would be absent in ClC-2 mice. We administered lubiprostone to wild-type or ClC-2 mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2, 4, 5-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. We determined the severity of colitis and assessed intestinal permeability. Selected tight junction proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, whereas proliferative and differentiated cells were examined with special staining and immunohistochemistry. Oral preventive or therapeutic administration of lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of colitis and reduced intestinal permeability in both DSS and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Preventive treatment with lubiprostone induced significant recovery of the expression and distribution of selected sealing tight junction proteins in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In addition, lubiprostone reduced crypt proliferation and increased the number of differentiated epithelial cells. Alternatively, when lubiprostone was administered to ClC-2 mice, the protective effect against DSS colitis was limited. This study suggests a central role for ClC-2 in restoration of barrier function and tight junction architecture in experimental murine colitis, which can be therapeutically targeted with lubiprostone.

  2. The infrared spectrum of the Ne-C2D2 complex (United States)

    Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Fernández, Berta; Farrelly, David


    Infrared spectra of Ne-C2D2 are observed in the region of the ν3 fundamental band (asymmetric C-D stretch, ≈2440 cm-1) using a tunable optical parametric oscillator to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion from a cooled nozzle. Like helium-acetylene, this system lies close to the free rotor limit, making analysis tricky because stronger transitions tend to pile up close to monomer (C2D2) rotation-vibration transitions. Assignments are aided by predicted rotational energies calculated from a published ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface. The analysis extends up to the j = 3←2 band, where j labels C2D2 rotation within the dimer, and is much more complete than the limited infrared assignments previously reported for Ne-C2H2 and Ne-C2HD. Two previous microwave transitions within the j = 1 state of Ne-C2D2 are reassigned. Coriolis model fits to the theoretical levels and to the spectrum are compared. Since the variations observed as a function of C2D2 vibrational excitation are comparable to those noted between theory and experiment, it is evident that more detailed testing of theory will require vibrational averaging over the acetylene intramolecular modes.

  3. Bonding-restricted structure search for novel 2D materials with dispersed C2 dimers. (United States)

    Zhang, Cunzhi; Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian


    Currently, the available algorithms for unbiased structure searches are primarily atom-based, where atoms are manipulated as the elementary units, and energy is used as the target function without any restrictions on the bonding of atoms. In fact, in many cases such as nanostructure-assembled materials, the structural units are nanoclusters. We report a study of a bonding-restricted structure search method based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) for finding the stable structures of two-dimensional (2D) materials containing dispersed C2 dimers rather than individual C atoms. The C2 dimer can be considered as a prototype of nanoclusters. Taking Si-C, B-C and Ti-C systems as test cases, our method combined with density functional theory and phonon calculations uncover new ground state geometrical structures for SiC2, Si2C2, BC2, B2C2, TiC2, and Ti2C2 sheets and their low-lying energy allotropes, as well as their electronic structures. Equally important, this method can be applied to other complex systems even containing f elements and other molecular dimers such as S2, N2, B2 and Si2, where the complex orbital orientations require extensive search for finding the optimal orientations to maximize the bonding with the dimers, predicting new 2D materials beyond MXenes (a family of transition metal carbides or nitrides) and dichalcogenide monolayers.

  4. Endocytosis‒Mediated Invasion and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae in Rat Cardiomyocyte (H9C2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pooja

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae infection causes high mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD patients, especially in case of setting prosthetic valve during cardiac surgery. However, the pathogenesis mechanism of S. agalactiae associate with CVD has not been well studied. Here, we have demonstrated the pathogenicity of S. agalactiae in rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2. Interestingly, both live and dead cells of S. agalactiae were uptaken by H9C2 cells. To further dissect the process of S. agalactiae internalization, we chemically inhibited discrete parts of cellular uptake system in H9C2 cells using genistein, chlorpromazine, nocodazole and cytochalasin B. Chemical inhibition of microtubule and actin formation by nocodazole and cytochalasin B impaired S. agalactiae internalization into H9C2 cells. Consistently, reverse‒ transcription PCR (RT‒PCR and quantitative real time‒PCR (RT-qPCR analyses also detected higher levels of transcripts for cytoskeleton forming genes, Acta1 and Tubb5 in S. agalactiae‒infected H9C2 cells, suggesting the requirement of functional cytoskeleton in pathogenesis. Host survival assay demonstrated that S. agalactiae internalization induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. S. agalactiae cells grown with benzyl penicillin reduced its ability to internalize and induce cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells, which could be attributed with the removal of surface lipoteichoic acid (LTA from S. agalactiae. Further, the LTA extracted from S. agalactiae also exhibited dose‒dependent cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that S. agalactiae cells internalized H9C2 cells through energy‒dependent endocytic processes and the LTA of S. agalactiae play major role in host cell internalization and cytotoxicity induction.

  5. ClC-2 chloride channels contribute to HTC cell volume homeostasis. (United States)

    Roman, R M; Smith, R L; Feranchak, A P; Clayton, G H; Doctor, R B; Fitz, J G


    Membrane Cl(-) channels play an important role in cell volume homeostasis and regulation of volume-sensitive cell transport and metabolism. Heterologous expression of ClC-2 channel cDNA leads to the appearance of swelling-activated Cl(-) currents, consistent with a role in cell volume regulation. Since channel properties in heterologous models are potentially modified by cellular background, we evaluated whether endogenous ClC-2 proteins are functionally important in cell volume regulation. As shown by whole cell patch clamp techniques in rat HTC hepatoma cells, cell volume increases stimulated inwardly rectifying Cl(-) currents when non-ClC-2 currents were blocked by DIDS (100 microM). A cDNA closely homologous with rat brain ClC-2 was isolated from HTC cells; identical sequence was demonstrated for ClC-2 cDNAs in primary rat hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. ClC-2 mRNA and membrane protein expression was demonstrated by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot. Intracellular delivery of antibodies to an essential regulatory domain of ClC-2 decreased ClC-2-dependent currents expressed in HEK-293 cells. In HTC cells, the same antibodies prevented activation of endogenous Cl(-) currents by cell volume increases or exposure to the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and delayed HTC cell volume recovery from swelling. These studies provide further evidence that mammalian ClC-2 channel proteins are functional and suggest that in HTC cells they contribute to physiological changes in membrane Cl(-) permeability and cell volume homeostasis.

  6. β‐Taxilin participates in differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Tomohiko; Nogami, Satoru; Horii, Yukimi [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Akasaki, Kenji [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuyama University, Fukuyama, Hiroshima 729-0292 (Japan); Shirataki, Hiromichi, E-mail: [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate school of Medicine, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-town, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)


    Myogenesis is required for the development of skeletal muscle. Accumulating evidence indicates that the expression of several genes are upregulated during myogenesis and these genes play pivotal roles in myogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying myogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that β-taxilin, which is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle and heart tissues, was progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes, prompting us to investigate the role of β-taxilin in myogenesis. In C2C12 cells, knockdown of β-taxilin impaired the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes, and decreased the diameter of myotubes. We also found that β-taxilin interacted with dysbindin, a coiled-coil-containing protein. Knockdown of dysbindin conversely promoted the fusion of myoblasts into myotubes and increased the diameter of myotubes in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of dysbindin attenuated the inhibitory effect of β-taxilin depletion on myotube formation of C2C12 cells. These results demonstrate that β-taxilin participates in myogenesis through suppressing the function of dysbindin to inhibit the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. - Highlights: • β‐Taxilin is progressively expressed during differentiation of C2C12 cell. • Knockdown of β-taxilin impaired C2C12 myotube formation. • β‐Taxilin interacted with dysbindin. • Knockdown of dysbindin promoted C2C12 myotube formation. • The function of β-taxilin in C2C12 myotube formation depends on dysbindin.

  7. Classification of DES16C2nm as a SLSN at z=1.998 (United States)

    Galbany, L.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Ponder, K.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Forster, F.; Hamuy, M.; Prieto, Jose Luis; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Gupta, R.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.


    We report the spectroscopic classification of DES16C2nm as a superluminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). DES16C2nm was discovered in the first epoch of DES Y4, on 22 August 2016 at R.A. = 03:40:14.83, Decl = -29:05:53.5 with i = 23.2 mag. DES16C2nm has a non-detection in the final epoch of DES Y3 on 08 February 2016.

  8. Identification of the fatty acid activation site on human ClC-2. (United States)

    Cuppoletti, John; Tewari, Kirti P; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Malinowska, Danuta H


    Fatty acids (including lubiprostone and cobiprostone) are human ClC-2 (hClC-2) Cl- channel activators. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this activation were examined. Role of a four-amino acid PKA activation site, RGET691, of hClC-2 was investigated using wild-type (WT) and mutant (AGET, RGEA, and AGAA) hClC-2 expressed in 293EBNA cells as well as involvement of PKA, intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i), EP2, or EP4 receptor agonist activity. All fatty acids [lubiprostone, cobiprostone, eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), oleic acid, and elaidic acid] caused significant rightward shifts in concentration-dependent Cl- current activation (increasing EC50s) with mutant compared with WT hClC-2 channels, without changing time and voltage dependence, current-voltage rectification, or methadone inhibition of the channel. As with lubiprostone, cobiprostone activation of hClC-2 occurred with PKA inhibitor (myristoylated protein kinase inhibitor) present or when using double PKA activation site (RRAA655/RGEA691) mutant. Cobiprostone did not activate human CFTR. Fatty acids did not increase [cAMP]i in hClC-2/293EBNA or T84 cells. Using T84 CFTR knockdown cells, cobiprostone increased hClC-2 Cl- currents without increasing [cAMP]i, while PGE2 and forskolin-IBMX increased both. Fatty acids were not agonists of EP2 or EP4 receptors. L-161,982, a supposed EP4-selective inhibitor, had no effect on lubiprostone-activated hClC-2 Cl- currents but significantly decreased T84 cell barrier function measured by transepithelial resistance and fluorescent dextran transepithelial movement. The present findings show that RGET691 of hClC-2 (possible binding site) plays an important functional role in fatty acid activation of hClC-2. PKA, [cAMP]i, and EP2 or EP4 receptors are not involved. These studies provide the molecular basis for fatty acid regulation of hClC-2. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder? (United States)

    ... and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness Thoughts of suicide Worry Trouble sleeping If you're dealing with a stressful situation in your life, try ...

  10. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder? (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Stress management What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to ...

  11. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan


    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  12. Sodium Ferulate Prevents Daunorubicin - Induced Apoptosis in H9c2 Cells via Inhibition of the ERKs Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Juan Wu


    Full Text Available Background: Daunorubicin (DNR-induced cardiotoxicity, which is closely associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis, limits the drug's clinical application. The activation of the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERKs pathway is responsible for the pro-apoptosis effect of DNR Sodium ferulate (SF has recently been found to attenuate both DNR-induced cardiotoxicity and mitochondrial apoptosis in juvenile rats. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism underlying SF-induced cardio-protection remains unclear. Methods: The DNR-injured H9c2 cell model was prepared by incubating the cells in 1 µM DNR for 24 h. Amounts of 15.6, 31.3 or 62.5 µM SF were simultaneously added to the cells. The effect of SF on the cytotoxic and apoptotic parameters of the cells was studied by monitoring apoptosis regulation via the ERKs pathway. Results: SF attenuated DNR-induced cell death (particularly apoptotic death, cTnI and β-tubulin degradation, and cellular morphological changes. SF reduced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, cytochrome c leakage, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. SF also decreased ERK1/2, phospho-ERK1/2, p53 and Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. These effects were similar to the results observed when using the pharmacological ERKs phosphorylation inhibitor, AZD6244. Conclusion: We determined that SF protects H9c2 cells from DNR-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that involves the interruption of the ERKs signaling pathway.

  13. [Adjustment disorder during military service]. (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Florkowski, Antoni


    Adjustment disorders in soldiers of mandatory military service are one of most frequent causes of early military discharges. Their occurrence brings about economic, social and medical consequences. The analysis of reasons and circumstances for adjustment disorders in solders of mandatory military service accepted by Medical Military Boards as unfit for military service. Studies included 91 cases of soldiers of mandatory military service hospitalised at the Psychiatry Clinical Department of Psychiatry in 10th Clinical Military Hospital in Bydgoszcz for the occurrence of symptoms of adjustment disorder acc. to criteria ICD-10 and certified by Medical Military Boards. The examined soldiers were at the age of 19-24, and the period of their military service ranged from one week to three months. To evaluate statistical correlations chi-square test (chi2) was used. Before the call-up, more than a half of the soldiers revealing symptoms of adjustment disorder lived in the country or in big urban agglomerations. Those soldiers had primary or vocational education certificates and every third was brought up in one-parent family. In the tested population of soldiers there was found a statistical relation between the appearance of adjustment disorders and the education of soldiers' mothers, parents' diseases and factors impeding their military service. Factors conducive to adjustment disorders under conditions of mandatory military service in the studies carried out included: education of soldiers' mothers, raised difficulties while serving in the army and parents' diseases.

  14. Hybridizing polypyrrole chains with laminated and two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx toward high-performance electromagnetic wave absorption (United States)

    Tong, Yuan; He, Man; Zhou, Yuming; Zhong, Xi; Fan, Lidan; Huang, Tingyuan; Liao, Qiang; Wang, Yongjuan


    In this study, multilayer sandwich heterostructural Ti3C2Tx MXenes decorated with polypyrrole chains have been synthesized successfully via HF etching treatment and in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization approach. The hybrids were investigated as EM wave absorbers for the first time. It is found that the composites consisting of 25 wt% Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids in a paraffin matrix exhibit a minimum reflection loss of -49.2 dB (∼99.99% absorption) at the thickness of 3.2 mm and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 4.9 GHz (12.4-17.3 GHz) corresponding to an absorber thickness of 2.0 mm. Additionally, a broad effective absorption bandwidth of 13.7 GHz (4.3-18.0 GHz) can be reached up by adjusting the thickness from 1.5 to 5.0 mm. Furthermore, the highest effective absorption bandwidth of 5.7 GHz can be reached when the mass fraction is 15 wt%. The enhanced comprehensive electromagnetic wave absorption has close correlation with the well-designed heterogeneous multilayered microstructure, generated heterogeneous interfaces, conductive paths, surface functional groups, localized defects and synergistic effect between laminated Ti3C2Tx and conductive polypyrrole network, which significantly improve impedance matching and attenuation abilities. The superior absorbing performance together with strong absorption and broad bandwidth endows the Ti3C2Tx/PPy hybrids with the potential prospect to be advanced EM wave absorbers.

  15. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S


    ). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98......). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r......PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235...

  16. Cognitive Works Aids for C2 Planning: Actionable Information to Support Operational Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wampler, Jeffrey; Whitaker, Randall; Roth, Emilie; Scott, Ronald; Stilson, Mona; Thomas-Meyers, Gina


    .... This paper describes a design for a global mission planning C2 work aid. The discussion describes a cognitive based design approach to developing work aids called Work Centered Support Systems (WCSS...

  17. Phytoecdysteroid C2-hydroxylase is microsomal in spinach, Spinacia oleracea L. (United States)

    Bakrim, Ahmed; Guittard, Emilie; Maria, Annick; De Virville, Jacques Davy; Lafont, René; Takvorian, Najat


    An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytoecdysteroids, the C2-hydroxylase, has been investigated in spinach, Spinacia oleracea. This enzyme is microsomal and its K(m) has been determined using 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone as substrate (K(m)=3.72 microM). It is much more efficient with 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone than with 2-deoxyecdysone and, conversely, the C20-hydroxylase is more active on 2-deoxyecdysone than on ecdysone. These data support the conclusion that C20-hydroxylation precedes C2-hydroxylation. The C2-hydroxylase is inhibited by high concentrations of 20E. Substrate specificity and subcellular localization of C2-hydroxylase differ between plants and insects, and these data, as well as those previously reported on other biosynthetic steps, show the great difference between plant and insect ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathways and suggest an independent origin for the pathways in both kingdoms. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Work-Centered Design and Evaluation of a C2 Visualization Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Emilie; Scott, Ronald; Kazmierczak, Tom; Whitaker, Randall; Stilson, Mona; Thomas-Meyers, Gina; Wampler, Jeffrey


    .... We have been developing and applying work-centered design and evaluation methodologies to design advanced visualization and support tools intended to more effectively support C2 cognitive and collaborative work...

  19. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of C2H2Oxidation at High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Jorge Gimenez; Rasmussen, Christian Tihic; Hashemi, Hamid


    diagram for C2H3 + O2 by Goldsmith et al. and on new ab initio calculations, respectively. The C2H2 + HO2 reaction involves nine pressure- and temperature-dependent product channels, with formation of triplet CHCHO being dominant under most conditions. The barrier to reaction for C2H2 + O2 was found...... to be more than 50 kcal mol−1 and predictions of the initiation temperature were not sensitive to this reaction. Experiments were conducted with C2H2/O2 mixtures highly diluted in N2 in a high-pressure flow reactor at 600–900 K and 60 bar, varying the reaction stoichiometry from very lean to fuel...

  20. Overview of the C-2W Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment Diagnostic Suite (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Schindler, Tania; Gota, Hiroshi; Putvinski, Sergei; Tuszewski, Michel; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE, Tri Alpha Energy Team


    Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) studies the evolution of advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas sustained by neutral-beam injection. Operations recently commenced on the C-2W device, which focuses on FRC heating and diamagnetic current build up. Data on the FRC plasma is provided by an initial suite of diagnostics including magnetic sensors, interferometry, fast imaging cameras, Thomson scattering, and spectroscopy. Many more sophisticated diagnostics are also in preparation and commissioning: reflectometry, neutral particle analyzers, multi-chord FIR polarimetry, end loss analyzers, impurity and majority ion CHERS, FIDA, and 100 channel bolometers with proprietary compact local data acquisition. While many of these diagnostic systems were first implemented for the earlier C-2 and C-2U experiments, most had major upgrades for C-2W. TAE's diagnostics development program also works on novel systems including new ways to measure FRC internal magnetic fields.

  1. Fully-kinetic Ion Simulation of Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U (United States)

    Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team


    Understanding the nature of particle and energy transport in field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas is a crucial step towards an FRC-based fusion reactor. The C-2U device at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) achieved macroscopically stable plasmas and electron energy confinement time which scaled favorably with electron temperature. This success led to experimental and theoretical investigation of turbulence in C-2U, including gyrokinetic ion simulations with the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC). A primary objective of TAE's new C-2W device is to explore transport scaling in an extended parameter regime. In concert with the C-2W experimental campaign, numerical efforts have also been extended in A New Code (ANC) to use fully-kinetic (FK) ions and a Vlasov-Poisson field solver. Global FK ion simulations are presented. Future code development is also discussed.

  2. Nd2[MoC2] and RE2[WC2], RE=Ce, Pr, Nd: New carbometalates with Pr2[MoC2] structure type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhtsetseg Dashjav, Yurii Prots, Guido Kreiner, Walter Schnelle, Frank R. Wagner and Rüdiger Kniep


    Full Text Available Four new ternary rare-earth-metal carbometalates, Nd2[MoC2] and RE2[WC2] with RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, have been synthesized by argon arc melting and subsequent heat treatment at 1170 K for 30 days. They crystallize with the Pr2[MoC2] structure type with isolated C4− species and are typical carbometalates with (i low metal-to-carbon ratio, (ii tetrahedral coordination of the transition metals (T by carbon, and (iii a polyanionic network ∞2[(TC26-]. According to resistivity measurements the compounds are bad metals. Volume chemistry and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate Pr3+, Nd3+, and Ce4+ species, respectively. In the latter case, the additional electron is not transferred to the polyanionic network, instead it mainly populates the Ce partial structure.

  3. Características morfológicas da pars de C2 de humanos Características morfológicas de la pars de C2 de humanos Morphologic characteristics of C2 humans pars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André Carazzo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a morfometria da pars da segunda vértebra cervical, verificar as variações existentes e predizer sua segurança para a colocação de parafusos por meio de uma abordagem cervical posterior. MÉTODOS: 58 vértebras foram obtidas para estudo anatômico (116 pars de C2 e foram medidas a altura e largura da pars, além do comprimento eixo-pedículo, largura e comprimento do pedículo, angulação sagital e medial. Todas as medidas foram separadas quanto aos seus lados direito e esquerdo; foi realizado o cálculo da média, variação, desvio padrão e a médica foi comparada com os estudos prévios. RESULTADOS: a largura média da pars de C2 foi de 9,5 mm; a altura, 9,5 mm; não houve diferença significativa entre os lados esquerdo e direito. O comprimento médio do pedículo foi de 10,5 mm; a medida média encontrada para o comprimento eixo-pedículo foi de 24,9 mm; a largura do pedículo foi de 2,8 mm. A angulação sagital encontrada foi de 19,6º e a horizontal foi de 28,5º. CONCLUSÕES: este estudo demonstra a viabilidade para a colocação de parafuso na pars de C2 em uma população caucasiana, destacando-se, porém, a grande variabilidade anatômica encontrada nas referidas medidas.OBJETIVO: evaluar la morfometría de la pars de la segunda vértebra cervical, verificar las variaciones existentes y predecir su seguridad para la colocación de los tornillos por un abordaje cervical posterior. MÉTODOS: 58 vértebras fueron obtenidas para el estudio anatómico (116 pars de C2 y fueron medidas su altura y el ancho de las pars, además de la largura eje-pedículo, ancho y largura del pedículo, ángulo sagital y medial. Todas las medidas fueron separadas según sus lados derecho e izquierdo, se realizó el cálculo de la media, variación, desvío estándar y comparados los valores con estudios previos. RESULTADOS: el ancho promedio de la pars de C2 fue de 9.5 mm, la altura de 9.5 mm, sin diferencia significativa entre los

  4. Spectral Monitoring CH/C2 Ratio of Methane Plasma for Growing Single-Layer Graphene on Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan


    Full Text Available Single-layer graphene was grown on copper at a low temperature of 600°C by plasma-assisted thermal chemical vapor deposition. Its growth mechanism was discussed with reference to the emission spectra of the plasma. The methane plasma produces the active species (Hx, CHx, and Cx without the addition of flowing hydrogen, and the amounts of hydrogen-containing species can be controlled by varying the plasma power. The effective distance was found between the plasma initial stage and the deposition stage for the single-layer graphene synthesis. The results reveal that high-quality graphene can be synthesized using methane plasma at a suitable plasma power.

  5. Measurements of H[sub c2](T) in Bi-Sr-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osofsky, M.S.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Wolf, S.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Broto, J.M.; Rakoto, H.; Ousset, J.C.; Coffe, G.; Askenazy, S. (Service National des Champs Magnetique Pulses, Toulouse (France)); Pari, P. (Laboratoire des Basses Temperatures, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Bozovic, I.; Eckstein, J.N.; Virshup, G.F. (Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA (United States))


    H[sub c2](T) has been measured for thin BSCO films at temperatures down to 65 mK and pulsed fields up to 35 T. H[sub c2](T) diverged anomalously as the temperature decreased. At the lowest temperature, it was five times that expected for a conventional superconductor. This result cannot be explained by any conventional model which relies on magnetic ordering, local pairing mechanisms, or superlattice superconductivity. 51 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Anomalous temperature dependence of H{sub c2} in BiSrCuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broto, J.M. [Service National Des Champs Magnetiques Pulses, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Rakoto, H. [Service National Des Champs Magnetiques Pulses, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Ousset, J.C. [Service National Des Champs Magnetiques Pulses, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Coffe, G. [Service National Des Champs Magnetiques Pulses, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Askenazy, S. [Service National Des Champs Magnetiques Pulses, 31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Osofsky, M.S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5000 (United States); Soulen, R.J. Jr. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5000 (United States); Wolf, S.A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5000 (United States); Pari, P. [Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Service de Physique de l`Etat Condense, Laboratoire des Basses Temperatures, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bozovic, I. [Edward L. Ginzton Research Center, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1025 (United States); Eckstein, J.N. [Edward L. Ginzton Research Center, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1025 (United States); Virshup, G.F. [Edward L. Ginzton Research Center, Varian Associates, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1025 (United States)


    H{sub c2}(T) has been measured for thin BSCO films at temperatures down to 65 mK and pulsed fields up to 35 T. H{sub c2}(T) diverged anomalously as the temperature decreased: at the lowest temperature, it was five times that expected for a conventional superconductor. Although deviations from the conventional behavior have been observed in other superconductors, such strong divergence over such a large range of reduced temperature has not been seen before. (orig.).

  7. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ambulatory exercise in chronic hemiparetics stroke survivors: a comparative study. ... a pre, within and post-activity monitoring of stroke survivors while subjecting them to Frenkel's ambulatory activity. Keys words: cardiovascular, ambulatory activity, stroke ...

  8. The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on gastroesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, [No Value; van Ramshorst, B; Timmer, R; Gooszen, HG; Smout, AJPM

    Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) influences gastroesophageal reflux. Methods: 26 patients undergoing gastric banding were assessed by a questionnaire for symptom analysis, 24-hour pH monitoring, endoscopy and barium swallows, preoperatively, at 6 weeks and at 6 months after

  9. Temperature and pressure dependent rate coefficients for the reaction of C2H4 + HO2 on the C2H4O2H potential energy surface. (United States)

    Guo, JunJiang; Xu, JiaQi; Li, ZeRong; Tan, NingXin; Li, XiangYuan


    The potential energy surface (PES) for reaction C2H4 + HO2 was examined by using the quantum chemical methods. All rates were determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 composite method combined with conventional transition state theory(TST), variational transition-state theory (VTST) and Rice-Ramsberger-Kassel-Marcus/master-equation (RRKM/ME) theory. The geometries optimization and the vibrational frequency analysis of reactants, transition states, and products were performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level. The composite CBS-QB3 method was applied for energy calculations. The major product channel of reaction C2H4 + HO2 is the formation C2H4O2H via an OH(···)π complex with 3.7 kcal/mol binding energy which exhibits negative-temperature dependence. We further investigated the reactions related to this complex, which were ignored in previous studies. Thermochemical properties of the species involved in the reactions were determined using the CBS-QB3 method, and enthalpies of formation of species were compared with literature values. The calculated rate constants are in good agreement with those available from literature and given in modified Arrhenius equation form, which are serviceable in combustion modeling of hydrocarbons. Finally, in order to illustrate the effect for low-temperature ignition of our new rate constants, we have implemented them into the existing mechanisms, which can predict ethylene ignition in a shock tube with better performance.

  10. A high-resolution photoelectron imaging and theoretical study of CP- and C2P. (United States)

    Czekner, Joseph; Cheung, Ling Fung; Johnson, Eric L; Fortenberry, Ryan C; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    The discovery of interstellar anions has been a milestone in astrochemistry. In the search for new interstellar anions, CP- and C2P- are viable candidates since their corresponding neutrals have already been detected astronomically. However, scarce data exist for these negatively charged species. Here we report the electron affinities of CP and C2P along with the vibrational frequencies of their anions using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. These results along with previous spectroscopic data of the neutral species are used further to benchmark very accurate quartic force field quantum chemical methods that are applied to CP, CP-, C2P, and two electronic states of C2P-. The predicted electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The electron affinities of CP (2.8508 ± 0.0007 eV) and C2P (2.6328 ± 0.0006 eV) are measured accurately and found to be quite high, suggesting that the CP- and C2P- anions are thermodynamically stable and possibly observable. The current study suggests that the combination of high-resolution photoelectron imaging and quantum chemistry can be used to determine accurate molecular constants for exotic radical species of astronomical interest.

  11. [Surgical kyphoplasty for management of axis metastasis: technical note kyphoplastie de C2]. (United States)

    Fuentes, S; Métellus, P; Pech-Gourg, G; Dufour, H; Grisoli, F


    C2 vertebral metastases are seldom encountered. They usually cause disabling pain at the upper cervical level and can also result in life-threatening spinal instability. The technique described herein may provide a valuable minimally invasive option for treating this condition. We report a case of C2 metastasis resulting from gastric adenocarcinoma in a 58-year-old male; since there was no spinal instability, open kyphoplasty was performed at C2, resulting in the healing of the body and the base of the odontoid of the C2 vertebra. The X-ray follow-up more than six months after surgery confirmed the absence of any spinal instability at the craniocervical junction. Open kyphoplasty at C2 provides a means to manage a metastasis located in the body of the C2 vertebra. This method maintains the rotatory function of the upper cervical spine, which seems to be a crucial factor, given the poor prognosis usually associated with this condition.

  12. C2H4 adsorption on Cu(210), revisited: bonding nature and coverage effects. (United States)

    Amino, Shuichi; Arguelles, Elvis; Agerico Diño, Wilson; Okada, Michio; Kasai, Hideaki


    With the aid of density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations, we investigate the adsorption of C2H4 on Cu(210). We found two C2H4 adsorption sites, viz., the top of the step-edge atom (S) and the long bridge between two step-edge atoms (SS) of Cu(210). The step-edge atoms on Cu(210) block the otherwise active terrace sites found on copper surfaces with longer step sizes. This results in the preference for π-bonded over di-σ-bonded C2H4. We also found two stable C2H4 adsorption orientations on the S- and SS-sites, viz., with the C2H4 C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond parallel (fit) and perpendicular (cross) to [001]. Furthermore, we found that the three peaks observed in previous temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiment [Surf. Sci., 2011, 605, 934-940] could be attributed to C2H4 in the S-fit or S-cross, S-fit and S-cross-fit (S-cross and S-fit configurations that both exist in the same unit cell) configurations on Cu(210).

  13. FTIR time-series of biomass burning products (HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E and comparisons with model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. A. Jones


    Full Text Available Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E, situated in the Indian Ocean at about 800 km east of Madagascar, is appropriately located to monitor the outflow of biomass burning pollution from Southern Africa and Madagascar, in the case of short-lived compounds, and from other Southern Hemispheric landmasses such as South America, in the case of longer-lived species. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR solar absorption observations are sensitive to a large number of biomass burning products. We present in this work the FTIR retrieval strategies, suitable for very humid sites such as Reunion Island, for hydrogen cyanide (HCN, ethane (C2H6, acetylene (C2H2, methanol (CH3OH, and formic acid (HCOOH. We provide their total columns time-series obtained from the measurements during August–October 2004, May–October 2007, and May 2009–December 2010. We show that biomass burning explains a large part of the observed seasonal and interannual variability of the chemical species. The correlations between the daily mean total columns of each of the species and those of CO, also measured with our FTIR spectrometer at Reunion Island, are very good from August to November (R ≥ 0.86. This allows us to derive, for that period, the following enhancement ratios with respect to CO: 0.0047, 0.0078, 0.0020, 0.012, and 0.0046 for HCN, C2H6, C2H2, CH3OH, and HCOOH, respectively. The HCN ground-based data are compared to the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, while the data for the other species are compared to the IMAGESv2 model. We show that using the HCN/CO ratio derived from our measurements (0.0047 in GEOS-Chem reduces the underestimation of the modeled HCN columns compared with the FTIR measurements. The comparisons between IMAGESv2 and the long-lived species C2H6 and C2H2 indicate that the biomass burning emissions used in the model (from the GFED3 inventory are probably underestimated in the late September–October period for all years of measurements, and

  14. 40 CFR 75.24 - Out-of-control periods and adjustment for system bias. (United States)


    ... § 75.24 Out-of-control periods and adjustment for system bias. (a) If an out-of-control period occurs... specification in appendix A to this part. (3) For relative accuracy test audits, an out-of-control period occurs... monitor or continuous emission monitoring system is out-of-control, any data recorded by the monitor or...

  15. Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO-Loaded SnO2 Nanocomposite and Applications in C2H2 Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Jin


    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 gas sensors were developed by synthesizing a reduced graphene oxide (rGO-loaded SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. Morphological characterizations showed the formation of well-dispersed SnO2 nanoparticles loaded on the rGO sheets with excellent transparency and obvious fold boundary. Structural analysis revealed good agreement with the standard crystalline phases of SnO2 and rGO. Gas sensing characteristics of the synthesized materials were carried out in a temperature range of 100–300 °C with various concentrations of C2H2 gas. At 180 °C, the SnO2–rGO hybrid showed preferable detection of C2H2 with high sensor response (12.4 toward 50 ppm, fast response-recovery time (54 s and 23 s, limit of detection (LOD of 1.3 ppm and good linearity, with good selectivity and long-term stability. Furthermore, the possible gas sensing mechanism of the SnO2–rGO nanocomposites for C2H2 gas were summarized and discussed in detail. Our work indicates that the addition of rGO would be effective in enhancing the sensing properties of metal oxide-based gas sensors for C2H2 and may make a contribution to the development of an excellent ppm-level gas sensor for on-line monitoring of dissolved C2H2 gas in transformer oil.

  16. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb) (United States)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.


    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  17. Quantitative C2H2 measurements in sooty flames using mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy (United States)

    Sun, Z. W.; Li, Z. S.; Li, B.; Alwahabi, Z. T.; Aldén, M.


    Quantitative measurements of acetylene (C2H2) molecules as a combustion intermediate species in a series of rich premixed C2H4/air flames were non-intrusively performed, spatially resolved, using mid-infrared polarization spectroscopy (IRPS), by probing its fundamental ro-vibrational transitions. The flat sooty C2H4/air premixed flames with different equivalence ratios varying from 1.25 to 2.50 were produced on a 6 cm diameter porous-plug McKenna type burner at atmospheric pressure, and all measurements were performed at a height of 8.5 mm above the burner surface. IRPS excitation scans in different flame conditions were performed and rotational line-resolved spectra were recorded. Spectral features of acetylene molecules were readily recognized in the spectral ranges selected, with special attention to avoid the spectral interference from the large amount of coexisting hot water and other hydrocarbon molecules. On-line calibration of the optical system was performed in a laminar C2H2/N2 gas flow at ambient conditions. Using the flame temperatures measured by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy in a previous work, C2H2 mole fractions in different flames were evaluated with collision effects and spectral overlap between molecular line and laser source being analyzed and taken into account. C2H2 IRPS signals in two different buffering gases, N2 and CO2, had been investigated in a tube furnace in order to estimate the spectral overlap coefficients and collision effects at different temperatures. The soot-volume fractions (SVF) in the studied flames were measured using a He-Ne laser-extinction method, and no obvious degrading of the IRPS technique due to the sooty environment has been observed in the flame with SVF up to ˜2×10-7. With the increase of flame equivalence ratios not only the SVF but also the C2H2 mole fractions increased.

  18. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  19. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng


    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  20. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment. (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio


    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  1. ALMA imaging of C2H emission in the disk of NGC 1068 (United States)

    García-Burillo, S.; Viti, S.; Combes, F.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Krips, M.; Aalto, S.; Aladro, R.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Casasola, V.; Henkel, C.; Querejeta, M.; Neri, R.; Costagliola, F.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.


    Aims: We study the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity on the chemistry of molecular gas in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing whether the abundances of key molecular species such as ethynyl (C2H), which is a classical tracer of photon dominated regions (PDR), change in the different environments of the disk of the galaxy. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the hyperfine multiplet of C2H(N = 1-0) and its underlying continuum emission in the central r ≃ 35″ (2.5 kpc) region of the disk of NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution 1.̋0 × 0.̋7 (≃ 50-70 pc). We used maps of the dust continuum emission obtained at 349 GHz by ALMA to derive the H2 gas column densities and combined these with the C2H map at matched spatial resolution to estimate the fractional abundance of this species. We developed a set of time-dependent chemical models, which include shocks, gas-phase PDRs, and gas-grain chemical models to determine the origin of the C2H gas. Results: A sizeable fraction of the total C2H line emission is detected from the r ≃ 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring, which is a region that concentrates the bulk of the recent massive star formation in the disk traced by the Paα emission complexes imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, the brightest C2H emission originates from a r ≃ 200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), where evidence of a molecular outflow has been previously found in other molecular tracers imaged by ALMA. We also detect significant emission that connects the CND with the outer disk in a region that probes the interface between the molecular disk and ionized gas outflow out to r ≃ 400 pc. We derived the fractional abundances of C2H (X(C2H)) assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions and a set of excitation temperatures (Tex) constrained by the previous multiline CO studies of the galaxy. Our estimates range from X(C2H) ≃ a

  2. Electrophilic Halogenation of closo-1,2-C2B8H10. (United States)

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Růžička, Aleš; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Holub, Josef; Tok, Oleg L; Štíbr, Bohumil


    Initial studies on electrophilic halogenation of the dicarbaborane closo-1,2-C2B8H10 (1) have been carried out to reveal that the substitution takes place at B7 and B10 vertexes, which are the most removed from the CH positions. The course of the halogenation is strongly dependent on the nature of the halogenation agent and reaction conditions. Individual reactions led to the isolation of the monosubstituted compounds 1,2-C2B8H9-10-X (2) (where X = F, I) and 1,2-C2B8H9-7-X (3) (where X = Cl, I). Disubstituted carboranes 1,2-C2B8H8-7,10-X2 (4) (where X = Cl, Br, I) were obtained under more forcing conditions. Individual halo derivatives were characterized by mass spectrometry and high-field NMR ((11)B, (1)H,(13)C) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional [(11)B-(11)B]-COSY, (1)H{(11)B(selective)}, and [(11)B-(1)H]-correlation NMR techniques. All of the derivatives bearing a halogen substituent in the B10 position exhibit a remarkable antipodal (13)C and (1)H NMR shielding at the CH1 vertex, increasing in the order H < I < Br < Cl < F. The structures of 1,2-C2B8H8-7,10-X2 derivatives (where X = Cl, I, 4b,d) were established by X-ray diffraction analyses.

  3. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Global Analysis of the Bending Vibrations of Acetylene 12C2D2 (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Lattanzi, Valerio; Walters, Adam


    Two hundred and fifty-one 12C2D2 transitions have been measured in the 0.2-1.6 THz region of its ν5-ν4 difference band and 202 of them were observed for the first time. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be ranging from 50 kHz to 100 kHz. The 12C2D2 molecules were generated under room temperature by passing 120-150 mTorr D2O vapor through calcium carbide (CaC2) powder. A multistate analysis was carried out for the bending vibrational modes ν4 and ν5 of 12C2D2, which includes the lines observed in this work and prior microwave, far-infrared and infrared data on the pure bending levels. Significantly improved molecular parameters were obtained for 12C2D2 by adding the new measurements to the old data set, which had only 10 lines with microwave measurement precision. New frequency and intensity predictions have been made based on the obtained molecular parameters. The more precise measurements and new predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by the future high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA, which will work in the terahertz spectral region.

  4. Whole Device Modeling of Compact Tori: Stability and Transport Modeling of C-2W (United States)

    Dettrick, Sean; Fulton, Daniel; Lau, Calvin; Lin, Zhihong; Ceccherini, Francesco; Galeotti, Laura; Gupta, Sangeeta; Onofri, Marco; Tajima, Toshiki; TAE Team


    Recent experimental evidence from the C-2U FRC experiment shows that the confinement of energy improves with inverse collisionality, similar to other high beta toroidal devices, NSTX and MAST. This motivated the construction of a new FRC experiment, C-2W, to study the energy confinement scaling at higher electron temperature. Tri Alpha Energy is working towards catalysing a community-wide collaboration to develop a Whole Device Model (WDM) of Compact Tori. One application of the WDM is the study of stability and transport properties of C-2W using two particle-in-cell codes, ANC and FPIC. These codes can be used to find new stable operating points, and to make predictions of the turbulent transport at those points. They will be used in collaboration with the C-2W experimental program to validate the codes against C-2W, mitigate experimental risk inherent in the exploration of new parameter regimes, accelerate the optimization of experimental operating scenarios, and to find operating points for future FRC reactor designs.

  5. C2/3 instability in a child with Down's syndrome . case report and discussion. (United States)

    Citow, J S; Munshi, I; Chang-Stroman, T; Sullivan, C; Frim, D M


    Down's syndrome patients are prone to cervical ligamentous laxity, the vast majority of which is at the C1/2 level. We describe the case of a 2-year-old girl with Down's syndrome who was found to have cervical instability at the C2/3 level on screening cervical spine radiographs with 9 mm of anterolisthesis of C2 on C3. She was without clinically evident neurological deficit from this condition; however, T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of her cervical spine revealed high intensity signal changes within the spinal cord at and above that level. She underwent posterior fusion that was complicated by poor tolerance of her Minerva-type cervical brace. She eventually developed a stable fusion with 5 mm of anterolisthesis at the C2/3 level. This is the only Down's syndrome patient with instability at the C2/3 level that we have found reported. Our experience suggests that Down's syndrome patients can have instability at C2/3 that can be successfully treated with posterior fusion.

  6. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu


    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  7. Pressure-induced structural transformations and polymerization in ThC2 (United States)

    Guo, Yongliang; Yu, Cun; Lin, Jun; Wang, Changying; Ren, Cuilan; Sun, Baoxing; Huai, Ping; Xie, Ruobing; Ke, Xuezhi; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Hongjie


    Thorium-carbon systems have been thought as promising nuclear fuel for Generation IV reactors which require high-burnup and safe nuclear fuel. Existing knowledge on thorium carbides under extreme condition remains insufficient and some is controversial due to limited studies. Here we systematically predict all stable structures of thorium dicarbide (ThC2) under the pressure ranging from ambient to 300 GPa by merging ab initio total energy calculations and unbiased structure searching method, which are in sequence of C2/c, C2/m, Cmmm, Immm and P6/mmm phases. Among these phases, the C2/m is successfully observed for the first time via in situ synchrotron XRD measurements, which exhibits an excellent structural correspondence to our theoretical predictions. The transition sequence and the critical pressures are predicted. The calculated results also reveal the polymerization behaviors of the carbon atoms and the corresponding characteristic C-C bonding under various pressures. Our work provides key information on the fundamental material behavior and insights into the underlying mechanisms that lay the foundation for further exploration and application of ThC2.

  8. Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CP II in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). (United States)

    Kilgallon, Conor P; Larsen, Scott; Wong, Alice; Yellowley, Clare


    Osteoarthritis is a major cause of chronic lameness in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in captivity worldwide. Radiology and other imaging technologies are of limited use in the early diagnosis of this condition in elephants. Collagen II is a major component of articular cartilage. The degradation and formation of collagen II can be monitored by the measurement of specific biomarkers in biologic fluids such as serum. It is possible that these biomarkers could also prove useful in identifying disease in elephants. In this study two commercially available immunoassays which measure a marker of collagen II degradation (C2C) and a marker of collagen II formation (CPII) were evaluated in Asian elephants. The ability of the assays to detect and measure C2C and CPII in the serum of Asian elephants was confirmed. Median serum concentration of C2C was 148 ng/L in nonlame elephants (n=33) and 91.2 ng/L in lame elephants (n=7). The difference was statistically significant (P=0.0002). Median serum concentration of CPII was 519.3 ng/L in nonlame elephants and 318.7 ng/L in lame elephants. The difference was also statistically significant (P=0.039). Whereas CPII concentrations in lame elephants mirrored findings from human and animal osteoarthritis studies, C2C concentrations did not. Further studies which evaluate these and other similar biomarkers are necessary to elucidate their usefulness in the diagnosis of osteoarthritis in proboscidae.

  9. The impact of the difference in O-C2 angle in the development of dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion: a simulation study in normal volunteers combined with a case-control study. (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wu, Tingkui; Liu, Ziyang; Wen, Daguang; Rong, Xin; Chen, Hua; Lou, Jigang; Liu, Hao


    Dysphagia has been recognized as one of the most serious complications after occipitocervical fusion (OCF), and the difference between postoperative and preoperative O-C2 angle (dO-C2A) was proposed to be an indicator in predicting and preventing dysphagia. Therefore, to prevent postoperative dysphagia, previous studies recommend that surgeons should correct the O-C2 angle (O-C2A) during surgery if the occipitocervical alignment was in an excessively flexed position. However, until now, there was no explicit indicator of the condition in which surgeons should adjust the patient's O-C2A during surgery. One of the purposes of this study was to explore the threshold of dO-C2A between dysphagia and normal swallowing by a simulation study. The other aim was to evaluate the validity of the threshold of dO-C2A in predicting dysphagia after OCF via a case-control study. This is a simulation study combined with a retrospective case-control study. Thirty volunteers were enrolled in the simulation study. Thirty-four consecutive patients who underwent OCF between September 2011 and September 2016 were included in the case-control study. The outcome measures included O-C2A, C2-7 angle (C2-7A), atlantodental interval (ADI), the narrowest oropharyngeal airway space (nPAS), the rate of change in dnPAS (%dnPAS), and the prevalence of postoperative dysphagia. In the simulation study, each volunteer received two lateral x-rays of their cervical spine in neutral position and dysphagia position, respectively. We compared the radiographic parameters in neutral and dysphagia positions. The cumulative frequency diagram of dO-C2A in the dysphagia position was analyzed to identify the threshold of dO-C2A in the development of dysphagia. In the case-control study, these 34 patients were divided into two groups according to the threshold of dO-C2A identified in the simulation study. The impact of radiographic parameters on nPAS was analyzed. The prevalence of postoperative dysphagia between

  10. Bicultural Efficacy and College Adjustment. (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; And Others

    The retention of ethnic minorities is a major problem in American colleges and universities. This study deals with the factors that affect adjustment to college and, in particular, to achievement of "bicultural efficacy" for this group. Bicultural efficacy is defined as an individual's expectations that he or she can (or cannot) manage the stress…

  11. Technological Change: Helping Workers Adjust. (United States)

    Mowery, David C.


    Discusses some of the problems in employment shifts and unemployment caused by new technologies in offices and factories. Addresses the Job Training Partnership Act (Title III) which was established as the primary assistance vehicle for displaced workers. Calls for workers to receive sufficient time to adjust to technologies. (TW)

  12. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus


    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  13. Defect processes of M3AlC2 (M = V, Zr, Ta, Ti) MAX phases (United States)

    Christopoulos, S.-R. G.; Kelaidis, N.; Chroneos, A.


    The interest on the Mn+1AXn phases (M = early transition metal; A = group 13-16 element and X = C and/or N) stems from their combination of advantageous metallic and ceramic properties. Aluminium containing 312 MAX phases in particular are deemed to enhance high-temperature oxidation resistance. In the present study, we use density functional theory calculations to study the intrinsic defect processes of M3AlC2 MAX phases (M = V, Zr, Ta, Ti). The calculations reveal that Ti3AlC2 is the more radiation tolerant 312 MAX phase considered here. In Ti3AlC2 the carbon Frenkel reaction is the lowest energy defect process with 3.17 eV. Results are discussed in view of recent experimental and theoretical results of related systems.

  14. Mechanical and thermodynamic properties of YB2C2 under pressure (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Hong, Tao


    The pressure dependence of structure, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Yttrium diborocarbides (YB2C2) up to a maximum pressure of 70 GPa have been investigated systematically by the first-principles calculations. The calculated structure parameters are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The elastic constants were calculated, the results show that YB2C2 is mechanically stable throughout the pressure range covered. The polycrystalline elastic modulus, ductility and hardness are discussed in details. All of them gradually increase linearly with increasing pressure. Our calculations also show that YB2C2 will transition from brittleness to ductility around 52 GPa. Finally, the anisotropic behavior, the Debye temperature and melting temperature had been studied.

  15. Production of $\\chi_{c2}$ Mesons in Photon-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.


    We present an observation at LEP of the production of chi_c2 mesons in the collisions of two quasi-real photons using the OPAL detector. The chi_c2 mesons are reconstructed in the decay channel Chi_c2 to J/psi gamma to l+l- gamma (with l= e,mu) using all data taken at e+e- centre-of-mass energies of 91 and 183 GeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 167 and 55 pb-1 respectively. The two-photon width of the Chi_2 is determined to be 1.76 +- 0.47 +- 0.37 +- 0.15 keV where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic and the third comes from branching ratio uncertainties.

  16. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gota, H., E-mail:; Thompson, M. C.; Tuszewski, M.; Binderbauer, M. W. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  17. Overview of C-2 field-reversed configuration experiment plasma diagnostics. (United States)

    Gota, H; Thompson, M C; Tuszewski, M; Binderbauer, M W


    A comprehensive diagnostic suite for field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas has been developed and installed on the C-2 device at Tri Alpha Energy to investigate the dynamics of FRC formation as well as to understand key FRC physics properties, e.g., confinement and stability, throughout a discharge. C-2 is a unique, large compact-toroid merging device that produces FRC plasmas partially sustained for up to ∼5 ms by neutral-beam (NB) injection and end-on plasma-guns for stability control. Fundamental C-2 FRC properties are diagnosed by magnetics, interferometry, Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, bolometry, reflectometry, and NB-related fast-ion/neutral diagnostics. These diagnostics (totaling >50 systems) are essential to support the primary goal of developing a deep understanding of NB-driven FRCs.

  18. Effect modification by transferrin C2 polymorphism on lead exposure, hemoglobin levels, and IQ. (United States)

    Roy, Ananya; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David; Schwartz, Joel; Modali, Rama; Wright, Robert O; Palaniappan, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Kalpana


    Iron deficiency and lead exposure remain significant public health issues in many parts of the world and are both independently associated with neurocognitive deficits. Polymorphisms in iron transport pathways have been shown to modify the absorption and toxicity of lead. We hypothesized that the transferrin (TF) C2 polymorphism modifies the effects of lead and hemoglobin on intelligence. Children aged 3-7 years (N=708) were enrolled from 12 primary schools in Chennai, India. The Binet-Kamath Scale of Intelligence were administered to ascertain intelligence quotient (IQ). Venous blood was analyzed for lead and hemoglobin levels. Genotyping for the TF C2 polymorphism (rs1049296) was carried out using a MassARRAY iPLEXTM platform. Stratified analyses and interaction models, using generalized estimating equations, were examined to explore interactions between lead, hemoglobin, and TF C2 categories. A one-unit increase in log blood lead and 1g/dl higher hemoglobin was associated with -77 (95% CI: -136, -18) and 17 (95% CI 14, 21) IQ points, respectively, among children carrying the C2 variant. In comparison, among children who had the homozygous wildtype allele, the same increment of lead and hemoglobin were associated with -21(95% CI: -65, 24) and 28 (95% CI: 15, 40) IQ points, respectively. There was a significant interaction between lead (p=0.04) and hemoglobin (p=0.07) with the C2 variant. Children who carry the TF C2 variant may be more susceptible to the neurotoxic effects of lead exposure and less protected by higher levels of hemoglobin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lubiprostone activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the prostaglandin receptor (EP(4)). (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R; MacDonald, Kelvin D


    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP(4) receptor has been described [2-5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode voltage clamp was used to assay Xenopus oocytes expressing ClC-2, with or without co-expression of the EP(4) receptor or β adrenergic receptor (βAR), for changes in conductance elicited by lubiprostone. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and either βAR or the EP(4) receptor were also studied. In oocytes co-expressing ClC-2 and βAR conductance was stimulated by hyperpolarization and acidic pH (pH = 6), but there was no response to the β adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. Oocytes expressing ClC-2 only or co-expressing ClC-2 and EP(4) did not respond to the presence of 0.1, 1, or 10 μM lubiprostone in the superperfusate. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and βAR did not respond to hyperpolarization, acidic pH, or 1 μM lubiprostone. However, conductance was elevated by isoproterenol and inhibited by CFTR(inh)172. Co-expression of CFTR and EP(4) resulted in lubiprostone-stimulated conductance, which was also sensitive to CFTR(inh)172. The EC(50) for lubiprostone mediated CFTR activation was ~10 nM. These results demonstrate no direct action of lubiprostone on either ClC-2 or CFTR channels expressed in oocytes. However, the results confirm that CFTR can be activated by lubiprostone via the EP(4) receptor in oocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lubiprostone Activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the Prostaglandin Receptor (EP4) (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R.; MacDonald, Kelvin D.


    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP4 receptor has been described [2; 3; 4; 5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode voltage clamp was used to assay Xenopus oocytes expressing ClC-2, with or without co-expression of the EP4 receptor or β adrenergic receptor (βAR), for changes in conductance elicited by lubiprostone. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and either βAR or the EP4 receptor were also studied. In oocytes co-expressing ClC-2 and βAR conductance was stimulated by hyperpolarization and acidic pH (pH=6), but there was no response to the β adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. Oocytes expressing ClC-2 only or co-expressing ClC-2 and EP4 did not respond to the presence of 0.1, 1, or 10 µM lubiprostone in the superperfusate. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and βAR did not respond to hyperpolarization, acidic pH, or 1µM lubiprostone. However, conductance was elevated by isoproterenol and inhibited by CFTRinh172. Co-expression of CFTR and EP4 resulted in lubiprostone-stimulated conductance, which was also sensitive to CFTRinh172. The EC50 for lubiprostone mediated CFTR activation was ~ 10 nM. These results demonstrate no direct action of lubiprostone on either ClC-2 or CFTR channels expressed in oocytes. However, the results confirm that CFTR can be activated by lubiprostone via the EP4 receptor in oocytes. PMID:22960173

  1. When does intraoperative 3D-imaging play a role in transpedicular C2 screw placement? (United States)

    Jacobs, Cornelius; Roessler, Philip P; Scheidt, Sebastian; Plöger, Milena M; Jacobs, Collin; Disch, Alexander C; Schaser, Klaus D; Hartwig, Tony


    The stabilization of an atlantoaxial (C1-C2) instability is demanding due to a complex atlantoaxial anatomy with proximity to the spinal cord, a variable run of the vertebral artery (VA) and narrow C2 pedicles. We perfomed the Goel & Harms fusion in combination with an intraoperative 3D imaging to ensure correct screw placement in the C2 pedicle. We hypothesized, that narrow C2 pedicles lead to a higher malposition rate of screws by perforation of the pedicle wall. The purpose of this study was to describe a certain pedicle size, under which the perforation rate rises. In this retrospective study, all patients (n=30) were operated in the Goel & Harms technique. The isthmus height and pedicle diameter of C2 were measured. The achieved screw position in C2 was evaluated according to Gertzbein & Robbin classification (GRGr). A statistically significant correlation was found between the pedicles size (isthmus height/pedicle diameter) and the achieved GRGr for the right (p=0.002/p=0.03) and left side (p=0.018/p=0.008). The ROC analysis yielded a Cut Off value for the pedicle size to distinguish between an intact or perforated pedicle wall (GRGr 1 or ≥2). The Cut-Off value was identified for the isthmus height (right 6.1mm, left 5.4mm) and for the pedicle diameter (6.6mm both sides). The hypothesis, that narrow pedicles lead to a higher perforation rate of the pedicle wall, can be accepted. Pedicles of important in cases with thin pedicles. The rising risk of VA injury in these cases support the additional use of navigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reorientation of cytochrome c2 upon interaction with oppositely charged macromolecules probed by SR EPR: implications for the role of dipole moment to facilitate collisions in proper configuration for electron transfer. (United States)

    Sarewicz, Marcin; Pietras, Rafał; Froncisz, Wojciech; Osyczka, Artur


    The reaction of water-soluble cytochrome c (c(2)) with its physiological redox partners is facilitated by electrostatic attractions between the two protein surfaces. Using spin-labeled cytochrome c(2) from Rhodobacter capsulatus and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements we compared spatial orientation of cytochrome c(2) upon its binding to surfaces of opposite charge. We observed that cytochrome c(2) can use its negatively charged "back" side when exposed to interact with positively charged surfaces (DEAE resin) which is the opposite to the use of its positively charged "front" side in physiological interaction with negatively charged binding domain of cytochrome bc(1). The later orientation is also adopted upon non-physiological binding of cytochrome c(2) to negatively charged carboxymethyl cellulose resin. These results directly demonstrate how the electric dipolar nature of cytochrome c(2) influences its orientation in interactions with charged surfaces, which may facilitate collisions with other redox proteins in a proper orientation to support physiologically-competent electron transfer. Saturation recovery EPR provides an attractive tool for monitoring spatial orientation of proteins in their interaction with surfaces in liquid phase. It is particularly valuable for metalloproteins engaged in redox reactions as a means to monitor the geometry and dynamics of formation of protein complexes in measurements that are independent of electron transfer processes.

  3. On topological aspects of C03 and C2 with special emphasis on lexicographic order (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdev; Kumar, Sanjeev


    The article deals with topological structures on C03 and C2. We establish an order topology on C03 and the structure of the basis elements is developed. We revisit our earlier work on order topologies and establish some new results. Order relations are also defined on the bicomplex space and the results are compared with the previous results. We define a product topology on C2 with restriction on component spaces A1 and A2 having lexicographic order. Examples are provided to show that the results are best possible.

  4. Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function. (United States)

    Shi, Chenyang; Beidaghi, Majid; Naguib, Michael; Mashtalir, Olha; Gogotsi, Yury; Billinge, Simon J L


    The structures of nanocrystalline pristine, potassium hydroxide and sodium acetate intercalated new two-dimensional materials Ti3C2 MXenes were studied using the x-ray atomic pair distribution function technique. Pristine MXene has a hexagonal structure with a=b=3.0505(5)  Å, c=19.86(2)  Å (S.G. P63/mmc No. 194). Both hydroxyl and fluoride terminating species are present. The intercalation of K+ or Na+ ions expands the Ti3C2 layers perpendicular to the planes but shrinks the in-plane a and b lattice parameters.

  5. Sc3N and Sc2C2 encapsulated B40: Smarter than its carbon analogue (United States)

    Shah, Esha V.; Roy, Debesh R.


    A detailed comparative investigation on the recently synthesised B40 and C40 along with their metal nitride (Sc3N)and carbide (Sc2C2) encapsulated endohedral fullerenes, is performed under density functional theory for the first time. The structures, electronic, thermodynamic and magnetic properties of all the considered compounds are explored in detail. The present study identifies borospherene (B40) and its encapsulated nitride (Sc3N@B40) and carbide (Sc2C2@B40) endohedral borofullerenes as the better candidates for future novel nano-applications compared to their carbon bucky ball analogues.

  6. Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation associated with C2 articular facet fracture in adult patient: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bellil


    Full Text Available Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is a very rare injury in adults which is often misdiagnosed initially. Its combination with C2 fractures is predominated by dens lesions. Therapeutic management is challenging because of the difficulty to achieve optimal reduction and permanent stability. We report a rare case of traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation in a 56-year-old women associated with C2 articular facet fracture successfully treated by conservative means after patient-awake manual reduction with optimal functional and radiographic outcome.

  7. Possible Sources for Methane and C2-C5 Organics in the Plume of Enceladus (United States)

    McKay, Chris; Khare, Bishun N.; Amin, Ranjamin; Klasson, Martin; Kral, Timothy A.


    In this paper we consider six possible sources of CH4 and other low-mass (C2 - C5) organics in the plume of Enceladus: initial endowments of cometary organics or Titan- like tholin, in situ production by Fisher-Tropsch type reactions, water-rock reactions, or microbiology, and thermogenesis from heavier organics already present. We report on new laboratory results C2 hydrocarbons released on thermogenesis of laboratory tholin and Fisher-Tropsch type synthesis. Tholin heating produced ratios of CH4/C2H4 and CH4/C2H6 of about 2 for temperatures up to 450 C and about 6 for a temperature of 650 C. Low pressure Fisher-Tropsch type experiments produced CH4/C2H4 of approx 1.5, similar to previous results. No C2H2 was produced by either process. Tests of gas production by four strains of methanogens confirmed the absence of any detectable production of non-methane hydrocarbons. Cometary endowment, Fisher-Tropsch type synthesis, and Titan-like tholin incorporation could be primary inputs of organics and subsequent thermal processing of any of these all are possible sources of low mass organics in the plume. Biological production and water-rock reactions are an alternative source of CH4. Neither water-- ]rock reactions or thermal processing of biomass could be a source C2 . C5 organics due to the low interior pressures. The confirmed detection of CO and C2H2 in the plume of Enceladus would provide an important constraint on sources as we have identified no process . other than the initial volatile component of cometary organics which can supply these gases. Precise determination of the relative concentrations of C1 - C5 hydrocarbons may provide additional constraints on sources but a detailed isotopic analysis of C and H in these organics and a search for amino acids constitute the next important steps in resolving the sources of the organics in Enceladus' plume.

  8. Two-color CO{sub 2}/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornostaeva, O.; Deng, B. H.; Garate, E.; Gota, H.; Kinley, J.; Schroeder, J.; Tuszewski, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO{sub 2} laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than {+-}5 deg., corresponding to a line integral density of 3x10{sup 18} m{sup -2}. The time resolution for routine operation is 2 {mu}s.

  9. Internal magnetic field measurement on C-2 field-reversed configuration plasmas. (United States)

    Gota, H; Thompson, M C; Knapp, K; Van Drie, A D; Deng, B H; Mendoza, R; Guo, H Y; Tuszewski, M


    A long-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma has been produced in the C-2 device by dynamically colliding and merging two oppositely directed, highly supersonic compact toroids (CTs). The reversed-field structure of the translated CTs and final merged-FRC state have been directly verified by probing the internal magnetic field structure using a multi-channel magnetic probe array near the midplane of the C-2 confinement chamber. Each of the two translated CTs exhibits significant toroidal fields (B(t)) with opposite helicity, and a relatively large B(t) remains inside the separatrix after merging.

  10. Two-color CO2/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment. (United States)

    Gornostaeva, O; Deng, B H; Garate, E; Gota, H; Kinley, J; Schroeder, J; Tuszewski, M


    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO(2) laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than ±5°, corresponding to a line integral density of 3×10(18) m(-2). The time resolution for routine operation is 2 μs.

  11. The diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432 variant impairs glucose-stimulated insulin response in 5,722 non-diabetic Danish individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, N; Overvad, M; Sparsø, T


    A genome-wide association study in the Japanese population reported two genome-wide significant loci associated with type 2 diabetes of which the VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B locus was replicated in Europeans. We looked for potential associations between the diabetogenic VPS13C/C2CD4A/C2CD4B rs7172432...

  12. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates from commercial microwave links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fencl


    experimental layouts of ground truth from rain gauges (RGs with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The results suggest that CMLs adjusted by RGs with a temporal aggregation of up to 1 h (i provide precise high-resolution QPEs (relative error  < 7 %, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient  >  0.75 and (ii that the combination of both sensor types clearly outperforms each individual monitoring system. Unfortunately, adjusting CML observations to RGs with longer aggregation intervals of up to 24 h has drawbacks. Although it substantially reduces bias, it unfavourably smoothes out rainfall peaks of high intensities, which is undesirable for stormwater management. A similar, but less severe, effect occurs due to spatial averaging when CMLs are adjusted to remote RGs. Nevertheless, even here, adjusted CMLs perform better than RGs alone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that the joint use of multiple CMLs together with RGs also reduces bias in their QPEs. In summary, we believe that our adjustment method has great potential to improve the space–time resolution of current urban rainfall monitoring networks. Nevertheless, future work should aim to better understand the reason for the observed systematic error in QPEs from CMLs.

  13. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment. (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.


    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  14. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.


    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  15. Page 1 > Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Vol. C 2, Pt. 2, May 1979, pp. 149 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Vol. C 2, Pt. 2, May 1979, pp. 149–177. (C) Printed in India. Cavitation inception. VIJAY HARAKERI. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore 560 012. MS received 19 June 1978; revised 26 September 1978. Abstract. In this paper, some general aspects of ...

  16. Evolution of thermophilic DNA polymerases for the recognition and amplification of C2'-modified DNA. (United States)

    Chen, Tingjian; Hongdilokkul, Narupat; Liu, Zhixia; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Tsuen, Shujian S; Romesberg, Floyd E


    The PCR amplification of oligonucleotides enables the evolution of sequences called aptamers that bind specific targets with antibody-like affinity. However, in many applications the use of these aptamers is limited by nuclease-mediated degradation. In contrast, oligonucleotides that are modified at their sugar C2' positions with methoxy or fluorine substituents are stable to nucleases, but they cannot be synthesized by natural polymerases. Here we report the development of a polymerase-evolution system and its use to evolve thermostable polymerases that efficiently interconvert C2'-OMe-modified oligonucleotides and their DNA counterparts via 'transcription' and 'reverse transcription' or, more importantly, that PCR-amplify partially C2'-OMe- or C2'-F-modified oligonucleotides. A mechanistic analysis demonstrates that the ability to amplify the modified oligonucleotides evolved by optimizing interdomain interactions that stabilize the catalytically competent closed conformation of the polymerase. The evolved polymerases should find practical applications and the developed evolution system should be a powerful tool for tailoring polymerases to have other types of novel function.

  17. Global mitotic phosphorylation of C2H2 zinc finger protein linker peptides. (United States)

    Rizkallah, Raed; Alexander, Karen E; Hurt, Myra M


    Cessation of transcriptional activity is a hallmark of cell division. Many biochemical pathways have been shown and proposed over the past few decades to explain the silence of this phase. In particular, many individual transcription factors have been shown to be inactivated by phosphorylation. In this report, we show the simultaneous phosphorylation and mitotic redistribution of a whole class of modified transcription factors. C(2)H(2) zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) represent the largest group of gene expression regulators in the human genome. Despite their diversity, C(2)H(2) ZFPs display striking conservation of small linker peptides joining their adjacent zinc finger modules. These linkers are critical for DNA binding activity. It has been proposed that conserved phosphorylation of these linker peptides could be a common mechanism for the inactivation of the DNA binding activity of C(2)H(2) ZFPs, during mitosis. Using a novel antibody, raised against the phosphorylated form of the most conserved linker peptide sequence, we are able to visualize the massive and simultaneous mitotic phosphorylation of hundreds of these proteins. We show that this wave of phosphorylation is tightly synchronized, starting in mid-prophase right after DNA condensation and before the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. This global phosphorylation is completely reversed in telophase. In addition, the exclusion of the phospho-linker signal from condensed DNA clearly demonstrates a common mechanism for the mitotic inactivation of C(2)H(2) ZFPs. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  18. Deployable JAOCs: A Way Ahead for Operational C2 of Joint Air Operations (United States)


    not be followed dogmatically , in general, the services’ practices should complement joint doctrine. This is not the case with air doctrine. C2 for...lacks the adaptability and situational awareness required to execute multiple operations consisting of differing cultures, religions , ethnicities, and

  19. C2C in sustainable spatial development in Greenport Venlo : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie


    Cradle to Cradle (C2C), an ecologically and economically friendly design-concept developed by McDonough and Braungart (2002) proposes to manage materials and waste in such a way, that the materials can be re-used perpetually: waste equals food, either for

  20. New Ti3C2 aerogel as promising negative electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors (United States)

    Li, Lu; Zhang, Mingyi; Zhang, Xitian; Zhang, Zhiguo


    Novel 3D Ti3C2 aerogel has been first synthesized by a simple EDA-assisted self-assembly process. Its inside are channels and pores structure. The interconnected aerogel structure could efficiently restrain restacking of Ti3C2 flakes. Thus, it exhibits a large specific surface area as high as 176.3 m2 g-1. The electrochemical performances have been measured. The Ti3C2 aerogel achieves a quite high areal capacitance of 1012.5 mF cm-2 for the mass loading of 15 mg at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 in 1 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been assembled by using the Ti3C2 aerogel electrode as the negative electrode and electrospinning carbon nanofiber film as the positive electrode. The device can deliver a high energy density of 120.0 μWh cm-2 and a maximum power density of 26123 μW cm-2. A lamp panel with nineteen red light-emitting diodes has been powered by two ASCs in series.

  1. Scaling relationships for adsorption energies of C2 hydrocarbons on transition metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Glenn; Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank


    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C2Hx-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws f...

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AG8C-2BHPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  3. French data from the Continuing to Confront COPD (C2C) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roche, N.; Ajjouri, R.; Compagnon, A.; Van Der Molen, T.; Mullerova, H.

    Introduction. This article describes the French data which contributed to the international "Continuing to Confront COPD" (C2C) survey conducted in 2013 across 12 countries. Its objective was to describe the characteristics, symptoms and impact of COPD on health status, daily activities and working

  4. Effect of the method for producing Cu–Cr3C2 bulk composites on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 5. Effect of the method for producing Cu–Cr 3 C 2 bulk composites on the structure and properties ... A composite obtained bythe MPC of the powders synthesized using solid-phase mechano synthesis (MS) (copper, chromium and graphite) had thehighest ...

  5. Overview of C-2W Field-Reversed Configuration Experimental Program (United States)

    Gota, H.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Putvinski, S.; Tuszewski, M.; Dettrick, S.; Korepanov, S.; Romero, J.; Smirnov, A.; Song, Y.; Thompson, M. C.; van Drie, A.; Yang, X.; Ivanov, A. A.; TAE Team


    Tri Alpha Energy's research has been devoted to producing a high temperature, stable, long-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma state by neutral-beam injection (NBI) and edge biasing/control. C-2U experiments have demonstrated drastic improvements in particle and energy confinement properties of FRC's, and the plasma performance obtained via 10 MW NBI has achieved plasma sustainment of up to 5 ms and plasma (diamagnetism) lifetimes of 10 + ms. The emerging confinement scaling, whereby electron energy confinement time is proportional to a positive power of the electron temperature, is very attractive for higher energy plasma confinement; accordingly, verification of the observed Te scaling law will be a key future research objective. The new experimental device, C-2W (now also called ``Norman''), has the following key subsystem upgrades from C-2U: (i) higher injected power, optimum energies, and extended pulse duration of the NBI system; (ii) installation of inner divertors with upgraded edge-biasing systems; (iii) fast external equilibrium/mirror-coil current ramp-up capability; and (iv) installation of trim/saddle coils for active feedback control of the FRC plasma. This paper will review highlights of the C-2W program.

  6. Advancing the State of the Art in Applying Network Science to C2 (United States)


    models, and to identify which organizational problems benefit best from self-synchronization. In the tenth contribution, Complex Adaptive Information... eCommerce to support CMI) – Offensive cyber operations: • Integrating kinetic & cyber ops – Incorporating network science into C2 theory: • Editing

  7. Discovery and Classification of DES15C2ir by SALT (United States)

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Vaisanen, P.; Smith, M.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.


    We report optical spectroscopy of a supernova candidate discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectrum (400-850nm) of DES15C2ir was obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  8. Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Prevents Radiation-Induced Toxicity in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenjing Zhang; Yi Li; Rui Li; Yaya Wang; Mengwen Zhu; Bowen Wang; Yanling Li; Dongyun Li; Ping Xie; Bin Liu


    .... It was found that the cell viability of H9c2 cells exposed to X-ray radiation was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner and was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase as well as apoptosis...

  9. Die 'Proslogion C2-4' van Anselmus van Kantelberg (1033/34-1109 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Proslogion, C2-4 of Anselm of Canterbury (1033/34-1109) In Protestant circles students and lecturers usually know the 'ontological' (a name given by Kant) proof for the existence of God of Anselm, mostly only from selected sentences and critical arguments about this 'proof. In this article the full Latin text of Anselm's ...

  10. High-temperature oxidation behaviour of Ti3 Alx C2 in air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    than that of silicon at high temperature. The compound can be described by the formula, Ti3Si(1–x)AlxC2 (0 < x. < 0⋅16) (Zhu and Mei 2009). In the following ... phases of oxide using a rotating anode X-ray diffracto- meter (Model D/MAX-RB, RIGAKU Corporation,. Japan). The microstructures of oxide scales were investi-.

  11. "Operationalizing C2 agility”. Coping with complexity in command and control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R


    Full Text Available . The trend of modern combat is to move away from conventional warfare, increasing the occurrence of “messy” and “wicked” problems. Modern C2 systems require new frameworks and designs to cope with the increase in complexity experienced in warfare. Despite...

  12. BAMBI Promotes C2C12 Myogenic Differentiation by Enhancing Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangling Zhang


    Full Text Available Bone morphogenic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI is regarded as an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation that represses transforming growth factor-β and enhances Wnt/β-catenin signaling in various cell types. However, its role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. In the current study, we found that the expression level of BAMBI peaked in the early differentiation phase of the C2C12 rodent myoblast cell line. Knockdown of BAMBI via siRNA inhibited C2C12 differentiation, indicated by repressed MyoD, MyoG, and MyHC expression as well as reductions in the differentiation and fusion indices. BAMBI knockdown reduced the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as characterized by the decreased nuclear translocation of β-catenin and the lowered transcription of Axin2, which is a well-documented target gene of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, treatment with LiCl, an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, rescued the reduction in C2C12 differentiation caused by BAMBI siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that BAMBI is required for normal C2C12 differentiation, and that its role in myogenesis is mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  13. Nanoparticle-mediated intracellular lipid accumulation during C2C12 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao, E-mail: [Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} HTT2800 has a significant effect on intracellular lipid accumulation. {yields} HTT2800 reduced muscle-specific genes and led to the emergence of adipocyte-related genes. {yields} HT2800 converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts to that of adipoblast-like cells. -- Abstract: In this report, we sought to elucidate whether multiwall carbon nanotubes are involved in the modulation of the proliferation and differentiation of the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for 40% of total body weight and 50% of energy consumption. We focused on the differentiation pathway of myoblasts after exposure to a vapor-grown carbon fiber, HTT2800, which is one of the most highly purified carbon nanotubes. This treatment leads in parallel to the expression of a typical adipose differentiation program. We found that HTT2800 stimulated intracellular lipid accumulation in C2C12 cells. We have also shown by quantified PCR analysis that the expression of adipose-related genes was markedly upregulated during HTT2800 exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that HTT2800 specifically converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts to that of adipoblast-like cells.

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1AD0C-2V7NF [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  15. Improved synthesis of C-2-symmetrical pyridinediols and synthesis of C-s-symmetrical pyridinediols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, B; Hulst, R; Stroetinga, R; Kellogg, RM

    Base-induced reaction of 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-lutidine) (1) with two equivalents of various ketones has been reported to provide C-2-symmetrical pyridine diols 3. Closer examination reveals that competitive di-addition to a single methyl group can occur providing C-s-symmetrical pyridine diols

  16. Synthesis of 2-substituted tryptophans via a C3- to C2-alkyl migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mari


    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-substituted indoles with dehydroalanine (Dha derivatives under Lewis acid-mediated conditions has been investigated. The formation of 2-substituted tryptophans is proposed to occur through a selective alkylative dearomatization–cyclization followed by C3- to C2-alkyl migration and rearomatization.

  17. Archetypical C2 Organization Design for Ever Increasing Technological Autonomy: An Unmanned Aircraft System Illustration (United States)


    technologies and mission- environmental contexts? These represent open research questions, which—given the fundamental role of C2—are taking on...Systems, Information Science, Organization and Management ), and work to articulate metaphorical Rosetta Stones (Alberts & Nissen 2009) to translate...initially from Mintzberg (1979) and then Alberts and Nissen (2009) to articulate the approach. Organization Archetypes Mintzberg (1979) proposes

  18. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    place in periodic cycles is termed as flushesgrowth. Vegetative growth through flushes .... Effect of different levels of wax-coated CaC2 with NPK on vegetative, reproductive, physical, physiological and biochemical attributes of mango ..... performance of potato (solanum tuberosum) tubers. New Zealand J. crop. Hort. Sci.

  19. Observations of interstellar C2 toward Chi Oph, HD 154368, 147889 and 149404

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Zeeuw, de P.T.


    Interstellar absorption lines of the C2 (2-0) Phillips band at 8750 A have been searched for in the spectra of southern stars. Seventeen lines originating from the lowest eight rotational levels have been detected toward Chi Oph, and eleven lines originating from the lowest five rotational levels

  20. 17 CFR 270.3c-2 - Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial... 1940 § 270.3c-2 Definition of beneficial ownership in small business investment companies. For the... State legislature to promote and assist the growth and development of the economy within such State on a...

  1. Fitting C 2 Continuous Parametric Surfaces to Frontiers Delimiting Physiologic Structures (United States)

    Bayer, Jason D.


    We present a technique to fit C 2 continuous parametric surfaces to scattered geometric data points forming frontiers delimiting physiologic structures in segmented images. Such mathematical representation is interesting because it facilitates a large number of operations in modeling. While the fitting of C 2 continuous parametric curves to scattered geometric data points is quite trivial, the fitting of C 2 continuous parametric surfaces is not. The difficulty comes from the fact that each scattered data point should be assigned a unique parametric coordinate, and the fit is quite sensitive to their distribution on the parametric plane. We present a new approach where a polygonal (quadrilateral or triangular) surface is extracted from the segmented image. This surface is subsequently projected onto a parametric plane in a manner to ensure a one-to-one mapping. The resulting polygonal mesh is then regularized for area and edge length. Finally, from this point, surface fitting is relatively trivial. The novelty of our approach lies in the regularization of the polygonal mesh. Process performance is assessed with the reconstruction of a geometric model of mouse heart ventricles from a computerized tomography scan. Our results show an excellent reproduction of the geometric data with surfaces that are C 2 continuous. PMID:24782911

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    in situ reaction synthesis of TiC/Si/Al powders. BAOYAN LIANG†, MINGZHI WANG*, ... The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite fabricated by in situ hot pressing (HP) synthesis process were .... 7 mm × 27 mm bars for measuring the three-point bend- ing strength with a span of 20 mm. 3.

  3. 40 CFR Table C-2 to Subpart C of... - Sequence of Test Measurements (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sequence of Test Measurements C Table C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Medium. 2 High High. 3 Medium Low. 4 High High. 5 Low Medium. 6 Medium Low. 7 Low Medium. 8 Medium Low. 9...

  4. Transgenic overexpression of Niemann-Pick C2 protein promotes cholesterol gallstone formation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuna, Mariana; Gonzalez-Hodar, Lila; Amigo, Ludwig; Castro, Juan; Gabriela Morales, M.; Cancino, Gonzalo I.; Groen, Albert K.; Young, Juan; Francisco Miquel, Juan; Zanlungo, Silvana

    Background & Aims: Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) is a lysosomal protein involved in the egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to other intracellular compartments. NPC2 has been detected in several tissues and is also secreted from the liver into bile. We have previously shown

  5. Neutral Beam Injection System for the C-2W Field Reversed Configuration Experiment (United States)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Alexander; Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team; BINP Team


    C-2U Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment proved substantial reduction in turbulence-driven losses via tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) coupled with electrically biased plasma guns at the plasma ends. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (more than 5 ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without beams. To further improve FRC sustainment and demonstrate the FRC ramp-up, the C-2U experimental device is undergoing a major upgrade. The upgrade, C-2W, will have a new NBI system producing a record total hydrogen beam power of 20 + MW in a 30ms pulse. The NBI system consists of eight positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. Four out of eight NBI injectors have a capability to switch the beam energy during a shot from the initial 15 keV to 40 keV at a constant beam current. This feature allows to increase the beam energy and thereby optimize the beam-plasma coupling during the magnetic field ramp up. This presentation provides an overview of the C-2W NBI system, including the design of the switchable energy injectors, layout of the power supply system, and results of the prototype testing.

  6. Sintering behaviour and mechanical properties of Cr3C2–NiCr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cr3C2–NiCr cermets are used as metal cutting tools due to their relatively high hardness and low sintering temperatures. In this study, a powder mixture consisting of 75 wt% ... Author Affiliations. A Özer1 Y K Tür1. Department of Material Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli, Turkey ...

  7. Impaired ALDH2 activity decreases the mitochondrial respiration in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Mali, Vishal R; Deshpande, Mandar; Pan, Guodong; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Palaniyandi, Suresh S


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated reactive aldehydes induce cellular stress. In cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid-peroxidation derived reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis. 4HNE is involved in ROS formation, abnormal calcium handling and more importantly defective mitochondrial respiration. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily contains NAD(P)(+)-dependent isozymes which can detoxify endogenous and exogenous aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids. Therefore we hypothesize that 4HNE afflicts mitochondrial respiration and leads to cell death by impairing ALDH2 activity in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with 25, 50 and 75 μM 4HNE and its vehicle, ethanol as well as 25, 50 and 75 μM disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of ALDH2 and its vehicle (DMSO) for 4 h. 4HNE significantly decreased ALDH2 activity, ALDH2 protein levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity, and increased 4HNE adduct formation and cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. ALDH2 inhibition by DSF and ALDH2 siRNA attenuated ALDH2 activity besides reducing ALDH2 levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and increased cell death. Our results indicate that ALDH2 impairment can lead to poor mitochondrial respiration and increased cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6) hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Roeckmann, T.


    We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing

  9. DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy Implementation in the C2 Domain (United States)


    42 1. ITIL /COBIT ........................................................................................ 42 2. C2 Service Tier...Technology ( ITIL /COBIT) management concepts for commercial IT services. See pages 38-40 for a detailed discussion of these concepts. recommended that: • The DoD CIO, issue guidance to: – Clarify and institutionalize service-related terminology (to include appropriate ITIL

  10. Anisotropical C2-O reflection bands measured in α-helixes of silk fibroin (United States)

    Sato, Kenso


    From analysis of 36 anisotropical reflectrion spectra of the C2-O bending bands of silk fibroin at ≈700˜200 cm-1 region at static state, presence of the A, B, C and D-band and reflection edge was also confirmed. Furthermore, we confirmed stepnized reflectivity overlapping on the C2-O bending bands and stenized values of the reflection integral (optical activity). Second, analysing four diffusion diagrams of these bands, we inspected stepnized polar distribution of the band and quantized polar distribution was confirmed as, θN = 27.5·N + 2.5 (degrees) with N=1, 2, 3, 4...12 and 13, without N=5,6 and 7 at θ=120°˜180° as in case of polar distribution of the C2-O and Si-O stretching reflection bands and C2-O bending band measured in case of silicate cellulose present in the surface skin layer of bamboo's stem.

  11. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cv. ... photosynthetic rate, final fruit drop, yield per plant, fruit weight, fruit volume, pulp weight, peel weight, juice weight and fruit skin color were significantly affected by the calcium carbide treatment while number of new flushes per branch, ...

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CZ7C-2REPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. 26 CFR 1.402(c)-2 - Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. (United States)


    .... § 1.402(c)-2 Eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers. The following questions and... look-back rollover limitation of section 408(d)(3)(B)? Questions and Answers Q-1: What is the rule... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible rollover distributions; questions and...

  14. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 34; Issue 7. Fabrication and characterization of Ti3SiC2–SiC nanocomposite by in situ reaction synthesis of TiC/Si/Al powders. Baoyan Liang Mingzhi Wang Xiaopu Li Yunchao Mu. Volume 34 Issue 7 December 2011 pp 1309-1311 ...

  15. Adjustment in the World Economy


    Paul Krugman


    There is a widespread view that world payments imbalances can be remedied through increased demand in surplus countries and reduced demand in deficit countries, without any need for real exchange rate changes. In fact shifts in demand and real exchange rate adjustment are necessary couplets, not substitutes. The essential reason for this complementarity is that a much higher fraction of a marginal dollar of US than of foreign spending falls on US output. As a result, a redistribution of world...

  16. Freehand technique for C2 pedicle and pars screw placement: safe or not? (United States)

    Punyarat, Prachya; Riew, K Daniel; Klawson, Benjamin T; Peters, Colleen; Lertudomphonwanit, Thamrong; Buchowski, Jacob M


    During placement of C2 pedicle and pars screws, intraoperative fluoroscopy is used so that neurovascular complications can be avoided, and screws can be placed in the proper position. However, this method is time consuming and increases radiation exposure. Furthermore, it does not guarantee completely safe and accurate screw placement. To evaluate the safety of the C2 pedicle and pars screw placement without fluoroscopic or other guidance methods. Retrospective comparative study. One hundred and ninety-eight patients who underwent placement of C2 pedicle or pars screws without any intraoperative radiographic guidance were included. Medical records and postoperative CT scans were evaluated. Clinical data were reviewed for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Accuracy of screw placement was evaluated with post-op CT scans using a previously published cortical-breach grading system (described by location and percentage of screw diameter over cortical edge (0 = none; grade I = pars screws were inserted by two experienced surgeons. There were no cases of CSF leakage and no neurovascular complications during screw placement. Postoperative CT scans were available for 76 patients, which included 52 pedicle and 87 pars screws. For cases with C2 pedicle screws, there were 12 breaches (23%); these included 10 screws with a grade I breach (19%), 1 screw with a grade II breach (2%), and 1 screw with a grade IV breach (2%). Lateral breaches occurred in 7 screws (13%), inferior breaches in 3 (6%), and superior breaches in 2 (4%). For cases with C2 pars screws, there were 10 breaches (11%); these included 6 screws with a grade I breach (7%), 2 screws with a grade II breach (2%), and 2 screws with a grade IV breach (2%). Medial breaches were found in 4 (5%), lateral breaches in 2 (2%), inferior breaches in 2 (2%), and superior breaches in 2 (2%). 2 of the cases with superior breaches (1 for pedicle and 1 for pars) experienced occipital neuralgia months after surgery

  17. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-2A - Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment tax. (United States)


    ... with the railroad unemployment repayment tax. 31.6302(c)-2A Section 31.6302(c)-2A Internal Revenue...) § 31.6302(c)-2A Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment...,000,000, such employer shall (except as provided below) deposit his undeposited railroad unemployment...

  18. File list: InP.Myo.10.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Myo.10.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 Input control Muscle C2C12 SRX1482291,SRX262224,SRX26222...695944 ...

  19. File list: NoD.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 No description Muscle C2C12 SRX683676,DRX000201,SRX68367...020490,DRX020492 ...

  20. File list: His.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 Histone Muscle C2C12 SRX1482269,SRX1482270,SRX1482268,SR...04,SRX143610,SRX115555,SRX103216 ...

  1. C2 Fracture Subtypes, Incidence, and Treatment Allocation Change with Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 233 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Robinson


    Full Text Available The currently available data on the distribution of C2 fracture subtypes is sparse. This study was designed to identify the proportions of the second cervical vertebra (C2 fracture subtypes and to present age and gender specific incidences of subgroups. A dataset of all patients treated between 2002 and 2014 for C2 fractures was extracted from the regional hospital information system. C2 fractures were classified into odontoid fractures types 1, 2, and 3, Hangman’s fractures types 1, 2, and 3, and atypical C2 fractures. 233 patients (female 51%, age 72±19 years were treated for a C2 fracture. Odontoid fractures were found in 183 patients, of which 2 were type 1, 127 type 2, and 54 type 3, while 26 of C2 fractures were Hangman’s fractures and 24 were atypical C2 fractures. In the geriatric subgroup 89% of all C2 fractures were odontoid, of which 71% were type 2 and 29% type 3. There was an increasing incidence of odontoid fractures types 2 and 3 from 2002 to 2014. 40% of C2 fractures were treated surgically. This study presents reliable subset proportions of C2 fractures in a prospectively collected regional cohort. Knowledge of these proportions facilitates future epidemiological studies of C2 fractures.

  2. Apoptosis in differentiating C2C12 muscle cells selectively targets Bcl-2-deficient myotubes. (United States)

    Schöneich, Christian; Dremina, Elena; Galeva, Nadezhda; Sharov, Victor


    Muscle cell apoptosis accompanies normal muscle development and regeneration, as well as degenerative diseases and aging. C2C12 murine myoblast cells represent a common model to study muscle differentiation. Though it was already shown that myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells is accompanied by enhanced apoptosis in a fraction of cells, either the cell population sensitive to apoptosis or regulatory mechanisms for the apoptotic response are unclear so far. In the current study we characterize apoptotic phenotypes of different types of C2C12 cells at all stages of differentiation, and report here that myotubes of differentiated C2C12 cells with low levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression are particularly vulnerable to apoptosis even though they are displaying low levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and Bad. In contrast, reserve cells exhibit higher levels of Bcl-2 and high resistance to apoptosis. The transfection of proliferating myoblasts with Bcl-2 prior to differentiation did not protect against spontaneous apoptosis accompanying differentiation of C2C12 cells but led to Bcl-2 overexpression in myotubes and to significant protection from apoptotic cell loss caused by exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Overall, our data advocate for a Bcl-2-dependent mechanism of apoptosis in differentiated muscle cells. However, downstream processes for spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis are not completely similar. Apoptosis in differentiating myoblasts and myotubes is regulated not through interaction of Bcl-2 with pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, Bak, and Bad.

  3. [Are C2 pedicles always screwable? Calibration and planning with a pedicle-lamina angle]. (United States)

    Le Pape, S; Gauthe, R; Latrobe, C; Cantogrel, P; Proust, F; Leroux, J; Ould-Slimane, M


    Posterior cervical arthrodesis is associated with osteosynthesis. C2 pedicular screwing affords a good bone anchoring but involves neurological and vascular risks. To determine C2 pedicular screwing feasibility from a large cohort of cervical CT scans. To describe the visible anatomical parameters during a surgical procedure in order to plan and secure it. Retrospective consecutive series of 100 cervical CT scans was analyzed. Cases with upper cervical fracture were excluded. C2 surgical anatomy was assessed according to maximum length, minimum width and minimum height. Angular parameters were pedicle-transverse angle and sagittal angle. Original pedicle-lamina angle was used as a visible mark during the procedure independent of the patient's position. Pedicular screwing feasibility was evaluated. It was arbitrarily defined by a lower minimum height less than 4mm. Two hundred C2 pedicles were analyzed with 7.5% that were not screwable. Their mean length was 26.2mm, with a mean width of 5.2mm and a mean height of 9.2mm. Mean pedicle-transverse angle was 36.2°, mean sagittal angle was 25.8° and mean pedicle-lamina angle was 81.3°. C2 pedicle screwing feasibility is inconstant due to anatomical variability. In fact, 13% of patients have at least one non-screwable pedicle. Preoperative planning is essential to achieve this procedure. A pedicle-lamina angle can be used which remains independent from the patient's position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Folic acid is necessary for proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. (United States)

    Hwang, Seong Y; Kang, Yong J; Sung, Bokyung; Jang, Jung Y; Hwang, Na L; Oh, Hye J; Ahn, Yu R; Kim, Hong J; Shin, Jin H; Yoo, Mi-Ae; Kim, Cheol M; Chung, Hae Y; Kim, Nam D


    Folic acid, a water soluble B vitamin, plays an important role in cellular metabolic activities, such as functioning as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism for DNA and RNA synthesis as well as nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis in the body. A lack of dietary folic acid can lead to folic acid deficiency and result in several health problems, including macrocytic anemia, elevated plasma homocysteine, cardiovascular disease, birth defects, carcinogenesis, muscle weakness, and walking difficulty. However, the effect of folic acid deficiency on skeletal muscle development and its molecular mechanisms are unknown. We, therefore, investigated the effect of folic acid deficiency on myogenesis in skeletal muscle cells and found that folic acid deficiency induced proliferation inhibition and cell cycle breaking as well as cellular senescence in C2C12 myoblasts, implying that folic acid deficiency influences skeletal muscle development. Folic acid deficiency also inhibited differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts and induced deregulation of the cell cycle exit and many cell cycle regulatory genes. It inhibited expression of muscle-specific marker MyHC as well as myogenic regulatory factor (myogenin). Moreover, immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that DNA damage was more increased in folic acid-deficient medium-treated differentiating C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we found that folic acid resupplementation reverses the effect on the cell cycle and senescence in folic acid-deficient C2C12 myoblasts but does not reverse the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Altogether, the study results suggest that folic acid is necessary for normal development of skeletal muscle cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dose Adjustment- An Important Issue in Critical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. C. Joshi


    Full Text Available There is at times marked variability in drug responsiveness especially in critically ill patients admitted in the Intensive care units. In order to obtain therapeutic effectiveness with in pharmacokinetic parameters related to therapeutic dose, it is always desirable to monitor and to maintain drug dose adjustment in such a way especially in presence of organ failure like renal failure, hepatic failure or any other clinical situation necessitating Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM so that one can use safe and effective drug therapy with least toxicity due to inaccurate and invalid drug doses.

  6. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 882.410 Section... Policies § 882.410 Rent adjustments. (a) Annual and special adjustments. Contract Rents will be adjusted as... schedule of Contract Rents, provided that the unit is in decent, safe, and sanitary condition and that the...

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  8. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong


    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  9. Accuracy of C2 pedicle screw placement using the anatomic freehand technique. (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Mathios, Dimitrios; Macki, Mohamed; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Aygun, Nafi; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Wolinksy, Jean-Paul


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prognostic factors of breach rates following the placement of C2 pedicle screws using the anatomic, freehand technique. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent C2 transpedicular instrumentation over six years at a single institution. All intraoperative, image-guided techniques were excluded. Breaches were ascertained from immediate postoperative CT images. All images were analyzed by three independent reviewers. The screw length was correlated with (1) the breach rate and (2) the breach severity. Severity of the breached screws reflects the screw circumference (0-360°) perforating the pedicle wall (Grade 1-Grade 4). Of the 341 C2 pedicle screws inserted in 181 patients, the average screw length was 22.93±3.7mm. The average distance from the foramen transversarium to the screw insertion point was 13.17±2.63mm. The distance from the medial rim of the pedicle to the dura of spinal cord was 3.53±1.57mm. Of the 341 screws, the overall breach rate was 17.3% (n=59). Of the 59 breaches, 89.83% of screws (n=53) breaching the spinal canal was statistically significantly higher than the 10.17% of screws (n=6) breaching the foramen transversarium (pGrade 1, 16 (27.1%) Grade 2, 6 (10.2%) Grade 3, and 10 (16.9%) Grade 4. None of the C2 breaches resulted in neurological sequela. No association was found between breach rate and gender, race or age. While the average screw length was 22.93±3.7mm [12-34mm], screw length did not predict a cortical violation (p=0.4) or severity of the breach (p=0.42) in a multiple regression model. In this cohort study on the anatomic freehand placement of C2 pedicle screws, the breach rate was 17.3%. Lateral breaches were more common than medial breaches. Screw length was not statistically correlated with cortical violation or severity of breach. Therefore, screw length is not a prognostic factor for C2 pedicle screw misplacement. Copyright © 2014

  10. The Role of C2-C7 Angle in the Development of Dysphagia After Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery. (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Yu, Jie


    This is a retrospective clinical study. To analyze the relationship between cervical alignment and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical (PC) spine surgery [anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disk replacement (CDR), and PC]. Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyneal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. In total, 452 patients were reviewed in this study, including 172 patients who underwent the ACDF procedure, 98 patients who had the CDR procedure, and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were measured. The change of O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle=postoperative O-C2 angle-preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle=postoperative C2-C7 angle-preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. A total of 12.8% ACDF, 5.1% CDR, and 9.4% PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When dC2-C7 angle is >5 degrees, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia of this patient is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, sex, body mass index, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of

  11. Interaction of C2H with molecular hydrogen: Ab initio potential energy surface and scattering calculations. (United States)

    Dagdigian, Paul J


    The potential energy surface (PES) describing the interaction of the ethynyl (C2H) radical in its ground X̃2Σ+ electronic state with molecular hydrogen has been computed through restricted coupled cluster calculations including single, double, and (perturbative) triple excitations [RCCSD(T)], with the assumption of fixed molecular geometries. The computed points were fit to an analytical form suitable for time-independent quantum scattering calculations of rotationally inelastic cross sections and rate constants. A representative set of energy dependent state-to-state cross sections is presented and discussed. The PES and cross sections for collisions of H2(j = 0) are compared with a previous study [F. Najar et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 614, 251 (2014)] of collisions of C2H with H2 treated as a spherical collision partner. Good agreement is found between the two sets of calculations when the H2 molecule in the present calculation is spherically averaged.

  12. Three C2 Models for Military Agility in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William


    Briefet beskriver kort 3 Command &Control (C2) modeller som skulle føre til mere agile eller smidige militær organisationer der kan omstilles hurtig til at løse de gaver der nu må komme i den 21 århundrede. Alle 3 modeller er baseret på 4 C2 principper: Jointness; Intelligence; Cyber; og Speciel...... Operations Forces (SOF). Principperne er baseret på 10 års international forskning i anvendt militære koncepter af Forsvarskademiet, sammen med NATO, og US Dept. of Defence (USDoD) der fokuserer på 'agility'. Der forventes en mere komplet NATO rapport med deltagelse af Forsvarsakademiet i løbet af forår 2013....

  13. Novel homozygous missense mutation in NT5C2 underlying hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG45. (United States)

    Straussberg, Rachel; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Konen, Osnat; Zouabi, Yasmin; Cohen, Lior; Lee, John Y W; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Simpson, Michael A; McGrath, John A


    SPG45 is a rare form of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia associated with mental retardation. Detailed phenotyping and mutation analysis was undertaken in three individuals with SPG45 from a consanguineous family of Arab Muslim origin. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in NT5C2 (c.1379T>C; p.Leu460Pro). Our data expand the molecular basis of SPG45, adding the first missense mutation to the current database of nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations. NT5C2 mutations seem to have a broad clinical spectrum and should be sought in patients manifesting either as uncomplicated or complicated HSP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. SAS-1 is a C2 domain protein critical for centriole integrity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas von Tobel


    Full Text Available Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles important for the formation of cilia, flagella and centrosomes. Despite progress in understanding the underlying assembly mechanisms, how centriole integrity is ensured is incompletely understood, including in sperm cells, where such integrity is particularly critical. We identified C. elegans sas-1 in a genetic screen as a locus required for bipolar spindle assembly in the early embryo. Our analysis reveals that sperm-derived sas-1 mutant centrioles lose their integrity shortly after fertilization, and that a related defect occurs when maternal sas-1 function is lacking. We establish that sas-1 encodes a C2 domain containing protein that localizes to centrioles in C. elegans, and which can bind and stabilize microtubules when expressed in human cells. Moreover, we uncover that SAS-1 is related to C2CD3, a protein required for complete centriole formation in human cells and affected in a type of oral-facial-digital (OFD syndrome.

  15. Development of a Pulsed 100MW Rotating Magnetic Field Ionization System for C-2W (United States)

    Trask, Erik; Korepanov, Andrey; Krause, Shannon; Leuenberger, Josh; Smith, Roger; Valentine, Travis; Waggoner, Will; Tae Team Team


    The Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) ionization system on the C-2W experiment at Tri Alpha Energy has been substantially upgraded from the previous system on the C-2U facility. This system is used for ionizing gas prior to forming and accelerating Field-Reversed Configurations in the formation sections. Through the use of enhanced power units with increased stored energy, and an improved antenna design for better power coupling, a fully ionized plasma can now be produced in less than 100 us, in a background axial magnetic field in excess of 0.1 T, while at gas pressures in the 1 mTorr range. The system design, characterization, and experimental ionization parameters will be discussed.

  16. A new Dirac cone material: a graphene-like Be3C2 monolayer. (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yuan, Shijun; Li, Yunhai; Shi, Li; Wang, Jinlan


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones exhibit rich physics and many intriguing properties, but the search for new 2D Dirac materials is still a current hotspot. Using the global particle-swarm optimization method and density functional theory, we predict a new stable graphene-like 2D Dirac material: a Be3C2 monolayer with a hexagonal honeycomb structure. The Dirac point occurs exactly at the Fermi level and arises from the merging of the hybridized pz bands of Be and C atoms. Most interestingly, this monolayer exhibits a high Fermi velocity in the same order of graphene. Moreover, the Dirac cone is very robust and retains even included spin-orbit coupling or external strain. These outstanding properties render the Be3C2 monolayer a promising 2D material for special electronics applications.

  17. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, R. M., E-mail:; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 10{sup 7} n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  18. Fine and hyperfine excitation of C2H by collisions with He at low temperature (United States)

    Spielfiedel, A.; Feautrier, N.; Najar, F.; Ben Abdallah, D.; Dayou, F.; Senent, M. L.; Lique, F.


    Modelling of molecular emission from interstellar clouds requires the calculation of rate coefficients for excitation by collisions with the most abundant species. From a new, highly correlated, two-dimensional potential energy surface, rotational excitation of the C2H(X2Σ+) molecule by collision with He is investigated. State-to-state collisional excitation cross-sections between the 25 first fine structure levels of C2H are calculated for energies up to 800 cm-1 which yields after thermal averaging rate coefficients up to T= 100 K. The exact spin splitting of the energy levels is taken into account. The recoupling technique introduced by Alexander & Dagdigian allows us to deduce the corresponding temperature-dependent hyperfine state-to-state rate coefficients. Propensity rules are discussed.

  19. Absolute calibration of neutron detectors on the C-2U advanced beam-driven FRC (United States)

    Magee, R. M.; Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Jauregui, F.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Valentine, T.; Smirnov, A.


    In the C-2U fusion energy experiment, high power neutral beam injection creates a large fast ion population that sustains a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The diagnosis of the fast ion pressure in these high-performance plasmas is therefore critical, and the measurement of the flux of neutrons from the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction is well suited to the task. Here we describe the absolute, in situ calibration of scintillation neutron detectors via two independent methods: firing deuterium beams into a high density gas target and calibration with a 2 × 107 n/s AmBe source. The practical issues of each method are discussed and the resulting calibration factors are shown to be in good agreement. Finally, the calibration factor is applied to C-2U experimental data where the measured neutron rate is found to exceed the classical expectation.

  20. A new high performance field reversed configuration operating regime in the C-2 device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Barnes, D.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Clary, R.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Garate, E.; Glass, F. J.; Gota, H.; Guo, H.Y.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); and others


    Large field reversed configurations (FRCs) are produced in the C-2 device by combining dynamic formation and merging processes. The good confinement of these FRCs must be further improved to achieve sustainment with neutral beam (NB) injection and pellet fuelling. A plasma gun is installed at one end of the C-2 device to attempt electric field control of the FRC edge layer. The gun inward radial electric field counters the usual FRC spin-up and mitigates the n = 2 rotational instability without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. Better plasma centering is also obtained, presumably from line-tying to the gun electrodes. The combined effects of the plasma gun and of neutral beam injection lead to the high performance FRC operating regime, with FRC lifetimes up to 3 ms and with FRC confinement times improved by factors 2 to 4.

  1. The Metabolic Effects of Traditional Chinese Medication Qiliqiangxin on H9C2 Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Lin


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A traditional Chinese medicine, Qiliqiangxin (QLQX has been identified to perform protective effects on myocardium energy metabolism in mice with acute myocardial infarction, though the effects of QLQX on myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis under physiological condition is still largely elusive. Methods: H9C2 cells were treated with different concentrations of QLQX (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 µg/mL from 6 to 48 hours. Oxidative metabolism and glycolysis were measured by oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification with XF96 analyzer (SeaHorse. Mitochondrial content and ultrastructure were assessed by Mitotracker staining, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Results: H9C2 cells treated with QLQX exhibited increased glycolysis at earlier time points (6, 12, and 24 hours, while QLQX could enhance oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling in H9C2 cells with longer duration of treatment (48 hours. QLQX also increased mitochondrial content and mitochondrial biogenesis-related gene expression levels, including 16sRNA, SSBP1, TWINKLE, TOP1MT and PLOG, with an activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α and its downstream effectors. Silencing PGC-1α could abolish the increased mitochondrial content in H9C2 cells treated with QLQX. Conclusion: Our study is the first to document enhanced metabolism in cardiomyocytes treated with QLQX, which is linked to increased mitochondrial content and mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of PGC-1α.

  2. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function? (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A.; Tsunoda, Ikuo


    Background: Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2(+/−) mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2(+/−) mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. Results: We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2(+/−) mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. Conclusions: These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25822012

  3. C^{2,alpha} estimates and existence results for a nonconcave PDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi P. Pingal Vamsi P. Pingal


    Full Text Available We establish $C^{2,\\alpha}$ estimates for PDE of the form convex + a sum of weakly concave functions of the Hessian, thus generalising a recent result of Collins which is in turn inspired by a theorem of Caffarelli and Yuan. We apply this result to prove a unique continuation result for a generalised Monge-Ampere PDE. Independently, we also prove an existence result for a special case.

  4. Aneurysmal bone cyst of clivus and C1 C2: case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Rajput, Dinesh; Tungaria, Arun; Jaiswal, Avdhesh; Jain, Vijendra


    Aneurysmal bone cyst are benign rapidly expanding bone destructive lesions of any bone. They are common in the metaphysis of long bones but 10-30% involve the spine. Cervical region involvement is uncommon. We report a case of aneurysmal bone cyst of clivus C1 and C2 with minimum symptoms. Involvement of C1 and clivus separately had been reported in past, but simultaneous involvement of both is presented in this report for the very first time.

  5. Lubiprostone Activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the Prostaglandin Receptor (EP4)


    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R.; MacDonald, Kelvin D.


    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP4 receptor has been described [2; 3; 4; 5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode volt...

  6. Caliber Corrected Markov Modeling (C2M2): Correcting Equilibrium Markov models


    Dixit, Purushottam D.; Dill, Ken A


    Rate processes are often modeled using Markov-State Models (MSM). Suppose you know a prior MSM, and then learn that your prediction of some particular observable rate is wrong. What is the best way to correct the whole MSM? For example, molecular dynamics simulations of protein folding may sample many microstates, possibly giving correct pathways through them, while also giving the wrong overall folding rate, when compared to experiment. Here, we describe Caliber Corrected Markov Modeling (C2...

  7. Self-assembled Ti3C2Tx MXene film with high gravimetric capacitance. (United States)

    Hu, Minmin; Li, Zhaojin; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaohui


    Binder-free MXene films comprising Ti3C2Tx nanoflakes in a face-to-face fashion, achieved by a simple dropping-mild baking approach, exhibit high gravimetric capacitances up to 499 F g(-1) with excellent cyclability and rate performances. The entire electrode system including Ni-foam and MXene film shows volumetric capacitances in the range of 84-226 F cm(-3) depending on the loadings of MXene as active material.

  8. Electronic spectroscopy of the jet-cooled arsenic dicarbide (C2As) free radical. (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Grimminger, Robert A; Sunahori, Fumie X; Clouthier, Dennis J


    The (2)Delta(r)-X (2)Pi(r) band system of the jet-cooled arsenic dicarbide (C(2)As) free radical has been recorded by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques in the 685-588 nm region. The radical was produced in a pulsed electric discharge jet using a precursor mixture of AsCl(3) vapor and methane in high pressure argon. A series of weak bands involving all three excited state vibrations was observed for both (12)C(2)As and (13)C(2)As. High-resolution spectra of the (2)Pi(12) component of the 0(0)(0) bands of both isotopomers were rotationally analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the upper state is (2)Delta with a small spin-orbit splitting (A = 2.78 cm(-1)). Ground and excited state molecular structures of r(0)(")(CC,ab initio) = 1.2933 A, r(0)(")(CAs) = 1.734(4) A and r(0)(')(CC,ab initio) = 1.2276 A, r(0)(')(CAs) = 1.830(3) A were derived from the B values and our density functional predictions of the C-C bond lengths. Single vibronic level emission spectra were recorded for many of the LIF bands and these were used to obtain the ground state vibrational frequencies and spin-orbit splittings. These data were satisfactorily fitted to a Renner-Teller model which gave (12)C(2)As parameters of epsilon = 0.695(8), omega(1) = 1704.8(20) cm(-1), omega(2) = 161.6(8) cm(-1), omega(3) = 663.6(12) cm(-1), and a spin-orbit constant A = 857.7(11) cm(-1).

  9. Downregulation of FoxC2 Increased Susceptibility to Experimental Colitis: Influence of Lymphatic Drainage Function? (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Potepalov, Sergey; Shehzahdi, Romana; Bernas, Michael; Witte, Marlys; Abreo, Fleurette; Traylor, James; Orr, Wayne A; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Alexander, Jonathan Steven


    Although inflammation-induced expansion of the intestinal lymphatic vasculature (lymphangiogenesis) is known to be a crucial event in limiting inflammatory processes, through clearance of interstitial fluid and immune cells, considerably less is known about the impact of an impaired lymphatic clearance function (as seen in inflammatory bowel diseases) on this cascade. We aimed to investigate whether the impaired intestinal lymphatic drainage function observed in FoxC2 mice would influence the course of disease in a model of experimental colitis. Acute dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in wild-type and haploinsufficient FoxC2 mice, and survival, disease activity, colonic histopathological injury, neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. Functional and structural changes in the intestinal lymphatic vessel network were analyzed, including submucosal edema, vessel morphology, and lymphatic vessel density. We found that FoxC2 downregulation in FoxC2 mice significantly increased the severity and susceptibility to experimental colitis, as displayed by lower survival rates, increased disease activity, greater histopathological injury, and elevated colonic neutrophil, T-cell, and macrophage infiltration. These findings were accompanied by structural (dilated torturous lymphatic vessels) and functional (greater submucosal edema, higher immune cell burden) changes in the intestinal lymphatic vasculature. These results indicate that sufficient lymphatic clearance plays a crucial role in limiting the initiation and perpetuation of experimental colitis and those disturbances in the integrity of the intestinal lymphatic vessel network could intensify intestinal inflammation. Future therapies might be able to exploit these processes to restore and maintain adequate lymphatic clearance function in inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. High-temperature oxidation behaviour of Ti 3 Si (Al C 2 in air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... oxidation behaviour of material is assumed to obey a three-step parabolic rate law at 1100°C and 1200°C. The calculated activation energy of isothermal oxidation is 101.43 kJ.mol-1. The oxide layers consisted of a mass of -Al2O3 and little TiO2 and SiO2 are observed on Ti3SiC2 as a dense and adhesive protect scale.

  11. MARVEL analysis of the measured high-resolution rovibrational spectra of C2H2


    Chubb, Katy L.; Joseph, Megan; Franklin, Jack; Choudhury, Naail; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Csàszàr, Attila G.; Gaspard, Glenda; Oguoko, Patari; Kelly, Adam; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Sousa-Silva, Clara


    Rotation-vibration energy levels are determined for the electronic ground state of the acetylene molecule, $^{12}$C$_2$H$_2$, using the Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels (MARVEL) technique. 37,813 measured transitions from 61 publications are considered. The distinct components of the spectroscopic network linking ortho and para states are considered separately. The 20,717 ortho and 17,096 para transitions measured experimentally are used to determine 6013 ortho and 5200 pa...

  12. Measurements of selected C2-C5 hydrocarbons in the troposphere - Latitudinal, vertical, and temporal variations (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Viezee, William; Salas, Louis J.


    The tropospheric distribution of 1077 C2-C5 hydrocarbon samples was determined. Shipboard measurements obtained over the eastern Pacific Ocean reveal large north-to-south gradients for most nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). The results show that NMHC concentrations can decrease by a factor of two or more during the passage of cold fronts in winter and spring, and that upper tropospheric concentrations were lower than those in the lower troposphere.

  13. The Abundance of C2H4 in the Circumstellar Envelope of IRC+10216. (United States)

    Fonfría, J P; Hinkle, K H; Cernicharo, J; Richter, M J; Agúndez, M; Wallace, L


    High spectral resolution mid-IR observations of ethylene (C2H4) towards the AGB star IRC+10216 were obtained using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Eighty ro-vibrational lines from the 10.5 µm vibrational mode ν7 with J ≲ 30 were detected in absorption. The observed lines are divided into two groups with rotational temperatures of 105 and 400 K (warm and hot lines). The warm lines peak at ≃ -14 km s(-1) with respect to the systemic velocity, suggesting that they are mostly formed outwards from ≃ 20R⋆. The hot lines are centered at -10 km s(-1) indicating that they come from a shell between 10 and 20R⋆. 35% of the observed lines are unblended and can be fitted with a code developed to model the emission of a spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope. The analysis of several scenarios reveal that the C2H4 abundance relative to H2 in the range 5 - 20R⋆ is 6.9 × 10(-8) in average and it could be as high as 1.1 × 10(-7). Beyond 20R⋆, it is 8.2 × 10(-8). The total column density is (6.5 ± 3.0) × 10(15) cm(-2). C2H4 is found to be rotationally under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and vibrationally out of LTE. One of the scenarios that best reproduce the observations suggests that up to 25% of the C2H4 molecules at 20R⋆ could condense onto dust grains. This possible depletion would not influence significantly the gas acceleration although it could play a role in the surface chemistry on the dust grains.

  14. Management of C2 fractures using Iso-C(3D) guidance: a single institution's experience. (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Keric, Naureen; Giese, Alf


    About 20 % of cervical fractures involve the C2 vertebra. Many surgical techniques have been proposed according to the type of fracture. However, morbidity and mortality of these procedures is often high, which can be attributed to the old age and significant co-morbidities of the affected population and the complex anatomy of C2. To target the latter, several authors have applied iso-C(3D) guidance for most of the common techniques. We here present our experience using a fixed protocol and iso-C(3D) guidance in all cases of traumatic C2 fractures. Sixteen patients were operated upon between April 2011 and April 2012 using Iso-C(3D) guidance, following a fixed routine protocol. The screw position was verified by CT-scanning. Intraoperative and clinical parameters were evaluated. Six patients received anterior lag-screw fixation of odontoid fractures. Two underwent isolated posterior lag-screw fixation of hangman's fracture. C1 and/or C3 lateral mass, and/or C2 isthmic screws were placed in eight patients. No screw had to be revised, 3 minor breachings of the cortical bone of 3D) guided drilling could be applied for anterior and posterior procedures, leaving only two variables. This led to rapid acceptance of the technique among OR-staff and surgeons, who felt comfortable with iso-C(3D) guidance after only five cases. Iso-C(3D) guidance is a safe and straightforward technique for anterior and posterior screw placement in the upper cervical spine.

  15. C2 Pars/Pedicle Screws in Management of Craniocervical and Upper Cervical Instability


    Eshra, Mohammed Ahmed


    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of craniocervical and upper cervical stabilization by using C2 pars/pedicle screw fixations. Overview of Literature The management of craniocervical and upper cervical instability has progressed over the past two decades due to good achievements in the instrumentation and the increased awareness on spinal anatomy and biomechanics. However, there is insufficient studies or solid conclusions on this topic, thus,...

  16. Noogenic psychological characteristics and adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Masten


    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with noogenic personality characteristics of adolescents involved in military training in relation to psychic and psychosomatic symptoms. A selected sample of 107 conscripts was questioned regarding their psychical and psychosomatic symptoms in the first and in the sixth month of their military training. They were also questioned regarding personal meaning of life, as well as regarding their values and attitudes toward the army. Individuals maintaining their personal meaning of life, have less psychical and psychosomatic symptoms after coming to army than the others. The findings do not support the hypothesis that after five months of military training the number of symptoms decreases. In most participants the symptoms mostly remained at the same level after five months of training, for one third of respondents the number of symptoms increased significantly. In 9 % of military recruits number of symptoms decreased. The evaluation of differences in the number of symptoms between two assessments showed, that personal meaning, values and attitudes toward army discriminate the groups with different levels of adjustment to military service. Participants with the same level of symptoms after five months are less hedonistic, have more positive attitudes toward army and higher rates on meaning scales. The data are interpreted in the context of theory that adjustment to stressing life events is mediated by noogenic personality characteristics.

  17. Sulforaphane protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. (United States)

    Wu, Q-Q; Zong, J; Gao, L; Dai, J; Yang, Z; Xu, M; Fang, Y; Ma, Z-G; Tang, Q-Z


    Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive process of the heart in response to various stimuli, but sustained cardiac hypertrophy will finally lead to heart failure. Sulforaphane-extracted from cruciferous vegetables of the genus Brassica such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and cabbage-has been evaluated for its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant effects. To investigate the effect of sulforaphane on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro. Embryonic rat heart-derived H9c2 cells were co-incubated with sulforaphane and Ang II. The cell surface area and mRNA levels of hypertrophic markers were measured to clarify the effect of sulforaphane on cardiac hypertrophy. The underlying mechanism was further investigated by detecting the activation of Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. We found that H9c2 cells pretreated with sulforaphane were protected from Ang II-induced hypertrophy. The increasing mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, and β-MHC in Ang II-stimulated cells were also down-regulated after sulforaphane treatment. Moreover, sulforaphane repressed the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, eIF4e, as well as of IκBα and NF-κB. Based on our results, sulforaphane attenuates Ang II-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cardiomyocytes mediated by the inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways including Akt and NF-κB.

  18. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) impairs myogenesis in C2C12 cells. (United States)

    Auh, Q-SChick; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Myeong-Ok; Hwang, Mi-Jin; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Kim, Eun-Cheol


    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) is expressed in sensory neurons and plays important roles in peripheral pain mechanisms. The aim of this study was to examine the effects and molecular mechanisms of NMDA on C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Cytotoxicity and differentiation were examined by the MTT assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. NMDA had no cytotoxicity (10-500 μM) and inhibited myoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells, as assessed by F-actin immunofluorescence and levels of mRNAs encoding myogenic markers such as myogenin and myosin heavy-chain 2. It inhibited phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by inactivating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38. It induced reactive oxygen species production. Furthermore, NMDA-suppressed expression of F-actin was reversed by adding the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Collectively, these results indicate that NMDA impairs myogenesis or myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells through the mTOR/MAPK signaling pathways and may lead to skeletal muscle degeneration. Muscle Nerve 56: 510-518, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat


    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  20. Sarcolipin expression is repressed by endoplasmic reticulum stress in C2C12 myotubes. (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Atsushi P; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Yoshida, Mika; Kumano, Osamu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Itaya, Satoshi; Moriya, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Masahiro; Ieko, Masahiro


    Sarcolipin is a transmembrane protein expressed in the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and atrial muscles in large animals. Sarcolipin plays crucial roles in heat production through modifying the function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, thereby being involved in thermogenesis and systemic metabolism. In skeletal muscle, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in several conditions, such as insulin resistance, muscle diseases, and hypo/hyper-contraction. Here, we investigated the effect of ER stress on sarcolipin expression in skeletal muscle cells, C2C12 myotubes. First, gene expression of sarcolipin was confirmed in the cells during myogenesis. Then, ER stress was induced in C2C12 myotubes by treatment with tunicamycin or thapsigargin. Sarcolipin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were significantly reduced by ER stress induction. The reduction was independent of inositol-requiring element 1 (IRE1), which is activated by ER stress and has potent endonuclease activity, when evaluated by treatment with an IRE1 inhibitor, 4μ8C. On the other hand, sarcolipin mRNA stability was reduced under the ER stress when evaluated by treatment with actinomycin D. In conclusion, these results show that ER stress represses sarcolipin expression due to changes in mRNA stability in C2C12 myotubes.

  1. Vertebral Artery Caught in the Fracture Gap after Traumatic C2/3 Spondylolisthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Henkelmann


    Full Text Available Background Context. Patient with a C2 fracture and entrapment of the right vertebral artery in the fracture gap. Purpose. Presentation of a case with follow-up until end of treatment. Study Design. Case report. Methods. A 25-year-old woman was brought into our emergency room after falling while riding a horse. She complained of pain in the cervical spine. Clinical examinations showed local tenderness at the upper cervical spine and painful impairment of the mobility of the neck, with no signs of neurological impairment. Radiological diagnostics revealed a traumatic C2/3 spondylolisthesis. A computer tomography (CT angiographic scan showed a dislocation of the right vertebral artery into the fracture gap without injury to the artery. Open reduction and osteosynthesis were considered of too high risk. Therefore, we conducted fracture treatment with closed reduction and halo fixation. After removal of the halo fixator, the patient was given a soft cervical collar and was advised to rest for additional 6 weeks before beginning gradual activity. Results. Conventional follow-up revealed osseous consolidation and a CT angiographic scan showed consistent blood flow to the artery. Conclusion. Halo fixation was a safe and effective therapy strategy in the case of vertebral artery entrapment after traumatic C2 spondylolisthesis.

  2. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh


    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  3. The eΠ3g state of C2: A pathway to dissociation (United States)

    Welsh, B. A.; Krechkivska, O.; Nauta, K.; Bacskay, G. B.; Kable, S. H.; Schmidt, T. W.


    The lowest 13 vibrational levels, v = 0-12, of the eΠ3g state of the C2 molecule have been measured by laser-induced fluorescence of new bands of the Fox-Herzberg system. The newly observed levels, v = 5-12, which span the eΠ3g electronic state up to and beyond the first dissociation threshold of C2, were analyzed to afford highly accurate molecular constants, including band origins, and rotational and spin-orbit constants. The spin-orbit coupling constants of the previously published lowest five levels are revised in sign and magnitude, requiring an overhaul of previously published molecular constants. The analysis is supported by high level ab initio calculations. Lifetimes of all observed levels were recorded and found to be in excellent agreement with ab initio predicted values up to v = 11. v = 12 was found to exhibit a much reduced lifetime and fluorescence quantum yield, which is attributed to the onset of predissociation. This brackets the dissociation energy of ground state XΣ+1g C2 between 6.1803 and 6.2553 eV, in agreement with the Active Thermochemical Tables.

  4. Ethanol decreases agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering in C2C12 myotube culture. (United States)

    Owen, David B; Chamberlain, Kevin T; Shishido, Sonia; Grow, Wade A


    We investigated the effect of ethanol on skeletal muscle development using C2C12 cell culture. The ethanol concentrations of 10mM, 25mM, and 100mM, were tested because plasma samples of alcohol-dependent individuals fall within this range. We assessed two specific events in skeletal muscle development, the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering associated with neuromuscular synapse formation. We report that ethanol does not effect myotube formation or the viability of myoblasts or myotubes in C2C12 cell culture. However, ethanol does effect AChR clustering on C2C12 myotubes. As motor neurons approach skeletal muscle during development, agrin is released by motor neurons and induces AChR clustering on muscle fibers. In our experiments, agrin was applied to cell cultures during the period when myoblasts fuse to form myotubes. In cell cultures exposed to ethanol during myotube formation, agrin-induced AChR clustering was decreased compared to untreated cultures. In cell cultures exposed to ethanol during myoblast proliferation, with ethanol removed during myotube formation, agrin-induced AChR clustering was unaffected. We conclude that exposure to a physiologically relevant concentration of ethanol during the specific period of myotube formation decreases agrin-induced AChR clustering. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. TvZNF1 is a C2H2 zinc finger protein of Trichomonas vaginalis. (United States)

    Villalpando, José Luis; Arreola, Rodrigo; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Valdés, Jesús; López-Canovas, Lilia; Villalobos-Osnaya, Alma; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Elizbeth


    The zinc fingers proteins (ZNF) are the largest family of DNA binding proteins and can act as transcriptional factors in eukaryotes. ZNF are implicated in activation in response to environmental stimulus by biometals such as Zn2+. Many of these proteins have the classical C2H2 zinc finger motifs (C2H2-ZNFm) of approximately 30 amino acids, where a Zn2+ ion is coordinated by two cysteine and two histidine residues. Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite than responds to environmental changes including Zn2+. Until now has not been described any ZNF that could be involved in the regulation of genic expression of T. vaginalis. Here, we characterized in silico and experimentally an annoted ZNF (TvZNF1) from T. vaginalis and isolated the gene, tvznf1 encoding it. TvZNF1 have eight C2H2-ZNFm with residues that maybe involved in the structural stability of DNA binding motifs. In this work we confirmed the Zn2+ upregulation expression of tvznf1 gene. Recombinant TvZNF1 was able to bind to specific DNA sequences according to EMSA assay. Additionally, we demonstrated that recombinant TvZNF1 bind to MRE signature in vitro, which strongly suggests its role in transcriptional regulation, similar to the one observed for mammalian MTF-1. This result suggested a conserved mechanism of genic regulation mediated by ZNFs in T. vaginalis.

  6. Response of CPO-27-Ni towards CO, N2 and C2H4. (United States)

    Chavan, Sachin; Bonino, Francesca; Vitillo, Jenny G; Groppo, Elena; Lamberti, Carlo; Dietzel, Pascal D C; Zecchina, Adriano; Bordiga, Silvia


    Coordinatively unsaturated Ni(2+) atoms in CPO-27-Ni form linear adducts with molecular nitrogen. The framework responds to the adsorption-modifying vibrational properties and local structure around adsorbing sites. The present paper deals with a fundamental infrared (IR) study of the interaction of gases on a microporous adsorbent metallorganic framework CPO-27-Ni containing, after solvent removal, coordinatively unsaturated Ni(2+) atoms [Dietzel et al., Chem. Commun. 2006, 959]. CO, N(2) and C(2)H(4) have been chosen. Notwithstanding the relative medium (CO and C(2)H(4)) and weak (N(2)) adsorption enthalpies and the low equilibrium pressures adopted (100-10(-3) mbar) the CPO-27-Ni framework responds promptly and reversibly to the adsorption process, modifying significantly both vibrational properties and local structure around Ni(2+) adsorbing sites as determined by a parallel EXAFS investigation locating the N(2) molecule 2.27 +/- 0.03 A apart from Ni(2+). For both N(2) and C(2)H(4), IR spectra have been discussed and carefully compared with literature data. Isosteric heat of adsorption of the Ni(2+)...N(2) complex formation has been evaluated from temperature dependent IR study to be -DeltaH(ads) = 17 kJ mol(-1).

  7. Behavior of Compact Toroid Injected into C-2U Confinement Vessel (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Roche, T.; Allrey, I.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Conroy, M.; Gota, H.; Granstedt, E.; Hooper, C.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.; the TAE Team


    The compact toroid (CT) injector system has been developed for particle refueling on the C-2U device. A CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) and the typical ejected CT/plasmoid parameters are as follows: average velocity 100 km/s, average electron density 1.9 ×1015 cm-3, electron temperature 30-40 eV, mass 12 μg . To refuel particles into FC plasma the CT must penetrate the transverse magnetic field that surrounds the FRC. The kinetic energy density of the CT should be higher than magnetic energy density of the axial magnetic field, i.e., ρv2 / 2 >=B2 / 2μ0 , where ρ, v, and B are mass density, velocity, and surrounded magnetic field, respectively. Also, the penetrated CT's trajectory is deflected by the transverse magnetic field (Bz 1 kG). Thus, we have to estimate CT's energy and track the CT trajectory inside the magnetic field, for which we adopted a fast-framing camera on C-2U: framing rate is up to 1.25 MHz for 120 frames. By employing the camera we clearly captured the CT/plasmoid trajectory. Comparisons between the fast-framing camera and some other diagnostics as well as CT injection results on C-2U will be presented.

  8. α-Actinin involvement in Z-disk assembly during skeletal muscle C2C12 cells in vitro differentiation. (United States)

    Salucci, S; Baldassarri, V; Falcieri, E; Burattini, S


    α-Actinin is involved in the assembly and maintenance of muscle fibers. α-Actinin is required to cross-link actin filaments and to connect the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane and it is necessary for the attachment of actin filaments to Z-disks in skeletal muscle fibers and to dense bodies in smooth muscle ones. In addition to its mechanical role, sarcomeric α-actinin interacts with proteins involved in a variety of signaling and metabolic pathways. The aim of this work is to monitor Z-disk formation, in order to clear up the role of sarcomeric α-actinin in undifferentiated stage, after 4 days of differentiation (intermediate differentiation stage) and after 7 days of differentiation (fully differentiated stage). For this purpose, C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells, grown in vitro, were analyzed at three time points of differentiation. Confocal laser scanner microscopy and transmission electron microscopy have been utilized for α-actinin immunolocalization. Both techniques reveal that in undifferentiated cells labeling appears uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm with punctate α-actinin Z-bodies. Moreover, we found that when differentiation is induced, α-actinin links at first membrane-associated proteins, then it aligns longitudinally across the cytoplasm and finally binds actin, giving rise to Z-disks. These findings evidence α-actinin involvement in sarcomeric development, suggesting for this protein an important role in stabilizing the muscle contractile apparatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theophylline Regulates Inflammatory and Neurotrophic factor Signals in Functional Recovery after C2-Hemisection in Adult Rats (United States)

    Singh, LP; Devi, TS; Nantwi, KD


    Recovery of respiratory activity in an upper cervical hemisection model (C2H) of spinal cord injury (SCI) can be induced by systemic theophylline administration 24–48 h after injury. The objectives in the present study are (1) to identify pro-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors expressed after C2H and (2) molecular signals involved in functional recovery. Four groups of adult female rats classified as (i) sham (SH) controls, (ii) subjected to a left C2 hemisection (C2H) only, (iii) C2H rats administered theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H (C2H-T Day 5) and (iv) C2H rats treated with theophylline for 3 consecutive days 2 days after C2H and then weaned for 12 days (C2H-T Day 17) prior to assessment of respiratory function and molecular analysis were employed. Corresponding Sham controls, C2H untreated (vehicle only controls) and C2H treated (theophylline) rats were sacrificed, C3-C6 spinal cord segments quickly dissected and left (ipsilateral) hemi spinal cord and right (contralateral) hemi spinal cord were separately harvested 2 days post surgery. SHAM operated and C2H untreated-controls corresponding to C2H-T Day 5 and C2H-T Day 17 rats, respectively, were prepared similarly. Messenger RNA levels for pro-inflammatory genes (TXNIP, IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS) and neurotrophic and survival factors (BDNF, GDNF, and Bcl2) were analyzed by real time quantitative PCR. Gene expression pattern was unaltered in SH rats. TXNIP, iNOS, BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H rats. BDNF, GDNF and Bcl2 levels remained elevated in the ipsilateral hemi spinal cord in C2H-T Day 5 rats. In this same group, there was further enhancement in TXNIP and IL-1β while iNOS returned to basal levels. Theophylline increased DNA binding activity of transcription factors - cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) and pro-inflammatory NF-κB. Messenger RNA levels for all genes returned to basal

  10. Assessment of the LV-C2 Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste (LAW) C2V (LV-C2) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The tests were conducted on the LV-C2 scale model system. Based on the scale model tests, the location proposed for the air sampling probe in the scale model stack meets the requirements of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for velocity uniformity, flow angle, gas tracer and particle tracer uniformity. Additional velocity uniformity and flow angle tests on the actual stack will be necessary during cold startup to confirm the validity of the scale model results in representing the actual stack.

  11. Characterization of cetuximab F{sub c/2} dimers by off-line CZE-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    François, Yannis-Nicolas, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Biacchi, Michael; Said, Nassur; Renard, Charly [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Beck, Alain [Centre d' immunologie Pierre Fabre, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois (France); Gahoual, Rabah [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Laboratory of Bioanalytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle [Laboratoire de Spectrométrie de Masse des Interactions et des Systèmes (LSMIS), UDS-CNRS UMR 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)


    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics attract the largest concern due to their strong therapeutic potency and specificity. The Fc region of mAbs is common to many new biotherapeutics as biosimilar, antibody drug conjugate or fusion protein. Fc region has consequences for Fc-mediated effector functions that might be desirable for therapeutic applications. As a consequence, there is a continuous need for improvement of analytical methods to enable fast and accurate characterization of biotherapeutics. Capillary zone electrophoresis-Mass spectrometry couplings (CZE-MS) appear really attractive methods for the characterization of biological samples. In this report, we used CZE-MS systems developed in house and native MS infusion to allow precise middle-up characterization of F{sub c/2} variant of cetuximab. Molecular weights were measured for three F{sub c/2} charge variants detected in the CZE separation of cetuximab subunits. Two F{sub c/2} C-terminal lysine variants were identified and separated. As the aim is to understand the presence of three peaks in the CZE separation for two F{sub c/2} subunits, we developed a strategy using CZE-UV/MALDI-MS and CZE-UV/ESI-MS to evaluate the role of N-glycosylation and C-terminal lysine truncation on the CZE separation. The chemical structure of N-glycosylation expressed on the Fc region of cetuximab does not influence CZE separation while C-terminal lysine is significantly influencing separation. In addition, native MS infusion demonstrated the characterization of F{sub c/2} dimers at pH 5.7 and 6.8 and the first separation of these dimers using CZE-MS. - Highlights: • We confirm the power of off-line CE/MS coupling for the separation of mAb isoforms. • We demonstrate the role of C-terminal lysine truncation in the separation process. • We demonstrate the presence of non-covalent interactions between Fc/2 subunit. • We identify Fc/2 homo- and heterodimers.

  12. Structure of Human Synaptotagmin 1 C2AB in the Absence of Ca**2+ Reveals a Novel Domain Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuson, K.L.; Montes, M.; Robert, J.J.; Sutton, R.B.


    Release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles requires the Ca{sup 2+}/phospholipid-binding protein synaptotagmin 1. There is considerable evidence that cooperation between the tandem C2 domains of synaptotagmin is a requirement of regulated exocytosis; however, high-resolution structural evidence for this interaction has been lacking. The 2.7 A crystal structure of the cytosolic domains of human synaptotagmin 1 in the absence of Ca{sup 2+} reveals a novel closed conformation of the protein. The shared interface between C2A and C2B is stabilized by a network of interactions between residues on the C-terminal alpha-helix of the C2B domain and residues on loops 1-3 of the Ca{sup 2+}-binding region of C2A. These interactions alter the overall shape of the Ca{sup 2+}-binding pocket of C2A, but not that of C2B. Thus, synaptotagmin 1 C2A-C2B may utilize a novel regulatory mechanism whereby one C2 domain could regulate the other until an appropriate triggering event decouples them.

  13. Pilot Study on MAGE-C2 as a Potential Biomarker for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao


    Full Text Available Objective. In the current study, we measured the expression status of melanoma antigen gene c2 (MAGE-C2 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC and analyzed its prognostic with the clinical pathological features of patients with TNBC. Methods. The expressions statuses of MAGE-C2 were detected in TNBC tissues and paracarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and western blotting. Then, we investigated the relationship of MAGE-C2 expression status and clinicopathological parameters of TNBC patients by the chi-squared test. Finally, we discussed the relations of MAGE-C2 expression state and prognosis of patients with TNBC by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results. High MAGE-C2 expression was found in 38.18% (42/110 of TNBC tissues. In adjacent tissues it was 9.09% (10/110. High MAGE-C2 expression in TNBC patients was closely associated with lymph node status, tumor node metastasis (TNM stage, and lymphovascular invasion (P<0.001. TNBC patients with high MAGE-C2 expression had significantly shorter survival time than low expression patients. We also found that age, lymph node status, TNM stage, lymphovascular invasion, and MAGE-C2 expression status were closely associated with overall survival of TNBC patients (P<0.05. Conclusion. High MAGE-C2 expression may serve as an independent prognostic factor for TNBC patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On allowing (Cy2NH22C2O4∙2H2O to react with SnBu3Cl or SnMe3Cl, i-Bu2NH2HC2O4 with SnBu3Cl, (Bu2NH22C2O4 with SnMe3Cl, (i-Bu2NH22C2O4 with SnPh2Cl2, a mixture of i-Bu2NH22C2O4 and (Me4N2C2O4 with SnPh2Cl2, (Pr2NH22C2O4 with SnPh3Cl, the oxalato derivatives and complexes Cy2NH2C2O4SnBu3.3H2O∙1/4Cy2NH2Cl, i-Bu2NH2C2O4SnBu3∙1/2(i-Bu2NH22C2O4,y2NH2C2O4SnMe3∙1/2(Cy2NH22C2O4, Sn(C2O42∙[C2O4(SnMe3∙H2O2]∙2EtOH∙1/4[(Bu2NH22C2O4],(i-Bu2NH22 C2O4∙ 2SnPh2Cl2∙SnCl4∙4(i-Bu2NH2OH∙2(i-Bu2NH2Cl, 2[SnPh2Cl4(i-Bu2NH22]∙ SnCl2C2O4∙4i-Bu2NH2Cl and 2[Pr2NH2C2O4SnPh3]∙(Pr2NH22C2O4∙SnCl4∙ 2Pr2NH2Cl were obtained. Double chain, two metallic components and a dimeric structures are suggested with trans coordinated SnMe3 residues, these chains being connected through R2NH2+ (R = Cy, i-Bu only or by (R2NH22C2O4 bridges. The oxalate behaves as a monochelating, a bridging, an only hydrogen bonding involved or monodentate and H bond involved ligand. The environments around the tin (IV centres are cis or trans trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral or octahedral. Supramolecular architectures may be obtained when extra hydrogen bonds are possible.

  15. Neighborhood Assets and Adolescent Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliva Delgado


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study analyzing the relationship between some dimensions or developmental assets in the neighborhood, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood, and adjustment and life satisfaction of adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 2400 adolescents (1068 boys and 1332 girls between ages 12 and 17 who were secondary students in public and private schools in Western Andalusia. The results showed significant relationships between most dimensions of the scale (youth empowerment, attachment to neighbourhood safety and social control and internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use and life satisfaction of participants. Moreover, the data provide evidence about the external validity of the scale used in the study. From the results some suggestions for intervention in the community environment are extracted.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography. (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A


    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. File list: Pol.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 RNA polymerase Muscle C2C12 SRX142527,SRX101682,SRX10168...3,SRX142518,SRX062103,SRX062102,SRX1176761,SRX1176745,SRX1176759,SRX1176747 ...

  18. File list: ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 All antigens Muscle C2C12 SRX1482269,SRX262223,SRX262224...,SRX683673,DRX000355,SRX103216,SRX373248,SRX039345,SRX695944,DRX000353 ...

  19. File list: ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 All antigens Muscle C2C12 SRX1482269,SRX262223,SRX262224...,SRX115557,SRX115559,SRX062124,DRX020490,DRX020492,SRX022849,SRX022851 ...

  20. File list: Pol.Myo.05.AllAg.C2C12 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Myo.05.AllAg.C2C12 mm9 RNA polymerase Muscle C2C12 SRX142527,SRX142518,SRX10168...3,SRX101682,SRX062102,SRX062103,SRX1176745,SRX1176761,SRX1176747,SRX1176759 ...

  1. FoxC2 Enhances BMP7-Mediated Anabolism in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc. (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Fu, Changfeng; Chen, Yong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Zhenyu; Qu, Zhigang; Liu, Yi


    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) is a growth factor that plays a major role in mediating anabolism and anti-catabolism of the intervertebral disc matrix and cell homeostasis. In osteoblasts, Forkhead box protein C2 (FoxC2) is a downstream target of BMPs and promotes cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role FoxC2 may play in degenerative human intervertebral disc tissue and the relationship between FoxC2 and BMP-7 in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells remain to be elucidated. This study aims to investigate the presence and signaling mechanisms of FoxC2 in degenerative human intervertebral disc tissue and NP cells. Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were used to measure FoxC2 expression in the NP tissue and cells. Transfections were carried out to measure the effect of FoxC2 on BMP-7-mediated extracellular matrix upregulation. Adenoviral knock-down of Smad1 was performed to investigate the mechanism of BMP-7-induced FoxC2 expression. In degenerative NP tissue, FoxC2 was markedly upregulated and positively correlated with increased disc degeneration. Induction of NP cell proliferation was confirmed by using cell counting kit-8 assay, immunocytochemistry and real-time qRT-PCR for Ki67. FoxC2 led to decreased noggin expression and increased Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. During combined treatment with BMP-7, FoxC2 greatly potentiated anabolism through synergistic mechanisms on ECM formation. Combination therapy using BMP-7 and FoxC2 may be beneficial to the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  2. Physical Properties of C-Si Alloys in C2/m Structure (United States)

    Wang, Qian-Kun; Chai, Chang-Chun; Fan, Qing-Yang; Yang, Yin-Tang


    Using the first principles calculations based on density functional theory, the crystal structure, elastic anisotropy, and electronic properties of carbon, silicon and their alloys (C 12 Si 4, C 8 Si 8, and C 4 Si 12 ) in a monoclinic structure (C2/m) are investigated. The calculated results such as lattice parameters, elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus of C 16 and Si 16 in C2/m structure are in good accord with previous work. The elastic constants show that C 16, Si 16, and their alloys in C2/m structure are mechanically stable. The calculated results of universal anisotropy index, compression and shear anisotropy percent factors indicate that C-Si alloys present elastic anisotropy, and C 8 Si 8 shows a greater anisotropy. The Poisson’s ratio and the B/G value show that C 8 Si 8 is ductile material and other four C-Si alloys are brittle materials. In addition, Debye temperature and average sound velocity are predicted utilizing elastic modulus and density of C-Si alloys. The band structure and the partial density of states imply that C 16 and Si 16 are indirect band gap semiconductors, while C 12 Si 4, C 8 Si 8, and C 4 Si 12 are semi-metallic alloys. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61474089, Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics under Grant No. 2015-0214. YY.K

  3. Maternal activating KIRs protect against human reproductive failure mediated by fetal HLA-C2. (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Sharkey, Andrew M; Farrell, Lydia E; Gardner, Lucy; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans H; Walker, James J; Redman, Christopher W; Redman, Christopher C; Morgan, Linda; Tower, Clare; Regan, Lesley; Moore, Gudrun E; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley


    Many common disorders of pregnancy are attributed to insufficient invasion of the uterine lining by trophoblast, fetal cells that are the major cell type of the placenta. Interactions between fetal trophoblast and maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells--specifically interactions between HLA-C molecules expressed by the fetal trophoblast cells and killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) on the maternal uNK cells--influence placentation in human pregnancy. Consistent with this, pregnancies are at increased risk of preeclampsia in mothers homozygous for KIR haplotype A (KIR AA). In this study, we have demonstrated that trophoblast expresses both paternally and maternally inherited HLA-C surface proteins and that maternal KIR AA frequencies are increased in affected pregnancies only when the fetus has more group 2 HLA-C genes (C2) than the mother. These data raise the possibility that there is a deleterious allogeneic effect stemming from paternal C2. We found that this effect also occurred in other pregnancy disorders (fetal growth restriction and recurrent miscarriage), indicating a role early in gestation for these receptor/ligand pairs in the pathogenesis of reproductive failure. Notably, pregnancy disorders were less frequent in mothers that possessed the telomeric end of the KIR B haplotype, which contains activating KIR2DS1. In addition, uNK cells expressed KIR2DS1, which bound specifically to C2+ trophoblast cells. These findings highlight the complexity and central importance of specific combinations of activating KIR and HLA-C in maternal-fetal immune interactions that determine reproductive success.

  4. CH 3I and C 2H 5I on Au(100): adsorption and reaction (United States)

    Yang, Michael X.; Jo, Sam K.; Paul, Anumita; Avila, Luis; Bent, Brian E.; Nishikida, Koichi


    The adsorption and reaction of CH 3I and C 2H 5I on a Au(100) surface have been studied by a combination of temperature-programmed desorption/reaction (TPD/R), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and work function change (Δф) measurements. Both alkyl halides adsorb and desorb mainly in molecular form without decomposition. Only 4% of the first layer CH 3I molecules dissociate on the surface; the methyl groups formed by this reaction couple to form ethane at ˜ 360 K. By contrast, 20% of the first layer C 2H 5I molecules decompose and the final surface reaction products are ethylene, ethane and butane. The dominant product is C 4H 10 which is formed at ˜ 270 K. Repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions are observed in the first adsorption layer for both alkyl iodides. For CH 3I (but not for C 2H 5I), a high coverage metastable adsorption state characterized by a desorption temperature lower than the multilayer desorption temperature is observed. The structure of the metastable state has yet to be determined, but the results suggest the presence of a CH 3I bilayer in which the CH 3I molecules in the first layer are oriented with their CI bonds approximately parallel to the surface and the molecules in the second, metastable layer have a tilted orientation similar to the average orientation in the multilayer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of a metastable adsorption state for alkyl halides on metal surfaces.

  5. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies. (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.


    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  6. Communication and Empathy in Marital Adjustment. (United States)

    Elliott, Marianne Weeks


    This study examines relationships between measures of empathy, communication, and marital adjustment and seeks information descriptive of the nature of empathy and of communication of maritally adjusted and maritally maladjusted couples. (CT)

  7. A short synthetic peptide fragment of human C2ORF40 has therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chaoyang [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Zhang, Pengju [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Jiang, Anli [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Mao, Jian-Hua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Guangwei [Shandong Univ. School of Medicine, Jinan (China)


    C2ORF40 encodes a secreted protein which is cleaved to generate soluble peptides by proteolytic processing and this process is believed to be necessary for C2ORF40 to exert cell type specific biological activity. Here, we reported a short mimic peptide of human C2ORF40 acts potential therapeutic efficacy in human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We synthesized a short peptide of human C2ORF40, named C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment and assessed its biological function on cancer cell growth, migration and tumorigenesis. Cell growth assay showed that C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly suppressed cell proliferation of breast and lung cancer cells. Moreover, C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we showed that this peptide suppressed tumorigenesis in breast tumor xenograft model. Cell cycle assay indicated that the C2ORF40 mimic peptide fragment suppressed the growth of tumor cells through inducing mitotic phase arrest. In conclusion, our results firstly suggested that this short synthetic peptide of human C2ORF40 may be a candidate tumor therapeutic agent.

  8. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takehara


    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins.

  9. Fracturas del húmero proximal tipo C2: tratamiento y factores pronósticos


    Arenas Miquélez, A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Arenas Planelles, Antonio; Jiménez Sarmiento, O.; Duart, J.; Garbayo Marturet, Antonio Jesús


    Se presentan 50 casos de fractura de húmero proximal tipo C2 tratados quirúrgicamente mediante osteosíntesis con placa bloqueada (38 casos) o utilizando una hemiartroplastia de hombro (12 casos). Los resul - tados fueron buenos en la mayor parte de los pacientes, con un dolor medio de 11,50/15 en la cotación cifrada de Constant-Murley, una fuerza de 12,32/25 puntos y una movilidad de 22,20/40 puntos. Las complicaciones más importantes fueron el conflicto subacromial (12 casos),...

  10. Degraded Operational Environment: Integration of Social Network Infrastructure Concept in a Traditional Military C2 System (United States)


    Communication Applet) UNIGE – D.I.M.E. Using a free application as “MIT APP Inventor ” Android Software Development Kit DEGRADED C2 ICCRTS 2013...June 19 - 21, 2013 - Alexandria, VIRGINIA (US) 18/26 Development of C24U applet (Command & Control For You) UNIGE – D.I.M.E. MIT App Inventor s releaseupdate My Projects Viewer Welcome to the App Inventor beta release_ Be sure to check the list of Design Learn (Debugging) known issues

  11. LT^2C^2: A language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Figueira


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a theoretical effort to connect the theory of program size to psychology by implementing a concrete language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity (LT^2C^2 satisfying the following requirements: 1 to be simple enough so that the complexity of any given finite binary sequence can be computed, 2 to be based on tangible operations of human reasoning (printing, repeating,. . . , 3 to be sufficiently powerful to generate all possible sequences but not too powerful as to identify regularities which would be invisible to humans. We first formalize LT^2C^2, giving its syntax and semantics, and defining an adequate notion of program size. Our setting leads to a Kolmogorov complexity function relative to LT^2C^2 which is computable in polynomial time, and it also induces a prediction algorithm in the spirit of Solomonoff’s inductive inference theory. We then prove the efficacy of this language by investigating regularities in strings produced by participants attempting to generate random strings. Participants had a profound understanding of randomness and hence avoided typical misconceptions such as exaggerating the number of alternations. We reasoned that remaining regularities would express the algorithmic nature of human thoughts, revealed in the form of specific patterns. Kolmogorov complexity relative to LT^2C^2 passed three expected tests examined here: 1 human sequences were less complex than control PRNG sequences, 2 human sequences were not stationary showing decreasing values of complexity resulting from fatigue 3 each individual showed traces of algorithmic stability since fitting of partial data was more effective to predict subsequent data than average fits. This work extends on previous efforts to combine notions of Kolmogorov complexity theory and algorithmic information theory to psychology, by explicitly proposing a language which may describe the patterns of human thoughts.Received: 12

  12. Army Airspace Command and Control (A2C2): Action Plan for Issue Resolution (United States)


    ort Drive,Suite 102 St.Louis,YO 63043 and _-9’, E1:ER Systems Corporation 11838 Rok andina Dr. ,Newport N~ews,VA 23606 ,I SQ’dtA#i S lT A NCY NAMI(S...Organization ..... .......... 3-21 Airspace control authority (ACA) . . 3-23 Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) . . . 3-23 Joint Force...for airspace control in the close battle area . CAC,CD should lead a review of A2C2 functions at maneuver brigade viii and below; authorize equipment

  13. Search for a 33.9 MeV/c2 Neutral Particle in Pion Decay (United States)

    Formaggio, J. A.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Case, S.; Conrad, J. M.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Frey, R.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, C.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Wu, V.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P.


    The E815 (NuTeV) neutrino experiment has performed a search for a 33.9 MeV/c2 weakly interacting neutral particle produced in pion decay. Such a particle may be responsible for an anomaly in the timing distribution of neutrino interactions in the KARMEN experiment. E815 has searched for this particle's decays in an instrumented decay region; no evidence for this particle was found. The search is sensitive to pion branching ratios as low as 10-13.

  14. Photoluminescent Ti3 C2 MXene Quantum Dots for Multicolor Cellular Imaging. (United States)

    Xue, Qi; Zhang, Huijie; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Li, Hongfei; Wang, Zifeng; Huang, Yang; Huang, Yan; Deng, Qihuang; Zhou, Jie; Du, Shiyu; Huang, Qing; Zhi, Chunyi


    The fabrication of photoluminescent Ti3 C2 MXene quantum dots (MQDs) by a facile hydrothermal method is reported, which may greatly extend the applications of MXene-based materials. Interestingly, the as-prepared MQDs show excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra with quantum yields of up to ≈10% due to strong quantum confinement. The applications of MQDs as biocompatible multicolor cellular imaging probes and zinc ion sensors are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analysis of the Operational Test and Evaluation of the CBRNE Crime Scene Modeller (C2SM) (United States)


    TIS, Tech Ops, RCMP , Insp. Tony McCulloch – Officer in Charge NFISS, IFIS, FS&IS, RCMP , Dr. Mark Williamson, A/DG DRDC CSS, to answer the question...Canadian Mounted Police ( RCMP )6 7. The final component of the project involved a successful testing and evaluation (T&E) phase, conducted by the four...LE partners in controlled situations. The RCMP -led National CBRNE Response Team has since integrated and operationalized the C2SM as a component of

  16. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic characteristics of Ti(O,C)2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Institute of Solid State Chemistry of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, .... to 0.5 eV, depending on the sp2 cluster content (or spin ..... carbon clusters. Therefore, the EPR spectroscopy study demonstrated that nanostructured TiO2-based globules treated by adjustable annealing in air comprise ...

  17. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-2 - Illustration of the provisions of section 666. (United States)


    ...,546, the total of the undistributed net income for such years, as shown in the tabulation below. In... (e) The undistributed net income of the trust for the taxable year 1954, as adjusted to give effect...,000 1960 25,000 For 1954 through 1958, the undistributed portion of distributable net income taxes...

  18. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD (United States)

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott


    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  19. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.


    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  20. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 884.109 Section... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.109 Rent adjustments. (a) Funding... Contract Rent adjustments under this paragraph, up to the maximum amount authorized under the Contract...

  1. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 886.312 Section... Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.312 Rent adjustments. (a) Limits. Housing assistance payments will be made in amounts commensurate with contract rent adjustments under this paragraph...

  2. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 886.112 Section... for Projects With HUD-Insured and HUD-Held Mortgages § 886.112 Rent adjustments. This section applies to adjustments of the dollar amount stated in the Contract as the Maximum Unit Rent. It does not...

  3. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within OFHEO's...

  4. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income (as...

  5. Assessing Marital Adjustment and Satisfaction: A Review. (United States)

    Burnett, Paul


    Evaluated five instruments of marital adjustment and satisfaction: Marital Adjustment Test, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Marital Satisfaction Index, Marital Satisfaction Scale, and the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. Discusses studies evaluating psychometric properties of each instrument. Recommends the Marital Satisfaction Index for assessing…

  6. Correlates of Children's Social Adjustment following Divorce. (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie G.


    Interviewed randomly selected custodial parents (N=206). Custodial parents also completed a social adjustment scale on the criterion measure of children's adjustment. Results showed the most significant factor related to children's social adjustment was a positive relationship to the custodial parent. (Author/RC)

  7. A genome-wide association study in the Japanese population identifies susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes at UBE2E2 and C2CD4A-C2CD4B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Hara, Kazuo; Maeda, Shiro


    associations in UBE2E2 on chromosome 3 and in C2CD4A-C2CD4B on chromosome 15 at genome-wide significant levels (rs7612463 in UBE2E2, combined P = 2.27 × 10¿¿; rs7172432 in C2CD4A-C2CD4B, combined P = 3.66 × 10¿¿). The association of these two loci with T2D was replicated in other east Asian populations....... In the European populations, the C2CD4A-C2CD4B locus was significantly associated with T2D, and a combined analysis of all populations gave P = 8.78 × 10¿¹4, whereas the UBE2E2 locus did not show association to T2D. In conclusion, we identified two new loci at UBE2E2 and C2CD4A-C2CD4B associated...

  8. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld


    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  9. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel


    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  10. DPFFs: C2MOS Direct Path Flip-Flops for Process-Resilient Ultradynamic Voltage Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong-Eun Hwang


    Full Text Available We propose two master-slave flip-flops (FFs that utilize the clocked CMOS (C2MOS technique with an internal direct connection along the main signal propagation path between the master and slave latches and adopt an adaptive body bias technique to improve circuit robustness. C2MOS structure improves the setup margin and robustness while providing full compatibility with the standard cell characterization flow. Further, the direct path shortens the logic depth and thus speeds up signal propagation, which can be optimized for less power and smaller area. Measurements from test circuits fabricated in 130 nm technology show that the proposed FF operates down to 60 mV, consuming 24.7 pW while improving the propagation delay, dynamic power, and leakage by 22%, 9%, and 13%, respectively, compared with conventional FFs at the iso-output-load condition. The proposed FFs are integrated into an 8×8 FIR filter which successfully operates all the way down to 85 mV.

  11. Elaboration of α’L-C2S form of belite in phosphatic clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.


    Full Text Available Solid state synthesis associated to X-ray diffraction and free lime analysis have been carried out to determine proper conditions (chemical compositions, optimum time and temperature of burning under which phosphatic belitic clinker is elaborated. Raw meals, at low lime saturation factor and added phosphate, can form a clinker with high contents of α’L-C2S modification. Microcalorimetric measurements show a relative high hydraulic activity of this belite form. The phosphatic clinker exhibits a closeness hydration behaviour to the ordinary portland clinker.Se han determinado las condiciones adecuadas (composiciones químicas, tiempo y temperaturas óptimas de tratamiento para sintetizar un clínker fosfático belítico. Esas síntesis se realizaron en estado sólido; el seguimiento de los procesos se hizo a través de difracción de rayos X y por análisis de cal libre. Es posible formar un clínker con alto contenido de α’L-C2S a partir de crudos con un bajo grado de saturación de cal y con adición de fosfato. Las medidas microcalorimétricas demuestran que esa forma de belita desarrolla una actividad hidráulica relativamente elevada. El clinker fosfático presenta un comportamiento hidráulico muy parecido al del clínker portland común.

  12. M5C2 carbide precipitates in a high-Cr martensitic steel (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Ji, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoling


    The precipitate phases in an advanced 11% Cr martensitic steel, expected to be used at 650 °C, have been investigated to understand the effect of precipitates on the creep-rupture strength of the steel. M23C6 and MX precipitates were dominant phases in this steel. Needle-like precipitates with a typical length of 180 nm and width of 20 nm; and metallic-element compositions of 53-74Fe, 16-26Cr, 3-18Ta, 2-8W, and 2-4Co (at%); were observed mainly within the martensite laths of the normalized-and-tempered steel. The needle-like precipitates have been identified as monoclinic carbide M5C2, which is not known to have been reported previously in high chromium steels, or in heat-resistant steels those have been normalized-and-tempered. This indicates that the formation of M5C2 carbides can occur in heat-resistant steels produced under appropriate tempering conditions, and that this does not require long-term isothermal aging or creep testing, in all cases.

  13. Osseous associated cervical spondylomyelopathy at the C2-C3 articular facet joint in 11 dogs. (United States)

    Cooper, C; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Penderis, J; Gonçalves, R


    In dogs, vertebral canal stenosis at C2-C3 due to articular facet joint degeneration is only sporadically identified. The authors' aims were to review the clinical presentation, MRI characteristics, treatment and outcome of dogs presenting with this condition. Eleven cases were eligible for inclusion. Neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia in all 4 limbs in 3/11, proprioceptive tetra-ataxia only in 4/11, pelvic limb proprioceptive ataxia in 2/11 and no gait abnormalities in 2/11 dogs. Cervical hyperaesthesia was present in 7/11 dogs. MRI revealed bilateral articular facet joint degeneration in 10/11 cases and unilateral degeneration in one. Surgery was performed in six cases and medical management elected in five. Long-term follow-up information was available for 11 animals. Four of the surgical cases are alive and have no neurological deficits, one was euthanased for an unrelated condition and one lost to follow-up. Of the cases managed medically, three are alive showing no neurological deficits, one is alive still displaying neurological deficits and one euthanased for an unrelated condition whilst still ataxic. This study shows that both medical and surgical management can result in good outcomes in dogs with vertebral canal stenosis resulting from articular facet joint degeneration at the level of C2-C3. British Veterinary Association.

  14. C2 Domains as Protein-Protein Interaction Modules in the Ciliary Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Remans


    Full Text Available RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1 is mutated in the eye disease Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and its structural homolog, RPGRIP1-like (RPGRIP1L, is mutated in many different ciliopathies. Both are multidomain proteins that are predicted to interact with retinitis pigmentosa G-protein regulator (RPGR. RPGR is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and is located in photoreceptors and primary cilia. We solved the crystal structure of the complex between the RPGR-interacting domain (RID of RPGRIP1 and RPGR and demonstrate that RPGRIP1L binds to RPGR similarly. RPGRIP1 binding to RPGR affects the interaction with PDEδ, the cargo shuttling factor for prenylated ciliary proteins. RPGRIP1-RID is a C2 domain with a canonical β sandwich structure that does not bind Ca2+ and/or phospholipids and thus constitutes a unique type of protein-protein interaction module. Judging from the large number of C2 domains in most of the ciliary transition zone proteins identified thus far, the structure presented here seems to constitute a cilia-specific module that is present in multiprotein transition zone complexes.

  15. Feasibility study of microwave electron heating on the C-2 field-reversed configuration device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaokang, E-mail:; Ceccherini, Francesco; Dettrick, Sean; Binderbauer, Michl [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); Koehn, Alf [IGVP, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Petrov, Yuri [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States)


    Different microwave heating scenarios for the C-2 plasmas have been investigated recently with use of both the Genray ray-racing code and the IPF-FDMC full-wave code, and the study was focused on the excitation of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) with O-mode launch. For a given antenna position on C-2 and the fixed 2D plasma density and equilibrium field profiles, simulations have been done for six selected frequencies (2.45 GHz, 5 GHz, 8 GHz, 18 GHz, 28 GHz, and 50 GHz). Launch angles have been optimized for each case in order to achieve high coupling efficiencies to the EBW by the O-X-B mode conversion process and high power deposition. Results show that among those six frequencies, the case of 8 GHz is the most promising scenario, which has both high mode conversion efficiency (90%) and the relatively deeper power deposition.

  16. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of 2D Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)

    KAUST Repository

    Alhabeb, Mohamed


    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Here we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.

  17. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael


    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  18. Cross-separatrix Coupling in Nonlinear Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in C-2U (United States)

    Lau, Calvin; Fulton, Daniel; Bao, Jian; Lin, Zhihong; Binderbauer, Michl; Tajima, Toshiki; Schmitz, Lothar; TAE Team


    In recent years, the progress of the C-2/C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiments at Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. has pushed FRCs to transport limited regimes. Understanding particle and energy transport is a vital step towards an FRC reactor, and two particle-in-cell microturbulence codes, the Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) and A New Code (ANC), are being developed and applied toward this goal. Previous local electrostatic GTC simulations find the core to be robustly stable with drift-wave instability only in the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. However, experimental measurements showed fluctuations in both regions; one possibility is that fluctuations in the core originate from the SOL, suggesting the need for non-local simulations with cross-separatrix coupling. Current global ANC simulations with gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons find that non-local effects (1) modify linear growth-rates and frequencies of instabilities and (2) allow instability to move from the unstable SOL to the linearly stable core. Nonlinear spreading is also seen prior to mode saturation. We also report on the progress of the first turbulence simulations in the SOL. This work is supported by the Norman Rostoker Fellowship.

  19. Phase equilibria and modeling of ammonium ionic liquid, C2NTf2, solutions. (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej; Królikowski, Marek


    Novel quaternary ammonium ionic liquid, ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium bis(trifluomethylsulfonyl)imide (C2NTf2), has been prepared from N,N-dimethylethanolamine as a substrate. The paper includes a specific basic characterization of the synthesized compound by NMR and the basic thermophysical properties: the melting point, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of solid-solid phase transition, glass transition determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature of decomposition, and water content. The density of the new compound was measured. The solid-liquid or liquid-liquid phase equilibria of binary mixtures containing {C2NTf2+water or an alcohol (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, decan-1-ol), aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene), aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or tetrahydrofuran (THF)} have been measured by a dynamic method in a wide range of temperatures from 230 to 430 K. These data were correlated by means of the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) equation utilizing temperature-dependent parameters derived from the solid-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibrium. From the solubility results, the negative value of the partition coefficient of ionic liquid in binary system octan-1-ol/water (log P) at 298.15 K has been calculated.

  20. Structure induced Yb valence changes in the solid solution Yb(x)Ca(1-x)C2. (United States)

    Link, Pascal; Glatzel, Pieter; Kvashnina, Kristina; Trots, Dmytro M; Smith, Ronald I; Ruschewitz, Uwe


    The solid solution Yb(x)Ca(1-x)C2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was synthesized by reaction of the elements at 1323 K. The crystal structures within this solid solution, as elucidated from synchrotron powder diffraction data, depend on x and exhibit some interesting features that point to a structure dependent valence state of Yb. Compounds with x ≥ 0.75 crystallize in the tetragonal CaC2 type structure (I4/mmm, Z = 2) and obey Vegard's law; for x ≤ 0.75 the monoclinic ThC2 type structure (C2/c, Z = 4) is found, which coexists with the monoclinic CaC2-III type structure (C2/m, Z = 4) for x ≤ 0.25. The monoclinic modifications show a strong deviation from Vegard's law. Their unit cell volumes are remarkably larger than expected for a typical Vegard system. HERFD-XANES spectroscopic investigations reveal that different Yb valence states are responsible for the observed volume anomalies. While all tetragonal compounds contain mixed-valent Yb with ∼75% Yb(3+) (similar to pure YbC2), all monoclinic modifications contain exclusively Yb(2+). Therefore, Yb(x)Ca(1-x)C2 is a very rare example of a Yb containing compound showing a strong structure dependence of the Yb valence state. Moreover, temperature dependent synchrotron powder diffraction, neutron TOF powder diffraction, and HERFD-XANES spectroscopy experiments reveal significant Yb valence changes in some compounds of the Yb(x)Ca(1-x)C2 series that are induced by temperature dependent phase transitions. Transitions from the tetragonal CaC2 type structure to the monoclinic ThC2 or the cubic CaC2-IV type structure (Fm3m, Z = 4) are accompanied by drastic changes of the mean Yb valence from ∼2.70 to 2.0 in compounds with x = 0.75 and x = 0.91. Finally, the determination of lattice strain arising inside the modifications with ordered dumbbells (ThC2 and CaC2 type structures) by DSC measurements corroborated our results concerning the close relationship between crystal structure and Yb valence in the solid solution Yb(x)Ca(1-x)C

  1. Simplest neutral singlet C2E4 (E = Al, Ga, In, and Tl) global minima with double planar tetracoordinate carbons: equivalence of C2 moieties in C2E4 to carbon centers in CAl4(2-) and CAl5(+). (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Bo; Lu, Hai-Gang; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Zhi-Xiang


    Ab initio and DFT calculations have been carried out to search for the simplest neutral singlet species with double planar tetracoordinate carbons (dptCs) [the "simplest" means the species containing the least number (six) and types (two) of atoms]. Under the restrictions to the possible models (M1-M4) with dptCs and to the singlet electronic states, the B3LYP/6-31+G* scanning on the candidates, C(2)E(4) (E = the second- and third-row main group elements), only led to two minima (D(2h) C(2)Al(4) and C(2h) C(2)Be(4)) with stable DFT wave functions. The extensions to the heavier elements after the fourth row in the IIA and IIIA groups revealed that the D(2h) C(2)E(4) (E = Ga, In, and Tl) are also minima with dptCs but C(2)Ca(4) (C(2h)) is a first-order saddle point. Extensive explorations at the DFT level on their potential energy surfaces (PESs) further confirmed that the D(2h) C(2)E(4) (E = Al, Ga, In, and Tl) are the global minima, but the C(2h) C(2)Be(4) is a local minimum. The optimizations at the MP2 level distorted the D(2h) C(2)E(4) (E = Ga, In, and Tl) slightly and the distortion energies are less than 0.02 kcal/mol. The C(2)E(4) (E = Al, Ga, In, and Tl) with dptCs are 18.0, 18.3, 13.4, and 12.2 kcal/mol energetically more favorable than their nearest isomers, respectively, at the CCSD(T)//MP2 level with aug-cc-pVTZ for C and Al and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP for Ga, In, and Tl basis set. The substantial energy differences suggest their promise to be experimentally realized. The strong peak on the C(2)Al(4)(-) component in the time-of-flight mass spectrum from laser vaporization of a mixed graphite/aluminum may relate to the D(2h) C(2)Al(4) global minimum. The analyses of the electronic structures of C(2)Al(4) (D(2h)), CAl(4)(2-) (D(4h)) and CAl(5)(+)(D(5h)) indicates that the C(2) moiety in C(2)Al(4) is the equivalence of carbon centers in CAl(4)(2-) and CAl(5)(+) and unveils the reasons for their stability. The electronic structures of C(2)Al(4) and ethene are

  2. Calculations of thermal radiation transfer of C2H2 and C2H4 together with H2O, CO2, and CO in a one-dimensional enclosure using LBL and SNB models (United States)

    Qi, Chaobo; Zheng, Shu; Zhou, Huaichun


    Generally, the involvement of hydrocarbons such as C2H4 and its derivative C2H2 in thermal radiation has not been accounted in the numerical simulation of their flames, which may cause serious error for estimation of temperature in the early stage of combustion. At the first, the Statistical Narrow-Band (SNB) model parameters for C2H2 and C2H4 are generated from line by line (LBL) calculations. The distributions of the concentrations of radiating gases such as H2O, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H4, and the temperature along the centerline of a laminar ethylene/air diffusion flame were chosen to form a one-dimensional, planar enclosure to be tested in this study. Thermal radiation transfer in such an enclosure was calculated using the LBL approach and the SNB model, most of the relative errors are less than 8% and the results of these two models shows an excellent agreement. Below the height of 20 mm, which is the early stage of the flame, the average fraction contributed by C2H2 and C2H4 in the radiative heat source is 33.8%, while that by CO is only 5.8%. This result indicates that the involvement of C2H2 and C2H4 in radiation heat transfer needs to be taken into account in the numerical modeling of the ethylene/air diffusion flame, especially in the early stage of combustion.

  3. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Antarctica (United States)

    Whitehouse, P. L.


    In order to determine the distribution of present-day ice mass change across the Antarctic Ice Sheet it is first necessary to remove the geodetic signal of past ice mass change. This signal arises due to the ongoing process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA), which has traditionally been estimated by modelling the response of the Earth system to ice-sheet changes during a glacial cycle. Reconstructions of ice-sheet change are typically based on field observations relating to past ice extent and thickness, although a more recent approach has involved the use of ice-sheet models, and even coupled ice-sheet - GIA models, to reconstruct the ice-sheet history in areas where field constraints are sparse. Both methods have their limitations and in this presentation I will highlight the advantages of each and compare recently-published models to assess our current state of knowledge in the field of Antarctic GIA. I will also briefly discuss the motivation behind active areas of model development, which include the consideration of lateral variations in Earth structure and feedbacks between solid Earth, ice sheet and ocean processes. Finally, I will assess the suitability of the various data sets that are used to constrain or test Antarctic GIA models, and I will explain how combinations of data are being used to isolate the GIA signal independently of traditional modelling assumptions. Despite the clear benefits of this approach for the purposes of quantifying present-day ice mass change, it is still crucial to be able to model how GIA processes will evolve in the future. The motivation for this goal is provided by recent modelling studies, which suggest that GIA processes will be modified by, and are capable of influencing, the future dynamics of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  4. Automatic adjustment of astrochronologic correlations (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Kaboth, Stefanie; Hilgen, Frederik; Laskar, Jacques


    Here we present an algorithm for the automated adjustment and optimisation of correlations between proxy data and an orbital tuning target (or similar datasets as e.g. ice models) for the R environment (R Development Core Team 2008), building on the 'astrochron' package (Meyers et al.2014). The basis of this approach is an initial tuning on orbital (precession, obliquity, eccentricity) scale. We use filters of orbital frequency ranges related to e.g. precession, obliquity or eccentricity of data and compare these filters to an ensemble of target data, which may consist of e.g. different combinations of obliquity and precession, different phases of precession and obliquity, a mix of orbital and other data (e.g. ice models), or different orbital solutions. This approach allows for the identification of an ideal mix of precession and obliquity to be used as tuning target. In addition, the uncertainty related to different tuning tie points (and also precession- and obliquity contributions of the tuning target) can easily be assessed. Our message is to suggest an initial tuning and then obtain a reproducible tuned time scale, avoiding arbitrary chosen tie points and replacing these by automatically chosen ones, representing filter maxima (or minima). We present and discuss the above outlined approach and apply it to artificial and geological data. Artificial data are assessed to find optimal filter settings; real datasets are used to demonstrate the possibilities of such an approach. References: Meyers, S.R. (2014). Astrochron: An R Package for Astrochronology. R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL

  5. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench


    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  6. 78 FR 11252 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... providing different fee structures for Public Customers than for other market participants. Moreover, a... pricing structure designed to incent market participants to direct their order flow to the Exchange, and... that are based, in part, on the C2 BBO Market Width. Because it would be difficult to determine the C2...

  7. 78 FR 17967 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... CBOE Chapter V, as such rules may be in effect from time to time, shall apply to C2 and are hereby... 4 that provides, `` he rules contained in CBOE Chapter IV, as such rules may be in effect from time to time, shall apply to C2 and are hereby incorporated into this Chapter.'' The premium multiplier...

  8. The Tris(pentafluoroethyl)stannate(II) Anion, [Sn(C2 F5 )3 ]- -Synthesis and Reactivity. (United States)

    Wiesemann, Markus; Klösener, Johannes; Niemann, Mark; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Hoge, Berthold


    Syntheses of salts containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)stannate(II) ion, [Sn(C2 F5 )3 ]- , were achieved through deprotonation of the corresponding stannane, HSn(C2 F5 )3 , as well as by direct pentafluoroethylation of SnCl2 with LiC2 F5 . The electron-withdrawing substituents have substantial influence on the stability and reactivity of the anion as documented by its treatment with main group halides. Alkyl halides (R-X) underwent nucleophilic substitutions to afford RSn(C2 F5 )3 , whereas Si, Ge, Sn, P halides gave rise to oxidation processes yielding hypervalent [SnX2 (C2 F5 )3 ]- salts (X=Cl, Br, I). Moreover the unsymmetrical distannane, nBu3 SnSn(C2 F5 )3 , was disclosed as an alternative precursor for the Sn(C2 F5 )3 moiety. Although neither the solid state structure nor its spectra in alkane solution reveal unexpected peculiarities, unusual dissociation of the compound in coordinating solvents into [nBu3 Sn(D)n ]+ and [Sn(C2 F5 )3 ]- ions was observed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. NiFe(C2O4)xas a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange. (United States)

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan


    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x , which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C 2 O 4 ) x and better re-usability than Fe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x . The prepared NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C 2 O 4 ) x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... directive (AD) that applies to all GE CF6-80C2B series turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires...

  11. 75 FR 66657 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters (United States)


    ... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB- BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Final... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB BK 117 C-2 helicopters. This amendment results from a mandatory continuing... Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Amendment 39-16486; Docket No. FAA-2010-0780; Directorate Identifier 2009-SW-68...

  12. 78 FR 48750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... external redistribution of the C2 BBO Data Feed.\\7\\ \\4\\ The C2 BBO Data Feed includes the ``best bid and... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Offer a New Data Feed August 5, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to offer a new data feed...

  13. 78 FR 62849 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate... (United States)


    ... complex order information. The COB Data Feed includes ``best bid and offer'' or ``BBO'' quotes and... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Fees for the Complex Order Book Data Feed for C2 Listed..., Incorporated (the ``Exchange'' or ``C2'') proposes to amend the fee schedule of Market Data Express, LLC (``MDX...

  14. Dopamine-Incorporated Dual Bioactive Electroactive Shape Memory Polyurethane Elastomers with Physiological Shape Recovery Temperature, High Stretchability, and Enhanced C2C12 Myogenic Differentiation. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Dong, Ruonan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X


    Soft tissue engineering needs elastic biomaterials not only mimicking the elasticity of soft tissue but also possessing multiple bioactivity to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation, which still remain ongoing challenges. Herein, we synthesized a series of dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers by combining the properties of elastomeric poly(citric acid-co-polycaprolactone) (CA-PCL) polyurethane elastomer, bioactive dopamine (DA), and electroactive aniline hexamer (AH). The chemical structures, electroactivity, conductivity, thermal properties, hydrophilicity and hydration ability, mechanical properties, and degradability of the polyurethane elastomers were systematically characterized. The elastomers showed excellent shape fixity ratio and shape recovery ability under physiological conditions. The elastomers' elongation and stress were tailored by the AH content, whereas the hydrophilicity and hydration ability of the elastomers were adjusted by the content of DA and AH, as well as the doping state of AH. The viability and proliferation results of C2C12 cells seeded on the elastomers showed their excellent cytocompatibility. Additionally, by analyzing the protein and gene level, the promotion effect on myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells by these elastomers compared to that by control groups (PCL80 000, CA-PCL elastomer, and CA-PCL elastomer with the DA segment) was demonstrated. Furthermore, the results from subcutaneous implantation confirmed the elastomers' mild host response in vivo. These results represent that these dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers are promising candidates for soft tissue regeneration that is sensitive to electrical signals.

  15. g4c2c: A Model for Citizen Engagement at Arms’ Length from Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bruns


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The recognition that Web 2.0 applications and social media sites will strengthen and improve interaction between governments and citizens has resulted in a global push into new e-democracy or Government 2.0 spaces. These typically follow government-to-citizen (g2c or citizen-to-citizen (c2c models, but both these approaches are problematic: g2c is often concerned more with service delivery to citizens as clients, or exists to make a show of ‘listening to the public’ rather than to genuinely source citizen ideas for government policy, while c2c often takes place without direct government participation and therefore cannot ensure that the outcomes of citizen deliberations are accepted into the government policy-making process. Building on recent examples of Australian Government 2.0 initiatives, we suggest a new approach based on government support for citizen-to-citizen engagement, or g4c2c, as a workable compromise, and suggest that public service broadcasters should play a key role in facilitating this model of citizen engagement.

  16. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses. (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj


    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.

  17. Anodized Ti3SiC2 As an Anode Material for Li-ion Microbatteries. (United States)

    Tesfaye, Alexander T; Mashtalir, Olha; Naguib, Michael; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury; Djenizian, Thierry


    We report on the synthesis of an anode material for Li-ion batteries by anodization of a common MAX phase, Ti3SiC2, in an aqueous electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid (HF). The anodization led to the formation of a porous film containing anatase, a small quantity of free carbon, and silica. By varying the anodization parameters, various oxide morphologies were produced. The highest areal capacity was achieved by anodization at 60 V in an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.1 v/v HF for 3 h at room temperature. After 140 cycles performed at multiple applied current densities, an areal capacity of 380 μAh·cm(-2) (200 μA·cm(-2)) has been obtained, making this new material, free of additives and binders, a promising candidate as a negative electrode for Li-ion microbatteries.

  18. The Ozone Widget Framework: towards modularity of C2 human interfaces (United States)

    Hellar, David Benjamin; Vega, Laurian C.


    The Ozone Widget Framework (OWF) is a common webtop environment for distribution across the enterprise. A key mission driver for OWF is to enable rapid capability delivery by lowering time-to-market with lightweight components. OWF has been released as Government Open Source Software and has been deployed in a variety of C2 net-centric contexts ranging from real-time analytics, cyber-situational awareness, to strategic and operational planning. This paper discusses the current and future evolution of OWF including the availability of the OZONE Marketplace (OMP), useractivity driven metrics, and architecture enhancements for accessibility. Together, OWF is moving towards the rapid delivery of modular human interfaces supporting modern and future command and control contexts.

  19. Gravitational waves: search results, data analysis and parameter estimation: Amaldi 10 Parallel session C2. (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michał; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Robinet, Florent; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Veitch, John; Wade, Madeline; Aoudia, Sofiane; Bose, Sukanta; Calderon Bustillo, Juan; Canizares, Priscilla; Capano, Colin; Clark, James; Colla, Alberto; Cuoco, Elena; Da Silva Costa, Carlos; Dal Canton, Tito; Evangelista, Edgar; Goetz, Evan; Gupta, Anuradha; Hannam, Mark; Keitel, David; Lackey, Benjamin; Logue, Joshua; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan; Piergiovanni, Francesco; Privitera, Stephen; Prix, Reinhard; Pürrer, Michael; Re, Virginia; Serafinelli, Roberto; Wade, Leslie; Wen, Linqing; Wette, Karl; Whelan, John; Palomba, C; Prodi, G

    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  20. Gravitational Waves: Search Results, Data Analysis and Parameter Estimation. Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michal; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi


    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave(GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  1. Thermodynamics analysis of diffusion in spark plasma sintering welding Cr3C2 and Ni (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jinyong; Leng, Xiaoxuan; Lei, Liwen; Fu, Zhengyi


    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) welding of chromium carbide (Cr3C2) and nickel (Ni) was used to investigate the atomic diffusion caused by bypassing current. It was found that the diffusion coefficient with bypassing current was enhanced by almost 3.57 times over that without bypassing current. Different from the previous researches, the thermodynamics analysis conducted herein showed that the enhancement included a current direction-independent part besides the known current direction-dependent part. A local temperature gradient (LTG) model was proposed to explain the current direction-independent effect. Assuming that the LTG was mainly due to the interfacial electric resistance causing heterogeneous Joule heating, the theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental results both in the present and previous studies. This new LTG model provides a reasonable physical meaning for the low-temperature advantage of SPS welding and should be useful in a wide range of applications.

  2. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, M. E., E-mail:; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  3. Traumatic posterior atlantoaxial dislocation without related fractures of C1-C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali


    Full Text Available Posterior dislocation without any associated fracture of odontoid is exceedingly rare and only 11 cases have been reported so far. A 32 year old male presented with pain, stiffness in neck, difficulty in breathing, associated lacerations on face and deformity of mandible and inability to open mouth. His plain radiographs, CT scan, MRI demonstrated a posterior dislocation of the atlas with respect of axis and a flake of bone from odontoid process on CT scan. He was successfully managed by closed reduction, C1C2 lateral mars pedicular screw stabilization and inter facetal fusion with synthetic bone graft substitute. At 10 months followup he had lost only 30° cervical rotation. The case is reported in view of rarity and to discuss the treatment rationale.

  4. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 identified as autoantigens by biochemical and mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Muncrief, T


    The antigenic specificity of an unusual antinuclear antibody pattern in three patient sera was identified after separating HeLa-cell nuclear extracts by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and localizing the antigens by immunoblotting with patient serum. Protein spots were excised from the 2D...... gel and their contents were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) or nanoelectrospray ionization time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after in-gel digestion with trypsin. A database search identified the proteins as the C1 and C2 heterogeneous nuclear......-separation methods and mass-spectrometric peptide mapping in combination with database searches are powerful tools in the identification of novel autoantigen specificities....

  5. C2 Fragmentation Energy of C60 Revisited: Theory Disagrees with Most Experiments (United States)

    Boese, A. Daniel; Scuseria, Gustavo E.


    Following our earlier work on the subject, we have carried out density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations of the dissociation energy of the reaction C60 yields C58 + C2 using polarized basis sets and geometries optimized with DFT methods. The present theoretical results support an electronic fragmentation energy D(sub e) around 10-11 eV in disagreement with most experimental results that place the dissociation energy D(sub o) (including zero point energy) around 7-8 eV. The plausible errors remaining in the theoretical calculations are unlikely to account for this big difference (2-4 eV).

  6. Advanced Biasing Experiments on the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Device (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Korepanov, Sergey; Garate, Eusebio; Yang, Xiaokang; Gota, Hiroshi; Douglass, Jon; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Uchizono, Nolan; TAE Team


    The C-2 experiment seeks to study the evolution, heating and sustainment effects of neutral beam injection on field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. Recently, substantial improvements in plasma performance were achieved through the application of edge biasing with coaxial plasma guns located in the divertors. Edge biasing provides rotation control that reduces instabilities and E × B shear that improves confinement. Typically, the plasma gun arcs are run at ~ 10 MW for the entire shot duration (~ 5 ms), which will become unsustainable as the plasma duration increases. We have conducted several advanced biasing experiments with reduced-average-power plasma gun operating modes and alternative biasing cathodes in an effort to develop an effective biasing scenario applicable to steady state FRC plasmas. Early results show that several techniques can potentially provide effective, long-duration edge biasing.

  7. Enantioselective Addition of Organolithium Reagents to Imines Mediated by C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.; Tanner, David Ackland


    The C-2-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands 1 - 5 have been screened in the enantioselective addition of organolithium reagents to imines. Ligand 1 (used in stoichiometric amounts) was found to be superior in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity, the best result being 90% yield and 89% e.......e. in the addition of vinyllithium to imine 6a. Use of ligand 1 in substoichiometric amounts gave poorer yield and lower enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity of the reaction was investigated as a function of substrate, reagent, stoichiometry and temperature, but no firm mechanistic conclusions could be drawn....... Preliminary results with deuterium-labelled methyllithium indicate complexation/exchange processes involving ligand, reagent and substrate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Fast imaging and modeling of the C-2U outflow jet and pre-ionization plasmas (United States)

    Granstedt, Erik; Trask, E.; Smith, R. J.; Krause, S.; Sheftman, D.; TAE Team


    The C-2U device used neutral beam injection and end-biasing to maintain an advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. A good electrical connection between the FRC and end-bias was critical for maintaining macroscopic stability. To model this electrical connection, characterization of the outflow jet plasma in this region is necessary. Limited access and the need for non-invasive instruments motivated optical diagnostics to be used for this purpose. High-speed cameras imaged visible light emission from neutral hydrogen and impurities. Tomographic reconstruction and neutral modeling was used to estimate the ionization rate and compare to the particle loss. The plasma macroscopic stability was also investigated. Imaging was also used to study the ``pre-ionization'' plasma in this region: the seed plasma which trapped the reversed magnetic flux during the initial FRC formation process.

  9. Development of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy Measurements for the C-2W Plasma Expansion Divertor (United States)

    Sheftman, Daniel; Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Thompson, Matthew; Tri Alpha Energy Team


    Accurate operation and high performance of the open field line plasma surrounding the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) is crucial to achieving the goals of successful temperature ramp up and confinement improvement on C-2W. Attributes such as the outflow velocity and temperature of charge exchange or impurity ions can be measured through spectroscopic methods. However, light throughput is severely limited due to the low plasma density inside the divertors where the plasma expands rapidly before terminating on biasing plates. A field widened spatial heterodyne spectrometer was developed in order to address the challenge of making accurate spectroscope measurements on the diffuse plasma. Design of a prototype of this spectrometer, including lab calibration and spectral line measurements performed on a compact toroid injector test stand, will be presented.

  10. The rate of the reaction between CN and C2H2 at interstellar temperatures (United States)

    Woon, D. E.; Herbst, E.


    The rate coefficient for the important interstellar reaction between CN and C2H2 has been calculated as a function of temperature between 10 and 300 K. The potential surface for this reaction has been determined through ab initio quantum chemical techniques; the potential exhibits no barrier in the entrance channel but does show a small exit channel barrier, which lies below the energy of reactants. Phase-space calculations for the reaction dynamics, which take the exit channel barrier into account, show the same unusual temperature dependence as determined by experiment, in which the rate coefficient at first increases as the temperature is reduced below room temperature and then starts to decrease as the temperature drops below 50-100 K. The agreement between theory and experiment provides strong confirmation that the reaction occurs appreciably at cool interstellar temperatures.

  11. Spectrum sensing of trace C(2)H(2) detection in differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Dong, Xiaopeng


    An improved algorithm for trace C(2)H(2) detection is presented in this paper. The trace concentration is accurately calculated by focusing on the absorption spectrum from the frequency domain perspective. The advantage of the absorption spectroscopy frequency domain algorithm is its anti-interference capability. First, the influence of the background noise on the minimum detectable concentration is greatly reduced. Second, the time-consuming preprocess of spectra calibration in the differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique is skipped. Experimental results showed the detection limit of 50 ppm is achieved at a lightpath length of 0.2 m. This algorithm can be used in real-time spectrum analysis with high accuracy.

  12. Glibenclamide Mimics Metabolic Effects of Metformin in H9c2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Salani


    Full Text Available Background: Sulfonylureas, such as glibenclamide, are antidiabetic drugs that stimulate beta-cell insulin secretion by binding to the sulfonylureas receptors (SURs of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (KATP. Glibenclamide may be also cardiotoxic, this effect being ascribed to interference with the protective function of cardiac KATP channels for which glibenclamide has high affinity. Prompted by recent evidence that glibenclamide impairs energy metabolism of renal cells, we investigated whether this drug also affects the metabolism of cardiac cells. Methods: The cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 was treated for 24 h with glibenclamide or metformin, a known inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Cell viability was evaluated by sulforodhamine B assay. ATP and AMP were measured according to the enzyme coupling method and oxygen consumption by using an amperometric electrode, while Fo-F1 ATP synthase activity assay was evaluated by chemiluminescent method. Protein expression was measured by western blot. Results: Glibenclamide deregulated energy balance of H9c2 cardiomyoblasts in a way similar to that of metformin. It inhibited mitochondrial complexes I, II and III with ensuing impairment of oxygen consumption and ATP synthase activity, ATP depletion and increased AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, glibenclamide disrupted mitochondrial subcellular organization. The perturbation of mitochondrial energy balance was associated with enhanced anaerobic glycolysis, with increased activity of phosphofructo kinase, pyruvate kinase and lactic dehydrogenase. Interestingly, some additive effects of glibenclamide and metformin were observed. Conclusions: Glibenclamide deeply alters cell metabolism in cardiac cells by impairing mitochondrial organization and function. This may further explain the risk of cardiovascular events associated with the use of this drug, alone or in combination with metformin.

  13. Cytoprotective Role of Nrf2 in Electrical Pulse Stimulated C2C12 Myotube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Horie

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise is central to a healthy lifestyle. However, exercise-related muscle contraction can induce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS production in skeletal muscle. The nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor is a cellular sensor for oxidative stress. Regulation of nuclear Nrf2 signaling regulates antioxidant responses and protects organ structure and function. However, the role of Nrf2 in exercise- or contraction-induced ROS/RNS production in skeletal muscle is not clear. In this study, using differentiated C2C12 cells and electrical pulse stimulation (EPS of muscle contraction, we explored whether Nrf2 plays a role in the skeletal muscle response to muscle contraction-induced ROS/RNS. We found that EPS (40 V, 1 Hz, 2 ms stimulated ROS/RNS accumulation and Nrf2 activation. We also showed that expression of NQO1, HO-1 and GCLM increased after EPS-induced muscle contraction and was remarkably suppressed in cells with Nrf2 knockdown. We also found that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC significantly attenuated Nrf2 activation after EPS, whereas the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME did not. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown after EPS markedly decreased ROS/RNS redox potential and cell viability and increased expression of the apoptosis marker Annexin V in C2C12 myotubes. These results indicate that Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf2 regulated-genes protected muscle against the increased ROS caused by EPS-induced muscle contraction. Thus, our findings suggest that Nrf2 may be a key factor for preservation of muscle function during muscle contraction.

  14. Geigerin-induced cytotoxicity in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha


    Full Text Available Geigeria poisoning in sheep, locally known as ‘vermeersiekte’, is an economically important plant poisoning in southern Africa. The toxic principles contained by the toxic plants are believed to be several sesquiterpene lactones, such as geigerin, vermeeric acid and vermeerin, which cause striated muscle lesions in small stock. Because of ethical issues surrounding the use of live animals in toxicity studies, there is currently a dire need to establish an in vitro model that can be used to replace traditional animal experimentation. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of geigerin in a murine myoblast cell line (C2C12 using methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays, annexin V and propidium iodide (PI flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Mouse myoblasts were exposed to 2.0 mM, 2.5 mM and 5.0 mM geigerin for 24, 48 and 72 h. A concentration-dependent cytotoxic response was observed. Apoptosis was detected by means of annexin V flow cytometry during the first 24 h and apoptotic bodies were also visible on TEM. According to the LDH and PI flow cytometry results, myoblast cell membranes were not injured. We concluded that the murine myoblast cell line (C2C12 is a suitable model for future studies planned to evaluate the cytotoxicity of other and combinations of sesquiterpene lactones, with and without metabolic activation, implicated in ‘vermeersiekte’ and to elucidate the subcellular effects of these myotoxins on cultured myoblasts.

  15. C2 emission features in the Red Rectangle. A combined observational laboratory study (United States)

    Wehres, N.; Romanzin, C.; Linnartz, H.; van Winckel, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.


    Context. The Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula (HD 44179) is known for a number of rather narrow emission features superimposed on a broad extended red emission (ERE) covering the 5000-7500 Å regime. The origin of these emission features is unknown. Aims: The aim of the present work is to search for potential carriers by combining new observational and laboratory data. This also allows to interpret spectral emission features in terms of actual physical conditions like temperature and density constraints and to trace chemical processes in the outflows of the Red Rectangle. Methods: Observational spectra have been obtained with the EMMI-NTT at offsets of 3'', 6'', 7'', 11'', 16'' and 20'' distance to the central star HD 44179. The spectra are compared to the outcome of a time-gated laser induced fluorescence laboratory study of an expanding acetylene plasma using a special supersonic pin-hole discharge source. With this set-up the hydrocarbon chemistry in the Red Rectangle nebula is simulated under laboratory controlled conditions. The plasma source has the unique feature to generate electronically and vibrationally excited species at low rotational temperatures. The comparison is facilitated by a simple model for fluorescent emission in the nebula. Results: Two of the astronomically observed narrow emission bands can be assigned as originating from unresolved rovibronic progressions within the d3Π_g → a3Π_u Swan system of the C2 radical. The band appearance corresponds to a rotational temperature between 200 and 1000 K. The emission is driven by absorption in the C2 Phillips bands followed by intersystem crossing from the singlet to the triplet state and pumping in the Swan bands. Conclusions: These observations imply an active (photo)chemistry in the ejecta of the Red Rectangle. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile. Program ID: 080.C-0814(A).

  16. Forkhead box C2 promoter variant c.-512C>T is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic venous diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Surendran

    Full Text Available Chronic venous disease (CVD is one of the most prevalent yet underrated disorders worldwide. High heritability estimates of CVD indicate prominent genetic components in its etiology and pathology. Mutations in human forkhead box C2 (FoxC2 gene are strongly associated with valve failure in saphenous and deep veins of lower extremities. We explored the association of genetic variants of FoxC2 as well as FoxC2 mRNA and protein expression levels with CVD of lower limbs. We systematically sequenced the single coding exon, 5' and 3' flanking regions of FoxC2 gene in 754 study subjects which includes 382 patients with CVD and 372 healthy subjects. Four novel and three reported polymorphisms were identified in our cohort. Three variants in 5' flanking region and one in 3' flanking region of FoxC2 gene were significantly associated with CVD risk. FoxC2 mRNA in vein tissues from 22 patients was 4±1.42 fold increased compared to saphenous veins from 20 normal subjects (pT (rs34221221: C>T variant which is located in the FoxC2 putative promoter region was further analyzed. Functional analysis of c.-512C>T revealed increased mRNA and protein expression in patients with homozygous TT genotype compared to heterozygous CT and wild CC genotypes. Luciferase assay indicated higher transcriptional activity of mutant compared to wild genotype of this variant. These findings suggested that c.-512C>T variant of FoxC2 was strongly associated with susceptibility to CVD and also that this variant resulted in FoxC2 overexpression. To obtain a mechanistic insight into the role of upregulated FoxC2 in varicosities, we overexpressed FoxC2 in venous endothelial cells and observed elevated expression of arterial markers Dll4 and Hey2 and downregulation of venous marker COUP-TFII. Our study indicates altered FoxC2-Notch signaling in saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins.

  17. Reinvestigation of the elementary chemical kinetics of the reaction C2H5(•) + HBr (HI) → C2H6 + Br(•) (I(•)) in the range 293-623 K and its implication on the thermochemical parameters of C2H5(•) free radical. (United States)

    Leplat, N; Wokaun, A; Rossi, M J


    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constants of the metathesis reactions C2H5• + HBr → C2H6 + Br• (R1) and C2H5• + HI → C2H6 + I• (R2) has been performed and led to the following Arrhenius expressions: k1 = 3.69(±0.95) × 10–11 exp(−10.62(±0.66)/RT), k2 = 1.20(±0.38) × 10–11 exp(−7.12(±1.059)/RT) in the temperature range 293–623 K (A/cm3 molecule–1 s–1, Ea/kJ mol–1). The study has been performed using a Knudsen reactor coupled to single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (SPIMS). Hydrocarbon free radicals have been generated externally before admission into the Knudsen reactor according to two different chemical schemes, enabling the generation of thermalized C2H5• free radicals. A minor correction to k1 and k2 for the wall loss of C2H5• (kw) has been applied throughout the temperature range. The obtained results are consistent regarding both the disappearance of C2H5• and the formation of closed shell products (n-C4H10, C2H4, C2H6), indicating that the chemical mechanism is largely understood and complete. Thermochemical parameters for C2H5• free radical resulting from the present kinetic measurements are discussed and point toward a slightly lower value for the standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(C2H5•) compared to some presently recommended values. On the basis of the present results and suitable data on the reverse reaction taken from the literature, we recommend ΔfH298°(C2H5•) = 117.3 ± 3.1 kJ/mol resulting from an average of “third law” evaluations using S298°(C2H5•) = 242.9 ± 4.6 J/K mol. The present work yields a standard heat of formation in satisfactory agreement with the results obtained by W. Tsang (ΔfH298°(C2H5•) = 119 ± 2 kJ/mol) despite using two very different experimental techniques.

  18. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO Ternary Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu


    Full Text Available Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites were synthesized via the decomposition of a mixture of Ti3C2 (a novel two-dimensional carbide and cupric nitrate under an argon atmosphere. The morphology and structures of the obtained samples were characterized. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis indicate that the sample is composed of Ti3C2, anatase-TiO2, and CuO. Scanning electron microscopy images show that CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of Ti3C2. The particles size increased with an increase in the cupric nitrate content. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposite has good photocatalytic degradation efficiency. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites was proposed. The data indicated that CuO and Ti3C2 effectively promote the separation of photoelectrons from vacancies.

  19. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  20. Inclusive and exclusive measurements of $B$ decays to $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, V; Panzenböck, E; Trabelsi, K; Frey, A; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Atmacan, H; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Bala, A; Bansal, V; Barberio, E; Bhuyan, B; Biswal, J; Bobrov, A; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Frost, O; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Glattauer, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Greenwald, D; Haba, J; Hamer, P; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kato, E; Katrenko, P; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, J B; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, I S; Li, C; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Loos, A; Lukin, P; Masuda, M; Matvienko, D; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohanty, S; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, C W; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Pulvermacher, C; Purohit, M V; Rauch, J; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Seino, Y; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Sevior, M E; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Starič, M; Stypula, J; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wehle, S; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Ye, H; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A


    We report inclusive and exclusive measurements for $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ production in $B$ decays. We measure $\\mathcal{B}(B \\to \\chi_{c1} X)$= $(3.03 \\pm 0.05(\\mbox{stat}) \\pm 0.24(\\mbox{syst})) \\times 10^{-3}$ and $\\mathcal{B}(B \\to \\chi_{c2} X)$= $(0.70 \\pm 0.06(\\mbox{stat}) \\pm 0.10(\\mbox{syst})) \\times 10^{-3}$. For the first time, $\\chi_{c2}$ production in exclusive $B$ decays in the modes $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c2}\\pi^- K^+$ and $B^+ \\to \\chi_{c2} \\pi^+ \\pi^- K^+$ has been observed, along with first evidence for the $B^+ \\to \\chi_{c2} \\pi^+ K_S^0$ decay mode. For $\\chi_{c1}$ production, we report the first observation in the $B^+ \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi^+ \\pi^- K^+$, $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi^+ \\pi^- K_S^0$ and $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} \\pi^0 \\pi^- K^+$ decay modes. Using these decay modes, we observe a difference in the production mechanism of $\\chi_{c2}$ in comparison to $\\chi_{c1}$ in $B$ decays. In addition, we report searches for $X(3872)$ and $\\chi_{c1}(2P)$ in the $B^+ \\to (\\chi_{c1} \\pi^+ \\pi^-) K^+$ decay mode....

  1. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus (United States)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A


    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  2. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment. (United States)

    Kelly, J B


    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  3. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring


    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  4. A Study of Factors Influence Trust at Taobao in C2C E-Commerce Environment: A Consumer Perspective


    Xie, Zhu


    As the internet and electronic commerce grow rapidly and become very popular, more and more consumers switch to online shopping. C2C E-Commerce has received much welcome by consumers due to its distinct characteristics and the trade volume is rising rapidly in recent years. However, the biggest obstacle that hinder the development of C2C E-Commerce is creditability problems, which is in C2C E-Commerce buyers can easily mistrust sellers which adversely affect their purchase intention. The main...

  5. Flexible cross-correlated (C2) imaging method for the modal content characterization in a broad range of wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Michieletto, Mattia


    as the phase distribution are extracted by the alternative method of 2D FT filtering. Being exceptionally tunable the flexible C2 method gives an ability to adapt the system’s parameters in a desired manner satisfying even measurements of very specific fiber designs opening up new possibilities for advanced......We demonstrate a flexible cross-correlated (C2) imaging method in the time domain by application of a tunable and highly flexible light source. An advantage of the flexible C2method is shown by characterization of the step-index fiber (SMF28) over a broad range of wavelengths from 870nm to 1090nm...

  6. Highlights from Working Paper No. 3: Future Priority Needs in the Field of Workers' Education. Structural Adjustment and Workers' Education. (United States)

    Labour Education, 1991


    Trade unions closely monitor the impact of structural adjustment programs on employment and the industrial relations system, particularly as they affect wages, collective bargaining, and the exercise of union rights. (JOW)

  7. An iron-capped metal-organic polyyne: {[Fe](C[triple bond]C)2[W][triple bond]CC[triple bond]CC[triple bond][W](C[triple bond]C)2[Fe]}.


    Semenov Sergey N; Taghipourian Shiva F; Blacque Olivier; Fox Thomas; Venkatesan Koushik; Berke Heinz


    The organometallic conjugated complex H(C[triple bond]C)(2)[W][triple bond]CC[triple bond]CC[triple bond][W](C[triple bond]C)(2)H {[W] = W(dppe)(2); dppe = 12 bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane} containing a ditungstenatetradecaheptayne unit was synthesized by utilizing a new and efficient coupling method. The stannylated derivative was converted to the tetranuclear complex which exhibits efficient long range electron transfer.

  8. Precise measurement of the $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ resonance parameters with the decays $\\chi_{c1,c2}\\to J\\psi\\mu^+\\mu^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; LHCb Collaboration; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Alfonso Albero, Alejandro; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Atzeni, Michele; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Baranov, Alexander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Beiter, Andrew; Bel, Lennaert; Beliy, Nikita; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; 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    The decays $\\chi_{c1} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $\\chi_{c2} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the $\\chi_{c1}$ and $\\chi_{c2}$ mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be \\begin{align*} m(\\chi_{c1}) = 3510.71 \\pm 0.04(stat) \\pm 0.09(syst)~ \\text{MeV}\\,, \\\\ m(\\chi_{c2}) = 3556.10 \\pm 0.06(stat) \\pm 0.11(syst)~ \\text{MeV}\\,, \\end{align*} where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference \\begin{equation*} m(\\chi_{c2}) - m(\\chi_{c1}) = 45.39 \\pm 0.07(stat) \\pm 0.03(syst)~ \\text{MeV}. \\end{equation*} The natural width of the $\\chi_{c2}$ meson is measured to be \\begin{equation*} \\Gamma(\\chi_{c2}) = 2.10 \\pm 0.20(stat) \\pm 0.02(syst)~ \\text{MeV}. \\end{equation*} These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  9. CO2 and C2H2 in cold nanodroplets of oxygenated organic molecules and water (United States)

    Devlin, J. Paul; Balcı, F. Mine; Maşlakcı, Zafer; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin


    Recent demonstrations of subsecond and microsecond timescales for formation of clathrate hydrate nanocrystals hint at future methods of control of environmental and industrial gases such as CO2 and methane. Combined results from cold-chamber and supersonic-nozzle [A. S. Bhabhe, "Experimental study of condensation and freezing in a supersonic nozzle," Ph.D. thesis (Ohio State University, 2012), Chap. 7] experiments indicate extremely rapid encagement of components of all-vapor pre-mixtures. The extreme rates are derived from (a) the all-vapor premixing of the gas-hydrate components and (b) catalytic activity of certain oxygenated organic large-cage guests. Premixing presents no obvious barrier to large-scale conditions of formation. Further, from sequential efforts of the groups of Trout and Buch, a credible defect-based model of the catalysis mechanism exists for guidance. Since the catalyst-generated defects are both mobile and abundant, it is often unnecessary for a high percentage of the cages to be occupied by a molecular catalyst. Droplets represent the liquid phase that bridges the premixed vapor and clathrate hydrate phases but few data exist for the droplets themselves. Here we describe a focused computational and FTIR spectroscopic effort to characterize the aerosol droplets of the all-vapor cold-chamber methodology. Computational data for CO2 and C2H2, hetero-dimerized with each of the organic catalysts and water, closely match spectroscopic redshift patterns in both magnitude and direction. Though vibrational frequency shifts are an order of magnitude greater for the acetylene stretch mode, both CO2 and C2H2 experience redshift values that increase from that for an 80% water-methanol solvent through the solvent series to approximately doubled values for tetrahydrofuran and trimethylene oxide (TMO) droplets. The TMO solvent properties extend to a 50 mol.% solution of CO2, more than an order of magnitude greater than for the water-methanol solvent mixture

  10. C2 at the Edge: Operating in a Disconnected Low-Bandwidth Environment (United States)


    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this document are those of...Work The last chapter summarizes the work and findings of this thesis. It also provides sug- gestions for future research and development work. The

  11. Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks. (United States)

    Pollmann, Jan; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Tans, Pieter


    An analytical technique was developed to analyze light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), including ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, n-hexane, isoprene, benzene and toluene from whole air samples collected in 2.5l-glass flasks used by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (NOAA ESRL GMD, Boulder, CO, USA) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. This method relies on utilizing the remaining air in these flasks (which is at below-ambient pressure at this stage) after the completion of all routine greenhouse gas measurements from these samples. NMHC in sample aliquots extracted from the flasks were preconcentrated with a custom-made, cryogen-free inlet system and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID). C2-C7 NMHC, depending on their ambient air mixing ratios, could be measured with accuracy and repeatability errors of generally storage (<10 pptv yr(-1)) of samples in these glass flasks. Results from flask NMHC analyses were compared to in-situ NMHC measurements at the Global Atmospheric Watch station in Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. This 9-months side-by-side comparison showed good agreement between both methods. More than 94% of all data comparisons for C2-C5 alkanes, isoprene, benzene and toluene fell within the combined accuracy and precision objectives of the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO-GAW) for NMHC measurements.

  12. Quantum chemical study and experimental observation of a new band system of C(2), e 3Pi(g)-c 3Sigma(u)+. (United States)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Joester, Jenna A; Page, Nathan I; Reilly, Neil J; Bacskay, George B; Schmidt, Timothy W; Kable, Scott H


    A new band system of C(2), e (3)Pi(g)-c (3)Sigma(u)(+) was studied by ab initio quantum chemical and experimental methods. The calculations were carried out at the multireference configuration interaction level of theory with Davidson's correction using aug-cc-pV6Z basis set and include core and core-valence correlation as well as relativistic corrections computed with aug-cc-pCVQZ and cc-pVQZ bases, respectively. The vibrational energies and rotational constants of the upper e (3)Pi(g) state were calculated from the computed ab initio potential energy curve. The ab initio results indicate that the electronic transition moment of the e (3)Pi(g)-c (3)Sigma(u)(+) system is approximately one-half that of the Fox-Herzberg e (3)Pi(g)-a (3)Pi(u) system. Franck-Condon factors were calculated for both systems and used to guide experiments aimed at discovering the e (3)Pi(g)-c (3)Sigma(u)(+) system. The e (3)Pi(g)(v(') = 4)-c (3)Sigma(u)(+)(v(") = 3) band of jet-cooled C(2) was successfully observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy by monitoring the ensuing e (3)Pi(g)-a (3)Pi(u) emission.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz G. Oliveira


    Full Text Available In this work, a theoretical study on the basis of structural, vibrational, electronic and topological parameters of the C2H2‧‧‧(HF, C2H2‧‧‧2(HF and C2H2‧‧‧3(HF complexes concerning the formation of π‧‧‧H, F‧‧‧H and C‧‧‧H hydrogen bonds is presented. The main difference among these complexes is not properly the interaction strength, but the hydrogen bond type whose benchmark is ruled justly by the structure. Meanwhile, the occurrence of π‧‧‧H hydrogen bonds was unveiled in both C2H2‧‧‧(HF dimer and C2H2‧‧‧3(HF tetramer, although in latter, this interaction is stronger than C‧‧‧H of the C2H2‧‧‧2(HF trimer. However, the F‧‧‧H hydrogen bonds within the subunits of hydrofluoric acid are the strongest ones, reaching a partial covalent limit, and thereby contribute decisively to the stabilization of the tetramer structure. In line with this, the largest red-shifts were observed on the hydrofluoric acid trimer of the C2H2‧‧‧3(HF complex.

  14. Electromagnetic interference shielding performance of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics at high-temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigong Li


    Full Text Available The X-band electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding properties of nano-layered Ti3SiC2 ceramics were evaluated from room temperature up to 800°C in order to explore the feasibility of Ti3SiC2 as efficient high temperature EMI shielding material. It was found that Ti3SiC2 exhibits satisfactory EMI shielding effectiveness (SE close to 30 dB at room temperature and the EMI SE shows good temperature stability. The remarkable EMI shielding properties of Ti3SiC2 can be mainly attributed to high electrical conductivity, high dielectric loss and more importantly the multiple reflections due to the layered structure.

  15. Adaptive Automation Based on an Object-Oriented Task Model: Implementation and Evaluation in a Realistic C2 Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T.E.; Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Neerincx, M.A.


    Staffing reduction initiatives and more complicated military operations lead to a higher cognitive workload in command and control (C2) environments. Extending automation with adaptive capabilities can aid the human in overcoming cognitive workload challenges. At present, most adaptive automation

  16. Studies of C-2U plasmas using Time-Resolved Multi-Chord Ion-Doppler Diagnostic (MCID) (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Deng, Bihe; Zhai, Kan; Roche, Thomas; Granstedt, Erik; Thompson, Matthew; Tuszewski, Michel; The TAE Team


    C-2U has achieved steady-state operation of advanced beam-driven FRCs using neutral beam injection and edge biasing. To characterize this novel C-2U regime, MCID regularly measures time-resolved radial profiles of impurity ion emissivity, ion velocity, and ion temperature. Comparing thermal-ion temperatures with the pressure balance total temperatures provides the fast-ion pressure in the advanced beam-driven FRC state. Impurity ion measurement together with radial momentum balance yields radial profiles of electric field and electron current density. Such estimates were explored with Helium-mixed FRC plasmas on C-2, and are now performed by using indigenous Oxygen impurities in the advance beam-driven plasmas in C-2U. Conditions and dependence of possible ion heating via edge biasing are also explored. The detailed MCID setup for radial/axial profile measurements and data for multiple physics phenomena will be presented.

  17. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, M., E-mail:; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)


    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO{sub 2}/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2} at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  18. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.


    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  19. 75 FR 48617 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters (United States)


    ... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...) and adding the following new AD: Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2010-0780; Directorate...

  20. 76 FR 68299 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters (United States)


    ... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... directive to read as follows: 2011-21-13 EUROCOPTER DEUTSCHLAND GmbH (ECD): ] Amendment 39-16836; Docket No...

  1. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas. (United States)

    Beall, M; Deng, B H; Gota, H


    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  2. Reduced Dimension Rovibrational Variational Calculations of the S_1 State of C_2H_2 (United States)

    Changala, P. B.; Baraban, J. H.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.


    The bending and torsional degrees of freedom in S_1 acetylene, C_2H_2, are subject to severe vibrational resonances and rovibrational interactions, which result in the low-energy vibrational polyad structure of these modes. As the internal energy approaches that of the barrier to cis-trans isomerization, these energy level patterns undergo further large-scale reorganization that cannot be satisfactorily treated by traditional models tied to local equilibrium geometries. Experimental spectra in the region near the cis-trans transition state exhibit these complicated new patterns. In order to rationalize our near-barrier observations and predict the detailed effects of cis-trans isomerization on the rovibrational energy structure, we have performed reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S_1 state. Our calculation uses a high accuracy ab initio potential surface and a fully symmetrized extended-CNPI group theoretical treatment of a multivalued internal coordinate system that is appropriate for bending and torsional large amplitude motions. We will discuss these results and the insights they offer on understanding both large-scale features and spectroscopic details, such as tunneling staggerings, of barrier-proximal rovibrational levels of the S_1 state. We will also discuss spectral features by which barriers can be located and characterized in general polyatomic systems.

  3. Accurate partition function for acetylene, 12C2H2, and related thermodynamical quantities. (United States)

    Amyay, B; Fayt, A; Herman, M


    The internal partition function (Q(int)) of ethyne (acetylene), (12)C(2)H(2), is calculated by explicit summation of the contribution of all individual vibration-rotation energy levels up to 15,000 cm(-1). The corresponding energies are predicted from a global model and constants reproducing within 3σ all 18,415 published vibration-rotation lines in the literature involving vibrational states up to 8900 cm(-1), as produced by Amyay et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 267, 80 (2011)]. Values of Q(int), with distinct calculations for para and ortho species are provided from 1 to 2000 K, in step of 1 K. The total internal partition function at 298.15 K is 104.224387(47) or 416.89755(19), with the nuclear degeneracy spin factors taken as 1/4:3/4 (astronomer convention) or 1:3 (atmospheric convention), respectively, for para:ortho species. The Helmholtz function, Gibbs enthalpy function, entropy, and specific heat at constant pressure are also calculated over the same temperature range. Accuracies as well as the missing contribution of the vinylidene isomer of acetylene in the calculations are discussed.

  4. Enigma homolog 1 promotes myogenic gene expression and differentiation of C2C12 cells. (United States)

    Ito, Jumpei; Takita, Masatoshi; Takimoto, Koichi; Maturana, Andrés D


    The Enigma homolog (ENH) gene generates several splicing variants. The initially identified ENH1 possesses one PDZ and three LIM domains, whereas ENH2~4 lack the latter domains. The splicing switch from ENH1 to LIM-less ENHs occurs during development/maturation of skeletal and heart muscles. We examined for the roles of ENH splicing variants in muscle differentiation using C2C12 cells. Cells stably expressing ENH1 exhibited significantly higher MyoD and myogenin mRNA levels before differentiation and after 5 days in low serum-differentiating medium than mock-transfected cells. ENH1-stable transformants also retained the ability to exhibit elongated morphology with well-extended actin fibers following differentiation. In contrast, cells stably expressing ENH3 or ENH4 did not show myotube-like morphology or reorganization of actin fibers following culture in the differentiating medium. Transient overexpression of ENH1 using adenovirus supported the increased expression of muscle marker mRNAs and the formation of well-organized stress fibers, whereas ENH4 overexpression prevented these morphological changes. Furthermore, specific suppression of ENH1 expression by RNAi caused a significant reduction in MyoD mRNA level and blocked the morphological changes. These results suggest that ENH1 with multiple protein-protein interaction modules is essential for differentiation of striated muscles, whereas ectopic expression of LIM-less ENH disrupts normal muscle differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High time resolution reconstruction of electron temperature profiles with a neural network in C-2U (United States)

    Player, Gabriel; Magee, Richard; Trask, Erik; Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Tri Alpha Energy Team


    One of the most important parameters governing fast ion dynamics in a plasma is the electron temperature, as the fast ion-electron collision rate goes as νei Te3 / 2 . Unfortunately, the electron temperature is difficult to directly measure-methods relying on high-powered laser pulses or fragile probes lead to limited time resolution or measurements restricted to the edge. In order to rectify the lack of time resolution on the Thomson scattering data in the core, a type of learning algorithm, specifically a neural network, was implemented. This network uses 3 hidden layers to correlate information from nearly 250 signals, including magnetics, interferometers, and several arrays of bolometers, with Thomson scattering data over the entire C-2U database, totalling nearly 20,000 samples. The network uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization to learn from the large number of samples and inputs how to accurately reconstruct the entire electron temperature time history at a resolution of 500 kHz, a huge improvement over the 2 time points per shot provided by Thomson scattering. These results can be used in many different types of analysis and plasma characterization-in this work, we use the network to quantify electron heating.

  6. Graphene oxide increases the viability of C2C12 myoblasts microencapsulated in alginate. (United States)

    Ciriza, J; Saenz del Burgo, L; Virumbrales-Muñoz, M; Ochoa, I; Fernandez, L J; Orive, G; Hernandez, R M; Pedraz, J L


    Cell microencapsulation represents a great promise for long-term drug delivery, but still several challenges need to be overcome before its translation into the clinic, such as the long term cell survival inside the capsules. On this regard, graphene oxide has shown to promote proliferation of different cell types either in two or three dimensions. Therefore, we planned to combine graphene oxide with the cell microencapsulation technology. We first studied the effect of this material on the stability of the capsules and next we analyzed the biocompatibility of this chemical compound with erythropoietin secreting C2C12 myoblasts within the microcapsule matrix. We produced 160 μm-diameter alginate microcapsules with increasing concentrations of graphene oxide and did not find modifications on the physicochemical parameters of traditional alginate microcapsules. Moreover, we observed that the viability of encapsulated cells within alginate microcapsules containing specific graphene oxide concentrations was enhanced. These results provide a relevant step for the future clinical application of graphene oxide on cell microencapsulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spin-flip reactions of Zr + C2H6 researched by relativistic density functional theory. (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Chen, Xian-Yang; Qiu, Yi-Xiang; Wang, Shu-Guang


    Density functional theory (DFT) with relativistic corrections of zero-order regular approximation (ZORA) has been applied to explore the reaction mechanisms of ethane dehydrogenation by Zr atom with triplet and singlet spin-states. Among the complicated minimum energy reaction path, the available states involves three transition states (TS), and four stationary states (1) to (4) and one intersystem crossing with spin-flip (marked by -->): (3) Zr + C 2 H 6 → (3) Zr-CH 3 -CH 3 ((3)1) → (3)TS 1/2 → (3) ZrH-CH 2 -CH 3 ((3)2) → (3) TS 2/3 --> (1) ZrH2-CH2 = CH2 ((1) 3) → (1) TS 3/4 → (1) ZrH 3 -CH = CH 2 ((1)4). The minimum energy crossing point is determined with the help of the DFT fractional-occupation-number (FON) approach. The spin inversion leads the reaction pathway transferring from the triplet potential energy surface (PES) to the singlet's accompanying with the activation of the second C-H bond. The overall reaction is calculated to be exothermic by about 231 kJ mol(-1). Frequency and NBO analysis are also applied to confirm with the experimental observed data.

  8. CRank: A Credit Assessment Model in C2C e-Commerce (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Xiaoqin; Pan, Haiwei; Han, Qilong

    An increasing number of consumers not only purchase but also resell merchandise through C2C web sites. One of the greatest concerns for the netizens is the lacking of a fair credit assessment system. Trust and trustworthiness are crucial to the survival of online markets. Reputation systems that rely on feedback from traders help to sustain the trust. And reputation systems provide one of the ways of building trusts online. In this chapter, we investigate a credit assessment model, CRank, for the members in the context of e-market systems, such as Alibaba, eBay, to solve such problem as how to choose a credible business partner when the customer wants to purchase some products from the Internet. CRank makes use of feedback profile made up of ranks from other users as well as an overall feedback rating for the user based on the idea of PageRank. This model can be used to build a trustable relation network among business participants.

  9. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6 hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann


    Full Text Available We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing ratios, to many tens of liters for samples from remote unpolluted regions with very low mixing ratios. The centerpiece of the sample preparation is the separation trap, which is used to separate CO2 and methane from the compounds of interest. The main features of the system are (i the capability to sample up to 300 l of air, (ii long term (since May 2009 operational δ13C accuracy levels in the range 0.3–0.8 ‰ (1-σ, and (iii detection limits of order 1.5–2.5 ngC (collected amount of substance for all reported compounds. The first application of this system was the analysis of 21 ambient air samples taken during 48 h in August 2009 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Results obtained are generally in good agreement with those from similar urban ambient air studies. Short sample intervals allowed by the design of the instrument help to illustrate the complex diurnal behavior of hydrocarbons in an urban environment, where diverse sources, dynamical processes, and chemical reactions are present.

  10. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code. (United States)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad


    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hes6 is required for actin cytoskeletal organization in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Caroline M.P.; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Dunham, Ian [EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Murai, Kasumi [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom); Jones, Philip H., E-mail: [MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research Centre, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0XZ (United Kingdom)


    Hes6 is a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors that regulate proliferating cell fate in development and is known to be expressed in developing muscle. Here we investigate its function in myogenesis in vitro. We show that Hes6 is a direct transcriptional target of the myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5, indicating that it is integral to the myogenic transcriptional program. The localization of Hes6 protein changes during differentiation, becoming predominantly nuclear. Knockdown of Hes6 mRNA levels by siRNA has no effect on cell cycle exit or induction of myosin heavy chain expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts, but F-actin filament formation is disrupted and both cell motility and myoblast fusion are reduced. The knockdown phenotype is rescued by expression of Hes6 cDNA resistant to siRNA. These results define a novel role for Hes6 in actin cytoskeletal dynamics in post mitotic myoblasts.

  12. Stable detonation characteristics of premixed C2H4/O2 gas in narrow gaps (United States)

    Zhu, Yuejin; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhang, Penggang; Pan, Jianfeng


    The detonation initiation and propagation characteristics of premixed gas in a confined channel are greatly influenced by some external factors, such as the channel size and the initial pressure. The influences of different gap height and initial pressure of stoichiometric C2H4/O2 combustible premixed gas on the detonation characteristics were investigated using the self-made narrow gaps. The flame propagation processes were captured by the high-speed photography and the detonation trajectories were recorded by the soot-foil technology. The results show that the gap height is found to be proportional to P0^{ - 1.493} of the dividing lines, which are used to distinguish the three different detonation states. The detonation initiation process can be accelerated by either decreasing the gap height or increasing the initial pressure. Furthermore, the detonation velocity deficit is closely related to the gap height and the initial pressure, and the relation can be expressed as dV ∝ H^{ - 0.8} P0^{ - 0.5}.

  13. Cerebral correlates of depressed behavior in rats, visualized using /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldecott-Hazard, S.; Mazziotta, J.; Phelps, M.


    /sup 14/C-2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was used to investigate changes in the rate of cerebral metabolism in 3 rat models of depressed behavior. The models had already been established in the literature and were induced by injections of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, withdrawal from chronic amphetamine, or stress. We verified that exploratory behaviors were depressed in each model and that an antidepressant drug, tranylcypromine, prevented the depressed behavior in each model. 2DG studies revealed that the rate of regional glucose metabolism was elevated bilaterally in the lateral habenula of each of the 3 models. Regional metabolic rates were reduced in each model in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus, and inferior colliculus. Forebrain global metabolic rates were also reduced in each of the models. Tranylcypromine prevented the elevated rate of lateral habenula metabolism seen in each of the models alone but did not significantly affect the rates of global metabolism. Our findings of identical metabolic changes in each of the models indicate that these changes are not idiosyncratic to a particular model; rather, they correlate with a generalizable state of depressed exploratory behavior in rats.

  14. Multi-Wavelength Interferometry and Axial Polarimetry on C-2W (United States)

    Smith, R. J.; Dettrick, S. A.; Onofri, M.; TAE Team


    Tri Alpha Energy's C-2W device is operational and represents another major step in a progression of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) confinement devices that have prolonged the lifetime, increased stability and added significant neutral-beam injection power to heat and sustain an FRC plasma. Crucial to plasma sustainment and increased lifetime is an understanding of the jet plasma and X-point dynamics. To address these issues, a two-color multi-chord tangentially viewing interferometer has been designed and installed at the high field (mirror) position of the machine. CO2 and mmwave sources at 10.6 and 1000 um cover the density ranges of the translating FRC and the jet plasma. The small major radius at this location also provides the possibility for near on-axis axial interferometry/polarimetry using a standalone 150 µm quantum cascade laser giving a measurement directly related to the amount of reversed flux in the FRC. Recent results from the jet interferometer and on-axis axial polarimetry results for simulated plasmas with ray tracing will be presented.

  15. MXene Ti3C2: An Effective 2D Light-to-Heat Conversion Material

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan


    MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion. Furthermore, a self-floating MXene thin membrane was prepared by simple vacuum filtration and the membrane, in the presence of a rationally chosen heat barrier, produced a light-to-water-evaporation efficiency of 84% under one sun irradiation, which is among the state of art energy efficiency for similar photothermal evaporation system. The outstanding internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency and great light-to-water evaporation efficiency reported in this work suggest that MXene is a very promising light-to-heat conversion material and thus deserves more research attention toward practical applications.

  16. MXene Ti3C2: An Effective 2D Light-to-Heat Conversion Material. (United States)

    Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Shi, Le; Wang, Peng


    MXene, a new series of 2D material, has been steadily advancing its applications to a variety of fields, such as catalysis, supercapacitor, molecular separation, electromagnetic wave interference shielding. This work reports a carefully designed aqueous droplet light heating system along with a thorough mathematical procedure, which combined leads to a precise determination of internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of a variety of nanomaterials. The internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency of MXene, more specifically Ti3C2, was measured to be 100%, indicating a perfect energy conversion. Furthermore, a self-floating MXene thin membrane was prepared by simple vacuum filtration and the membrane, in the presence of a rationally chosen heat barrier, produced a light-to-water-evaporation efficiency of 84% under one sun irradiation, which is among the state of art energy efficiency for similar photothermal evaporation system. The outstanding internal light-to-heat conversion efficiency and great light-to-water evaporation efficiency reported in this work suggest that MXene is a very promising light-to-heat conversion material and thus deserves more research attention toward practical applications.

  17. C2 pars/pedicle screws in management of craniocervical and upper cervical instability. (United States)

    Eshra, Mohammed Ahmed


    A retrospective study. To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of craniocervical and upper cervical stabilization by using C2 pars/pedicle screw fixations. The management of craniocervical and upper cervical instability has progressed over the past two decades due to good achievements in the instrumentation and the increased awareness on spinal anatomy and biomechanics. However, there is insufficient studies or solid conclusions on this topic, thus, we tried to investigate and present our findings. Twenty-two patients were operated upon and were followed up from March 2008 to October 2010. One patient had craniocervical instability (post-surgical), 15 patients had atlantoaxial instability of different etiologies (trauma, tumors, inflammatory and degenerative) and 6 patients had hangman fractures. Patients' ages ranged from 18 to 52 years old. with 5 female patients and 17 male patients. Radiological follow ups performed immediately post-operation showed good screw positioning and complete reductions in nearly all the cases. All patients were followed up for more than one year. Sound fusions were observed among all patients. The use of pars/pedicle screws is a very effective, sound, safe and easy surgical modality for treating craniocervical, atlantoaxial and upper cervical instabilities. Increasing studies for the biomechanics of this important region and longer periods of follow-ups are necessary to document the usefulness of this modality when treating such patients.

  18. Accurate and Simple Screw Insertion Procedure With Patient-Specific Screw Guide Templates for Posterior C1-C2 Fixation. (United States)

    Sugawara, Taku; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi


    Prospective clinical trial of the screw insertion method for posterior C1-C2 fixation utilizing the patient-specific screw guide template technique. To evaluate the efficacy of this method for insertion of C1 lateral mass screws (LMS), C2 pedicle screws (PS), and C2 laminar screws (LS). Posterior C1LMS and C2PS fixation, also known as the Goel-Harms method, can achieve immediate rigid fixation and high fusion rate, but the screw insertion carries the risk of injury to neuronal and vascular structures. Dissection of venous plexus and C2 nerve root to confirm the insertion point of the C1LMS may also cause problems. We have developed an intraoperative screw guiding method using patient-specific laminar templates. Preoperative bone images of computed tomography (CT) were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D)/multiplanar imaging software to plan the trajectories of the screws. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and placement of the screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT. Twelve patients with C1-C2 instability were treated with a total of 48 screws (24 C1LMS, 20 C2PS, 4 C2LS). Intraoperatively, each template was found to exactly fit and lock on the lamina and screw insertion was completed successfully without dissection of the venous plexus and C2 nerve root. Postoperative CT showed no cortical violation by the screws, and mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.70 ± 0.42 mm. The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative screw navigation in posterior C1-C2 fixation. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of screw insertion, and reduce operation time and

  19. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment (United States)

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati


    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  20. Academic Adjustment Amongst First Year Undergraduate Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful academic adjustment of first year students to the university will enable them complete their studies. The work examines the academic adjustment amongst first year students in Anambra State University, Uli (ANSU). Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided to study. Stratified random sampling ...